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Sample records for behaviorally relevant points

  1. Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N. [Dept. of Materials Science, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Department of Sound and Musical Instruments Technology, Ionian Islands Technological Educational Institute, Lixouri, 28200 (Greece); Sigalas, M. M. [Dept. of Materials Science, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Kafesaki, M. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1387, 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Univ. of Crete (Greece); Economou, E. N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1387, 70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Crete (Greece)

    2014-12-15

    In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation) with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated.

  2. Phononic crystals and elastodynamics: Some relevant points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Kafesaki, M.; Economou, E. N.

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we review briefly some of the first works on wave propagation in phononic crystals emphasizing the conditions for the creation of acoustic band-gaps and the role of resonances to the band-gap creation. We show that useful conclusions in the analysis of phononic band gap structures can be drawn by considering the mathematical similarities of the basic classical wave equation (Helmholtz equation) with Schrödinger equation and by employing basic solid state physics concepts and conclusions regarding electronic waves. In the second part of the paper we demonstrate the potential of phononic systems to be used as elastic metamaterials. This is done by demonstrating negative refraction in phononic crystals and subwavelength waveguiding in a linear chain of elastic inclusions, and by proposing a novel structure with close to pentamode behavior. Finally the potential of phononic structures to be used in liquid sensor applications is discussed and demonstrated

  3. Perspective: Organizational professionalism: relevant competencies and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egener, Barry; McDonald, Walter; Rosof, Bernard; Gullen, David

    2012-05-01

    The professionalism behaviors of physicians have been extensively discussed and defined; however, the professionalism behaviors of health care organizations have not been systemically categorized or described. Defining organizational professionalism is important because the behaviors of a health care organization may substantially impact the behaviors of physicians and others within the organization as well as other institutions and the larger community. In this article, the authors discuss the following competencies of organizational professionalism, derived from ethical values: service, respect, fairness, integrity, accountability, mindfulness, and self-motivation. How nonprofit health care organizations can translate these competencies into behaviors is described. For example, incorporating metrics of population health into assessments of corporate success may increase collaboration among regional health care organizations while also benefiting the community. The unique responsibilities of leadership to model these competencies, promote them in the community, and develop relevant organizational strategies are clarified. These obligations elevate the importance of the executive leadership's capacity for self-reflection and the governing boards' responsibility for mapping operational activities to organizational mission. Lastly, the authors consider how medical organizations are currently addressing professionalism challenges. In an environment made turbulent by regulatory change and financial constraints, achieving proficiency in professionalism competencies can assist nonprofit health care organizations to promote population health and the well-being of their workforces.

  4. The hippocampus plays a role in the recognition of visual scenes presented at behaviorally relevant points in time: evidence from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szamosi, András; Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2013-01-01

    When people perform an attentionally demanding target task at fixation, they also encode the surrounding visual environment, which serves as a context of the task. Here, we examined the role of the hippocampus in memory for target and context. Thirty-five patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 35 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education participated in the study. Participants completed visual letter detection and auditory tone discrimination target tasks, while also viewing a series of briefly presented urban and natural scenes. For the measurement of hippocampal and cerebral cortical volume, we utilized the FreeSurfer protocol using a Siemens Trio 3 T scanner. Before the quantification of brain volumes, hippocampal atrophy was confirmed by visual inspection in each patient. Results revealed intact letter recall and tone discrimination performances in aMCI patients, whereas they showed severe impairments in the recognition of scenes presented together with the targets. Patients with aMCI showed bilaterally reduced hippocampal volumes, but intact cortical volume, as compared with the controls. In controls and in the whole sample, hippocampal volume was positively associated with scene recognition when a target task was present. This relationship was observed in both visual and auditory conditions. Scene recognition and target tasks were not associated with executive functions. These results suggest that the hippocampus plays an essential role in the formation of memory traces of the visual environment when people concurrently perform a target task at behaviorally relevant points in time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Student standpoints relevant for future reproductive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the various standpoints of students on their motivation for parenthood, planning and deciding on birth giving, influence between marriage and parenthood, parent role complexity and responsibility, on the knowledge of effect and consequences of the problem of insufficient birth giving, with an aim of getting to know the main characteristics of their possible reproductive behavior. The analyzed standpoints are part of a more comprehensive and inclusive research, carried out on a sample of 1494 surveyed persons (1000 secondary-school pupils and 494 students in four biggest regional centers - Belgrade, Novi Sad, Kragujevac and Niš. The orientation only to student’s standpoints had an aim to more completely analyze the already abundant empirical material, which is acceptable due to the fact that students are closer to beginning of birth giving according to their age-situation characteristic. The willingness and desire of the students to become parents is significant, but this is only one of their varied life aspirations (importance of partnership, professional engagement…. The intention is to bring into accordance the realization of the most important roles, which actually indicates to a fairly uniform importance in satisfying the basic individual needs. Apart from that, the need for parenthood is dominantly emotional and altruistic, which can be satisfied by having only one child. Possible reproductive norms - which are directed to having two children, whereby they are higher than the current fertility rates, but also somewhat lower normatively determined expectations in relation to the desired number of children, as well as a significant orientation towards marriage and parenthood and the existence of the knowledge on the problem of the impossibility of simple reproduction and conscience of social need for population reproduction - represent a gap for realization of measures for motivating birth giving and parenthood

  6. Blocking Avoidance and Escape Responses: Relations With Clinically Relevant Behaviors

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    Juliana Maria Bubna Popovitz

    Full Text Available Abstract: The current study aims to evaluate the possible effects of interrupting problematic clinically relevant behaviors on the percentage of these responses and of clinical improvement-related responses. Two clients were treated with Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP, alternating two conditions (ABAB. On condition A, procedures to the therapist consisted of responding to the clinical improvement responses, and to description of outside of therapeutic setting behaviors, but therapists were advised to ignore problem behaviors emitted in session. During condition B, therapists followed the same procedures, but they were oriented to block (interrupt problematic responses emitted in session. Results suggest increase in the percentage of problem behaviors during condition B. Results are discussed, highlighting the viability of planning the contingent response the therapist emits to clinically relevant behaviors.

  7. Blocking Avoidance and Escape Responses: Relations With Clinically Relevant Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Popovitz, Juliana Maria Bubna; Silveira, Jocelaine Martins da

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The current study aims to evaluate the possible effects of interrupting problematic clinically relevant behaviors on the percentage of these responses and of clinical improvement-related responses. Two clients were treated with Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP), alternating two conditions (ABAB). On condition A, procedures to the therapist consisted of responding to the clinical improvement responses, and to description of outside of therapeutic setting behaviors, but therapis...

  8. Is the hymen a suitable cut-off point for clinically relevant pelvic organ prolapse?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegersma, Marian; Panman, Chantal M. C. R.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Dekker, Janny H.

    Objectives: The primary objective was to evaluate the ability of different anatomic cut-off points, as established in specialist urogynecology populations, to identify clinically relevant prolapse in a population of postmenopausal women with pelvic floor symptoms recruited from primary care. Study

  9. Feature relevance assessment for the semantic interpretation of 3D point cloud data

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    M. Weinmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The automatic analysis of large 3D point clouds represents a crucial task in photogrammetry, remote sensing and computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new methodology for the semantic interpretation of such point clouds which involves feature relevance assessment in order to reduce both processing time and memory consumption. Given a standard benchmark dataset with 1.3 million 3D points, we first extract a set of 21 geometric 3D and 2D features. Subsequently, we apply a classifier-independent ranking procedure which involves a general relevance metric in order to derive compact and robust subsets of versatile features which are generally applicable for a large variety of subsequent tasks. This metric is based on 7 different feature selection strategies and thus addresses different intrinsic properties of the given data. For the example of semantically interpreting 3D point cloud data, we demonstrate the great potential of smaller subsets consisting of only the most relevant features with 4 different state-of-the-art classifiers. The results reveal that, instead of including as many features as possible in order to compensate for lack of knowledge, a crucial task such as scene interpretation can be carried out with only few versatile features and even improved accuracy.

  10. Bulk and boundary critical behavior at Lifshitz points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These advances opened the way towards systematic studies of boundary critical behavior at -axial Lifshitz points. The possible boundary critical behavior depends on whether the surface plane is perpendicular to one of the modulation axes or parallel to all of them. We show that the semi-infinite field theories ...

  11. Thirty Points About Motivation From Skinner's Book Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Mark L

    2013-01-01

    Skinner discussed the topic of motivation in every chapter of the book Verbal Behavior (1957), usually with his preferred terminology of "deprivation, satiation, and aversive stimulation." In the current paper, direct quotations are used to systematically take the reader through 30 separate points made by Skinner in Verbal Behavior that collectively provide a comprehensive analysis of his position regarding the role of motivation in behavior analysis. In addition, various refinements and extensions of Skinner's analysis by Jack Michael and colleagues (Laraway, Snycerski, Michael, & Poling, 2003; Michael, 1982, 1988, 1993, 2000, 2004, 2007) are incorporated, along with suggestions for research and applications for several of the points.

  12. Forgotten Features of Head Zones and Their Relation to Diagnostically Relevant Acupuncture Points

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    Florian Beissner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1890s Sir Henry Head discovered certain areas of the skin that develop tenderness (allodynia in the course of visceral disease. These areas were later termed “Head zones”. In addition, he also emphasized the existence of specific points within these zones, that he called “maximum points”, a finding that seems to be almost forgotten today. We hypothesized that two important groups of acupuncture points, the diagnostically relevant Mu and Shu points, spatially and functionally coincide with these maximum points to a large extent. A comparison of Head's papers with the Huang Di Neijing (Yellow Thearch's Inner Classic and the Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing (Systematic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, two of the oldest still extant Chinese sources on acupuncture, revealed astonishing parallels between the two concepts regarding both point locations and functional aspects. These findings suggest that the Chinese discovery of viscerocutaneous reflexes preceded the discovery in the West by more than 2000 years. Furthermore, the fact that Chinese medicine uses Mu and Shu points not only diagnostically but also therapeutically may give us new insights into the underlying mechanisms of acupuncture.

  13. Voice identity recognition: functional division of the right STS and its behavioral relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Sonja; Kiebel, Stefan J; Maess, Burkhard; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2015-02-01

    The human voice is the primary carrier of speech but also a fingerprint for person identity. Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that speech and identity recognition is accomplished by partially different neural pathways, despite the perceptual unity of the vocal sound. Importantly, the right STS has been implicated in voice processing, with different contributions of its posterior and anterior parts. However, the time point at which vocal and speech processing diverge is currently unknown. Also, the exact role of the right STS during voice processing is so far unclear because its behavioral relevance has not yet been established. Here, we used the high temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography and a speech task control to pinpoint transient behavioral correlates: we found, at 200 msec after stimulus onset, that activity in right anterior STS predicted behavioral voice recognition performance. At the same time point, the posterior right STS showed increased activity during voice identity recognition in contrast to speech recognition whereas the left mid STS showed the reverse pattern. In contrast to the highly speech-sensitive left STS, the current results highlight the right STS as a key area for voice identity recognition and show that its anatomical-functional division emerges around 200 msec after stimulus onset. We suggest that this time point marks the speech-independent processing of vocal sounds in the posterior STS and their successful mapping to vocal identities in the anterior STS.

  14. Behavioral and neural correlates of communication via pointing.

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    Laurent Cleret de Langavant

    Full Text Available Communicative pointing is a human specific gesture which allows sharing information about a visual item with another person. It sets up a three-way relationship between a subject who points, an addressee and an object. Yet psychophysical and neuroimaging studies have focused on non-communicative pointing, which implies a two-way relationship between a subject and an object without the involvement of an addressee, and makes such gesture comparable to touching or grasping. Thus, experimental data on the communicating function of pointing remain scarce. Here, we examine whether the communicative value of pointing modifies both its behavioral and neural correlates by comparing pointing with or without communication. We found that when healthy participants pointed repeatedly at the same object, the communicative interaction with an addressee induced a spatial reshaping of both the pointing trajectories and the endpoint variability. Our finding supports the hypothesis that a change in reference frame occurs when pointing conveys a communicative intention. In addition, measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using H(2O(15 PET-scan showed that pointing when communicating with an addressee activated the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the right medial prefrontal cortex, in contrast to pointing without communication. Such a right hemisphere network suggests that the communicative value of pointing is related to processes involved in taking another person's perspective. This study brings to light the need for future studies on communicative pointing and its neural correlates by unraveling the three-way relationship between subject, object and an addressee.

  15. Implementation of Culturally Relevant School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Munro, Avi Baron; McCobin, Allison; Miller, Alison

    2016-01-01

    School-wide positive behavioral support (SWPBS) is an evidence-based strategy to alter the school environment by improving procedures to promote appropriate behaviors of all students. Although research has indicated that SWPBS is an empirically supported and effective intervention in reducing disruptive behaviors in most students, results have…

  16. Clinically Relevant Cut-off Points for the Diagnosis of Sarcopenia in Older Korean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Yu-Ri; Joh, Ju-Youn; Kim, Yeon-Pyo

    2017-11-09

    The optimal criteria applied to older Korean people have not been defined. We aimed to define clinically relevant cut-off points for older Korean people and to compare the predictive validity with other definitions of sarcopenia. Nine hundred and sixteen older Koreans (≥65 years) were included in this cross-sectional observational study. We used conditional inference tree analysis to determine cut-off points for height-adjusted grip strength (GS) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), for use in the diagnosis of sarcopenia. We then compared the Korean sarcopenia criteria with the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health and Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria, using frailty, assessed with the Korean Frailty Index, as an outcome variable. For men, a residual GS (GSre) of ≤ 0.25 was defined as weak, and a residual ASM (ASMre) of ≤ 1.29 was defined as low. Corresponding cut-off points for women were a GSre of ≤ 0.17 and an ASMre of ≤ 0.69. GSre and ASMre values were adjusted for height. In logistic regression analysis with new cut-off points, the adjusted odds ratios for pre-frail or frail status in the sarcopenia group were 3.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-7.83) for the men and 1.74 (95% CI 0.91-3.35) for the women. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the unadjusted area under the curve for Korean sarcopenia criteria in men and women were 0.653 and 0.608, respectively (p Korean people. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Expanding the scope and relevance of health interventions: Moving beyond clinical trials and behavior change models

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    Khary K. Rigg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An overemphasis on clinical trials and behavior change models has narrowed the knowledge base that can be used to design interventions. The overarching point is that the process of overanalyzing variables is impeding the process of gaining insight into the everyday experiences that shape how people define health and seek treatment. This claim is especially important to health decision-making and behavior change because subtle interpretations often influence the decisions that people make. This manuscript provides a critique of traditional approaches to developing health interventions, and theoretically justifies what and why changes are warranted. The limited scope of these models is also discussed, and an argument is made to adopt a strategy that includes the perceptions of people as necessary for understanding health and health-related decision-making. Three practical strategies are suggested to be used with the more standard approaches to assessing the effectiveness and relevance of health interventions.

  18. How relevant is government championing behavior for technology development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, J.S.; Halman, J.I.M.; Song, M.; Dorée, A.G.; van der Bij, J.D.

    Many studies emphasize the importance of government support in technology development. However, this study is among the first to provide empirical findings of the relevance of government roles for the performance of technology development projects. Based on earlier research and the strategic

  19. How relevant is government championing behavior for technology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, Jasper; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael; Doree, Andries G.; van der Bij, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies emphasize the importance of government support in technology development. However, this study is among the first to provide empirical findings of the relevance of government roles for the performance of technology development projects. Based on earlier research and the strategic

  20. Emissions of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) from point sources--identification of relevant branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, M; Scheffknecht, C; Scharf, S; Weiss, S; Gans, O

    2008-01-01

    Effluents of wastewater treatment plants are relevant point sources for the emission of hazardous xenobiotic substances to the aquatic environment. One group of substances, which recently entered scientific and political discussions, is the group of the perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS). The most studied compounds from this group are perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), which are the most important degradation products of PFAS. These two substances are known to be persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT). In the present study, eleven PFAS were investigated in effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and in industrial wastewaters. PFOS and PFOA proved to be the dominant compounds in all sampled wastewaters. Concentrations of up to 340 ng/L of PFOS and up to 220 ng/L of PFOA were observed. Besides these two compounds, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) was also present in nearly all effluents and maximum concentrations of up to 280 ng/L were measured. Only N-ethylperfluorooctane sulphonamide (N-EtPFOSA) and its degradation/metabolisation product perfluorooctane sulphonamide (PFOSA) were either detected below the limit of quantification or were not even detected at all. Beside the effluents of the municipal WWTPs, nine industrial wastewaters from six different industrial branches were also investigated. Significantly, the highest emissions or PFOS were observed from metal industry whereas paper industry showed the highest PFOA emission. Several PFAS, especially perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) and PFOS are predominantly emitted from industrial sources, with concentrations being a factor of 10 higher than those observed in the municipal WWTP effluents. Perfluorodecane sulphonate (PFDS), N-Et-PFOSA and PFOSA were not detected in any of the sampled industrial point sources. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  1. Attitude toward Abortion and Attitude-Relevant Overt Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edward H.; Farina, Amerigo

    1978-01-01

    This investigation looked at the relationship between questionnaire-assessed attitude toward abortion, and later behaviors when subjects were requested to make a tape-recording of an emphatically pro- or anti-abortion script. A correlational study allowed the subject to select the script. In the experimental study, a script was assigned randomly.…

  2. Recognition and localization of relevant human behavior in videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Henri; Burghouts, Gertjan; de Penning, Leo; Hanckmann, Patrick; ten Hove, Johan-Martijn; Korzec, Sanne; Kruithof, Maarten; Landsmeer, Sander; van Leeuwen, Coen; van den Broek, Sebastiaan; Halma, Arvid; den Hollander, Richard; Schutte, Klamer

    2013-06-01

    Ground surveillance is normally performed by human assets, since it requires visual intelligence. However, especially for military operations, this can be dangerous and is very resource intensive. Therefore, unmanned autonomous visualintelligence systems are desired. In this paper, we present an improved system that can recognize actions of a human and interactions between multiple humans. Central to the new system is our agent-based architecture. The system is trained on thousands of videos and evaluated on realistic persistent surveillance data in the DARPA Mind's Eye program, with hours of videos of challenging scenes. The results show that our system is able to track the people, detect and localize events, and discriminate between different behaviors, and it performs 3.4 times better than our previous system.

  3. Sustainable Seafood Consumption in Action: Relevant Behaviors and their Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Richter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the discussion around sustainable diets, seafood consumption is still a relatively neglected field. This article discusses relevant behaviours consumers can perform to consume seafood sustainably. The predictive power of intention, descriptive social norms, trust, awareness and pro-environmental attitudes are theoretically discussed and statistically tested across two studies in regards to (a using sustainable seafood labels, and (b using sustainable seafood guides. Data analysis (N1 = 309, N2 = 881 Norwegian adults shows that intentions, social norms and trust predict seafood label use across studies. The variables predicting seafood guide use are less stable which might be due to this behaviour being performed by a very small fraction of consumers only. Causal relationships have been identified in study 2 by applying cross-lagged panel analyses between intentions, trust and social norms and seafood label use. Further causal relationships were found between intentions, trust and awareness and seafood guide use. A bidirectional relationship was confirmed between descriptive social norms and seafood guide use. Potential strategies to promote seafood label- and seafood guide use, are discussed based on these results.

  4. Assessing Temporal Behavior in LIDAR Point Clouds of Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschneider, J.; Schlichting, A.; Brenner, C.

    2017-05-01

    Self-driving cars and robots that run autonomously over long periods of time need high-precision and up-to-date models of the changing environment. The main challenge for creating long term maps of dynamic environments is to identify changes and adapt the map continuously. Changes can occur abruptly, gradually, or even periodically. In this work, we investigate how dense mapping data of several epochs can be used to identify the temporal behavior of the environment. This approach anticipates possible future scenarios where a large fleet of vehicles is equipped with sensors which continuously capture the environment. This data is then being sent to a cloud based infrastructure, which aligns all datasets geometrically and subsequently runs scene analysis on it, among these being the analysis for temporal changes of the environment. Our experiments are based on a LiDAR mobile mapping dataset which consists of 150 scan strips (a total of about 1 billion points), which were obtained in multiple epochs. Parts of the scene are covered by up to 28 scan strips. The time difference between the first and last epoch is about one year. In order to process the data, the scan strips are aligned using an overall bundle adjustment, which estimates the surface (about one billion surface element unknowns) as well as 270,000 unknowns for the adjustment of the exterior orientation parameters. After this, the surface misalignment is usually below one centimeter. In the next step, we perform a segmentation of the point clouds using a region growing algorithm. The segmented objects and the aligned data are then used to compute an occupancy grid which is filled by tracing each individual LiDAR ray from the scan head to every point of a segment. As a result, we can assess the behavior of each segment in the scene and remove voxels from temporal objects from the global occupancy grid.

  5. ASSESSING TEMPORAL BEHAVIOR IN LIDAR POINT CLOUDS OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTS

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    J. Schachtschneider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-driving cars and robots that run autonomously over long periods of time need high-precision and up-to-date models of the changing environment. The main challenge for creating long term maps of dynamic environments is to identify changes and adapt the map continuously. Changes can occur abruptly, gradually, or even periodically. In this work, we investigate how dense mapping data of several epochs can be used to identify the temporal behavior of the environment. This approach anticipates possible future scenarios where a large fleet of vehicles is equipped with sensors which continuously capture the environment. This data is then being sent to a cloud based infrastructure, which aligns all datasets geometrically and subsequently runs scene analysis on it, among these being the analysis for temporal changes of the environment. Our experiments are based on a LiDAR mobile mapping dataset which consists of 150 scan strips (a total of about 1 billion points, which were obtained in multiple epochs. Parts of the scene are covered by up to 28 scan strips. The time difference between the first and last epoch is about one year. In order to process the data, the scan strips are aligned using an overall bundle adjustment, which estimates the surface (about one billion surface element unknowns as well as 270,000 unknowns for the adjustment of the exterior orientation parameters. After this, the surface misalignment is usually below one centimeter. In the next step, we perform a segmentation of the point clouds using a region growing algorithm. The segmented objects and the aligned data are then used to compute an occupancy grid which is filled by tracing each individual LiDAR ray from the scan head to every point of a segment. As a result, we can assess the behavior of each segment in the scene and remove voxels from temporal objects from the global occupancy grid.

  6. Point-of-care testing of activated clotting time in the ICU: is it relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ellenora; Clarke, Jody; Edward, Karen-leigh; Giandinoto, Jo-Ann

    Over the past 50 years there have been significant advances in both the clinical techniques and equipment used in the intensive care environment. One traditionally used point-of-care test is activated clotting time (ACT), a coagulation test primarily used during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to monitor the anticoagulation effects of heparin. The ACT test has since emerged into the intensive care environment to guide clinical assessment and management of haemostasis in postoperative cardiac patients. The aim of this integrative systematic review was to critique the available research evaluating the effectiveness of ACT point-of-care testing in the intensive care unit for adult patients following cardiopulmonary bypass and cardiac surgery and any impacts this may have on nursing care. A systematic search of Medline, CINAHL and PubMed was undertaken. The search identified five research papers reporting on the use of ACT point-of-care testing in the intensive care unit for adult cardiac surgical patients. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the lack of homogeneity between the papers included. There was a lack of clear evidence for the use of the ACT point-of-care test after cardiac surgery in the intensive care environment. This review has highlighted that conventional laboratory tests are generally more accurate and reliable than this point-of-care test in guiding nursing care management.

  7. Relevance of communications at sale points in the modern concept of merchandising

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    Kataev Andrey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Owners of brands spend a large amount of money to promote their products. However, communication at sale points usually does not meet the overall strategy of integrated marketing communication as communication and sales are the question of competence of different managers. If not to pay proper attention to this question today, thousands of advertising budgets, PR and other campaigns will not bring effect under conditions of inconsistent sales strategies and tactics. The article gives the theoretical grounding of integration of communications at sale points into the structure of retail marketing communications.

