WorldWideScience

Sample records for behaviorally relevant points

  1. Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aravantinos-Zafiris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.

  2. Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N. [Dept. of Materials Science, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Department of Sound and Musical Instruments Technology, Ionian Islands Technological Educational Institute, Lixouri, 28200 (Greece); Sigalas, M. M. [Dept. of Materials Science, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Kafesaki, M. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1387, 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Univ. of Crete (Greece); Economou, E. N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1387, 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Crete (Greece)

    2014-12-15

    In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation) with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.

  3. Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation) with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated

  4. Actinide behavior under final repository relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on the solubility behavior and the redox chemistry of actinides and long-living fission products under different geochemical boundary conditions, here on the Np(V) solubility in alkaline CaCl2 systems, provide basic information on processes that can occur in a nuclear final repository in case of water ingress. The thermodynamic constants derived from these experiments allow the geochemical modeling of these processes and a rough estimation of radionuclide solubility limits for different scenarios. Scientific research projects on this issue will reduce the uncertainties of long-term safety analyses for final repositories for high-level radioactive wastes significantly.

  5. Student standpoints relevant for future reproductive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the various standpoints of students on their motivation for parenthood, planning and deciding on birth giving, influence between marriage and parenthood, parent role complexity and responsibility, on the knowledge of effect and consequences of the problem of insufficient birth giving, with an aim of getting to know the main characteristics of their possible reproductive behavior. The analyzed standpoints are part of a more comprehensive and inclusive research, carried out on a sample of 1494 surveyed persons (1000 secondary-school pupils and 494 students in four biggest regional centers - Belgrade, Novi Sad, Kragujevac and Niš. The orientation only to student’s standpoints had an aim to more completely analyze the already abundant empirical material, which is acceptable due to the fact that students are closer to beginning of birth giving according to their age-situation characteristic. The willingness and desire of the students to become parents is significant, but this is only one of their varied life aspirations (importance of partnership, professional engagement…. The intention is to bring into accordance the realization of the most important roles, which actually indicates to a fairly uniform importance in satisfying the basic individual needs. Apart from that, the need for parenthood is dominantly emotional and altruistic, which can be satisfied by having only one child. Possible reproductive norms - which are directed to having two children, whereby they are higher than the current fertility rates, but also somewhat lower normatively determined expectations in relation to the desired number of children, as well as a significant orientation towards marriage and parenthood and the existence of the knowledge on the problem of the impossibility of simple reproduction and conscience of social need for population reproduction - represent a gap for realization of measures for motivating birth giving and parenthood

  6. Progress and prospects for an IFE relevant FI point design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Key M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The physics issues involved in scaling from sub-ignition to high gain fast ignition are discussed. Successful point designs must collimate the electrons and minimise the standoff distance to avoid multi-megajoule ignition energies. Collimating B field configurations are identified and some initial designs are explored.

  7. Designing Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autistic-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of genetic factors in autism has prompted the development of mutant mouse models to advance our understanding of biological mechanisms underlying autistic behaviors. Mouse models of human neuropsychiatric diseases are designed to optimize (1) face validity, i.e., resemblance to the human symptoms; (2) construct validity, i.e.,…

  8. Domestic Violence and Football in Glasgow: Are Reference Points Relevant?

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Dickson; Colin Jennings; Gary Koop

    2013-01-01

    Much research suggests that sporting events can trigger domestic violence with recent evidence suggesting that pre-match expectations (which can be interpreted as reference points) play an especially important role in this relationship. In particular, unexpectedly disappointing results have been associated with large increases in domestic violence. This paper contributes to this literature using a new data set containing every domestic violence incident in Glasgow over a period of more than e...

  9. Chemicals and chemoreceptors: ecologically relevant signals driving behavior in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eDepetris-Chauvin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insects encounter a vast repertoire of chemicals in their natural environment, which can signal positive stimuli like the presence of a food source, a potential mate, or a suitable oviposition site as well as negative stimuli such as competitors, predators, or toxic substances reflecting danger. The presence of specialized chemoreceptors like taste and olfactory receptors allow animals to detect chemicals at short and long distances and accordingly, trigger proper behaviors towards these stimuli. Since the first description of olfactory and taste receptors in Drosophila fifteen years ago, our knowledge on the identity, properties, and function of specific chemoreceptors has increased exponentially. In the last years, multidisciplinary approaches combining genetic tools with electrophysiological techniques, behavioral recording, evolutionary analysis, and chemical ecology studies are shedding light on our understanding on the ecological relevance of specific chemoreceptors for the survival of Drosophila in their natural environment. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on chemoreceptors of both the olfactory and taste systems of the fruitfly. We focus on the relevance of particular receptors for the detection of ecologically relevant cues such as pheromones, food sources, and toxic compounds, and we comment on the behavioral changes that the detection of these chemicals induce in the fly. In particular, we give an updated outlook of the chemical communication displayed during one of the most important behaviors for fly survival, the courtship behavior. Finally, the ecological relevance of specific chemicals can vary depending on the niche occupied by the individual. In that regard, in this review we also highlight the contrast between adult and larval systems and we propose that these differences could reflect distinctive requirements depending on the change of ecological niche occupied by Drosophila along its life cycle.

  10. Relativistic electron generation and its behaviors relevant to fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra-intense laser (UIL) has been used to create relativistic hot electrons in order to study the behaviors relevant to fast ignition. The electrons generated on an oblique UIL incidence shows their transport along the target surface consistent with strong B field responsible with the phenomena. Gold foam was used to enhance the production of hot electrons via. UIL irradiation on a target. Heating appears of gold foam to be 3 times stronger than a plane gold target. (author)

  11. Preferential encoding of behaviorally relevant predictions revealed by EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Mark G.; Myers, Nicholas E.; Turnbull, Jonathan; Nobre, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical regularities in the environment guide perceptual processing; however, some predictions are bound to be more important than others. In this electroencephalogram (EEG) study, we test how task relevance influences the way predictions are learned from the statistics of visual input, and exploited for behavior. We developed a novel task in which participants are simply instructed to respond to a designated target stimulus embedded in a serial stream of non-target stimuli. Presentation ...

  12. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Braeutigam S

    2012-01-01

    Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in indus...

  13. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeutigam S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system

  14. Human Behavior Classification Using Multi-Class Relevance Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogameena, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In computer vision and robotics, one of the typical tasks is to identify specific objects in an image and to determine each object’s position and orientation relative to coordinate system. This study presented a Multi-class Relevance Vector machine (RVM classification algorithm which classifies different human poses from a single stationary camera for video surveillance applications. Approach: First the foreground blobs and their edges are obtained. Then the relevance vector machine classification scheme classified the normal and abnormal behavior. Results: The performance proposed by our method was compared with Support Vector Machine (SVM and multi-class support vector machine. Experimental results showed the effectiveness of the method. Conclusion: It is evident that RVM has good accuracy and lesser computational than SVM.

  15. The influence of some relevant metallic impurities in the triple point of mercury temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacaru, C.; del Campo, D.; Gómez, E.; García Izquiedo, C.; Welna, A.; Kalemci, M.; Pehlivan, Ö.

    2016-02-01

    The influence of impurities on the defined fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 is one of the most relevant sources of uncertainty in their use. Namely, the triple point of mercury is one of the fixed points most used because its assigned triple point temperature (-39,8344 °C) is within a temperature range of high interest for science and industry. Mercury can be obtained with high purity, usually better that 8N and it is realized with a high accuracy, what makes impurities a significant contributor on the final uncertainty. The best procedure to quantify this influence is by means of doping experiments which consist of the addition of a controlled amount of an impurity, determined gravimetrically, in a fixed point cell. This paper presents a summary of the results obtained from a series of doping experiments performed with some relevant metallic impurities on the triple point of mercury temperature.

  16. Feature relevance assessment for the semantic interpretation of 3D point cloud data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, M.; Jutzi, B.; Mallet, C.

    2013-10-01

    The automatic analysis of large 3D point clouds represents a crucial task in photogrammetry, remote sensing and computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new methodology for the semantic interpretation of such point clouds which involves feature relevance assessment in order to reduce both processing time and memory consumption. Given a standard benchmark dataset with 1.3 million 3D points, we first extract a set of 21 geometric 3D and 2D features. Subsequently, we apply a classifier-independent ranking procedure which involves a general relevance metric in order to derive compact and robust subsets of versatile features which are generally applicable for a large variety of subsequent tasks. This metric is based on 7 different feature selection strategies and thus addresses different intrinsic properties of the given data. For the example of semantically interpreting 3D point cloud data, we demonstrate the great potential of smaller subsets consisting of only the most relevant features with 4 different state-of-the-art classifiers. The results reveal that, instead of including as many features as possible in order to compensate for lack of knowledge, a crucial task such as scene interpretation can be carried out with only few versatile features and even improved accuracy.

  17. Expanding the scope and relevance of health interventions: Moving beyond clinical trials and behavior change models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khary K. Rigg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An overemphasis on clinical trials and behavior change models has narrowed the knowledge base that can be used to design interventions. The overarching point is that the process of overanalyzing variables is impeding the process of gaining insight into the everyday experiences that shape how people define health and seek treatment. This claim is especially important to health decision-making and behavior change because subtle interpretations often influence the decisions that people make. This manuscript provides a critique of traditional approaches to developing health interventions, and theoretically justifies what and why changes are warranted. The limited scope of these models is also discussed, and an argument is made to adopt a strategy that includes the perceptions of people as necessary for understanding health and health-related decision-making. Three practical strategies are suggested to be used with the more standard approaches to assessing the effectiveness and relevance of health interventions.

  18. How relevant is government championing behavior for technology development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, J.S.; Halman, J.I.M.; Song, M.; Dorée, A.G.; van der Bij, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies emphasize the importance of government support in technology development. However, this study is among the first to provide empirical findings of the relevance of government roles for the performance of technology development projects. Based on earlier research and the strategic managem

  19. Relevancy and Measurement of Religiosity in Consumer Behavior Research

    OpenAIRE

    Safiek Mokhlis

    2009-01-01

    Although culture and subcultural norms have been subjected to increased scrutiny in recent years as explanatory constructs for various dimensions of consumer behavior, religion as an element of culture has received only slight attention in the marketing literature. This study seeks to examine the influence of religiosity on one aspect of consumer behavior - shopping orientation. The findings revealed that three shopping orientation factors, namely quality consciousness, impulsive shopping and...

  20. Trait Aspects of Vanity: Measurement and Relevance to Consumer Behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Netemeyer; Burton, Scot; Lichtenstein, Donald R

    1995-01-01

    In this article, trait aspects of vanity are defined and scales measuring these aspects are developed. Extensive validation procedures are employed, including assessing the relationships between the vanity scales and numerous consumer-related attitudes and behaviors. Five studies, encompassing seven samples, are reported. Studies related the vanity measures to various constructs and behaviors for samples that included individuals selected for "Who's Who in America," players from a nationally ...

  1. The Behavioral Relevance of Task Information in Human Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W; Ito, Takuya; Braver, Todd S

    2016-06-01

    Human lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is thought to play a critical role in enabling cognitive flexibility, particularly when performing novel tasks. However, it remains to be established whether LPFC representation of task-relevant information in such situations actually contributes to successful performance. We utilized pattern classification analyses of functional MRI activity to identify novelty-sensitive brain regions as participants rapidly switched between performance of 64 complex tasks, 60 of which were novel. In three of these novelty-sensitive regions-located within distinct areas of left anterior LPFC-trial-evoked activity patterns discriminated correct from error trials. Further, these regions also contained information regarding the task-relevant decision rule, but only for successfully performed trials. This suggests that left anterior LPFC may be particularly important for representing task information that contributes to the cognitive flexibility needed to perform successfully in novel task situations. PMID:25870233

  2. The Behavioral Relevance of Landmark Texture for Honeybee Homing

    OpenAIRE

    Laura eDittmar; Martin eEgelhaaf; Wolfgang eStürzl; Norbert eBoeddeker

    2011-01-01

    Honeybees visually pinpoint the location of a food source using landmarks. Studies on the role of visual memories have suggested that bees approach the goal by finding a close match between their current view and a memorized view of the goal location. The most relevant landmark features for this matching process seem to be their retinal positions, the size as defined by their edges, and their colour. Recently, we showed that honeybees can use landmarks that are statically camouflaged, suggest...

  3. The Behavioral Relevance of Multisensory Neural Response Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Sperdin, Holger F.; Cappe, Céline; Micah M Murray

    2010-01-01

    Sensory information can interact to impact perception and behavior. Foods are appreciated according to their appearance, smell, taste and texture. Athletes and dancers combine visual, auditory, and somatosensory information to coordinate their movements. Under laboratory settings, detection and discrimination are likewise facilitated by multisensory signals. Research over the past several decades has shown that the requisite anatomy exists to support interactions between sensory systems in re...

  4. The behavioral relevance of multisensory neural response interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Sperdin, Holger F.; Micah M Murray

    2010-01-01

    Sensory information can interact to impact perception and behavior. Foods are appreciated according to their appearance, smell, taste, and texture. Athletes and dancers combine visual, auditory, and somatosensory information to coordinate their movements. Under laboratory settings, detection and discrimination are likewise facilitated by multisensory signals. Research over the past several decades has shown both that the requisite anatomy exists to support interactions between sensory systems...

  5. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to

  6. Behavior of nanoceria in biologically-relevant environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Amit; Das, Soumen; Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Self, William; Baer, Donald R.; Sayle, Dean C.; Seal, Sudipta

    2014-09-08

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have gained a considerable attention in biological research due to their anti-oxidant like behaviour and regenerative nature. The current literature on CNPs reports many successful attempts on harnessing the beneficial therapeutic properties in biology. However studies have also shown toxicity effect with some types of CNPs. This review discusses issues associated with the behaviours of CNPs in biological systems and identifies key knowledge gaps. We explore how salient physicochemical properties (size, surface chemistry, surface stabilizers) contribute to the potential positive and negative aspects of nanoceria in biological systems. Based on variations of results reported in the literature, important issues need to be addressed. Are we really studying the same particles with slight variations in size and physicochemical properties or do the particles being examined have fundamentally different behaviours? Are the variations observed in the result of differences in the initial properties of the particles or the results of downstream effects that emerge as the particles are prepared for specific studies and they interact with biological or other environmental moieties? How should particles be appropriately prepared for relevant environmental/toxicology/safety studies? It is useful to recognize that nanoparticles encompass some of the same complexities and variability associated with biological components

  7. Bulk and boundary critical behavior at Lifshitz points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H W Diehl

    2005-05-01

    Lifshitz points are multicritical points at which a disordered phase, a homogeneous ordered phase, and a modulated ordered phase meet. Their bulk universality classes are described by natural generalizations of the standard 4 model. Analyzing these models systematically via modern field-theoretic renormalization group methods has been a long-standing challenge ever since their introduction in the middle of 1970s. We survey the recent progress made in this direction, discussing results obtained via dimensionality expansions, how they compare with Monte Carlo results, and open problems. These advances opened the way towards systematic studies of boundary critical behavior at -axial Lifshitz points. The possible boundary critical behavior depends on whether the surface plane is perpendicular to one of the modulation axes or parallel to all of them. We show that the semi-infinite field theories representing the corresponding surface universality classes in these two cases of perpendicular and parallel surface orientation differ crucially in their Hamiltonian's boundary terms and the implied boundary conditions, and explain recent results along with our current understanding of this matter.

  8. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles

    OpenAIRE

    Grippo, Angela J.; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C. Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks o...

  9. Seasonal Reversals of Groundwater Flow Around Lakes and the Relevance to Stagnation Points and Lake Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mary P.; Munter, James A.

    1981-08-01

    Several researchers have observed seasonal reversals in the direction of groundwater flow around lakes. If these reversals are prolonged and are accompanied by the formation of a stagnation point, they may have a significant effect on a lake's water and nutrient budgets. The formation of a stagnation point at a flow-through lake (i.e., a lake that receives groundwater through part of the lake basin and recharges the groundwater system over the rest of the lake basin) is accomplished by the formation of a groundwater mound on the downgradient side of the lake. In this paper the seasonal formation of a stagnation point at Snake Lake, Wisconsin, is investigated with the aid of two-dimensional transient computer models applied in cross section and areally. The analysis demonstrates the potential for the seasonal formation of a stagnation point at a flow-through lake and provides some insight into the transient development of the stagnation point.

  10. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  11. Two Models Relevant to the Interaction of a Point Charge and a Magnetic Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the interaction of a point charge and a magnetic moment is crucial for understanding the experiments involving electromagnetic momentum carried by permeable materials as well as the experimentally-observed Aharonov-Bohm and Aharonov-Casher phase shifts. Here we present two simple models for a magnetic moment which have vastly different interactions with a distant point charge. It is suggested that a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the interaction is still lacking and that the "hidden momentum" interpretation has been introduced into the textbook literature prematurely.

  12. Relevance of communications at sale points in the modern concept of merchandising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataev Andrey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Owners of brands spend a large amount of money to promote their products. However, communication at sale points usually does not meet the overall strategy of integrated marketing communication as communication and sales are the question of competence of different managers. If not to pay proper attention to this question today, thousands of advertising budgets, PR and other campaigns will not bring effect under conditions of inconsistent sales strategies and tactics. The article gives the theoretical grounding of integration of communications at sale points into the structure of retail marketing communications.

  13. Modeling autism-relevant behavioral phenotypes in rats and mice: Do 'autistic' rodents exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servadio, Michela; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are among the most severe developmental psychiatric disorders known today, characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction and stereotyped behaviors. However, no specific treatments for ASD are as yet available. By enabling selective genetic, neural, and pharmacological manipulations, animal studies are essential in ASD research. They make it possible to dissect the role of genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of the disease, circumventing the many confounding variables present in human studies. Furthermore, they make it possible to unravel the relationships between altered brain function in ASD and behavior, and are essential to test new pharmacological options and their side-effects. Here, we first discuss the concepts of construct, face, and predictive validity in rodent models of ASD. Then, we discuss how ASD-relevant behavioral phenotypes can be mimicked in rodents. Finally, we provide examples of environmental and genetic rodent models widely used and validated in ASD research. We conclude that, although no animal model can capture, at once, all the molecular, cellular, and behavioral features of ASD, a useful approach is to focus on specific autism-relevant behavioral features to study their neural underpinnings. This approach has greatly contributed to our understanding of this disease, and is useful in identifying new therapeutic targets. PMID:26226143

  14. Predictors of methamphetamine psychosis: history of ADHD-relevant childhood behaviors and drug exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Fassbender, Catherine; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Ursu, Stefan; Leamon, Martin H; Carter, Cameron

    2013-12-15

    The goal of this study was to extend our previous research that reported a significant association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-relevant childhood behaviors and the frequency of methamphetamine (MA)-induced psychotic symptoms in an expanded sample. 190 participants who met DSM-IV criteria for MA dependence were administered the Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire that assessed MA-induced psychosis. Data related to MA exposure, comorbid drug use, education, familial psychiatric history and assessments of ADHD-relevant childhood behaviors as measured by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) were collected. Although WURS scores did not differ between 145 MAP+ and 45 MAP- subjects, MAP+ subjects with higher WURS scores were significantly more likely to report more frequent psychosis. Although mean daily MA dosage did not differ between the MAP+ and MAP- subjects, MAP+ subjects who consumed larger doses of MA were significantly more likely to experience frequent psychosis. These data suggest that ADHD-relevant childhood behaviors may interact with MA exposure to reflect a neurobiological vulnerability related to the emergence of frequent MA-induced psychotic symptoms. These results may elucidate factors that contribute to the psychiatric sequelae of MA abuse. PMID:23896355

  15. Three-point bending fatigue behavior of WC–Co cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Mechanical fatigue tests were conducted on a specific designed jig. ► Three-point bending fatigue behavior of WC–Co cemented carbides was studied. ► Fatigue mechanisms of WC–Co cemented carbides with different WC grain sizes and Co binder contents were revealed. -- Abstract: WC–Co cemented carbides with different WC grain sizes and Co binder contents were sintered and fabricated. The three-point bending specimens with a single edge notch were prepared for tests. In the experiments, the mechanical properties of materials were investigated under static and cyclic loads (20 Hz) in air at room temperature. The fatigue behaviors of the materials under the same applied loading conditions are presented and discussed. Optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the micro-mechanisms of damage during fatigue, and the results were used to correlate with the mechanical fatigue behavior of WC–Co cemented carbides. Experimental results indicated that the fatigue fracture surfaces exhibited more fracture origins and diversification of crack propagation paths than the static strength fracture surfaces. The fatigue fracture typically originates from inhomogeneities or defects such as micropores or aggregates of WC grains near the notch tip. Moreover, due to the diversity and complexity of the fatigue mechanisms, together with the evolution of the crack tip and the ductile deformation zone, the fatigue properties of WC–Co cemented carbides were largely relevant with the combination of transverse rupture strength and fracture toughness, rather than only one of them. Transverse rupture strength dominated the fatigue behavior of carbides with low Co content, whilst the fatigue behavior of carbides with high Co content was determined by fracture toughness.

  16. Nociceptive-Evoked Potentials Are Sensitive to Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus Displacements in Egocentric Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayedi, M; Di Stefano, G; Stubbs, M T; Djeugam, B; Liang, M; Iannetti, G D

    2016-01-01

    Feature selection has been extensively studied in the context of goal-directed behavior, where it is heavily driven by top-down factors. A more primitive version of this function is the detection of bottom-up changes in stimulus features in the environment. Indeed, the nervous system is tuned to detect fast-rising, intense stimuli that are likely to reflect threats, such as nociceptive somatosensory stimuli. These stimuli elicit large brain potentials maximal at the scalp vertex. When elicited by nociceptive laser stimuli, these responses are labeled laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). Although it has been shown that changes in stimulus modality and increases in stimulus intensity evoke large LEPs, it has yet to be determined whether stimulus displacements affect the amplitude of the main LEP waves (N1, N2, and P2). Here, in three experiments, we identified a set of rules that the human nervous system obeys to identify changes in the spatial location of a nociceptive stimulus. We showed that the N2 wave is sensitive to: (1) large displacements between consecutive stimuli in egocentric, but not somatotopic coordinates; and (2) displacements that entail a behaviorally relevant change in the stimulus location. These findings indicate that nociceptive-evoked vertex potentials are sensitive to behaviorally relevant changes in the location of a nociceptive stimulus with respect to the body, and that the hand is a particularly behaviorally important site. PMID:27419217

  17. Topical points of community policy concerning nuclear safety relevant to the Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with the Internal Market concept, the lecture describes general and specific expectations directed to the nuclear community from a point of view of nuclear safety, and analyzes those aspects of nuclear safety, EC policy focuses on. There are the following chapters: 1. Selection of sites for nuclear installations, 2. installation and reactor safety, 3. radioactive waste management, 4. decommissioning of nuclear installations, 5. radioactive waste storage, 6. coping with nuclear accidents and other radiological emergency situations. Sophistication of public health and environmental protection within the framework of the EURATOM Treaty is seen in connection with interim and final storage as well as reprocessing of radioactive waste, and with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities on the basis of section 30 ff., and installation and reactor safety on the basis of section 203 EURATOM Treaty. Improving the protection of public health in particular is possible and necessary in order to make the EURATOM community into a proper nuclear community of law. (orig./HSCH)

  18. Antidepressants at environmentally relevant concentrations affect predator avoidance behavior of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, M.M.; Buerkley, M.A.; Julius, M.L.; Vajda, A.M.; Norris, D.O.; Barber, L.B.; Furlong, E.T.; Schultz, M.M.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of embryonic and larval exposure to environmentally relevant (ng/L) concentrations of common antidepressants, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, and bupropion (singularly and in mixture) on C-start escape behavior were evaluated in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Embryos (postfertilization until hatching) were exposed for 5 d and, after hatching, were allowed to grow in control well water until 12 d old. Similarly, posthatch fathead minnows were exposed for 12 d to these compounds. High-speed (1,000 frames/s) video recordings of escape behavior were collected and transferred to National Institutes of Health Image for frame-by-frame analysis of latency periods, escape velocities, and total escape response (combination of latency period and escape velocity). When tested 12 d posthatch, fluoxetine and venlafaxine adversely affected C-start performance of larvae exposed as embryos. Conversely, larvae exposed for 12 d posthatch did not exhibit altered escape responses when exposed to fluoxetine but were affected by venlafaxine and bupropion exposure. Mixtures of these four antidepressant pharmaceuticals slowed predator avoidance behaviors in larval fathead minnows regardless of the exposure window. The direct impact of reduced C-start performance on survival and, ultimately, reproductive fitness provides an avenue to assess the ecological relevance of exposure in an assay of relatively short duration. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  19. Behavior of random walk on discrete point processes

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Noam

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model for random walks on random environments (RWRE) with random subset of Z^d as the vertices, and uniform transition probabilities on 2d points (two "coordinate nearest points" in each of the d coordinate directions). We give partial characterization of transience and recurrence in the different dimensions. Finally we prove Central Limit Theorem (CLT) for such random walks, under a condition on the distance between coordinate nearest points.

  20. Parenting practices and their relevance to child behaviors in Canada and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mowei; Guo, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed that parents in different cultures endorse different child-rearing practices. Studies in the West suggest that there is a cluster of behavioral characteristics in children that are linked with each type of parenting styles. Mixed results, however, were found in non-Western countries. This study examined (1) parenting practices in Canadian and Chinese mothers, and (2) the relevance between parenting practices and child behaviors in Canada and China. Forty Canadian children (average age = 5.40) and 39 Chinese children (average age = 4.84) and their mothers participated in the study. Information on maternal authoritative and authoritarian behaviors and children's behaviors, including coercive request, polite request, and assertiveness, was obtained from observations of mother-child interactions in a laboratory situation. The results indicated that Chinese mothers were less authoritative and more authoritarian than Canadian mothers. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were found on the associations between maternal parenting practices and child behaviors. PMID:20132462

  1. Neural representation of calling songs and their behavioral relevance in the grasshopper auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundula eMeckenhäuser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic communication plays a key role for mate attraction in grasshoppers. Males use songs to advertise themselves to females. Females evaluate the song pattern, a repetitive structure of sound syllables separated by short pauses, to recognize a conspecific male and as proxy to its fitness. In their natural habitat females often receive songs with degraded temporal structure. Perturbations may, for example, result from the overlap with other songs. We studied the response behavior of females to songs that show different signal degradations. A perturbation of an otherwise attractive song at later positions in the syllable diminished the behavioral response, whereas the same perturbation at the onset of a syllable did not affect song attractiveness. We applied naïve Bayes classifiers to the spike trains of identified neurons in the auditory pathway to explore how sensory evidence about the acoustic stimulus and its attractiveness is represented in the neuronal responses. We find that populations of three or more neurons were sufficient to reliably decode the acoustic stimulus and to predict its behavioral relevance from the single-trial integrated firing rate. A simple model of decision making simulates the female response behavior. It computes for each syllable the likelihood for the presence of an attractive song pattern as evidenced by the population firing rate. Integration across syllables allows the likelihood to reach a decision threshold and to elicit the behavioral response. The close match between model performance and animal behavior shows that a spike rate code is sufficient to enable song pattern recognition.

  2. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks of social isolation versus paired housing. In Experiment 1, oxytocin-immunoreactive cell density was higher in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated females, but not in males. In Experiment 2, sucrose intake, used as an operational definition of hedonia, was reduced in both sexes following 4 weeks of isolation. Animals then received a resident-intruder test, and were sacrificed either 10 min later for the analysis of circulating hormones and peptides, or 2h later to examine neural activation, indexed by c-Fos expression in PVN cells immunoreactive for oxytocin or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Compared to paired animals, plasma oxytocin, ACTH and corticosterone were elevated in isolated females and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated males, following the resident-intruder test. The proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin or c-Fos and CRF was elevated in isolated females, and the proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin was elevated in isolated males following this test. These findings suggest that social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine responses relevant to depression in male and female prairie voles, although neuroendocrine responses in females may be especially sensitive to isolation. PMID:17825994

  3. Recent Developments in the Psychology of Individuation and Deindividuation: Toward the Integration of Aggression, Altruism, and Morally Relevant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloutzian, Raymond F.

    After the development and distinctions of the concept of deindividuation are given, a single dimension of morally relevant behavior is outlined with aggression and altruism viewed as the two extremes. This dimension is divided accoring to degree of external reinforcement control. The result is a 2x2 scheme for classifying morally relevant behavior…

  4. Extracting Behaviorally Relevant Traits from Natural Stimuli: Benefits of Combinatorial Representations at the Accessory Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Anat; Ben-Shaul, Yoram

    2016-03-01

    For many animals, chemosensation is essential for guiding social behavior. However, because multiple factors can modulate levels of individual chemical cues, deriving information about other individuals via natural chemical stimuli involves considerable challenges. How social information is extracted despite these sources of variability is poorly understood. The vomeronasal system provides an excellent opportunity to study this topic due to its role in detecting socially relevant traits. Here, we focus on two such traits: a female mouse's strain and reproductive state. In particular, we measure stimulus-induced neuronal activity in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) in response to various dilutions of urine, vaginal secretions, and saliva, from estrus and non-estrus female mice from two different strains. We first show that all tested secretions provide information about a female's receptivity and genotype. Next, we investigate how these traits can be decoded from neuronal activity despite multiple sources of variability. We show that individual neurons are limited in their capacity to allow trait classification across multiple sources of variability. However, simple linear classifiers sampling neuronal activity from small neuronal ensembles can provide a substantial improvement over that attained with individual units. Furthermore, we show that some traits are more efficiently detected than others, and that particular secretions may be optimized for conveying information about specific traits. Across all tested stimulus sources, discrimination between strains is more accurate than discrimination of receptivity, and detection of receptivity is more accurate with vaginal secretions than with urine. Our findings highlight the challenges of chemosensory processing of natural stimuli, and suggest that downstream readout stages decode multiple behaviorally relevant traits by sampling information from distinct but overlapping populations of AOB neurons. PMID:26938460

  5. Extracting Behaviorally Relevant Traits from Natural Stimuli: Benefits of Combinatorial Representations at the Accessory Olfactory Bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Kahan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For many animals, chemosensation is essential for guiding social behavior. However, because multiple factors can modulate levels of individual chemical cues, deriving information about other individuals via natural chemical stimuli involves considerable challenges. How social information is extracted despite these sources of variability is poorly understood. The vomeronasal system provides an excellent opportunity to study this topic due to its role in detecting socially relevant traits. Here, we focus on two such traits: a female mouse's strain and reproductive state. In particular, we measure stimulus-induced neuronal activity in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB in response to various dilutions of urine, vaginal secretions, and saliva, from estrus and non-estrus female mice from two different strains. We first show that all tested secretions provide information about a female's receptivity and genotype. Next, we investigate how these traits can be decoded from neuronal activity despite multiple sources of variability. We show that individual neurons are limited in their capacity to allow trait classification across multiple sources of variability. However, simple linear classifiers sampling neuronal activity from small neuronal ensembles can provide a substantial improvement over that attained with individual units. Furthermore, we show that some traits are more efficiently detected than others, and that particular secretions may be optimized for conveying information about specific traits. Across all tested stimulus sources, discrimination between strains is more accurate than discrimination of receptivity, and detection of receptivity is more accurate with vaginal secretions than with urine. Our findings highlight the challenges of chemosensory processing of natural stimuli, and suggest that downstream readout stages decode multiple behaviorally relevant traits by sampling information from distinct but overlapping populations of AOB neurons.

  6. Low cycle fatigue behavior of ITER-like divertor target under DEMO-relevant operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • LCF behavior of the cooling tube and the interlayer of an ITER-like divertor target is studied. • For the cooling tube, LCF failure will not be an issue under an HHF load of up to 18 MW/m2. • Plastic strain in the interlayer is concentrated at the free surface edge of the bond interface. • The predicted LCF lifetime of the interlayer may not meet the design requirement. - Abstract: In this work the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of the copper alloy cooling tube and the copper interlayer of an ITER-like divertor target is reported for nine different combinations of loading and cooling conditions relevant to DEMO divertor operation. The LCF lifetime is presented as a function of loading and cooling conditions considered here by means of cyclic plasticity simulation and using LCF data of materials relevant for ITER. The numerical predictions indicate, that fatigue failure will not be an issue for the copper alloy tube under a high heat flux (HHF) load of up to 18 MW/m2 as long as it preserves its initial strength. In contrast, the copper interlayer exhibits significant plastic dissipation at the free surface edge of the bond interface adjacent to the cooling tube, where the LCF lifetime is predicted to be below 3000 load cycles for HHF loads higher than 15 MW/m2. Most of the bulk region of the copper interlayer away from the free surface edge does not experience severe plastic fatigue and hence does not pose any critical concern as the LCF lifetime is predicted to be at least 7000 load cycles. LCF lifetime decreases as HHF load is increased or coolant temperature is decreased

  7. Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic Therapies: Points of Intersection and Divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Brian; Thoma, Nathan; McKay, Dean

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy (PDT) are two major paradigms in the mental health care field. The present article reviews broad similarities and differences between each tradition while acknowledging that such generalizations may overlook heterogeneity within each. However, it is believed that a comparison between CBT and PDT is beneficial in dispelling myths about each tradition, fostering dialogue, encouraging further scholarship and research. While not an exhaustive account, this article will examine how CBT and PDT differ in how they view several topics such as the unconscious, the therapeutic alliance, the role of homework, symptom reduction, and therapeutic heuristics. Commentary is also offered on how research may be more effectively and collaboratively integrated with clinical work from both traditions. Future directions for partnership and improving mental health treatments are also discussed. PMID:26301762

  8. Extracting the Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus: Unique Neural Representation of Farnesol, a Component of the Recruitment Pheromone of Bombus terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Strube-Bloss

    Full Text Available To trigger innate behavior, sensory neural networks are pre-tuned to extract biologically relevant stimuli. Many male-female or insect-plant interactions depend on this phenomenon. Especially communication among individuals within social groups depends on innate behaviors. One example is the efficient recruitment of nest mates by successful bumblebee foragers. Returning foragers release a recruitment pheromone in the nest while they perform a 'dance' behavior to activate unemployed nest mates. A major component of this pheromone is the sesquiterpenoid farnesol. How farnesol is processed and perceived by the olfactory system, has not yet been identified. It is much likely that processing farnesol involves an innate mechanism for the extraction of relevant information to trigger a fast and reliable behavioral response. To test this hypothesis, we used population response analyses of 100 antennal lobe (AL neurons recorded in alive bumblebee workers under repeated stimulation with four behaviorally different, but chemically related odorants (geraniol, citronellol, citronellal and farnesol. The analysis identified a unique neural representation of the recruitment pheromone component compared to the other odorants that are predominantly emitted by flowers. The farnesol induced population activity in the AL allowed a reliable separation of farnesol from all other chemically related odor stimuli we tested. We conclude that the farnesol induced population activity may reflect a predetermined representation within the AL-neural network allowing efficient and fast extraction of a behaviorally relevant stimulus. Furthermore, the results show that population response analyses of multiple single AL-units may provide a powerful tool to identify distinct representations of behaviorally relevant odors.

  9. Point defects behavior in beta Cu-based shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of positron annihilation spectroscopy data relating to the point defect behavior after quenching and to thermal equilibrium in β-phase Cu-based shape memory alloys Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Be is presented. Particular attention is given to the initial concentration of quenched-in vacancies as a function of the quenching temperature, migration of the retained point defects with aging temperature and time, and the vacancy formation and migration energies. (orig.)

  10. PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF 238PU RELEVANT TO DECONTAMINATION OF BUILDING 235-F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.; Kane, M.

    2009-11-24

    This report was prepared to document the physical, chemical and radiological properties of plutonium oxide materials that were processed in the Plutonium Fuel Form Facility (PuFF) in building 235-F at the Savannah River Plant (now known as the Savannah River Site) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. An understanding of these properties is needed to support current project planning for the safe and effective decontamination and deactivation (D&D) of PuFF. The PuFF mission was production of heat sources to power Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in space craft. The specification for the PuO{sub 2} used to fabricate the heat sources required that the isotopic content of the plutonium be 83 {+-} 1% Pu-238 due to its high decay heat of 0.57 W/g. The high specific activity of Pu-238 (17.1 Ci/g) due to alpha decay makes this material very difficult to manage. The production process produced micron-sized particles which proved difficult to contain during operations, creating personnel contamination concerns and resulting in the expenditure of significant resources to decontaminate spaces after loss of material containment. This report examines high {sup 238}Pu-content material properties relevant to the D&D of PuFF. These relevant properties are those that contribute to the mobility of the material. Physical properties which produce or maintain small particle size work to increase particle mobility. Early workers with {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} felt that, unlike most small particles, Pu-238 oxide particles would not naturally agglomerate to form larger, less mobile particles. It was thought that the heat generated by the particles would prevent water molecules from binding to the particle surface. Particles covered with bound water tend to agglomerate more easily. However, it is now understood that the self-heating effect is not sufficient to prevent adsorption of water on particle surfaces and thus would not prevent agglomeration of particles. Operational

  11. Neurocognitive elements of antisocial behavior: Relevance of an orbitofrontal cortex account

    OpenAIRE

    Séguin, Jean R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lesions in antisocial behaviors and the adequacy of a strict OFC account of antisocial disorders where there is no evidence of lesion. Neurocognitive accounts of antisocial behaviors are extended beyond the OFC. Several methodological shortcomings specific to this neuroscience approach to antisocial behavior are identified. A developmental approach is advocated to chart the developmental sequences of impaired brain development and of t...

  12. Social behavior in a genetic model of dopamine dysfunction at different neurodevelopmental time points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabitzke, P. A.; Simpson, E. H.; Kandel, E. R.; Balsam, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in social behavior characterize many neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. In fact, the temporal emergence and trajectory of these deficits can define the disorder, specify their treatment and signal their prognosis. The sophistication of mouse models with neurobiological endophenotypes of many aspects of psychiatric diseases has increased in recent years, with the necessity to evaluate social behavior in these models. We adapted an assay for the multimodal characterization of social behavior at different development time points (juvenile, adolescent and adult) in control mice in different social contexts (specifically, different sex pairings). Although social context did not affect social behavior in juvenile mice, it did have an effect on the quantity and type of social interaction as well as ultrasonic vocalizations in both adolescence and adulthood. We compared social development in control mice to a transgenic mouse model of the increase in postsynaptic striatal D2R activity observed in patients with schizophrenia (D2R-OE mice). Genotypic differences in social interactions emerged in adolescence and appeared to become more pronounced in adulthood. That vocalizations emitted from dyads with a D2R-OE subject were negatively correlated with active social behavior while vocalizations from control dyads were positively correlated with both active and passive social behavior also suggest social deficits. These data show that striatal dopamine dysfunction plays an important role in the development of social behavior and mouse models such as the one studied here provide an opportunity for screening potential therapeutics at different developmental time points. PMID:26176662

  13. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  14. Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at Non-Hanford Sites and Relevance to Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-02-01

    Seven sites where Pu release to the environment has raised significant environmental concerns have been reviewed. A summary of the most significant hydrologic and geochemical features, contaminant release events and transport processes relevant to Pu migration at the seven sites is presented.

  15. Modeling autism-relevant behavioral phenotypes in rats and mice : Do 'autistic' rodents exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Servadio, Michela; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are among the most severe developmental psychiatric disorders known today, characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction and stereotyped behaviors. However, no specific treatments for ASD are as yet available. By enabling selective genetic, neur

  16. Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autism: Phenotypes of Ten Inbred Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Young, Nancy B.; Perez, Antonio; Holloway, L. Paige; Barbaro, Ryan P.; Barbaro, Justin R.; West, Lindsay M.; Threadgill, David W; Lauder, Jean M.; Magnuson, Terry R.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2006-01-01

    Three defining clinical symptoms of autism are aberrant reciprocal social interactions, deficits in social communication, and repetitive behaviors, including motor stereotypies and insistence on sameness. We developed a set of behavioral tasks designed to model components of these core symptoms in mice. Male mice from ten inbred strains were characterized in assays for sociability, preference for social novelty, and reversal of the spatial location of the reinforcer in T-maze and Morris water...