  8. Investigating Clinically and Scientifically Useful Cut Points on the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Raymond, Nancy; Coleman, Eli; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca

    2017-05-01

    One of the major obstacles to conducting epidemiologic research and determining the incidence and prevalence of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) has been the lack of relevant empirically derived cut points on the various instruments that have been used to measure the concept. To further develop the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) through exploring predictive validity and developing an empirically determined and clinically useful cut point for defining CSB. A sample of 242 men who have sex with men was recruited from various sites in a moderate-size Midwestern city. Participants were assigned to a CSB group or a control group using an interview for the diagnosis that was patterned after the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The 22-item CSBI was administered as part of a larger battery of self-report inventories. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to compute area-under-the-curve measurements to ascertain the predictive validity of the total scale, the control subscale, and the violence subscale. Cut points were determined through consensus of experts balancing sensitivity and specificity as determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. Analyses indicated that the 22-item CSBI was a good predictor of group membership, as was the 13-item control subscale. The violence subscale added little to the predictive accuracy of the instrument; thus, it likely measures something other than CSB. Two relevant cut points were found, one that minimized false negatives and another, more conservative cut point that minimized false positives. The CSBI as currently configured measures two different constructions and only the control subscale is helpful in diagnosing CSB. Therefore, we decided to eliminate the violence subscale and move forward with a 13-item scale that we have named the CSBI-13. Two cut points were developed from this revised scale, one that is useful as a

  9. Neuroecology: Neural Mechanisms of Sensory and Motor Processes that Mediate Ecologically Relevant Behaviors: An Introduction to the Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffell, Jeffrey A; Rowe, Ashlee H

    2016-11-01

    What is Neuroecology? Animal behavior mediates many critical ecological processes that, in turn, have implications for the evolution of organismal interactions. Because the peripheral and central nervous systems ultimately control behavior, research in neuroecology seeks to link the neural basis of behavior with behavioral control of ecological interactions, and to determine how specific processes (e.g., environmental and genetic constraints, ecological and evolutionary forces) operating to alter nervous system function might constrain or facilitate adaptive behavior. Our goal for this symposium was to promote a general framework for neuroecology by exploring fundamental questions germane to this new area of research, and to develop a "toolbox" of techniques and approaches for addressing those questions. In the following series of papers, we provide a starting point for future work on neuroecology, including evolutionary context, the role of plasticity in shaping nervous system function and behavior, and an exploration of various sensorimotor systems that control ecological interactions. By promoting an integration of observational and experimental approaches at different levels of organization, we can reveal much about how the neural bases of behaviors influence interactions that occur under ecologically relevant contexts that would otherwise be impossible from isolated physiological, behavioral, or ecological components. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Parenthood characteristics in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, relevant for reproductive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of insufficient childbearing is a demographic and social problem of contemporary society. In order to resolve the determination of low fertility in Serbia at the end of the 20th century, empirical research of the effects of reproductive behavior had been intensified. The purpose of this paper is to point out to the characteristics of parenthood relevant for bringing the decision on giving birth to children on the basis of this empirical material. A comparative approach, based on illuminating the compatibility of practice and models of responsible parenthood, enables the recognition of limiting factors of childbearing not only of those who are already parents but of young people who still do not have this experience. The complexity and responsibility of the parent role are stressed as part of the experience as well as the basic characteristic of the parenthood model. An adequate and efficient rehabilitation of the role of parenthood, as a necessity of the pro-natal policy must take into consideration the gender asymmetry of parenthood into consideration as well.

  11. Three-point bending fatigue behavior of WC–Co cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Anhai; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Dong; Gao, Xinliang; Tang, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanical fatigue tests were conducted on a specific designed jig. ► Three-point bending fatigue behavior of WC–Co cemented carbides was studied. ► Fatigue mechanisms of WC–Co cemented carbides with different WC grain sizes and Co binder contents were revealed. -- Abstract: WC–Co cemented carbides with different WC grain sizes and Co binder contents were sintered and fabricated. The three-point bending specimens with a single edge notch were prepared for tests. In the experiments, the mechanical properties of materials were investigated under static and cyclic loads (20 Hz) in air at room temperature. The fatigue behaviors of the materials under the same applied loading conditions are presented and discussed. Optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the micro-mechanisms of damage during fatigue, and the results were used to correlate with the mechanical fatigue behavior of WC–Co cemented carbides. Experimental results indicated that the fatigue fracture surfaces exhibited more fracture origins and diversification of crack propagation paths than the static strength fracture surfaces. The fatigue fracture typically originates from inhomogeneities or defects such as micropores or aggregates of WC grains near the notch tip. Moreover, due to the diversity and complexity of the fatigue mechanisms, together with the evolution of the crack tip and the ductile deformation zone, the fatigue properties of WC–Co cemented carbides were largely relevant with the combination of transverse rupture strength and fracture toughness, rather than only one of them. Transverse rupture strength dominated the fatigue behavior of carbides with low Co content, whilst the fatigue behavior of carbides with high Co content was determined by fracture toughness.

  12. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles

    OpenAIRE

    Grippo, Angela J.; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C. Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks o...

  13. Characterizing autism-relevant social behavior in poodles (Canis familiaris) via owner report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Rachel M; Lit, Lisa; Hamilton, Shelley; Beversdorf, David Q

    2017-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 131(2) of Journal of Comparative Psychology (see record 2017-20237-001). In the article, the scientific name for the species was missing in the title. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted, repetitive behaviors. It can be difficult to model the complex behavioral features of this disorder with rodent models, which have limited similarity to human behaviors. The domestic dog may be a promising model of complex human behavior, including core features of ASD. The present study examines ASD-relevant social behavior in Miniature and Standard Poodles using an owner-report questionnaire with questions adapted from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2000). A previous study identified 3 behavioral constructs examined by this questionnaire: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors, response to social interaction, and communication. In the present study, confirmatory and experimental factor analyses used to assess how collected data fit with the previous model revealed moderate model fit and a similar factorial structure. Between-breed comparisons across these factors and at the individual question level revealed differences between Miniature and Standard Poodles in showing behaviors. Cluster analyses used to group dogs within each breed according to social behavior identified smaller subgroups of dogs with less social behavior across all 3 factors compared with the average within each breed. Within- and between-breed differences in social behavior warrant investigation of genetic variation underlying this complex trait as it relates to ASD-relevant behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Bulk and boundary critical behavior at Lifshitz points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lifshitz points are multicritical points at which a disordered phase, a homogeneous ordered phase, and a modulated ordered phase meet. Their bulk universality classes are described by natural generalizations of the standard 4 model. Analyzing these models systematically via modern field-theoretic renormalization ...

  15. Bulk and boundary critical behavior at Lifshitz points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Lifshitz points are multicritical points at which a disordered phase, a ho- mogeneous ordered phase, and a modulated ordered phase meet. Their bulk universality classes are described by natural generalizations of the standard φ4 model. Analyzing these models systematically via modern field-theoretic ...

  16. Parenting practices and their relevance to child behaviors in Canada and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mowei; Guo, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed that parents in different cultures endorse different child-rearing practices. Studies in the West suggest that there is a cluster of behavioral characteristics in children that are linked with each type of parenting styles. Mixed results, however, were found in non-Western countries. This study examined (1) parenting practices in Canadian and Chinese mothers, and (2) the relevance between parenting practices and child behaviors in Canada and China. Forty Canadian children (average age = 5.40) and 39 Chinese children (average age = 4.84) and their mothers participated in the study. Information on maternal authoritative and authoritarian behaviors and children's behaviors, including coercive request, polite request, and assertiveness, was obtained from observations of mother-child interactions in a laboratory situation. The results indicated that Chinese mothers were less authoritative and more authoritarian than Canadian mothers. Both cross-cultural differences and similarities were found on the associations between maternal parenting practices and child behaviors.

  17. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  18. Behavioral approach system (BAS)-relevant cognitive styles and bipolar spectrum disorders: concurrent and prospective associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y; Walshaw, Patricia D; Gerstein, Rachel K; Keyser, Jessica D; Whitehouse, Wayne G; Urosevic, Snezana; Nusslock, Robin; Hogan, Michael E; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2009-08-01

    The authors examined concurrent and prospective associations of behavioral approach system (BAS)-relevant and non-BAS-relevant cognitive styles with bipolar spectrum disorders. Controlling for depressive and hypomanic/manic symptoms, 195 individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders scored higher than 194 demographically similar normal controls on BAS sensitivity and BAS-relevant cognitive dimensions of performance concerns, autonomy, and self-criticism, but not on behavioral inhibition system sensitivity and non-BAS-relevant dimensions of approval seeking, sociotropy, and dependency. Moreover, group differences on autonomy fully mediated the association between higher BAS sensitivity and bipolar status. In addition, only BAS-related cognitive dimensions predicted the likelihood of onset of depressive and hypomanic/manic episodes among the bipolar individuals over a 3.2-year follow-up, controlling for initial symptoms and past history of mood episodes. Higher autonomy and self-criticism predicted a greater likelihood of hypomanic/manic episodes, and higher autonomy predicted a lower likelihood of major depressive episodes. In addition, autonomy mediated the associations between BAS sensitivity and prospective hypomanic/manic episodes. These findings suggest that individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders may exhibit a unique profile of BAS-relevant cognitive styles that influence the course of their mood episodes.

  19. Behavior: a relevant tool for brain-immune system interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pinto, Frederico Azevedo; Cohn, Daniel Wagner Hamada; Sa-Rocha, Vanessa Moura; Sa-Rocha, Luiz Carlos; Palermo-Neto, Joao

    2009-02-01

    Neuroimmunomodulation describes the field focused on understanding the mechanisms by which the central nervous system interacts with the immune system, potentially leading to changes in animal behavior. Nonetheless, not many articles dealing with neuroimmunomodulation employ behavior as an analytical endpoint. Even fewer papers deal with social status as a possible modifier of neuroimmune phenomena. In the described sets of experiments, we tackle both, using a paradigm of social dominance and subordination. We first review data on the effects of different ranks within a stable hierarchical relationship. Submissive mice in this condition display more anxiety-like behaviors, have decreased innate immunity, and show a decreased resistance to implantation and development of melanoma metastases in their lungs. This suggests that even in a stable, social, hierarchical rank, submissive animals may be subjected to higher levels of stress, with putative biological relevance to host susceptibility to disease. Second, we review data on how dominant and submissive mice respond differentially to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), employing a motivational perspective to sickness behavior. Dominant animals display decreased number and frequency in several aspects of behavior, particularly agonistic social interaction, that is, directed toward the submissive cage mate. This was not observed in submissive mice that maintained the required behavior expected by its dominant mate. Expression of sickness behavior relies on motivational reorganization of priorities, which are different along different social ranks, leading to diverse outcomes. We suggest that in vitro assessment of neuroimmune phenomena can only be understood based on the behavioral context in which they occur.

  20. Bulk and boundary critical behavior at Lifshitz points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    expansions [59], and computer simulations [60]; and many of these theoretical predictions have been checked by careful experiments. By contrast, the application of modern field-theoretic RG approaches to the study of critical behavior at LP is a fairly recent development [41,43,46,51]. The two-loop RG analysis of critical ...

  1. The Investigation of Pointing Behaviors in Web Browsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    bot actions. There are four tasks proposed in the project: (1) PI will apply Fitts ’ law formula to pointing actions in a natural web browsing...environment in an attempt to assess Fitts ’ law’s applicability to typical GUIs outside of an experimental setting. (2) PI will identify whether or not...NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Form Approved OMB NO. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - Approved for

  2. Measures and time points relevant for post-surgical follow-up in patients with inflammatory arthritis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tägil Magnus

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatic diseases commonly affect joints and other structures in the hand. Surgery is a traditional way to treat hand problems in inflammatory rheumatic diseases with the purposes of pain relief, restore function and prevent progression. There are numerous measures to choose from, and a combination of outcome measures is recommended. This study evaluated if instruments commonly used in rheumatologic clinical practice are suitable to measure outcome of hand surgery and to identify time points relevant for follow-up. Methods Thirty-one patients (median age 56 years, median disease duration 15 years with inflammatory rheumatic disease and need for post-surgical occupational therapy intervention formed this pilot study group. Hand function was assessed regarding grip strength (Grippit, pain (VAS, range of motion (ROM (Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI and grip ability (Grip Ability Test (GAT. Activities of daily life (ADL were assessed by means of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome (DASH and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM. The instruments were evaluated by responsiveness and feasibility; follow-up points were 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results All instruments showed significant change at one or more follow-up points. Satisfaction with activities (COPM showed the best responsiveness (SMR>0.8, while ROM measured with SOFI had low responsiveness at most follow-up time points. The responsiveness of the instruments was stable between 6 and 12 month follow-up which imply that 6 month is an appropriate time for evaluating short-term effect of hand surgery in rheumatic diseases. Conclusion We suggest a core set of instruments measuring pain, grip strength, grip ability, perceived symptoms and self-defined daily activities. This study has shown that VAS pain, the Grippit instrument, GAT, DASH symptom scale and COPM are suitable outcome instruments for hand surgery, while SOFI may be a more insensitive

  3. Nonparametric Change Point Diagnosis Method of Concrete Dam Crack Behavior Abnormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on diagnosis method of concrete crack behavior abnormality has always been a hot spot and difficulty in the safety monitoring field of hydraulic structure. Based on the performance of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality in parametric statistical model and nonparametric statistical model, the internal relation between concrete dam crack behavior abnormality and statistical change point theory is deeply analyzed from the model structure instability of parametric statistical model and change of sequence distribution law of nonparametric statistical model. On this basis, through the reduction of change point problem, the establishment of basic nonparametric change point model, and asymptotic analysis on test method of basic change point problem, the nonparametric change point diagnosis method of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality is created in consideration of the situation that in practice concrete dam crack behavior may have more abnormality points. And the nonparametric change point diagnosis method of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality is used in the actual project, demonstrating the effectiveness and scientific reasonableness of the method established. Meanwhile, the nonparametric change point diagnosis method of concrete dam crack behavior abnormality has a complete theoretical basis and strong practicality with a broad application prospect in actual project.

  4. Antidepressants at environmentally relevant concentrations affect predator avoidance behavior of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Edward T.; Barber, Larry B.; Meghan R. McGee,; Megan A. Buerkley,; Matthew L. Julius,; Vajda, Alan M.; Heiko L. Schoenfuss,; Schultz, Melissa M.; Norris, David O.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of embryonic and larval exposure to environmentally relevant (ng/L) concentrations of common antidepressants, fluoxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, and bupropion (singularly and in mixture) on C-start escape behavior were evaluated in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Embryos (postfertilization until hatching) were exposed for 5 d and, after hatching, were allowed to grow in control well water until 12 d old. Similarly, posthatch fathead minnows were exposed for 12 d to these compounds. High-speed (1,000 frames/s) video recordings of escape behavior were collected and transferred to National Institutes of Health Image for frame-by- frame analysis of latency periods, escape velocities, and total escape response (combination of latency period and escape velocity). When tested 12 d posthatch, fluoxetine and venlafaxine adversely affected C-start performance of larvae exposed as embryos. Conversely, larvae exposed for 12 d posthatch did not exhibit altered escape responses when exposed to fluoxetine but were affected by venlafaxine and bupropion exposure. Mixtures of these four antidepressant pharmaceuticals slowed predator avoidance behaviors in larval fathead minnows regardless of the exposure window. The direct impact of reduced C-start performance on survival and, ultimately, reproductive fitness provides an avenue to assess the ecological relevance of exposure in an assay of relatively short duration.

  5. Neural representation of calling songs and their behavioral relevance in the grasshopper auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundula eMeckenhäuser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic communication plays a key role for mate attraction in grasshoppers. Males use songs to advertise themselves to females. Females evaluate the song pattern, a repetitive structure of sound syllables separated by short pauses, to recognize a conspecific male and as proxy to its fitness. In their natural habitat females often receive songs with degraded temporal structure. Perturbations may, for example, result from the overlap with other songs. We studied the response behavior of females to songs that show different signal degradations. A perturbation of an otherwise attractive song at later positions in the syllable diminished the behavioral response, whereas the same perturbation at the onset of a syllable did not affect song attractiveness. We applied naïve Bayes classifiers to the spike trains of identified neurons in the auditory pathway to explore how sensory evidence about the acoustic stimulus and its attractiveness is represented in the neuronal responses. We find that populations of three or more neurons were sufficient to reliably decode the acoustic stimulus and to predict its behavioral relevance from the single-trial integrated firing rate. A simple model of decision making simulates the female response behavior. It computes for each syllable the likelihood for the presence of an attractive song pattern as evidenced by the population firing rate. Integration across syllables allows the likelihood to reach a decision threshold and to elicit the behavioral response. The close match between model performance and animal behavior shows that a spike rate code is sufficient to enable song pattern recognition.

  6. Fatigue-Induced Changes in Movement Pattern and Muscle Activity During Ballet Releve on Demi-Pointe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Lee, Wan-Chin; Chen, Yi-An; Hsue, Bih-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Fatigue in ballet dancers may lead to injury, particularly in the lower extremities. However, few studies have investigated the effects of fatigue on ballet dancers' performance and movement patterns. Thus, the current study examines the effect of fatigue on the balance, movement pattern, and muscle activities of the lower extremities in ballet dancers. Twenty healthy, female ballet dancers performed releve on demi-pointe before and after fatigue. The trajectory of the whole body movement and the muscle activities of the major lower extremity muscles were recorded continuously during task performance. The results show that fatigue increases the medial-lateral center of mass (COM) displacement and hip and trunk motion, but decreases the COM velocity and ankle motion. Moreover, fatigue reduces the activities of the hamstrings and tibialis anterior, but increases that of the soleus. Finally, greater proximal hip and trunk motions are applied to compensate for the effects of fatigue, leading to a greater COM movement. Overall, the present findings show that fatigue results in impaired movement control and may therefore increase the risk of dance injury.

  7. Social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine disturbances relevant to depression in female and male prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J; Gerena, Davida; Huang, Jonathan; Kumar, Narmda; Shah, Maulin; Ughreja, Raj; Carter, C Sue

    2007-01-01

    Supportive social interactions may be protective against stressors and certain mental and physical illness, while social isolation may be a powerful stressor. Prairie voles are socially monogamous rodents that model some of the behavioral and physiological traits displayed by humans, including sensitivity to social isolation. Neuroendocrine and behavioral parameters, selected for their relevance to stress and depression, were measured in adult female and male prairie voles following 4 weeks of social isolation versus paired housing. In Experiment 1, oxytocin-immunoreactive cell density was higher in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated females, but not in males. In Experiment 2, sucrose intake, used as an operational definition of hedonia, was reduced in both sexes following 4 weeks of isolation. Animals then received a resident-intruder test, and were sacrificed either 10 min later for the analysis of circulating hormones and peptides, or 2h later to examine neural activation, indexed by c-Fos expression in PVN cells immunoreactive for oxytocin or corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Compared to paired animals, plasma oxytocin, ACTH and corticosterone were elevated in isolated females and plasma oxytocin was elevated in isolated males, following the resident-intruder test. The proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin or c-Fos and CRF was elevated in isolated females, and the proportion of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and oxytocin was elevated in isolated males following this test. These findings suggest that social isolation induces behavioral and neuroendocrine responses relevant to depression in male and female prairie voles, although neuroendocrine responses in females may be especially sensitive to isolation.

  8. Involvement of posterior cingulate cortex in ketamine-induced psychosis relevant behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingyi; Leung, L Stan

    2018-02-15

    The involvement of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) on ketamine-induced psychosis relevant behaviors was investigated in rats. Bilateral infusion of muscimol, a GABA A receptor agonist, into the PCC significantly antagonized ketamine-induced deficit in prepulse inhibition of a startle reflex (PPI), deficit in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials, and behavioral hyperlocomotion in a dose dependent manner. Local infusion of ketamine directly into the PCC also induced a PPI deficit. Systemic injection of ketamine (3mg/kg,s.c.) induced an increase in power of electrographic activity in the gamma band (30-100Hz) in both the PCC and the hippocampus; peak theta (4-10Hz) power was not significantly altered, but peak theta frequency was increased by ketamine. In order to exclude volume conduction from the hippocampus to PCC, inactivation of the hippocampus was made by local infusion of muscimol into the hippocampus prior to ketamine administration. Muscimol in the hippocampus effectively blocked ketamine-induced increase of gamma power in the hippocampus but not in the PCC, suggesting independent generation of gamma waves in PCC and hippocampus. It is suggested that the PCC is part of the brain network mediating ketamine-induced psychosis related behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Importance of point-by-point back projection correction for isocentric motion in digital breast tomosynthesis: Relevance to morphology of structures such as microcalcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying; Lo, Joseph Y.; Dobbins, James T. III

    2007-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis is a three-dimensional imaging technique that provides an arbitrary set of reconstruction planes in the breast from a limited-angle series of projection images acquired while the x-ray tube moves. Traditional shift-and-add (SAA) tomosynthesis reconstruction is a common mathematical method to line up each projection image based on its shifting amount to generate reconstruction slices. With parallel-path geometry of tube motion, the path of the tube lies in a plane parallel to the plane of the detector. The traditional SAA algorithm gives shift amounts for each projection image calculated only along the direction of x-ray tube movement. However, with the partial isocentric motion of the x-ray tube in breast tomosynthesis, small objects such as microcalcifications appear blurred (for instance, about 1-4 pixels in blur for a microcalcification in a human breast) in traditional SAA images in the direction perpendicular to the direction of tube motion. Some digital breast tomosynthesis algorithms reported in the literature utilize a traditional one-dimensional SAA method that is not wholly suitable for isocentric motion. In this paper, a point-by-point back projection (BP) method is described and compared with traditional SAA for the important clinical task of evaluating morphology of small objects such as microcalcifications. Impulse responses at different three-dimensional locations with five different combinations of imaging acquisition parameters were investigated. Reconstruction images of microcalcifications in a human subject were also evaluated. Results showed that with traditional SAA and 45 deg. view angle of tube movement with respect to the detector, at the same height above the detector, the in-plane blur artifacts were obvious for objects farther away from x-ray source. In a human subject, the appearance of calcifications was blurred in the direction orthogonal to the tube motion with traditional SAA. With point-by-point BP, the

  10. Mean-field behavior for the survival probability and the point-to-surface connectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, A

    2003-01-01

    We consider the critical survival probability for oriented percolation and the contact process, and the point-to-surface connectivity for critical percolation. By similarity, let \\rho denote the critical expoents for both quantities. We prove in a unified fashion that, if \\rho exists and if both two-point function and its certain restricted version exhibit the same mean-field behavior, then \\rho=2 for percolation with d>7 and \\rho=1 for the time-oriented models with d>4.

  11. "Characterizing autism-relevant social behavior in poodles (Canis familiaris) via owner report": Correction to Zamzow et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Reports an error in "Characterizing Autism-Relevant Social Behavior in Poodles via Owner Report" by Rachel M. Zamzow, Lisa Lit, Shelley Hamilton and David Q. Beversdorf ( Journal of Comparative Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Mar 13, 2017, np). In the article, the scientific name for the species was missing in the title. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-11247-001.) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted, repetitive behaviors. It can be difficult to model the complex behavioral features of this disorder with rodent models, which have limited similarity to human behaviors. The domestic dog may be a promising model of complex human behavior, including core features of ASD. The present study examines ASD-relevant social behavior in Miniature and Standard Poodles using an owner-report questionnaire with questions adapted from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2000). A previous study identified 3 behavioral constructs examined by this questionnaire: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors, response to social interaction, and communication. In the present study, confirmatory and experimental factor analyses used to assess how collected data fit with the previous model revealed moderate model fit and a similar factorial structure. Between-breed comparisons across these factors and at the individual question level revealed differences between Miniature and Standard Poodles in showing behaviors. Cluster analyses used to group dogs within each breed according to social behavior identified smaller subgroups of dogs with less social behavior across all 3 factors compared with the average within each breed. Within- and between-breed differences in social behavior warrant investigation of genetic variation underlying this

  12. Mechanical behavior of Be–Ti pebbles at blanket relevant temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurinskiy, Petr, E-mail: petr.kurinskiy@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials—Applied Materials Physics (IAM-AWP), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Rolli, Rolf [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials—Materials Biomechanics (IAM-WBM), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kim, Jae-Hwan; Nakamichi, Masaru [Breeding Functional Materials Development Group, Department of Blanket Fusion Institute, Rokkasho Fusion Institute, Sector of Fusion Research and Development, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Oaza-Obuchi-Aza-Omotedate, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aoori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical behavior of two kinds of Be–Ti pebbles in the temperature range of 400–800 °C was investigated. • It was experimentally shown that Be-7 at.%Ti pebbles have the enhanced ductile properties compared to Be-7.7 at.%Ti pebbles. • Brittle failure of both kinds of Be–Ti pebbles was observed by testing at 400 °C using the constant loading with 150 N. - Abstract: Mechanical performance of beryllium-based materials is a matter of a great interest from the point of view of their use as neutron multipliers of the tritium breeding blankets. The compression strains which can occur in beryllium pebble beds under blanket working conditions will lead to deformation or even failure of individual pebbles [1,2] (Reimann et al. 2002; Ishitsuka and Kawamura, 1995). Mechanical behavior of Be–Ti pebbles having chemical contents of Be-7.0 at.% Ti and Be-7.7 at.%Ti was investigated in the temperature range of 400–800 °C. Constant loads varying from 10 up to 150 N were applied uniaxially. It was shown that Be–Ti pebbles compared to pure beryllium pebbles possess much lower ductility, although their strength properties exceed corresponding characteristics of pure beryllium. Also, the influence of titanium content on mechanical behavior of Be–Ti pebbles was investigated. Specific features of deformation of pure beryllium and Be–Ti pebbles having different titanium contents at blanket operation temperatures are discussed.

  13. Does affective information influence domestic dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) point-following behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Ross; Gartman, Peggy

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have examined dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) comprehension and use of human communicative cues. Relatively few studies have, however, examined the effects of human affective behavior (i.e., facial and vocal expressions) on dogs' exploratory and point-following behavior. In two experiments, we examined dogs' frequency of following an adult's pointing gesture in locating a hidden reward or treat when it occurred silently, or when it was paired with a positive or negative facial and vocal affective expression. Like prior studies, the current results demonstrate that dogs reliably follow human pointing cues. Unlike prior studies, the current results also demonstrate that the addition of a positive affective facial and vocal expression, when paired with a pointing gesture, did not reliably increase dogs' frequency of locating a hidden piece of food compared to pointing alone. In addition, and within the negative facial and vocal affect conditions of Experiment 1 and 2, dogs were delayed in their exploration, or approach, toward a baited or sham-baited bowl. However, in Experiment 2, dogs continued to follow an adult's pointing gesture, even when paired with a negative expression, as long as the attention-directing gesture referenced a baited bowl. Together these results suggest that the addition of affective information does not significantly increase or decrease dogs' point-following behavior. Rather these results demonstrate that the presence or absence of affective expressions influences a dogs' exploratory behavior and the presence or absence of reward affects whether they will follow an unfamiliar adult's attention-directing gesture.