  17. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen. PMID:26476556

  18. A metabolomic study of fipronil for the anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish larvae at environmentally relevant levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cui; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Quan; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Meirong

    2016-04-01

    Field residue of fipronil can interfere with the physiological characters of the domesticated fish; thus, lethal dose test and the general biomarker cannot delineate the low-level situation. Manipulating by video track, we observed an anxiety-like behavior including high speed and abnormal photoperiod accommodation after exposure to fipronil at environmental typical dose in zebrafish larvae. Examining the unbiased metabolomic profiles, we found perturbation in several metabolic pathways, including the increased contents of fatty acids and glycerol and the decreased levels of the glycine, serine, and branched amino acid. We presumed that observed enhanced fatty acid utility was in response to increase energy demands caused by anxiety like behavior. Additionally, the body burden of neurotransmitter such as glycine and l-glutamate may concurrently stimulate the swimming behavior. The insight of this study showed that integral perturbation such as metabolism helps us to further understand the risk to aquatic fish at the environmentally relevant levels. PMID:26774772

  19. Pointing gesture in a bird- merely instrumental or a cognitively complex behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela KAPLAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gestures, particularly pointing, are regarded as important pre-speech acts. Intentional and referential pointing has been shown previously in humans and apes but not in songbirds, although some avian species show cognitive abilities rivaling those of apes, and their brain structures and functions show putative preconditions for referential gestural signaling (i.e. mirror neurons, links of vocal learning nuclei to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. The results reported are based on trials testing predator detection and responses to a taxidermic model of a wedge-tailed eagle by Australian magpies Gymnorhina tibicen. Magpies were subjected to three conditions of finding this model in their territory (open, sheltered and hidden. In the sheltered and hidden conditions, the discoverer simultaneously engaged in alarm calls and beak pointing, a behavior that has not been described previously. Other group members at once assembled and, after watching the first bird, adopted the same posture by pointing to the location of the intruder. The question is whether beak and body movements orienting towards important stimuli or events are instances of arousal, imitation or intentional communication. The latter presupposes that onlookers interpret the signal and respond by altering their own behavior appropriate to the original stimulus and not merely by imitating the first signaler. Evidence presented here indicates that the act of pointing may well be a complex cognitive behavior, i.e., an intentional and referential signal, showing that pointing is not limited to having hands and arms [Current Zoology 57 (4: 453–467, 2011].

  20. Resolving Issues Relevant to the Education of Secondary School Aged Youth with Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert G.

    The article provides a format for a workshop in which three issues which must be resolved by educators of secondary aged students with behavior disorders are discussed. The three issues to be addressed are: (1) determination of appropriate curriculum emphasis, (2) parent training/involvement in intervention strategies, and (3) criteria for…

  1. Behavioral Relevance of Species-Specific Vasotocin Anatomy in Gregarious Finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial species differences in the vasotocin/vasopressin (VT/VP circuitry of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm and lateral septum (LS; a primary projection target of BSTm VT/VP cells, functional consequences of this variation are poorly known. Previous experiments in the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata demonstrate that BSTm VT neurons promote gregariousness in a male-specific manner and reduce anxiety in both sexes. However, in contrast to the zebra finch, the less gregarious Angolan blue waxbill (Estrildidae: Uraeginthus angolensis exhibits fewer VT-immunoreactive cells in the BSTm as well as differences in receptor distribution across the LS subnuclei, suggesting that knockdown of VT production in the BSTm would produce behavioral effects in Angolan blue waxbills that are distinct from zebra finches. Thus, we here quantified social contact, gregariousness (i.e. preference for the larger of two groups, and anxiety-like behavior following bilateral antisense knockdown of VT production in the BSTm of male and female Angolan blue waxbills. We find that BSTm VT neurons promote social contact, but not gregariousness (as in male zebra finches, and that antisense effects on social contact are significantly stronger in male waxbills than in females. Knockdown of BSTm VT production has no effect on anxiety-like behavior. These data provide novel evidence that species differences in the VT/VP circuitry arising in the BSTm are accompanied by species-specific effects on affiliation behaviors.

  2. Critical behaviors near the (tri-)critical end point of QCD within the NJL model

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Ya; Cui, Zhu-Fang; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its restoration at finite density and temperature within the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, and mainly focus on the critical behaviors near the critical end point (CEP) and tricritical point (TCP) of QCD. The co-existence region of the Wigner and Nambu phase is determined in the phase diagram for the massive and massless current quark, respectively. We use the various susceptibilities to locate the CEP/TCP and then extract the critical exponents near them. Our calculations reveal that the various susceptibilities share the same critical behaviors for the physical current quark mass, while they show different features in the chiral limit. Furthermore the critical exponent of order parameter at the TCP, $\\beta$=1/4, differs from that on the $O(4)$ line, $\\beta$=1/2, which indicates a change in the universality class.

  3. Critical behaviors near the (tri-)critical end point of QCD within the NJL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ya; Du, Yi-Lun [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Cui, Zhu-Fang [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); CAS, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Zong, Hong-Shi [Nanjing University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing (China); CAS, State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    We investigate the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its restoration at finite density and temperature within the two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, and mainly focus on the critical behaviors near the critical end point (CEP) and tricritical point (TCP) of quantum chromodynamics. The multi-solution region of the Nambu and Wigner ones is determined in the phase diagram for the massive and massless current quark, respectively. We use the various susceptibilities to locate the CEP/TCP and then extract the critical exponents near them. Our calculations reveal that the various susceptibilities share the same critical behaviors for the physical current quark mass, while they show different features in the chiral limit. (orig.)

  4. Correlation length as an indicator of critical point behavior prior to a large earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Tyupkin, Yu. S.; Geophysical Center, RAS, Molodezhnaya 3, 117296 Moscow, Russian Federation; Di Giovambattista, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia

    2005-01-01

    A large earthquake preparation is often manifested in correlation of seismicity in an area whose characteristic dimension greatly exceeds a dimension of source of main shock. Zfller et al. [G. Zfller, S. Hainzl, J. Kurths, Observation of growing correlation length as an indicator for critical point behavior prior to large earthquakes, J. Geophys. Res. 106 (2001) 2167– 2176] show the growth of correlation length of earthquakes prior to nine large earthquakes in California according to...

  5. Behavioral rules of bank’s point-of-sale for segments description and scoring prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bizhani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the important factors for the success of a bank industry is to monitor their customers' behavior and their point-of-sale (POS. The bank needs to know its merchants' behavior to find interesting ones to attract more transactions which results in the growth of its income and assets. The recency, frequency and monetary (RFM analysis is a famous approach for extracting behavior of customers and is a basis for marketing and customer relationship management (CRM, but it is not aligned enough for banking context. Introducing RF*M* in this article results in a better understanding of groups of merchants. Another artifact of RF*M* is RF*M* scoring which is applied in two ways, preprocessing the POSs and assigning behavioral meaningful labels to the merchants’ segments. The class labels and the RF*M* parameters are entered into a rule-based classification algorithm to achieve descriptive rules of the clusters. These descriptive rules outlined the boundaries of RF*M* parameters for each cluster. Since the rules are generated by a classification algorithm, they can also be applied for predicting the behavioral label and scoring of the upcoming POSs. These rules are called behavioral rules.

  6. Modular correction method of bending elastic modulus based on sliding behavior of contact point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the three-point bending test, the sliding behavior of the contact point between the specimen and supports was observed, the sliding behavior was verified to affect the measurements of both deflection and span length, which directly affect the calculation of the bending elastic modulus. Based on the Hertz formula to calculate the elastic contact deformation and the theoretical calculation of the sliding behavior of the contact point, a theoretical model to precisely describe the deflection and span length as a function of bending load was established. Moreover, a modular correction method of bending elastic modulus was proposed, via the comparison between the corrected elastic modulus of three materials (H63 copper–zinc alloy, AZ31B magnesium alloy and 2026 aluminum alloy) and the standard modulus obtained from standard uniaxial tensile tests, the universal feasibility of the proposed correction method was verified. Also, the ratio of corrected to raw elastic modulus presented a monotonically decreasing tendency as the raw elastic modulus of materials increased. (technical note)

  7. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    OpenAIRE

    Davis C

    2014-01-01

    Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for huma...

  8. Critical Behavior of CP1 at θ=π, Haldane's Conjecture, and the Relevant Universality Class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an approach to analyze the θ dependence of systems with a θ term we recently proposed, the critical behavior of CP1 at θ=π is studied. We find a region outside the strong coupling regime where Haldane's conjecture is verified. The critical line, however, does not belong to the universality class of the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model at topological coupling k=1 since it shows continuously varying critical exponents

  9. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, H.G. (Univ. Hospital, Nijmegan (Netherlands)); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. (Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

  10. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the "food addiction" construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Davis School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: It has been argued that food cannot be "addictive", unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. "Evolutionary mismatch" viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. Keywords: food addiction, evolution, drugs, gambling

  11. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status. PMID:26646570

  12. The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of REM sleep behavior disorder in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduard

    2009-12-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by vigorous movements associated with unpleasant dreams and increased electromyographic activity during REM sleep. Polysomnography with audiovisual recording is needed to confirm the diagnosis of RBD and to exclude other sleep disorders that can mimic its symptoms including obstructive sleep apnea, nocturnal hallucinations and confusional awakenings. RBD may be idiopathic or related to neurodegenerative diseases, particularly multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. RBD may be the first manifestation of these disorders, antedating the onset of parkinsonism, cerebellar syndrome, dysautonomia, and dementia by several years. RBD should thus be considered an integral part of the disease process. When effective, neuroprotective strategies should be considered in subjects with idiopathic RBD. Patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, though, such as spinocerebellar ataxias, may also present with RBD. When clinically required, clonazepam at bedtime is effective in decreasing the intensity of dream-enacting behaviors and unpleasant dreams in both the idiopathic and secondary forms. When part of a neurodegenerative disorder the development of RBD is thought to reflect the location and extent of the underlying lesions involving the REM sleep centers of the brain (e.g., locus subceruleus, amygdala, etc.), leading to a complex multiple neurotransmitter dysfunction that involves GABAergic, glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems. RBD is mediated neither by direct abnormal alpha-synuclein inclusions nor by striatonigral dopaminergic deficiency alone. PMID:19362028

  13. Self-esteem and "at risk" women:determinants and relevance to sexual and HIV-related risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Claire E; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we describe the relationship between self-esteem and HIV-related risk behaviors, and explore what factors predict self-esteem levels of "at risk" women. Interviews were conducted with 250 (predominantly African American) women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area between August 1997 and August 2000. A community identification process was used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted and theoretical sampling and ethnographic mapping procedures. Self-esteem was related to the number of times having oral sex, the number of times having sex with paying partners, the frequency of sexual risk-taking (all during the 90 days prior to interview), the number of different HIV risk behaviors practiced during the previous year, and condom use attitudes and self-efficacy. Greater involvement HIV risk behaviors was associated with lower self-esteem. Multivariate analyses revealed five significant predictors of women's self-esteem levels: race, religiosity, childhood experiences with emotional neglect, the number of money-related problems experienced, and the number of drug-related problems experienced. The findings indicate that self-esteem is highly relevant to "at risk" women's HIV risk behavior practices, and this has important implications for HIV intervention programs. PMID:15911511

  14. Behavioral assessment of acoustic parameters relevant to signal recognition and preference in a vocal fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, J R; Bass, A H

    1998-12-01

    Acoustic signal recognition depends on the receiver's processing of the physical attributes of a sound. This study takes advantage of the simple communication sounds produced by plainfin midshipman fish to examine effects of signal variation on call recognition and preference. Nesting male midshipman generate both long duration (> 1 min) sinusoidal-like "hums" and short duration "grunts." The hums of neighboring males often overlap, creating beat waveforms. Presentation of humlike, single tone stimuli, but not grunts or noise, elicited robust attraction (phonotaxis) by gravid females. In two-choice tests, females differentiated and chose between acoustic signals that differed in duration, frequency, amplitude, and fine temporal content. Frequency preferences were temperature dependent, in accord with the known temperature dependence of hum fundamental frequency. Concurrent hums were simulated with two-tone beat stimuli, either presented from a single speaker or produced more naturally by interference between adjacent sources. Whereas certain single-source beats reduced stimulus attractiveness, beats which resolved into unmodulated tones at their sources did not affect preference. These results demonstrate that phonotactic assessment of stimulus relevance can be applied in a teleost fish, and that multiple signal parameters can affect receiver response in a vertebrate with relatively simple communication signals. PMID:9857511

  15. Manifest Ultraviolet Behavior in the Three-Loop Four-Point Amplitude of N=8 Supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.M.; /UCLA; Dixon, L.J.; /SLAC; Johansson, H.; /UCLA; Roiban, R.; /Penn State U.

    2008-09-03

    Using the method of maximal cuts, we obtain a form of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude of N = 8 supergravity in which all ultraviolet cancellations are made manifest. The Feynman loop integrals that appear have a graphical representation with only cubic vertices, and numerator factors that are quadratic in the loop momenta, rather than quartic as in the previous form. This quadratic behavior reflects cancellations beyond those required for finiteness, and matches the quadratic behavior of the three-loop four-point scattering amplitude in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. By direct integration we confirm that no additional cancellations remain in the N = 8 supergravity amplitude, thus demonstrating that the critical dimension in which the first ultraviolet divergence occurs at three loops is D{sub c} = 6. We also give the values of the three-loop divergences in D = 7, 9, 11. In addition, we present the explicitly color-dressed three-loop four-point amplitude of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  16. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zheng

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS, a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300 as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1 domain (CBPΔCH1/ΔCH1 have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations.

  17. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Kasper, Lawryn H; Bedford, David C; Lerach, Stephanie; Teubner, Brett J W; Brindle, Paul K

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP) cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS), a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300) as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1) domain (CBPΔCH1/ΔCH1) have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations. PMID:26730956

  18. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fei; Kasper, Lawryn H.; Bedford, David C.; Lerach, Stephanie; Teubner, Brett J. W.; Brindle, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP) cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS), a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300) as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1) domain (CBPΔCH1/ΔCH1) have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations. PMID:26730956

  19. The relevance of large scale environmental research infrastructures from the point of view of Ethics: the case of EMSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura; Best, Mairi; Franceschini, PierLuigi; Materia, Paola; Peppoloni, Silvia; Picard, John

    2014-05-01

    instability and failure; • connecting scientific outcomes to stakeholders and policy makers, including to government decision-makers. The development of a large research infrastructure initiatives like EMSO must continuously take into account wide-reaching environmental and socio-economic implications and objectives. For this reason, an Ethics Commitee was established early in EMSO's initial Preparatory Phase with responsibility for overseeing the key ethical and social aspects of the project. These include: • promoting inclusive science communication and data dissemination services to civil society according to Open Access principles; • guaranteeing top quality scientific information and data as results of top quality research; • promoting the increased adoption of eco-friendly, sustainable technologies through the dissemination of advanced scientific knowledge and best practices to the private sector and to policy makers; • developing Education Strategies in cooperation with academia and industry aimed at informing and sensitizing the general public on the environmental and socio-economic implications and benefits of large research infrastructure initiatives such as EMSO; • carrying out Excellent Science following strict criteria of research integrity, as expressed in the Montreal Statement (2013); • promoting Geo-ethical awareness and innovation by spurring innovative approaches in the management of environmental aspects of large research projects; • supporting technological Innovation by working closely in support of SMEs; • providing a constant, qualified and authoritative one-stop-shopping Reference Point and Advisory for politicians and decision-makers. The paper shows how Geoethics is an essential tool for guiding methodological and operational choices, and management of an European project with great impact on the environment and society.

  20. Graphene confinement effects on melting/freezing point and structure and dynamics behavior of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Masumeh; Fatemi, S Mahmood; Shokouh, F

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the melting/freezing point of confined water between two graphene sheets was calculated from the direct coexistence of the solid-liquid interface. Also, molecular dynamics simulation of confined liquid water-ice between two graphene sheets was applied. The phase transition temperature of the confined ice-water mixture was calculated as 240K that was 29K less than the non-confined ice-water system. In order to study the behavior of water molecules at different distances from the graphene sheets, 5 regions were provided using some imaginary planes, located between two graphene sheets. The obtained simulation results showed that water molecules located in the region near each graphene sheet with the thickness of 2nm had a different behavior from other water molecules located in other regions. The results demonstrated that water molecules in the vicinity of graphene sheets had more mean square displacements than those in the middle regions. PMID:27041448

  1. An experimental investigation on the three-point bending behavior of composite laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Azzam; W, Li

    2014-08-01

    The response of composite laminate structure to three-point bending load was investigated by subjecting two types of stacking sequences of composite laminate structure by using electronic universal tester (Type: WDW-20) machine. Optical microscope was selected in order to characterize bending damage, delamination, and damage shapes in composite laminate structures. The results showed that the [0/90/-45/45]2s exhibits a brittle behavior, while other laminates exhibit a progressive failure mode consisting of fiber failure, debonding (splitting), and delamination. The [45/45/90/0]2s laminate has a highly nonlinear load- displacement curve due to compressive yielding.

  2. Scavenging by chimpanzees at Ngogo and the relevance of chimpanzee scavenging to early hominin behavioral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, David P

    2008-01-01

    Chimpanzees regularly hunt a variety of prey species. However, they rarely scavenge, which distinguishes chimpanzee carnivory from that of some modern hunter-gatherers and, presumably, at least some Plio-Pleistocene hominins. I use observations made over an 11-year period to document all known opportunities for scavenging encountered by chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, and describe all cases of scavenging. I also review data on scavenging from other chimpanzee research sites. Chimpanzees at Ngogo encountered scavenging opportunities only about once per 100 days and ate meat from scavenged carcasses only four times. Scavenging opportunities are also rare at other sites, even where leopards are present (Mahale, Taï, Gombe), and scavenging of leopard kills is known only from Mahale. Feeding on prey that chimpanzees had hunted but then abandoned is the most common form of scavenging reported across study sites. For example, several individuals at Ngogo ate meat from a partially consumed red colobus carcass abandoned after a hunt the previous day. Such behavior probably was not common among Oldowan hominins. Ngogo data and those from other sites also show that chimpanzees sometimes eat meat from carcasses of prey that they did not see killed and that were not killed by chimpanzees, and that scavenging allows access to carcasses larger than those of any prey items. However, chimpanzees ignore relatively many opportunities to obtain meat from such carcasses. Scavenging may be rare because fresh carcasses are rare, because the risk of bacterial infections and zoonoses is high, and because chimpanzees may not recognize certain species as potential prey or certain size classes of prey species as food sources. Its minimal nutritional importance, along with the absence of technology to facilitate confrontational scavenging and rapid carcass processing, apparently distinguishes chimpanzee foraging strategies from those of at least some Oldowan hominins. PMID

  3. On the relevance of using homogeneous biphasic models to characterize the mechanical behavior of the growth plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois Collin, Loïc; Villemure, Isabelle; Lévesque, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to theoretically evaluate the relevance of using homogeneous biphasic models to represent the mechanical behavior of the growth plate. To that end, representative volume elements (RVEs) of reserve and proliferative zones, where the extracellular matrix was modeled as poroelastic and the chondrocytes were assumed to be isotropic and linearly elastic, were meshed by finite elements. The matrix obeyed either the biphasic poroelastic (BPE) or the transversely isotropic biphasic poroelastic (TIBPE) models. The RVEs were submitted to unconfined compression (UC), confined compression (CC) and to a hybrid loading featuring a prescribed pore pressure. The overall responses of the RVEs to UC and CC were fit by either the BPE or the TIBPE models. The study revealed that the BPE model was unable to predict the responses under UC and CC simultaneously for both modeled zones. The TIBPE model fit with good accuracy the RVEs effective responses under UC and CC, but failed to predict the response of the hybrid loading. These results show that a mixture of poroelastic phases does not lead to an overall behavior that can be fit with the same formulation. Moreover, this study exemplified the fact the even if the TIBPE model fits experimental data under UC and CC due to its increased number of parameters, it can fail to predict other loading cases. This motivates further micromechanical studies where the local behavior of the constituent phases would carefully be evaluated.

  4. Current status of research on FBR fuel behavior under accident conditions and the relevant NSRR program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the situation that the development of demonstration FBR is being materialized, a substantial research on safety of core fuels under accident conditions is required as the part of the research and development program. The experimental study of fuel integrity against over power accidents etc. and failure behavior is important to establish a criteria for safety evaluation of FBR's. In this report, the scope of the program which is planned in NSRR is shown after reviewing other related experiments and examining the research region left undone. Major in-core experiments on fuel failure are surveyed wide in the view point of experimental region and the inquired results are summarized. Subsequently, the items and methods due to the NSRR experiment program is discussed. The experimental facility plan and the results of preliminary analysis on the fuel energy deposition and temperature behavior are also introduced. (author)

  5. Damage Behaviors of Foam Sandwiched Composite Materials Under Quasi-Static Three-point Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fa; Mohmmed, Ramadan; Sun, Baozhong; Gu, Bohong

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the quasi-static three-point bending damage behaviors of foam sandwiched composites in finite element analyses (FEA) and experimental. Finite element calculations were performed to characterize the static response of foam sandwich composites with different ply angle face sheets. Quasi-static three-point bending tests were conducted with a MTS materials testing system to obtain the load-displacement curves and energy absorption under quasi-static bending. A crushable foam model was used in order to explore the mechanical behaviors of core materials, while the Hashin criterion was employed to predict the failure of the face sheets. The load-displacement curves show a satisfactory agreement between the experimental and numerical results. The finite element calculations can also be used to obtain the failure mode included the core damage, face sheet damage and face-core interface damage. It can be observed that the damage at the core material can be classified as either core cracking or core crushing. The damage of the face sheet was through matrix cracking and delamination, with fiber breakage. The significant indentation occurs as a result of the fiber breakage. The face-core interface crack was typically induced by the cracks initiated from the tensile side and propagated to the compressive side.

  6. PROFOUND AND SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC EFFECTS OF CLINICALLY-RELEVANT LOW DOSE SCATTER IRRADIATION ON THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKovalchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated cells can signal damage and distress to both close and distant neighbors that have not been directly exposed to the radiation (naïve bystanders. While studies have shown that such bystander effects occur in the shielded brain of animals upon body irradiation, their mechanism remains unexplored. Observed effects may be caused by some blood-borne factors; however they may also be explained, at least in part, by very small direct doses received by the brain that result from scatter or leakage. In order to establish the roles of low doses of scatter irradiation in the brain response, we developed a new model for scatter irradiation analysis whereby one rat was irradiated directly at the liver and the second rat was placed adjacent to the first and received a scatter dose to its body and brain. This work focuses specifically on the response of the latter rat brain to the low scatter irradiation dose. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that very low, clinically relevant doses of scatter irradiation alter gene expression, induce changes in dendritic morphology, and lead to behavioral deficits in exposed animals. The results showed that exposure to radiation doses as low as 0.115 cGy caused changes in gene expression and reduced spine density, dendritic complexity, and dendritic length in the prefrontal cortex tissues of females, but not males. In the hippocampus, radiation altered neuroanatomical organization in males, but not in females. Moreover, low dose radiation caused behavioral deficits in the exposed animals. This is the first study to show that low dose scatter irradiation influences the brain and behavior in a sex-specific way.

  7. Limits of PowerPoint's Power: Enhancing Students' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes but Not Their Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joshua E.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of accompanying lectures with computer-mediated PowerPoint presentations or PowerPoint generated overheads on students' self-efficacy, attitudes, course performance, and class-related behaviors were examined. Two Introduction to Developmental Psychology sections were initially taught with lectures accompanied by either overheads or…

  8. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Improve Computer Pointing Efficiency through a Mouse Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to improve their pointing performance using finger poke ability with a mouse wheel through a Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (DPAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, changes a…

  9. Solution behavior of mixed systems based on novel amphiphilic cyclophanes and Triton X100: aggregation, cloud point phenomenon and cloud point extraction of lanthanide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafina, Asiya; Zakharova, Lucia; Elistratova, Julia; Kudryashova, Juliana; Soloveva, Svetlana; Garusov, Alexander; Antipin, Igor; Konovalov, Alexander

    2010-06-15

    Aggregation and cloud point (CP) behavior, as well as CP extraction of lanthanide ions have been studied for novel non-ionic cyclophanic surfactants with the varied length of polyoxyethylene and hydrophobic moieties (CnEm) based on calix[4]arene platform in their mixtures with Triton X100 (TX100). The dynamic light scattering data reveal the contribution of the large size lamellar or stack like mixed aggregates in CnEm-TX100 solutions. Aggregation and CP behavior of TX100-CnEm mixed solutions are quite different from those of conventional non-ionic surfactants. The effect of the hydrophobic substituents and polyoxyethylene chains length of CnEm on the CP extraction of La(III), Gd(III) and Lu(III) in the mixed TX100-CnEm micellar solutions is discussed in the correlation with their aggregation and cloud point behavior. The obtained data elucidate the cyclophanic structure of CnEm as the key reason of the formation of large lamellar-like aggregates with TX100, exhibiting the unusual CP behavior and CPE efficiency. PMID:20338571

  10. Quantifying Arctic Terrestrial Environment Behaviors Using Geophysical, Point-Scale and Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.; Ulrich, C.; Peterson, J. E.; Wu, Y.; Wainwright, H. M.; Gangodagamage, C.; Kholodov, A. L.; Kneafsey, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Improvement in parameterizing Arctic process-rich terrestrial models to simulate feedbacks to a changing climate requires advances in estimating the spatiotemporal variations in active layer and permafrost properties - in sufficiently high resolution yet over modeling-relevant scales. As part of the DOE Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE-Arctic), we are developing advanced strategies for imaging the subsurface and for investigating land and subsurface co-variability and dynamics. Our studies include acquisition and integration of various measurements, including point-based, surface-based geophysical, and remote sensing datasets These data have been collected during a series of campaigns at the NGEE Barrow, AK site along transects that traverse a range of hydrological and geomorphological conditions, including low- to high- centered polygons and drained thaw lake basins. In this study, we describe the use of galvanic-coupled electrical resistance tomography (ERT), capacitively-coupled resistivity (CCR) , permafrost cores, above-ground orthophotography, and digital elevation model (DEM) to (1) explore complementary nature and trade-offs between characterization resolution, spatial extent and accuracy of different datasets; (2) develop inversion approaches to quantify permafrost characteristics (such as ice content, ice wedge frequency, and presence of unfrozen deep layer) and (3) identify correspondences between permafrost and land surface properties (such as water inundation, topography, and vegetation). In terms of methods, we developed a 1D-based direct search approach to estimate electrical conductivity distribution while allowing exploration of multiple solutions and prior information in a flexible way. Application of the method to the Barrow datasets reveals the relative information content of each dataset for characterizing permafrost properties, which shows features variability from below one meter length scales to large trends over more than a

  11. Positive Behavior Supports: Using Class Dojo as a Token Economy Point System to Encourage and Maintain Good Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eliana; Hoang, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The use of positive reinforcement sometimes gets lost in translation because educators forget the importance of acknowledging good behaviors. We instinctively tend to punish and give consequences because we often forget the importance of preventing undesired behaviors from occurring in the first place. More efforts should be spent on maintaining…

  12. A clash of values: Fear-relevant stimuli can enhance or corrupt adaptive behavior through competition between Pavlovian and instrumental valuation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Golkar, Armita; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates preferentially learn to fear and avoid archetypical fear-relevant stimuli. Yet how these learning biases influence adaptive behavior, the basic mechanistic underpinnings of these biases, and how they interact with learning experiences during the life span of an individual remain unknown. To study this, we investigated how 4 classes of fear-relevant stimuli (snakes, threatening in-group faces, racial out-group faces, and guns) influenced adaptive behavior. We showed that stimulus-driven biases have a dramatic influence that can either promote or corrupt adaptive behavior depending on how a bias relates to the environment. We quantified and compared the effects of different fear-relevant stimuli on instrumental behavior using a computational reinforcement learning model that formalized the idea that the bias reflects competition between an instrumental and a Pavlovian valuation system. These results were further clarified by 2 independent rating studies showing that perceived danger of the stimuli corresponded well with their influence on adaptive behavior. PMID:25893448

  13. On zero-point energy, stability and Hagedorn behavior of Type IIB strings on pp-waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type IIB strings on many pp-wave backgrounds, supported either by 5-form or 3-form fluxes, have negative light-cone zero-point energy. This raises the question of their stability and poses possible problems in the definition of their thermodynamic properties. After having pointed out the correct way of calculating the zero-point energy, an issue not fully discussed in literature, we show that these Type IIB strings are classically stable and have well defined thermal properties, exhibiting a Hagedorn behavior. (author)

  14. Classical and Quantum Interpretations Regarding Thermal Behavior in a Coordinate Frame Accelerating Through Zero-Point Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Timothy H

    2010-01-01

    A relativistic classical field theory with zero-point radiation involves a vacuum corresponding to a scale-invariant spectrum of random classical radiation in spacetime with the overall constant chosen to give an energy (1/2)\\hbar\\omega per normal mode in inertial frames. Classical field theory with classical zero-point radiation gives the same field correlation functions as quantum field theory for the symmetrized products of the corresponding free massless fields in inertial frames; however, the interpretations in classical and quantum theories are quite different. Quantum field theory has photons in thermal radiation but not in the vacuum state; classical theory has radiation in both situations. The contrast in interpretations is most striking for the Rindler coordinate frame accelerating through zero-point radiation; classical theory continues tensor behavior over to the Rindler frame, whereas quantum theory introduces a new Rindler vacuum state. The classical interpretation of thermal behavior rests on t...

  15. Students from different points of species according to the faculty of education self-opening behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzan Gündoğdu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, self-disclosure behaviour of 1st year students in Educational Faculty was examined according to the variables; gender, programme and the shelter shape of the students. Subjects of the study were selected from 1st year students attending Educational Faculty, Aksaray University in 2009-2010 academic years. “Self-Disclosure Inventory” by Selçuk (1989 was applied to the students. In data analysis, t test was used to find out the differences in self-disclosure behaviour between girls and boys. One Way Varience Analysis (ANOVA was used to find out if the students’ self-disclosure behaviour differs according to their programme or the shelter shape. The study has produced the following results; 1.A significant difference, between female and male students, favorable to females, regarding the average points, self-disclosure according to the subjects and to other individuals has been found. 2.In disclosing personal ideas and opinions and Self–disclosing points in excellence, sexuality and personality subjects a significant difference between point totals of Psychological Counseling and Guidance Department (PCG students compared to those of Elementary School Mathematics Teaching students. In Self–disclosing points on personal ideas and opinions in school excellence subjects a significant difference between the comparative point totals of PCG students to those of Social Sciences Teaching students. 3.A significant difference between the self–disclosing points of PCG students to those Elementary School Mathematics Teaching students has been found compared to self-disclosing to close friends and to Psychological consultant. A significant difference between the self–disclosing points of PCG students to those Social Sciences Teaching students has been found compared to self-disclosing to close friends and to Psychological consultant. 4.No significant difference in accommodation make-up is observed regarding students’ total points

  16. Behavior of bivariate interpolation operators at points of discontinuity of the first kind

    OpenAIRE

    Campiti, Michele; Mazzone, Giusy; Tacelli, Cristian

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an index of convergence for double sequences of real numbers. This index is used to describe the behaviour of some bivariate interpolation sequences at points of discontinuity of the first kind. We consider in particular the case of bivariate Lagrange and Shepard operators.

  17. Education and Training Needs of School Staff Relevant to Preventing Risk Behaviors and Promoting Health Behaviors among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Questioning Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard J.; Porter, J. Davidson; Lehman, Thomas C.; Anderson, Clinton; Anderson, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    A national-level needs assessment of high school psychologists, social workers, counselors, and nurses was conducted to identify training and educational resource material needs of these staff relevant to providing health and mental health services to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning (GLBQ) youth. Systematic sampling procedures were…

  18. Reinforced Readiness Requisites: A Culturally Relevant Behavior Modification Program for Mexican-American, Indian and Black Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiss, Jeffrey M.; Speiss, Madeleine L.

    The Reinforced Readiness Requisites (RRR) program was developed to provide Mexican-American, Indian, and Black children with the necessary motivation for learning. Comprised of a three-stage behavior modification strategy to improve substandard academic performance, RRR utilizes tangible rewards with the additional components of token and…

  19. A Research Agenda to Examine the Efficacy and Relevance of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nigg, Claudio R; Geller, Karly S.; Motl, Rob W.; Horwath, Caroline C.; Wertin, Kristin K.; Dishman, Rodney K.

    2011-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) decreases the risk of several chronic diseases including some cancers, type II diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease; however, the majority of US adults are not meeting the recommended levels to experience these benefits. To address this public health concern, the underlying mechanisms for behavior change need to be understood, translated and disseminated into appropriately tailored interventions. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) provides a framework for...

  20. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Zheng; Lawryn H Kasper; Bedford, David C.; Stephanie Lerach; Teubner, Brett J.W.; Brindle, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB ...

  1. Behavioral and molecular neuroepigenetic alterations in prenatally stressed mice: relevance for the study of chromatin remodeling properties of antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, E; Tueting, P; Matrisciano, F; Grayson, D R; Guidotti, A

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported that mice born from dams stressed during pregnancy (PRS mice), in adulthood, have behavioral deficits reminiscent of behaviors observed in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP) disorder patients. Furthermore, we have shown that the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus of adult PRS mice, like that of postmortem chronic SZ patients, are characterized by increases in DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), ten-eleven methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) and exhibit an enrichment of 5-methylcytosine (5MC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5HMC) at neocortical GABAergic and glutamatergic gene promoters. Here, we show that the behavioral deficits and the increased 5MC and 5HMC at glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (Gad1), reelin (Reln) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) promoters and the reduced expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and proteins corresponding to these genes in FC of adult PRS mice is reversed by treatment with clozapine (5 mg kg(-1) twice a day for 5 days) but not by haloperidol (1 mg kg(-1) twice a day for 5 days). Interestingly, clozapine had no effect on either the behavior, promoter methylation or the expression of these mRNAs and proteins when administered to offspring of nonstressed pregnant mice. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, reduced the elevated levels of DNMT1 and TET1, as well as the elevated levels of DNMT1 binding to Gad1, Reln and Bdnf promoters in PRS mice suggesting that clozapine, unlike haloperidol, may limit DNA methylation by interfering with DNA methylation dynamics. We conclude that the PRS mouse model may be useful preclinically in screening for the potential efficacy of antipsychotic drugs acting on altered epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, PRS mice may be invaluable for understanding the etiopathogenesis of SZ and BP disorder and for predicting treatment responses at early stages of the illness allowing for early detection and remedial intervention. PMID:26756904

  2. A Research Agenda to Examine the Efficacy and Relevance of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Karly S.; Motl, Rob W.; Horwath, Caroline C.; Wertin, Kristin K.; Dishman, Rodney K.

    2010-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) decreases the risk of several chronic diseases including some cancers, type II diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease; however, the majority of US adults are not meeting the recommended levels to experience these benefits. To address this public health concern, the underlying mechanisms for behavior change need to be understood, translated and disseminated into appropriately tailored interventions. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) provides a framework for both the conceptualization and measurement of behavior change, as well as facilitating promotion strategies that are individualized and easily adapted. The purpose of this manuscript is to present the constructs of the TTM as they relate to PA behavior change. We begin with a brief synopsis of recent examinations of the TTM constructs and their application. Subsequent to its introduction, we specifically present the TTM within the PA context and discuss its application and usefulness to researchers and practitioners. Criticisms of the TTM are also noted and presented as opportunities for future research to enhance the valid application of the TTM. We offer general study design recommendations to appropriately test the hypothesized relationships within the model. With further examinations using appropriate study design and statistical analyses, we believe the TTM has the potential to advance the public health impact of future PA promotion interventions. PMID:21113323

  3. Infrared behavior of three-point functions in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytic solutions for the three-gluon and ghost-gluon vertices in Landau gauge Yang-Mills theory at low momenta are presented in terms of hypergeometric series. They do not only show the expected scaling behavior but also additional kinematic divergences when only one momentum goes to zero. These singularities, which have also been proposed previously, induce a strong dependence on the kinematics in many dressing functions. The results are generalized to two and three dimensions and a range of values for the ghost propagator's infrared exponent κ. (orig.)

  4. Controversy over nuclear power. Behavior of two sides and media from the point of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction process among the four groups such as the affirmative side, the reverse side, mass media and the people for nuclear power is analyzed from the point of communication. A definition of four groups, safety of the sites and economic induction, the affirmative side aims at persuasion, the reverse side appeals to feelings, mass media takes up news to amusement, articles dramatized on the basis of the fact, persuasion with threatening has the opposite effect, personal attitude is affected by the group criterion, media brings people's interaction into focus, people have a hatred for a one-sided information, and information with sincerity touches the heart are reported. (S.Y.)

  5. The critical behavior of the refractive index near liquid-liquid critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Glorieux, Christ; Thoen, Jan

    2012-04-14

    The nature of the critical behavior in the refractive index n is revisited in the framework of the complete scaling formulation. A comparison is made with the critical behavior of n as derived from the Lorentz-Lorenz equation. Analogue anomalies to those predicted for the dielectric constant ε, namely, a leading |t|(2β) singularity in the coexistence-curve diameter in the two-phase region and a |t|(1-α) along the critical isopleth in the one phase region, are expected in both cases. However, significant differences as regards the amplitudes of both singularities are obtained from the two approaches. Analysis of some literature data along coexistence in the two-phase region and along the critical isopleth in the one-phase region provide evidence of an intrinsic effect, independent of the density, in the critical anomalies of n. This effect is governed by the shift of the critical temperature with an electric field, which is supposed to take smaller values at optical frequencies than at low frequencies in the Hz to MHz range. PMID:22502528

  6. Fuel assembly mechanical behavior with respect to center guide tube welding points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel assembly with modified welding procedure between the center guide tube and sleeves on grid structures is proposed in the work, and some mechanical behavior of the fuel assembly is presented. While all sleeves on grid assemblies are welded to center guide tube in the present design, the modified fuel assembly with reduced welding is proposed. To evaluate mechanical performance of the design, lateral bending deflection test and lateral vibration test were performed in a test facility. Applying a lateral static load at 6-th grid, the fuel assembly deflection at each grid was measured in the lateral static test. In the vibration test, displacement signal at every grid is measured while the fuel assembly is excited by a dynamic shaker at the 6-th grid. Processing the measured signals, modal properties such as natural frequency, damping, and mode shapes can be found based on frequency response functions. The test results, comparing to a previous design with all girds welding to the center guide tube, do not show any notable deviation in the structural behaviors

  7. On the Saddle-point Solution and the Large-Coalition Behavior of Fingerprinting Games

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yen-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We study a fingerprinting game in which the number of colluders and the collusion channel are unknown. The encoder embeds fingerprints into a host sequence and provides the decoder with the capability to trace back pirated copies to the colluders. Fingerprinting capacity has recently been derived as the limit value of a sequence of maximin games with mutual information as their payoff functions. However, these games generally do not admit saddle-point solutions and are very hard to solve numerically. Here under the so-called Boneh-Shaw marking assumption, we reformulate the capacity as the value of a single two-person zero-sum game, and show that it is achieved by a saddle-point solution. If the maximal coalition size is k and the fingerprinting alphabet is binary, we show that capacity decays quadratically with k. Furthermore, we prove rigorously that the asymptotic capacity is 1/(k^2 2ln2) and we confirm our earlier conjecture that Tardos' choice of the arcsine distribution asymptotically maximizes the mutu...

  8. Driver Gaze Behavior Is Different in Normal Curve Driving and when Looking at the Tangent Point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Itkonen

    Full Text Available Several steering models in the visual science literature attempt to capture the visual strategies in curve driving. Some of them are based on steering points on the future path (FP, others on tangent points (TP. It is, however, challenging to differentiate between the models' predictions in real-world contexts. Analysis of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN parameters is one useful measure, as the different strategies predict measurably different OKN patterns. Here, we directly test this prediction by asking drivers to either a "drive as they normally would" or b to "look at the TP". The design of the experiment is similar to a previous study by Kandil et al., but uses more sophisticated methods of eye-movement analysis. We find that the eye-movement patterns in the "normal" condition are indeed markedly different from the "tp" condition, and consistent with drivers looking at waypoints on the future path. This is the case for both overall fixation distribution, as well as the more informative fixation-by-fixation analysis of OKN. We find that the horizontal gaze speed during OKN corresponds well to the quantitative prediction of the future path models. The results also definitively rule out the alternative explanation that the OKN is produced by an involuntary reflex even while the driver is "trying" to look at the TP. The results are discussed in terms of the sequential organization of curve driving.