  14. Robustness of critical points in a complex adaptive system: Effects of hedge behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2013-08-01

    In our recent papers, we have identified a class of phase transitions in the market-directed resource-allocation game, and found that there exists a critical point at which the phase transitions occur. The critical point is given by a certain resource ratio. Here, by performing computer simulations and theoretical analysis, we report that the critical point is robust against various kinds of human hedge behavior where the numbers of herds and contrarians can be varied widely. This means that the critical point can be independent of the total number of participants composed of normal agents, herds and contrarians, under some conditions. This finding means that the critical points we identified in this complex adaptive system (with adaptive agents) may also be an intensive quantity, similar to those revealed in traditional physical systems (with non-adaptive units).

  15. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  16. Exponential spreading and singular behavior of quantum dynamics near hyperbolic points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iomin, A

    2013-05-01

    Quantum dynamics of a particle in the vicinity of a hyperbolic point is considered. Expectation values of dynamical variables are calculated, and the singular behavior is analyzed. Exponentially fast extension of quantum dynamics is obtained, and conditions for this realization are analyzed.

  17. Thirty Points about Motivation from Skinner's Book "Verbal Behavior"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Skinner discussed the topic of motivation in every chapter of the book "Verbal Behavior" (1957), usually with his preferred terminology of ''deprivation, satiation, and aversive stimulation.'' In the current paper, direct quotations are used to systematically take the reader through 30 separate points made by Skinner…

  18. Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autism: Phenotypes of Ten Inbred Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Sheryl S.; Nadler, Jessica J.; Young, Nancy B.; Perez, Antonio; Holloway, L. Paige; Barbaro, Ryan P.; Barbaro, Justin R.; West, Lindsay M.; Threadgill, David W.; Lauder, Jean M.; Magnuson, Terry R.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2007-01-01

    Three defining clinical symptoms of autism are aberrant reciprocal social interactions, deficits in social communication, and repetitive behaviors, including motor stereotypies and insistence on sameness. We developed a set of behavioral tasks designed to model components of these core symptoms in mice. Male mice from ten inbred strains were characterized in assays for sociability, preference for social novelty, and reversal of the spatial location of the reinforcer in T-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Six strains, C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, C3H/HeJ, and AKR/J, showed significant levels of sociability, while A/J, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ mice did not. C57BL/6J, C57L/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR T+tf/J showed significant preference for social novelty, while C3H/HeJ, AKR/J, A/J, and 129S1/SvImJ did not. Normal scores on relevant control measures confirmed general health and physical abilities in all strains, ruling out artifactual explanations for social deficits. Elevated plus maze scores confirmed high anxiety-like behaviors in A/J, BALB/cByJ, and 129S1/SvImJ, which could underlie components of their low social approach. Strains that showed high levels of performance on acquisition of a T-maze task were also able to reach criterion for reversal learning. On the Morris water maze task, DBA/2J, AKR/J, BTBR T+tf/J, and 129S1/SvImJ failed to show significant quadrant preference during the reversal probe trial. These results highlight a dissociation between social task performance and reversal learning. BTBR T+tf/J is a particularly interesting strain, displaying both low social approach and resistance to change in routine on the water maze, consistent with an autism-like phenotype. Our multitask strategy for modeling symptoms of autism will be useful for investigating targeted and random gene mutations, QTLs, and microarray analyses. PMID:16971002

  19. Overview of the "epigenetic end points in toxicologic pathology and relevance to human health" session of the 2014 Society Of Toxicologic Pathology Annual Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Hartke, James

    2015-01-01

    The theme of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology 2014 Annual Symposium was "Translational Pathology: Relevance of Toxicologic Pathology to Human Health." The 5th session focused on epigenetic end points in biology, toxicity, and carcinogenicity, and how those end points are relevant to human exposures. This overview highlights the various presentations in this session, discussing integration of epigenetics end points in toxicologic pathology studies, investigating the role of epigenetics in product safety assessment, epigenetic changes in cancers, methodologies to detect them, and potential therapies, chromatin remodeling in development and disease, and epigenomics and the microbiome. The purpose of this overview is to discuss the application of epigenetics to toxicologic pathology and its utility in preclinical or mechanistic based safety, efficacy, and carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s).

  20. Proposing a tentative cut point for the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storholm, Erik David; Fisher, Dennis G; Napper, Lucy E; Reynolds, Grace L; Halkitis, Perry N

    2011-12-01

    Bivariate analyses were utilized in order to identify the relations between scores on the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) and self-report of risky sexual behavior and drug abuse among 482 racially and ethnically diverse men and women. CSBI scores were associated with both risky sexual behavior and drug abuse among a diverse non-clinical sample, thereby providing evidence of criterion-related validity. The variables that demonstrated a high association with the CSBI were subsequently entered into a multiple regression model. Four variables (number of sexual partners in the last 30 days, self-report of trading drugs for sex, having paid for sex, and perceived chance of acquiring HIV) were retained as variables with good model fit. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were conducted in order to determine the optimal tentative cut point for the CSBI. The four variables retained in the multiple regression model were utilized as exploratory gold standards in order to construct ROC curves. The ROC curves were then compared to one another in order to determine the point that maximized both sensitivity and specificity in the identification of compulsive sexual behavior with the CSBI scale. The current findings suggest that a tentative cut point of 40 may prove clinically useful in discriminating between persons who exhibit compulsive sexual behavior and those who do not. Because of the association between compulsive sexual behavior and HIV, STIs, and drug abuse, it is paramount that a psychometrically sound measure of compulsive sexual behavior is made available to all healthcare professionals working in disease prevention and other areas.

  1. Motivation factors for suicidal behavior and their clinical relevance in admitted psychiatric patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior (SB is a major, worldwide health concern. To date there is limited understanding of the associated motivational aspects which accompany this self-initiated conduct.To develop a method for identifying motivational features associated with SB by studying admitted psychiatric patients, and to examine their clinical relevance.By performing a factor analytic study using data obtained from a patient sample exhibiting high suicidality and a variety of SB methods, Motivations for SB Scale (MSBS was constructed to measure the features. Data included assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric and personality disorders, suicide intent, depressive symptomatology, overt aggression, recent life events (RLEs and methods of SB, collated from structured interviews. Association of identified features with clinical variables was examined by correlation analyses and MANCOVA.Factor analyses elicited a 4-factor solution composed of Interpersonal-testing (IT, Interpersonal-change (IC, Self-renunciation (SR and Self-sustenance (SS. These factors were classified according to two distinctions, namely interpersonal vs. intra-personal directedness, and the level of assumed influence by SB or the relationship to prevailing emotions. Analyses revealed meaningful links between patient features and clinical variables. Interpersonal-motivations (IT and IC were associated with overt aggression, low suicidality and RLE discord or conflict, while SR was associated with depression, high suicidality and RLE separation or death. Borderline personality disorder showed association with IC and SS. When self-strangulation was set as a reference SB method, self-cutting and overdose-taking were linked to IT and SS, respectively.The factors extracted in this study largely corresponded to factors from previous studies, implying that they may be useful in a wider clinical context. The association of these features with SB-related factors suggests that they constitute an integral part

  2. Pointing gesture in a bird- merely instrumental or a cognitively complex behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela KAPLAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gestures, particularly pointing, are regarded as important pre-speech acts. Intentional and referential pointing has been shown previously in humans and apes but not in songbirds, although some avian species show cognitive abilities rivaling those of apes, and their brain structures and functions show putative preconditions for referential gestural signaling (i.e. mirror neurons, links of vocal learning nuclei to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. The results reported are based on trials testing predator detection and responses to a taxidermic model of a wedge-tailed eagle by Australian magpies Gymnorhina tibicen. Magpies were subjected to three conditions of finding this model in their territory (open, sheltered and hidden. In the sheltered and hidden conditions, the discoverer simultaneously engaged in alarm calls and beak pointing, a behavior that has not been described previously. Other group members at once assembled and, after watching the first bird, adopted the same posture by pointing to the location of the intruder. The question is whether beak and body movements orienting towards important stimuli or events are instances of arousal, imitation or intentional communication. The latter presupposes that onlookers interpret the signal and respond by altering their own behavior appropriate to the original stimulus and not merely by imitating the first signaler. Evidence presented here indicates that the act of pointing may well be a complex cognitive behavior, i.e., an intentional and referential signal, showing that pointing is not limited to having hands and arms [Current Zoology 57 (4: 453–467, 2011].

  3. Extracting the Behaviorally Relevant Stimulus: Unique Neural Representation of Farnesol, a Component of the Recruitment Pheromone of Bombus terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Strube-Bloss

    Full Text Available To trigger innate behavior, sensory neural networks are pre-tuned to extract biologically relevant stimuli. Many male-female or insect-plant interactions depend on this phenomenon. Especially communication among individuals within social groups depends on innate behaviors. One example is the efficient recruitment of nest mates by successful bumblebee foragers. Returning foragers release a recruitment pheromone in the nest while they perform a 'dance' behavior to activate unemployed nest mates. A major component of this pheromone is the sesquiterpenoid farnesol. How farnesol is processed and perceived by the olfactory system, has not yet been identified. It is much likely that processing farnesol involves an innate mechanism for the extraction of relevant information to trigger a fast and reliable behavioral response. To test this hypothesis, we used population response analyses of 100 antennal lobe (AL neurons recorded in alive bumblebee workers under repeated stimulation with four behaviorally different, but chemically related odorants (geraniol, citronellol, citronellal and farnesol. The analysis identified a unique neural representation of the recruitment pheromone component compared to the other odorants that are predominantly emitted by flowers. The farnesol induced population activity in the AL allowed a reliable separation of farnesol from all other chemically related odor stimuli we tested. We conclude that the farnesol induced population activity may reflect a predetermined representation within the AL-neural network allowing efficient and fast extraction of a behaviorally relevant stimulus. Furthermore, the results show that population response analyses of multiple single AL-units may provide a powerful tool to identify distinct representations of behaviorally relevant odors.

  4. Behavioral rules of bank’s point-of-sale for segments description and scoring prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bizhani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the important factors for the success of a bank industry is to monitor their customers' behavior and their point-of-sale (POS. The bank needs to know its merchants' behavior to find interesting ones to attract more transactions which results in the growth of its income and assets. The recency, frequency and monetary (RFM analysis is a famous approach for extracting behavior of customers and is a basis for marketing and customer relationship management (CRM, but it is not aligned enough for banking context. Introducing RF*M* in this article results in a better understanding of groups of merchants. Another artifact of RF*M* is RF*M* scoring which is applied in two ways, preprocessing the POSs and assigning behavioral meaningful labels to the merchants’ segments. The class labels and the RF*M* parameters are entered into a rule-based classification algorithm to achieve descriptive rules of the clusters. These descriptive rules outlined the boundaries of RF*M* parameters for each cluster. Since the rules are generated by a classification algorithm, they can also be applied for predicting the behavioral label and scoring of the upcoming POSs. These rules are called behavioral rules.

  5. Using Confidence Interval-Based Estimation of Relevance to Select Social-Cognitive Determinants for Behavior Change Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rik Crutzen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When developing an intervention aimed at behavior change, one of the crucial steps in the development process is to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants. These determinants can be seen as the buttons one needs to push to establish behavior change. Insight into these determinants is needed to select behavior change methods (i.e., general behavior change techniques that are applied in an intervention in the development process. Therefore, a study on determinants is often conducted as formative research in the intervention development process. Ideally, all relevant determinants identified in such a study are addressed by an intervention. However, when developing a behavior change intervention, there are limits in terms of, for example, resources available for intervention development and the amount of content that participants of an intervention can be exposed to. Hence, it is important to select those determinants that are most relevant to the target behavior as these determinants should be addressed in an intervention. The aim of the current paper is to introduce a novel approach to select the most relevant social-cognitive determinants and use them in intervention development. This approach is based on visualization of confidence intervals for the means and correlation coefficients for all determinants simultaneously. This visualization facilitates comparison, which is necessary when making selections. By means of a case study on the determinants of using a high dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (commonly known as ecstasy, we illustrate this approach. We provide a freely available tool to facilitate the analyses needed in this approach.

  6. A metabolomic study of fipronil for the anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish larvae at environmentally relevant levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cui; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Quan; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Meirong

    2016-01-01

    Field residue of fipronil can interfere with the physiological characters of the domesticated fish; thus, lethal dose test and the general biomarker cannot delineate the low-level situation. Manipulating by video track, we observed an anxiety-like behavior including high speed and abnormal photoperiod accommodation after exposure to fipronil at environmental typical dose in zebrafish larvae. Examining the unbiased metabolomic profiles, we found perturbation in several metabolic pathways, including the increased contents of fatty acids and glycerol and the decreased levels of the glycine, serine, and branched amino acid. We presumed that observed enhanced fatty acid utility was in response to increase energy demands caused by anxiety like behavior. Additionally, the body burden of neurotransmitter such as glycine and L-glutamate may concurrently stimulate the swimming behavior. The insight of this study showed that integral perturbation such as metabolism helps us to further understand the risk to aquatic fish at the environmentally relevant levels. - Highlights: • Fipronil increased the swimming speed at 10 μg/L to zebrafish larvae. • Accommodation to light–dark photoperiod switch was disturbed by fipronil. • Metabolomics indicated an increase energy availability for anxiety-like behavior. • Anxiety-like behavior induced by fipronil may attribute to neurotransmitter changes. - Zebrafish larvae exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of fipronil display anxiety like behavior that may attribute to observed changes in energy utilization and neurotransmitter disturbances.

  7. PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR OF 238PU RELEVANT TO DECONTAMINATION OF BUILDING 235-F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A.; Kane, M.

    2009-11-24

    This report was prepared to document the physical, chemical and radiological properties of plutonium oxide materials that were processed in the Plutonium Fuel Form Facility (PuFF) in building 235-F at the Savannah River Plant (now known as the Savannah River Site) in the late 1970s and early 1980s. An understanding of these properties is needed to support current project planning for the safe and effective decontamination and deactivation (D&D) of PuFF. The PuFF mission was production of heat sources to power Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in space craft. The specification for the PuO{sub 2} used to fabricate the heat sources required that the isotopic content of the plutonium be 83 {+-} 1% Pu-238 due to its high decay heat of 0.57 W/g. The high specific activity of Pu-238 (17.1 Ci/g) due to alpha decay makes this material very difficult to manage. The production process produced micron-sized particles which proved difficult to contain during operations, creating personnel contamination concerns and resulting in the expenditure of significant resources to decontaminate spaces after loss of material containment. This report examines high {sup 238}Pu-content material properties relevant to the D&D of PuFF. These relevant properties are those that contribute to the mobility of the material. Physical properties which produce or maintain small particle size work to increase particle mobility. Early workers with {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} felt that, unlike most small particles, Pu-238 oxide particles would not naturally agglomerate to form larger, less mobile particles. It was thought that the heat generated by the particles would prevent water molecules from binding to the particle surface. Particles covered with bound water tend to agglomerate more easily. However, it is now understood that the self-heating effect is not sufficient to prevent adsorption of water on particle surfaces and thus would not prevent agglomeration of particles. Operational

  8. Neurocognitive elements of antisocial behavior: Relevance of an orbitofrontal cortex account

    OpenAIRE

    Séguin, Jean R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) lesions in antisocial behaviors and the adequacy of a strict OFC account of antisocial disorders where there is no evidence of lesion. Neurocognitive accounts of antisocial behaviors are extended beyond the OFC. Several methodological shortcomings specific to this neuroscience approach to antisocial behavior are identified. A developmental approach is advocated to chart the developmental sequences of impaired brain development and of t...

  9. All order I.R. finite expansion for short distance behavior of massless theories perturbed by a relevant operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guida, R. [Genova Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica; Magnoli, N. [Genova Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genoa (Italy)

    1996-07-08

    We consider here renormalizable theories without relevant couplings and present an I.R. consistent technique to study corrections to short distance behavior (Wilson O.P.E. coefficients) due to a relevant perturbation. Our method is the result of a complete reformulation of recent works on the field, and is characterized by a more orthodox treatment of U.V. divergences that allows for simpler formulae and consequently an explicit all order (regularization invariant) I.R. finiteness proof. Underlying hypotheses are discussed in detail and found to be satisfied in conformal theories that constitute a natural field of application of this approach. (orig.).

  10. Relevance of a neurophysiological marker of attention allocation for children's learning-related behaviors and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Cynthia J; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Bierman, Karen L; Greenberg, Mark T; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Learning-related behaviors are important for school success. Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for less adaptive learning-related behaviors at school entry, yet substantial variability in school readiness exists within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Investigation of neurophysiological systems associated with learning-related behaviors in high-risk populations could illuminate resilience processes. This study examined the relevance of a neurophysiological measure of controlled attention allocation, amplitude of the P3b event-related potential, for learning-related behaviors and academic performance in a sample of socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. The sample consisted of 239 children from an urban, low-income community, approximately half of whom exhibited behavior problems at school entry (45% aggressive/oppositional; 64% male; 69% African American, 21% Hispanic). Results revealed that higher P3b amplitudes to target stimuli in a go/no-go task were associated with more adaptive learning-related behaviors in kindergarten. Furthermore, children's learning-related behaviors in kindergarten mediated a positive indirect effect of P3b amplitude on growth in academic performance from kindergarten to 1st grade. Given that P3b amplitude reflects attention allocation processes, these findings build on the scientific justification for interventions targeting young children's attention skills in order to promote effective learning-related behaviors and academic achievement within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The relevance of large scale environmental research infrastructures from the point of view of Ethics: the case of EMSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura; Best, Mairi; Franceschini, PierLuigi; Materia, Paola; Peppoloni, Silvia; Picard, John

    2014-05-01

    instability and failure; • connecting scientific outcomes to stakeholders and policy makers, including to government decision-makers. The development of a large research infrastructure initiatives like EMSO must continuously take into account wide-reaching environmental and socio-economic implications and objectives. For this reason, an Ethics Commitee was established early in EMSO's initial Preparatory Phase with responsibility for overseeing the key ethical and social aspects of the project. These include: • promoting inclusive science communication and data dissemination services to civil society according to Open Access principles; • guaranteeing top quality scientific information and data as results of top quality research; • promoting the increased adoption of eco-friendly, sustainable technologies through the dissemination of advanced scientific knowledge and best practices to the private sector and to policy makers; • developing Education Strategies in cooperation with academia and industry aimed at informing and sensitizing the general public on the environmental and socio-economic implications and benefits of large research infrastructure initiatives such as EMSO; • carrying out Excellent Science following strict criteria of research integrity, as expressed in the Montreal Statement (2013); • promoting Geo-ethical awareness and innovation by spurring innovative approaches in the management of environmental aspects of large research projects; • supporting technological Innovation by working closely in support of SMEs; • providing a constant, qualified and authoritative one-stop-shopping Reference Point and Advisory for politicians and decision-makers. The paper shows how Geoethics is an essential tool for guiding methodological and operational choices, and management of an European project with great impact on the environment and society.

  12. The Relevance of Retention Behavior in the Development of Accession Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzales, Jose

    2002-01-01

    .... The findings reveal that each accession source has unique accession to retention ratios. A comparison of the retention ratios to accession trends reveals that retention rates can be improved through an understanding of retention behavior...

  13. Salty solutions: their effects on thermal set points in behavioral repertoires of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Aker, R; Howard, S W; Jones, W M; Kimball, M W; Quinn, J M

    1994-08-01

    Salt (sodium chloride) has been linked to increased blood pressure and a rise in core body temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by salt in altering behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats. Different doses of sodium chloride were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold Skinner Box. Three Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement in a repeated-measures reversal design. Friedman's non-parametric test showed significant differences among sodium chloride doses and physiologically normal saline. Post hoc sign tests showed that all doses of NaCl suppressed operant behavior for heat except 60 mg/kg. The hypothesis that sodium chloride lowers hypothalamic set point for heat was partially supported.

  14. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Housing Conditions and Stress in Male Rats - Relevance to Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    statistically significant effects for enrichment on various biological measures (e.g., Body weight , adrenal gland weights , fat adipose tissue). Studies of...anxiety-like behaviors as a consequence of neonatal maternal separation in Long-Evans rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 73(1), 131-140...stress field. Journal of Human Stress, 15, 22-36. McIntosh, J., Anisman, H., & Merali, Z. (1999). Short and long-periods of neonatal maternal

  15. Anomalous behavior of 1/f noise in graphene near the charge neutrality point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Shunpei; Tanaka, Takahiro; Arakawa, Tomonori; Kobayashi, Kensuke [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Matsuo, Sadashige [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Nakaharai, Shu; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito [WPI-MANA, NIMS, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Moriyama, Takahiro; Ono, Teruo [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-03-07

    We investigate the noise in single layer graphene devices from equilibrium to far-from equilibrium and found that the 1/f noise shows an anomalous dependence on the source-drain bias voltage (V{sub SD}). While the Hooge's relation is not the case around the charge neutrality point, we found that it is recovered at very low V{sub SD} region. We propose that the depinning of the electron-hole puddles is induced at finite V{sub SD}, which may explain this anomalous noise behavior.

  16. Subsurface Behavior of Plutonium and Americium at Non-Hanford Sites and Relevance to Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Riley, Robert G.

    2008-02-01

    Seven sites where Pu release to the environment has raised significant environmental concerns have been reviewed. A summary of the most significant hydrologic and geochemical features, contaminant release events and transport processes relevant to Pu migration at the seven sites is presented.

  17. Health behavior change models and their socio-cultural relevance for breast cancer screening in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashing-Giwa, K

    1999-01-01

    Models of health behavior provide the conceptual bases for most of the breast cancer screening intervention studies. These models were not designed for and have not been adequately tested with African American women. The models discussed in this paper are: The Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, and the Transtheoretical Model. This paper will examine the socio-cultural relevance of these health behavior models, and discuss specific socio-cultural dimensions that are not accounted for by these paradigms. It is critical that researchers include socio-cultural dimensions, such as interconnectedness, health socialization, ecological factors and health care system factors into their intervention models with African American women. Comprehensive and socio-culturally based investigations are necessary to guide the scientific and policy challenge for reducing breast cancer mortality in African American women.

  18. The practice of exposure therapy: relevance of cognitive-behavioral theory and extinction theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2013-12-01

    Exposure therapy is the most effective psychological intervention for people with anxiety disorders. While many therapists learn how to implement exposure techniques through clinical training programs or instructional workshops, not all of these educational efforts include a focus on the theory underlying this treatment. The availability of treatment manuals providing step-by-step instructions for how to implement exposure makes it easier for clinicians to use these techniques with less training than they might otherwise receive. This raises questions regarding whether it is necessary to understand the theory behind the use of exposure. This article argues that knowledge of the relevant theory is crucial to being able to implement exposure therapy in ways that optimize both short- and long-term outcome. Specific ways in which theory is relevant to using exposure techniques are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Behavioral Approach System (BAS)-Relevant Cognitive Styles in Individuals with High vs. Moderate BAS Sensitivity: A Behavioral High-Risk Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P; Shapero, Benjamin G; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Grant, David A; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2013-02-01

    This study used a behavioral high-risk design to evaluate cognitive styles relevant to the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) among individuals at high (n = 171) versus low (n = 119) risk of first onset of bipolar disorder based on BAS sensitivity, a known risk factor for bipolar disorder. Cognitive styles in high-BAS participants paralleled those implicated in bipolar disorder. Linear regressions indicated that individuals with high BAS sensitivity exhibited greater levels of goal striving, positive overgeneralization, rumination on positive affect, depressive brooding, perfectionism, and hypomanic personality. Furthermore, of the cognitive styles, emotion-focused rumination on positive affect mediated the association between BAS sensitivity and current levels of hypomanic symptoms. These results provide evidence that individuals at risk for the development of bipolar disorder have higher levels of BAS-relevant cognitive styles and hypomanic personality than do individuals with lower risk, indicating that these styles are not simply markers of prior (hypo)manic episodes.