  9. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the “food addiction” construct

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that food cannot be “addictive”, unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. “Evolutionary mismatch” viewp...

  10. Human processing of behaviorally relevant and irrelevant absence of expected rewards: a high-resolution ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Nahum

    Full Text Available Acute lesions of the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC in humans may induce a state of reality confusion marked by confabulation, disorientation, and currently inappropriate actions. This clinical state is strongly associated with an inability to abandon previously valid anticipations, that is, extinction capacity. In healthy subjects, the filtering of memories according to their relation with ongoing reality is associated with activity in posterior medial OFC (area 13 and electrophysiologically expressed at 220-300 ms. These observations indicate that the human OFC also functions as a generic reality monitoring system. For this function, it is presumably more important for the OFC to evaluate the current behavioral appropriateness of anticipations rather than their hedonic value. In the present study, we put this hypothesis to the test. Participants performed a reversal learning task with intermittent absence of reward delivery. High-density evoked potential analysis showed that the omission of expected reward induced a specific electrocortical response in trials signaling the necessity to abandon the hitherto reward predicting choice, but not when omission of reward had no such connotation. This processing difference occurred at 200-300 ms. Source estimation using inverse solution analysis indicated that it emanated from the posterior medial OFC. We suggest that the human brain uses this signal from the OFC to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality.

  11. Study of concrete's behavior under 4-point bending load using Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Abraham, O.; Chapeleau, X.; Cottineau, L.-M.; Tournat, V.; Le Duff, A.; Lascoup, B.; Durand, O.

    2013-01-01

    Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI) is an ultrasonic NDT method suitable for complex material such as concrete that can precisely measure small propagation velocity variation (10-2%). By measuring variation of propagation velocity in concrete caused by acoustoelasticity phenomena, CWI analysis can be used to monitor concrete's internal stress level. For the first time, CWI is used to measure propagation velocity variations due to a stress field in a concrete beam under four-points bending test, which contains simultaneously compressive and tensile stress. Embedded optical-fiber sensors, strain gauges are used in the experiment, in order to confirm and validate the CWI analysis result. Thermocouples are also embedded into concrete beams for monitoring internal temperature fluctuations.

  12. Microstructural and compositional contributions towards the mechanical behavior of aging human bone measured by cyclic and impact reference point indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Adam C; Agarwalla, Avinesh; Yadavalli, Aditya; Liu, Jenny Y; Tang, Simon Y

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of fracture risk often relies primarily on measuring bone mineral density, thereby accounting for only a single pathology: the loss of bone mass. However, bone's ability to resist fracture is a result of its biphasic composition and hierarchical structure that imbue it with high strength and toughness. Reference point indentation (RPI) testing is designed to directly probe bone mechanical behavior at the microscale in situ, although it remains unclear which aspects of bone composition and structure influence the results at this scale. Therefore, our goal in this study was to investigate factors that contribute to bone mechanical behavior measured by cyclic reference point indentation, impact reference point indentation, and three-point bending. Twenty-eight female cadavers (ages 57-97) were subjected to cyclic and impact RPI in parallel at the unmodified tibia mid-diaphysis. After RPI, the middiaphyseal tibiae were removed, scanned using micro-CT to obtain cortical porosity (Ct.Po.) and tissue mineral density (TMD), then tested using three-point bending, and lastly assayed for the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Both the indentation distance increase from cyclic RPI (IDI) and bone material strength index from impact RPI (BMSi) were significantly correlated with TMD (r=-0.390, p=0.006; r=0.430, p=0.002; respectively). Accumulation of AGEs was significantly correlated with IDI (r=0.281, p=0.046), creep indentation distance (CID, r=0.396, p=0.004), and BMSi (r=-0.613, p<0.001). There were no significant relationships between tissue TMD or AGEs accumulation with the quasi-static material properties. Toughness decreased with increasing tissue Ct.Po. (r=-0.621, p<0.001). Other three-point bending measures also correlated with tissue Ct.Po. including the bending modulus (r=-0.50, p<0.001) and ultimate stress (r=-0.56, p<0.001). The effects of Ct.Po. on indentation were less pronounced with IDI (r=0.290, p=0.043) and BMSi (r=-0.299, p

  13. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the “quiescent” and “proliferative” niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  14. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balduino, Alex, E-mail: balduino@uva.edu.br [School of Dentistry, Veiga de Almeida University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mello-Coelho, Valeria [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Zhou; Taichman, Russell S.; Krebsbach, Paul H. [Department of Periodontics, Prevention and Geriatrics, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Becker, Kevin G. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mello, Wallace de [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Taub, Dennis D. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Borojevic, Radovan [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the 'quiescent' and 'proliferative' niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  15. Prospective memory research: why is it relevant?

    OpenAIRE

    Kliegel, M; Martin, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Points out that there are at least three reasons why research in prospective memory is highly relevant. Relevance of prospective memory for everyday life; Clinical relevance of prospective memory; Theoretical relevance of prospective memory.

  16. Behavior of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli relevant to lettuce washing processes and consideration of factors for evaluating washing process surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kaiping; Wang, Xue; Yen, Li-Han; Ding, Hongliu; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2014-11-01

    Postharvest processes for fresh produce commonly include washing in water containing antimicrobial chemicals, such as chlorine; however, if the antimicrobials are not present in sufficient levels, washing can promote the spread of contamination that might be present. To understand cross-contamination risk during washing, we tested a collection of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC), including O157:H7 and other non-O157 strains, for certain traits during washing of fresh-cut lettuce, i.e., sensitivity to sublethal chlorine levels and ability to cross-contaminate (detach from and attach to) lettuce in the presence of sublethal chlorine levels. Nonpathogenic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and Pediococcus pentosaceus lactic acid bacterial species (LAB) were included as potential washing process validation surrogates. As measured by extension of the lag phase of growth in media containing 0.15 ppm of chlorine, chlorine sensitivity varied among the STECs. Cross-contamination was assessed by evaluating transfer of bacteria from inoculated to uninoculated leaves during washing. Without chlorine, similar transfer to wash water and uninoculated leaves was shown. In 1 ppm of chlorine, cross-contamination was not detected with most strains, except for the substantial transfer by a STEC O111 strain and EcN in some replicates. Strain O111 and EcN showed less inactivation in 0.25 ppm of chlorine water compared with O157 (P < 0.05). LAB showed similar transfer and similar chlorine inactivation to O157. Considering together the sublethal chlorine sensitivity and detachment/attachment traits, neither EcN nor LAB displayed optimal characteristics as washing process surrogates for the STEC strains, although further evaluation is needed. This work demonstrated a range of behaviors of STEC strains during lettuce washing and may be helpful in hazard characterization, identifying factors to consider for evaluating washing process efficacy, and identifying phenotypic traits to select

  17. Transference of radiation-relevant weather information of point-selected PAR sensor data to bigger experimental plots using hemispherical photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modelling method for PAR-radiation values over more or less longer lasting measuring periods in stands is introduced which is based on the application of hemispherical photographs and a reference radiation sensor. With these devices and a formulary, imaginary cloudiness (share of total radiation which is described by the model for standard overcast sky) is estimated at the reference position for a determined period of time. With view to the calculation of real radiation values for an unlimited number of photo-sites on the experimental plot this degree of cloudiness is used as main factor. The results of the investigation show an efficient way to gain reliable data for ecologically-related regeneration research. Yet improvements in the field of diffuse radiation modelling concerning heterogeneous cloud cover still have to be made. Systematical underestimation of radiation in closed stands result from this methodical lack, if reflections on very bright clouds (e. g. Cumulus) cause very high diffuse radiation values. Expected system-related problems with transmitted and reflected radiation could be neglected in this investigation. The need of having an accurate picture and image analysis technique is pointed out. (author)

  18. Behavior of the surface layer magnetic system of the single crystals FeBO3 near Neel point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of the surface and boundary layers of FeBO3 macrocrystals in the Neel point area is studied through the selective in depth Moessbauer conversion electron spectroscopy. Smooth change in the magnetic properties of the monocrystal boundary area is identified. Three characteristic magnetic layers: one located in depth from the surface, the surface one and the transition layer dividing these two layers, were selected for describing this area. It is determined that the critical index β, equal to 0.348(4) for the sample volume, grows up to the 0.51)2) value as for as it approaches the surface but it does not reach the value β = 0.8 for the surface of the Heisenberg semiinfinite model

  19. Stagnation point flow and heat transfer behavior of Cu-water nanofluid towards horizontal and exponentially stretching/shrinking cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulochana, C.; Sandeep, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this study we analyzed the stagnation point flow and heat transfer behavior of Cu-water nanofluid towards horizontal and exponentially permeable stretching/shrinking cylinders in presence of suction/injection, heat source and shape of nanoparticles. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed to nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation which are then solved numerically using bvp4c Matlab package. The influence of non-dimensional governing parameters on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are discussed and presented through graphs and tables. The study indicates that the solutions for the horizontal and exponential cylinders are non-unique and shape of nanoparticles also influences the rate of heat transfer. Comparisons of the present results with existed studies are presented. Present study has an excellent agreement with the existed studies under some special conditions.

  20. Using Finite Element Software to Simulation Fracture Behavior of Three-point Bending Beam with Initial Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available using computation software to simulate fracture behaviors of structures can shorten the time to estimate safety of engineering structures and reduce a lot of cost of experiment. However three dimensional numerical simulation for fracture process is a challenging issue, because the convergence and accuracy are not easily obtained and high computational cost is generated. In this paper, three new fracture mechanics models, including cohesive model, virtual crack closure technique (short for VCCT and extended finite element method (short for XFEM have been utilized to simulate and analysis the fracture process of the three-point bending beam with initial notch based on the finite element software platform –Abaqus version 6.11. The numerical results have shown that three different methods can be used to simulate different fracture toughness materials and fracture types. Meanwhile,based on Abaqus software platform  and parallel computing technology, this type of simulations could be completed in personal computers.

  1. Relevancy 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Newman, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Where we present an overview on why relevancy is a problem, how important it is and how we can improve it. The topic of relevancy is becoming increasingly important in earth data discovery as our audience is tuned to the accuracy of standard search engines like Google.

  2. Comparison of the Oxidation Behaviors of High FeO Chromite and Magnetite Concentrates Relevant to the Induration of Ferrous Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Deqing; Yang, Congcong; Pan, Jian; Li, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Oxidation process plays an important role in producing sufficiently strong ferrous pellets for blast furnace, and the oxidation behavior of pellet feed greatly affects the quality of pellets. As a supplementary research to earlier published work, the present study fixes its particular attention on the fundamental oxidation behavior of a high FeO South African chromite concentrate in comparison to that of typical magnetite concentrate using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetry at various temperatures ranging from 473 K to 1273 K (200 °C to 1000 °C). The reaction mechanism and phase transformation during the oxidation process of chromite spinel is further explained by thermodynamics calculation performed by FactSage software. Besides, routine laboratory preheating-roasting test of single ore pellets is also conducted to reveal the relevance of oxidizability to the consolidation of pellets. The results show that the chromite spinel possesses much poorer oxidizability than magnetite, usually accompanying complex phase transformations via a preferential nucleation of Fe-rich sesquioxide from the chromite spinel matrix at low temperatures and thereafter the formation of Cr-rich sesquioxide on the substrate of Fe-rich phase at high temperatures. The oxidation of chromite spinel is inferior to that of magnetite from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and dynamic kinetics. Good inherent oxidizability of raw materials is found to have a positive effect on the induration process of pellet.

  3. Experimental investigation of fatigue behavior of carbon fiber composites using fully-reversed four-point bending test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Ali

    200 MPa. The decay in flexural modulus of the beam as it goes under cyclic loading was calculated and it was seen that flexural modulus shows an exponential decay which can be expressed as: E = E0e AN. Four-point bending fatigue tests were carried out on three (±45°)15 samples with stress ratio, R = -1 and frequency of 5 Hz. Maximum applied stress was 85% of the measured yield stress of (±45°)15 samples. None of the samples failed, nor any sign of crack was seen. Tests were stopped once the number of cycles passed 1.7×106. In general, current study provided additional insight into the fatigue and static behavior of polymer composites and effect of fiber orientation in their mechanical behavior.

  4. Electroencephalographic activity during sexual behavior: a novel approach to the analysis of drug effects on arousal and motivation relevant for sexual dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Agmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    The neurobiological bases of human sexual behavior are only partly understood. The etiology of most human sexual dysfunctions is not understood at all. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in the treatment of some male sexual disorders. The prime example should be erectile deficiency, where several efficient and safe treatments are available. Pharmacological treatment for premature ejaculation is also available, although it is still in an early stage. Disorders of sexual desire have attracted much attention when women are affected but far less so when men are concerned. Whereas animal models appropriate for testing treatments for problems with erection and premature ejaculation are available, it is questionable whether such models of the desire disorders have predictive validity. There seems to be many factors involved both in reduced and enhanced sexual desire, most of which are unknown. In this review we present some data suggesting that an electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity during exposure to sexually relevant stimuli in male rats and men and during execution of sexual behaviors in male rats may provide useful information. The effects of a commonly used drug, ethanol, on the electroencephalogram recorded during sexual events in rats and men are also described. Although this approach to the analysis of the central nervous activity associated with sexual desire, arousal and behavior is still in its infancy, the data obtained so far show a remarkable similarity between men and rats. This suggests that animal studies of electroencephalographic responses to drugs in sexual contexts may be useful for predicting effects in the human male. PMID:24534418

  5. Prenatal immune challenge is an environmental risk factor for brain and behavior change relevant to schizophrenia: evidence from MRI in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk of severe neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, in the offspring. The most consistent brain structural abnormality in patients with schizophrenia is enlarged lateral ventricles. However, it is unknown whether the aetiology of ventriculomegaly in schizophrenia involves prenatal infectious processes. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between prenatal immune challenge and emergence of ventricular abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD: We used an established mouse model of maternal immune activation (MIA by the viral mimic PolyI:C administered in early (day 9 or late (day 17 gestation. Automated voxel-based morphometry mapped cerebrospinal fluid across the whole brain of adult offspring and the results were validated by manual region-of-interest tracing of the lateral ventricles. Parallel behavioral testing determined the existence of schizophrenia-related sensorimotor gating abnormalities. RESULTS: PolyI:C-induced immune activation, in early but not late gestation, caused marked enlargement of lateral ventricles in adulthood, without affecting total white and grey matter volumes. This early exposure disrupted sensorimotor gating, in the form of prepulse inhibition. Identical immune challenge in late gestation resulted in significant expansion of 4(th ventricle volume but did not disrupt sensorimotor gating. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first experimental evidence that prenatal immune activation is an environmental risk factor for adult ventricular enlargement relevant to schizophrenia. The data indicate immune-associated environmental insults targeting early foetal development may have more extensive neurodevelopmental impact than identical insults in late prenatal life.

  6. Control of Nanofilament Structure and Observations of Quantum Point Contact Behavior in Ni/NiO Nanowire Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sean; Fairfield, Jessamyn; Lee, Sunghun; Bellew, Allen; Stone, Iris; Ruppalt, Laura; Boland, John; Vora, Patrick

    Resistive switching is ideal for use in non-volatile memory where information is stored in a metallic or insulating state. Nanowire junctions formed at the intersection of two Ni/NiO core/shell nanowires have emerged as a leading candidate structure where resistive switching occurs due to the formation and destruction of conducting filaments. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regarding the conduction mechanisms as measurements are typically only performed at room temperature. Here, we combine temperature-dependent current-voltage (IV) measurements from 15 - 300 K with magnetoresistance studies and achieve new insight into the nature of the conducting filaments. We identify a novel semiconducting state that behaves as a quantum point contact and find evidence for a possible electric-field driven phase transition. The insulating state exhibits unexpectedly complex IV characteristics that highlight the disordered nature of the ruptured filament while we find clear signs of anisotropic magnetoresistance in the metallic state. Our results expose previously unobserved behaviors in nanowire resistive switching devices and pave the way for future applications where both electrical and magnetic switching can be achieved in a single device. This work was supported by ONR Grant N-00014-15-1-2357.

  7. Electrochemical behavior of thin-film Sm-doped ceria: insights from the point-contact configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tae-Sik; Haile, Sossina M

    2015-05-28

    The electrochemical behavior of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown porous films of Sm-doped ceria (SDC) for hydrogen oxidation has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy using a point contact geometry at a temperature of 650 °C. Porous SDC films, 950 nm in thickness, were deposited on both sides of single-crystal YSZ(100). Pt paste was applied over the surface of one SDC layer to create a high-activity counter electrode. Ni wire was contacted to the surface of the other SDC layer to create a limited contact-area working electrode. The active area of contact at the working electrode was determined using the Newman equation and the electrolyte constriction impedance. The radius of this area varied from 5 to 18 μm, depending on gas composition and bias. The area-normalized electrode impedance (where the area was that determined as described above) varied from 0.03 to 0.17 Ω cm(2) and generally decreased with cathodic bias and decreasing oxygen partial pressure. From an analysis of the dimensions of the active area with bias, it was found that the majority of the overpotential occurred at the SDC|gas interface rather than the SDC|YSZ interface. Overall, the anode overpotential is found to be extremely small, competitive with the best oxide anodes reported in the literature. Nevertheless, the impedance falls in line with expected values based on extrapolations of the properties of dense, flat SDC model electrodes grown by pulsed laser deposition (Chueh et al., Nat. Mater., 2012). The results demonstrate that, with suitable fabrication approaches, exceptional activity can be achieved with SDC for hydrogen electrooxidation even in the absence of metal-oxide-gas triple phase boundaries. PMID:25932615

  8. Phase behavior of carbon dioxide confined in silica aerogel in the vicinity of the bulk critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small angle neutron scattering intensities from silica aerogel filled with carbon dioxide at different loading densities of the bulk fluid (0.3-0.65 g/cm3) were measured at fixed volume condition as a function of decreasing temperature, from 35 to 25 C, to characterize the phase behavior of the confined CO2 about the critical point of the bulk CO2. The data present no evidence of a bulklike phase transition of the confined CO2 in the explored parameter region. They show that the confined CO2 may be approximated as a two phase system. The first phase (liquid film) is formed by CO2 molecules at the silica surface, and the second phase (confined fluid) fills up the rest of the pore volume. The thickness (delta) of the liquid film as well as the scattering-length densities of the two phases were obtained by analyzing the Porod invariants and the oscillations observed in the Porod plots at each loading density and temperature. The resulting (delta) values vary in the range 25-45 (angstrom) depending on the temperature and loading density. The density of the liquid film is 1.5-2 times larger than that of the confined fluid, which in its turn exceeds the density of bulk CO2 at similar temperature and pressure. At the lowest temperature (25 C), the densities of the liquid film and confined fluid respectively approach 1.25 g/cm3 and 0.8 g/cm3 independently of the loading conditions.

  9. Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 induces hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia without abnormal head development and schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as "the Japan Mouse Clinic". No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-γ-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia.

  10. Relevant Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Marta; Majer, Ondrej; Peliš, Michal; Restall, G.

    London: College Publications, 2010 - (Beklemishev, L.; Goranko, V.; Shehtman, V.), s. 22-38. (8). ISBN 978-1-84890-013-4. [Advances in Modal Logic. Moscow (RU), 24.08.2010-27.08.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GEICC/08/E018; GA AV ČR IAA900090703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : modal logic * epistemic logic * relevant logic * substructural logic * frame semantics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. The use of multiple versus single assessment time points to improve screening accuracy in identifying children at risk for later serious antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Hanno; Buckley, Jacquelyn A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-10-01

    Guided by Kraemer et al.'s (Psychological Methods, 3:257-271, 1999) framework for measuring the potency of risk factors, we sought to improve on the classification accuracy reported in Petras et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43:88-96, 2004a) and Petras et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 44:790-797, 2005) by using multiple as opposed to single point in time assessments of early aggressive and disruptive behavior in the classification of youth who would likely benefit from targeted preventive interventions. Different from Petras et al. (2004a, 2005), the outcome used in this study included serious antisocial behavior in young adulthood as well as in adolescence. Among males, the use of multiple time points did not yield greater classification accuracy than the highest single time points, that is, third and fifth grades. For females, although fifth grade represented the best single time point in terms of classification accuracy, no significant association was found between earlier time points and the later outcome, rendering a test of the multiple time points hypothesis moot. The findings presented in this study have strong implications for the design of targeted intervention for violence prevention, indicating that the screening quality based on aggression ratings during the elementary years is rather modest, particularly for females. PMID:23408279

  12. Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) as wax inhibitor of a Brazilian crude oil. Oil viscosity, pour point and phase behavior of organic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Andre L.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Labratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo/Instituto de Macromoleculas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, P.O. Box 68525, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Gonzalez, Gaspar [Petrobras Research Center, Cidade Universitaria, Q.7, RJ 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2001-12-29

    Several techniques have been used to minimize the problems caused by the wax deposition, and the continuous addition of polymeric inhibitors is considered an attractive technological alternative. The addition of copolymers like polyacrylates, polymethacrylates or poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) permit to inhibit the deposition phenomenon; nonetheless, this effect is specific, i.e. similar copolymers present different performance depending on their physical-chemical properties in solution. In this work, the influence of the EVA vinyl acetate content on the viscosity and the pour point of a Brazilian crude oil were evaluated. A correlation between both results was also obtained. The phase behavior and the solubility parameter of EVA copolymers, with different vinyl acetate contents, were investigated in various solvents together with an evaluation of the efficiency of these copolymers as pour point depressants for two different samples of crude oil. EVA copolymers containing 20, 30, 40 and 80 wt.% of vinyl acetate were used and tests with the crude oil were carried out using 50, 500, 1000 and 5000 ppm of EVA as additive. The results obtained from viscosity measurements showed that only below the temperature at which wax crystals start forming did the copolymer exhibit a strong influence in the reduction of oil viscosity, at an optimum concentration. The pour point results revealed EVA 30 to be the most efficient. The results obtained from both experiments showed that the viscosity and the pour point behaviors do not show good correlation. Not only the solubility parameter and the vinyl acetate content, but also the molecular weight and polydispersity have an important influence on both phase behavior and pour point depression. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the additive must present a reduced solubility at a temperature close to the crude oil cloud point. This, however, is not the only factor that determines the efficiency of the additive as paraffin

  13. Analyzing the Prosocial Behaviors of Pre-School Children in Accordance with Teacher’s Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    KAROĞLU, Hilal; Ünüvar, Perihan

    2015-01-01

    This study has been carried out in order to determine the prosocial behaviors of pre-school children. Prosocial behaviors have been analyzed under four categories as cooperation, sharing, collaboration and consolation. This research is a qualitative research having the quality of a descriptive survey model. Teacher interview form has been used as data collection instrument. Working group of this research includes 30 pre-school teachers who work in pre-school education institutions. Research d...

  14. On the behavior of statistical sum of a model with Yang-Lee singularity near critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a one-matrix model of singularities on the torus has ben investigated. The authors calculate the value of discontinuity of free energy asymptotics which tends to an infinity number of lattice sites at the critical point

  15. Classical and Quantum Interpretations Regarding Thermal Behavior in a Coordinate Frame Accelerating Through Zero-Point Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    2010-01-01

    A relativistic classical field theory with zero-point radiation involves a vacuum corresponding to a scale-invariant spectrum of random classical radiation in spacetime with the overall constant chosen to give an energy (1/2)\\hbar\\omega per normal mode in inertial frames. Classical field theory with classical zero-point radiation gives the same field correlation functions as quantum field theory for the symmetrized products of the corresponding free massless fields in inertial frames; however...

  16. MIND AND RELEVANCE

    OpenAIRE

    MIGUEL ÁNGEL PÉREZ JIMÉNEZ

    2006-01-01

    The paper is an introduction to some problems of the contemporary Philosophy of Mind. The thesis isthat a conceptual study of the psychological expressions in ordinary language could be relevant in ourscientific-oriented times. The scientific point of view in psychology could lead us to forget the value ofunderstanding the mental for every person in his or her daily life, beside the scientific explanations that atheorist could provide. The first part of the paper is an exposition of some epis...

  17. Field and concentration dependent scaling behavior of the thermal expansion near the quantum critical point of CeCu6-xAux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy-fermion system CeCu6-xAux exhibits long-range antiferromagnetic order at x>0.1. The order can be suppressed by hydrostatic or chemical pressure, through the variation of the Au content, as well as by the application of a magnetic field. The quantum critical point at the onset of antiferromagnetism leads to non-Fermi liquid behavior visible in thermodynamic and transport properties. Among these, the thermal expansion offers a particularly sensitive probe to study the quantum critical scaling behavior due to the strong pressure dependence of the Kondo effect in heavy-fermion materials. To shed light on the difference between the two control parameters, pressure and magnetic field, we studied the scaling behavior of the thermal expansion on CeCu6-xAux single crystals with varying Au content as a function of the magnetic field in the temperature range between 40 mK and 10 K.

  18. The tipping point: Value differences and parallel dorsal-ventral frontal circuits gating human approach-avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlund, Michael W; Brewer, Adam T; Magee, Sandy K; Richman, David M; Solomon, Scott; Ludlum, MaDonna; Dymond, Simon

    2016-08-01

    Excessive avoidance and diminished approach behavior are both prominent features of anxiety, trauma and stress related disorders. Despite this, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms supporting gating of human approach-avoidance behavior. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to track dorsal anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal (dACC/dmPFC) activation along an approach-avoidance continuum to assess sensitivity to competing appetitive and aversive contingencies and correspondence with behavior change. Behavioral and fMRI experiments were conducted using a novel approach-avoidance task where a monetary reward appeared in the presence of a conditioned stimulus (CS), or threat, that signaled increasing probability of unconditioned stimulus (US) delivery. Approach produced the reward or probabilistic US, while avoidance prevented US delivery, and across trials, reward remained fixed while the CS threat level varied unpredictably. Increasing the CS threat level (i.e., US probability) produced the desired approach-avoidance transition and inverted U-shaped changes in decision times, electrodermal activity and activation in pregenual ACC, dACC/dmPFC, striatum, anterior insula and inferior frontal regions. Conversely, U-shaped changes in activation were observed in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and bimodal changes in the orbitofrontal and ventral hippocampus. These new results show parallel dorsal-ventral frontal circuits support gating of human approach-avoidance behavior where dACC/dmPFC signals inversely correlate with value differences between approach and avoidance contingencies while ventral frontal signals correlate with the value of predictable outcomes. Our findings provide an important bridge between basic research on brain mechanisms of value-guided decision-making and value-focused clinical theories of anxiety and related interventions. PMID:27153979

  19. Scaling behaviors and novel creep motion of ac-driven flux lines in type II superconductor with random point pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed Langevin dynamics simulations for the ac-driven flux lines in a type II superconductor with random point-like pinning centers. Scaling properties of flux-line velocity with respect to an instantaneous driving force of small frequency and around the critical dc depinning force are revealed successfully, which provides precise estimates on dynamic critical exponents. From the scaling function, we derive a creep law associated with activation by regular shaking. The effective energy barrier vanishes at the critical dc depinning point in a square-root way when the instantaneous driving force increases. The frequency plays a similar role to temperature in conventional creep motions, but in a nontrivial way governed by the critical exponents. We have also performed systematic finite-size scaling analysis for flux-line velocity in transient processes with dc driving, which provide estimates on critical exponents in good agreement with those derived with ac driving. The scaling law is checked successfully. (paper)

  20. Hydrodynamic Behavior of Counter-Current Packed Beds in the Proximity of the Flooding Point Oscillating Inlet Velocites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stavárek, Petr; Ondráček, Jakub; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Staněk, Vladimír

    Bratislava : Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering, 2005 - (Markoš, J.; Štefuca, V.), s. 133 ISBN 80-227-2224-3. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /32./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 23.05.2005-27.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/03/1558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : packed bed * counter -current * flooding point Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  1. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Yingying Wei; Qinglong An; Xiaojiang Cai; Ming Chen; Weiwei Ming

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond) tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture to...

  2. The Relationship between Alcohol and Individual Differences Variables on Attitudes and Behavioral Skills Relevant To Sexual Health among Heterosexual Young Adult Men

    OpenAIRE

    Maisto, Stephen A; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Gordon, Christopher M.; Schum, Jennifer L.; Lynch, Kevin G.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of alcohol, alcohol sex expectancies, and sexual sensation seeking on determinants of sexual health behavior according to the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model. The participants were 48 heterosexual young adult males who attended two laboratory sessions. During Session 1, participants completed a set of screening and individual differences measures, and during Session 2 they were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 bever...

  3. The Smart Behavior of Cement-based Composite Containing Carbon Fibers under Three-point-bending Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bing; WU Keru; YAO Wu

    2005-01-01

    The influences of the fiber volume fraction on the electrical conductivity and the fraction change of electrical resistance under three-point- bending test were discussed. It is found that the relationship between the electrical conductivity of composites and the fiber volume fraction can be explained by the percolation theory and the change of electrical resistance of specimens reflects to the process of loading. The sensitivity and the response of the change of electrical resistance to the load for specimens with different fiber volume fractions are quite different,which provide an important guide for the manufacture of conductive and intrinsically smart carbon fiber composite.

  4. Synthesis and phase behavior of dendrons derived from 3,4,5-tris(tetradecyloxy)benzoic acid with different functional groups in focal point

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Matvey Gruzdev; Ulyana Chervonova; Olga Akopova; Arkadiy Kolker

    2015-10-01

    A number of dendrons of various chain lengths derived from the esters of 3,4,5-tris(tetrade-cyloxy)benzoic acid were synthesized. These esters were used as building blocks in the design of polyester molecules. Intermediate products, such as branched compounds with variation of functional groups in focal point (aromatic acids and their benzyl esters, aldehydes of different generation) were obtained. The structure and purity of all the compounds were determined by elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF). The phase behavior was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and confirmed by polarized optical microscopy. Consequently, it was established that the liquid-crystalline properties of this series of dendrons arise from the degree of branching. This behavior can be explained by the formation of hydrogen bonds, as well as microsegregation processes of the links of the macromolecule.

  5. Joint project. Retention of radionuclides relevant for final disposal in natural clay rock and saline systems. Subproject 2. Geochemical behavior and transport of radionuclides in saline systems in the presence of repository-relevant organics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmeide, Katja; Fritsch, Katharina; Lippold, Holger [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Ressource Ecology; and others

    2016-08-01

    retention at these minerals could be attributed to surface-mediated reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). An influence of ionic strength was not observed. The influence of ionic strength (up to 3 mol/kg) and background electrolyte (NaCl, CaCl{sub 2}, MgCl{sub 2}) on U(VI) sorption onto montmorillonite was studied. The U(VI) sorption is influenced by the background electrolyte, the influence of ionic strength is small. Surface complexation modeling was performed applying the 2SPNE SC/CE model. Surface complexation constants were determined for the NaCl and CaCl{sub 2} system and were extrapolated to zero ionic strength. Surface complexation in mixed electrolytes can be modeled applying surface complexation constants derived for pure electrolytes. The influence of citrate on U(VI) diffusion in Opalinus Clay was studied using Opalinus Clay pore water as background electrolyte. The diffusion parameter values obtained for the HTO through-diffusion and the U(VI) in-diffusion in the absence of citric acid were in agreement with literature data. In the presence of citric acid, U(VI) diffusion was significantly retarded, which was attributed to a change in speciation, probably U(VI) was reduced to U(IV). Larger-scale heterogeneous material effects on diffusive transport were investigated with PET. Diffusion parameters were derived by optimum fit of a FEM-model to the measurement. These parameters are in accordance with the results from 1D-through-diffusion experiments. Deviations from the simple transversal-isotropic behavior, which are identified as residuals from the model, are indications for heterogeneous transport on the mm-scale. PET measurements were also conducted in order to display the improvement of the EDZ with waterglass injections. These experiments enable to draw conclusions on the complex reactive transport process and thus an estimation of the achieved improvement of the barrier function. The image reconstruction procedure was largely improved, mainly with the aid of

  6. Universal aspects in the behavior of the entanglement spectrum in one dimension: Scaling transition at the factorization point and ordered entangled structures

    OpenAIRE

    Giampaolo S.M.; Montangero S.; Dell'Anno F.; De Siena S.; Illuminati F.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the scaling of the entanglement spectrum and of the R\\'enyi block entropies and determine its universal aspects in the ground state of critical and noncritical one-dimensional quantum spin models. In all cases, the scaling exhibits an oscillatory behavior that terminates at the factorization point and whose frequency is universal. Parity effects in the scaling of the R\\'enyi entropies for gapless models at zero field are thus shown to be a particular case of such universal beha...

  7. Asymptotic behavior of critical two-point functions for long-range statistical-mechanical models in high dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lung-Chi

    2012-01-01

    We consider long-range self-avoiding walk, percolation and the Ising model on the d-dimensional integer lattice whose pair-potential decays in powers of distance with exponent d+a. The upper-critical dimension d_c is 2min{a,2} for self-avoiding walk and the Ising model, and 3min{a,2} for percolation. Let a be not equal to 2 and assume heat-kernel bounds on the transition probability of the underlying random walk. We prove that, for d>d_c (and the spread-out parameter sufficiently large), the critical two-point function G(x) for each model is asymptotically |x|^{min{a,2}-d} times a constant, which is expressed in terms of the model-dependent lace-expansion coefficients and exhibits crossover between a2.

  8. The Pressurized Porous Surface Model: an improved tool to study bacterial behavior under a wide range of environmentally relevant matric potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülez, Gamze; Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F

    2010-09-01

    To study bacterial behavior under varying hydration conditions similar to surface soil, we have developed a system called the Pressurized Porous Surface Model (PPSM). Thin liquid films created by imposing a matric potential of -0.4 MPa impact gene expression and colony development in Pseudomonas putida. PMID:20599568

  9. Investigation into the phenomena affecting the retention behavior of basic analytes in chaotropic chromatography: Joint effects of the most relevant chromatographic factors and analytes' molecular properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čolović, Jelena; Kalinić, Marko; Vemić, Ana; Erić, Slavica; Malenović, Anđelija

    2015-12-18

    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the phenomena affecting the retention behavior of structurally diverse basic drugs in ion-interaction chromatographic systems with chaotropic additives. To this end, the influence of three factors was studied: pH value of the aqueous phase, concentration of sodium hexafluorophosphate, and content of acetonitrile in the mobile phase. Mobile phase pH was found to affect the thermodynamic equilibria in the studied system beyond its effects on the analytes' ionization state. Specifically, increasing pH from 2 to 4 led to longer retention times, even with analytes which remain completely protonated. An explanation for this phenomenon was sought by studying the adsorption behavior of acetonitrile and chaotropic additive onto stationary phase. It was shown that the magnitude of the developed surface potential, which significantly affects retention - increases with pH, and that this can be attributed to the larger surface excess of acetonitrile. To study how analytes' structural properties influence their retention, quantitative structure-retention modeling was performed next. A support vector machine regression model was developed, relating mobile phase constituents and structural descriptors with retention data. While the ETA_EtaP_B_RC and XlogP can be considered as molecular descriptors which describe factors affecting retention in any RP-HPLC system, TDB9p and RDF45p are molecular descriptors which account for spatial arrangement of polarizable atoms and they can clearly relate to analytes' behavior on the stationary phase surface, where the electrostatic potential develops. Complementarity of analytes' structure with that of the electric double layer can be seen as a key factor influencing their retention behavior. Structural diversity of analytes and good predictive capabilities over a range of experimental conditions make the established model a useful tool in predicting retention behavior in the studied

  10. Migraine- and dystonia-related disease-mutations of Na+/K+-ATPases: Relevance of behavioral studies in mice to disease symptoms and neurological manifestations in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Doganli, Canan; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The two autosomal dominantly inherited neurological diseases: familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) and familial rapid-onset of dystonia-parkinsonism (Familial RDP) are caused by in vivo mutations of specific alpha subunits of the sodium–potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase). Intriguingly, patients...... with classical FHM2 and RDP symptoms additionally suffer from other manifestations, such as epilepsy/seizures and developmental disabilities. Recent studies of FHM2 and RDP mouse models provide valuable tools for dissecting the vital roles of the Na+/K+-ATPases, and we discuss their relevance to the...

  11. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture topography were analyzed and conclusions were drawn that cutting forces are not affected by cutting speeds but significantly influenced by the fiber orientation. Cutting forces presented smaller values in the fiber orientation of 0/180° and 15/165° but the highest one in 30/150°. The fracture mechanism of carbon fibers was studied in different cutting conditions such as 0° orientation angle, 90° orientation angle, orientation angles along fiber direction, and orientation angles inverse to the fiber direction. In addition, a prediction model on the cutting defects of carbon fiber reinforced plastic was established based on acoustic emission (AE signals.

  12. Behavioral, neurochemical and morphological changes induced by the overexpression of munc18-1a in brain of mice: relevance to schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, E; Sánchez-Blázquez, Pilar; Pazos, Ángel; Garzón, Javier; Meana, J J

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the mammalian homolog of the unc-18 gene (munc18-1) has been described in the brain of subjects with schizophrenia. Munc18-1 protein is involved in membrane fusion processes, exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. A transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses the protein isoform munc18-1a in the brain was characterized. This animal displays several schizophrenia-related behaviors, supersensitivity to hallucinogenic drugs and deficits in prepulse inhibition that reverse afte...

  13. Loop Heat Pipe Transient Behavior Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control with Thermoelectric Converter on Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its reservoir. Controlling the reservoir saturation temperature is commonly done by cold biasing the reservoir and using electrical heaters to provide the required control power. With this method, the loop operating temperature can be controlled within 0.5K or better. However, because the thermal resistance that exists between the heat source and the LHP evaporator, the heat source temperature will vary with its heat output even if the LHP operating temperature is kept constant. Since maintaining a constant heat source temperature is of most interest, a question often raised is whether the heat source temperature can be used for LHP set point temperature control. A test program with a miniature LHP was carried out to investigate the effects on the LHP operation when the control temperature sensor was placed on the heat source instead of the reservoir. In these tests, the LHP reservoir was cold-biased and was heated by a control heater. Test results show that it was feasible to use the heat source temperature for feedback control of the LHP operation. In particular, when a thermoelectric converter was used as the reservoir control heater, the heat source temperature could be maintained within a tight range using a proportional-integral-derivative or on/off control algorithm. Moreover, because the TEC could provide both heating and cooling to the reservoir, temperature oscillations during fast transients such as loop startup could be eliminated or substantially reduced when compared to using an electrical heater as the control heater.

  14. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA improves depressive-like behavior of CRTC1-deficient mice: possible relevance for treatment-resistant depression

    KAUST Repository

    Meylan, Elsa M.

    2016-03-09

    Major depression is a highly complex disabling psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite the availability of several classes of antidepressants, a substantial percentage of patients are unresponsive to these medications. A better understanding of the neurobiology of depression and the mechanisms underlying antidepressant response is thus critically needed. We previously reported that mice lacking CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) exhibit a depressive-like phenotype and a blunted antidepressant response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In this study, we similarly show that Crtc1‒/‒ mice are resistant to the antidepressant effect of chronic desipramine in a behavioral despair paradigm. Supporting the blunted response to this tricyclic antidepressant, we found that desipramine does not significantly increase the expression of Bdnf and Nr4a1-3 in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Crtc1‒/‒ mice. Epigenetic regulation of neuroplasticity gene expression has been associated with depression and antidepressant response, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. Here, we show that unlike conventional antidepressants, chronic systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA partially rescues the depressive-like behavior of Crtc1‒/‒ mice. This behavioral effect is accompanied by an increased expression of Bdnf, but not Nr4a1-3, in the prefrontal cortex of these mice, suggesting that this epigenetic intervention restores the expression of a subset of genes by acting downstream of CRTC1. These findings suggest that CRTC1 alterations may be associated with treatment-resistant depression, and support the interesting possibility that targeting HDACs may be a useful therapeutic strategy in antidepressant development.

  15. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA improves depressive-like behavior of CRTC1-deficient mice: Possible relevance for treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Elsa M; Halfon, Olivier; Magistretti, Pierre J; Cardinaux, Jean-René

    2016-08-01

    Major depression is a highly complex disabling psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite the availability of several classes of antidepressants, a substantial percentage of patients are unresponsive to these medications. A better understanding of the neurobiology of depression and the mechanisms underlying antidepressant response is thus critically needed. We previously reported that mice lacking CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) exhibit a depressive-like phenotype and a blunted antidepressant response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In this study, we similarly show that Crtc1(-/-) mice are resistant to the antidepressant effect of chronic desipramine in a behavioral despair paradigm. Supporting the blunted response to this tricyclic antidepressant, we found that desipramine does not significantly increase the expression of Bdnf and Nr4a1-3 in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Crtc1(-/-) mice. Epigenetic regulation of neuroplasticity gene expression has been associated with depression and antidepressant response, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. Here, we show that unlike conventional antidepressants, chronic systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA partially rescues the depressive-like behavior of Crtc1(-/-) mice. This behavioral effect is accompanied by an increased expression of Bdnf, but not Nr4a1-3, in the prefrontal cortex of these mice, suggesting that this epigenetic intervention restores the expression of a subset of genes by acting downstream of CRTC1. These findings suggest that CRTC1 alterations may be associated with treatment-resistant depression, and support the interesting possibility that targeting HDACs may be a useful therapeutic strategy in antidepressant development. PMID:26970016

  16. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G

    2016-06-01

    This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed. PMID:27285906

  17. Nature of the NJL critical end point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of the scalar channel spectral function is investigated near the critical end point on the temperature-quark chemical potential plane of two-flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model within the leading 1/Nc approximation with Nc being the number of colors. It is found that the relevant soft mode at the critical end point is the scalar density fluctuation with space-like dispersion, which is mixed with those of the quark-number and entropy densities, while on the other hand the sigma meson mode stays massive. (Slightly condensed version of the paper, hep-ph/0302167). (author)

  18. Development of eukaryotic zoospores within polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-polluted environments: a set of behaviors that are relevant for bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungthong, Rungroch; van West, Pieter; Cantos, Manuel; Ortega-Calvo, Jose Julio

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we assessed the development (formation, taxis and settlement) of eukaryotic zoospores under different regimes of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which imitated environmental scenarios of pollution and bioremediation. With this aim, we used an oomycete, Pythium aphanidermatum, as a source of zoospores and two PAH-degrading bacteria (Mycobacterium gilvum VM552 and Pseudomonas putida G7). The oomycete and both bacteria were not antagonistic, and zoospore formation was diminished only in the presence of the highest bacterial cell density (10(8)-10(10) colony-forming units mL(-1)). A negative influence of PAHs on zoospore formation and taxis was observed when PAHs were exposed in combination with organic solutions and polar solvents. Co-exposure of PAHs with non-polar solvents [hexadecane (HD) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN)] did not affect zoospore settlement at the interfaces of the organic solvents and water. However, zoospores settled and created mycelial networks only at HD-water interfaces. Both bacteria diminished the toxic influence of PAHs on zoospore formation and taxis, and they did not interrupt zoospore settlement. The results suggest that zoospore development could be applicable for toxicity assessment of PAHs and enhancement of their bioavailability. Microbial interactions during both swimming modes and community formation at pollutant interfaces were revealed as major factors that have potential relevance to bioremediation. PMID:25617701

  19. Altruism, status, and the origin of relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Dessalles, Jean-Louis

    1998-01-01

    We deal here with the problem of the origin of language from the point of view of pragmatics. Our aim is to show that any scenario of language origin should explain the relevance phenomenon. Why do people feel obliged to be relevant in casual conversation ? Analysing the structure of relevance leads to unexpected conclusions : relevant information is valuable, therefore language seems to be altruistic. As a consequence, from a Darwinian perspective, speakers should be rare and continually pro...

  20. MIND AND RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIGUEL ÁNGEL PÉREZ JIMÉNEZ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an introduction to some problems of the contemporary Philosophy of Mind. The thesis isthat a conceptual study of the psychological expressions in ordinary language could be relevant in ourscientific-oriented times. The scientific point of view in psychology could lead us to forget the value ofunderstanding the mental for every person in his or her daily life, beside the scientific explanations that atheorist could provide. The first part of the paper is an exposition of some epistemological and ontologicaldebates in the Philosophy of Psychology in which we offer many quotations and references to introducethe reader directly, by him or herself, into the study of the issues. The second part exposes an interpretationof Wittgenstein’s philosophy of mind. In the third part, we raise the question about the value of theWittgenstein’s ideas in the context of theoretical psychology debates.

  1. Relevant Factors of Aggressive Behavior of Schizophrenia Patients in Community%社区精神分裂症患者攻击行为的相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵巍峰; 谢博; 李泽辉; 陈思韩

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relevant factors of aggressive behavior of schizophrenia patients in community, 95 schizophrenia patients in community were chosen randomly and investigated on aggressive behavior within a year and the difference between the group of 33 patients with aggressive behavior and the group of 62 patients without aggressive behavior is discussed by using logistic regression analysis. Results show that there are significant differences in terms of positive symptoms, insight of patients, education degree of patients, and education degree of guardians between two groups (p〈0.05). Logistic regression analysis indicates the positive symptoms, insight of patients, and education degree of patients are related to aggressive behavior. The group with aggressive behavior show more positive symptoms, poorer insight, lower education degree of patients, and lower education degree of guardians.%对95例随机抽取的社区精神分裂症患者进行评估,比较33例一年内发生攻击行为患者和62例一年内无攻击行为患者的差异,并进行logistics回归分析,探讨社区精神分裂症患者攻击行为的相关因素.结果显示,2组患者精神病阳性症状数目、患者文化程度、患者的自知力、监护人的文化程度,比较有统计学意义(p〈0.05).logistic回归分析显示患者的阳性症状数目、自知力和患者文化程度与攻击行为相关.社区精神分裂症出现攻击行为患者阳性症状更多,文化程度低、监护人文化程度较低、自知力较差、阳性症状数目、患者文化程度以及患者的自知力与精神分裂症患者的攻击行为相关.

  2. A critical-point theory of the earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scaling hypothesis underlying the theory of the critical point is briefly presented, and its application to earthquakes is outlined. The relevance of the 'self-organized criticality' is emphasized for the critical behavior of the probabilistic seismic events. As it is known, the phase transitions are understood by means of the so-called theory of the critical point. This theory has two ingredients: the renormalization group and the scaling hypothesis. The former gives critical exponents (at least in principle), as based on the general statistical principles of the phase transitions; this part has limited applicability to earthquakes, as long as the adequacy of such general principles to earthquakes is not yet fully known. The latter part however, the scaling hypothesis that underlines the phase transitions, is sufficiently general as to make it a reasonable hypothesis for the critical behavior of a very large class of complex systems, earthquakes included. The 'self-organized criticality' of the new phase occurring at the critical point suggests a general scaling theory. The present critical-point theory for the seismic events suggests the existence of the high intensity precursor seismic activity before the strong main earthquake. The quantitative evaluations obtained using this theory are affected by appreciable errors, caused by the divergent behavior in the critical-point vicinity of the relevant parameters. However, such theory indicated the need for the careful seismic monitoring of the precursor behavior, which may deliver interesting qualitative information. (authors)

  3. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    a new dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article...

  4. The self-relevance system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Martin A; Pothos, Emmanuel M; Turk, David J

    2016-01-01

    We suggest that the Self Attention Network (SAN) maybe part of a larger self-regulatory system, which we term the Self-Relevance System (SRS) of which the "core" or default network is a major part. It is within the core network that memories are generated and the future imagined. Such memories and imaginings are the basis of preoccupations. Within the SRS then preoccupations drive the emergence of attentional biases (ABs). ABs in turn are modulated by the SAN activating and inhibiting circuits that shape behavior. We consider briefly how this might function in dysfunctional appetitive behaviors, e.g., substance abuse. PMID:26305290

  5. Thermal conductivity at a disordered quantum critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Ramirez, David M.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-04-01

    Strongly disordered and strongly interacting quantum critical points are difficult to access with conventional field theoretic methods. They are, however, both experimentally important and theoretically interesting. In particular, they are expected to realize universal incoherent transport. Such disordered quantum critical theories have recently been constructed holographically by deforming a CFT by marginally relevant disorder. In this paper we find additional disordered fixed points via relevant disordered deformations of a holographic CFT. Using recently developed methods in holographic transport, we characterize the thermal conductivity in both sets of theories in 1+1 dimensions. The thermal conductivity is found to tend to a constant at low temperatures in one class of fixed points, and to scale as T 0.3 in the other. Furthermore, in all cases the thermal conductivity exhibits discrete scale invariance, with logarithmic in temperature oscillations superimposed on the low temperature scaling behavior. At no point do we use the replica trick.

  6. Investigation of critical lines and global phase behavior of unequal size of molecules in binary gas-liquid mixtures in the combined pressure-temperature-concentration planes around the van Laar point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençaslan, Mustafa; Keskin, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    We investigate critical curves and global phase behavior of unequal size of molecules in binary gas-liquid mixtures at the van Laar point and its vicinity. The van Laar point is only point at which the mathematical double point curve is stable, and also the intersection of the tricritical point and the double critical end point. The critical line structure is displayed for various combinations of the chain length and system parameters in the reduced pressure (P∗) temperature (T∗) plane, as is usually done with experimental results and temperature-concentration (T, x) plane. The P∗,T∗ diagrams are discussed in accordance with the Scott and van Konynenburg binary phase diagram classification. We found that our P∗,T∗ plots correspond to the type II, type III, type IV phase diagram behaviors and they are in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental studies. It is also found that the critical lines and phase behavior are extremely sensitive to small modifications in the system parameters.

  7. 开天门穴位按摩治疗亚健康失眠的相关观察%Tianmen point massage relevant observation on the treatment of sub-health insomnia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曼

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨按照传统中医手法进行开天门穴位按摩对亚健康失眠病人的治疗效果。方法:将随机抽取的60名亚健康失眠病人进行分组,观察组30人全部接受开天门穴位按摩,对照组30人常规服用舒乐安定,观察对比两组疗效。结果:开天门穴位按摩大大缩短了病人入睡时间,有效延长了其睡眠时间,明显改善了病人的睡眠质量,治疗效果优于对照组,差异具有显著性(P<0.05)。结论:用开天门穴位按摩法治疗亚健康失眠病人,疗程短,效果好,方法简单,值得推广。%Objective: Of massage on Tianmen point of sub-health insomnia patient treatment according to traditional Chinese medicine practices aim. Methods:60 sub-health insomnia patients were randomly selected from the group, the observation group 30 people accept all open door acupoint massage, 30 in the control group treated with estazolam, compare two groups of curative effect observation. Results:The results of massage on Tianmen point greatly shorten the sleep time of patients, prolong the sleeping time, improve the sleep quality of patients, the treatment effect is better than that of the control group, the difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion the Tianmen acupoint massage treatment of sub-health insomnia patients, short course of treatment, the effect is good, the method is simple, is worthy of promotion.

  8. Experimental determination and modeling of the phase behavior for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Musko, Nikolai E.; Baiker, Alfons;

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the investigation of the phase behavior of mixtures relevant to the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide. The bubble points of corresponding quaternary mixtures of varying composition were experimentally determined. The Cubic...

  9. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Greisdorf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  10. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  11. Fuzziness and Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grace Qiao Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how the phenomenon of fuzzy language, such as `many' in `Mary has many friends', can be explained by Relevance Theory. It is concluded that fuzzy language use conforms with optimal relevance in that it can achieve the greatest positive effect with the least processing effort. It is the communicators themselves who decide whether or not optimal relevance is achieved, rather than the language form (fuzzy or non-fuzzy) used. People can skillfully adjust the deployment of different language forms or choose appropriate interpretations to suit different situations and communication needs. However, there are two challenges to RT: a. to extend its theory from individual relevance to group relevance; b. to embrace cultural considerations (because when relevance principles and cultural protocols are in conflict, the latter tends to prevail).

  12. Relevance Theory in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Jun; Jiang Min

    2008-01-01

    In perspective of relevance theory, translation is regarded as communication. According to relevance theory, communication not only requires encoding, transfer and decoding processes, but also involves inference in addition. As communication, translation decision-making is also based on the human beings' inferential mental faculty. Concentrating on relevance theory, this paper tries to analyze and explain some translation phenomena in two English versions of Cai Gen Tan-My Crude Philosophy of Life.

  13. Thermal conductivity at a disordered quantum critical point

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnoll, Sean A; Santos, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    Strongly disordered and strongly interacting quantum critical points are difficult to access with conventional field theoretic methods. They are, however, both experimentally important and theoretically interesting. In particular, they are expected to realize universal incoherent transport. Such disordered quantum critical theories have recently been constructed holographically by deforming a CFT by marginally relevant disorder. In this paper we find additional disordered fixed points via relevant disordered deformations of a holographic CFT. Using recently developed methods in holographic transport, we characterize the thermal conductivity in both sets of theories in 1+1 dimensions. The thermal conductivity is found to tend to a constant at low temperatures in one class of fixed points, and to scale as $T^{0.3}$ in the other. Furthermore, in all cases the thermal conductivity exhibits discrete scale invariance, with logarithmic in temperature oscillations superimposed on the low temperature scaling behavior....

  14. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  15. Application of Relevance theory to translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯仁爱

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of relevance theory, translation is regarded as a relevance-seeking communication. It involves three participant relationships:the source speaker, the translator and the target hearers. The translator is supposed to create a context that the target hearer can infer the intention of the source speaker. Comparing translation theories which fail to pay attention to the relevance between the source speakers and the target hearers, Relevance Theory is a relatively overall account of translation. For one thing, some points concerning the Relevance Theory are capable of facilitating the researches to the present translation field. For another, the information of the original text will be understood and comprehended accurately and promptly on the basis of the relevant theory.

  16. Dividends, sustainability and relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Mantovi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability and relevance of dividend policies are addressed in terms of an optimal control model set forth by Feichtinger et al. (2007), by means of which two different capitalization measures,accounting for dividends and capital gains, can be given explicit representation. In the light of the theory of capital tailored by Dorfman (1969), an intertemporal economic measure of shareholder value is introduced, together with the associated shadow price. Relevant tradeoffs and scale effects ar...

  17. 32 CFR 634.45 - Point system application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Violation: Improper overtaking. Points assessed: 3 X. Violation: Other moving violations (involving driver behavior only). Points assessed: 3 Y. Violation: Operating an unsafe vehicle. (See Note 2). Points...

  18. The Behavior of Counter-Current Packed Bed in the Proximity of the Flooding Point under Periodic Variations of Inlet Velocities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondráček, Jakub; Stavárek, Petr; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Staněk, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2006), s. 147-155. ISSN 0352-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/03/1558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : counter -current flow * flooding point * axial dispersion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2006

  19. Relevance analysis of health behaviors and influencing factors for detection rate of carotid atherosclerotic plaque%影响颈动脉斑块检出率的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋树中; 刘茹; 韩冰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relevance of health behaviors and influencing factors for detection rate of carotid plaques to prevent the formation of carotid plaque.Methods A total of 2 628 healthy subjects aged over 40 years were selected randomly from Department of Cardiology at our hospital from 2009-2010.A questionnaire survey was conducted on age , education level, marriage, occupation, income, diet, living habits and lifestyle factors.Logistic regression analysis was made for the influencing factors of internal carotid artery plaque.Results Single factor analysis showed that gender , age, smoking rate, fasting blood glucose , blood pressure , carotid artery intima-media thickness ( intima-media thickness , IMT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C ) had significant effects on plaque formation.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that gender , age, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C and number of health behaviors were the major influencing factors for the formation of carotid plaque.Compared with the 5 ideal cardiovascular health behaviors/factors and occurrence of carotid plaques were 0.65, 0.45, 0.39 and 0.29 respectively.Conclusions The formation of carotid plaque is affected by many factors.The number of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors is negatively correlated with plaque formation and it can prevent the occurrence of carotid plaque .%目的:探讨影响颈内动脉斑块检出率的相关健康行为和相关因素。方法选取2009-2010年间在江苏省徐州市心血管病研究所心内科进行健康体检的人员作为研究对象。采用分层随机抽样的方法从中抽取40岁以上2628例纳入研究。制定调查问卷,并对年龄、文化程度、婚姻、职业、经济收入、饮食习惯、生活习惯、生活行为因素进行调查。应用Logistic回归分析对影响颈内动脉斑块的因素进行统计分析。结果单因素

  20. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  1. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  2. Turning Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Moves from the United States and North Korea give new impetus to nuclear disablement and U.S.-North Korea ties The tense situation surrounding denu-clearization on the Korean Peninsula has reached a turning point. On

  3. Relevance, Derogation and Permission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolpe, Audun

    We show that a recently developed theory of positive permission based on the notion of derogation is hampered by a triviality result that indicates a problem with the underlying full-meet contraction operation. We suggest a solution that presupposes a particular normal form for codes of norms, adapted from the theory of relevance through propositional letter sharing. We then establish a correspondence between contractions on sets of norms in input/output logic (derogations), and AGM-style contractions on sets of formulae, and use it as a bridge to migrate results on propositional relevance from the latter to the former idiom. Changing the concept accordingly we show that positive permission now incorporates a relevance requirement that wards off triviality.

  4. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  5. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan; Krieger, Ralph; Seidl, Thomas

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  6. Transformation and fragmentation behavior of molten aluminum in sodium. In the case of lower instantaneous contract interface temperatures than the boiling point of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic experiments using molten aluminum and sodium have been conducted to investigate the possibility of fragmentation of molten metals for instantaneous contact interface temperatures sufficiently below the boiling point of sodium (881degC). Aluminum was heated to the temperature from 898degC to 1073degC in a crucible by using an electric heater and dropped into a sodium pool at the temperature of around 275degC. Recovered aluminum fragments were sieved to measure particle size. The degree of fragmentation increases with higher initial temperatures of molten aluminum. The fragmentation process is closely related with the formation of pot-like shape from aluminum drop. Even though the instantaneous contact interface temperature is sufficiently lower than the boiling point of sodium, and efficient fragmentation is caused by a high pressure produced rapidly due to the thermal interaction between the molten aluminum and the sodium entrapped into the molten aluminum. (author)

  7. Sexual behavior in Japanese quail as a test end point for endocrine disruption: effects of in ovo exposure to ethinylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol.

    OpenAIRE

    Halldin, K.; Berg, C.; Brandt, I; Brunström, B

    1999-01-01

    Chemicals having a capacity to disturb the endocrine system have attracted considerable interest during recent years. There is a shortage of well-characterized in vivo tests with which to study such disturbances in different classes of vertebrates. In the present study, test end points related to reproduction in the Japanese quail were used to examine the estrogenic activity of chemicals. The synthetic estrogens ethinylestradiol (EE(2)) and diethylstilbestrol (DES), used as model compounds, w...

  8. Blending Rigor and Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siri, Diane K.; Zinner, Jane; Lezin, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    A collaborative at several sites across the state of California will offer evidence of how successful linked learning, which connects academics to real-world work, can be. This article presents examples that illustrate the powerful connections and linkages that are generated by combining academic rigor with the relevance of applying learning to…

  9. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  10. The Relevance of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    The "legacy" of the humanities is discussed in terms of relevance, involvement, and other philosophical considerations. Reasons for studying foreign literature in language classes are developed in the article. Comment is also made on attitudes and ideas culled from the writings of Clifton Fadiman, Jean Paul Sartre, and James Baldwin. (RL)

  11. Anti-Kibble-Zurek Behavior in Crossing the Quantum Critical Point of a Thermally Isolated System Driven by a Noisy Control Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anirban; Rahmani, Armin; Del Campo, Adolfo

    2016-08-19

    We show that a thermally isolated system driven across a quantum phase transition by a noisy control field exhibits anti-Kibble-Zurek behavior, whereby slower driving results in higher excitations. We characterize the density of excitations as a function of the ramping rate and the noise strength. The optimal driving time to minimize excitations is shown to scale as a universal power law of the noise strength. Our findings reveal the limitations of adiabatic protocols such as quantum annealing and demonstrate the universality of the optimal ramping rate. PMID:27588838

  12. PEOPLE & POINTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "We must avoid any confusion between Islam, which is of course a respected and respectable religion, and radical Islamism, which is a totally different form of behavior and which is of a political nature." French President Jacques Chirac, when asked about Pope Benedict XVI's mid-September remarks on Islam

  13. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Translation and relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Gutt, E. A.

    1989-01-01

    In this study I argue that the phenomenon commonly referred to as "translation" can be accounted for naturally within the relevance theory of communication developed by Sperber and Wilson: there is no need for a distinct general theory of translation. Most kinds of translation can be analysed as varieties of Interpretive use. I distinguish direct from indirect translation, where direct translation corresponds to the idea that translation should convey the same meaning ...

  15. Perspectives on Social Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasundra-Smits, Shyamika

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ During the recently held expert meeting entitled “Social impact @ sciences: Why does Science matter?” organised by the International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam, an invited group of participants from academia, NGOs, ministries and the media shared their experiences, their perspectives and their concerns on a number of topics on the theme of social impact and the societal relevance of social science research. The meeting was conducte...

  16. Relevance of dorsomedial hypothalamus, dorsomedial division of the ventromedial hypothalamus and the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter in the organization of freezing or oriented and non-oriented escape emotional behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Farhad; dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; dos Santos, Ieda Regina; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2015-10-15

    Electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal gray matter and ventromedial hypothalamus in humans showed the involvement of both these structures in panic attacks. The aim of this work was to make clear the role of dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) matter, dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) and the dorsomedial part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (dmVMH) in panic attack-like behaviors. DMH, dmVMH and dPAG of Wistar rats were treated with N-methyl- d-aspartic acid (NMDA) at different doses. The rodents were then kept in a polygonal arena with a burrow to record panic attack-like responses and oriented defensive behaviors. In dmVMH, 6nmol of NMDA elicited alertness, freezing and oriented escape. The same set of behaviors was elicited by DMH neurons when stimulated by 9nmol of NMDA. Treatment of dmVMH with 9nmol of NMDA elicited typical explosive behaviors followed by freezing and oriented behaviors. The stimulation of the dPAG with NMDA at different doses provoked alertness and freezing (1nmol) or alertness, freezing, tail twitching, explosive behavior and oriented escape (3nmol), and explosive behavior followed by long-lasting freezing (6nmol). These data suggest that mainly dPAG plays a role in panic attack-like behaviors that resemble panic syndrome in humans. However, hypothalamic nuclei like dmVMH that mainly elicits oriented escape, can also produce explosive reaction when stimulated with 9nmol NMDA, whereas, DMH plays a role in coordinating defensive behaviors. PMID:26205826

  17. Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief pamphlet gives general information about the station. The Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station consists of a single CANDU 600 unit with a total net capacity of 630,000 kilowatts. This single reactor, the first nuclear installation in Atlantic Canada, is expected to supply about 20% of New Brunswick's electrical energy during the 1980's. The station is located on the Lepreau peninsula, overlooking the Bay of Fundy, 40 km southwest of Saint John on Route 790, off Highway 1. Construction of Point Lepreau began in May 1975 and was completed late in 1981. At the peak of construction activity in 1979, 3,300 workers were employed on the project. First power was produced in September 1982 and Lepreau began commercial operation early in 1983. Point Lepreau was built with provision for an additional 600 MW unit on the site and is essentially a duplicate of CANDU 600 reactors in Quebec, Argentina and Korea. Although started third, Lepreau was the first of these CANDU's in Canada and abroad to be licensed for operation, the first to achieve criticality (start-up), and the first to begin commercial operation. Lepreau is owned and operated by New Brunswick Power

  18. Van der Waals like behavior and equal area law of two point correlation function of f(R) AdS black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Jie-Xiong; Lin, Ze-Tao; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    To gain holographic insight into critical phenomena of $f(R)$ AdS black holes, we investigate their two point correlation function, which are dual to the geodesic length in the bulk. We solve the equation of motion constrained by the boundary condition numerically and probe both the effect of boundary region size and $f(R)$ gravity. Moreover, we introduce an analogous specific heat related to $\\delta L$. It is shown in the $T-\\delta L$ graph for the case $Q

  19. Evaluation of the kinematic behavior of a series of stations Geocentric System for the Americas processed with Precise Point Positioning online.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moya Zamora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By calculation mode in Precise Point Positioning (PPP online, processed more than two years of daily observations of 14 continuously operating stations belonging to Geocentric System for the Americas (SIRGAS, which are strategically located on the Caribbean Plate. Under the assumption that in a PPP development can achieve accuracy greater than that provided by commercial software calculation, we used the results of this processing option to make a comparison of the data with respect to offered weekly by SIRGAS which are of high quality and accuracy and analyze their level of agreement. This comparison allowed for a description of the kinematic motion of the area concerned, based on the fact that precisely the differences in the time series, as in SIRGAS, are due to the movement themselves. In online processing tool available was used by the Canadian Spatial Reference System (CSRS on its website, with which processed more than 7000 files daily. After purification of the results could be obtained in an average difference of the velocity values in the XYZ coordinates of the stations -0.8 mm/a, +2.2 mm/ay +1.9 mm/a with data regarding SIRGAS.

  20. Critical Behavior of Thermal Expansion and Magnetostriction in the Vicinity of the First order transition at the Curie Point of Gd5(SixGe1-x)4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangui Han

    2004-12-19

    Thermal expansion (TE) and magnetostriction (MS) measurements have been conducted for Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} with a series of x values to study its critical behavior in the vicinity of transition temperatures. It was found that the Curie temperature of Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} for x 0 {approx} 0.5 is dependent on magnetic field, direction of change of temperature (Tc on cooling was lower than Tc on heating), purity of Gd starting material, compositions, material preparation methods, and also can be triggered by the external magnetic field with a different dT/dB rate for different x values. For Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 1.95}Ge{sub 2.05}), Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}), Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2.09}Ge{sub 1.91}), it was also found that the transition is a first order magneto-structural transition, which means the magnetic transition and crystalline structure transition occur simultaneously, and completely reversible. Temperature hysteresis and phase coexistence have been found to confirm that it is a first order transformation. While for Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 0.15}Ge{sub 3.85}), it is partially reversible at some temperature range between the antiferromagnetic and the ferromagnetic state. For Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2.3}Ge{sub 1.7}) and Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 3}Ge{sub 1}), it was a second order transformation between the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, because no {Delta}T have been found. Giant magnetostriction was only found on Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 1.95}Ge{sub 2.05}), Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}), Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2.09}Ge{sub 1.91}) in their vicinity of first order transformation. MFM images have also been taken on polycrystal sample Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2.09}Ge{sub 1.91}) to investigate the transformation process. The results also indicates that the Curie temperature was lower and the thermally-induced strain higher in the sample made from lower purity level Gd starting materials compared with the sample made from high purity Gd metal. TE, MS, MFM and VSM measurements

  1. Complex phase behavior induced by repulsive interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco; Mederos; Navascues; Hemmer; Stell

    2000-07-01

    For a solid in which the interactions have a hard core plus a simple soft repulsive tail we show, using a perturbation theory, that the possible stable crystalline structures give rise to a rich phase behavior. We find two concomitant critical points each corresponding to phase transitions separating bcc and fcc structures, respectively, and the occurrence of a transition between fcc and bcc phases without change in density. This novel phenomenology may be relevant to the behavior of some metallic systems, colloids, and to water. PMID:10991174

  2. Can We Afford It? Reference Point Dependent Investment Decisions of Family and Nonfamily Owners

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, Dianne; Zellweger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on an issue particularly relevant in these difficult financial times. Can family businesses afford the risk associated with making investments that could generate higher returns? Studies examining financing behavior of family firms report higher control risk aversion than nonfamily firms, whereby control risk is measured through leverage levels. We found that family firm owners\\' degree of control risk aversion depends on reference points. Investment alternatives implying h...

  3. Evidence for an X-linked modifier gene affecting the expression of Tourette syndrome and its relevance to the increased frequency of speech, cognitive, and behavioral disorders in males.

    OpenAIRE

    Comings, D E; Comings, B G

    1986-01-01

    A number of disorders affecting speech, learning, and behavior have a 3:1 or greater male:female ratio. This has usually been explained on the basis of a developmental model postulating a difference in the young male versus female brain. Tourette syndrome is a hereditary neurobehavioral disorder due to a single major autosomal gene. It is associated with learning disorders and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity and shows a similar predilection for males. Because of the more obvious...

  4. Práticas educativas e problemas de comportamento: uma análise à luz das habilidades sociais Educational practices and problem behavior: an analysis from the point of view of social skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar as relações entre práticas educativas dos pais e problemas de comportamento dos filhos, à luz do referencial teórico-prático do treinamento em habilidades sociais. A forma como os pais educam seus filhos parece ser crucial à promoção de comportamentos socialmente adequados, porém, com freqüência, as famílias acabam estimulando comportamentos inadequados por meio de disciplina inconsistente, pouca interação positiva, pouco monitoramento e supervisão insuficiente das atividades da criança. Considera-se que os pais, para promoverem comportamentos adequados em seus filhos, necessitam ter habilidades sociais educativas, tais como expressar sentimentos e opiniões, estabelecer limites evitando coerção, entre outras. Conclui-se que, intervenções com pais, com a finalidade de promover habilidades sociais educativas, são importantes meios para prevenção e redução de problemas de comportamento em crianças, de forma a evitar dificuldades escolares e de socialização na meninice e na adolescência.The aim of this article is to analyze the relationships between parenting rearing practices and child behavior problem, from the point of view of the theoretical and practical foundations of social skills training. The way parents socialize their children seems to be crucial for the promotion of socially appropriate behaviors, but families frequently come to inadvertently stimulate inadequate behavior through inconsistent discipline, low levels of positive interaction, poor monitoring and insufficient supervision. It is argued that to promote appropriate child behaviors it is necessary for parents to have abilities proper of parenting rearing practices such as to express feelings and opinions, and to set limits whereas avoiding punishment. It is concluded that parent training interventions aimed at developing educational social skills are important tools for prevention and reduction of child problem

  5. "Just Remember This": Lexicogrammatical Relevance Markers in Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroey, Katrien L. B.; Taverniers, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of lexicogrammatical devices which highlight important or relevant points in lectures. Despite the established usefulness of discourse organizational cues for lecture comprehension and note-taking, very little is known about the marking of relevance in this genre. The current overview of…

  6. 农户经营行为对农业面源污染的影响因素分析%Analysis of Responded Factors of Farmers' Management Behavior on Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周早弘

    2011-01-01

    以江西省鄱阳湖生态经济试验区为例,以经济计量分析为方法,研究了农户经营行为对农业面源污染的影响.结果表明,农户的农产品自用率、户主年龄、户主文化程度、农户家庭主要收入来源、农户对环境的关注程度、农户施用有机肥的情况以及农户参与技术培训等因素均对农业面源污染产生一定影响.%The influence of farmers' management behavior on agricultural non-point source pollution in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Experimental Zone of Jiangxi Province was studied by using method of econometric analysis.The results showed that the impacting factors all will have a certain impact on agricultural non-point source pollution, which includes personal use ratio of agricultural products of farmers, the age and the literacy of householder, family's main income source of farmers, the concern degree of farmers to the environment, applying situation of organic manure, and farmers participating in technical training or not.

  7. Self-Adapting Point Location

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Pedro; Devillers, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Point location in spatial subdivision is one of the most studied problems in computational geometry. In the case of triangulations of Rd, we revisit the problem to exploit a possible coherence between the query-points. For a single query, walking in the triangulation is a classical strategy with good practical behavior and expected complexity O(n^(1/d)) if the points are evenly distributed. For a batch of query-points, the main idea is to use previous queries to improve the current one; we co...

  8. Discussion and proposal of use of qualitative tools of data collection for the analysis of violent behavior in the penitentiary environment from a multidisciplinary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Meriem Khaled

    2011-01-01

    This Masterʼs Thesis addresses the tools definition to collect and analyze the relevant information to research in prisons, from a cross-sector point of view, aimed to prevent and predict violent behavior in prisonʼs environment. Taking as starting point several qualitative methods, we discuss the suitability of them and we propose using biographical narrative method as the proper one for capturing relevant information about prison organization, inmates and professionals working in that conte...

  9. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real world situations stimuli are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multi-dimensional. On the other hand, in every decision-making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these relevant dimensions, that is, how do we learn what to learn about? We investigated this process of representation learning experimentally, using a task in which one stimulus dimension was relevant for determining reward at each point in time. As in real life situations, in our task the relevant dimension can change without warning, adding ever-present uncertainty engendered by a constantly changing environment. We show that human performance on this task is better described by a suboptimal strategy based on selective attention and serial hypothesis testing rather than a normative strategy based on probabilistic inference. From this, we conjecture that the problem of inferring relevance in general scenarios is too computationally demanding for the brain to solve optimally. As a result the brain utilizes approximations, employing these even in simplified scenarios in which optimal representation learning is tractable, such as the one in our experiment.

  10. Behavior-based Task Learning by Demonstration on Mobile Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Users should have the opportunity to teach new tasks on their robot to fit the specific needs in its own environment. Behaviors are good building blocks for complex tasks because they are in charge of a specific control objective and have an intuitive name. After encapsulating controls within a behavior, the task learning problem for behavior-based systems becomes a behavior recognition problem. Behavior-based task learning can be focused on either behavior segmentation, behavior recognition or behavior cooperation. The behavior diagram is expressed by an execution matrix, which consists of only numerical information referring to the parameters of the behaviors or transitions. The parameter values are determined by the behavior classification.A feature space is introduced to extract more meaningful information from sensory data. Geometric features, such as the plane feature or the line feature, detect whether the movement of points fulfills a certain geometric relationship. A combined machine learning approach, which consists of decision tree and support vector machine, is proposed for behavior-based task learning. The decision tree is used to select relevant features from the feature pool, and support vector machine is applied to find the mapping from the feature space to behaviors. This way, corresponding behaviors can be recognized during demonstration. This method also has the ability to handle the diversity of robot configurations and users. Post-processing techniques are proposed to improve the classifi-cation results.

  11. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance. These...... criteria can be grouped into six categories: abstract (e.g., citability, informativeness), author (e.g., novelty, discipline, affiliation, perceived status), content (e.g., accuracy/validity, background, novelty, contrast, depth/scope, domain, citations, links, relevant to other interests, rarity, subject...... relevant, and not-relevant judgments, and that most criteria can have either a positive or negative contribution to the relevance of a document. The criteria most frequently mentioned by study participants were content, followed by criteria characterizing the full text document. These findings may have...

  12. Learning Determinantal Point Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kulesza, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Determinantal point processes (DPPs), which arise in random matrix theory and quantum physics, are natural models for subset selection problems where diversity is preferred. Among many remarkable properties, DPPs offer tractable algorithms for exact inference, including computing marginal probabilities and sampling; however, an important open question has been how to learn a DPP from labeled training data. In this paper we propose a natural feature-based parameterization of conditional DPPs, and show how it leads to a convex and efficient learning formulation. We analyze the relationship between our model and binary Markov random fields with repulsive potentials, which are qualitatively similar but computationally intractable. Finally, we apply our approach to the task of extractive summarization, where the goal is to choose a small subset of sentences conveying the most important information from a set of documents. In this task there is a fundamental tradeoff between sentences that are highly relevant to th...

  13. 筛查和行为干预在梅毒控制中的作用%Effect of syphilis control based on STI screening and behavioral intervention at sentinel surveillance points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶兴东; 何婉苹; 黄雪梅; 汤少开; 刘颖; 朱慧兰; 张锡宝

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨性病哨点机构(包括哨点医院和专科哨点机构)开展梅毒筛查和行为干预,在梅毒控制中的作用.方法 按照哨点医院和专科哨点机构分层抽样,选取广州市15个性病监测哨点,统计2005-2010年各机构梅毒快速血浆反应素试验(RPR)筛查量,分析两类哨点梅毒筛查的人次及阳性率变化趋势,以及同期因卖淫嫖娼被治安收容人群的梅毒感染率趋势.同时,统计同期哨点机构开展的行为干预的工作量.结果 6年间,累计筛查39.8万人次,发现RPR阳性1.41万人次,阳性率3.54%;哨点机构初诊RPR筛查人次年均递增22.00%,RPR阳性率由4.06%下降至2.83%.按照不同哨点机构来源分析,性病专科哨点机构RPR阳性率分别从7.81%上升到12.19%,而哨点医院RPR阳性率则从3.79%下降到2.56%.卖淫嫖娼人群的RPR和梅毒螺旋体明胶凝集试验双阳性率,由2005年的5.85%下降到2011年的4.03%.结论 广州市性病哨点医院普通人群梅毒筛查量逐年增加,结合性病哨点专科机构对高危人群的梅毒筛查及行为干预,在广州市梅毒控制中有重要作用.%Objective To investigate the effectiveness of syphilis control based on screening and behavioral intervention at sexually transmitted infection (STI) sentinel surveillance points in Guangzhou. Methods Fifteen STI sentinel points including 11 sentinel hospitals and 4 STI sentinel institutions were enrolled by means of group-sampling. Data of behavioral intervention and rapid plasma reagent (RPR) screening from 15 STI sentinel points were annually collected during 2005-2010. The data of syphilis screening and the trend of RPR positive rate collected from the two types of sentinel points, as well as syphilis infection trend among those detained for commercial sexual behaviors during the same period were analyzed. Meanwhile, the workload of behavioral intervention including distribution of health materials and condoms

  14. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustonen Anne-Mari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb recordings, change-point analysis (CPA, home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS, the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  15. Behavioral intervention in hand hygiene of medical staff and relevant study on hospital infections%医务人员手卫生的行为干预与医院感染的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田素芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨医院感染及对医务人员手卫生行为干预的影响效果.方法 选取基层医院医师、护士、检验人员为研究对象,通过对其实施手卫生干预措施,评价其干预前后的情况.结果 加强医院感染管理,医护人员手卫生的依从性得到提高.结论 提高医护人员洗手的效果,是控制医院感染的重要措施,对医护人员进行手卫生的干预是有效可行的.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the nosocomial infections and the impact of behavior intervention in hand hygiene of medical personnel. METHODS The doctors, nurses, and inspectors in grass-roots hospitals were selected as study subjects. The situation before and after hand hygiene intervention was evaluated through implementation of intervention in hand hygiene. RESULTS Hand hygiene compliance was significantly improved through strengthening the management of hospital infections. CONCLUSION To improve the effect of hand washing of the health care workers is an important measure to control hospital infections, and the intervention in hand hygiene of medical staff is effective and feasible.