  20. Anorexia nervosa as a motivated behavior: Relevance of anxiety, stress, fear and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarda, Angela S; Schreyer, Colleen C; Boersma, Gretha J; Tamashiro, Kellie L; Moran, Timothy H

    2015-12-01

    The high comorbidity between anorexia nervosa (AN) and anxiety disorders is well recognized. AN is a motivated behavioral disorder in which habit formation is likely to contribute to the persistence of abnormal eating and exercise behaviors. Secondary alterations in brain circuitry underlying the reward value of food and exercise, along with disturbances in neuroendocrine hunger and satiety signaling arising from starvation and excessive exercise, are likely contributors to the maintenance of anorectic behaviors in genetically vulnerable individuals. The potential role of fear conditioning in facilitating onset of AN, or of impaired fear extinction in contributing to the high relapse rates observed following weight restoration, is of interest. Evidence from animal models of anxiety and human laboratory studies indicate that low estrogen impairs fear extinction. Low estradiol levels in AN may therefore play a role in perpetuating fear of food and fat in recently weight restored patients. Translational models including the activity based anorexia (ABA) rodent model of AN, and neuroimaging studies of fear extinction and conditioning, could help clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms and neurocircuitry involved in food avoidance behaviors in AN. Moreover, the adaptation of novel treatment interventions with efficacy in anxiety disorders may contribute to the development of new treatments for this impairing disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Adolescent Narcissism, Aggression, and Prosocial Behavior: The Relevance of Socially Desirable Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher T; Lui, Joyce H L; Anderson, Alexandra C

    2017-01-01

    An important threat to validity in personality research pertains to an individual's motivation to respond in a socially desirable manner on self-report inventories. This issue was examined in this study in the context of narcissism, aggression, and prosocial behavior in a sample of at-risk adolescents. Participants were 161 adolescents (128 males, 29 females, 4 not reported) ranging in age from 16 to 19 years who were attending a residential program for youth who have dropped out of school. Overall, socially desirable response tendencies were negatively correlated with vulnerable narcissism and self-reported aggression. Moreover, low socially desirable responses strengthened the relation between narcissism and self-reported aggression. Socially desirable responding was not associated with self- or peer-reported prosocial behavior and did not moderate the relation between narcissism and prosocial behavior. These findings indicate that the relation between narcissism and aggression is attenuated by concerns with social desirability. However, further work is needed in broader samples of adolescents to more closely examine whether social desirability concerns actually mitigate aggression among some youth or signify underreporting of one's problem behaviors.

  2. Research in the Social Psychology of Persuasion and Behavior Modification: Relevant to School Health Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard I.

    1973-01-01

    Brief description of a series of investigations designed to determine the relative effectiveness of various motivators in effecting oral hygiene behavior in a group of junior high school. Presented at the annual meeting of the American School Health Association, San Diego, California, 1972. (JC)

  3. Behavioral Relevance of Species-Specific Vasotocin Anatomy in Gregarious Finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey M Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial species differences in the vasotocin/vasopressin (VT/VP circuitry of the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm and lateral septum (LS; a primary projection target of BSTm VT/VP cells, functional consequences of this variation are poorly known. Previous experiments in the highly gregarious zebra finch (Estrildidae: Taeniopygia guttata demonstrate that BSTm VT neurons promote gregariousness in a male-specific manner and reduce anxiety in both sexes. However, in contrast to the zebra finch, the less gregarious Angolan blue waxbill (Estrildidae: Uraeginthus angolensis exhibits fewer VT-immunoreactive cells in the BSTm as well as differences in receptor distribution across the LS subnuclei, suggesting that knockdown of VT production in the BSTm would produce behavioral effects in Angolan blue waxbills that are distinct from zebra finches. Thus, we here quantified social contact, gregariousness (i.e. preference for the larger of two groups, and anxiety-like behavior following bilateral antisense knockdown of VT production in the BSTm of male and female Angolan blue waxbills. We find that BSTm VT neurons promote social contact, but not gregariousness (as in male zebra finches, and that antisense effects on social contact are significantly stronger in male waxbills than in females. Knockdown of BSTm VT production has no effect on anxiety-like behavior. These data provide novel evidence that species differences in the VT/VP circuitry arising in the BSTm are accompanied by species-specific effects on affiliation behaviors.

  4. Brief Report: Assessing Attitudes toward Culturally and Contextually Relevant Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Gage, Nicholas A.; Sugai, George

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased interest and implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems in schools in the United States, practitioners and researchers have become interested in how to improve implementation with students and staff from a wide range of cultural backgrounds. Fallon, O'Keeffe, and Sugai (2012) reviewed the literature…

  5. The theoretical basis for practice-relevant medication use research: patient-centered/behavioral theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Susan J

    2011-12-01

    There is an urgent need for research to improve the quality of medication use among those who require pharmacotherapy. To describe how behavioral science theories can help to achieve this goal. We begin by describing what a theory is and the functions that theories serve. We then provide 8 guiding principles that are crucial for investigators to understand if they are to use theory appropriately. We conclude by discussing the need for a new model of patient medication self-management that incorporates information concerning factors operating at all levels of the ecological framework, ranging from patient-level to societal-level factors. The 8 guiding principles discussed are the following: (1) There is no single theory that is appropriate for guiding all medication use research; (2) Behavioral science theories are probabilistic, not deterministic; (3) When trying to influence a health behavior, the health behavior of interest must be defined precisely; (4) Many factors outside of patient control influence patient medication use; (5) Every patient is unique; (6) Patient motivation is a fundamental ingredient required to optimize medication use, especially when maintenance of long term behavior is the goal; (7) Health care providers can have a profound effect on patient medication use, and this effect can operate through several possible causal pathways; and (8) When planning an intervention to optimize medication use, it is important to develop a conceptual model that links intervention inputs to the ultimate outcomes that are desired. Medication use can be influenced by a wide variety of factors acting at different levels of the ecological model. The quality of research on medication use could be improved by development of an ecological model specific to medication self-management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition (e.g., Evans et al. 2012; Nittler et al. 201 l; Peplowski et al. 2012; Weider et al. 2012). The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER on the planet's surface suggests a low oxygen fugacity of the present planetary materials. Estimates of the oxygen fugacity for Mercurian magmas are approximately 3- 7 log units below the Iron-Wiistite (Fe-FeO) oxygen buffer (McCubbin et al. 2012; Zolotov et al. 2013), several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from such as the Earth, Moon, or Mars (Herd 2008; Sharp, McCubbin, and Shearer 2013; Wadhwa 2008). Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions are available in our collections (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites). The goal of this study is to conduct experiments at high pressure and temperature conditions to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements as a function of decreasing oxygen fugacity.

  7. Stress-relevant social behaviors of middle-class male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.

  8. On the relevance of modeling viscoelastic bending behavior in finite element forming simulation of continuously fiber reinforced thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Dominik; Schirmaier, Fabian J.; Henning, Frank; Kärger, Luise

    2017-10-01

    Finite Element (FE) forming simulation offers the possibility of a detailed analysis of the deformation behavior of multilayered thermoplastic blanks during forming, considering material behavior and process conditions. Rate-dependent bending behavior is a material characteristic, which is so far not considered in FE forming simulation of pre-impregnated, continuously fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs). Therefore, an approach for modeling viscoelastic bending behavior in FE composite forming simulation is presented in this work. The presented approach accounts for the distinct rate-dependent bending behavior of e.g. thermoplastic CFRPs at process conditions. The approach is based on a Voigt-Kelvin (VK) and a generalized Maxwell (GM) approach, implemented within a FE forming simulation framework implemented in several user-subroutines of the commercially available FE solver Abaqus. The VK, GM, as well as purely elastic bending modeling approaches are parameterized according to dynamic bending characterization results for a PA6-CF UD-tape. It is found that only the GM approach is capable to represent the bending deformation characteristic for all of the considered bending deformation rates. The parameterized bending modeling approaches are applied to a hemisphere test and to a generic geometry. A comparison of the forming simulation results of the generic geometry to experimental tests show a good agreement between simulation and experiments. Furthermore, the simulation results reveal that especially a correct modeling of the initial bending stiffness is relevant for the prediction of wrinkling behavior, as a similar onset of wrinkles is observed for the GM, the VK and an elastic approach, fitted to the stiffness observed in the dynamic rheometer test for low curvatures. Hence, characterization and modeling of rate-dependent bending behavior is crucial for FE forming simulation of thermoplastic CFRPs.

  9. Role of ghrelin in drug abuse and reward-relevant behaviors: a burgeoning field and gaps in the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitsky, A R; Klein, L C

    2013-09-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain hormone that regulates energy balance through food consumption. While ghrelin is well known for its role in hypothalamic activation and homeostatic feeding, more recent evidence suggests that ghrelin also is involved in hedonic feeding through the dopaminergic reward pathway. This paper investigated how ghrelin administration (intraperitoneal, intracerebroventricular, or directly into dopaminergic reward-relevant brain regions) activates the dopaminergic reward pathway and associated reward-relevant behavioral responses in rodents. A total of 19 empirical publications that examined one or more of these variables were included in this review. Overall, ghrelin administration increases dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens, as well as reward-relevant behaviors such as food (both standard chow and palatable foods) and alcohol consumption. Ghrelin administration also increases operant responding for sucrose, and conditioned place preference. Following a review of the small body of literature examining the effects of ghrelin administration on the dopamine reward pathway, we present a model of the relationship between ghrelin and dopaminergic reward activation. Specifically, ghrelin acts on ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg) to stimulate the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, which results in increased rewarding behaviors in rodents. Results from this review suggest that selective antagonism of the ghrelin system may serve as potential treatment for addictive drug use. This review highlights gaps in the literature, including a lack of examination of sex- or age-related differences in the effects of ghrelin on dopamine reward processes. In light of vulnerability to drug abuse among female and adolescent populations, future studies should target these individual difference factors.

  10. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wtistite (lW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at I GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multianvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-Si02 buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi206) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of

  11. Social relevance drives viewing behavior independent of low-level salience in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Andrew Solyst

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying attention to social stimuli during the viewing of complex social scenes with eye tracking has proven to be a sensitive method in the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders years before average clinical diagnosis. Rhesus macaques provide an ideal model for understanding the mechanisms underlying social viewing behavior, but to date no comparable behavioral task has been developed for use in monkeys. Using a novel scene-viewing task, we monitored the gaze of three rhesus macaques while they freely viewed well-controlled composed social scenes and analyzed the time spent viewing objects and monkeys. In each of six behavioral sessions, monkeys viewed a set of 90 images (540 unique scenes with each image presented twice. In two-thirds of the repeated scenes, either a monkey or an object was replaced with a novel item (manipulated scenes. When viewing a repeated scene, monkeys made longer fixations and shorter saccades, shifting from a rapid orienting to global scene contents to a more local analysis of fewer items. In addition to this repetition effect, in manipulated scenes, monkeys demonstrated robust memory by spending more time viewing the replaced items. By analyzing attention to specific scene content, we found that monkeys strongly preferred to view conspecifics and that this was not related to their salience in terms of low-level image features. A model-free analysis of viewing statistics found that monkeys that were viewed earlier and longer had direct gaze and redder sex skin around their face and rump, two important visual social cues. These data provide a quantification of viewing strategy, memory and social preferences in rhesus macaques viewing complex social scenes, and they provide an important baseline with which to compare to the effects of therapeutics aimed at enhancing social cognition.

  12. The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of REM sleep behavior disorder in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduard

    2009-12-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by vigorous movements associated with unpleasant dreams and increased electromyographic activity during REM sleep. Polysomnography with audiovisual recording is needed to confirm the diagnosis of RBD and to exclude other sleep disorders that can mimic its symptoms including obstructive sleep apnea, nocturnal hallucinations and confusional awakenings. RBD may be idiopathic or related to neurodegenerative diseases, particularly multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. RBD may be the first manifestation of these disorders, antedating the onset of parkinsonism, cerebellar syndrome, dysautonomia, and dementia by several years. RBD should thus be considered an integral part of the disease process. When effective, neuroprotective strategies should be considered in subjects with idiopathic RBD. Patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, though, such as spinocerebellar ataxias, may also present with RBD. When clinically required, clonazepam at bedtime is effective in decreasing the intensity of dream-enacting behaviors and unpleasant dreams in both the idiopathic and secondary forms. When part of a neurodegenerative disorder the development of RBD is thought to reflect the location and extent of the underlying lesions involving the REM sleep centers of the brain (e.g., locus subceruleus, amygdala, etc.), leading to a complex multiple neurotransmitter dysfunction that involves GABAergic, glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems. RBD is mediated neither by direct abnormal alpha-synuclein inclusions nor by striatonigral dopaminergic deficiency alone.

  13. Co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and behavioral addictions: relevance of impulsivity and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Marco; Tedeschi, Daniela; De Risio, Luisa; Pettorruso, Mauro; Martinotti, Giovanni; Ruggeri, Filippo; Swierkosz-Lenart, Kevin; Guglielmo, Riccardo; Callea, Antonino; Ruggeri, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Gino; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the occurrence of behavioral addictions (BAs) in alcohol use disorder (AUD) subjects and to investigate the role of impulsivity, personality dimensions and craving. 95 AUD outpatients (DSM-5) and 140 homogeneous controls were assessed with diagnostic criteria and specific tests for gambling disorder, compulsive buying, sexual, internet and physical exercise addictions, as well as with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and Temperamental and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). The Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) and Visual Analogue Scale for craving (VASc) were also administered to the AUD sample. 28.4% (n=27) of AUD subjects had at least one BA, as compared to 15% (n=21) of controls (χ(2)=6.27; p=.014). In AUD subjects, direct correlations between BIS-11 and Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), Internet Addiction Disorder test (IAD), Exercise Addiction Inventory-Short Form (EAI-SF) scores (pimpulsivity traits (BIS-11 scores; OR=1.08; p=.012) and higher craving levels (VASc scores; OR=2.48; pimpulsivity and craving for alcohol seem to be associated with other addictive behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Grade-Level Differences in Coping Behavior among Adolescents Using Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal-Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine grade-level differences in coping behaviors among adolescents using a probabilistic multidimensional scaling (MDS) single-ideal-point model. Using data from students in middle school and at college, this article illustrated the MDS single-ideal-point model as an alternative to examine students' typical…

  15. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Improve Computer Pointing Efficiency through a Mouse Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to improve their pointing performance using finger poke ability with a mouse wheel through a Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (DPAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, changes a…

  16. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R. L., II; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (IW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850°C. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-SiO2 buffer, which is 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of the fate of

  17. Graphene confinement effects on melting/freezing point and structure and dynamics behavior of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Masumeh; Fatemi, S Mahmood; Shokouh, F

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the melting/freezing point of confined water between two graphene sheets was calculated from the direct coexistence of the solid-liquid interface. Also, molecular dynamics simulation of confined liquid water-ice between two graphene sheets was applied. The phase transition temperature of the confined ice-water mixture was calculated as 240K that was 29K less than the non-confined ice-water system. In order to study the behavior of water molecules at different distances from the graphene sheets, 5 regions were provided using some imaginary planes, located between two graphene sheets. The obtained simulation results showed that water molecules located in the region near each graphene sheet with the thickness of 2nm had a different behavior from other water molecules located in other regions. The results demonstrated that water molecules in the vicinity of graphene sheets had more mean square displacements than those in the middle regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lack of parvalbumin in mice leads to behavioral deficits relevant to all human autism core symptoms and related neural morphofunctional abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, M; Orduz, D; Gregory, P; Moreno, H; Khan, U; Vörckel, K J; Wolfer, D P; Welzl, H; Gall, D; Schiffmann, S N; Schwaller, B

    2015-03-10

    Gene mutations and gene copy number variants are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Affected gene products are often part of signaling networks implicated in synapse formation and/or function leading to alterations in the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. Although the network of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons has gained particular attention in ASD, little is known on PV's putative role with respect to ASD. Genetic mouse models represent powerful translational tools for studying the role of genetic and neurobiological factors underlying ASD. Here, we report that PV knockout mice (PV(-/-)) display behavioral phenotypes with relevance to all three core symptoms present in human ASD patients: abnormal reciprocal social interactions, impairments in communication and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. PV-depleted mice also showed several signs of ASD-associated comorbidities, such as reduced pain sensitivity and startle responses yet increased seizure susceptibility, whereas no evidence for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to anxiety, depression and schizophrenia was obtained. Reduced social interactions and communication were also observed in heterozygous (PV(+/-)) mice characterized by lower PV expression levels, indicating that merely a decrease in PV levels might be sufficient to elicit core ASD-like deficits. Structural magnetic resonance imaging measurements in PV(-/-) and PV(+/-) mice further revealed ASD-associated developmental neuroanatomical changes, including transient cortical hypertrophy and cerebellar hypoplasia. Electrophysiological experiments finally demonstrated that the E/I balance in these mice is altered by modification of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission. On the basis of the reported changes in PV expression patterns in several, mostly genetic rodent models of ASD, we propose that in these models downregulation of PV might represent one of the points of convergence, thus providing a

  19. Self-esteem and "at risk" women:determinants and relevance to sexual and HIV-related risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Claire E; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we describe the relationship between self-esteem and HIV-related risk behaviors, and explore what factors predict self-esteem levels of "at risk" women. Interviews were conducted with 250 (predominantly African American) women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area between August 1997 and August 2000. A community identification process was used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted and theoretical sampling and ethnographic mapping procedures. Self-esteem was related to the number of times having oral sex, the number of times having sex with paying partners, the frequency of sexual risk-taking (all during the 90 days prior to interview), the number of different HIV risk behaviors practiced during the previous year, and condom use attitudes and self-efficacy. Greater involvement HIV risk behaviors was associated with lower self-esteem. Multivariate analyses revealed five significant predictors of women's self-esteem levels: race, religiosity, childhood experiences with emotional neglect, the number of money-related problems experienced, and the number of drug-related problems experienced. The findings indicate that self-esteem is highly relevant to "at risk" women's HIV risk behavior practices, and this has important implications for HIV intervention programs.

  20. Relationships Between Individual Endorsement of Aggressive Behaviors and Thoughts With Prejudice Relevant Correlates Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piumatti, Giovanni; Mosso, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored how individual differences in endorsement of aggressive behaviors and thoughts relate to individual levels of tolerance and prejudice toward immigrants and established prejudice correlates such as social dominance orientation (SDO) and ethnic out-groups ratings among adolescents. Participants (N = 141; Age M = 16.08, 68% girls) completed the Readiness for Interpersonal Aggression Inventory, the Tolerance and Prejudice Questionnaire, and measures of SDO and ethnic out-groups ratings. Results indicated that higher individual endorsement of aggression was related to higher prejudice and SDO and lower tolerance and ethnic out-groups ratings. Patterns of endorsement of aggression related to habitual and socially determined aggressive acts or stable needs to hurt others as a source of satisfaction were significantly correlated with prejudice. Conversely, the relationship between prejudice and endorsement of impulsive actions lacking of emotional control resulted was less marked. The results highlight how in the cognitive spectrum of prejudice, individual levels of endorsement of aggression may play a significant triggering role during adolescence. These findings may have implications for future studies and interventions aimed at reducing prejudice already in young ages. PMID:28344674

  1. Structural modification of coal-tar pitch fractions during mild oxidation - relevance to carbonization behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machnikowski, J.; Kaczmarska, H.; Gerus-Piasecka, I.; Diez, M.A.; Alvarez, R.; Garcia, R. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2002-07-01

    Modified pitches with softening points of about 175{degree}C were prepared by air-blowing at 300{degree}C of coal-tar pitches from different commercial coke-oven tars. The modifications induced by the mild oxidation were monitored using solvent and extrographic fractionation, elemental analysis, H-1 NMR and HPLC. Optical microscopy was used to follow the effect of air-blowing on carbonization behaviour. Low molecular weight cata-condensed PAHs and those with basic nitrogen and hydroxylic functionalities present in extrographic fractions F2 and F4, respectively, are preferentially polymerized pitch constituents. In contrast, peri-condensed PAHs in extrographic fractions F2 and F3, are practically unreactive under the oxidation conditions used. The mild oxidation enhances the tendency of quinoline insoluble (QI) particles to form aggregates in an early stage of thermal treatment, modifying the mode of mesophase development and leading to a non-homogeneous optical texture. The enhanced propensity of QI to aggregation is discussed in terms of structural peculiarities of the parent pitch and possible oxidative polymerization reactions.

  2. Relevance of neuroimaging for neurocognitive and behavioral outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, Marsh; Pouwels, Petra Jw; Ernest van Heurn, L W; Bakx, Roel; Jeroen Vermeulen, R; Carel Goslings, J; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; van der Wees, Marleen; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to (1) investigate the neuropathology of mild to severe pediatric TBI and (2) elucidate the predictive value of conventional and innovative neuroimaging for functional outcome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild RF+ , n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 17) at 2.8 years post-injury. Neuroimaging measures included: acute computed tomography (CT), volumetric analysis on post-acute conventional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and post-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-wise regression). Functional outcome was measured using Common Data Elements for neurocognitive and behavioral functioning. The results show that intracranial pathology on acute CT-scans was more prevalent after moderate/severe TBI (65%) than after mild RF+ TBI (35%; p = .035), while both groups had decreased white matter volume on conventional MRI (ps ≤ .029, ds ≥ -0.74). The moderate/severe TBI group further showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in a widespread cluster affecting all white matter tracts, in which regional associations with neurocognitive functioning were observed (FSIQ, Digit Span and RAVLT Encoding) that consistently involved the corpus callosum. FA had superior predictive value for functional outcome (i.e. intelligence, attention and working memory, encoding in verbal memory and internalizing problems) relative to acute CT-scanning (i.e. internalizing problems) and conventional MRI (no predictive value). We conclude that children with mild RF+ TBI and moderate/severe TBI are at risk of persistent white matter abnormality. Furthermore, DTI has superior predictive value for neurocognitive out-come relative to conventional neuroimaging.

  3. Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zheng

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS, a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300 as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1 domain (CBPΔCH1/ΔCH1 have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations.

  4. Multi-scale dynamical behavior of spatially distributed systems: a deterministic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Le Jean, F.; Drapeau, L.; Huc, M.

    2015-12-01

    Physical and biophysical systems are spatially distributed systems. Their behavior can be observed or modelled spatially at various resolutions. In this work, a deterministic point of view is adopted to analyze multi-scale behavior taking a set of ordinary differential equation (ODE) as elementary part of the system.To perform analyses, scenes of study are thus generated based on ensembles of identical elementary ODE systems. Without any loss of generality, their dynamics is chosen chaotic in order to ensure sensitivity to initial conditions, that is, one fundamental property of atmosphere under instable conditions [1]. The Rössler system [2] is used for this purpose for both its topological and algebraic simplicity [3,4].Two cases are thus considered: the chaotic oscillators composing the scene of study are taken either independent, or in phase synchronization. Scale behaviors are analyzed considering the scene of study as aggregations (basically obtained by spatially averaging the signal) or as associations (obtained by concatenating the time series). The global modeling technique is used to perform the numerical analyses [5].One important result of this work is that, under phase synchronization, a scene of aggregated dynamics can be approximated by the elementary system composing the scene, but modifying its parameterization [6]. This is shown based on numerical analyses. It is then demonstrated analytically and generalized to a larger class of ODE systems. Preliminary applications to cereal crops observed from satellite are also presented.[1] Lorenz, Deterministic nonperiodic flow. J. Atmos. Sci., 20, 130-141 (1963).[2] Rössler, An equation for continuous chaos, Phys. Lett. A, 57, 397-398 (1976).[3] Gouesbet & Letellier, Global vector-field reconstruction by using a multivariate polynomial L2 approximation on nets, Phys. Rev. E 49, 4955-4972 (1994).[4] Letellier, Roulin & Rössler, Inequivalent topologies of chaos in simple equations, Chaos, Solitons

  5. Mice genetically depleted of brain serotonin display social impairments, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors: possible relevance to autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Kane

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2-/- showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2-/- mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder.

  6. Pointing and Interaction Initiation: The Behavior of Young Children with Down's Syndrome When Looking at Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Anthony J.

    1990-01-01

    Verbal and nonverbal components of pointing initiation by Down's Syndrome children when looking at books were studied. Analysis of initiation patterns and point duration revealed possible developmental progression from a stage where point and exchange duration are linked to a stage where pointing becomes more detached from the exchange. (21…

  7. Positive Behavior Supports: Using Class Dojo as a Token Economy Point System to Encourage and Maintain Good Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eliana; Hoang, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The use of positive reinforcement sometimes gets lost in translation because educators forget the importance of acknowledging good behaviors. We instinctively tend to punish and give consequences because we often forget the importance of preventing undesired behaviors from occurring in the first place. More efforts should be spent on maintaining…

  8. PROFOUND AND SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC EFFECTS OF CLINICALLY-RELEVANT LOW DOSE SCATTER IRRADIATION ON THE BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eKovalchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Irradiated cells can signal damage and distress to both close and distant neighbors that have not been directly exposed to the radiation (naïve bystanders. While studies have shown that such bystander effects occur in the shielded brain of animals upon body irradiation, their mechanism remains unexplored. Observed effects may be caused by some blood-borne factors; however they may also be explained, at least in part, by very small direct doses received by the brain that result from scatter or leakage. In order to establish the roles of low doses of scatter irradiation in the brain response, we developed a new model for scatter irradiation analysis whereby one rat was irradiated directly at the liver and the second rat was placed adjacent to the first and received a scatter dose to its body and brain. This work focuses specifically on the response of the latter rat brain to the low scatter irradiation dose. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that very low, clinically relevant doses of scatter irradiation alter gene expression, induce changes in dendritic morphology, and lead to behavioral deficits in exposed animals. The results showed that exposure to radiation doses as low as 0.115 cGy caused changes in gene expression and reduced spine density, dendritic complexity, and dendritic length in the prefrontal cortex tissues of females, but not males. In the hippocampus, radiation altered neuroanatomical organization in males, but not in females. Moreover, low dose radiation caused behavioral deficits in the exposed animals. This is the first study to show that low dose scatter irradiation influences the brain and behavior in a sex-specific way.

  9. On zero-point energy, stability and Hagedorn behavior of Type IIB strings on pp-waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigazzi, F.; Cotrone, A.L.

    2003-06-01

    Type IIB strings on many pp-wave backgrounds, supported either by 5-form or 3-form fluxes, have negative light-cone zero-point energy. This raises the question of their stability and poses possible problems in the definition of their thermodynamic properties. After having pointed out the correct way of calculating the zero-point energy, an issue not fully discussed in literature, we show that these Type IIB strings are classically stable and have well defined thermal properties, exhibiting a Hagedorn behavior. (author)

  10. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA. No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%. The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

  11. Is gender relevant only for problem alcohol behaviors? An examination of correlates of alcohol use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Zaje A T; Karim, Nidal M

    2008-02-01

    This study examined correlates of alcohol use: substance-use coping, drinking to "feel high," and depressive symptoms as related to drinking behaviors in males and females. A sample of 266 female and 140 male college students from a private and public college were surveyed. Males reported more frequent alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, binge drinking, substance-use coping, and drinking to "feel high." There were no gender differences in self-reported depressive symptoms. Alcohol-use frequency and binge drinking were both accounted for by substance-use coping and drinking to "feel high" among males and females. However, alcohol-related problems were accounted for by males' frequency of alcohol use and drinking to "feel high," whereas females' problems were accounted for by frequency of alcohol use and depressive symptoms. Findings indicate that motivation for drinking is a more robust correlate of alcohol-related problems among males, while depressive symptomatology is a more relevant correlate of alcohol-related problems among females.

  12. Comparison of burrowing and stimuli-evoked pain behaviors as end-points in rat models of inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun eMuralidharan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishment and validation of ethologically-relevant, non-evoked behavioral end-points as surrogate measures of spontaneous pain in rodent pain models has been proposed as a means to improve preclinical to clinical research translation in the pain field. Here, we compared the utility of burrowing behavior with hypersensitivity to applied mechanical stimuli for pain assessment in rat models of chronic inflammatory and peripheral neuropathic pain. Briefly, groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated to the burrowing environment and trained over a 5-day period. Rats that burrowed ≤450g of gravel on any two days of the individual training phase were excluded from the study. The remaining rats received either a unilateral intraplantar injection of Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA or saline, or underwent unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve- or sham-surgery. Baseline burrowing behavior and evoked pain behaviors were assessed prior to model induction, and twice-weekly until study completion on day 14. For FCA- and CCI-rats, but not the corresponding groups of sham-rats, evoked mechanical hypersensitivity developed in a temporal manner in the ipsilateral hindpaws. Although burrowing behavior also decreased in a temporal manner for both FCA- and CCI-rats, there was considerable inter-animal variability. By contrast, mechanical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral hindpaws of FCA- and CCI-rats respectively, exhibited minimal inter-animal variability. Our data collectively show that burrowing behavior is altered in rodent models of chronic inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain. However, large group sizes are needed to ensure studies are adequately powered due to considerable inter-animal variability.

  13. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks). These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  14. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Levy-Gigi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks. These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  15. Dynamical Behavior of a Rigid Body with One Fixed Point (Gyroscope. Basic Concepts and Results. Open Problems: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Ganchev Nikolov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the dynamic behavior of a rigid body with one fixed point (gyroscope has a long history. A number of famous mathematicians and mechanical engineers have devoted enormous time and effort to clarify the role of dynamic effects on its movement (behavior – stable, periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. The main objectives of this review are: 1 to outline the characteristic features of the theory of dynamical systems and 2 to reveal the specific properties of the motion of a rigid body with one fixed point (gyroscope.This article consists of six sections. The first section addresses the main concepts of the theory of dynamical systems. Section two presents the main theoretical results (obtained so far concerning the dynamic behavior of a solid with one fixed point (gyroscope. Section three examines the problem of gyroscopic stabilization. Section four deals with the non-linear (chaotic dynamics of the gyroscope. Section five is a brief analysis of the gyroscope applications in engineering. The final section provides conclusions and generalizations on why the theory of dynamical systems should be used in the study of the movement of gyroscopic systems.

  16. Manipulation of native point defect behavior in rutile TiO2 via surfaces and extended defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliard, Kandis Leslie; Seebauer, Edmund G.

    2017-11-01

    Semiconductor surfaces offer efficient pathways for exchanging native point defects with the underlying bulk. For rutile TiO2(1 1 0), isotopic self-diffusion studies of oxygen have suggested that the surface may act as a source for Oi while simultaneously acting as a sink for titanium interstitials Tii. Through self-diffusion measurements with labeled Ti as well as O, the present work develops a more complete picture of the diffusion-reaction network involving Oi and Tii, complete with the surface acting as a source for whichever elements are available from the gas phase and a sink for elements that are not. The picture points to the importance of extended defects such as platelets and crystallographic shear planes as reservoirs of Oi and Tii, acting as net sources or sinks of these species depending upon specific conditions. The results exemplify the combined roles of surfaces and extended defects in regulating point defect behavior even in macroscopic metal oxide crystals, and point to specific strategies for manipulating that behavior intentionally.

  17. Sexually selected signaling in birds: A case for bayesian change-point analysis of behavioral routines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, T.; Sprau, P.; Naguib, M.; Amrhein, V.

    2012-01-01

    Responses of organisms to environments or to conspecifics may abruptly change once the organism has changed its state. For example, the expression of sexually selected signals often depends on the pairing status of the sender. A likely change in signaling routines at the point of pair formation

  18. Sexually selected signaling in birds: a case for Bayesian change-point analysis of behavioral routinges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, T.; Sprau, P.; Naguib, M.; Amrhein, V.

    2012-01-01

    Responses of organisms to environments or to conspecifics may abruptly change once the organism has changed its state. For example, the expression of sexually selected signals often depends on the pairing status of the sender. A likely change in signaling routines at the point of pair formation

  19. Modeling the new franchise creation decision: the relevance of behavioral reasons / Modelagem da decisão de criação de novas franquias: a relevância dos motivos comportamentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder de Souza Aguiar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Franchising is one of the fastest-growing operating modes in Brazil. In 2014, the Brazilian Franchising Association reported 2,492 active brands in the country. Some theories with an economic point of view, such as the agency theory, plural forms theory, or scarcity principle, explain why companies choose franchising. However, did the decision makers and founders of these franchises decide on this strategy taking only economic reasons into consideration? The purpose of this study is to understand the a priori criteria (prior to the decision that executives took into account when adopting this strategy and the key motivations for this decision. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: The literature emphasizes the economic reasons for the success of the franchise model, but it does not focus on the founders’ motivations when they choose this strategy. This is the gap that this study seeks to address. Dissonance could arise between economic reasons and entry motivations that could result in consequences for the management of new franchises. Key methodological aspects: Ten companies of different industries and different life cycle stages involved with the franchise model were scrutinized using a semi-structured questionnaire based on the literature on decision theory and franchising. Summary of key results: Behavioral factors significantly influence decision makers when choosing the franchise model. Key considerations/conclusions: This study distinguishes the economic reasons from the executives’ motivations when choosing the franchise model and highlights the importance of non-economic factors in this decision. Objetivo: O franchising é um dos modos de operação que mais crescem no Brasil - em 2014, a Associação Brasileira de Franchising contava 2.492 marcas ativas no país. Algumas teorias de carácter econômico, como as teorias da agência, formas plurais ou escassez de recursos explicam as razões que levam as empresas a optar

  20. The Japanese Quail as an avian model for testing endocrine disrupting chemicals: endocrine and behavioral end points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.; Henry, K.; Humphries, E.; Henry, P.F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Birds have extremely varied reproductive strategies. As such, the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can greatly differ across avian species. Precocial species, such as Japanese quail appear to be most sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, particularly sexual differentiation. A great deal is known about the ontogeny of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) relative to endocrine, neuro-endocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction. Therefore, this species provides an excellent model for understanding effects of EDCs on reproductive biology with exposure at specific stages of the life cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to conduct a 1- or 2- generation experiment with positive or negative control chemicals and to determine changes in selected end points. Japanese quail embryos were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; positive control) in a 2-generation design or to fadrozole (FAD; negative control) in a 1-generation design. Embryonic EB treatment resulted in significant reductions (p< 0.5) in hen day production (90.2 vs 54.1; control vs EB, resp.) and fertility (85.3 vs 33.4%, control vs EB, resp.). Males showed sharply reduced courtship and mating behaviors as well as increased lag time (26 vs 148 sec; control vs EB) in behavioral tests. Fadrozole exposure resulted in reduced hatchability of fertile eggs, particularly at higher doses. There were no significant effects on courtship and mating behavior of males although males showed an increased lag time in their responses, nally, a behavioral test for studying motor and fear responses in young chicks was used; chicks exposed to an estrogenic pesticide (methoxychlor) showed some deficits. In summary, the use of appropriate and reliable end points that are responsive to endocrine disruption are critical for assessment of EDCs. Supported in part by EPA grant R826134.

  1. Controversy over nuclear power. Behavior of two sides and media from the point of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sata, Tsutomu

    2006-01-01

    The interaction process among the four groups such as the affirmative side, the reverse side, mass media and the people for nuclear power is analyzed from the point of communication. A definition of four groups, safety of the sites and economic induction, the affirmative side aims at persuasion, the reverse side appeals to feelings, mass media takes up news to amusement, articles dramatized on the basis of the fact, persuasion with threatening has the opposite effect, personal attitude is affected by the group criterion, media brings people's interaction into focus, people have a hatred for a one-sided information, and information with sincerity touches the heart are reported. (S.Y.)

  2. HIV Provider Documentation and Actions Following Patient Reports of At-risk Behaviors and Conditions When Identified by a Web-Based Point-of-Care Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Heidi M; Crane, Paul K; Tufano, James T; Ralston, James D; Wilson, Ira B; Brown, Tyler D; Davis, Thomas E; Smith, Laurie F; Lober, William B; McReynolds, Justin; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Harrington, Robert D; Rodriguez, Carla V; Nance, Robin M; Delaney, Joseph A C; Safren, Steven A; Kitahata, Mari M; Fredericksen, Rob J

    2017-11-01

    We compared same-day provider medical record documentation and interventions addressing depression and risk behaviors before and after delivering point-of-care patient-reported outcomes (PROs) feedback for patients who self-reported clinically relevant levels of depression or risk behaviors. During the study period (1 January 2006-15 October 2010), 2289 PRO assessments were completed by HIV-infected patients. Comparing the 8 months before versus after feedback implementation, providers were more likely to document depression (74% before vs. 87% after feedback, p = 0.02) in patients with moderate-to-severe depression (n = 317 assessments), at-risk alcohol use (41 vs. 64%, p = 0.04, n = 155) and substance use (60 vs. 80%, p = 0.004, n = 212). Providers were less likely to incorrectly document good adherence among patients with inadequate adherence after feedback (42 vs. 24%, p = 0.02, n = 205). While PRO feedback of depression and adherence were followed by increased provider intervention, other domains were not. Further investigation of factors associated with the gap between awareness and intervention are needed in order to bridge this divide.

  3. On the relevance of the micromechanics approach for predicting the linear viscoelastic behavior of semi-crystalline poly(ethylene)terephtalates (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diani, J.; Bedoui, F.; Regnier, G.

    2008-01-01

    The relevance of micromechanics modeling to the linear viscoelastic behavior of semi-crystalline polymers is studied. For this purpose, the linear viscoelastic behaviors of amorphous and semi-crystalline PETs are characterized. Then, two micromechanics modeling methods, which have been proven in a previous work to apply to the PET elastic behavior, are used to predict the viscoelastic behavior of three semi-crystalline PETs. The microstructures of the crystalline PETs are clearly defined using WAXS techniques. Since microstructures and mechanical properties of both constitutive phases (the crystalline and the amorphous) are defined, the simulations are run without adjustable parameters. Results show that the models are unable to reproduce the substantial decrease of viscosity induced by the increase of crystallinity. Unlike the real materials, for moderate crystallinity, both models show materials of viscosity nearly identical to the amorphous material

  4. Relevance of a Neurophysiological Marker of Attention Allocation for Children's Learning-Related Behaviors and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Cynthia J.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Bierman, Karen L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2015-01-01

    Learning-related behaviors are important for school success. Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for less adaptive learning-related behaviors at school entry, yet substantial variability in school readiness exists within socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Investigation of neurophysiological systems associated with learning-related…

  5. Impact of nutrition environmental interventions on point-of-purchase behavior in adults: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Jennifer D; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus; Serdula, Mary; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Khan, Laura Kettel

    2004-09-01

    Nutrition interventions targeted to individuals are unlikely to significantly shift US dietary patterns as a whole. Environmental and policy interventions are more promising for shifting these patterns. We review interventions that influenced the environment through food availability, access, pricing, or information at the point-of-purchase in worksites, universities, grocery stores, and restaurants. Thirty-eight nutrition environmental intervention studies in adult populations, published between 1970 and June 2003, were reviewed and evaluated on quality of intervention design, methods, and description (e.g., sample size, randomization). No policy interventions that met inclusion criteria were found. Many interventions were not thoroughly evaluated or lacked important evaluation information. Direct comparison of studies across settings was not possible, but available data suggest that worksite and university interventions have the most potential for success. Interventions in grocery stores appear to be the least effective. The dual concerns of health and taste of foods promoted were rarely considered. Sustainability of environmental change was never addressed. Interventions in "limited access" sites (i.e., where few other choices were available) had the greatest effect on food choices. Research is needed using consistent methods, better assessment tools, and longer durations; targeting diverse populations; and examining sustainability. Future interventions should influence access and availability, policies, and macroenvironments.

  6. A simple model for the earthquake cycle combining self-organized complexity with critical point behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. I. Newman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a hybrid model combining the forest-fire model with the site-percolation model in order to better understand the earthquake cycle. We consider a square array of sites. At each time step, a "tree" is dropped on a randomly chosen site and is planted if the site is unoccupied. When a cluster of "trees" spans the site (a percolating cluster, all the trees in the cluster are removed ("burned" in a "fire." The removal of the cluster is analogous to a characteristic earthquake and planting "trees" is analogous to increasing the regional stress. The clusters are analogous to the metastable regions of a fault over which an earthquake rupture can propagate once triggered. We find that the frequency-area statistics of the metastable regions are power-law with a negative exponent of two (as in the forest-fire model. This is analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of seismicity. This "self-organized critical behavior" can be explained in terms of an inverse cascade of clusters. Small clusters of "trees" coalesce to form larger clusters. Individual trees move from small to larger clusters until they are destroyed. This inverse cascade of clusters is self-similar and the power-law distribution of cluster sizes has been shown to have an exponent of two. We have quantified the forecasting of the spanning fires using error diagrams. The assumption that "fires" (earthquakes are quasi-periodic has moderate predictability. The density of trees gives an improved degree of predictability, while the size of the largest cluster of trees provides a substantial improvement in forecasting a "fire."

  7. Driving simulator validation of driver behavior with limited safe vantage points for data collection in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bham, Ghulam H; Leu, Ming C; Vallati, Manoj; Mathur, Durga R

    2014-06-01

    This study is aimed at validating a driving simulator (DS) for the study of driver behavior in work zones. A validation study requires field data collection. For studies conducted in highway work zones, the availability of safe vantage points for data collection at critical locations can be a significant challenge. A validation framework is therefore proposed in this paper, demonstrated using a fixed-based DS that addresses the issue by using a global positioning system (GPS). The validation of the DS was conducted using objective and subjective evaluations. The objective validation was divided into qualitative and quantitative evaluations. The DS was validated by comparing the results of simulation with the field data, which were collected using a GPS along the highway and video recordings at specific locations in a work zone. The constructed work zone scenario in the DS was subjectively evaluated with 46 participants. The objective evaluation established the absolute and relative validity of the DS. The mean speeds from the DS data showed excellent agreement with the field data. The subjective evaluation indicated realistic driving experience by the participants. The use of GPS showed that continuous data collected along the highway can overcome the challenges of unavailability of safe vantage points especially at critical locations. Further, a validated DS can be used for examining driver behavior in complex situations by replicating realistic scenarios. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing schizophrenia-relevant cognitive and social deficits in mice: a selection of mouse behavioral tasks and potential therapeutic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wen-Sung; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Wong, Wan-Rong; Pei, Ju-Chun; Chen, Ya-Shan; Hung, Wei-Li

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders are generally diagnosed based on a collection of symptoms defined by a combination of an individual's feelings, perceptions, and behaviors. Many of these disorders are characterized by specific cognitive and social deficits. Although it is nearly impossible to recapitulate the full phenotypic spectrum of schizophrenia in mice, mouse models play an indispensable role in understanding the pathogenesis of this disorder and the development of new therapeutics. Genetic mouse models of schizophrenia and mouse behavioral tests provide a feasible approach for elucidating causal relationships between susceptibility gene(s) and schizophrenia-related symptoms. There has been a proliferation of studies characterizing basic behavioral phenotypes in mice. Since there is no way to completely model human psychiatric symptoms in mice, the major role of behavioral tests is to provide insights into underlying affected circuitry and pathophysiology. Given that the recovery of cognitive and social abilities significantly benefits functional outcomes, there has been an increasing interest in characterizing cognitive and social functions in mutant mice; however, these functions are not easy to measure. In this review, a selection of conventional behavioral tasks was briefly described and three specific behavioral tasks aimed at characterizing social communication, attentional function, and choice behavior in mice were highlighted. The choice of specific behavioral tasks during experimental planning should take into consideration a variety of factors, including their validity, reliability, sensitivity, utility, and specificity. Based upon the hypothetical hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated signaling pathways in the involvement of cognitive and social impairments in schizophrenia, three NMDAR-related compounds/drugs, D-serine, sarcosine, and D-cycloserine, are discussed as an example.

  9. [Effects of scalp acupuncture combined with auricular point sticking on cognitive behavior ability in patients with vascular dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Kang; Ding, Ding-Ming; Zhang, Zheng-Long; Ma, Lan; Huang, Hai-Yan; Wu, Xiao-Hong

    2014-05-01

    To compare the therapeutic differences among scalp acupuncture combined with auricular point sticking, body acupuncture and western medication for treatment of vascular dementia (VD). Ninety cases were randomly divided into a combined therapy group (31 cases), a body acupuncture group (29 cases) and a western medication group (30 cases). The combined therapy group was treated with scalp acupuncture at forehead middle line, parieral middle line, temporal front line and temporal rear line as well as auricular point sticking at naogan (AT3,41), shen (CO10), shenmen (TF4), zhen (AT3), once a day; the body acupuncture group was treated with acupuncture at Baihui (GV 20), Fengchi (GB 20), Zusanli (ST 36) and so on, once a day; the western medication group was treated with oral administration of aniracetam tablets, 0.2 g per time, twice a day. Fourteen days were considered as a treatment course, and totally 3 courses were required. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and activities of daily living (ADL) were applied to assess the changes of cognitive behavior ability before and after treatment among three groups. Also the efficacy among three groups were compared. One case dropped out in the body acupuncture group and western medication group, respectively. The total effective rate was 90.334 (28/31) in the combined therapy group, which was superior to 85.734 (24/28) in the body acupuncture group and 79.3% (23/29) in the western medication group (both P acupuncture combined with auricular point sticking could improve the clinical symptoms and cognitive behavior ability in patients with vascular dementia, which has superior total efficacy to body acupuncture and western medication aniracetam tablets.

  10. Effects of a self-monitoring device on socially relevant behaviors in adolescents with Asperger disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Heath, Amy K; Davis, John L; Vannest, Kimberley J

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of two case studies. Two middle school-aged participants with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders were taught to self-monitor behaviors impacting their social acceptance by peers in their general education settings: oral self-stimulatory behaviors and conversation skills. Results indicate that the intervention was effective to some degree with both participants. As a result of the self-monitoring intervention, one participant decreased self-stimulatory behaviors; however, his data were highly variable throughout the study though lower on average during intervention than in baseline. The other participant's targeted skills in communication were only slightly improved. Self-monitoring using a vibrating reminder appears to be a low-cost intervention with high levels of social acceptability, low training requirements for teachers or students, and no social stigma.

  11. Dosimetry for small size beams such as IMRT and stereotactic radiotherapy, is the concept of the dose at a point still relevant? proposal for a new methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowsky, A.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; De Carlan, L.; Delaunay, F.

    2010-01-01

    Solving the problem of traceability of the absorbed dose to the tumour for the radiation fields of small and very small dimensions, like those used for new treatment modality usually results in the use of dosemeters of much smaller size than those of the beam. For the realisation of the reference in primary standards laboratories, the absence of technology likely to produce absolute small-size dosemeters leaves no possibility for the direct measurement of the absorbed dose at a point and implies the use of passive or active small-size transfer dosemeters. This report intends to introduce a new kind of dose quantity for radiotherapy similar do the Dose Area Product concept used in radiology. Such a new concept has to be propagated through the metrology chain, including the TPS, to the calculation of the absorbed dose to the tumour. (authors)

  12. Social behavior in deer mice as a novel interactive paradigm of relevance for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2017-04-01

    Greater obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom severity may be associated with poor social adjustment. Rather than possessing deficits in social skill per se, OCD patients may be more socially isolative in the presence of normal controls. We aimed to apply a novel social interaction challenge (SIC) to an established animal model of OCD, viz., the deer mouse, to assess complex social behavior in animals by investigating group sociability and its response to chronic escitalopram treatment (50 mg/kg/day × 28 days), both within and between non (N)- (viz., normal) and high (H)- (viz., OCD-like) stereotypical cohorts. Using automated screening, we scored approach behavior, episodes of proximity, duration of proximity, and relative net weighted movement. H animals socialized more with one another within cohort in all of the above parameters compared to the within-cohort behavior of N animals. Furthermore, the social behavior of H animals toward one another, both within and between cohort demonstrated significant improvements following chronic escitalopram treatment. However, the study also demonstrates that the social interaction between H and N animals remain poor even after chronic escitalopram treatment. To conclude, findings from the current investigation support clinical data demonstrating altered sociability in patients with OCD.

  13. Aerodynamic and Performance Behavior of a Three-Stage High Efficiency Turbine at Design and Off-Design Operating Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Schobeiri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the aerodynamic and performance behavior of a three-stage high pressure research turbine with 3-D curved blades at its design and off-design operating points. The research turbine configuration incorporates six rows beginning with a stator row. Interstage aerodynamic measurements were performed at three stations, namely downstream of the first rotor row, the second stator row, and the second rotor row. Interstage radial and circumferential traversing presented a detailed flow picture of the middle stage. Performance measurements were carried out within a rotational speed range of 75% to 116% of the design speed. The experimental investigations have been carried out on the recently established multi-stage turbine research facility at the Turbomachinery Performance and Flow Research Laboratory, TPFL, of Texas A&M University.

  14. Evolutionary and neuropsychological perspectives on addictive behaviors and addictive substances: relevance to the “food addiction” construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that food cannot be “addictive”, unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. “Evolutionary mismatch” viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. PMID:25540603

  15. Mechanical behavior analysis of a submerged fixed point anchoring system for a hydroacoustic signature measuring sensor for divers and ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamnoiu, G.; Radu, O.; Surdu, G.; Roşca, V.; Damian, R.; Pascu, C.; Curcă, E.; Rădulescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper has as its main objectives the presentation and the analysis of the numerical analysis results for the study of a fixed point anchoring system for a hydroacoustic sensor when measuring the hydroacoustic signature of divers and ships in real sea conditions. The study of the mechanical behavior of this system has as main objectives the optimization of the shape and weight of the anchorage ballast for the metallic structure while considering the necessity to maintain the sensor in a fixed point and the analysis of the sensor movements and the influences on the measurements caused by the sea current streams. The study was focused on the 3D model of metallic structure design; numerical modeling of the water flow around the sensor anchoring structure using volume of fluid analysis and the analysis of the forces and displacements using FEM when needed for the study. In this paper we have used data for the sea motion dynamics and in particular the velocity of the sea current streams as determined by experimental measurements that have been conducted for the western area of the Black Sea.

  16. Human processing of behaviorally relevant and irrelevant absence of expected rewards: a high-resolution ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Nahum

    Full Text Available Acute lesions of the posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC in humans may induce a state of reality confusion marked by confabulation, disorientation, and currently inappropriate actions. This clinical state is strongly associated with an inability to abandon previously valid anticipations, that is, extinction capacity. In healthy subjects, the filtering of memories according to their relation with ongoing reality is associated with activity in posterior medial OFC (area 13 and electrophysiologically expressed at 220-300 ms. These observations indicate that the human OFC also functions as a generic reality monitoring system. For this function, it is presumably more important for the OFC to evaluate the current behavioral appropriateness of anticipations rather than their hedonic value. In the present study, we put this hypothesis to the test. Participants performed a reversal learning task with intermittent absence of reward delivery. High-density evoked potential analysis showed that the omission of expected reward induced a specific electrocortical response in trials signaling the necessity to abandon the hitherto reward predicting choice, but not when omission of reward had no such connotation. This processing difference occurred at 200-300 ms. Source estimation using inverse solution analysis indicated that it emanated from the posterior medial OFC. We suggest that the human brain uses this signal from the OFC to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality.