  16. Point Systems Made Simple with Google Docs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Point systems, used in conjunction with positive reinforcement for appropriate behavior, have been used widely and successfully for decades to improve the inappropriate classroom behavior of students with emotional and behavioral problems (Cancio & Johnson, 2007; Drege & Beare, 1991; Gable & Strain, 1981; Jones, Dohrn, & Dunn, 2004; Klimas &…

  17. One-pot green synthesis of biologically relevant novel spiro[indolin-2-one-3,4'-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles] and studies on their spectral and X-ray crystallographic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sakshi; Brahmachari, Goutam; Kant, Rajni; Gupta, Vivek K

    2016-06-01

    Syntheses via green route and single-crystal X-ray structural investigations have been carried out for three spiro[indolin-2-one-3,4'-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole] derivatives, 6'-amino-2-oxo-3'-propyl-2'H-spiro[indoline-3,4'-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole]-5'-carbonitrile dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate (5a), 6'-amino-5-fluoro-2-oxo-3'-propyl-2'H-spiro[indoline-3,4'-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole]-5'-carbonitrile dimethyl sulfoxide monosolvate (5b) and methyl 6'-amino-5-cyano-1-methyl-2-oxo-3'-propyl-2'H-spiro[indoline-3,4'-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole]-3'-carboxylate 0.25 hydrate (5c), respectively. Compounds (5a) and (5b) crystallize in the triclinic space group P\\bar 1, whereas compound (5c) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c. In molecules (5a) and (5b) all the rings are practically flat, while in (5c), the heterocyclic pyran ring adopts a flattened-boat conformation. In (5a) and (5b) the cyanide group is oriented in a (-ap) conformation, while the amino group is oriented in a (+ap) conformation with a pyran ring, but in (5c) both the cyanide and amino groups are oriented in a (-ap) conformation with the pyran ring. In the crystal structure of (5a) and (5b), the molecules are linked by an elaborate system of N-H...O and N-H...N hydrogen bonds to generate a zigzag-like construct. In (5c) molecules are linked by N-H...O hydrogen bonds, thereby generating extended chains. The present communication focuses on the detailed and comparative information about spectral behaviors, single-crystal X-ray crystallographic properties and solid-state supramolecular architectures of these synthesized compounds of potential biological interests. PMID:27240765

  18. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Thaler, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  19. Assessment of the failure behavior of dangerous goods containers made of high density polyethylene using relevant material parameters; Beurteilung des Versagensverhaltens von Gefahrengutbehaeltern aus Polyethylen hoher Dichte auf Basis relevanter Werkstoffkennwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menrad, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    To obtain approval as dangerous goods packaging, different experimental tests are required to show the eligibility for the transportation of those goods. The data obtained from the material test performed on the pressed plates is not used to get absolute values for the failure time in an internal pressure test or the medium drop height. The goal is to see if there are changes in the behavior because a different HDPE is being used. All the jerrycans and pressed plates were specially made of four different materials to gain knowledge about the material properties. The plates and jerrycans were made of resin from the same batch to prevent variations caused by batch differences. The wall thickness is decisive and, therefore packagings were analyzed using computer tomography and the fringe projection technique. The results were compared to the magnetostatic measurement technique. The deformation under internal pressure was measured by digital image correlation. Deformations in the radial direction and the equivalent strains were determined. These deformations, strains, and their acceleration due to the swelling effect could be reproduced in the finite element analysis by using the temperature in the material model. The resistance against both internal pressure and absorption depend on the density of the material. Conditioning at elevated temperatures causes post crystallization and reduces internal stresses. Differences in the densities of the materials can be determined by using plates manufactured by compression molding. A higher density leads to a better performance under internal pressure. A correlation could be proved between the medium failure drop height (50 % of the packagings fail because of a crack) and the tensile impact strength of notched specimens cut out of the jerrycans side walls and the notched impact strength (NIS) of pressed plates. A higher NIS leads to a higher medium failure drop height. A low resistance against oxidative degradation will reduce

  20. Electrochemical behavior of the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand on a multiwalled carbon nanotube surface and its relevant electrochemistry for selective recognition of copper ion and hydrogen peroxide sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri, Prakasam; Senthil Kumar, Annamalai

    2014-09-01

    1,10-Phenanthroline (Phen) is a well-known benchmark ligand and has often been used in the coordination chemistry for the complexation of transition metal ions, such as Fe(2+), Ni(2+), and Co(2+). Because the electro-oxidation potential of Phen is much higher (>2 V versus Ag/AgCl) than the water decomposition potential, i.e., ∼1.5 V versus Ag/AgCl, in pH 7, it is practically difficult to electro-oxidize Phen in aqueous medium using any conventional electrodes, such as glassy carbon electrode (GCE), gold, and platinum. Interestingly, herein, we report an unexpected oxidation of Phen to a highly redox active 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (Phen-dione) and its confinement on a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/MWCNT@Phen-dione) surface by potential cycling of Phen-adsorbed GCE/MWCNT (GCE/MWCNT@Phen) from -1 to 1 V versus Ag/AgCl in pH 7 phosphate buffer solution. GCE/MWCNT@Phen-dione showed selective recognition of copper ion (GCE/MWCNT@Phen-dione-Cu(2+)) by catalyzing the hydrogen peroxide reduction reaction in a neutral pH solution. The precise structure of the Phen electro-oxidized product has been identified after characterizing the electrode and/or ethanolic extract of the product by various techniques, such as Raman, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) (for copper complex), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) (for copper complex), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and in situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) and comparing electrochemical behavior of several control compounds, such as phenanthrene and 9,10-phenanthrenequinone. It is concluded that the product formed is 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione, wherein the dione position is ortho to each other and the copper ion is complexed with nitrogen of the phenanthroline ring. With extended electrochemical oxidation of a structurally similar ligand, 2

  1. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time-dated...

  2. Relevant deformations and c-extremization

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, Ilarion V

    2016-01-01

    We consider RG flows obtained by a relevant deformation from unitary and compact (0,2) SCFTs. We point out that an N=2 super-Kac-Moody algebra present in the UV is preserved by the flow and does not mix with the R-current. On the other hand, a direct sum of N=2 algebras in the UV theory leads to a few complications in determining the IR R-symmetry; nevertheless, in accident-free flows we determine the IR R-symmetry and show that it maximizes the IR central charge.

  3. 女性性工作者艾滋病相关知识及行为干预效果评价%Evaluation on intervention effect of HIV/AIDS relevant knowledge and behaviors among female commercial sex workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维斌; 黄东升; 李艳萍; 郭建华; 杨家芳; 刘丽; 丁英; 赵彩佐; 何丽云

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估娱乐场所推广100%安全套促进项目的实施效果.方法 采用普查法对保山市昌宁县县城登记在册的娱乐场所及女性商业性工作者 (Female Sex Workers,FSW) 进行调查,用同一份国家标准行为监测问卷开展基线、中期、终期效果评估,比较,3期目标人群通过9种途径获得艾滋病相关知识的变化情况、艾滋病相关知识知晓率、安全套的可及性及需求程度、安全套使用率、自报告性病感染 (STI) 症状率的变化情况.结果 通过7种途径获得艾滋病相关知识的FSW人群比例呈增长趋势(P<0.05);艾滋病相关知识知晓率由基线的56.3%升至中期的93.8%及终期的97.6% (P<0.05);安全套可及性及需求程度明显提高(P<0.0.5);最近1次发生商业性行为安全套使用率由基线的72.9%升至中期的98.1%及终期的99.0% (P<0.001);最近1月发生商业性行为使用安全套率由基线的32.6%升至中期的82.1%及终期的90.8% (P<0.001);自报告有性病症状率由基线的23.5%降至中期的17.9%及终期的9.4%(P<0.01).结论 干预后通过7种途径获得艾滋病相关知识的FCSWs人群比例显著增加,艾滋病相关知识知晓率、安全套使用率明显提高,自报告性病症状率明显下降,干预工作效果明显.%Objective To assess the implement effect of spreading 100% using condoms in entertainment places. Method Adopting census method to investigate the recorded entertainment places and FCSWs at all levels, u-sing same national standard behaviors monitoring questionnaire for developing effect assess at baseline, meta-phase and tellocinesia, comparing the rates of obtaining knowledge through 7 approaches, HIV/AIDS related knowledge awareness rates, accessibility and demand of condom, condom using rates and self - reported sexual transmitted infection (STI) rates of the 3 periods. Results The percentage of FCSWs crowd was increased who obtained

  4. Pro SharePoint 2010 Search

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, J; Bakman-Mikalski, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Pro SharePoint 2010 Search gives you expert advice on planning, deploying and customizing searches in SharePoint 2010. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience of working with real-world SharePoint deployments, this book teaches everything you'll need to know to create well-designed SharePoint solutions that always keep the end-user's experience in mind. Increase your search efficiency with SharePoint 2010's search functionality: extend the search user interface using third-party tools, and utilize analytics to improve relevancy. This practical hands-on book is a must-have resource for any

  5. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. PMID:26263065

  6. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  7. Relevance for SAT(ID)

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Joachim; Bogaerts, Bart; Devriendt, Jo; Janssens, Gerda; Denecker, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Inductive definitions and justifications are well-studied concepts. Solvers that support inductive definitions have been developed, but several of their computationally nice properties have never been exploited to improve these solvers. In this paper, we present a new notion called relevance. We determine a class of literals that are relevant for a given definition and partial interpretation, and show that choices on irrelevant atoms can never benefit the search for a model. We pr...

  8. Geographic relevance in mobile services

    OpenAIRE

    Reichenbacher, T

    2009-01-01

    In this position paper we describe the concept of geographic relevance and its potential for mobile location-based services employing the mobile Internet. We argue that existing LBS have a too limited concept of location and its application for filtering geographic content. We propose an approach for geographic relevance that extends LBS and location-aware web applications and aims at better supporting mobile users’ decision-making based on geographic information. After a short description of...

  9. The relevance of education today

    OpenAIRE

    Živoder, Andreja

    2014-01-01

    The article interprets the results of qualitative research within the GOETE project. It discusses how 9th grade students relate to the relevance of education today by analysing their educational decisions within the framework of the ideology of choice in contemporary Slovenian society. It attempts to categorise reasons for the relevance of education and provide two typical strategies students employ in order to be able to make educational choices in a socio-economic environment which does not...

  10. The Superconducting gap behavior in the antiferromagnetic Nickel-Borocarbide compounds RNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C (R=Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) studied by point-contacts spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidyuk, Yu G; Bobrov, N L; Chernobay, V N; Kvitnitskaya, O E; Yanson, I K [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 Lenin ave., 61103, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Behr, G; Drechsler, S-L; Fuchs, G [Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung Dresden, POB 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Naugle, D G; Rathnayaka, K D D, E-mail: naidyuk@ilt.kharkov.u [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station TX 77843-4242 (United States)

    2009-03-01

    An general survey of the superconducting (SC) gap study in the title compounds by point-contact (PC) spectroscopy is presented. The SC gap was determined from dV/dI of PCs employing the well-known theory of conductivity for normal metal-superconductor PCs accounting Andreev reflection. The theory was modified by including pair-breaking effects considering the presence of magnetic rare-earth ions. A possible multiband structure of these compounds was also taken into account. The PC study of the gap in the Er-compound (T{sub N} approx = 6 K < T{sub c} approx = 11K) gives evidence for the presence of two SC gaps. Additionally, a distinct decrease of both gaps is revealed for R = Er in the antiferromagnetic (AF) state. For R = Tm (T{sub N} approx =1.5 K < T{sub c} approx =10.5 K) a decrease of the SC gap is observed below 4-5 K, while for R = Dy (T{sub N} approx =10.5 K > T{sub c} approx = 6.5 K) the SC gap has a BCS-like dependence in the AF state. The SC gap for R = Ho (T{sub N} approx =5.2 K < T{sub c} approx = 8.5 K) exhibits below T* approx =5.6 K a single-band BCS-like dependence vanishing above T*, where a specific magnetic order occurs. The difference in the SC gap behavior in the title compounds is attributed to different AF ordering.

  11. Understanding Search Behavior In Professional Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikard Harr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an empirical study of social interaction in a professional social network. As the point of departure, we take previous research into distributed work and information foraging theory to explore interaction search behavior of individuals active in professional networks, examining how social factors govern their behavior. For this exploration, we focused on the process through which relevant collaborators are chosen to execute shared work tasks in the area of logistics, and identified six characteristics of the explored processes. We recognized the “survival of the social” as a cornerstone for efficient and long-term professional networks and outlined design implications arising from our findings. More specifically, we found that participants are oriented to solutions that involve active social agents and social relations, rather than optimizing based on task characteristics, efficiency, and cost. These behaviors motivate the need for the concept of social interaction foraging.

  12. The Concept of Relevance in IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlund, Pia

    2003-01-01

    Introduces the concept of relevance as viewed and applied in the context of IR (information retrieval) evaluation by presenting an overview of the multidimensionality and dynamic nature of the concept. Topics include classes and types of relevance; relevance criteria; degrees of relevance; levels of relevance; situational relevance; and…

  13. The Cognitive-Behavioral Management of Pain: Neurophysiological Relevancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Christopher I.

    Traditional medical interventions for the management of pain have consisted largely of either pharmacological treatments or surgery to interrupt the involved neural pathways. The results of these procedures have been largely unsatisfactory because of debilitating side effects and recurrence of pain. Investigations of a host of psychological…

  14. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-01

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with. PMID:27090952

  15. Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Readalouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Laura A.; Bingham, Gary E.; Pendergast, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The teacher readaloud is an instructional tool established in its ability to foster children's language and literacy development. Increasing cultural and linguistic diversity and changing standards place pressure on teachers to provide literacy and language instruction relevant to children's everyday lives and learning. This article…

  16. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  17. Focus Point Gauge Mediation with Incomplete Adjoint Messengers and Gauge Coupling Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2015-01-01

    As the mass limits on supersymmetric particles are gradually pushed to higher values due to their continuing non-observation at the CERN LHC, looking for focus point regions in the supersymmetric parameter space, which shows considerably reduced fine-tuning, is increasingly more important than ever. We explore this in the context of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking with messengers transforming in the adjoint representation of the gauge group, namely, octet of color SU(3) and triplet of weak SU(2). A distinctive feature of this scenario is that the focus point is achieved by fixing a single combination of parameters in the messenger sector, which is invariant under the renormalization group evolution. Because of this invariance, the focus point behavior is well under control once the relevant parameters are fixed by a more fundamental theory. The observed Higgs boson mass is explained with a relatively mild fine-tuning $\\Delta=$ 60-150. Interestingly, even in the presence of incomplete messenger multiplet...

  18. Disordered Holographic Systems II: Marginal Relevance of Imperfection

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Allan

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of quenched disorder in holographic systems, focusing on the effects of mild electric disorder. By studying the renormalization group evolution of the disorder distribution at subleading order in perturbations away from the clean fixed point, we show that electric disorder is marginally relevant in (2+1)-dimensional holographic conformal field theories.

  19. Heterodox Autonomy Doctrine: realism and purposes, and its relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bernal-Meza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Autonomy Doctrine, elaborated by Juan Carlos Puig, is a realist point of view of International Relations. It is an analysis, from the periphery, about the structure of world power, and a roadmap (from a theoretical point of view for the longing process of autonomization-regarding hegemonic power-for a country whose ruling class would decide to overcome dependency. The elements its author took into account when analyzing its own context are explained in this text and, afterwards, are reflected over its relevance nowadays. For that purpose, it is necessary to answer certain questions, such as which are the concepts and categories that may explain its relevance, its applicability to regional integration and cooperation models and projects, and what would be the analytical method to compare reality versus ideas, among others. The methodological proposal to analyze the relevance of Puig's doctrine is to compare it to different visions of regionalism that are currently in effect in Latin America.

  20. Relevant thermalhydraulic aspects of new generation LWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with the evaluation of thermalhydraulic aspects retained of importance for the assessment of safety of the new generation nuclear plants. Following a survey of the reactor concepts proposed for the future, the attention will be focused toward SBWR, AP-600 and PIUS whose characteristics, under many respects, bound the features introduced in the largest part of the new reactors. Expected relevant phenomena typical of the mentioned plants will be discussed in the paper: on this basis a critical overview of the experimental activities planned or in progress is presented and a judgement about the suitability of available computer codes is formulated. Conclusions are drawn in relation to the assessment of the new design proposals from a thermalhydraulic point of view. (authors). 20 figs., 3 tabs., 32 refs

  1. Central limit behavior of deterministic dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirnakli, Ugur; Beck, Christian; Tsallis, Constantino

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the probability density of rescaled sums of iterates of deterministic dynamical systems, a problem relevant for many complex physical systems consisting of dependent random variables. A central limit theorem (CLT) is valid only if the dynamical system under consideration is sufficiently mixing. For the fully developed logistic map and a cubic map we analytically calculate the leading-order corrections to the CLT if only a finite number of iterates is added and rescaled, and find excellent agreement with numerical experiments. At the critical point of period doubling accumulation, a CLT is not valid anymore due to strong temporal correlations between the iterates. Nevertheless, we provide numerical evidence that in this case the probability density converges to a q -Gaussian, thus leading to a power-law generalization of the CLT. The above behavior is universal and independent of the order of the maximum of the map considered, i.e., relevant for large classes of critical dynamical systems.

  2. Economic Decisions by Approved Principles: Rules of Thumb as Behavioral Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Buhr, Walter; Christiaans, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the relevance of the concept of rational behavior in economic theory and suggest, on the basis of modern brain research results, to abstain from this notion and instead to apply behavioral rules of thumb in decision-making, especially if these rules can be derived from rational problem solutions determined by individual economic agents. We give an example for our point of view which refers to a contribution by Baumol and Quandt on the pricing behavior of a monopolistic firm and whi...

  3. "Concept and Relevance of Income"

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Obinata

    2002-01-01

    Recently, many people criticize the traditionally accepted principles of realization, matching, and allocation. In addition, the reporting performance project in the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is willing to substitute the extant concept of net income for the unexperienced concept of comprehensive income with prohibition of recycling of other comprehensive income. On the other hand, the usefulness or relevance of net income has been repeatedly ascertained in empirical stud...

  4. Epistemic Logic with Relevant Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peliš, Michal

    London : College Publications, 2009 - (Peliš, M.), s. 123-135 ISBN 978-1-904987-46-8. [ Logica 2008. Hejnice (CZ), 16.06.2008-20.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA900090703; GA ČR(CZ) GA401/07/0904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : relevant logic * epistemic logic * modal logic Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Relevant Explanations: Allowing Disjunctive Assignments

    OpenAIRE

    Shimony, Solomon Eyal

    2013-01-01

    Relevance-based explanation is a scheme in which partial assignments to Bayesian belief network variables are explanations (abductive conclusions). We allow variables to remain unassigned in explanations as long as they are irrelevant to the explanation, where irrelevance is defined in terms of statistical independence. When multiple-valued variables exist in the system, especially when subsets of values correspond to natural types of events, the over specification problem, alleviated by inde...

  6. The importance of experienced relevance and consequences related to research participation in migration and integration research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Ditlevsen, Kia

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, research within the area of health sciences has always suffered from a failure to include certain population groups in quantitative as well as qualitative research. Such population groups include migrant and ethnic minority groups. This bias in inclusion of different population......-western countries. The areas of research were perception and practices related to food, eating and health behavior in every-day life. The paper presents the problems experienced in the projects from two main perspectives, namely the perceived relevance of participation as well among research subjects as among the...... groups hence also represents a democratic problem in terms of ensuring the socially inclusive character of policies. This paper seeks to discuss how to better engage migrant populations and 'gatekeepers' around them in research. The paper takes its point of departure in three recent projects which have...

  7. The Impact of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" on Organizational Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric J.; VanStelle, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    In the book "Verbal Behavior," Skinner provided a comprehensive, behavioral account of language. While the impact of Skinner's analysis on empirical research has been examined broadly, this review of the literature focused on studies relevant to organizational behavior management (OBM). Both empirical and nonempirical journal articles in OBM were…

  8. Brief Review on the Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚腾龙; 阿勒腾

    2015-01-01

    Relevance theory has had an impact on the study in various disciplines including linguistics,literature and so on. This paper gives a brief review of the relevance theory and two principles of relevance.

  9. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Nurbawono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

  10. Global Behavior of the Components for the Second Order -Point Boundary Value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    An Yulian; Ma Ruyun

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We consider the nonlinear eigenvalue problems , , , , where , , and for , with ; ; . There exist two constants such that and , . Using the global bifurcation techniques, we study the global behavior of the components of nodal solutions of the above problems.

  11. Revisiting verbs of emission: an update on some relevant theoretical accounts of lexical specification and argument structure of emission verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Milivojevic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of what semantic properties lexicalized in verbs determine their syntactic behavior in intransitive motion events and in resultative constructions in English and Serbian. Special attention is devoted to English and Serbian verbs of emission (specifically verbs of sound emission and partly also verbs of light, smell and substance emission regarding their potential to surface as main verbs in these constructions and to combine with directional phrases within specific morphosyntactic templates (unaccusatives and unergatives. The presented research promotes a theoretical view according to which the established syntactic patterns can be applied across the whole class of verbs of emission to express a full er range of atypical verb meanings in motion events. Theoretical conclusions of the research are also relevant for a wider theoretical description of motion events and resultatives in a cross - linguistic perspective. The paper puts forth additional implica tions regarding the projectionalist approach to semantic verb classes against the theoretical framework of Beth Levin (1993. Finally, the paper considers the relevant points of structurally realized similarities via relevant constructional templates in En glish and in Serbian, as well as some important points of morphosyntactic divergence between the two languages. The conclusions presented aim at a more comprehensive contrastive language typology based on language “framing” parameters.

  12. Integrity assessment for safety relevant nuclear piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The failure behavior of pipes and piping components (e.g. straight pipe, pipe bend, T-joint) with and without cracks under different loading conditions has been investigated in numerous experimental and analytical/numerical research projects. The results of these projects were used to adjust and to verify different methodologies and procedures to calculate the failure loads, the respective critical crack sizes as well as the leak area and the leak rates. On the basis of the actual material characteristics, the actual as-built configurations and design of the piping systems, the knowledge of possible failure mechanism, concepts for the assessment of the integrity of the systems could be developed for the different actual as well as for postulated loading conditions. Based on the integrity assessment the leak before break behavior and break preclusion of safety relevant nuclear piping can be demonstrated. Examples are presented of the German assessment procedure for a main feed water line of a PWR as well as for the Indian assessment procedure for the primary heat transport system piping of a PHWR. - Highlights: • Description of the German Basis Safety Concept and Integrity Concept is presented. • Application is demonstrated for the main feed water line of a PWR plant. • Leak-before-break qualification of nuclear power plants in India. • Practical application to PHT system piping of a pressurized heavy water reactor. • Evaluation of leakage size crack and stability analysis verified by experiment

  13. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part I: Maternal Behavior Permanently Affects Adult Behavior in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights the field of epigenetics and its relevance in determining the effects of maternal nurturing on behavioral patterns in offsprings. Results concluded that maternal behavior influences the offspring's behavior to stress in adulthood and the effects are transgenerational through epigenetic mechanisms.

  14. INFLUENCE OF MEDIA ON BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Schieser, Hans

    2013-01-01

    How far do Media (Television, Video Games, Publications) influence the behavior of young people? The increasing occurrence of violent behavior (e.g. amuck shootings) suggest a negative influence upon the minds and behavior of youth. Psychologists point to the effects of propaganda, the fallacy of "behaviorism" and the facts of experience with addiction (e.g. pornography) and physical effects on the brain.

  15. The Neuroscience of PowerPoint[TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney

    2014-01-01

    Many concepts have been published relevant to improving the design of PowerPoint[TM] (PP) presentations for didactic purposes, including the redundancy, modality, and signaling principles of multimedia learning. In this article, we review the recent neuroimaging findings that have emerged elucidating the neural structures involved in many of these…

  16. [Hygiene as a behavior problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler, R; Borneff, M

    1987-03-01

    The subject of the study is a systematizing analysis of present research concerned with the barriers which prevent scientific findings about hygiene from being carried out and which hamper the obvious adoption of hygienically and psycho-hygienically relevant prophylactic measures. A general interpretive model with explanatory value for health- and hygiene-related behavior is being developed. Future studies will particularly have to clarify what significance and what interpretative relevance do the diverse influencing factors have for a particular person in a particular position and situation and how in the course of one's biography even something like lifestyles of hygienic behavior develop and change. For the necessity of improvement as regards the hygienic status in various realms of life the knowledge about existing barriers is a basic essential. The following quantities and constructs pass into the theoretic interpretive model which should also provide the basis for further evolvement of theories as well as the starting point for specific research hypotheses but not least for the development of specific research and evaluation designs: Standard of information, informational behavior and quality of information. The individual risk assessment: A function of the subjective importance and probability that benefit and cost factors of prophylactic behavior will occur. Additional influencing factors essential to the development of a desirable health- and hygiene-related behavior are: Objective shortcomings with regard to prophylaxis: deficits of the hygienic research including the deficits concerning the development of feasible and universally applicable disinfection methods. Hazards connected to prophylaxis: Objective risks with regard to prophylaxis (disinfection methods which may cause allergies, which involve problems with the compatibility of materials and so forth) and psychological risks (impaired relations between physician and patient due to the wearing of a

  17. 交配行为对雄性棕色田鼠雌激素及雌激素β受体在相关脑区的影响%Changes of Estrogen in Serum and Estrogen Receptor β in the Relevant Brain Regions Following Mating Behavior of the Male Mandarin Vole Microtus mandarinus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何凤琴; 张巨武; 石靖; 王波

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the estrogen and estrogen receptor β changes after mating behavior of male mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus), the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunohistochemistry methods were used to investigate changes of the serum estrogen (E) concentrations, estrogen immunoreactive neurons (E-IRs) and estrogen receptor β immunoreactive neurons (ERβ-IRs) in the relevant brain regions following mating behavior. Fifteen sexually matured male voles were randomly divided into three groups and treated differently: (1) control group: voles were exposed to clean hard-wood shavings (n=5), (2) exposure group: voles were exposed to the soiled bedding for more than 24h on which estrous females had been placed (n=5), and (3) mating group: voles were placed with an estrous female for more than 24h (n=5). The results showed circulating serum E concentrations were significantly higher in the mating group than in the exposure group and the control group, and there were no significant difference between the exposure group and the control group. E-IRs and ERβ-IRs were detected in the following brain regions related to mating behavior: the arcuate nucleus (ARC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), lateral septal nucleus (LS), medial amygdaioid nucleus (ME),medial preoptic area (MPO) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH). The results showed that there were significantly more E-IRs in the six brain regions in the mating group than in the control group and the exposure group, and there were no significant difference between the exposure group and the control group except for LS. There was no significant difference in ERβ-1Rs in the six brain regions among the three groups, and there were some lighter -stained ERβ-IRs in these brain regions. The results suggested that estrogen affect mating activity of male mandarin voles, hut ERβ might not play an important role in mating behavior of male mandarin voles. Instead, it might be through other receptors.%应

  18. Tipping points among social learners: Tools from varied disciplines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Alexander BENTLEY; Michael J. O'BRIEN

    2012-01-01

    There is a long and rich tradition in the social sciences of using models of collective behavior in animals as jumprag-off points for the study of human behavior,including collective human behavior.Here,we come at the problem in a slightly different fashion.We ask whether models of collective human behavior have anything to offer those who study animal behavior.Our brief example of tipping points,a model first developed in the physical sciences and later used in the social sciences,suggests that the analysis of human collective behavior does indeed have considerable to offer [Current Zoology 58 (2):298-306,2012].

  19. The relevance of contextual variables

    OpenAIRE

    Ackaert, Johan; Wauters, Bram; Verlet, Dries

    2011-01-01

    Although compulsory voting constitutes one of the main characteristics of the Belgian electoral system, the last general election results pointed out that nearly 11 pct. of the registered voters did not show up at the ballot station and that nearly 6 pct. of the voters casted a blanc or invalid vote. Most of the recent research on electoral participation focuses on the importance of individual (social-demographic and social-psychological) variables and political attitudes to explain turnout....

  20. On Partitioning Colored Points

    CERN Document Server

    Toda, Takahisa

    2010-01-01

    P. Kirchberger proved that, for a finite subset $X$ of $\\mathbb{R}^{d}$ such that each point in $X$ is painted with one of two colors, if every $d+2$ or fewer points in $X$ can be separated along the colors, then all the points in $X$ can be separated along the colors. In this paper, we show a more colorful theorem.

  1. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing...... Vector Machine (RVM) [4] in 2001. While the concept of RVM was intriguing, problems with the approach were the run time which is approximately cubic in the number of basis functions as well as the greedy optimization. Hence, different approaches to overcome these shortcomings were developed, e.g. [5] or...... [6] as well as Tipping himself in [7] (FastRVM). Recently, Sabuncu and Van Leemput [8, 9] extended the relevance vector machine by incorporating an additional spatial regularization term in the Gaussian prior on the regression weights or classification features (RVoxM). RVoxM encourages spatial...

  2. Point cloud densification

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Mona

    2010-01-01

    Several automatic methods exist for creating 3D point clouds extracted from 2D photos. In manycases, the result is a sparse point cloud, unevenly distributed over the scene.After determining the coordinates of the same point in two images of an object, the 3D positionof that point can be calculated using knowledge of camera data and relative orientation. A model created from a unevenly distributed point clouds may loss detail and precision in thesparse areas. The aim of this thesis is to stud...

  3. Dual Affine invariant points

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Mathieu; Schuett, Carsten; Werner, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    An affine invariant point on the class of convex bodies in R^n, endowed with the Hausdorff metric, is a continuous map p which is invariant under one-to-one affine transformations A on R^n, that is, p(A(K))=A(p(K)). We define here the new notion of dual affine point q of an affine invariant point p by the formula q(K^{p(K)})=p(K) for every convex body K, where K^{p(K)} denotes the polar of K with respect to p(K). We investigate which affine invariant points do have a dual point, whether this ...

  4. A Peep into the Uncertainty-Complexity-Relevance Modeling Trilemma through Global Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Carpena, R.; Muller, S. J.; Chu, M.; Kiker, G. A.; Perz, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    points) in the face of environmental and anthropogenic change (Perz, Muñoz-Carpena, Kiker and Holt, 2013), and through MonteCarlo mapping potential management activities over the most important factors or processes to influence the system towards behavioral (desirable) outcomes (Chu-Agor, Muñoz-Carpena et al., 2012).

  5. Point specificity in acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Emma M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The existence of point specificity in acupuncture is controversial, because many acupuncture studies using this principle to select control points have found that sham acupoints have similar effects to those of verum acupoints. Furthermore, the results of pain-related studies based on visual analogue scales have not supported the concept of point specificity. In contrast, hemodynamic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies evaluating the responses to stimulation of multiple points on the body surface have shown that point-specific actions are present. This review article focuses on clinical and laboratory studies supporting the existence of point specificity in acupuncture and also addresses studies that do not support this concept. Further research is needed to elucidate the point-specific actions of acupuncture.

  6. A terapia comunitária em um centro de atenção psicossocial: (desatando pontos relevantes La terapia comunitaria en los centros de atención psicosocial: (desatando nudos relevantes Community therapy at psychosocial care centers: (disconnecting relevant points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Oliveira Ferreira Filha

    2010-06-01

    ón social de los mismos, ya que relataron cambios de comportamiento en las relaciones interpersonales. La experiencia tuvo excelentes resultados, ya que el estudio trabajó con un abordaje que contempla aspectos sociales aún poco investigados.This study aims at describing Community Therapy's implementation at a Mental Health Services (CAPS, identifying problems experienced by its users and families and the coping strategies; and analyzing CT's contributions to user's social inclusion. In this predominantly qualitative study, the technique of semi-structured interview and CT's assessment sheets were used. Family conflicts, insomnia and abandonment were the major problems cited, and several coping strategies were mentioned, such as: family support, religious belief, professional help, etc. It was proved that user's participation on CT have contributed to their social inclusion, because they report behavior changes in their interpersonal relationships. The experience has shown excellent results, because it works with neglected social aspects.

  7. Explaining interviewer effects and respondent behavior: Theoretical models and empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reinecke, Jost; Schmidt, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The behavior of respondents in interview situations has been dealt on the one hand with respect to many empirical studies and on the other hand in connection with different theoretical approaches (Hyman 1954; Cannell & Kahn 1968). In this paper the most relevant theoretical explanations are discussed and systematized from the point of view of the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein 1980). Whereas this theory program has been used in many substantive fields, it has rarely been applied ...

  8. Three demographic consequences of gender-specific behavior pattern: The case of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Šobot Ankica

    2012-01-01

    The focus point in this paper referes to three issues of demographic development in Serbia presented from the gender perspective. Feminization, mortality in men and low reproductive norms are analyzed as effects of relevant behavior of both sexes. This choice is the result of earlier analyses of gender socio-demographic characteristics as well as the researches of demographic phenomena from the perspective of gender roles and gender relations. The gender aspect, as a cognitive concept, ...

  9. Study of the mechanical behavior of cortical bone microstructure by the finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Arango Villegas, Camila

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Cortical bone tissue is the responsible of giving support and structure to vertebrates. For that reason, understanding and analyzing its behavior is needed from each different hierarchical level that composes it. The lower the structural scale is, the greater the complexity and scarcity of studies in literature. These studies are relevant for understanding, preventing and solving important health problems that affect human beings. From a mechanical point of view is interesting to eval...

  10. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  11. Reward, Interrupted: Inhibitory Control and Its Relevance to Addictions

    OpenAIRE

    Jentsch, James David; Pennington, Zachary T.

    2013-01-01

    There are broad individual differences in the ability to voluntarily and effortfully suppress motivated, reward-seeking behaviors, and this review presents the hypothesis that these individual differences are relevant to addictive disorders. On one hand, cumulative experience with drug abuse appears to alter the molecular, cellular and circuit mechanisms that mediate inhibitory abilities, leading to increasingly uncontrolled patterns of drug-seeking and –taking. On the other, native inter-ind...

  12. Operational Efficiency and the Value-Relevance of Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Cebenoyan

    2003-01-01

    This paper extends prior valuation literature by offering a new dimension to the economic analysis of differential earnings/price behavior. Specifically, a measure of firm performance, estimated using stochastic frontier methodology, is introduced to reexamine this relation. Results provide strong evidence that this efficiency measure explains some of the differences in value-relevance of earnings. The results are robust to functional forms, portfolio choices, timing differences, as well as t...

  13. The problem of a psychological definition of "Legally relevant situations"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the concept of "legally significant situation." Discusses the classification of situations from the point of view of criminology and forensic psychological assessment. Highlights the main features of this type of situations from the point of view of psychology: the nature of conflict, involving the participation of third parties, as well as the presence of certain psychological consequences. This allows to describe the Genesis of certain situations, and to identify the States generated at each stage. It is also noted that the specificity of the legally significant cases involving minors is its group nature (the child as part of a family or other group. Thus, it is possible to give the following definition of a legally relevant situation within legal psychology, children and adolescents: a situation involving minors, subjects who are in relationships, conflict is caused by interactions in the legal context, which leads not only to legally relevant, but also to the psychological consequences for its participants.

  14. Universal self-similar dynamics of relativistic and nonrelativistic field theories near nonthermal fixed points

    CERN Document Server

    Orioli, A Pineiro; Berges, J

    2015-01-01

    We investigate universal behavior of isolated many-body systems far from equilibrium, which is relevant for a wide range of applications from ultracold quantum gases to high-energy particle physics. The universality is based on the existence of nonthermal fixed points, which represent nonequilibrium attractor solutions with self-similar scaling behavior. The corresponding dynamic universality classes turn out to be remarkably large, encompassing both relativistic as well as nonrelativistic quantum and classical systems. For the examples of nonrelativistic (Gross-Pitaevskii) and relativistic scalar field theory with quartic self-interactions, we demonstrate that infrared scaling exponents as well as scaling functions agree. We perform two independent nonperturbative calculations, first by using classical-statistical lattice simulation techniques and second by applying a vertex-resummed kinetic theory. The latter extends kinetic descriptions to the nonperturbative regime of overoccupied modes. Our results open ...

  15. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. PMID:22520196

  16. The Analysis of Human Behavior in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    2004-01-01

    Does the name of the special interest group, "The Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior," imply that those who analyze the behavior of human animals must organize themselves apart from those who analyze the behavior of nonhuman animals? Is the use of nonhumans in experiments really not relevant to the analysis of the behavior of humans? If so,…

  17. The Theory of Economic Integration and its Relevance to OIC Member Countries (Research Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    D. Satiroglu, Kadir

    1987-01-01

    It presents concepts, analyses the nature and the principles of theories of regional economic integration and tries to point out relevance for OIC member countries with associated problems, costs and benefits.

  18. Media and mental illness: relevance to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, S K; Khatana, S; Sarkar, S

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored. PMID:24823515

  19. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  20. Proving Fixed Points

    OpenAIRE

    Grall, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method to characterize the fixed points described in Tarski's theorem for complete lattices. The method is deductive: the least and greatest fixed points are "proved" in some inference system defined from deduction rules. We also apply the method to two other fixed point theorems, a generalization of Tarski's theorem to chain-complete posets and Bourbaki-Witt's theorem. Finally, we compare the method with the traditional iterative method resorting to ordinals and the original imp...

  1. Arctic Climate Tipping Points

    OpenAIRE

    Lenton, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the A...

  2. Internet Information Relevance of Financial Institutions: Evidence from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Shuching Chou; Tze-Yu Yen; Yen-Hui Kuo

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the perception of factors that are likely to influence the Internet information relevance of financial institutions. The media richness theory and stakeholder theory point out that the extent of information and stakeholder communication will influence the utilization of online information, while not many of these discussions are associated with financial institutions. This study integrates seven information categories into three constructs: sufficiency, stakeholder com...

  3. Breakdown Point Theory for Implied Probability Bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Camponovo; Taisuke Otsu

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies robustness of bootstrap inference methods under moment conditions. In particular, we compare the uniform weight and implied probability bootstraps by analyzing behaviors of the bootstrap quantiles when outliers take arbitrarily large values, and derive the breakdown points for those bootstrap quantiles. The breakdown point properties characterize the situation where the implied probability bootstrap is more robust than the uniform weight bootstrap against outliers. Simulati...

  4. Iterative approximation of fixed points

    CERN Document Server

    Berinde, Vasile

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this monograph is to give a unified introductory treatment of the most important iterative methods for constructing fixed points of nonlinear contractive type mappings. It summarizes the most significant contributions in the area by presenting, for each iterative method considered (Picard iteration, Krasnoselskij iteration, Mann iteration, Ishikawa iteration etc.), some of the most relevant, interesting, representative and actual convergence theorems. Applications to the solution of nonlinear operator equations as well as the appropriate error analysis of the main iterative methods, are also presented. Due to the explosive number of research papers on the topic (in the last 15 years only, more than one thousand articles related to the subject were published), it was felt that such a monograph was imperatively necessary. The volume is useful for authors, editors, and reviewers. It introduces concrete criteria for evaluating and judging the plethora of published papers.

  5. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS......, journal articles, book chapters/conference papers and monographs. Journal Crown Indicator (JCI) calculations was based on WoS. Three PPIs are proposed: the Publication Point Ratio (PPR), which measures the sum of obtained publication points over the sum of the ideal points for the same set of documents...

  6. EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES: CLASSIFICATION, FUNCTIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Oberemko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a generalized definition of vesicles as bilayer extracellular organelles of all celular forms of life: not only eu-, but also prokaryotic. The structure and composition of extracellular vesicles, history of research, nomenclature, their impact on life processes in health and disease are discussed. Moreover, vesicles may be useful as clinical instruments for biomarkers, and they are promising as biotechnological drug. However, many questions in this area are still unresolved and need to be addressed in the future. The most interesting from the point of view of practical health care represents a direction to study the effect of exosomes and microvesicles in the development and progression of a particular disease, the possibility of adjusting the pathological process by means of extracellular vesicles of a particular type, acting as an active ingredient. Relevant is the further elucidation of the role and importance of exosomes to the surrounding cells, tissues and organs at the molecular level, the prospects for the use of non-cellular vesicles as biomarkers of disease.

  7. Understanding of myofascial trigger points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuang Xiaoqiang; Tan Shusheng; Huang Qiangmin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current practice of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) including current epidemiology,pathology,diagnosis and treatment.Data sources The data analyzed in this review were mainly from relevant articles without restriction on the publication date reported in PubMed,MedSci,Google scholar.The terms "myofasial trigger points" and "myofacial pain syndrome" were used for the literature search.Study selection Original articles with no limitation of research design and critical reviews containing data relevant to myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and MPS were retrieved,reviewed,analyzed and summarized.Results Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is characterized by painful taut band,referred pain,and local response twitch with a prevalence of 85% to 95% of incidence.Several factors link to the etiology of MTrPs,such as the chronic injury and overload of muscles.Other factors,such as certain nutrient and hormone insufficiency,comorbidities,and muscle imbalance may also maintain the MTrP in an active status and induce recurrent pain.The current pathology is that an extra leakage acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction induces persistent contracture knots,relative to some hypotheses of integration,muscle spindle discharges,spinal segment sensitization,ect.MTrPs can be diagnosed and localized based on a few subjective criteria.Several approaches,including both direct and supplementary treatments,can inactivate MTrPs.Direct treatments are categorized into invasive and conservative.Conclusion This review provides a clear understanding of MTrP pain and introduces the most useful treatment approaches in China.