  17. Gaze Behavior in a Natural Environment with a Task-Relevant Distractor: How the Presence of a Goalkeeper Distracts the Penalty Taker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kurz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaze behavior in natural scenes has been shown to be influenced not only by top–down factors such as task demands and action goals but also by bottom–up factors such as stimulus salience and scene context. Whereas gaze behavior in the context of static pictures emphasizes spatial accuracy, gazing in natural scenes seems to rely more on where to direct the gaze involving both anticipative components and an evaluation of ongoing actions. Not much is known about gaze behavior in far-aiming tasks in which multiple task-relevant targets and distractors compete for the allocation of visual attention via gaze. In the present study, we examined gaze behavior in the far-aiming task of taking a soccer penalty. This task contains a proximal target, the ball; a distal target, an empty location within the goal; and a salient distractor, the goalkeeper. Our aim was to investigate where participants direct their gaze in a natural environment with multiple potential fixation targets that differ in task relevance and salience. Results showed that the early phase of the run-up seems to be driven by both the salience of the stimulus setting and the need to perform a spatial calibration of the environment. The late run-up, in contrast, seems to be controlled by attentional demands of the task with penalty takers having habitualized a visual routine that is not disrupted by external influences (e.g., the goalkeeper. In addition, when trying to shoot a ball as accurately as possible, penalty takers directed their gaze toward the ball in order to achieve optimal foot-ball contact. These results indicate that whether gaze is driven by salience of the stimulus setting or by attentional demands depends on the phase of the actual task.

  18. A comparative analysis of moral principles and behavioral norms in eight ethical codes relevant to health sciences librarianship, medical informatics, and the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Gary D; Winkelstein, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Based on the authors' shared interest in the interprofessional challenges surrounding health information management, this study explores the degree to which librarians, informatics professionals, and core health professionals in medicine, nursing, and public health share common ethical behavior norms grounded in moral principles. Using the "Principlism" framework from a widely cited textbook of biomedical ethics, the authors analyze the statements in the ethical codes for associations of librarians (Medical Library Association [MLA], American Library Association, and Special Libraries Association), informatics professionals (American Medical Informatics Association [AMIA] and American Health Information Management Association), and core health professionals (American Medical Association, American Nurses Association, and American Public Health Association). This analysis focuses on whether and how the statements in these eight codes specify core moral norms (Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, and Justice), core behavioral norms (Veracity, Privacy, Confidentiality, and Fidelity), and other norms that are empirically derived from the code statements. These eight ethical codes share a large number of common behavioral norms based most frequently on the principle of Beneficence, then on Autonomy and Justice, but rarely on Non-Maleficence. The MLA and AMIA codes share the largest number of common behavioral norms, and these two associations also share many norms with the other six associations. The shared core of behavioral norms among these professions, all grounded in core moral principles, point to many opportunities for building effective interprofessional communication and collaboration regarding the development, management, and use of health information resources and technologies.

  19. Reoperative Bariatric Surgery: a Systematic Review of the Reasons for Surgery, Medical and Weight Loss Outcomes, Relevant Behavioral Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Bastos, Ana; Conceição, Eva M; Machado, Paulo P P

    2017-10-01

    Reoperative surgery following the failure of primary bariatric surgery is increasing due to the significant rates of patients experiencing poor weight loss or medical complications. This literature review was conducted to organize the emerging, but scattered, literature regarding the reasons for undergoing surgery, the best available options, the predictors of success, and the psychological characteristics of patients submitted to reoperative surgeries. Reoperative procedures are technically challenging, but the possible benefits of reoperation supplant the increased risks associated with these procedures. The etiology of reasons for undergoing a second surgery includes medical (e.g., fistula, ulcer disease) and behavioral aspects. Factors that may compromise outcomes have not been much studied. Particular attention should be paid to candidates with a history of difficulties in engaging in healthy eating patterns.

  20. Inositol-deficient food augments a behavioral effect of long-term lithium treatment mediated by inositol monophosphatase inhibition: an animal model with relevance for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Liza; Agam, Galila; Belmaker, R H; Bersudsky, Yuly

    2015-04-01

    Lithium treatment in rodents markedly enhances cholinergic agonists such as pilocarpine. This effect can be reversed in a stereospecific manner by administration of inositol, suggesting that the effect of lithium is caused by inositol monophosphatase inhibition and consequent inositol depletion. If so, inositol-deficient food would be expected to enhance lithium effects. Inositol-deficient food was prepared from inositol-free ingredients. Mice with a homozygote knockout of the inositol monophosphatase 1 gene unable to synthesize inositol endogenously and mimicking lithium-treated animals were fed this diet or a control diet. Lithium-treated wild-type animals were also treated with the inositol-deficient diet or control diet. Pilocarpine was administered after 1 week of treatment, and behavior including seizures was assessed using rating scale. Inositol-deficient food-treated animals, both lithium treated and with inositol monophosphatase 1 knockout, had significantly elevated cholinergic behavior rating and significantly increased or earlier seizures compared with the controls. The effect of inositol-deficient food supports the role of inositol depletion in the effects of lithium on pilocarpine-induced behavior. However, the relevance of this behavior to other more mood-related effects of lithium is not clear.

  1. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balduino, Alex; Mello-Coelho, Valeria; Wang, Zhou; Taichman, Russell S.; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Becker, Kevin G.; Mello, Wallace de; Taub, Dennis D.; Borojevic, Radovan

    2012-01-01

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the “quiescent” and “proliferative” niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  2. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balduino, Alex, E-mail: balduino@uva.edu.br [School of Dentistry, Veiga de Almeida University, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mello-Coelho, Valeria [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Zhou; Taichman, Russell S.; Krebsbach, Paul H. [Department of Periodontics, Prevention and Geriatrics, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Becker, Kevin G. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Mello, Wallace de [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Taub, Dennis D. [National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Borojevic, Radovan [Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the 'quiescent' and 'proliferative' niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  3. Changes in reproductive courtship behaviors of adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Shutt, John L; Letcher, Robert J; Ritchie, James I; Sullivan, Katrina; Bird, David M

    2008-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are increasing in biota. Here, captive adult American kestrels were exposed daily by diet to safflower oil (controls), or one of two levels of a pentaBDE technical formulation, DE-71 (0.3 or 1.6 ppm), for approximately 75 days, commencing 21 days before breeding. This exposure resulted in eggs having PBDE concentrations similar (low exposure) or within the same order of magnitude (high exposure) reported for wild American kestrels and gulls in the Great Lakes. Compared to controls, kestrels in both exposure groups copulated less, spent less time in their nest boxes, and participated in fewer pair-bonding behaviors. Furthermore, the timing of these behaviors, which is important to creating and maintaining the pair-bond, also differed significantly from the controls. The females in the low-exposure group made fewer compatible trilling calls and ate less frequently. These behavioral changes were compounded by increasing exposure to DE-71 during the 9-day courtship period immediately preceding egg laying, a standard measure of the kestrel courtship period. The birds in the high-exposure group made more food transfers, excited "klee" calls, and copulations, the latter only when compared to the low-exposure birds, whereas the low-exposure males performed fewer pair-bonding behaviors. This study demonstrates that the exposure of kestrels to environmentally relevant levels of DE-71 modifies the quality of the pair-bond, affects the reproductive behavior of both sexes, and occurs when birds are exposed for a short period as adults. In addition, these behavioral effects are consistent with the observed reproductive changes in these birds.

  4. The Relevance of Big Five Trait Content in Behavior to Subjective Authenticity: Do High Levels of Within-Person Behavioral Variability Undermine or Enable Authenticity Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeson, William; Wilt, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Individuals vary their behavior from moment to moment a great deal, often acting “out of character” for their traits. This article investigates the consequences for authenticity. We compared two hypotheses—trait consistency: individuals feel most authentic when acting in a way consistent with their traits; and state-content significance: some ways of acting feel more authentic because of their content and consequences, regardless of the actor’s corresponding traits. Three studies using experience-sampling methodology in laboratory and natural settings, with participants aged 18–51, strongly supported the state-content significance hypothesis and did not support the trait-consistency hypothesis. Authenticity was consistently associated with acting highly extraverted, agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, and intellectual, regardless of the actor’s traits. Discussion focuses on possible implications for within-person variability in behavior and for the nature of the self-concept. PMID:20545814

  5. Point-of-care Devices: Non-Newtonian Whole Blood Behavior and Capillary Flow on Reagent-coated Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean BERTHIER

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most point-of-care (POC and patient self-testing (PST devices are based on the analysis of whole blood taken from a finger prick. Whole blood contains a bountiful of information about the donor’s health. We analyze here two particularities of microsystems for blood analysis: the blood non-Newtonian behavior, and the capillary flow in reagent-coated channels. Capillarity is the most commonly used method to move fluids in portable systems. It is shown first that the capillary flow of blood does not follow the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal law when the capillary flow velocity is small, due to its non-Newtonian rheology and to the formation of rouleaux of RBCs. In a second step, the capillary flow of blood on reagent-coated surfaces is investigated; first experimentally by observing the spreading of a droplet of blood on different reagent-coated substrates; second theoretically and numerically using the general law for spontaneous capillary flows and the Evolver numerical program.

  6. Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior Close to a Quantum Critical Point in a Ferromagnetic State without Local Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Svanidze

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantum critical point (QCP occurs upon chemical doping of the weak itinerant ferromagnet Sc_{3.1}In. Remarkable for a system with no local moments, the QCP is accompanied by non-Fermi liquid behavior, manifested in the logarithmic divergence of the specific heat both in the ferro-and the paramagnetic states, as well as linear temperature dependence of the low-temperature resistivity. With doping, critical scaling is observed close to the QCP, as the critical exponents δ, γ, and β have weak composition dependence, with δ nearly twice and β almost half of their respective mean-field values. The unusually large paramagnetic moment μ_{PM}∼1.3μ_{B}/F.U. is nearly composition independent. Evidence for strong spin fluctuations, accompanying the QCP at x_{c}=0.035±0.005, may be ascribed to the reduced dimensionality of Sc_{3.1}In, associated with the nearly one-dimensional Sc-In chains.

  7. Weekly brief phone support in self-help cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia disorder: Relevance to adherence and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Fiona Yan-Yee; Chung, Ka-Fai; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Ng, Tommy Ho-Yee; Cheng, Sammy Kin-Wing

    2014-12-01

    Self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an acceptable, low-intensity treatment in a stepped care model for insomnia. We tested the application of self-help CBT-I in a Chinese population. 312 participants with self-report of insomnia associated with distress or daytime impairment 3 or more nights per week for at least 3 months were randomized to self-help CBT-I with telephone support (SHS), self-help CBT-I (SH) and waiting-list (WL). The program was Internet-based with treatment materials delivered once per week, and lasted for 6 consecutive weeks, while the telephone support was limited to 15 min weekly. Mixed-effects analyses found significant group by time interaction in sleep and sleep-related cognitions at immediate and 4-week posttreatment. Post-hoc pairwise comparison with WL revealed that both SHS and SH had significantly higher sleep efficiency at immediate (p = .004 and p = .03, respectively) and 4-week posttreatment (p = .002 and p = .02, respectively) and lower insomnia and dysfunctional beliefs scores. The SHS group had additional improvements in sleep onset latency and sleep quality. Benefits with self-help CBT-I were maintained at 12-week posttreatment, but attrition rate was about 35%. Internet-based self-help CBT-I was effective and acceptable for treating insomnia in the Chinese population. A brief telephone support further enhanced the efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to Point-of-Sale Marketing of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes as Predictors of Smoking Cessation Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Pasch, Keryn E; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-06

    Cue-reactivity theory suggests smoking-related visual cues such as point-of-sale (POS) marketing (e.g., advertising, product displays) may undermine cessation attempts by causing an increase in nicotine cravings among users. This study examined the relationship between recall of exposure to POS marketing and subsequent cessation behaviors among young adult cigarette smokers. Participants included 813 18-29 year old (m=21.1, sd=2.70) current cigarette smokers attending 24 Texas colleges. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the impact of baseline self-reported exposure to cigarette and e-cigarette advertising and product displays, on using e-cigarettes for cessation and successful cigarette cessation at 6-month follow-up. Two-way interactions between product-specific advertising and between product-specific displays were examined to determine if the marketing of one product strengthened the cue-reactivity of the other. Baseline covariates included socio-demographic factors, past quit attempts, intentions to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence. Exposure to e-cigarette displays was associated with lower odds of cigarette smoking cessation, controlling for covariates and conventional cigarette display exposure. E-cigarette advertising was positively associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation among participants exposed to low (i.e., at least one standard deviation below the mean) levels of cigarette advertising. Cigarette advertising was associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation only among those exposed to low levels of e-cigarette advertising. Exposure to cigarette displays was not associated with either outcome. Smoking-related cues at POS may undermine successful cigarette cessation. Exposure to product displays decrease odds of cessation. Advertising exposure increased odds for using e-cigarettes for cessation attempts, but may have guided smokers towards an unproven cessation aid. By examining the interaction of

  9. Point-of-purchase nutrition information influences food-purchasing behaviors of college students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Marjorie R; Connors, Rachel

    2010-08-01

    The goal of point-of-purchase (POP) nutrition information is to help consumers make informed, healthful choices. Despite limited evaluation, these population-based approaches are being advocated to replace traditional, more expensive, individual behavior-change strategies. Few studies have examined the effect of POP information on buying patterns of college students, a group with high obesity rates and poor eating habits. This quasi-experimental pilot project sought to determine whether the "Eat Smart" POP program affected food-purchasing habits of multiethnic college students shopping at an on-campus convenience store. Baseline sales data of foods in the cereal, soup, cracker, and bread categories were collected for 6 weeks during Fall 2008. After Winter break, a few food items within each of these food categories were labeled as healthful using a "Fuel Your Life" shelf tag, and sales data were then collected for 5 weeks. In each of the four food categories, nontagged foods were available at the identical price as tagged items. Following intervention, there were increased sales of tagged items (measured as a percentage of total sales) in the cereal, soup, and cracker categories, while sales of bread decreased. Although none of these changes were statistically significant, the intervention resulted in a 3.6%+/-1.6% (P=0.082) increase in the percentage of sales from tagged items. Thus, providing POP nutrition information in a college campus convenience store may promote healthful food choices. A longer study examining the effect of POP on sales of items in other food categories is warranted. 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity of landscape resistance estimates based on point selection functions to scale and behavioral state: Pumas as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Paul Beier; Samuel A. Cushman; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2014-01-01

    Estimating landscape resistance to animal movement is the foundation for connectivity modeling, and resource selection functions based on point data are commonly used to empirically estimate resistance. In this study, we used GPS data points acquired at 5-min intervals from radiocollared pumas in southern California to model context-dependent point selection...

  11. Comparing Digital Badges-and-Points with Classroom Token Systems: Effects on Elementary School ESL Students' Classroom Behavior and English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Ryan; Hew, Khe Foon; Tan, Cheng Yong

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a field experiment that gamified the classroom experience of elementary school ESL students by implementing digital badges-and-points which students could earn by achieving specific behavioral and learning goals. Altogether, 120 children in eight different classes participated in this study. Four of the classes…

  12. Electroencephalographic activity during sexual behavior: a novel approach to the analysis of drug effects on arousal and motivation relevant for sexual dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Agmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    The neurobiological bases of human sexual behavior are only partly understood. The etiology of most human sexual dysfunctions is not understood at all. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in the treatment of some male sexual disorders. The prime example should be erectile deficiency, where several efficient and safe treatments are available. Pharmacological treatment for premature ejaculation is also available, although it is still in an early stage. Disorders of sexual desire have attracted much attention when women are affected but far less so when men are concerned. Whereas animal models appropriate for testing treatments for problems with erection and premature ejaculation are available, it is questionable whether such models of the desire disorders have predictive validity. There seems to be many factors involved both in reduced and enhanced sexual desire, most of which are unknown. In this review we present some data suggesting that an electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity during exposure to sexually relevant stimuli in male rats and men and during execution of sexual behaviors in male rats may provide useful information. The effects of a commonly used drug, ethanol, on the electroencephalogram recorded during sexual events in rats and men are also described. Although this approach to the analysis of the central nervous activity associated with sexual desire, arousal and behavior is still in its infancy, the data obtained so far show a remarkable similarity between men and rats. This suggests that animal studies of electroencephalographic responses to drugs in sexual contexts may be useful for predicting effects in the human male. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of ischemic compression for cervicogenic headache and elastic behavior of active trigger point in the sternocleidomastoid muscle using ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mehdi; Bahrpeyma, Farid; Togha, Mansoureh

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effect of ischemic compression on clinical outcomes of a cervicogenic headache and elastic behavior of myofascial trigger points. Randomized, controlled trial. Outpatient headache clinic. 19 subjects with a cervicogenic headache originating from myofascial trigger point within the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Subjects were randomized in treatment group (n = 9) and control group (n = 10). Subjects in the treatment group received 4 sessions of ischemic compression in the myofascial trigger point region. Headache intensity, frequency, and duration, trigger point elastic modulus, trigger point area, pressure tolerance, and pressure pain threshold were assessed before and after treatment. Subjects in the treatment group compared with those in control group showed significant improvements in headache intensity (P = 0.002), headache frequency (P = 0.005), headache duration (P = 0.015), pressure tolerance (P trigger point area (P = 0.017). Changes in myofascial trigger point elastic modulus did not reach a significant level (P > 0.05). The improvements in outcome measures suggest that ischemic compression may be effective in subjects with a cervicogenic headache associated with a myofascial trigger point in the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Data suggests that biomechanical properties of MTrP and severity of headache symptoms are not directly linked, and other mechanisms could be more influential in contributing to symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prenatal immune challenge is an environmental risk factor for brain and behavior change relevant to schizophrenia: evidence from MRI in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk of severe neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, in the offspring. The most consistent brain structural abnormality in patients with schizophrenia is enlarged lateral ventricles. However, it is unknown whether the aetiology of ventriculomegaly in schizophrenia involves prenatal infectious processes. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between prenatal immune challenge and emergence of ventricular abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia in adulthood. METHOD: We used an established mouse model of maternal immune activation (MIA by the viral mimic PolyI:C administered in early (day 9 or late (day 17 gestation. Automated voxel-based morphometry mapped cerebrospinal fluid across the whole brain of adult offspring and the results were validated by manual region-of-interest tracing of the lateral ventricles. Parallel behavioral testing determined the existence of schizophrenia-related sensorimotor gating abnormalities. RESULTS: PolyI:C-induced immune activation, in early but not late gestation, caused marked enlargement of lateral ventricles in adulthood, without affecting total white and grey matter volumes. This early exposure disrupted sensorimotor gating, in the form of prepulse inhibition. Identical immune challenge in late gestation resulted in significant expansion of 4(th ventricle volume but did not disrupt sensorimotor gating. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide the first experimental evidence that prenatal immune activation is an environmental risk factor for adult ventricular enlargement relevant to schizophrenia. The data indicate immune-associated environmental insults targeting early foetal development may have more extensive neurodevelopmental impact than identical insults in late prenatal life.

  15. Some aspects of research relevant to environment radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shi; Ma Mingxie

    1997-01-01

    The authors suggest some research aspects relevant to environmental radiochemistry from the view point of environmental protection and radiation protection: the migration behavior of radionuclides, their interaction with environment medium and their speciation in environment. The status and prospect of these aspects and the relationship between them are discussed

  16. Influence of Bundle Diameter and Attachment Point on Kinematic Behavior in Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Computational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Soo Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A protocol to choose the graft diameter attachment point of each bundle has not yet been determined since they are usually dependent on a surgeon’s preference. Therefore, the influence of bundle diameters and attachment points on the kinematics of the knee joint needs to be quantitatively analyzed. A three-dimensional knee model was reconstructed with computed tomography images of a 26-year-old man. Based on the model, models of double bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction were developed. The anterior tibial translations for the anterior drawer test and the internal tibial rotation for the pivot shift test were investigated according to variation of bundle diameters and attachment points. For the model in this study, the knee kinematics after the double bundle ACL reconstruction were dependent on the attachment point and not much influenced by the bundle diameter although larger sized anterior-medial bundles provided increased stability in the knee joint. Therefore, in the clinical setting, the bundle attachment point needs to be considered prior to the bundle diameter, and the current selection method of graft diameters for both bundles appears justified.

  17. Effects of Varying Epoch Lengths, Wear Time Algorithms, and Activity Cut-Points on Estimates of Child Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity from Accelerometer Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Jorge A; Haydel, K Farish; Davila, Tania; Desai, Manisha; Bryson, Susan; Haskell, William L; Matheson, Donna; Robinson, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of accelerometer epoch lengths, wear time (WT) algorithms, and activity cut-points on estimates of WT, sedentary behavior (SB), and physical activity (PA). 268 7-11 year-olds with BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex wore accelerometers on their right hips for 4-7 days. Data were processed and analyzed at epoch lengths of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-seconds. For each epoch length, WT minutes/day was determined using three common WT algorithms, and minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA were determined using five common activity cut-points. ANOVA tested differences in WT, SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA when using the different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and activity cut-points. WT minutes/day varied significantly by epoch length when using the NHANES WT algorithm (p algorithms. Minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA varied significantly by epoch length for all sets of activity cut-points tested with all three WT algorithms (all p algorithms (all p algorithms and activity cut-point definitions to match different epoch lengths may introduce significant errors. Estimates of SB and PA from studies that process and analyze data using different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and/or activity cut-points are not comparable, potentially leading to very different results, interpretations, and conclusions, misleading research and public policy.

  18. [Use of process and turning point in psychotherapy--significance of the theatrical aspect as a cooperative mode of behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P; Stephan, E

    1987-02-01

    The paper presents observations respecting the contrast of playful and grim attitudes in the behavior of patients undergoing psychotherapeutic treatment. Playful correspondence to Erikson's Cooperative Stage of development and Freud's mature Genitality, while grim corresponds to Erikson's Autonomous and Assertive Stages and Freud's Anal and Phallic Stages. To be effective, theatrical performances have to be produced in a cooperative way; psychotherapy too must assist the patient to achieve a greater degree of cooperativeness and mature Genitality. Identifying with the therapist and adapting his style can enable the patient to acquire self-composure through playful behavior, and to overcome protracted grimnes. Play-matured Genitality Cooperative signifies that the patient incorporates his partner or opponent's intentions into his appreciation of events, enabling him to act more in accordance with the reality around him.

  19. About the relevance of waviness, agglomeration, and strain on the electrical behavior of polymer composites filled with carbon nanotubes evaluated by a Monte-Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Sebastián; Lund, Fernando; Bustos, Javier; Palza, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    In several technological applications, carbon nanotubes (CNT) are added to a polymer matrix in order to develop electrically conductive composite materials upon percolation of the CNT network. This percolation state depends on several parameters such as particle characteristics, degree of dispersion, and filler orientation. For instance, CNT aggregation is currently avoided because it is thought that it will have a negative effect on the electrical behavior despite some experimental evidence showing the contrary. In this study, the effect of CNT waviness, degree of agglomeration, and external strain, on the electrical percolation of polymer composites is studied by a three dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation. The simulation shows that the percolation threshold of CNT depends on the particle waviness, with rigid particles displaying the lowest values. Regarding the effect of CNT dispersion, our numerical results confirm that low levels of agglomeration reduce the percolation threshold of the composite. However, the threshold is shifted to larger values at high agglomeration states because of the appearance of isolated areas of high CNT concentrations. These results imply, therefore, an optimum of agglomeration that further depends on the waviness and concentration of CNT. Significantly, CNT agglomeration can further explain the broad percolation transition found in these systems. When an external strain is applied to the composites, the percolation concentration shifts to higher values because CNT alignment increases the inter-particle distances. The strain sensitivity of the composites is affected by the percolation state of CNT showing a maximum value at certain filler concentration. These results open up the discussion about the relevance in polymer composites of the dispersion state of CNT and filler flexibility towards electrically conductive composites.

  20. Ablation of Mrds1/Ofcc1 induces hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia without abnormal head development and schizophrenia-relevant behaviors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Ohnishi

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as "the Japan Mouse Clinic". No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT, a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-γ-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia.

  1. Effects of Varying Epoch Lengths, Wear Time Algorithms, and Activity Cut-Points on Estimates of Child Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity from Accelerometer Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Banda

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of accelerometer epoch lengths, wear time (WT algorithms, and activity cut-points on estimates of WT, sedentary behavior (SB, and physical activity (PA.268 7-11 year-olds with BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex wore accelerometers on their right hips for 4-7 days. Data were processed and analyzed at epoch lengths of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-seconds. For each epoch length, WT minutes/day was determined using three common WT algorithms, and minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, light (LPA, moderate (MPA, and vigorous (VPA PA were determined using five common activity cut-points. ANOVA tested differences in WT, SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA when using the different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and activity cut-points.WT minutes/day varied significantly by epoch length when using the NHANES WT algorithm (p < .0001, but did not vary significantly by epoch length when using the ≥ 20 minute consecutive zero or Choi WT algorithms. Minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA varied significantly by epoch length for all sets of activity cut-points tested with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001. Across all epoch lengths, minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA also varied significantly across all sets of activity cut-points with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001.The common practice of converting WT algorithms and activity cut-point definitions to match different epoch lengths may introduce significant errors. Estimates of SB and PA from studies that process and analyze data using different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and/or activity cut-points are not comparable, potentially leading to very different results, interpretations, and conclusions, misleading research and public policy.