  8. Most Relevant Explanation: Properties, Algorithms, and Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Changhe; Liu, Xiaolu; Lu, Tsai-Ching; Lim, Heejin

    2012-01-01

    Most Relevant Explanation (MRE) is a method for finding multivariate explanations for given evidence in Bayesian networks [12]. This paper studies the theoretical properties of MRE and develops an algorithm for finding multiple top MRE solutions. Our study shows that MRE relies on an implicit soft relevance measure in automatically identifying the most relevant target variables and pruning less relevant variables from an explanation. The soft measure also enables MRE to capture the intuitive ...

  9. Assessors' Search Result Satisfaction Associated with Relevance in a Scientific Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Lykke, Marianne; Bogers, Toine;

    2010-01-01

    In this poster we investigate the associations between perceived ease of assessment of situational relevance made by a four-point scale, perceived satisfaction with retrieval results and the actual relevance assessments and retrieval performance made by test collection assessors based on their own...

  10. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  11. Aspectos epidemiológicos e imunitários da poliomielite em crianças menores de um ano em área da região da Grande São Paulo, Brasil Some aspects of epidemiological relevance of the behavior of poliomyelitis in children of less than one year of age in an area of Greater S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Alves Waldman

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas algumas características, de interesse epidemiológico, do comportamento da poliomielite na Região da Grande São Paulo, Brasil, salientando a importância da sua ocorrência em menores de um ano. Foram analisados os resultados de um inquérito sorológico, por provas de neutralização, em gestantes atendidas em Centros de Saúde de 16 Distritos Sanitários dessa Região. Com base nessas observações, foi dado destaque para determinadas condições que propiciam a infecção por poliovírus muito precoce, das crianças da área em estudo. Foi proposta a imunização, com a vacina Salk, das gestantes nos 5º e 6º meses de gravidez ou a imunização das crianças, com vacina oral trivalente tipo Sabin, em período anterior aos dois meses de idade, ou seja, em torno do terceiro dia de vida, mas sem prejuízo da aplicação, em seguida, do esquema básico de imunização preconizada pelo Calendário de Vacinação oficial em vigor. Tais medidas visam à eliminação de possível lacuna imunitária na faixa etária de menores de um ano.Some characteristics of epidemiological relevance of the behavior of poliomyelitis in some Health Districts of Greater S. Paulo were studied, special emphasis being put on its occurrence in children of less than one year of agre. Next, the results of serological investigation, performed by means of neutralization tests, on pregnant women attended by Health Centers in sixteen Health Districts of Greater S. Paulo were analysed. Based on these observations the authors draw attention to certain conditions poliovirus infection in children. The immunization of pregnant women with Salk vaccine, during the fifth and sixth months of pregnancy, or, alternatively, the immunization of children with oral trivalent Sabin-type vaccine in the period before the age of two months, possibly about the third day after birth, is proposed; without, however, any change in the normal later application of the basic

  12. Architecture, constraints, and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, John C.; Csete, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to bridge progress in neuroscience involving sophisticated quantitative analysis of behavior, including the use of robust control, with other relevant conceptual and theoretical frameworks from systems engineering, systems biology, and mathematics. Familiar and accessible case studies are used to illustrate concepts of robustness, organization, and architecture (modularity and protocols) that are central to understanding complex networks. These essential organizational feature...

  13. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  14. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  15. Sunspot Bright Points

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2010-01-01

    We used the flux calibrated images through the Broad Band Filter Imager and Stokes Polarimeter data obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Hinode spacecraft to study the properties of bright points in and around the sunspots. The well isolated bright points were selected and classified as umbral dot, peripheral umbral dot, penumbral grains and G-band bright point depending on their location. Most of the bright points are smaller than about 150 km. The larger points are mostly associated with the penumbral features. The bright points are not uniformly distributed over the umbra but preferentially located around the penumbral boundary and in the fast decaying parts of umbra. The color temperature of the bright points, derived using the continuum irradiance, are in the range of 4600 K to 6600 K with cooler ones located in the umbra. The temperature increases as a function of distance from the center to outside. The G-band, CN-band and CaII H flux of the bright points as a function of their blue ba...

  16. Deep Learning Relevance: Creating Relevant Information (As Opposed to Retrieving It)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper;

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared to...... existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  17. Biology relevant to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors

  18. The relevance of ontological commitments

    CERN Document Server

    Echenique-Robba, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    In this introductory note, I describe my particular view of the notion of ontological commitments as honest and pragmatic working hypotheses that assume the existence (out there) of certain entities represented by the symbols in our theory. I argue that this is not naive, in the sense that it does not entail the belief that the hypotheses could ever be proved to be true (or false), but it is nevertheless justified by the success and predictive power of the theory that contains the concepts assumed to exist. I also claim that the ontological commitments one holds (even if tacitly so) have a great influence on what kind of science is produced, how it is used, and how it is understood. Not only I justify this claim, but I also propose a sketch of a possible falsification of it. As a natural conclusion, I defend the importance of identifying, clarifying and making explicit one's ontological commitments if fruitful scientific discussions are to be had. Finally, I compare my point of view with that of some philosop...

  19. Four-Point Wavelets and Their Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国富; 陈发来

    2002-01-01

    Multiresolution analysis (MRA) and wavelets provide useful and efficient tools for representing functions at multiple levels of details. Wavelet representations have been used in a broad range of applications, including image compression, physical simulation and numerical analysis. In this paper, the authors construct a new class of wavelets, called four-point wavelets,based on an interpolatory four-point subdivision scheme. They are of local support, symmetric and stable. The analysis and synthesis algorithms have linear time complexity. Depending on different weight parameters w, the scaling functions and wavelets generated by the four-point subdivision scheme are of different degrees of smoothness. Therefore the user can select better wavelets relevant to the practice among the classes of wavelets. The authors apply the fourpoint wavelets in signal compression. The results show that the four-point wavelets behave much better than B-spline wavelets in many situations.

  20. 我國「電子化政府整合型入口網站」使用者行為分析 | The Analysis of User Behavior to E-government Entry-point of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳祥、林明童 Hsinag Chen、Ming-Tong Lin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:26-38

    本研究藉由分析我國「電子化政府整合型入口網站」的LOG檔案,來具體描述該網站使用者的使用行為模式,並依據歸納的結果,提出對於我國電子化政府整合型入口網站的修正參考。研究結果指出,入口網站的使用者與上班族的作息相仿;網站資訊與內容的提供尚無法符合使用者的資訊需求;使用者資訊的使用依然淺薄,對於入口網站資訊的利用著重在輕薄短小的即時影像;網站實際提供的政府整合性資訊則較乏人問津。此外,使用者進入網站後停留的時間相當短暫,瀏覽的網頁數量相當小,顯示入口網站在便用者的社群經營上缺乏著力點。

    The users’ patterns of e-government entry-point of Taiwan are reported through log file examinations. Recommendations to improve the

  1. Critical points and number of master integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Roman N

    2013-01-01

    We consider the question about the number of master integrals for a multiloop Feynman diagram. We show that, for a given set of denominators, this number is totally determined by the critical points of the polynomials entering either of the two representations: the parametric representation and the Baikov representation. In particular, for the parametric representation the corresponding polynomial is just the sum of Symanzik polynomials. The relevant topological invariant is the sum of the Milnor numbers of the proper critical points. We present a Mathematica package Mint to automatize the counting of the master integrals.

  2. 重庆市城乡儿童6~13岁慢性病患病率及相关行为比较分析%Comparing chronic non-communicable disease and its relevant behaviors between urban and rural children aged from 6 to 13 years old in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱雪雁; 丁贤彬; 张春华; 毛德强; 吕晓燕; 焦艳; 施小明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the difference of chronic non-communicable disease and its relevant behavior between urban and rural children aged from 6 to 13 years old,so as to provide suggestion for intervention.Methods Children aged from 6 to 13 years old by stratified clustered sampling were interviewed and physical examination were performed.The difference of the prevalence of obesity and hypertension and its relevant behaviors were compared by Chi-square test and variance analysis.Results A total of 803 and 727 urban and rural children were interviewed.The prevalence of overweight,obesity and hypertension among urban children was significant higher than that of rural children (P < 0.05).In the past 7 days,the proportion of urban children had milk or milk products for 6 or 7 days (59.4%) was higher than that of rural children (50.2%) (P <0.001).The proportion of urban children had soy bean milk or bean curd jelly was higher than that of rural children (P =0.001).But the proportion of rural children having sugary drinks for breakfast was higher than that of urban children(P <0.001).The proportion of urban children having breakfast at home was higher than that of rural children(P < 0.001).The proportion of rural children doing homework for more than 4 hours was higher than that of urban children(P =0.003).The time of rural children watching TV from Monday to Friday and weekends was longer than that of urban children (P < 0.05).Conclusion The prevalence of obesity and hypertension among urban children was higher than that of rural children.And the unbalanced diet was common among both urban and rural children.%目的 比较分析城市与农村儿童慢性病患病率及相关行为,为开展有针对性的干预提供建议.方法 采用分层整群抽样的方法抽取6 ~13岁的儿童进行问卷调查与体格检查,比较城市与农村儿童肥胖、高血压检出率、饮食与日常生活相关活动采用卡方检验,比较城市与农村儿童

  3. Accuracy of measurement of pulmonary emphysema with computed tomography: relevant points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhegger, Bruno, E-mail: brunohochhegger@googlemail.co [Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Irion, Klaus L. [Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Oliveira, Hugo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    Some technical aspects should be taken into consideration in order to guarantee the reliability of the assessment of pulmonary emphysema with lung computed tomography densitometry. Changes in lung density associated with variations in lungs inspiratory and expiratory levels, computed tomography slice thickness, reconstruction algorithm and type of computed tomography apparatus make tomographic comparisons more difficult in follow-up studies of pulmonary emphysema. Nevertheless, quantitative computed tomography has replaced the visual assessment competing with pulmonary function tests as a sensitive method to measure pulmonary emphysema. The present review discusses technical variables of lung computed tomography and their influence on measurements of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  4. Accuracy of measurement of pulmonary emphysema with computed tomography: relevant points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some technical aspects should be taken into consideration in order to guarantee the reliability of the assessment of pulmonary emphysema with lung computed tomography densitometry. Changes in lung density associated with variations in lungs inspiratory and expiratory levels, computed tomography slice thickness, reconstruction algorithm and type of computed tomography apparatus make tomographic comparisons more difficult in follow-up studies of pulmonary emphysema. Nevertheless, quantitative computed tomography has replaced the visual assessment competing with pulmonary function tests as a sensitive method to measure pulmonary emphysema. The present review discusses technical variables of lung computed tomography and their influence on measurements of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  5. Point-of-care salivary microbial tests for detection of cariogenic species - Clinical relevance thereof - review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenčová, E.; Broukal, Z.; Spížek, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 55 (2010), s. 559-568. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : CARIES RISK-ASSESSMENT * EARLY-CHILDHOOD CARIES * ROOT SURFACE CARIES Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.977, year: 2010

  6. Regulator's point of view on the use and relevance of field tracer transport experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste arising from the operation of nuclear power plants as well as from the use of radionuclides in medical treatment, industrial applications and at research facilities has to be disposed of in a way that future generations will bear no risk to their health and to the environment. The goal safety analyses is to demonstrate with a high degree of confidence that in case of a potential release of radionuclides from the repository the consequences to man and to the environment are below regulatory limits. The most important issue is whether numerical safety analyses take into account those migration pathways which may provide the fastest return for the radionuclides to the biosphere and result in the highest calculated exposure. Experiences are discussed gained during assessments of repositories sites in Germany whether field tracer transport experiments are a sensible tool that may be used to gain confidence in the safety evaluation of the facility. (author)

  7. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS......, journal articles, book chapters/conference papers and monographs. Journal Crown Indicator (JCI) calculations was based on WoS. Three PPIs are proposed: thePublication Point Ratio (PPR), which measures the sum of obtained publiacation points over the sum of the ideal pointws for the same set of documents...

  8. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  9. Do acupuncture points exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  10. Point-point and point-line moving-window correlation spectroscopy and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin; Zhan, Daqi; Yu, Zhiwu

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we present a new extension of generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy. Two new algorithms, namely point-point (P-P) correlation and point-line (P-L) correlation, have been introduced to do the moving-window 2D correlation (MW2D) analysis. The new method has been applied to a spectral model consisting of two different processes. The results indicate that P-P correlation spectroscopy can unveil the details and re-constitute the entire process, whilst the P-L can provide general feature of the concerned processes. Phase transition behavior of dimyristoylphosphotidylethanolamine (DMPE) has been studied using MW2D correlation spectroscopy. The newly proposed method verifies that the phase transition temperature is 56 °C, same as the result got from a differential scanning calorimeter. To illustrate the new method further, a lysine and lactose mixture has been studied under thermo perturbation. Using the P-P MW2D, the Maillard reaction of the mixture was clearly monitored, which has been very difficult using conventional display of FTIR spectra.

  11. Speciation of uranium in environmental relevant compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, the chemistry of uranium was focused on its mining and milling for production of high pure uranium compounds as initial matter of reactor fuel elements for energy production and breeding of plutonium for weapons production. In this sense, the recovery of uranium and plutonium from the used reactor fuel elements was also technical realized. The increasing input of uranium into bio-sphere by mining and milling and industrial processes like production of cement, fossil fuels, and fertilizers has led to the realization of the importance of uranium environmental chemistry. For a better assessment of radiotoxicity and transport along the food chain knowledge about the chemistry of uranium is needed in all involved compartments. Starting from uranium content in geo- and bio-systems, about the determination of chemical behavior - the speciation of uranium - is reported in selected environmental compartments like seepage waters coming from mine tailings, different kinds of bacteria living in uranium contaminated soils, and relevant forage plants growing on these soils. For uranium speciation determination direct non-invasive methods are used like various laser spectroscopic methods, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation source, The results obtained by spectroscopic methods showed that the speciation of uranium is dominated in surface waters by uranyl-carbonate complexes in opposite to the speciation in bacteria and plants. In these compartments the speciation is dominated by binding of uranium on carboxylic and phosphorous containing functional groups. It was shown, that in the investigated systems the speciation strongly depends on different physical chemical parameters like ionic strength, kind and amount of ligands, pH, Eh e.g. In experiments with living organisms it is necessary to characterize the state of the bio-system in dependence of the used parameters to compare the obtained results (ratio of dead or living cells of bacteria

  12. Zero-pointed manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, David; Francis, John

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a theory of pointed manifolds, accommodating both embeddings and Pontryagin-Thom collapse maps, so as to present a common generalization of Poincar\\'e duality in topology and Koszul duality in $\\mathcal{E}_n$-algebra.

  13. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  14. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  15. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  16. Point/Counterpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungar, David; Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Point Argument: "Dynamic Languages (in Reactive Environments) Unleash Creativity," by David Ungar. For the sake of creativity, the profession needs to concentrate more on inventing new and better dynamic languages and environments and less on improving static languages. Counterpoint Argument...

  17. Triple Point Topological Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziming; Winkler, Georg W.; Wu, QuanSheng; Li, Ju; Soluyanov, Alexey A.

    2016-07-01

    Topologically protected fermionic quasiparticles appear in metals, where band degeneracies occur at the Fermi level, dictated by the band structure topology. While in some metals these quasiparticles are direct analogues of elementary fermionic particles of the relativistic quantum field theory, other metals can have symmetries that give rise to quasiparticles, fundamentally different from those known in high-energy physics. Here, we report on a new type of topological quasiparticles—triple point fermions—realized in metals with symmorphic crystal structure, which host crossings of three bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level protected by point group symmetries. We find two topologically different types of triple point fermions, both distinct from any other topological quasiparticles reported to date. We provide examples of existing materials that host triple point fermions of both types and discuss a variety of physical phenomena associated with these quasiparticles, such as the occurrence of topological surface Fermi arcs, transport anomalies, and topological Lifshitz transitions.

  18. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  19. Transitivity on Weierstrass points

    CERN Document Server

    Laing, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    We look for Riemann surfaces whose automorphism group acts transitively on the Weierstrass points. We concentrate on hyperelliptic surfaces, surfaces with PSL(2, q) as automorphism group, Platonic surfaces and Fermat curves.

  20. Fixed Point Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Dawar, Anuj; Gurevich, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    We consider fixed point logics, i.e., extensions of first order predicate logic with operators defining fixed points. A number of such operators, generalizing inductive definitions, have been studied in the context of finite model theory, including nondeterministic and alternating operators. We review results established in finite model theory, and also consider the expressive power of the resulting logics on infinite structures. In particular, we establish the relationship between inflationa...

  1. Relative fixed point theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ponto, Kate

    2009-01-01

    The Lefschetz fixed point theorem and its converse have many generalizations. One of these generalizations is to endomorphisms of a space relative to a fixed subspace. In this paper we define relative Lefschetz numbers and Reidemeister traces using traces in bicategories with shadows. We use the functoriality of this trace to identify different forms of these invariants and to prove a relative Lefschetz fixed point theorem and its converse.

  2. SharePoint governance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    SharePoint is a web-based business collaboration platform from Microsoft which is very robust and dynamic in nature. The platform has been in the market for more than a decade and has been adapted by large number of organisations in the world. The platform has become larger in scale, richer in features and is improving consistently with every new version. However, SharePoint governance has also gained more importance with these extensions, which always has been a tough chall...

  3. Modeling of the behavior under fuel dispersed irradiation of U-Mo with aluminum matrix from the thermal point of view and its interrelationship with the interdiffusion phase fuel / matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from postirradiation examinations of U-Mo / Al dispersion fuels plates denotes a strong interrelation and feedback between the fuel-matrix interaction and the fuel temperature, bringing undesired consequences on the total swelling and behavior under irradiation. The present work approaches this problem, modeling the profile of temperatures moment by moment to be able to evaluate the increase of this interaction. The Fast Dart program is used, optimized version of program Dart, developed by Dr. J. Rest in collaboration with Dr. H. Taboada. A subroutine of thermal calculation was implemented in this code, which allowed to calculate the evolution of the interaction between the fuel and the matrix. The results of simulations are compared with the results of postirradiation examinations realized by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors International Program. In particular, a good adjustment in the calculation of the depth of interdiffusion U-Mo/Al is observed, demonstrating a right estimation of the profile of temperatures on the fuel plate. It is considered necessary the inclusion of a model that describes the phases that form in the zone of interaction, denoting its thermal dependency and effects due to the radiation damage. (author)

  4. Point-of-care diagnostics for niche applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Brian M; Ligler, Frances S; Walker, Glenn M

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care or point-of-use diagnostics are analytical devices that provide clinically relevant information without the need for a core clinical laboratory. In this review we define point-of-care diagnostics as portable versions of assays performed in a traditional clinical chemistry laboratory. This review discusses five areas relevant to human and animal health where increased attention could produce significant impact: veterinary medicine, space travel, sports medicine, emergency medicine, and operating room efficiency. For each of these areas, clinical need, available commercial products, and ongoing research into new devices are highlighted. PMID:26837054

  5. Relevance Of Utility Maximization In Student University Choice – A Consumption-Based Model For Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. SCHWARTZ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a model of utility-maximization to better understand the university choice process. Student decision-making for university choice is conceptualized as a purchase decision process through which students weigh the costs of colleges or universities they choose against their perceived benefits of attending these institutions. The key issues are the impact of consumer’s preferences, income, tuition, and costs in college decision-making. From this perspective, the paper describes the relationship between utility maximization and educational demand, effects of tuition increases, tuition discounting, and financial aid subsidies on university choice. A decision-making scheme for educational consumption is used in order to identify the stages of the university choice process and to predict the behavior of consumers in the higher education marketplace. The analysis points to the need to better inform students about the cost of postsecondary education which is a highly relevant aspect in the university choice process.

  6. 从社会学角度解读我国青年女性运动塑身的行为%Interpretation of Shaping the Behavior of Young Women’s Movement from a Sociological Point of View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹甜甜

    2015-01-01

    采用文献资料和逻辑分析法,针对我国青年女性在“以男性为主导的女性美”的强权语境及工作和生活中面临的压力,从社会学视角,对我国青年女性运动塑身行为进行了解读。研究表明:我国青年女性以身体审美的正态价值观相对缺失;在身体管理中,以体育运动塑身作为改变的手段,符合当代我国青年女性心理的追求,成为身体重新规划和精神自我治愈的一种有效手段。%Using the method of documentary and logical analysis ,and in view of China’s young women’s work and life pressure in the male‐dominated female beauty ,this paper from the perspectives of sociology studied the sports fitness behavior of young women in China .The results showed that :young women in China are relatively lack of the physical aesthetic concept ;in the physical management ,it conforms to the contemporary pursuit of China’s young women by using sports body sculpting as a way to change ,and it becomes a kind of effective means to a body reorganize and spiritual self cured .

  7. Implications of Relevance Theory to English Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雅丽

    2013-01-01

    Reading is a style of communication between reader and writer while relevance theory is a new approach to communi⁃cation. Based on relevance theory, we can paraphrase reading as followings: reading comprehension is a process of communica⁃tion between reader and writer; a process of making inference from the ostensive-inference communication; a process of seeking optimal relevance on the part of the reader.

  8. Search Relevance based on the Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bicer, Veli

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we explore the challenge of search relevance in the context of semantic search. Specifically, the notion of semantic relevance can be distinguished from the other types of relevance in Information Retrieval (IR) in terms of employing an underlying semantic model. We propose the emerging Semantic Web data on the Web which is represented in RDF graph structures as an important candidate to become such a semantic model in a search process.

  9. Enhancing the Practical Relevance of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Toffel, Michael Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to encourage scholars to conduct research that is more relevant to the decisions faced by managers and policymakers. I define relevant research papers as those whose research questions address problems found (or potentially found) in practice and whose hypotheses connect independent variables within the control of practitioners to outcomes they care about using logic they view as feasible. I provide several suggestions for how scholars can enhance research relevance, includ...

  10. Holographic Three point Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissi, Agnese

    In this thesis it is addressed the problem of the computation of three point correlation functions within the AdS=CFT correspondence. In the context of the AdS 5=CFT4 correspondence we present three computations. First we compare the results of tree level three point functions of two giant...... gravitons and a point like graviton and its dual counterpart, namely two Schur polynomials and a single trace chiral primary. Secondly we compute the one loop correction to planar, non extremal three point functions of two heavy and one light operators, both from the gauge and string side in the Frolov......-Tseytlin regime. Finally we generalize the scalar product of two states belonging to the SO(6) sector of N = 4 SYM with implications on the construction of three point functions of 3 non-BPS operators from the gauge theory side. On the other hand in the AdS4=CFT3 correspondence we compare the computations in the...

  11. 西安市无龋和有龋中青年人群口腔健康行知因素的对比分析%Comparative analysis of the knowledge and behavior relevant factors on oral health between noncarious and carious middle-aged and young people of Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 王胜朝; 程小刚; 倪龙兴; 郭静; 公文

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate carious relevant risk factors in middle-aged and young people of Xincheng town, Xi' an, thus providing theoretical basis for the strategy of caries prevention. METHODS: 585 subjects aged 31~40 years old from Xincheng town, Xi'an, were included in the study. 324 of them were in carious group (DMFT≥ 1) , and 261 in noncarious group (DMFT = 0). The individuals in both groups received oral health examination and questionnaire survey on oral health knowledge and behavior relevant factors. The data obtained were analysed statistically using Single factor x2 test and Logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The caries incidence of all the subjects was 55.4% and the average individual caries was 1. 85 ± 2. 370. Single factor x2 test showed that there were statistical differences (P<0. 05) on the gender distribution, education background constitution, tooth-brushing method, frequency of routine oral examination, awareness of oral health, knowledge of oral health and family income between the carious and noncarious groups. Logistic regression analysis showed that caries occurrence was related to following factors : gender, education background, tooth - brushing method, awareness of oral health, view on the cost for going to a dentist. There was a higher caries incidence in the female and in the subjects with lower education background, wrong application of tooth-brushing and little awareness of oral health. And the carious population tend to accept higher cost for going to a dentist. CONCLUSION: Strengthening oral health education and directing tooth-brushing method may be practical and beneficial for middle-aged and young people in caries prevention. More attention should be palid to the female and the people with low education background.%目的:探讨西安市中青年人群患龋的行知危险因素,为制定有针对性的预防措施提供依据.方法:选择西安市新城区5所小学二、三年级小学生家长,进行口腔健康检查和

  12. Characterization of Nanoparticle Aggregation in Biologically Relevant Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnnis, Kathleen; Lahann, Joerg

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are often studied as drug delivery vehicles, but little is known about their behavior in blood once injected into animal models. If the NPs aggregate in blood, they will be shunted to the liver or spleen instead of reaching the intended target. The use of animals for these experiments is costly and raises ethical questions. Typically dynamic light scattering (DLS) is used to analyze aggregation behavior, but DLS cannot be used because the components of blood also scatter light. As an alternative, a method of analyzing NPs in biologically relevant fluids such as blood plasma has been developed using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) with fluorescent filters. In this work, NTA was used to analyze the aggregation behavior of fluorescent polystyrene NPs with different surface modifications in blood plasma. It was expected that different surface chemistries on the particles will change the aggregation behavior. The effect of the surface modifications was investigated by quantifying the percentage of NPs in aggregates after addition to blood plasma. The use of this characterization method will allow for better understanding of particle behavior in the body, and potential problems, specifically aggregation, can be addressed before investing in in vivo studies.

  13. Critical behavior of Y-doped Nd{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} manganites exhibiting the tricritical point and large magnetocaloric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan, The-Long; Ho, T.A. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Thang, P.D. [Faculty of Engineering Physics and Nanotechnology, VNU-University of Engineering and Technology, Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Tran, Q.T. [Center for Science and Technology Communication, Ministry of Science and Technology, 113 Tran Duy Hung, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Thanh, T.D.; Phuc, N.X. [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phan, M.H. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Huy, B.T. [Department of Chemistry, Changwon National University, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, S.C., E-mail: scyu@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Tricritical point in Y-doped Nd{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} manganites. • A large magnetic-entropy change. • Magnetic inhomogeneity and phase separation. - Abstract: We have determined the values of critical exponents of two polycrystalline samples (Nd{sub 1−x}Y{sub x}){sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0 and 0.07) from the magnetization data versus temperature and magnetic field, M(H, T), to learn about their magnetic and magnetocaloric (MC) properties. The results reveal the samples exhibiting the crossover of first-order and second-order phase transitions, where the exponent values β = 0.271 and γ = 0.922 for x = 0, and β = 0.234–0.236 and γ = 1.044–1.063 for x = 0.07 determined by using modified Arrott plots and static-scaling hypothesis are close to those expected for the tricritical mean-field theory (β = 0.25 and γ = 1.0). Particularly, the T{sub C} of x = 0 and 0.07 can be any value in the temperature ranges of 240–255 K and 170–278 K, respectively, depending on the magnitude of applied magnetic field and determination techniques. Around the T{sub C}, studying the MC effect of the samples has revealed a large magnetic-entropy change (ΔS{sub m}) up to ∼8 J/kg K for the applied field interval ΔH = 50 kOe, corresponding to refrigerant capacity values of 200–245 J/kg. These phenomena are related to the crossover nature and the persisting of FM/anti-FM interactions even above the T{sub C}, as further confirmed by electron-spin-resonance data, Curie–Weiss law-based analyses, and an exponential parameter characteristic of magnetic order n = dLn|ΔS{sub m}|/dLnH.

  14. Layered Fixed Point Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipiuk, Piotr; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    We present a logic for the specification of static analysis problems that goes beyond the logics traditionally used. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specifications of properties. Two main theoretical contributio...

  15. Alligning vertical collection relevance with user intent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Ke; Demeester, Thomas; Nguyen, Dong; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Trieschnigg, Dolf

    2014-01-01

    Selecting and aggregating different types of content from multiple vertical search engines is becoming popular in web search. The user vertical intent, the verticals the user expects to be relevant for a particular information need, might not correspond to the vertical collection relevance, the vert

  16. 33 CFR 51.8 - Relevant considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relevant considerations. 51.8 Section 51.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL COAST GUARD DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD § 51.8 Relevant considerations. In determining the equity and propriety...

  17. Canceling Interference in Acupuncture Points Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanexy San Martín Reyes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper propose the cancellation of interference or artifacts by the method of Allen in signals captured in different acupuncture points (Small Intestine Meridian, points ID1-ID2 and ID1-ID19. It is considered that the biosignal under study should be able to be characterized after its acquisition by subtracting the different interference variables that may coexist in the measurement zone, as it is in the case of ECG or any other artifact. The biosignal obtained as a result of the cancellation will be the acupuncture signal or from its imperfection another wave can be obtained as from a bioelectrical point of view such imperfection can be characterized and at the same time can bb useful to establish a long-term correspondence between the behavior of the signals on various acupuncture points and different diseases.

  18. Behavioral Law & Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  19. Relevance ranking for vertical search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    In plain, uncomplicated language, and using detailed examples to explain the key concepts, models, and algorithms in vertical search ranking, Relevance Ranking for Vertical Search Engines teaches readers how to manipulate ranking algorithms to achieve better results in real-world applications. This reference book for professionals covers concepts and theories from the fundamental to the advanced, such as relevance, query intention, location-based relevance ranking, and cross-property ranking. It covers the most recent developments in vertical search ranking applications, such as freshness-based relevance theory for new search applications, location-based relevance theory for local search applications, and cross-property ranking theory for applications involving multiple verticals. It introduces ranking algorithms and teaches readers how to manipulate ranking algorithms for the best results. It covers concepts and theories from the fundamental to the advanced. It discusses the state of the art: development of ...

  20. Holographic Three point Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Ara

    The main subject of this thesis is the computation of structure constants appearing in the three-point functions for certain type of states/operators in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which is one of the important parts of the dynamical problem in the dual theories of the correspondence...

  1. New Novae snack point

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  2. The GATT's Starting Point

    OpenAIRE

    Bown, Chad P.; Irwin, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    How high were import tariffs when GATT participants began negotiations to reduce them in 1947? Establishing this starting point is key to determining how successful the GATT has been in bringing down trade barriers. If the average tariff level was about 40 percent, as commonly reported, the implied early tariff reductions were substantial, but this number has never been verified. This pape...

  3. Superconducting quantum point contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretheau, L.; Girit, Ç.; Tosi, L.; Goffman, M.; Joyez, P.; Pothier, H.; Esteve, D.; Urbina, C.

    2012-01-01

    We review our experiments on the electronic transport properties of atomic contacts between metallic electrodes, in particular superconducting ones. Despite ignorance of the exact atomic configuration, these ultimate quantum point contacts can be manipulated and well characterized in-situ. They allow performing fundamental tests of the scattering theory of quantum transport. In particular, we discuss the case of the Josephson effect.

  4. Superconducting Quantum Point Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Bretheau, L.; Girit, Ç.; Tosi, L.; Goffman, M.; Joyez, P.; Pothier, H.; Esteve, D.; Urbina, C.

    2012-01-01

    We review our experiments on the electronic transport properties of atomic contacts between metallic electrodes, in particular superconducting ones. Despite ignorance of the exact atomic configuration, these ultimate quantum point contacts can be manipulated and well characterized in-situ. They allow performing fundamental tests of the scattering theory of quantum transport. In particular, we discuss the case of the Josephson effect.

  5. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    In this brief article, we shall illustrate the application of the analytical and interventionist concept of ‘Critical Points of Contact’ (CPC) through a number of urban design studios. The notion of CPC has been developed over a span of the last three to four years and is reported in more detail...

  6. Point kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A normalized form of the point kinetics equations, a prompt jump approximation, and the Nordheim-Fuchs model are used to model nuclear systems. Reactivity feedback mechanisms considered include volumetric expansion, thermal neutron temperature effect, Doppler effect and void formation. A sample problem of an excursion occurring in a plutonium solution accidentally formed in a glovebox is presented

  7. Determination of dew point conditions for CO2 with impurities using microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen; Fadaei, Hossein; Sinton, David

    2014-03-18

    Impurities can greatly modify the phase behavior of carbon dioxide (CO2), with significant implications on the safety and cost of transport in pipelines. In this paper we demonstrate a microfluidic approach to measure the dew point of such mixtures, specifically the point at which water in supercritical CO2 mixtures condenses to a liquid state. The method enables direct visualization of dew formation (∼ 1-2 μm diameter droplets) at industrially relevant concentrations, pressures, and temperatures. Dew point measurements for the well-studied case of pure CO2-water agreed well with previous theoretical and experimental data over the range of pressure (up to 13.17 MPa), temperature (up to 50 °C), and water content (down to 0.00229 mol fraction) studied. The microfluidic approach showed a nearly 3-fold reduction in error as compared to previous methods. When applied to a mixture with nitrogen (2.5%) and oxygen (5.8%) impurities--typical of flue gas from natural gas oxy-fuel combustion processes--the measured dew point pressure increased on average 17.55 ± 5.4%, indicating a more stringent minimum pressure for pipeline transport. In addition to increased precision, the microfluidic method offers a direct measurement of dew formation, requires very small volumes (∼ 10 μL), and is applicable to ultralow water contents (<0.005 mol fractions), circumventing the limits of previous methods. PMID:24502437

  8. Attitude-behavior congruity, mindfulness, and self-focused attention: A behavior-analytic reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Warren R.

    1994-01-01

    Social psychologists have responded to research reporting low agreement between attitude measures and related behavior with attempts to explain the incongruities and enhance agreement. This article examines attitude-behavior incongruity from a behavior-analytic point of view. Traditional and behavior-analytic views of attitudes and behaviors are compared. In the behavior-analytic view, answering an attitude scale should be considered as behavior displayed by a person under rather unusual soci...

  9. Nontrivial UV behavior of rank-4 tensor field models for quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Geloun, Joseph Ben

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the universality classes of rank-4 colored bipartite U(1) tensor field models near the Gaussian fixed point with the functional renormalization group. In a truncation that contains all power counting relevant and marginal operators, we find a one-dimensional UV attractor that is connected with the Gaussian fixed point. Hence this is first evidence that the model could be asymptotically safe due to a mechanism similar to the one found in the Grosse-Wulkenhaar model, whose UV behavior near the Gaussian fixed point is also described by one-dimensional attractor that contains the Gaussian fixed point. However, the cancellation mechanism that is responsible for the simultaneous vanishing of the beta functions is new to tensor models, i.e. it does not occur in vector or matrix models.

  10. Point information gain, point information gain entropy and point information gain entropy density as measures of semantic and syntactic information of multidimensional discrete phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Štys, Dalibor; Rychtáriková, Renata; Soloviov, Dmytro; Císař, Petr; Urban, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the Point information gain (PIG) and derived quantities, i.e. Point information entropy (PIE) and Point information entropy density (PIED), for the case of R\\'enyi entropy and simulate the behavior of PIG for typical distributions. We also use these methods for the analysis of multidimensional datasets. We demonstrate the main properties of PIE/PIED spectra for the real data on the example of several images, and discuss possible further utilization in other fields of data processing.

  11. Henig Proper Efficient Points and Generalized Henig Proper Efficient Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Hui QIU

    2009-01-01

    Applying the theory of locally convex spaces to vector optimization,we investigate the relationship between Henig proper efficient points and generalized Henig proper efficient points. In particular,we obtain a sufficient and necessary condition for generalized Henig proper efficient points to be Henig proper efficient points. From this,we derive several convenient criteria for judging Henig proper efficient points.

  12. Relevance theory: the Cognitive Pragmatic Foundation of Code-switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    令狐曼

    2015-01-01

    The paper will discuss the process of code-switching and its cognitive pragmatic motivation from the point of relevance.And code-switching is also regarded as a kind of communicative strategy.The process of the production of code-switching is also the cooperation and mutual constrain of communicator’s cognitive environment and ability.Cognitive effect can be obtained through communicator’s processing cognitive environment with their cognitive ability.In this process,the cooperation of cognitive ability and cognitive environment gives a guarantee to successful communication with code-switching.

  13. Introduction to Search with Sphinx From installation to relevance tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Aksyonoff, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This concise introduction to Sphinx shows you how to use this free software to index an enormous number of documents and provide fast results to both simple and complex searches. Written by the creator of Sphinx, this authoritative book is short and to the point. Understand the particular way Sphinx conducts searchesInstall and configure Sphinx, and run a few basic testsIssue basic queries to Sphinx at the application levelLearn the syntax of search text and the effects of various search optionsGet strategies for dealing with large data sets, such as multi-index searchingApply relevance and r

  14. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Aggressive Behavior Page Content Article Body My child is sometimes ... type of behavior? The best way to prevent aggressive behavior is to give your child a stable, secure ...

  15. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    determination’ based on the relationship between the point clouds on regular objects (e.g. flat top buildings) and the ground truth of the objects used for calibration. In order to extract the footprints on the objects, filtering was implemented before the calibration. Three example tests have been made and......This report presents the results of investigations to determine accurate positions of aircrafts in airborne surveys (airborne gravity and airborne lidar) using precise point positioning, and also introduces a new so called “stepwise geometric misalignment determination” method to retrieve the...... airborne lidar system misalignment angle by automating the matching of lidar data with ground truth. Kinematic GPS positioning has been widely used, but the available commercial software systems are normally only suitable for the short or medium range kinematic baseline. However, in polar areas, airborne...

  16. The quantum change point

    CERN Document Server

    Sentís, Gael; Calsamiglia, John; Chiribella, Giulio; Munoz-Tapia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is of crucial importance for a number of applications in medicine, biology, geophysics, and social sciences. Here we investigate the problem in the quantum domain, considering a source that emits particles in a default state, until a point where it switches to another state. Given a sequence of particles emitted by the source, the problem is to find out where the change occurred. For large sequences, we obtain an analytical expression for the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point when joint measurements on the whole sequence are allowed. We also construct strategies that measure the particles individually and provide an online answer as soon as a new particle is emitted by the source. We show that these strategies substantially underperform the optimal strategy, indicating that quantum sudden changes, although happening locally, are better detected globally.

  17. The Point Mass Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Lehnert B.

    2011-01-01

    A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric ...

  18. Point-Contact Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Naidyuk, Yu G; Naidyuk, Yu. G.

    2003-01-01

    The history is described of how one of the most commonly used electric circuit components, an ordinary electric contact, has become a powerful tool for the physicists to study various mechanisms of electron scattering in metals. The physical principles of spectroscopy of quasi-particle excitations in metals by means of point contacts (PCs) whose dimensions range from only a few to tens of nanometers are presented in a popular form.

  19. Point of Sales Promotions and Buying Stimulation in Retail Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, MR

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes drivers of compulsive buying behavior induced by store based promotion through empirical investigation in Mexico. The buying behavior in reference to point of sales promotions offered by retailing firms and determinants of sensitivity towards stimulating shopping arousal and satisfaction among customer in building store loyalty have been discussed in the paper. This study also builds arguments around convergence of attractiveness of point of sales promotions and effectiven...

  20. Building Points - MO 2012 New Madrid Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  1. Building Points - MO 2012 Dunklin Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  2. Building Points - MO 2012 Stoddard Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  3. Building Points - MO 2012 Pemiscot Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  4. Building Points - MO 2012 Mississippi Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  5. Building Points - MO 2012 Scott Structure Points (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Missouri Structure Points are structure points generated from a two pass look over the 2007 State 2ft imagery. Unlike the structure footprints, the building point...

  6. Memetics clarification of abnormal behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Biological medicine is hard to fully and scientifically explain the etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors; while, researches on philosophy and psychology (including memetics) are beneficial to better understand and explain etiological factor and pathogenesis of abnormal behaviors. At present, the theory of philosophy and psychology is to investigate the entity of abnormal behavior based on the views of memetics.METHODS: Abnormal behavior was researched in this study based on three aspects, including instinctive behavior disorder, poorly social-adapted behavior disorder and mental or body disease associated behavior disorder. Most main viewpoints of memetics were derived from "The Meme Machine", which was written by Susan Blackmore. When questions about abnormal behaviors induced by mental and psychological diseases and conduct disorder of teenagers were discussed, some researching achievements which were summarized by authors previously were added in this study, such as aggressive behaviors, pathologically aggressive behaviors, etc.RESULTS: The abnormal behaviors mainly referred to a part of people's substandard behaviors which were not according with the realistic social environment, culture background and the pathologic behaviors resulted from people's various psychological diseases. According to the theory of "meme", it demonstrated that the relevant behavioral obstacles of various psychological diseases, for example, the unusual behavior of schizophrenia, were caused, because the old meme was destroyed thoroughly but the new meme was unable to establish; psychoneurosis and personality disorder were resulted in hard establishment of meme; the behavioral obstacles which were ill-adapted to society, for example, various additional and homosexual behaviors, were because of the selfish replications and imitations of "additional meme" and "homosexual meme"; various instinct behavioral and congenital intelligent obstacles were not significance

  7. Neural representation of navigational relevance is rapidly induced and long lasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Gabriele; Wagensveld, Barbara; van Turennout, Miranda

    2007-04-01

    Successful navigation is facilitated by the presence of landmarks. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence indicated that the human parahippocampal gyrus automatically distinguishes between landmarks placed at navigationally relevant (decision points) and irrelevant locations (nondecision points). This storage of navigational relevance can provide a neural mechanism underlying successful navigation. However, an efficient wayfinding mechanism requires that important spatial information is learned quickly and maintained over time. The present study investigates whether the representation of navigational relevance is modulated by time and practice. Participants learned 2 film sequences through virtual mazes containing objects at decision and at nondecision points. One maze was shown one time, and the other maze was shown 3 times. Twenty-four hours after study, event-related fMRI data were acquired during recognition of the objects. The results showed that activity in the parahippocampal gyrus was increased for objects previously placed at decision points as compared with objects placed at nondecision points. The decision point effect was not modulated by the number of exposures to the mazes and independent of explicit memory functions. These findings suggest a persistent representation of navigationally relevant information, which is stable after only one exposure to an environment. These rapidly induced and long-lasting changes in object representation provide a basis for successful wayfinding. PMID:16751297

  8. Relevant Words Extraction Method for Recommendation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naw Naw

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, E-commerce is very popular because of information explosion. Text mining is also important for information extraction.  Users are more preferable to use the convenience system from many sources such as through web pages, email, social network and so on. This system proposed the relevant words extraction method for car recommendation system from user email. In relevant words extraction, this system proposed the Rule-based approach in Compiling Technique. Context- free grammar is the most suitable for relevant words extraction. Recommendation System (RS is a most popular tool that helps users to recommend according to their interests. This system implements efficient recommendation system by using proposed key extraction algorithm, Content-based Filtering (CBF method and Jaccard Coefficient that will help the users who want to buy the car by providing relevant car information.

  9. 12 CFR 308.157 - Relevant considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for a criminal offense involving dishonesty or breach of trust or money laundering; (2) Whether... coverage for the applicant; and (9) Additional factors in the specific case that appear relevant. (b)...

  10. Has Financial Statement Information become Less Relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper

    sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period. The...... results provide some indication of a decline in the value-relevance of earnings information in the 1984-2001 period, and mixed, but not statistically reliable, evidence for accounting measures where book value information and asset values are also extracted from financial statements. The results seem to......This paper presents insights into the question of whether accounting information based on the EU’s Accounting Directives has become less value-relevant to investors over time. The study is based on a research design first used by Francis and Schipper (1999), where value-relevance is measured as the...

  11. Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard;

    2008-01-01

    the music based on its relevance and importance. The fusion is controlled by a single parameter, which can be intuitively tuned by the user. The notion of authoritative music among relevant music is introduced, and social media mined from the Web is used in an innovative manner to determine both the......Due to the rapidly increasing availability of audio files on the Web, it is relevant to augment search engines with advanced audio search functionality. In this context, the ranking of the retrieved music is an important issue. This paper proposes a music ranking method capable of flexibly fusing...... relevance and importance of music. The proposed method may support users with diverse needs when searching for music....

  12. Most Relevant Explanation: Properties, Algorithms, and Evaluations

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Changhe; Lu, Tsai-Ching; Lim, Heejin

    2012-01-01

    Most Relevant Explanation (MRE) is a method for finding multivariate explanations for given evidence in Bayesian networks [12]. This paper studies the theoretical properties of MRE and develops an algorithm for finding multiple top MRE solutions. Our study shows that MRE relies on an implicit soft relevance measure in automatically identifying the most relevant target variables and pruning less relevant variables from an explanation. The soft measure also enables MRE to capture the intuitive phenomenon of explaining away encoded in Bayesian networks. Furthermore, our study shows that the solution space of MRE has a special lattice structure which yields interesting dominance relations among the solutions. A K-MRE algorithm based on these dominance relations is developed for generating a set of top solutions that are more representative. Our empirical results show that MRE methods are promising approaches for explanation in Bayesian networks.

  13. A primer on climate relevant technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this primer is to support technology transfer initiatives related to mitigation of emissions of greenhouse gases and adaptation to climate change in developing countries and economies in transition. It is meant to provide guidance to all parties involved in the transfer of climate relevant technologies, micluding government, business organisations and other non-governmental organizations representing all sectors relevant for climate change. The emphasis in this primer is on strategic and organisational issues related to the transfer of climate relevant technologies, in particular with a view to utilise climate-relevant technologies in the development process of developing countries and countries in economic transition. It builds upon insight gained in National Needs Assessments regarding the Transfer of Enviromentally Sound Technologies to developing countries. Chapter 2 deals with the technology transfer process for climate relevant technologies. It provides a framework for co-ordinated action of the stakeholders involved in the technology transfer process, with a view to improve the utilisation of climate relevant technologies in the development process of developing countries. It therefore proposes three main 'pillars' for climate relevant technology transfer, i.e. creating an enabling environment for stakeholders' participation, assessing mitigation and adaptation needs and opportunities, and implementing and evaluating mitigation and adaptation actions. Chapter 3 elaborates on creating an enabling environment for stakeholders' participation. It deals in particular with the selection of priority sectors and obtaining involvement of stakeholders representing these prioritised sectors, in order to start a roundtable process for the preparation of mitigation and adaptation actions. Chapter 4 covers the second pillar 'assessing mitigation and adaptation needs and opportunities'. This encompasses several assessment tasks including: identification and

  14. End points in dermatologic clinical trials: A review for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Erin X; Kirsner, Robert S; Eaglstein, William H

    2016-07-01

    Clinical trials are critical for the development of new therapies in dermatology, and their results help determine US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval and guide care. Of special relevance is the clinical trial efficacy end point, the metric from which statistically significant outcome is derived. Clinicians' understanding of a clinical trial's end point is necessary for critical analysis of the trial results and for applying those results to daily practice. This review provides practical knowledge and critical evaluation of end points used in treatment approvals by the FDA. The end points for actinic keratosis, acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, onychomycosis, and cutaneous ulcer serve as examples. PMID:26936300

  15. The 2pt+: an enhanced 2 point correlation function

    CERN Document Server

    Ave, M; Cronin, J; Neto, J R T de Mello; Olinto, A V; Pavlidou, V; Privitera, P; Siffert, B B; Schmidt, F; Venters, T

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new method for testing departure from isotropy of points on a sphere based on an enhanced form of the two-point correlation function that we named 2pt+. This method uses information from the two extra variables that define the vector between two points on a sphere. We show that this is a powerful method to test departure from isotropy of a distribution of points on a sphere especially when the number of events is small. We apply the method to a few examples in astronomy and discuss the relevance for limited datasets, such as the case of ultra-high energy cosmic rays.

  16. Defining Relevant Product Markets for Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaescu, Oana; Rudholm, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    To identify the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals, a spatial econometrics approach is employed. First, we calculate Moran’s Is for different market definitions and then we use a spatial Durbin model to determine the effect of price changes on quantity sold off own and competing products. As expected, the results show that competition is strongest between close substitutes; however, the relevant product markets for Swedish pharmaceuticals extend beyond close substitutes down...

  17. The value relevance of tangible fixed assets

    OpenAIRE

    Sabino, João Emanuel da Silva

    2010-01-01

    This Work Project aims to verify whether gains from the revaluation of tangible fixed assets in Portugal and Spain are relevant to investors. My sample consists of Portuguese and Spanish listed firms and it spans from the mandatory adoption of IFRS in 2005 until 2009. The results suggest that gains from revaluations are relevant to investors in Portugal and Spain both individually and together and independently of the dependent variable used (March or December share prices). Also, further ana...

  18. The Traditional Confucianism and its Contemporary Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hang

    2013-01-01

    After a century of its retreat from political and social stages in East Asia, Confucianism eventually found its revival together with the economic industrialization in the region. The awakening consciousness of the traditional Confucian values leads to a reconsideration of their implication on a modern society. Despite the criticism on the actual relevance of Confucianism and modernization, there are precious elements within the Confucian values which provide the relevance of Confucianism to ...

  19. Evaluating Relevance Ranking Strategies for MEDLINE Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhiyong; Kim, Won; Wilbur, W. John

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the retrieval effectiveness of relevance ranking strategies on a collection of 55 queries and about 160,000 MEDLINE® citations used in the 2006 and 2007 Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) Genomics Tracks. The authors study two relevance ranking strategies: term frequency–inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) weighting and sentence-level co-occurrence, and examine their ability to rank retrieved MEDLINE documents given user queries. Furthermore, the authors use the reverse chr...

  20. Peer Review and the Relevance of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Alister Scott

    2006-01-01

    Recent science-policy debates have emphasised a growing role for science in helping to address some of society's most pressing challenges such as global environmental change, caring for the needs of ageing populations, and competitiveness in a global age. Other 'relevance' pressures include drives for public accountability, pressure for the 'democratisation' of science and demands from industry for usable knowledge. Underlying the question of the social relevance of science is the matter of d...

  1. Creative professional users musical relevance criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Inskip, C.; Macfarlane, A; Rafferty, P.

    2010-01-01

    Although known item searching for music can be dealt with by searching metadata using existing text search techniques, human subjectivity and variability within the music itself make it very difficult to search for unknown items. This paper examines these problems within the context of text retrieval and music information retrieval. The focus is on ascertaining a relationship between music relevance criteria and those relating to relevance judgements in text retrieval. A data-rich collection ...

  2. Critical points for finite Fibonacci chains of point delta-interactions and orthogonal polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Prunele, E, E-mail: eprunele@univ-fcomte.fr [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2011-10-21

    For a one-dimensional Schroedinger operator with a finite number n of point delta-interactions with a common intensity, the parameters are the intensity, the n - 1 intercenter distances and the mass. Critical points are points in the parameters space of the Hamiltonian where one bound state appears or disappears. The study of critical points for Hamiltonians with point delta-interactions arranged along a Fibonacci chain is shown to be closely related to the study of the so-called Fibonacci operator, a discrete one-dimensional Schroedinger-type operator, which occurs in the context of tight binding Hamiltonians. These critical points are the zeros of orthogonal polynomials previously studied in the context of special diatomic linear chains with elastic nearest-neighbor interaction. Properties of the zeros (location, asymptotic behavior, gaps, ...) are investigated. The perturbation series from the solvable periodic case is determined. The measure which yields orthogonality is investigated numerically from the zeros. It is shown that the transmission coefficient at zero energy can be expressed in terms of the orthogonal polynomials and their associated polynomials. In particular, it is shown that when the number of point delta-interactions is equal to a Fibonacci number minus 1, i.e. when the intervals between point delta-interactions form a palindrome, all the Fibonacci chains at critical points are completely transparent at zero energy. (paper)

  3. On Motivating Operations at the Point of Online Purchase Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Arntzen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior analysis can be applied over a wide range of economic topics in which the main focus is the contingencies that influence the behavior of the economic agent. This paper provides an overview on the work that has been done on the impact from motivating operations at the point of online purchase situation. Motivating operations, a…

  4. 子宫内膜异位症患者术后自我管理行为与社会支持相关性研究%The Relevance Study of Self-management Behaviors and the Social Support for Patients with Endometriosis Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓春; 徐鑫芬; 洪水玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究子宫内膜异位症患者术后的自我管理行为与社会支持的相关性.方法 应用社会支持量表和自行设计的自我管理行为量表对120例子宫内膜异位症术后患者进行调查.结果 子宫内膜异位症患者术后的自我管理行为处于中等水平,自我管理行为总分为(53.02±10.56)分.自我管理行为与社会支持之间呈正相关.结论 子宫内膜异位症患者术后的自我管理行为需要改善,并受社会支持的影响.%Objective To study the relationship between the self - management behaviors and the social support for patients with endometriosis surgery. Methods 120 cases of patients with endometriosis surgery were recruited into this study. Self - management Behaviors Measuring Seale, General Questionnaire and Social Support Measuring Questionnaire were used to measure the self - management behaviors and the social support. The data were analyzed with the SPSS version 13. 0. Results Patients with endometriosis represented a moderate or lower level of self- management, and the total score of self - management behaviors was 53.02 ± 10.56. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the behaviors of self - management and the social support were positively correlated. Conclusion Self - management behaviors are related with social support and need to be improved.

  5. Point defects in silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topaz is a wide band gap insulating crystal with four Al2F2SiO4 formula units per orthorhombic unit cell and containing isolated SiO4 tetrahedron. Electron spin resonance (ESR), UV-VIS spectrophotometry, photoluminescence, and isochronal annealing were used to study the point defects introduced by fast-neutron bombardment or by alpha decay recoils. The superoxide radical is characterized by a single hole-like spin 1/2 signal with principle g-values gxx = 2.0055, gzz = 2.0407 and the major axis of the defect points along 0.356a + 0.152b + 0.922c. The superoxide anneals near 650C. Two polarization dependent absorptions occur in the UV due to the transitions 2IIg → 2IIu and 2IIg → 2Δu. The former has an oscillator strength of 0.06. The 2.5 eV polarization dependent luminescence is due to the transition 2IIg → 2IIu. The 2Δu → 2IIu is non-radiative. The doubly occupied dangling silicon bond, the blue center, is characterized by a 2 eV polarization dependent absorption and is non-paramagnetic. The transition dipole for this absorption points in the direction 0.93a + 0.210b + 0.305c and the oscillator strength is approximately 2.0 x 10-3. The blue center anneals at 500C. This dangling bond defect is one of two models proposed for a similar 2 eV absorption in silica glass. The defects in quartz (SiO2) were introduced by the recoil nuclei after alpha decays of uranium, thorium, and their daughters in natural abundances. The accumulating damage provides a geological clock by which the age of the quartz can be found. The sample came from Yucca Flats, Nevada, the proposed site of a nuclear waste dump

  6. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  7. Feasibility of the Application of Relevance Theory to Brand Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艳坤

    2013-01-01

    Relevance theory is a theory on communication from the cognitive point, and regards the communication as an ostensive-inferential process. The brand name translation is not only bilingual communication, but also bicultural communication. The author regards the brand name translation as a communicative process of ostensive-inference that includes three parties, testifying the feasibility that relevance theory can be best applied to the brand name translation.

  8. Approximate Model for Turbulent Stagnation Point Flow.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Here we derive an approximate turbulent self-similar model for a class of favorable pressure gradient wedge-like flows, focusing on the stagnation point limit. While the self-similar model provides a useful gross flow field estimate this approach must be combined with a near wall model is to determine skin friction and by Reynolds analogy the heat transfer coefficient. The combined approach is developed in detail for the stagnation point flow problem where turbulent skin friction and Nusselt number results are obtained. Comparison to the classical Van Driest (1958) result suggests overall reasonable agreement. Though the model is only valid near the stagnation region of cylinders and spheres it nonetheless provides a reasonable model for overall cylinder and sphere heat transfer. The enhancement effect of free stream turbulence upon the laminar flow is used to derive a similar expression which is valid for turbulent flow. Examination of free stream enhanced laminar flow suggests that the rather than enhancement of a laminar flow behavior free stream disturbance results in early transition to turbulent stagnation point behavior. Excellent agreement is shown between enhanced laminar flow and turbulent flow behavior for high levels, e.g. 5% of free stream turbulence. Finally the blunt body turbulent stagnation results are shown to provide realistic heat transfer results for turbulent jet impingement problems.

  9. Ubiquitous Pointing and Drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Jantz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system that enables a presenter to work directly on the projection without the typical interruption of the presentation flow being caused by a mouse or keyboard activity. The lecturer simply uses his fingers as a natural and intuitive pointing device. The system consists of an LED, a standard webcam, a video projector, and a small software system running on a notebook computer. The camera is positioned such that it views the projection area. After a few calibration clicks, the mouse emulation is functional at any place of the projection area.

  10. The relevance study of self-efficacy and self-management behaviors of hypertensive older people in the community%社区老年高血压患者自我效能与自我管理行为的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳; 刘新; 宁艳花; 古博荣

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨社区老年高血压患者的自我效能、自我管理行为状况及两者之间的关系.方法 应用中的自我效能量表、自我管理行为量表对254名社区老年高血压患者进行调查.结果 社区老年高血压患者的自我效能较稳定,自我管理行为中运动锻炼时间较长,认知性症状管理实践、与医生的交流得分较低,自我效能与自我管理行为呈显著正相关(P<0.01).结论 社区老年高血压患者的自我管理行为需要改善,自我管理行为与自我效能关系密切,可通过健康教育提高患者的自我效能,进而改善其自我管理行为.%Objective To study the relationship between the self-efficacy and self-management behaviors of the elder hypertensive in the community. Methods Chronic disease self-efficacy scale and self-management behaviors measuring scale were used to investigate the self-efficacy and self-management behaviors of the 254 elder hypertensive in the community. Results The self-efficacy of the elder hypertensive in the community was stable, and the time spent on physical exercises were relatively long in self-management behaviors among the elder hypertensive in the community. The scores of cognitive symptom management practice and communication with doctors were relatively low. There was a positive and significant relationship between self-efficacy and self-management behaviors of the elder hypertensive in the community (P < 0. 01 ). Conclusions Self-management behaviors need to be improved, and the self-management behavior is related to their selfefficacy. Health education is benefit for improving self-efficacy and self-management behaviors.

  11. Practice reduces task relevant variance modulation and forms nominal trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osu, Rieko; Morishige, Ken-Ichi; Nakanishi, Jun; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2015-12-01

    Humans are capable of achieving complex tasks with redundant degrees of freedom. Much attention has been paid to task relevant variance modulation as an indication of online feedback control strategies to cope with motor variability. Meanwhile, it has been discussed that the brain learns internal models of environments to realize feedforward control with nominal trajectories. Here we examined trajectory variance in both spatial and temporal domains to elucidate the relative contribution of these control schemas. We asked subjects to learn reaching movements with multiple via-points, and found that hand trajectories converged to stereotyped trajectories with the reduction of task relevant variance modulation as learning proceeded. Furthermore, variance reduction was not always associated with task constraints but was highly correlated with the velocity profile. A model assuming noise both on the nominal trajectory and motor command was able to reproduce the observed variance modulation, supporting an expression of nominal trajectories in the brain. The learning-related decrease in task-relevant modulation revealed a reduction in the influence of optimal feedback around the task constraints. After practice, the major part of computation seems to be taken over by the feedforward controller around the nominal trajectory with feedback added only when it becomes necessary.

  12. A Point System Approach to Secondary Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenos, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents guiding principles governing the design, implementation, and management of a point system to promote discipline and academic rigor in a secondary classroom. Four considerations are discussed: (1) assigning appropriate point values to integral classroom behaviors and tasks; (2) determining the relationship among consequences,…

  13. Tending the garden and harvesting the fruits of behavior therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, David M.

    2016-01-01

    For the past half century, behavior therapy has served as the theoretical basis for successful inquiries into the nature and treatment of many emotional disorders. Even though there are core principles shared by all behavior therapies, two primary approaches, traditional cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) have emerged as the most viable treatment approaches, even though they achieve their success through different methods and are predicated in different assumptions, principles, questions, and scientific strategies. In this special series, theorists and therapists with allegiances to one of these two approaches articulate the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of their approach, summarize the evidence to date, point out current gaps or inconsistencies, and map out future directions with predictions informed by theory. The series concludes with a capstone paper which sought to find common ground within the family of behavior therapies while also positing ways for behavior therapy to remain relevant in a world that increasingly emphasizes neuroscience and biobehavioral approaches to understand and reduce human suffering. PMID:23611067

  14. Searchers' relevance judgments and criteria in evaluating Web pages in a learning style perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Chariste; Zijlema, Annemarie F.; Ingwersen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    learning styles were examined: Global and Sequential learners. The study applied eye-tracking for the observation of relevance hot spots on Web pages, learning style index analysis and post-search interviews to gain more in-depth information on relevance behavior. Findings reveal that with respect to use...... statistically insignificant. When interviewed in retrospective the resulting profiles tend to become even similar across learning styles but a shift occurs from instant assessments with content features of web pages replacing topicality judgments as predominant relevance criteria....

  15. What's the Point?: A Review of Reward Systems Implemented in Gamification Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Swartz, Maria C; Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2016-04-01

    Rewards are commonly used in interventions to change behavior, but they can inhibit development of intrinsic motivation, which is associated with long-term behavior maintenance. Gamification is a novel intervention strategy that may target intrinsic motivation through fun and enjoyment. Before the effects of gamified interventions on motivation can be determined, there must be an understanding of how gamified interventions operationalize rewards, such as point systems. The purpose of this review is to determine the prevalence of different reward types, specifically point systems, within gamified interventions. Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles. Data sources included Medline OVID, Medline PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, and PsycINFO. Out of the 21 articles retrieved, 18 studies described a reward system and were included in this review. Gamified interventions were designed to target a myriad of clinical outcomes across diverse populations. Rewards included points (n = 14), achievements/badges/medals (n = 7), tangible rewards (n = 7), currency (n = 4), other unspecified rewards (n = 3), likes (n = 2), animated feedback (n = 1), and kudos (n = 1). Rewards, and points in particular, appear to be a foundational component of gamified interventions. Despite their prevalence, authors seldom described the use of noncontingent rewards or how the rewards interacted with other game features. The reward systems relying on tangible rewards and currency may have been limited by inhibited intrinsic motivation. As gamification proliferates, future research should explicitly describe how rewards were operationalized in the intervention and evaluate the effects of gamified rewards on motivation across populations and research outcomes. PMID:26812253

  16. Super Stable Ferroelectrics with High Curie Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhipeng; Lu, Chengjia; Wang, Yuhang; Yang, Sinuo; Yu, Yuying; He, Hongliang

    2016-04-01

    Ferroelectric materials are of great importance in the sensing technology due to the piezoelectric properties. Thermal depoling behavior of ferroelectrics determines the upper temperature limit of their application. So far, there is no piezoelectric material working above 800 °C available. Here, we show Nd2Ti2O7 with a perovskite-like layered structure has good resistance to thermal depoling up to 1400 °C. Its stable behavior is because the material has only 180° ferroelectric domains, complex structure change at Curie point (Tc) and their sintering temperature is below their Tc, which avoided the internal stresses produced by the unit cell volume change at Tc. The phase transition at Tc shows a first order behavior which involving the tilting and rotation of the octahedron. The Curie – Weiss temperature is calculated, which might explain why the thermal depoling starts at about 1400 °C.

  17. Water Sorption Behaviors of Five Woods above Fiber Saturation Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Woods from Korean Larch, Chinese Fir, Aspens, Manchumian, and Fortunes Paulownia were chosen for investigation. Specimens cut from the air-dried woods had a cubic shape with nominal air-dried size of 17.0 mm and 8.5 mm. Oven-died specimens were put in containers filled with water and water sorption was implemented at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Results from the experiment could not described exactly by the model of steady state flow from Darcy' law. An empirical equation is put forward fo...

  18. SPIRE Point Source Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, Chris; North, Chris; Bendo, George; Conversi, Luca; Dowell, Darren; Griffin, Matt; Jin, Terry; Laporte, Nicolas; Papageorgiou, Andreas; Schulz, Bernhard; Shupe, Dave; Smith, Anthony J; Xu, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The different algorithms appropriate for point source photometry on data from the SPIRE instrument on-board the Herschel Space Observatory, within the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) are compared. Point source photometry of a large ensemble of standard calibration stars and dark sky observations is carried out using the 4 major methods within HIPE: SUSSEXtractor, DAOphot, the SPIRE Timeline Fitter and simple Aperture Photometry. Colour corrections and effective beam areas as a function of the assumed source spectral index are also included to produce a large number of photometric measurements per individual target, in each of the 3 SPIRE bands (250, 350, 500um), to examine both the accuracy and repeatability of each of the 4 algorithms. It is concluded that for flux densities down to the level of 30mJy that the SPIRE Timeline Fitter is the method of choice. However, at least in the 250 and 350um bands, all 4 methods provide photometric repeatability better than a few percent down to at appr...

  19. Big Rock Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant is the second oldest operating nuclear power plant in the United States. Its 25-yr history is an embodiment of the history of commercial nuclear power. In some respects, its situation today - 5 yr past the midpoint of its design life - can provide operators of other nuclear plants a glimpse of where they will be in another decade. Construction on Big Rock Point began in 1960. It was completed just 2 1/2 yr later at a cost of $27 million. The plant is a General Electric (GE)-designed boiling water direct cycle, forced circulation, high power density reactor. Its construction was undertaken by Consumers Power under the third round of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC's) Power Demonstration Reactor Program. It was an advanced version of GE's Vallecitos boiling water reactor. The plant's fuel was GE's responsibility and, under contract with the AEC, it conducted a fuel research and development (RandD) program involving the plant. Although the plant was designed for research - its original electrical capacity was set at 50 MW(electric) - the unit was subsequently uprated to 69 MW(net electric). The original plant staff included only 44 people and minimal security. Mirroring the industry experience, the number of people on-site had quadrupled

  20. The Cooperative Principle and the Principle of Relevance%合作原则与关联原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜望琪

    2014-01-01

    合作原则与关联原则一般被认为是对立的,其实不然。合作原则要求说话人的话语符合会话的目的,而这个目的可以是围绕话题发表意见。在这个意义上,合作原则包括关系准则。但是,Grice认为会话目的还可以表述为最有效地交流信息,以及影响别人的行为。换言之,合作原则强调的是交际的合作,这是合作原则最主要的内涵。而Sperber&Wil-son则提出,关联性可以通过表达无关设想实现,只要这个表达行为是有关联的。这说明关联理论也试图把与整个交际是否有关联看成关联性的一个内容,只是他们把这两种关联性混在一起,而Grice则分别将二者命名为合作原则和关系准则。%The cooperative principle and the principle of relevance are generally thought to be opposed to each other ,which is not really true .The cooperative principle instructs the speaker to make his /her contri-bution as is required by the common purpose ( s) .And one of the purposes of a conversation is the discussion of the subject matter ,in which sense “contribution as is required by the common purpose ( s)” is equal to“contribution relevant to the subject matter”.In other words ,the maxim of relation is part of the cooperative principle.Now Grice points out that the purpose ( s) of a conversation could also be formulated as “maximally effective exchange of information” and “influencing the actions of others”.That is, the most important meaning of being cooperative in the Gricean sense is being helpful to communication ,or being communica-tively cooperative .On the other hand ,relevance theorists ,Sperber&Wilson ,argue that relevance could be a-chieved by expressing irrelevant assumptions as long as this expressive behavior is relevant , which suggests that they also try to make it part of the meaning of relevance being relevant to the whole communication .How-ever,Sperber&Wilson mix the two

  1. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. PMID:22119478

  2. The basic importance of applied behavior analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Epling, W. Frank; Pierce, W. David

    1986-01-01

    We argue that applied behavior analysis is relevant to basic research. Modification studies, and a broad range of investigations that focus on the precipitating and maintaining conditions of socially significant human behavior, have basic importance. Applied behavior analysis may aid basic researchers in the design of externally valid experiments and thereby enhance the theoretical significance of basic research for understanding human behavior. Applied research with humans, directed at cultu...

  3. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Nathan

    1984-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  4. ELEVATION ON BOINLING POINT OF COFFE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Telis-Romero

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The rise in boiling point of coffee extract was experimentally measured at soluble solids concentrations in the range of 9.2 to 52.4ºBrix and pressures between 5.8 × 10³ and 9.4 × 10(4 Pa (abs.. Different approaches to representing experimental data, including the Dühring's rule, the Antoine equation and empirical models proposed in the literature were tested. In the range of 9.2 to 16.2ºBrix, the rise in boiling point was nearly independent of pressure, varying only with extract concentration. Considerable deviations of this behavior began to occur at concentrations higher than 16.2ºBrix. Experimental data could best be predicted by adjusting an empirical model which consists of a single equation that takes into account the dependence of rise in boiling point on pressure and concentration.

  5. Visibility of noisy point cloud data

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish

    2010-06-01

    We present a robust algorithm for estimating visibility from a given viewpoint for a point set containing concavities, non-uniformly spaced samples, and possibly corrupted with noise. Instead of performing an explicit surface reconstruction for the points set, visibility is computed based on a construction involving convex hull in a dual space, an idea inspired by the work of Katz et al. [26]. We derive theoretical bounds on the behavior of the method in the presence of noise and concavities, and use the derivations to develop a robust visibility estimation algorithm. In addition, computing visibility from a set of adaptively placed viewpoints allows us to generate locally consistent partial reconstructions. Using a graph based approximation algorithm we couple such reconstructions to extract globally consistent reconstructions. We test our method on a variety of 2D and 3D point sets of varying complexity and noise content. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristic Formulae for Relations with Nested Fixed Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Aceto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A general framework for the connection between characteristic formulae and behavioral semantics is described in [2]. This approach does not suitably cover semantics defined by nested fixed points, such as the n-nested simulation semantics for n greater than 2. In this study we address this deficiency and give a description of nested fixed points that extends the approach for single fixed points in an intuitive and comprehensive way.

  7. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point...

  8. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point...

  9. Understanding the Point of Chimpanzee Pointing: Epigenesis and Ecological Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Leavens, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Bard, Kim A.

    2005-01-01

    Pointing has long been considered to be a uniquely human, universal, and biologically based gesture. However, pointing emerges spontaneously, without explicit training, in captive chimpanzees. Because pointing is commonplace in captive chimpanzees and virtually absent in wild chimpanzees, and because both captive and wild chimpanzees are sampled from the same gene pool, pointing by captive apes is attributable to environmental influences on communicative development. If pointing by captive ch...

  10. Studies on Relevance, Ranking and Results Display

    CERN Document Server

    Gelernter, Judith; Carbonell, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    This study considers the extent to which users with the same query agree as to what is relevant, and how what is considered relevant may translate into a retrieval algorithm and results display. To combine user perceptions of relevance with algorithm rank and to present results, we created a prototype digital library of scholarly literature. We confine studies to one population of scientists (paleontologists), one domain of scholarly scientific articles (paleo-related), and a prototype system (PaleoLit) that we built for the purpose. Based on the principle that users do not pre-suppose answers to a given query but that they will recognize what they want when they see it, our system uses a rules-based algorithm to cluster results into fuzzy categories with three relevance levels. Our system matches at least 1/3 of our participants' relevancy ratings 87% of the time. Our subsequent usability study found that participants trusted our uncertainty labels but did not value our color-coded horizontal results layout ...

  11. Rethinking "relevance": South African psychology in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wahbie

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day. It discusses how, in present-day South Africa, the intelligentsia has become an important catalyst for the so-called African Renaissance, which seeks to provide "relevant" solutions for the regeneration of African society. However, the global hegemony of what began in the 1970s as a "second academic revolution," aided by the lifting of the academic boycott of South Africa, has blunted the once critical edge of "relevance" discourse. A new mode of knowledge production now holds sway, the outcome of a dramatic reformulation of the capitalist manifesto in which the values of the "May 68" generation have been hijacked by a managerialist rationality. In light of the capitalization of the knowledge-production enterprise, it is concluded that the idiom of "relevance" has outlived its usefulness. PMID:23421936

  12. Virtual turning points

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Naofumi; Takei, Yoshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a virtual turning point truly is a breakthrough in WKB analysis of higher order differential equations. This monograph expounds the core part of its theory together with its application to the analysis of higher order Painlevé equations of the Noumi–Yamada type and to the analysis of non-adiabatic transition probability problems in three levels. As M.V. Fedoryuk once lamented, global asymptotic analysis of higher order differential equations had been thought to be impossible to construct. In 1982, however, H.L. Berk, W.M. Nevins, and K.V. Roberts published a remarkable paper in the Journal of Mathematical Physics indicating that the traditional Stokes geometry cannot globally describe the Stokes phenomena of solutions of higher order equations; a new Stokes curve is necessary.

  13. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  14. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  15. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  16. Point defects in platinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was made of the mobility and types of point defect introduced in platinum by deformation in liquid nitrogen, quenching into water from 1600oC, or reactor irradiation at 50oC. In all cases the activation energy for motion of the defect was determined from measurements of electrical resistivity. Measurements of density, hardness, and x-ray line broadening were also made there applicable. These experiments indicated that the principal defects remaining in platinum after irradiation were single vacant lattice sites and after quenching were pairs of vacant lattice sites. Those present after deformation In liquid nitrogen were single vacant lattice sites and another type of defect, perhaps interstitial atoms. (author)

  17. Neonatal Amygdala Lesions and Stress Responsivity in Rats : Relevance to schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Terpstra, Jeroen

    2004-01-01

    "Stress responsiveness in an animal model with relevance to schizophrenia” Rats bearing lesions of the amygdala made on postnatal day 7 (D7 AMX) model aspects of neurodevelopmental psychopathologies, such as schizophrenia. Adult D7 AMX rats display impaired pre-pulse inhibition, impaired behavioral responses to stress, impaired social behavior, and increased sensitivity to phencyclidine. Some of these symptoms become manifest after puberty, as is the case in schizophrenic patients, and are no...

  18. The cell monolayer trajectory from the system state point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stys, Dalibor; Vanek, Jan; Nahlik, Tomas; Urban, Jan; Cisar, Petr

    2011-10-01

    Time-lapse microscopic movies are being increasingly utilized for understanding the derivation of cell states and predicting cell future. Often, fluorescence and other types of labeling are not available or desirable, and cell state-definitions based on observable structures must be used. We present the methodology for cell behavior recognition and prediction based on the short term cell recurrent behavior analysis. This approach has theoretical justification in non-linear dynamics theory. The methodology is based on the general stochastic systems theory which allows us to define the cell states, trajectory and the system itself. We introduce the usage of a novel image content descriptor based on information contribution (gain) by each image point for the cell state characterization as the first step. The linkage between the method and the general system theory is presented as a general frame for cell behavior interpretation. We also discuss extended cell description, system theory and methodology for future development. This methodology may be used for many practical purposes, ranging from advanced, medically relevant, precise cell culture diagnostics to very utilitarian cell recognition in a noisy or uneven image background. In addition, the results are theoretically justified. PMID:21879106

  19. Behavioral Economics and the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Jolls, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This monograph describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the endowment effect and other features of behavioral economics feature prominently and have been applied to many important legal questions.

  20. Predicting adolescents’ health risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kalebić Maglica, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore factors of adolescents’ health risk behaviors regarding smoking and alcohol consumption in the framework of the prototype/willingness model and approach connecting personality traits and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 341 high school students. Their task was to complete several questionnaires measuring relevant risk factors (attitudes, subjective norms, prototypes and willingness), frequency of smoking/drinking, and personality traits (BFI)...

  1. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Ophir

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.

  2. Evaluating relevance ranking strategies for MEDLINE retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiyong; Kim, Won; Wilbur, W John

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the retrieval effectiveness of relevance ranking strategies on a collection of 55 queries and about 160,000 MEDLINE((R)) citations used in the 2006 and 2007 Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) Genomics Tracks. The authors study two relevance ranking strategies: term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) weighting and sentence-level co-occurrence, and examine their ability to rank retrieved MEDLINE documents given user queries. Furthermore, the authors use the reverse chronological order-PubMed's default display option-as a baseline for comparison. Retrieval effectiveness is assessed using both mean average precision and mean rank precision. Experimental results show that retrievals based on the two strategies had improved performance over the baseline performance, and that TF-IDF weighting is more effective in retrieving relevant documents based on the comparison between the two strategies. PMID:18952932

  3. Is relevance theory applicable to proverbs’ translation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegulescu Anca-Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation, viewed as a multi-faceted task, can arise different types of difficulties. Proverbs have been considered special patterns, displaying sometimes hidden meanings or suggesting morals issuing from a particular example. These paremic units - the proverbs - conveyed feelings, states of mind, behaviours or ‘metaphorical descriptions of certain situations’(Krikmann. Starting from Savory’s list of pair-wise contradictory translation principles, I intend to prove that the link between different ‘forms’ and their ‘contents’ lies in the principle of relevance when referring to proverbs. Even if relevance theory is not a theory of linguistic structure - and many translation problems imply structural mismatches - relevance theory offers insights about contextual information. Proverbs are seen as texts in themselves. My analysis will target the ethnofields of ‘to buy’ and ‘to sell’ in English proverbs and their Romanian corresponding versions.

  4. Probing for Relevance: Information Theories and Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dejica

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies claim that the more translators know about the structure and the dynamics of discourse, the more readily and accurately they can translate both the content and the spirit of a text. Similarly, international research projects highlight directions of research which aim at helping translators make reasonable and consistent decisions as to the relevance and reliability of source text features in the target text. Other recent studies stress the importance of developing information structure theories for translation. In line with such current research desiderata, the aim of this article is to test the relevance of information theories for translation. In the first part, information theories are presented from different linguistic perspectives. In the second part, their relevance for translation is tested on a series of texts by examining how they have been or can be applied to translation. The last part presents the conclusions of the analysis.

  5. Focus point gauge mediation with incomplete adjoint messengers and gauge coupling unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2015-10-01

    As the mass limits on supersymmetric particles are gradually pushed to higher values due to their continuing non-observation at the CERN LHC, looking for focus point regions in the supersymmetric parameter space, which shows considerably reduced fine-tuning, is increasingly more important than ever. We explore this in the context of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking with messengers transforming in the adjoint representation of the gauge group, namely, octet of color SU(3) and triplet of weak SU(2). A distinctive feature of this scenario is that the focus point is achieved by fixing a single combination of parameters in the messenger sector, which is invariant under the renormalization group evolution. Because of this invariance, the focus point behavior is well under control once the relevant parameters are fixed by a more fundamental theory. The observed Higgs boson mass is explained with a relatively mild fine-tuning Δ = 60- 150. Interestingly, even in the presence of incomplete messenger multiplets of the SU(5) GUT group, the gauge couplings still unify perfectly, but at a scale which is one or two orders of magnitude above the conventional GUT scale. Because of this larger unification scale, the colored Higgs multiplets become too heavy to trigger proton decay at a rate larger than the experimentally allowed limit.

  6. Relevance of Search Engines for Modern Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trilok Gupta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Web search engines have major impact in people‟s everyday life . It is of great i m p o r t a n c e to test the retrieval effectiveness of search e n g i n e s. However, it is labour-intensive to judge the relevance of search results for a large number of queries, and these relevance judgments may not be reusable since the Web data change all the time. Experiments on major search engines show that our approach mines many high- confidence rules that help understand search engines and detect suspicious search results.

  7. Relevance of Search Engines for Modern Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Trilok Gupta; Archana Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Web search engines have major impact in people‟s everyday life . It is of great i m p o r t a n c e to test the retrieval effectiveness of search e n g i n e s. However, it is labour-intensive to judge the relevance of search results for a large number of queries, and these relevance judgments may not be reusable since the Web data change all the time. Experiments on major search engines show that our approach mines many high- confidence rules that help understand search engines a...

  8. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puente-Diaz, Rogelio; Cavazos Arroyo, Judith; Brem, Alexander;

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cogni- tion. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representa......Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cogni- tion. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1...

  9. Specifying and Inheriting Concurrent Behavior in an Actor-BasedObject-Oriented Language

    OpenAIRE

    Lavender, R. Gregory; Kafura, Dennis G.

    1990-01-01

    Using CCS behavior equations to specify and reason about the observable behavior of concurrent objects, we demonstrate that a language mechanism called a behavior set can be used to capture the behavior of actor-like objects. Using behavior equations as a formal representation of concurrent object behavior results in the explication of a mapping from the domain of objects to a domain of behavior sets. We call this mapping the behavior function. By expressing relevant object states, behavior...

  10. Tie-points and fixed-points in N^*

    CERN Document Server

    Dow, Alan

    2007-01-01

    A point x is a (bow) tie-point of a space X if X setminus {x} can be partitioned into (relatively) clopen sets each with x in its closure. Tie-points have appeared in the construction of non-trivial autohomeomorphisms of betaN setminus N and in the recent study of (precisely) 2-to-1 maps on betaN setminus N . In these cases the tie-points have been the unique fixed point of an involution on betaN setminus N. This paper is motivated by the search for 2-to-1 maps and obtaining tie-points of strikingly differing characteristics.