  2. Effect of additional minor elements on accumulation behavior of point defects under electron irradiation in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekio, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Heishichiro; Sakaguchi, Norihito

    2014-01-01

    Addition of minor elements to a base alloy is often applied with the aim of mitigating void swelling by decreasing the vacancy diffusivity and flux which influence vacancy accumulation behavior. However, the comparative evaluations of parameters, such as the diffusivity and flux, between a base alloy and modified alloys with specific additives have not been studied in detail. In this study, type 316 austenitic stainless steel as a base alloy and type 316 austenitic stainless steels modified with vanadium (V) or zirconium (Zr) additions were used to perform evaluations from the changes of widths of the void denuded zone (VDZ) formed near a random grain boundary during electron irradiation because these widths depend on vacancy diffusivity and flux. The formations of VDZs were observed in in-situ observations during electron irradiation at 723 K and the formed VDZ widths were measured from the transmission electron microscopic images after electron irradiation. As a result, the VDZs were formed in both steels without and with V, and respective widths were ∼119 and ∼100 nm. On the other hand, the VDZ formation was not observed clearly in the steel with Zr. From the measured VDZ widths in the steels without and with V addition, the estimated ratio of the vacancy diffusivity in the steel with V to that in the steel without V was about 0.50 and the estimated ratio of the vacancy flux in the steel with V to that in the steel without V was about 0.71. This result suggests that the effect of additional minor elements on vacancy accumulation behaviors under electron irradiation could be estimated from evaluations of the VDZ width changes among steels with and without minor elements. Especially, because void swelling is closely related with the vacancy diffusion process, the VDZ width changes would also be reflected on void swelling behavior. (author)

  3. On the passive and semiconducting behavior of severely deformed pure titanium in Ringer's physiological solution at 37°C: A trial of the point defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Ghazaleh; Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash

    2017-06-01

    The effects of sever plastic deformation through multi-pass accumulative roll bonding on the passive and semiconducting behavior of pure titanium is evaluated in Ringer's physiological solution at 37°C in the present paper. Produced results by polarization plots and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed a significant advance in the passive response of the nano-grained sample compared to that of the annealed pure titanium. Also, Mott-Schottky test results of the nano-grained pure titanium represented a lower donor density and reduced flat-band potential in the formed passive film in comparison with the annealed sample. Moreover, based on the Mott-Schottky analysis in conjunction with the point defect model, it was suggested that with increase in formation potential, the calculated donor density of both annealed and nano-grained samples decreases exponentially and the thickness of the passive film linearly increases. These observations were consistent with the point defect model predictions, considering that the point defects within the passive film are metal interstitials, oxygen vacancies, or both. From the viewpoint of passive and semiconducting behavior, nano-grained pure titanium appeared to be more suitable for implant applications in simulate human body environment compared to annealed pure titanium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High energy behavior of a six-point R-current correlator in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Jochen; Hentschinski, Martin; Mischler, Anna-Maria [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Ewerz, Carlo [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany). ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI; Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), Villazzano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We study the high energy limit of a six-point R-current correlator in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory for finite N{sub c}. We make use of the framework of perturbative resummation of large logarithms of the energy. More specifically, we apply the (extended) generalized leading logarithmic approximation. We find that the same conformally invariant two-to-four gluon vertex occurs as in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. As a new feature we find a direct coupling of the four-gluon t-channel state to the R-current impact factor. (orig.)

  5. High energy behavior of a six-point R-current correlator in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, Jochen; Hentschinski, Martin; Mischler, Anna-Maria

    2009-12-01

    We study the high energy limit of a six-point R-current correlator in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory for finite N c . We make use of the framework of perturbative resummation of large logarithms of the energy. More specifically, we apply the (extended) generalized leading logarithmic approximation. We find that the same conformally invariant two-to-four gluon vertex occurs as in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. As a new feature we find a direct coupling of the four-gluon t-channel state to the R-current impact factor. (orig.)

  6. Collective Schema, As a New Concept Suggesting and a View to Proverbs from Cognitive Behavioral Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat SANLI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Behavioral Tharapy doctrine and clinical accumulation have shown that there is a causal link between moods, paradigms, and assessments. These cognitive contents are named as automatic thoughts and schemas. Rational- adaptive automatic thoughts and schemas while bring to person good mood, irrational-maladaptive automatic thoughts and schemas bring to patology. On the other hand this cognitive structures have fed by accepted culture by society and components of this culture such as songs and proverbs which possess necessity and rules. The basic aim of this study is put forth concept of “collective schema” which will be assessable content in Cognitive Behavioral Approach , and clarifying bases of this concept deal with proverbs. In this sense, adaptive and maladaptive aspects of collective shema concept, have been commented, cognitive disortions which fed by maladaptive schemas deal with collective aspect, have been categorised and illustrated with proverbs. With this study we aimed create a groundwork for previous studies. [JCBPR 2016; 5(2.000: 85-93

  7. Lateral vibration behavior analysis and TLD vibration absorption design of the soft yoke single-point mooring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Bai-cheng; Wu, Wen-hua; Yao, Wei-an; Du, Yu

    2017-06-01

    Mooring system is the key equipment of FPSO safe operation. The soft yoke mooring system is regarded as one of the best shallow water mooring strategies and widely applied to the oil exploitation in the Bohai Bay in China and the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the analysis of numerous monitoring data obtained by the prototype monitoring system of one FPSO in the Bohai Bay, the on-site lateral vibration behaviors found on the site of the soft yoke subject to wave load were analyzed. ADAMS simulation and model experiment were utilized to analyze the soft yoke lateral vibration and it was determined that lateral vibration was resonance behaviors caused by wave excitation. On the basis of the soft yoke longitudinal restoring force being guaranteed, a TLD-based vibration damper system was constructed and the vibration reduction experiments with multi-tank space and multi-load conditions were developed. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed TLD vibration reduction system can effectively reduce lateral vibration of soft yoke structures.

  8. Understanding technology adoption in clinical care: clinician adoption behavior of a point-of-care reminder system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Padman, Rema; Johnson, Michael P; Diamond, Herbert S

    2005-08-01

    Evaluation studies of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) have tended to focus on assessments of system quality and clinical performance in a laboratory setting. Relatively few studies have used field trials to determine if CDSS are likely to be used in routine clinical settings and whether reminders generated are likely to be acted upon by end-users. Moreover, such studies when performed tend not to identify distinct user groups, nor to classify user feedback. To assess medical residents' acceptance and adoption of a clinical reminder system for chronic disease and preventive care management and to use expressed preferences for system attributes and functionality as a basis for system re-engineering. Longitudinal, correlational study using a novel developmental trajectory analysis (DTA) statistical method, followed by a qualitative analysis based on user satisfaction surveys and field interviews. An ambulatory primary care clinic of an urban teaching hospital offering comprehensive healthcare services. 41 medical residents used a CDSS over 10 months in their daily practice. Use of this system was strongly recommended but not mandatory. A group-based, semi-parametric statistical modeling method to identify distinct groups, with distinct usage trajectories, followed by qualitative instruments of usability and satisfaction surveys and structured interviews to validate insights derived from usage trajectories. Quantitative analysis delineates three types of user adoption behavior: "light", "moderate" and "heavy" usage. Qualitative analysis reveals that clinicians of distinct types tend to exhibit views of the system consistent with their demonstrated adoption behavior. Drawbacks in the design of the CDSS identified by users of all types (in different ways) motivate a redesign based on current physician workflows. We conclude that this mixed methodology has considerable promise to provide new insights into system usability and adoption issues that may benefit

  9. Influence of design parameters on the structural and fatigue behaviors of a floating point wave energy converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. B. F. N. Beirão

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The demand for electricity production has been consistently raising since the last century. In the future, the tendency is to grow even further. Concerning this fact, renewable energy and specifically, wave energy should be considered as an alternative for energy production. However, devices suitable to harness this renewable energy source and convert it into electricity are not yet commercially competitive. This paper is focused on the structural analysis of a wave energy converter (WEC through the numerical study of several design parameters. Tridimensional computer aided design (3D CAD numerical models were built and several Finite Element Analyses (FEA were performed using a commercial finite element code. The main components of the WEC were simulated assuming different materials. The Von Mises stress gradients and displacement fields determined by FEA demonstrated that, regardless of the WEC component, materials with low Young’s modulus seems to be unsuitable for this application. The same is valid for the material yield strength since materials with higher yield strength lead to a better structural behavior of the WEC components. The developed 3D CAD numerical model showed to be suitable to analyze different combinations of structural conditions.

  10. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture topography were analyzed and conclusions were drawn that cutting forces are not affected by cutting speeds but significantly influenced by the fiber orientation. Cutting forces presented smaller values in the fiber orientation of 0/180° and 15/165° but the highest one in 30/150°. The fracture mechanism of carbon fibers was studied in different cutting conditions such as 0° orientation angle, 90° orientation angle, orientation angles along fiber direction, and orientation angles inverse to the fiber direction. In addition, a prediction model on the cutting defects of carbon fiber reinforced plastic was established based on acoustic emission (AE signals.

  11. Loop Heat Pipe Transient Behavior Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control with Thermoelectric Converter on Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its reservoir. Controlling the reservoir saturation temperature is commonly done by cold biasing the reservoir and using electrical heaters to provide the required control power. With this method, the loop operating temperature can be controlled within 0.5K or better. However, because the thermal resistance that exists between the heat source and the LHP evaporator, the heat source temperature will vary with its heat output even if the LHP operating temperature is kept constant. Since maintaining a constant heat source temperature is of most interest, a question often raised is whether the heat source temperature can be used for LHP set point temperature control. A test program with a miniature LHP was carried out to investigate the effects on the LHP operation when the control temperature sensor was placed on the heat source instead of the reservoir. In these tests, the LHP reservoir was cold-biased and was heated by a control heater. Test results show that it was feasible to use the heat source temperature for feedback control of the LHP operation. In particular, when a thermoelectric converter was used as the reservoir control heater, the heat source temperature could be maintained within a tight range using a proportional-integral-derivative or on/off control algorithm. Moreover, because the TEC could provide both heating and cooling to the reservoir, temperature oscillations during fast transients such as loop startup could be eliminated or substantially reduced when compared to using an electrical heater as the control heater.

  12. Joint project. Retention of radionuclides relevant for final disposal in natural clay rock and saline systems. Subproject 2. Geochemical behavior and transport of radionuclides in saline systems in the presence of repository-relevant organics. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeide, Katja; Fritsch, Katharina; Lippold, Holger

    2016-01-01

    these minerals could be attributed to surface-mediated reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). An influence of ionic strength was not observed. The influence of ionic strength (up to 3 mol/kg) and background electrolyte (NaCl, CaCl 2 , MgCl 2 ) on U(VI) sorption onto montmorillonite was studied. The U(VI) sorption is influenced by the background electrolyte, the influence of ionic strength is small. Surface complexation modeling was performed applying the 2SPNE SC/CE model. Surface complexation constants were determined for the NaCl and CaCl 2 system and were extrapolated to zero ionic strength. Surface complexation in mixed electrolytes can be modeled applying surface complexation constants derived for pure electrolytes. The influence of citrate on U(VI) diffusion in Opalinus Clay was studied using Opalinus Clay pore water as background electrolyte. The diffusion parameter values obtained for the HTO through-diffusion and the U(VI) in-diffusion in the absence of citric acid were in agreement with literature data. In the presence of citric acid, U(VI) diffusion was significantly retarded, which was attributed to a change in speciation, probably U(VI) was reduced to U(IV). Larger-scale heterogeneous material effects on diffusive transport were investigated with PET. Diffusion parameters were derived by optimum fit of a FEM-model to the measurement. These parameters are in accordance with the results from 1D-through-diffusion experiments. Deviations from the simple transversal-isotropic behavior, which are identified as residuals from the model, are indications for heterogeneous transport on the mm-scale. PET measurements were also conducted in order to display the improvement of the EDZ with waterglass injections. These experiments enable to draw conclusions on the complex reactive transport process and thus an estimation of the achieved improvement of the barrier function. The image reconstruction procedure was largely improved, mainly with the aid of Monte-Carlo simulations

  13. The search for relevant outcome measures for cost-utility analysis of systemic family interventions in adolescents with substance use disorder and delinquent behavior: A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Schawo (Saskia); C.A.M. Bouwmans-Frijters (Clazien); van der Schee, E. (E.); V. Hendriks (Vincent); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); L. van Hakkaart-van Roijen (Leona)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Systemic family interventions have shown to be effective in adolescents with substance use disorder and delinquent behavior. The interventions target interactions between the adolescent and involved systems (i.e. youth, family, peers, neighbors, school, work, and society). Next

  14. Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rhonda P; Ames, Bruce N

    2015-06-01

    Serotonin regulates a wide variety of brain functions and behaviors. Here, we synthesize previous findings that serotonin regulates executive function, sensory gating, and social behavior and that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior all share in common defects in these functions. It has remained unclear why supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D improve cognitive function and behavior in these brain disorders. Here, we propose mechanisms by which serotonin synthesis, release, and function in the brain are modulated by vitamin D and the 2 marine omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Brain serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase 2, which is transcriptionally activated by vitamin D hormone. Inadequate levels of vitamin D (∼70% of the population) and omega-3 fatty acids are common, suggesting that brain serotonin synthesis is not optimal. We propose mechanisms by which EPA increases serotonin release from presynaptic neurons by reducing E2 series prostaglandins and DHA influences serotonin receptor action by increasing cell membrane fluidity in postsynaptic neurons. We propose a model whereby insufficient levels of vitamin D, EPA, or DHA, in combination with genetic factors and at key periods during development, would lead to dysfunctional serotonin activation and function and may be one underlying mechanism that contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders and depression. This model suggests that optimizing vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake may help prevent and modulate the severity of brain dysfunction. © FASEB.

  15. Effects of early or late prenatal immune activation in mice on behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia in the adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Vivian T; Medeiros, Daniel de Castro; Ropke, Jivago; Guidine, Patricia A; Rezende, Gustavo H; Moraes, Marcio Flavio D; Mendes, Eduardo Mazoni A M; Macedo, Danielle; Moreira, Fabricio A; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos P

    2017-05-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy in rodents increases the risk of the offspring to develop schizophrenia-related behaviors, suggesting a relationship between the immune system and the brain development. Here we tested the hypothesis that MIA induced by the viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) in early or late gestation of mice leads to behavioral and neuroanatomical disorders in the adulthood. On gestational days (GDs) 9 or 17 pregnant dams were treated with poly I:C or saline via intravenous route and the offspring behaviors were measured during adulthood. Considering the progressive structural neuroanatomical alterations in the brain of individuals with schizophrenia, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to perform brain morphometric analysis of the offspring aged one year. MIA on GD9 or GD17 led to increased basal locomotor activity, enhanced motor responses to ketamine, a psychotomimetic drug, and reduced time spent in the center of the arena, suggesting an increased anxiety-like behavior. In addition, MIA on GD17 reduced glucose preference in the offspring. None of the treatments altered the relative volume of the lateral ventricles. However, a decrease in brain volume, especially for posterior structures, was observed for one-year-old animals treated with poly I:C compared with control groups. Thus, activation of the maternal immune system at different GDs lead to neuroanatomical and behavioral alterations possibly related to the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. These results provide insights on neuroimmunonological and neurodevelopmental aspects of certain psychopathologies, such as schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Migraine- and dystonia-related disease-mutations of Na+/K+-ATPases: Relevance of behavioral studies in mice to disease symptoms and neurological manifestations in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttger, Pernille; Doganli, Canan; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The two autosomal dominantly inherited neurological diseases: familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) and familial rapid-onset of dystonia-parkinsonism (Familial RDP) are caused by in vivo mutations of specific alpha subunits of the sodium–potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase). Intriguingly, patients...... with classical FHM2 and RDP symptoms additionally suffer from other manifestations, such as epilepsy/seizures and developmental disabilities. Recent studies of FHM2 and RDP mouse models provide valuable tools for dissecting the vital roles of the Na+/K+-ATPases, and we discuss their relevance to the complex...

  17. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  18. The search for relevant outcome measures for cost-utility analysis of systemic family interventions in adolescents with substance use disorder and delinquent behavior: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Schawo, S.; Bouwmans, C.; van der Schee, E.; Hendriks, V.; Brouwer, W.; Hakkaart, L.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Systemic family interventions have shown to be effective in adolescents with substance use disorder and delinquent behavior. The interventions target interactions between the adolescent and involved systems (i.e. youth, family, peers, neighbors, school, work, and society). Next to effectiveness considerations, economic aspects have gained attention. However, conventional generic quality of life measures used in health economic evaluations may not be able to capture the br...

  19. Attachment and eating: A meta-analytic review of the relevance of attachment for unhealthy and healthy eating behaviors in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Aida; Dubé, Laurette; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2018-04-01

    Attachment relationships play an important role in people's wellbeing and affliction with physical and mental illnesses, including eating disorders. Seven reviews from the clinical field have consistently shown that higher attachment insecurity-failure to form trusting and reliable relationships with others-systematically characterized individuals with eating disorders. Nevertheless, to date, it is unclear whether (and if so how) these findings apply to the population at large. Consequently, the objective of the present meta-analysis is to quantify the relationship between attachment and unhealthy and healthy eating in the general population. Data from 70 studies and 19,470 participants were converted into r effect sizes and analysed. Results showed that higher attachment insecurity (r = 0.266), anxiety (r = 0.271), avoidance (r = 0.119), and fearfulness (r = 0.184) was significantly associated with more unhealthy eating behaviors, ps = 0.000; conversely, higher attachment security correlated with lower unhealthy eating behaviors (r = -0.184, p = 0.000). This relationship did not vary across type of unhealthy eating behavior (i.e., binge eating, bulimic symptoms, dieting, emotional eating, and unhealthy food consumption). The little exploratory evidence concerning healthy eating and attachment was inconclusive with one exception-healthy eating was associated with lower attachment avoidance (r = -0.211, p = 0.000). Our results extend previous meta-analytic findings to show that lack of trusting and reliable relationships does not only set apart eating disordered individuals from controls, but also characterizes unhealthy eating behaviors in the general population. More evidence is needed to determine how attachment and healthy eating are linked and assess potential mechanisms influencing the attachment-eating relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  1. Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.

    2014-01-01

    Health behaviors are people’s actions, some purposefully deployed to promote or protect health; some thoughtlessly undertaken without concern for their potential risk to health; some consciously, even defiantly, deployed regardless of consequences to health. Risk behaviors are specific forms of

  2. Revisiting van der Waals like behavior of f(R AdS black holes via the two point correlation function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Xiong Mo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Van der Waals like behavior of f(R AdS black holes is revisited via two point correlation function, which is dual to the geodesic length in the bulk. The equation of motion constrained by the boundary condition is solved numerically and both the effect of boundary region size and f(R gravity are probed. Moreover, an analogous specific heat related to δL is introduced. It is shown that the T−δL graphs of f(R AdS black holes exhibit reverse van der Waals like behavior just as the T−S graphs do. Free energy analysis is carried out to determine the first order phase transition temperature T⁎ and the unstable branch in T−δL curve is removed by a bar T=T⁎. It is shown that the first order phase transition temperature is the same at least to the order of 10−10 for different choices of the parameter b although the values of free energy vary with b. Our result further supports the former finding that charged f(R AdS black holes behave much like RN-AdS black holes. We also check the analogous equal area law numerically and find that the relative errors for both the cases θ0=0.1 and θ0=0.2 are small enough. The fitting functions between log⁡|T−Tc| and log⁡|δL−δLc| for both cases are also obtained. It is shown that the slope is around 3, implying that the critical exponent is about 2/3. This result is in accordance with those in former literatures of specific heat related to the thermal entropy or entanglement entropy.

  3. First-principles study on oxidation effects in uranium oxides and high-pressure high-temperature behavior of point defects in uranium dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hua Y.; Song, Hong X.; Jin, K.; Xiang, S. K.; Wu, Q.

    2011-11-01

    Formation Gibbs free energy of point defects and oxygen clusters in uranium dioxide at high-pressure high-temperature conditions are calculated from first principles, using the LSDA+U approach for the electronic structure and the Debye model for the lattice vibrations. The phonon contribution on Frenkel pairs is found to be notable, whereas it is negligible for the Schottky defect. Hydrostatic compression changes the formation energies drastically, making defect concentrations depend more sensitively on pressure. Calculations show that, if no oxygen clusters are considered, uranium vacancy becomes predominant in overstoichiometric UO2 with the aid of the contribution from lattice vibrations, while compression favors oxygen defects and suppresses uranium vacancy greatly. At ambient pressure, however, the experimental observation of predominant oxygen defects in this regime can be reproduced only in a form of cuboctahedral clusters, underlining the importance of defect clustering in UO2+x. Making use of the point defect model, an equation of state for nonstoichiometric oxides is established, which is then applied to describe the shock Hugoniot of UO2+x. Furthermore, the oxidization and compression behavior of uranium monoxide, triuranium octoxide, uranium trioxide, and a series of defective UO2 at 0 K are investigated. The evolution of mechanical properties and electronic structures with an increase of the oxidation degree are analyzed, revealing the transition of the ground state of uranium oxides from metallic to Mott insulator and then to charge-transfer insulator due to the interplay of strongly correlated effects of 5f orbitals and the shift of electrons from uranium to oxygen atoms.

  4. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND WELL-BEING SYMPOSIUM: Interaction between coping style/personality, stress, and welfare: Relevance for domestic farm animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolhaas, J M; Van Reenen, C G

    2016-06-01

    This paper will argue that understanding animal welfare and the individual vulnerability to stress-related disease requires a fundamental understanding of functional individual variation as it occurs in nature as well as the underlying neurobiology and neuroendocrinology. Ecological studies in feral populations of mice, fish, and birds start to recognize the functional significance of phenotypes that individually differ in their behavioral and neuroendocrine response to environmental challenge. Recent studies indicate that the individual variation within a species may buffer the species for strong fluctuations in the natural habitat. Similarly, evolutionary ancient behavioral trait characteristics have now been identified in a range of domestic farm animals including cattle, pigs, and horses. Individual variation in behavior can be summarized in a 3-dimensional model with coping style, emotionality, and sociality as independent dimensions. These dimensions can be considered trait characteristics that are stable over time and across situations within the individual. This conceptual model has several consequences. First, the coping style dimension is strongly associated with differential stress vulnerability. Social stress studies show that proactive individuals are resilient under stable environmental conditions but vulnerable when outcome expectancies are violated. Reactive individuals are, in fact, rather flexible and seem to adapt more easily to a changing environment. A second consequence relates to genetics and breeding. Genetic selection for one trait usually implies selection for other traits as well. It is discussed that a more balanced breeding program that takes into account biologically functional temperamental traits will lead to more robust domestic farm animals. Finally, the relationship between temperamental traits, animal production, fitness, and welfare is discussed.

  5. The HDAC inhibitor SAHA improves depressive-like behavior of CRTC1-deficient mice: possible relevance for treatment-resistant depression

    KAUST Repository

    Meylan, Elsa M.

    2016-03-09

    Major depression is a highly complex disabling psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Despite the availability of several classes of antidepressants, a substantial percentage of patients are unresponsive to these medications. A better understanding of the neurobiology of depression and the mechanisms underlying antidepressant response is thus critically needed. We previously reported that mice lacking CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) exhibit a depressive-like phenotype and a blunted antidepressant response to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. In this study, we similarly show that Crtc1‒/‒ mice are resistant to the antidepressant effect of chronic desipramine in a behavioral despair paradigm. Supporting the blunted response to this tricyclic antidepressant, we found that desipramine does not significantly increase the expression of Bdnf and Nr4a1-3 in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Crtc1‒/‒ mice. Epigenetic regulation of neuroplasticity gene expression has been associated with depression and antidepressant response, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. Here, we show that unlike conventional antidepressants, chronic systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA partially rescues the depressive-like behavior of Crtc1‒/‒ mice. This behavioral effect is accompanied by an increased expression of Bdnf, but not Nr4a1-3, in the prefrontal cortex of these mice, suggesting that this epigenetic intervention restores the expression of a subset of genes by acting downstream of CRTC1. These findings suggest that CRTC1 alterations may be associated with treatment-resistant depression, and support the interesting possibility that targeting HDACs may be a useful therapeutic strategy in antidepressant development.