  11. Tie-points and fixed-points in N^*

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, Alan; SHELAH, Saharon

    2007-01-01

    A point x is a (bow) tie-point of a space X if X setminus {x} can be partitioned into (relatively) clopen sets each with x in its closure. Tie-points have appeared in the construction of non-trivial autohomeomorphisms of betaN setminus N and in the recent study of (precisely) 2-to-1 maps on betaN setminus N . In these cases the tie-points have been the unique fixed point of an involution on betaN setminus N. This paper is motivated by the search for 2-to-1 maps and obtaining tie-points of str...

  12. IDEIA and the Means to Change Behavior Should Be Enough: Growing Support for Using Applied Behavior Analysis in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, Christopher; Axelrod, Saul

    2008-01-01

    With the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, classrooms are now mandated to employ behavioral methods to address target behaviors. These relevant behavioral strategies have long been advanced and disseminated by the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Notwithstanding this capability, proponents of the…

  13. Simulación numérica del comportamiento no-lineal de materiales utilizando el método sin malla de puntos finitos Meshless numerical simulation of the non-linear behavior of a material using the finite point method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pérez P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La formulación sin malla del método de puntos finitos permite aprovechar en toda su potencialidad la ventaja de este tipo de técnica numérica, habiéndose comprobado su buen funcionamiento para aplicaciones en los campos de la mecánica de fluidos, mecánica de sólidos, ciencia de materiales y más tarde en adaptividad y electromagnetismo. En el presente trabajo se desarrolla una metodología numérica para aproximar el comportamiento no-lineal de un material mediante el método de puntos finitos, basada en la teoría de deformación total de Hencky, en conjunto con un enfoque elástico para aproximar la distribución de tensiones y de deformaciones. Esta aproximación introduce el concepto de propiedades efectivas del material, las cuales se obtienen en forma iterativa mediante un procedimiento de corrección aplicado sobre la curva experimental de tensión-deformación. Los ejemplos desarrollados demuestran el correcto comportamiento de la metodología utilizada, siendo una de sus principales ventajas la sencillez y facilidad de su implementación, puesto que no es necesaria la partición o subdivisión del dominio de solución.The use of fully meshless formulation of the finite point method allows taking advantage the benefit of this type of numerical technique for applications in the fields of fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, material science and later in adaptivity and electromagnetism. In this work a meshless numerical method to approximate the non-linear behavior of a material using the finite point method, based on the theory of Hencky total strain and elastic approach to approximate the distribution of stresses and deformation, is developed. This approach introduces the concept of effective properties of the material which are obtained using a correction procedure applied to the stress-strain curve. The examples show the good behavior of the methodology that is used, being one of the main advantages the simplicity and the ease of

  14. Relevance Study of Self-management Behavior and Self-efficacy among Lumbar Disc Herniation Patients%腰椎间盘突出症患者自我管理行为与自我效能的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾娇娇; 王雪华; 张慧玲; 张美芬; 张俊娥; 杨春涛

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解腰椎间盘突出症患者的自我管理行为、自我效能并探讨两者之间的相关关系。方法采用慢性病自我管理行为量表、慢性病自我效能量表,对96例接受非手术治疗的腰椎间盘突出症患者进行问卷调查。采用SPSS 16.0进行统计分析。结果腰椎间盘突出症患者运动锻炼时间为(190.31±159.54)min/周,认知症状管理实践得分不高,均分为(1.62±0.74)分,与医生的沟通不够充分,均分为(1.78±1.00)分;自我效能平均得分为(7.17±1.77)分;自我管理行为与自我效能呈显著正相关(P<0.01)。结论腰椎间盘突出症患者的自我管理行为需要改善,自我效能与自我管理行为存在相关性,因此可以通过护理干预提高患者的自我效能以改善其自我管理行为水平。%Objective To study the relationship between self-management behavior and self-efficacy among lumbar disc herniation (LDH) patients. Methods Self-management Behavior Measuring Scale and Chronic Disease Self-efficacy Scales were used to m easure the self-management behaviors and self-efficacy of 96 LDH patients. The data were analyzed with software SPSS version 16.0. Results In self-management behaviors of LDH patients, the average time for excises was 190.31 ±159.54 min/week; the average level of cognitive symptoms management practice and communication with physicians were 1.62 ±0.74 and 1.78±1.00 respectively; the average level of self-efficacy was 7.17±1.77. There was significant positive relationship between self-management behaviors and self-efficacy (P<0.01). Conclusion The self-management behavior among LDH patients needs to be improved and there is positive relationship between self-management behavior and self-efficacy.

  15. ATLAS Point 1 Construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    After 3 years of work in point 1, a number of surface buildings have already been completed and handed over to CERN (the control, the gas and the cooling and ventilation buildings) and, probably more appealing to the public, 60,000 m3 of earth have already been excavated from underground. At present, the technical cavern USA15 and its access shaft are almost finished, leaving only the main cavern and the liaison galleries to be completed in the coming year and a half. The main cavern has been excavated down to the radiation limit and its walls and vault will presently be concreted (see below the picture of the section of the vault with the impressive shell of 1.2 m thickness). The excavation of the bench (27 vertical metres to go yet!) will proceed from August, when some additional civil engineering work in the LHC tunnel will be undertaken. Needless to say many different services are necessary around the detector, both for its installation and future operation for physics. To that end much of the heavy...

  16. Point 1 Updates

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J.

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Not only has Civil Engineering finished the construction of the USA15 technical cavern, but the excavation of the main UX15 cavern has resumed below the machine tunnel, after a brief halt to allow the construction of the UJ-caverns for the power converters of the LHC machine. The excavation work should end in August 2002. The UX15 hand-over to ATLAS is expected in April 2003. On the surface civil engineering is starting to complete the last two surface buildings (SDX1 and SH1), once the services (cooling pipes, ventilation ducts and the largest item, the lift modules and its lift of course) in the shaft PX15 have been completed. But the civil engineering is not all. A lot more is under way. The site installation of the steel structures in the caverns is to begin in Autumn, along with all the cooling pipes, airconditi...

  17. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  18. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  19. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  20. Function Point Analysis Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.

  1. Making Chemistry Relevant to the Engineering Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Dutt, Sharmistha; Slappey, Charles; Bartley, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a campus-wide, externally funded project to increase performance in, enthusiasm for, and retention within STEM disciplines, we developed an interdisciplinary, team-taught first-year seminar course. The construction and delivery of this course was designed to show the relevance of selected general chemistry topics such as matter and…

  2. The Relevance of Cosmopolitanism for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that cosmopolitan ideals can inspire moral educators to awaken…

  3. Relevant market, economic analysis and information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemplinerová, Alena

    Praha: Czech Association for Competition Law, 2008, s. 28-39. ISBN 978-80-254-3276-1 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : relevant market definition * competition law * economic analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  4. Relevance of microelectronic education to industrial needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, J. L.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The relevance of microelectronic education to industrial needs was evaluated, and four categories were surveyed: (1) facts and rules; (2) skills; (3) personality; and (4) deductive-inductive reasoning. Examples of specific items in each category are given to illustrate their meaning and it was indicated as to which items in each category are strongly impacted by microelectronics courses and laboratories.

  5. Is Enterprise Education Relevant to Social Enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Both enterprise education and social enterprise have become fashionable but what, if any, should be the connections between them? The purpose of this paper is to explore those connections and to reflect on what relevance the two concepts might have for each other. Design/methodology/approach: Both enterprise education and social…

  6. Theoretical investigations relevant to magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantial and significant progress on several fronts of our investigations has been achieved since our last renewal proposal. A brief discussion of these results and their relevance to on-going national experiments will precede the proposed work in each area

  7. Why ritual plant use has ethnopharmacological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz, Diana; Sosef, Marc; Andel, Van Tinde

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Although ritual plant use is now recognised both for its socio-cultural importance and for its contribution to nature conservation, its potential pharmacological effects remain overlooked. Aim of the study Our objective was to see whether ritual plant use could have

  8. Withholding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Withholding Behavior Page Content Article Body I got upset at ... a specific fear is the reason behind his behavior, demonstrate clearly in several different ways—through conversation, ...

  9. Behavioralizing Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Shefrin, Hersh

    2010-01-01

    Finance is in the midst of a paradigm shift, from a neoclassical based framework to a psychologically based framework. Behavioral finance is the application of psychology to financial decision making and financial markets. Behavioralizing finance is the process of replacing neoclassical assumptions with behavioral counterparts. This monograph surveys the literature in behavioral finance, and identifies both its strengths and weaknesses. In doing so, it identifies possible directions for behav...

  10. Behavioral toxicology.

    OpenAIRE

    Needleman, H L

    1995-01-01

    The new fields of behavioral toxicology and behavioral teratology investigate the outcome of specific toxic exposures in humans and animals on learning, memory, and behavioral characteristics. Three important classes of behavioral neurotoxicants are metals, solvents, and pesticides. The clearest data on the deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to toxicants comes from the study of two metals, lead and mercury, and from epidemiological investigations of the effects of alcohol taken during p...

  11. Job Search and Social Cognitive Theory: The Role of Career-Relevant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikic, Jelena; Saks, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive theory was used to explain the relationships between career-relevant activities (environmental and self career exploration, career resources, and training), self-regulatory variables (job search self-efficacy and job search clarity), variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (job search attitude, subjective norm, job search…

  12. A Method for Studying the Homogeneity of Test Items with Respect to Other Relevant Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthen, Bengt

    1985-01-01

    Drawing on recently developed methodology for structural equation modeling with categorical data, this article proposes a new approach for investigating the behavior of dichotomously scored test items in relation to other relevant (observed) variables. A linear structural model relates the latent ability variable to a set of observed scores.…

  13. Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Carmit

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants and malleability of noncognitive skills. Using data on boys from the National Education Longitudinal Survey, I focus on youth behavior in the classroom as a measure of noncognitive skills. I find that student behavior during adolescence is persistent. The variation in behavior can be attributed to…

  14. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  15. Zero-point energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, investigations of novel non-conventional sources of energy and propulsion technologies have led to the belief that vacuum fluctuations or zero-point energy (ZPE) can be tapped as an additional prime mover alongside fusion, fission, hydrocarbons, hydropower, geothermal and solar-based technologies. Only a handful of researchers have seriously investigated the possible use of vacuum fluctuation energy for power production and gravitational interaction and suggested methods of experimentation, among them, Vallee, Puthoff, Tchernetsky, and Alzofon. In theories ranging from advanced semi-classical treatments to quantum electrodynamics (QED) and dynamic nuclear orientation, they suggest several more or less practical approaches to interacting with vacuum fluctuation energy which may be undertaken with today's technology. Notwithstanding the paucity of consistent, repeatable results directly attributable to vacuum interactions, it is possible to outline the engineering tools and techniques required to begin to investigate ZPE. Extremely high frequency oscillations at high field strengths (Vallee), highly non-linear plasmas or arcs (Tchernetsky), super-high charge concentrations or field gradients (Puthoff), and dynamic magnetic resonance cooling of nuclei (Alzofon) are prime candidates for investigation at present. The paper attempts to draw together the most practical aspects of this, which is currently at a sufficiently advance stage to allow initial experiments to be designed. Only the essentials of the theories propounded will be presented, chiefly those aspects from which real-world physical apparatus and order-of-magnitude measurements can be deduced. The work of other researchers which may have a bearing on the subject will also be briefly touched upon

  16. Can Emotional and Behavioral Dysregulation in Youth Be Decoded from Functional Neuroimaging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana C L Portugal

    Full Text Available High comorbidity among pediatric disorders characterized by behavioral and emotional dysregulation poses problems for diagnosis and treatment, and suggests that these disorders may be better conceptualized as dimensions of abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, identifying neuroimaging biomarkers related to dimensional measures of behavior may provide targets to guide individualized treatment. We aimed to use functional neuroimaging and pattern regression techniques to determine whether patterns of brain activity could accurately decode individual-level severity on a dimensional scale measuring behavioural and emotional dysregulation at two different time points.A sample of fifty-seven youth (mean age: 14.5 years; 32 males was selected from a multi-site study of youth with parent-reported behavioral and emotional dysregulation. Participants performed a block-design reward paradigm during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Pattern regression analyses consisted of Relevance Vector Regression (RVR and two cross-validation strategies implemented in the Pattern Recognition for Neuroimaging toolbox (PRoNTo. Medication was treated as a binary confounding variable. Decoded and actual clinical scores were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r and mean squared error (MSE to evaluate the models. Permutation test was applied to estimate significance levels.Relevance Vector Regression identified patterns of neural activity associated with symptoms of behavioral and emotional dysregulation at the initial study screen and close to the fMRI scanning session. The correlation and the mean squared error between actual and decoded symptoms were significant at the initial study screen and close to the fMRI scanning session. However, after controlling for potential medication effects, results remained significant only for decoding symptoms at the initial study screen. Neural regions with the highest contribution to the pattern regression model

  17. Production and comprehension of referential pointing by orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, J; Tomasello, M

    1994-12-01

    We report 3 studies of the referential pointing of 2 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Chantek was raised in an enculturated environment; Puti, raised in a nursery, had a more typical captive life. In Experiment 1, flexibility of pointing behavior was investigated by requiring subjects to point in novel circumstances (for an out-of-sight tool, not food). In Experiment 2, we investigated the orangutans' comprehension of the significance of a human point in helping them to locate food. In Experiment 3, we investigated whether these pointing subjects comprehended that a human recipient must be looking for the point to achieve its attention-directing goal. In all experiments the enculturated orangutan showed better understanding of pointing than the captive orangutan. This finding is consistent with recent studies that have found differences in the cognitive and social-cognitive abilities of apes that have had different types of experience with humans. PMID:7813191

  18. Exploring female mice interstrain differences relevant for models of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Sá Calçada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is an extremely heterogeneous disorder. Diverse molecular mechanisms have been suggested to underlie its etiology. To understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for this complex disorder, researchers have been using animal models extensively, namely mice from various genetic backgrounds and harboring distinct genetic modifications. The use of numerous mouse models has contributed to enrich our knowledge on depression. However, accumulating data also revealed that the intrinsic characteristics of each mouse strain might influence the experimental outcomes, which may justify some conflicting evidence reported in the literature. To further understand the impact of the genetic background we performed a multimodal comparative study encompassing the most relevant parameters commonly addressed in depression in three of the most widely used mouse strains: Balb/c, C57BL/6 and CD-1. Moreover, female mice were selected for this study taken into account the higher prevalence of depression in woman and the fewer animal studies using this gender. Our results show that Balb/c mice have a more pronounced anxious-like behavior than CD-1 and C57BL/6 mice, whereas C57BL/6 animals present the strongest depressive-like trait. Furthermore, C57BL/6 mice display the highest rate of proliferating cells and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression levels in the hippocampus, while hippocampal dentate granular neurons of Balb/c mice show smaller dendritic lengths and fewer ramifications. Of notice, the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos predict 39,5% of the depressive-like behavior index, which suggests a key role of hippocampal iNOS in depression.Overall, this study reveals important interstrain differences in several behavioral dimensions and molecular and cellular parameters that should be considered when preparing and analyzing experiments addressing depression using mouse models. It further contributes to the literature by

  19. Medulloblastoma: Tumor Biology and Relevance to Treatment and Prognosis Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccia, Daniel; Figuereido, Carlyn; Isik, Semra; Smith, Christian; Rutka, James T

    2016-05-01

    Medulloblastoma is a malignant embryonic brain tumor arising in the posterior fossa and typically occurring in pediatric patients. Current multimodal treatment regimes have significantly improved the survival rates; however, a marked heterogeneity in therapy response is observed, and one third of all patients die within 5 years after diagnosis. Large-scale genetic and transcriptome analysis revealed four medulloblastoma subgroups (WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4) associated with different demographic parameters, tumor manifestation, and clinical behavior. Future treatment protocols will integrate molecular classification schemes to evaluate subgroup-specific intensification or de-escalation of adjuvant therapies aimed to increase tumor control and reduce iatrogenic induced morbidity. Furthermore, the identification of genetic drivers allows assessing target therapies in order to increase the chemotherapeutic armamentarium. This review highlights the biology behind the current classification system and elucidates relevant aspects of the disease influencing forthcoming clinical trials. PMID:27021772

  20. Environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic particles influence larval fish ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; Eklöv, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The widespread occurrence and accumulation of plastic waste in the environment have become a growing global concern over the past decade. Although some marine organisms have been shown to ingest plastic, few studies have investigated the ecological effects of plastic waste on animals. Here we show that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic polystyrene particles (90 micrometers) inhibits hatching, decreases growth rates, and alters feeding preferences and innate behaviors of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) larvae. Furthermore, individuals exposed to microplastics do not respond to olfactory threat cues, which greatly increases predator-induced mortality rates. Our results demonstrate that microplastic particles operate both chemically and physically on larval fish performance and development. PMID:27257256

  1. Low-Educated Immigrants and the Social Relevance of Second Language Acquisition Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Scholten, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s' decoupling of the formal study of second language acquisition from pedagogical concerns, the social relevance of such research has been of little concern. Early studies, in the 1970s, of uninstructed adult learners' acquisition of morphosyntax pointed to social implications: these working class immigrants had varying…

  2. Data from accelerator-based experiments of relevance to the air shower observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itow Yoshitaka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Implications of air shower of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs need precise knowledge on hadronic interactions at very high energy. From this point of view recent LHC data have great impacts on the UHECR observation. Here various data from accelerator experiments including recent LHC data, of relevance to the air shower measurements, are briefly overviewed.

  3. Bizarre behaviors and risk assessment in 3xTg-AD mice at early stages of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeta-Corral, R; Giménez-Llort, L

    2014-01-01

    Bizarre behaviors (stereotyped stretching, stereotyped rearing, backward movements and jumps) were conspicuously elicited in classical unconditioned tests with different levels of anxiogenic conditions. They were characterized for the first time as early-BPSD-like symptoms in 6 month-old male and female 3xTg-AD mice. The pattern of these behaviors differed from that exhibited by their age- and gender-matched NTg counterparts. Confrontation of an open and illuminated field was the best trigger of such behaviors as compared to mild neophobia in the corner test or the choice between two compartments in the dark-light box. Here we also report that increased freezing, delayed thigmotaxis and enhancement of emotional behaviors were early BPSD-like symptoms indicative of their response to low-stressful environments. Independently of the genotype, consistent gender effects pointed toward the relevance of female gender to study bizarre behaviors and risk assessment. The identification of items of behavior and its gender component were relevant to find out bidirectional and selective behavioral long-lasting effects of postnatal handling. This early life treatment reduced freezing and most of the bizarre behaviors whereas potentiated risk assessment and the horizontal locomotor activity. In contrast, vertical exploratory activity was not modified by the treatment. The results also talk in favor of the beneficence of early-life interventions on the behavioral outcome in adulthood in both healthy and disease conditions. As shown, the consideration of bizarre behaviors and risk assessment may become an additional tool for evaluating BPSD-like symptoms in relation to preventive and/or therapeutical strategies targeted at AD. It may also have a role in the evaluation of the potential risk factors for the disease. PMID:24144550

  4. Credit Card Risk Behavior on College Campuses: Evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Mendes-da-Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available College students frequently show they have little skill when it comes to using a credit card in a responsible manner. This article deals with this issue in an emerging market and in a pioneering manner. University students (n = 769 in São Paulo, Brazil’s main financial center, replied to a questionnaire about their credit card use habits. Using Logit models, associations were discovered between personal characteristics and credit card use habits that involve financially risky behavior. The main results were: (a a larger number of credit cards increases the probability of risky behavior; (b students who alleged they knew what interest rates the card administrators were charging were less inclined to engage in risky behavior. The results are of interest to the financial industry, to university managers and to policy makers. This article points to the advisability, indeed necessity, of providing students with information about the use of financial products (notably credit cards bearing in mind the high interest rates which their users are charged. The findings regarding student behavior in the use of credit cards in emerging economies are both significant and relevant. Furthermore, financial literature, while recognizing the importance of the topic, has not significantly examined the phenomenon in emerging economies.

  5. THE RELEVANCE OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING FOR THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briciu Sorin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary period the tourism and hospitality industry has experienced dynamic growth despite the challenges facing not only the global crisis, but also market changes, consumer behavior and technological trends. Accounting, the language of business is required to keep up with changes made to each particular area of activity so that they can provide timely relevant information to be managed by an efficient information system. Our article focuses on presenting the importance of management accounting and cost information system in the hospitality industry, then consider identifying features of this sector and their impact on accounting. The methodology of our research falls within the economic research, being theoretical, aiming primarily to knowledge objectives and the relevance of management accounting for economic entities, and then we have the characteristics of hospitality industry and possible organizational management accounting in this sector. In our perspective cost calculation for services, packages or travel benefits must take into account the development of the accounts from Class 9, so we propose a possible method to customize them according to the Direct Costing and CVP analysis. Our research will also be explanatory descriptive, trying to answer the questions How? and Why?

  6. On Pfaffian Random Point Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargin, V.

    2014-02-01

    We study Pfaffian random point fields by using the Moore-Dyson quaternion determinants. First, we give sufficient conditions that ensure that a self-dual quaternion kernel defines a valid random point field, and then we prove a CLT for Pfaffian point fields. The proofs are based on a new quaternion extension of the Cauchy-Binet determinantal identity. In addition, we derive the Fredholm determinantal formulas for the Pfaffian point fields which use the quaternion determinant.

  7. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  8. Clinical Application of Point Diji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾继萍

    2004-01-01

    @@ Diji (SP 8) is a cleft point of the Spleen Channel of Foot-Taiyang. Its indications include abdominal pain, diarrhea, edema, dysmenorrhea and certain other symptoms caused by incoordination between the liver and the spleen. Either taking the point alone or together with some other adjunct points in clinical practice, the author has obtained satisfactory curative effects.

  9. Relevance of Dynamic Clustering to Biological Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, K

    1993-01-01

    Abstract Network of nonlinear dynamical elements often show clustering of synchronization by chaotic instability. Relevance of the clustering to ecological, immune, neural, and cellular networks is discussed, with the emphasis of partially ordered states with chaotic itinerancy. First, clustering with bit structures in a hypercubic lattice is studied. Spontaneous formation and destruction of relevant bits are found, which give self-organizing, and chaotic genetic algorithms. When spontaneous changes of effective couplings are introduced, chaotic itinerancy of clusterings is widely seen through a feedback mechanism, which supports dynamic stability allowing for complexity and diversity, known as homeochaos. Second, synaptic dynamics of couplings is studied in relation with neural dynamics. The clustering structure is formed with a balance between external inputs and internal dynamics. Last, an extension allowing for the growth of the number of elements is given, in connection with cell differentiation. Effecti...

  10. A nonparametric approach for relevance determination

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbaba, Babak

    2010-01-01

    The problem of evaluating a large number of factors in terms of their relevance to an outcome of interest arises in many research areas such as genetics, image processing, astrophysics, and neuroscience. In this paper, we argue that treating such problems as large-scale hypothesis testing does not reflect the usual motivation behind these studies, which is to select a subset of promising factors for further investigation. and leads investigators to rely on arbitrary selection mechanisms (e.g., setting the false discovery rate at 0.05) or unrealistic loss functions. Moreover, while we might be able to justify simplifying assumptions (e.g., parametric distributional forms for test statistics under the null and alternative hypotheses) for classic hypothesis testing situations (i.e., one hypothesis at a time), generalizing such assumptions to large-scale studies is restrictive and unnecessary. In accordance with the objective of such studies, we propose to treat them as relevance determination problems. This way,...

  11. Tomographic diagnosis and relevant aspects of otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: jugaiotti@gmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei-Mater Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    A literature review and pictorial essay were developed to discuss the importance of knowing the main findings and locations of otosclerosis at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of otosclerosis diagnosed in their institution by means of high resolution multidetector computed tomography. Otosclerosis corresponds to otic capsule dysplasia characterized by metabolic derangement of its endochondral layer. Such condition constitutes a relevant cause of sensorineural hearing loss, affecting about 7% to 10% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but imaging methods play a significant role in the anatomical detailing, differential diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of postoperative complications. Among such methods, the relevance of MDCT is highlighted. Radiologists should be familiar with the MDCT findings of otosclerosis, as well as with the temporal bone anatomy to assist in the appropriate clinical management of this disease. (author)

  12. Mars-relevant phosphate minerals and implications for Martian habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Christopher T.

    This dissertation is comprised of three studies focused on martian phosphate availability, with an introductory chapter introducing and linking the three studies. Chapter two is on the subject of merrillite synthesis. Merrillite is an extraterrestrial Ca-phosphate mineral similar to the mineral whitlockite and is found as a dominant primary phosphate mineral in martian meteorites. The chapter includes methods of whitlockite and merrillite synthesis as well as a detailed characterization of the produced minerals and a mechanism by which charge balance can be maintained when merrillite is synthesized through dehydrogenation of whitlockite. Chapter three presents the results of kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the Mars-relevant minerals chlorapatite and merrillite, as well as the more terrestrially-relevant minerals whitlockite and fluorapatite. The results of these studies indicate that the dominant primary Ca-phosphate minerals on Mars possess higher solubilities that could lead to more than twice the phosphate concentration in solution. Dissolution rates for the Mars-relevant minerals derived in the study, when combined with the higher martian phosphorus abundance, could result in phosphate release rates of up to 45x faster for a given set of aqueous conditions on Mars when compared to Earth. The implications of the results for past or present martian habitability are discussed. In Chapter four, reactive transport modeling was applied to investigate the transport and mobility of phosphate under martian conditions. The kinetic and thermodynamic data derived in Chapter three were combined with Mars mission data, results from an investigation of Mars analog basalts at Craters of the Moon National Monument in Idaho, and previously published data to inform a reactive transport code and model dissolution profiles measured by Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit in Wishstone class rocks. The modeling results suggest phosphate release into near-neutral waters occurred

  13. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    marked on the skin with indelible ink and a permanent point tattoo of carbon black ink. The depth of the sentinel node from the skin mark is measured in an orthogonal view with a radioactive marker placed on the skin mark. At surgery blue dye is used as a mapping technique and the sentinel nodes are also checked by using a gamma probe to confirm the true sentinel nodes and that the sentinel nodes have been removed. Several lymphoscintigraphic techniques have been described where the tracer is injected peritumorally, intratumorally or intradermally. We favour the peritumour injection technique under ultrasound control. The lymphatic drainage in breast carcinoma is predominantly to axillary lymph nodes but also to internal mammary lymph nodes (IM) and occasionally to intramammary, infraclavicular and supraclavicular node fields. To most accurately define the lymph drainage all sentinel nodes should be found. In our experience the axillary sentinel nodes were accurately staged in 96% of patients. The sentinel nodes are removed at surgery and sent for pathology. As there are a limited number usually 1-3 sentinel nodes this allows for more specific histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Focused histopathology allows more specific and accurate detection of micrometastases. SLNB has also been used in vulval, penile, head and neck, thyroid, oropharyngeal cancers and also intraoperatively in colon cancer. The techniques require a sophisticated integration of a multidisciplinary team with significant learning curves for the surgeons, nuclear medicine physicians, technologists and pathologists. There has to be good communication between all groups with precise imaging and surgical techniques. With lymphoscintigraphy there are many techniques described and the literature reports excellent results in major centres. With lymphoscintigraphy in Australia we use small particle colloids (Tc99m antimony sulphide colloid) which allows excellent definition of lymph channels and more

  14. Catalyst Deactivation: Control Relevance of Model Assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernt Lie; David M. Himmelblau

    2000-01-01

    Two principles for describing catalyst deactivation are discussed, one based on the deactivation mechanism, the other based on the activity and catalyst age distribution. When the model is based upon activity decay, it is common to use a mean activity developed from the steady-state residence time distribution. We compare control-relevant properties of such an approach with those of a model based upon the deactivation mechanism. Using a continuous stirred tank reactor as an example, we show t...

  15. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    OpenAIRE

    S K Padhy; S Khatana; Sarkar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal o...

  16. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y. [Laboratory for Physics of Nanostructure, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Karlsson, K. F. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University (Sweden); Dalessi, S. [Computational Biology Group, Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne (Switzerland); Gallinet, B. [Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Svendsen, G. [Dept. of Electronics and Telecom., Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-03-31

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented.

  17. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real-world situations “stimuli” are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multidimensional. On the other hand, in every decision making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these re...

  18. Searching Biomedical Text: Towards Maximum Relevant Results

    OpenAIRE

    Galde, Ola; Sevaldsen, John Harald

    2006-01-01

    The amount of biomedical information available to users today is large and increasing. The ability to precisely retrieve desired information is vital in order to utilize available knowledge. In this work we investigated how to improve the relevance of biomedical search results. Using the Lucene Java API we applied a series of information retrieval techniques to search in biomedical data. The techniques ranged from basic stemming and stop-word removal to more advanced methods like user relevan...

  19. On Level persistence (Relevant level persistence numbers)

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Dong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to describe of a new set of numerical invariants, the relevant level persistence numbers, and make explicit their relationship with the four types of bar codes, a more familiar set of complete invariants for level persistence. The paper provides the opportunity to compare level persistence with the persistence introduced by Edelsbrunner- Letscher-Zomorodian called in this paper, as sub-level persistence.

  20. The Current Relevance of Rosa Luxemburg's thought

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella Trincado

    2010-01-01

    This article insists upon the current relevance of Rosa Luxemburg's thought. Luxemburg had a sensibility ahead of her time and, faithful to her dreams of revolutionary change, she searched for an open society. This leftist revolutionary did not believe in the contingency of individual freedom. Instead, she argued for movement and development over time as a perpetual objective of the globalized masses. Luxemburg sought a new type of socialism and even a new way of thinking. The basic idea of h...

  1. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented

  2. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    OpenAIRE

    Prachi Saffar; Amit Kumar; Ankur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015) and presence...

  3. Is QCD relevant to nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of recent work on baryon structure in a number of QCD-motivated models. After establishing a prima facie case that the quark model should be relevant in a consistent description of the nucleus over a wide range of momentum transfer, the author looks for experimental confirmation. The discussion includes the search for exotic states, for a six quark component of the deuteron, and an up to date report on the interpretation of the EMC effect. (Auth.)

  4. Research and Publishing: Relevance and Irreverence

    OpenAIRE

    Brester, Gary W.

    2006-01-01

    The value, relevance, and efficacy of conducting and publishing research has been widely debated throughout the agricultural economics profession. On the one hand, some argue that the research process creates little value and directly competes with teaching/outreach output. On the other hand, others argue that research provides answers to important questions, improves human capital, and complements teaching/outreach activities. I argue that the research and publishing process develops human c...

  5. Hydrogen interaction with fusion-relevant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an outline of the work carried out at JRC Ispra in the Tritium-materials Interaction Laboratory, on the interaction of gaseous hydrogen with several materials of interest in the field of fusion technology. Experimental work is reported and a concise review of relevant theoretical and numerical supporting activity is given as well. A period of about seven years is covered since 1982. Current work and possible future extensions are also briefly mentioned. 11 figs., 18 refs

  6. Molecular Hydrogen Formation on Astrophysically Relevant Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, N.; Furman, I.; Biham, O.; Pirronello, V.; Vidali, G.

    1999-01-01

    Recent experimental results about the formation of molecular hydrogen on astrophysically relevant surfaces under conditions close to those encountered in the interstellar medium are analyzed using rate equations. The parameters of the rate equation model are fitted to temperature-programmed desorption curves obtained in the laboratory. These parameters are the activation energy barriers for atomic hydrogen diffusion and desorption, the barrier for molecular hydrogen desorption, and the probab...

  7. Determinant Behavior Characteristics of Older Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongren, Hale N.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior variables in 67 studies of marketing and consumer behavior were analyzed; significant variables relevant to satisfying the needs of older consumers were identified. Meta analysis revealed such factors as price consciousness, use of information sources, habituated shopping, and age-related concerns useful in predicting the consumer…

  8. Sexuality and spirituality: the relevance of eastern traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, R T

    1992-01-01

    This article outlines some of the major Eastern sexual and spiritual traditions (primarily Hinduism, Taoism and Tantrism), and discusses their relevance for the contemporary Western world. The article begins by examining the sources of Eastern sexual traditions, before and after the "Axial" period, the turning point at which male consciousness and power gained ascendancy over the female principle. Although a phallocentric view of the world came to dominate the East, Eastern cultures -- unlike the West -- maintained a respect for nature. According to this view, health and spirituality are gained only when humanity respects its place in the cosmos and lives in harmony with nature. The article then examines the sexual traditions of Hinduism, in which sexual asceticism not only coexisted but also complimented the celebration of sexual desire and pleasure. The article then discusses the Taoist traditions, which, among other things, stressed the importance of female sexual satisfaction. Taoism argued that men cannot experience true sexual ecstasy unless they develop the ability to control their ejaculation. The Tantric sexual tradition, the article explains, maintained that ultimate sexual pleasure would enable one to experience the true nature of reality. The article then goes on to review variations of these traditions: the Hindu Tantric Doctrine (Shaktism), the Buddhist Tantric Doctrine, and Tantra and Yoga. Finally, the article considers the relevance of these Eastern philosophies to the Western sexual tradition, which has tended to view sexuality as antagonistic to spiritual liberation. PMID:12343737

  9. A Study on Characteristics and Relevant Factors of Adaptive Behaviours in Schizophrenic Children%精神分裂症儿童适应行为及影响因素的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁水平; 赖淑珍; 江礼华; 魏永超; 涂飞龙; 梁琛; 熊富先

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics and relevant factors of adaptive behaviours in childhood schizophrenia. Methods: The adaptive behaviors of schizophrenic children were rated by Child Adaptive Behavior Scale. Data on relevant factors were collected by a specifically developed scale. Results: Relationship with parents, schooling, family education, parental culture, and family configuration were related to development of adaptive behaviors in schizophrenic children. Conclusion: The study of adaptive behaviours and their relevant factors was valuable in predicting prognosis of childhood schizophrenia.

  10. Controlling for causally relevant third variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodie, Adam S; Williams, Cristina C; Crooks, C L

    2003-10-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors tested the conditions under which 3rd variables are controlled for in making causal judgments. The authors hypothesized that 3rd variables are controlled for when the 3rd variables are themselves perceived as causal. In Experiment 1, the participants predicted test performance after seeing information about wearing a lucky garment, taking a test-preparation course, and staying up late. The course (perceived as more causally relevant) was controlled for more than was the garment (perceived as less causally relevant) in assessing the effectiveness of staying up late. In Experiments 2 and 3, to obviate the many alternative accounts that arise from the realistic cover story of Experiment 1, participants predicted flowers' blooming after the presentation or nonpresentation of liquids. When one liquid was trained as causal, it was controlled for more in judging another liquid than when it was trained as neutral. Overall, stimuli perceived as causal were controlled for more when judging other stimuli. The authors concluded that the effect of perceived causal relevance on causal conditionalizing is real and normatively reasonable. PMID:14672103

  11. Valerian: No Evidence for Clinically Relevant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Kelber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients.

  12. Valerian: no evidence for clinically relevant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, Olaf; Nieber, Karen; Kraft, Karin

    2014-01-01

    In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root) was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients. PMID:25093031

  13. Topological Point Defects in Relaxor Ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Y.; Prokhorenko, S.; Kornev, I.; Bellaiche, L.

    2016-03-01

    First-principles-based effective Hamiltonian simulations are used to reveal the hidden connection between topological defects (hedgehogs and antihedgehogs) and relaxor behavior. Such defects are discovered to predominantly lie at the border of polar nanoregions in both Ba (Zr0.5 Ti0.5 )O3 (BZT) and Pb (Sc0.5 Nb0.5 )O3 (PSN) systems, and the temperature dependency of their density allows us to distinguish between noncanonical (PSN) and canonical (BZT) relaxor behaviors (via the presence or absence of a crossing of a percolation threshold). This density also possesses an inflection point at precisely the temperature for which the dielectric response peaks. Moreover, hedgehogs and antihedgehogs are found to be mobile excitations, and the dynamical nature of their annihilation is demonstrated (using simple hydrodynamical arguments) to follows laws, such as those of Vogel-Fulcher and Arrhenius, that are characteristic of dipolar relaxation kinetics of relaxor ferroelectrics.

  14. Multi-point corona discharge light emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    each measurement distribution of emitted light intensity corresponding to the single point-to-plane electrode configuration was restricted to the region of truncated cone with smaller base placed in the vicinity of the point electrode's spike. It seemed that discharge emission might be correlated with emission of a spot light source shining in the truncated cone. Emitted light intensity distribution corresponding to combinations of two, three and more electrodes predicated that corona discharge light emission in dependence on the individual electrodes spacing resembled to the light emission of an appropriate combination of more spot light sources. With decreasing inter-electrode spacing electric fields relevant to individual electrodes seemed to interact. In case of three electrodes' configuration this interaction might result in suppression of the middle electrode's electric field, and hence its light emission, too. The effect due to the total discharge current depends mainly on the separation of the needles. If the needles were closed together, the corresponding current values significantly diminished and electrode configuration tend to behave as a single needle. The corona inception voltage increased as the number of needles increased or when the needles were brought close together. The electric field from central needles was compressed and well controlled by the counter needles, and electric field at outer needles was higher than that at other needles. The electrodes spacing corresponding to disappearance of electrodes interaction should be nearly equal to the needle height. (author)

  15. Inflammatory profiles in the BTBR mouse: how relevant are they to autism spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careaga, Milo; Schwartzer, Jared; Ashwood, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of disorders characterized by core behavioral features including stereotyped interests, repetitive behaviors and impairments in communication and social interaction. In addition, widespread changes in the immune systems of individuals with ASD have been identified, in particular increased evidence of inflammation in the periphery and central nervous system. While the etiology of these disorders remains unclear, it appears that multiple gene and environmental factors are involved. The need for animal models paralleling the behavioral and immunological features of ASD is paramount to better understand the link between immune system dysregulation and behavioral deficits observed in these disorders. As such, the asocial BTBR mouse strain displays both ASD relevant behaviors and persistent immune dysregulation, providing a model system that has and continues to be instructive in understanding the complex nature of ASD. PMID:24937468

  16. PowerPoint 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2010-01-01

    Master PowerPoint and improve your presentation skills-with one book!. It's no longer enough to have slide after slide of text, bullets, and charts. It's not even enough to have good speaking skills if your PowerPoint slides bore your audience. Get the very most out of all that PowerPoint 2010 has to offer while also learning priceless tips and techniques for making good presentations in this new PowerPoint 2010 Bible. Well-known PowerPoint expert and author Faithe Wempen provides formatting tips; shows you how to work with drawings, tables, and SmartArt; introduces new collaboration tools; wa

  17. Magic Pointing for Eyewear Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    In this paper, we propose a combination of head and eye movements for touchlessly controlling the "mouse pointer" on eyewear devices, exploiting the speed of eye pointing and accuracy of head pointing. The method is a wearable computer-targeted variation of the original MAGIC pointing approach...... which combined gaze tracking with a classical mouse device. The result of our experiment shows that the combination of eye and head movements is faster than head pointing for far targets and more accurate than eye pointing....

  18. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, C. L.; Dang, R. S.; Ando, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, G. H.

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  19. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  20. Extreme values, regular variation and point processes

    CERN Document Server

    Resnick, Sidney I

    1987-01-01

    Extremes Values, Regular Variation and Point Processes is a readable and efficient account of the fundamental mathematical and stochastic process techniques needed to study the behavior of extreme values of phenomena based on independent and identically distributed random variables and vectors It presents a coherent treatment of the distributional and sample path fundamental properties of extremes and records It emphasizes the core primacy of three topics necessary for understanding extremes the analytical theory of regularly varying functions; the probabilistic theory of point processes and random measures; and the link to asymptotic distribution approximations provided by the theory of weak convergence of probability measures in metric spaces The book is self-contained and requires an introductory measure-theoretic course in probability as a prerequisite Almost all sections have an extensive list of exercises which extend developments in the text, offer alternate approaches, test mastery and provide for enj...