  6. The search for relevant outcome measures for cost-utility analysis of systemic family interventions in adolescents with substance use disorder and delinquent behavior: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawo, S; Bouwmans, C; van der Schee, E; Hendriks, V; Brouwer, W; Hakkaart, L

    2017-09-19

    Systemic family interventions have shown to be effective in adolescents with substance use disorder and delinquent behavior. The interventions target interactions between the adolescent and involved systems (i.e. youth, family, peers, neighbors, school, work, and society). Next to effectiveness considerations, economic aspects have gained attention. However, conventional generic quality of life measures used in health economic evaluations may not be able to capture the broad effects of systemic interventions. This study aims to identify existing outcome measures, which capture the broad effects of systemic family interventions, and allow use in a health economic framework. We based our systematic review on clinical studies in the field. Our goal was to identify effectiveness studies of psychosocial interventions for adolescents with substance use disorder and delinquent behavior and to distill the instruments used in these studies to measure effects. Searched databases were PubMed, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), Cochrane and Psychnet (PsycBOOKSc, PsycCRITIQUES, print). Identified instruments were ranked according to the number of systems covered (comprehensiveness). In addition, their use for health economic analyses was evaluated according to suitability characteristics such as brevity, accessibility, psychometric properties, etc. One thousand three hundred seventy-eight articles were found and screened for eligibility. Eighty articles were selected, 8 instruments were identified covering 5 or more systems. The systematic review identified instruments from the clinical field suitable to evaluate systemic family interventions in a health economic framework. None of them had preference-weights available. Hence, a next step could be to attach preference-weights to one of the identified instruments to allow health economic evaluations of systemic family interventions.

  7. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  8. Theoretical study of the impact of stress and interstitial oxygen on the behavior of intrinsic point defects in growing Czochralski Si crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueoka, K.; Nakamura, K.; Vanhellemont, J.

    2017-09-01

    For the development of crystal pulling processes for 450 mm-diameter defect-free Si crystals, it is important to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on intrinsic point defect behavior during crystal growth. In a crystal growing from a melt, the melt/solid interface can be considered as being stress-free. Due to that the thermal stress in the growing substrate near the interface is internal plane stress. Previously, we evaluated the impact of (001) planar-isotropic stress on the formation enthalpy (Hf) of the vacancy (V) and the self-interstitial (I) using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and explained quantitatively the published experimental values of the so-called ;Voronkov criterion;. The thermal stress in a growing crystal is indeed planar but is not isotropic in the plane except for the central region of the crystal. The purpose of the present study is to estimate the impact of planar-anisotropic stress on the formation enthalpy Hf of V and I. It is found that the three stress dependencies of σx: σy=1: 1 (planar-isotropic), 2: 1, 5: 1 (planar-anisotropic) are close to each other, independent of the assumption of isotropic or anisotropic planar stress. This is the reason why the experimental results obtained over the whole radial direction of the crystal are well reproduced by the calculated results assuming planar-isotropic stress. A uniaxial stress dependence which is a good assumption for the crystal peripheral region, leads also to results that are close to those for the planar stress dependence. Also the mechanisms behind the experimentally observed impact of interstitial oxygen (Oi), introduced during Czochralski Si growth, on V and I concentrations are clarified. DFT calculations are performed to obtain the formation energies (Ef) of V and I at all sites within a sphere with 5 Å radius around the Oi atom. Formation (vibration) entropy (Sf) calculations for V and I are also performed. It is found that both EfV and SfV of V in the zigzag

  9. Thermal conductivity at a disordered quantum critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Ramirez, David M.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Strongly disordered and strongly interacting quantum critical points are difficult to access with conventional field theoretic methods. They are, however, both experimentally important and theoretically interesting. In particular, they are expected to realize universal incoherent transport. Such disordered quantum critical theories have recently been constructed holographically by deforming a CFT by marginally relevant disorder. In this paper we find additional disordered fixed points via relevant disordered deformations of a holographic CFT. Using recently developed methods in holographic transport, we characterize the thermal conductivity in both sets of theories in 1+1 dimensions. The thermal conductivity is found to tend to a constant at low temperatures in one class of fixed points, and to scale as T 0.3 in the other. Furthermore, in all cases the thermal conductivity exhibits discrete scale invariance, with logarithmic in temperature oscillations superimposed on the low temperature scaling behavior. At no point do we use the replica trick.

  10. Interpreting human behavior from depositional rates and combustion features through the study of sedimentary microfacies at site Pinnacle Point 5-6, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Brown, Kyle S; Fisher, Erich C; Jacobs, Zenobia; Marean, Curtis W

    2015-08-01

    Using fine and coarse resolution geoarchaeological studies at the Middle Stone Age site of PP5-6 at Pinnacle Point, Mossel Bay, South Africa, we discovered different patterns of anthropogenic input and changes in behavior through time. Through the microfacies approach, we documented the various geogenic and anthropogenic processes that formed the deposits of the site. By deciphering large scale rate differences in the production of these microfacies we estimated anthropogenic input rates and therefore gained understanding of occupational duration and intensity. The PP5-6 sediments document occupations characterized by small groups and short visits during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. This part of the sequence is characterized by numerous single (and mostly intact) hearth structures in a roofspall-rich matrix. During this time the sea was very close to the site and the people were focused on exploiting the rocky shores. With the advent of the glacial conditions of MIS4, the occupation of the site became much more intense. The occurrence of thick palimpsests of burnt remains, sometimes disturbed by small-scale sedimentary gravity processes, supports this conclusion. As sea level dropped and the coastline retreated, the geogenic input shifted to predominately aeolian sediments, implying an exposed shelf probably associated with a rich but more distant coastal environment. The occupants of PP5-6 turned their preference to silcrete as a raw material and they began to make microlithic stone tools. Since sites dating to MIS4 are abundant in the Cape, we suggest that populations during MIS4 responded to glacial conditions with either demographic stability or growth as well as technological change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  12. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  14. Dosimetry for small size beams such as IMRT and stereotactic radiotherapy, is the concept of the dose at a point still relevant? proposal for a new methodology; Dosimetrie pour les faisceaux de petites dimensions pour la RCMI et la stereotaxie. Le concept de dose en un point est il adapte? proposition pour une nouvelle methodologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrowsky, A.; Bordy, J.M.; Daures, J.; De Carlan, L.; Delaunay, F.

    2010-07-01

    Solving the problem of traceability of the absorbed dose to the tumour for the radiation fields of small and very small dimensions, like those used for new treatment modality usually results in the use of dosemeters of much smaller size than those of the beam. For the realisation of the reference in primary standards laboratories, the absence of technology likely to produce absolute small-size dosemeters leaves no possibility for the direct measurement of the absorbed dose at a point and implies the use of passive or active small-size transfer dosemeters. This report intends to introduce a new kind of dose quantity for radiotherapy similar do the Dose Area Product concept used in radiology. Such a new concept has to be propagated through the metrology chain, including the TPS, to the calculation of the absorbed dose to the tumour. (authors)

  15. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...

  16. Finding relevant people in online social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez-Trumper, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to develop novel techniques to find relevant people in Online Social Networks (OSN). To that end, we consider different notions of relevance, taking the point of view of the OSN providers (like Facebook) and advertisers, as well as considering the people who are trying to push new ideas and topics on the network. We go beyond people's popularity, showing that the users with a lot of followers are not necessarily the most relevant. Specifically, we develop three...

  17. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  18. The Experimental Analysis of Behavior in the Education of Socially Disadvantaged Children and Youth (West Point Farms, New York, November 30-December 2, 1966).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY. Ferkauf Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences.

    This conference report consists of two presented papers and a selected bibliography. The paper by Joan Gussow, "Behavioral Management and Educational Goals," is concerned with operant conditioning as a theory of learning and an instructional method. Basing their methods on the work of B.F. Skinner, educators who are proponents of this…

  19. Measurement and analysis at the grid connection point. Behavior of harmonics of wind parks; Messen und Analysieren am Netzanschlusspunkt. Oberschwingungsverhalten von Windparks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekian, Kaveh; Hoshmeh, Abdullah; Schmidt, Uwe [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany); Adloff, Stephan [Enercon GmbH, Aurich (Germany). Validierung/Funktionspruefung

    2012-09-10

    By 2020, nearly 40 % of the total energy consumption in Germany result from renewable energy sources and especially from wind power. With the connection of wind power plants with a greater performance to the power distribution system power electronic components are used requiring the knowledge of the behavior of harmonics of the individual wind power plant and the entire wind park.

  20. [Effects of Transcutaneous Electrostimulation of Auricular Points on Behavior and Hippocampal IL-1 β and TNF-α Expression in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Long; Qiao, Li-Na; Tan, Lian-Hong; Yang, Jiao-Jiao; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Yong-Chen; Yang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-08-25

    To observe the effect of transcutaneous otopoint electrostimulation (TCOES) on behavior and expression of hippocampal interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression in lithium-pilocarpine induced chronic spontaneous temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) rats, so as to investigate its antiepileptic mechanism. Thirty-six SD rats were randomly divided into control, model and TCOES groups ( n =12 in each group). The epilepsy model was established by intraperitoneal injection of lithium chloride (127.2 mg/kg), scopolamine(1 mg/kg, 20 h after the 1 st injection) and pilocarpine (10 mg/kg, 30 min after scopolamine injection). Rats of the control group were treated by injection of normal saline(i.p.i.). Transcutaneous electrostimulation (1 mA, 20 Hz) was applied to bilateral otopoints "Heart" "Lung" and "Subcortex" for 20 min, once daily for 6 weeks except the weekends. The behavior reactions were observed by a video monitoring system. The expression of IL-1 β and TNF-α proteins and genes in the hippocampus were determined by immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time PCR, separately. Behavioral observation showed that after TCOES intervention, the frequency of epilepsy attack was significantly decreased in comparison with pre-treatment ( P epilepsy rats, which may be related to its effects in down-regulating expression of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 β and TNF-α in the hippocampus.

  1. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Greisdorf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  2. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  3. Electrical in situ and post-irradiation properties of ceramics relevant to fusion irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikama, Tatsuo; Zinkle, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Electrical properties of ceramic candidate materials for the next-generation nuclear fusion devices under relevant irradiation conditions are reviewed. A main focal point is placed on the degradation behavior of the electrical insulating ability during and after irradiation. Several important radiation induced effects play important roles: radiation induced conductivity, thermally stimulated electrical conductivity, radiation induced electrical charge separation, and radiation induced electromotive force. These phenomena will interact with each other under fusion relevant irradiation conditions. The design of electrical components for the next-generation fusion devices should take into account these complicated interactions among the radiation induced phenomena

  4. Policy-Relevant Behaviors Predict Heavier Drinking in Both On and Off Premises and Mediate the Relationship Between Heavier Alcohol Consumption and Age, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status-Analysis from the International Alcohol Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Huckle, Taisia; Wall, Martin; Parker, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of behaviors amenable to policy change in mediating the relationship between alcohol consumption in off and on premises, age, and 2 measures of socioeconomic status (education and income). A cross-sectional general population survey was analyzed by using Bayesian path analysis to understand direct and mediating pathways. A total of 1,900 drinkers (past 6 months), aged 18 to 65 years, living in households with landline phones participated in the study. Measures were as follows: typical quantities of alcohol consumed per occasion, frequency of drinking, both off and on premise; gender, age groups; and years of education, personal income, prices paid, time of purchase, and liking for alcohol advertisements. Later times of purchase predicted larger quantities consumed (on and off premise) and more frequent drinking (on premise only). Younger people and males purchased later, and this mediated their heavier consumption. Lower prices paid predicted larger quantities consumed (on premise) and higher frequency of drinking (off premise). Younger and male respondents paid lower prices, and this mediated larger quantities consumed on premise and more frequent drinking off premise. Less well educated paid lower prices, and this mediated drinking more frequently off premise among this group. Liking for alcohol ads predicted drinking larger quantities and higher frequency both off and on premise. Younger and male respondents reported greater liking for ads, and this mediated their consumption of larger quantities and more frequent drinking both on and off premise. Those with higher income drank larger amounts on premise and more frequently on and off, but there were no mediating effects from the policy-relevant variables. Heavier drinking patterns by young people and those less well educated could be ameliorated by attention to alcohol policy. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) side-effects in the treatment of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buel, Erin M; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Fikse, Lianne; Bosker, Fokko J; Schoevers, Robert A; Klein, Hans C; Pryce, Christopher R; Eisel, Ulrich Lm

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental animals is electroconvulsive seizure (ECS). Rodent studies have provided valuable insights into potential mechanisms underlying the antidepressant and side effects of ECT. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of ECS in animal models with a depression-relevant manipulation such as chronic stress. In the present study, mice were first exposed to chronic social stress (CSS) or a control procedure for 15 days followed by ECS or a sham procedure for 10 days. Behavioral effects were investigated using an auditory fear conditioning (learning) and expression (memory) test and a treadmill-running fatigue test. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry was conducted on brain material using the microglial marker Iba-1 and the cholinergic fibre marker ChAT. CSS did not increase fear learning and memory in the present experimental design; in both the control and CSS mice ECS reduced fear learning and fear memory expression. CSS induced the expected fatigue-like effect in the treadmill-running test; ECS induced increased fatigue in CSS and control mice. In CSS and control mice ECS induced inflammation in hippocampus in terms of increased expression of Iba-1 in radiatum of CA1 and CA3. CSS and ECS both reduced acetylcholine function in hippocampus as indicated by decreased expression of ChAT in several hippocampal sub-regions. Therefore, CSS increased fatigue and reduced hippocampal ChAT activity and, rather than reversing these effects, a repeated ECS regimen resulted in impaired fear learning-memory, increased fatigue, increased hippocampal Iba-1 expression, and decreased hippocampal ChAT expression. As such, the current model does not provide insights into the

  6. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  7. Scaling behavior near the itinerant ferromagnetic quantum critical point (FQCP) of NiCoCrx for 0.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Brian; Jin, Ke; Bei, Hongbin; Nichols, John; Chisholm, Matthew; May, Andrew; McGuire, Michael

    Low temperature magnetization, resistivity and heat capacity data are reported for the concentrated solid solution NiCoCrx as a function of temperature and magnetic field. In the quantum critical region the low field (0.001-0.01 T) magnetic susceptibility, Chi, diverges as T- 1 / 2 and the magnetization data exhibits T/B scaling from 0.001 2 Tesla, the crossover temperature from the QC to Fermi liquid regime is no longer linear in B, and is better described by B0.75. This scaling behavior is particularly accurate in describing the normalized magnetoresistance data [Rho(B,T)-Rho(0,T)]/T, which is equivalent to the ratio of relaxation rates associated with magnetic field and temperature TauT/TauB. The location of the QCP is sensitive to the composition x and the strain generated during synthesis. These medium-entropy alloys are interesting model systems to explore the role of chemical disorder at FQCP. Research supported by the DOE Office of Science, Materials Science and Engineering Division, and the Energy Dissipation to Defect Evolution EFRC.

  8. Big Bang as a Critical Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Mielczarek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of possible gravitational phase transitions in the early universe. We suggest that a second-order phase transition observed in the Causal Dynamical Triangulations approach to quantum gravity may have a cosmological relevance. The phase transition interpolates between a nongeometric crumpled phase of gravity and an extended phase with classical properties. Transition of this kind has been postulated earlier in the context of geometrogenesis in the Quantum Graphity approach to quantum gravity. We show that critical behavior may also be associated with a signature change in Loop Quantum Cosmology, which occurs as a result of quantum deformation of the hypersurface deformation algebra. In the considered cases, classical space-time originates at the critical point associated with a second-order phase transition. Relation between the gravitational phase transitions and the corresponding change of symmetry is underlined.

  9. Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT side-effects in the treatment of depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M van Buel

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental animals is electroconvulsive seizure (ECS. Rodent studies have provided valuable insights into potential mechanisms underlying the antidepressant and side effects of ECT. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of ECS in animal models with a depression-relevant manipulation such as chronic stress. In the present study, mice were first exposed to chronic social stress (CSS or a control procedure for 15 days followed by ECS or a sham procedure for 10 days. Behavioral effects were investigated using an auditory fear conditioning (learning and expression (memory test and a treadmill-running fatigue test. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry was conducted on brain material using the microglial marker Iba-1 and the cholinergic fibre marker ChAT. CSS did not increase fear learning and memory in the present experimental design; in both the control and CSS mice ECS reduced fear learning and fear memory expression. CSS induced the expected fatigue-like effect in the treadmill-running test; ECS induced increased fatigue in CSS and control mice. In CSS and control mice ECS induced inflammation in hippocampus in terms of increased expression of Iba-1 in radiatum of CA1 and CA3. CSS and ECS both reduced acetylcholine function in hippocampus as indicated by decreased expression of ChAT in several hippocampal sub-regions. Therefore, CSS increased fatigue and reduced hippocampal ChAT activity and, rather than reversing these effects, a repeated ECS regimen resulted in impaired fear learning-memory, increased fatigue, increased hippocampal Iba-1 expression, and decreased hippocampal ChAT expression. As such, the current model does not provide insights

  10. Aspect-based Relevance Learning for Image Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractWe analyze the special structure of the relevance feedback learning problem, focusing particularly on the effects of image selection by partial relevance on the clustering behavior of feedback examples. We propose a scheme, aspect-based relevance learning, which guarantees that feedback

  11. Control-Relevant Upscaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vakili Ghahani, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    An ‘upscaling/order-reduction’ solution transfers the relevant features of a geological model to a flow simulation model such that cost-efficient simulation, prediction and control of the fluid flow in an oil reservoir become feasible. In addition to the computational issues, in most reservoir

  12. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  13. Relevance and Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rita

    1995-01-01

    Examined whether the use of superordinate terms in 206 children's definitions is predictable by relevance theory. Children (ages 5-10) gave definitions for 16 basic-level words and 4 superordinate words from natural kind and artifact semantic domains. Superordinate terms were used more frequently when they supported more inferences. Findings…

  14. Nonlinearities in Behavioral Macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Orlando

    2017-07-01

    This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model). The paper advocates that a thorough understanding of individual behavior in collective contexts is the only possible avenue to further explore macroeconomic phenomena and the often observed 'anomalies' that the benchmark DSGE macro framework is unable to explain or justify. After a reflection on the role of behavioral traits as a fundamental component of a new way of thinking the economy, the article proceeds with a debate on some of the most relevant frameworks in the literature that somehow link macro behavior and nonlinearities; covered subjects include macro models with disequilibrium rules, agent-based models that highlight interaction and complexity, evolutionary switching frameworks, and inattention based decision problems. These subjects have, as a fundamental point in common, the use of behavioral elements to transform existing interpretations of the economic reality, making it more evident how irregular fluctuations emerge and unfold on the aggregate.

  15. On relevant boundary perturbations of unitary minimal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, A.; Roggenkamp, D.; Schomerus, V.

    2000-01-01

    We consider unitary Virasoro minimal models on the disk with Cardy boundary conditions and discuss deformations by certain relevant boundary operators, analogous to tachyon condensation in string theory. Concentrating on the least relevant boundary field, we can perform a perturbative analysis of renormalization group fixed points. We find that the systems always flow towards stable fixed points which admit no further (non-trivial) relevant perturbations. The new conformal boundary conditions are in general given by superpositions of 'pure' Cardy boundary conditions

  16. Industrial relevance of thermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Ksenia; Antranikian, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The dramatic increase of newly isolated extremophilic microorganisms, analysis of their genomes and investigations of their enzymes by academic and industrial laboratories demonstrate the great potential of extremophiles in industrial (white) biotechnology. Enzymes derived from extremophiles (extremozymes) are superior to the traditional catalysts because they can perform industrial processes even under harsh conditions, under which conventional proteins are completely denatured. In particular, enzymes from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea have industrial relevance. Despite intensive investigations, our knowledge of the structure-function relationships of their enzymes is still limited. Information concerning the molecular properties of their enzymes and genes has to be obtained to be able to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for catalytic activity and stability at the boiling point of water.

  17. Korrek, volledig, relevant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Gouws, Rufus

    2007-01-01

    In explanatory dictionaries, both general language dictionaries and dictionaries dealing with languages for special purposes, the lexicographic definition is an important item to present the meaning of a given lemma. Due to a strong linguistic bias, resulting from an approach prevalent in the early...... phases of the development of theoretical lexicography, a distinction is often made between encyclopaedic information and semantic information in dictionary definitions, and dictionaries had often been criticized when their definitions were dominated by an encyclopaedic approach. This used to be seen...... as detrimental to the status of a dictionary as a container of linguistic knowledge. This paper shows that, from a lexicographic perspective, such a distinction is not relevant. What is important is that definitions should contain information that is relevant to and needed by the target users of that specific...

  18. Relevance and definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R

    1995-02-01

    The study examined whether the use of superordinate terms in children's definitions was predicted by relevance theory. Two hundred and six children aged five to ten years gave definitions for 16 basic-level words and four superordinate words from natural kind and artefact semantic domains. Superordinate terms were used more frequently when they supported more inferences. This was evidenced by their more frequent use in natural kind than in artefact domains, and more frequent use when the superordinate was itself defined by a semantically complex expression. When used, superordinates also usually occurred at the beginning of the definitional expression. It is argued that these findings reflect the speaker's intention to achieve optimal relevance, that is, to achieve maximum contextual effects with the least processing effort.

  19. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  20. Práticas educativas e problemas de comportamento: uma análise à luz das habilidades sociais Educational practices and problem behavior: an analysis from the point of view of social skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar as relações entre práticas educativas dos pais e problemas de comportamento dos filhos, à luz do referencial teórico-prático do treinamento em habilidades sociais. A forma como os pais educam seus filhos parece ser crucial à promoção de comportamentos socialmente adequados, porém, com freqüência, as famílias acabam estimulando comportamentos inadequados por meio de disciplina inconsistente, pouca interação positiva, pouco monitoramento e supervisão insuficiente das atividades da criança. Considera-se que os pais, para promoverem comportamentos adequados em seus filhos, necessitam ter habilidades sociais educativas, tais como expressar sentimentos e opiniões, estabelecer limites evitando coerção, entre outras. Conclui-se que, intervenções com pais, com a finalidade de promover habilidades sociais educativas, são importantes meios para prevenção e redução de problemas de comportamento em crianças, de forma a evitar dificuldades escolares e de socialização na meninice e na adolescência.The aim of this article is to analyze the relationships between parenting rearing practices and child behavior problem, from the point of view of the theoretical and practical foundations of social skills training. The way parents socialize their children seems to be crucial for the promotion of socially appropriate behaviors, but families frequently come to inadvertently stimulate inadequate behavior through inconsistent discipline, low levels of positive interaction, poor monitoring and insufficient supervision. It is argued that to promote appropriate child behaviors it is necessary for parents to have abilities proper of parenting rearing practices such as to express feelings and opinions, and to set limits whereas avoiding punishment. It is concluded that parent training interventions aimed at developing educational social skills are important tools for prevention and reduction of child problem

  1. Complex saddle points in QCD at finite temperature and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiromichi; Ogilvie, Michael C.; Pangeni, Kamal

    2014-08-01

    The sign problem in QCD at finite temperature and density leads naturally to the consideration of complex saddle points of the action or effective action. The global symmetry CK of the finite-density action, where C is charge conjugation and K is complex conjugation, constrains the eigenvalues of the Polyakov loop operator P at a saddle point in such a way that the action is real at a saddle point, and net color charge is zero. The values of TrFP and TrFP† at the saddle point are real but not identical, indicating the different free energy cost associated with inserting a heavy quark versus an antiquark into the system. At such complex saddle points, the mass matrix associated with Polyakov loops may have complex eigenvalues, reflecting oscillatory behavior in color-charge densities. We illustrate these properties with a simple model which includes the one-loop contribution of gluons and two flavors of massless quarks moving in a constant Polyakov loop background. Confinement-deconfinement effects are modeled phenomenologically via an added potential term depending on the Polyakov loop eigenvalues. For sufficiently large temperature T and quark chemical potential μ, the results obtained reduce to those of perturbation theory at the complex saddle point. These results may be experimentally relevant for the compressed baryonic matter experiment at FAIR.

  2. The evolution of relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2010-05-01

    With human language, the same utterance can have different meanings in different contexts. Nevertheless, listeners almost invariably converge upon the correct intended meaning. The classic Gricean explanation of how this is achieved posits the existence of four maxims of conversation, which speakers are assumed to follow. Armed with this knowledge, listeners are able to interpret utterances in a contextually sensible way. This account enjoys wide acceptance, but it has not gone unchallenged. Specifically, Relevance Theory offers an explicitly cognitive account of utterance interpretation that presents a radical challenge to the neo-Gricean paradigm. Evolutionary considerations are one way in which we can choose between competing theories. A simple game-theoretic model of the evolution of communication is presented, and it is used to derive a number of basic qualities that will be satisfied by all evolved communication systems. These qualities are observed to precisely predict the foundational principles of Relevance Theory. The model thus provides biological support for that enterprise in general, and for the plausibility of the cognitive mechanisms that it describes in particular. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  4. Visual capture and understanding of hand pointing actions in a 3-D environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, C; Del Bimbo, A; Valli, A

    2003-01-01

    We present a nonintrusive system based on computer vision for human-computer interaction in three-dimensional (3-D) environments controlled by hand pointing gestures. Users are allowed to walk around in a room and manipulate information displayed on its walls by using their own hands as pointing devices. Once captured and tracked in real-time using stereo vision, hand pointing gestures are remapped onto the current point of interest, thus reproducing in an advanced interaction scenario the "drag and click" behavior of traditional mice. The system, called PointAt (patent pending), enjoys a careful modeling of both user and optical subsystem, and visual algorithms for self-calibration and adaptation to both user peculiarities and environmental changes. The concluding sections provide an insight into system characteristics, performance, and relevance for real applications.

  5. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustonen Anne-Mari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb recordings, change-point analysis (CPA, home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS, the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  6. Address Points - Allegheny County Address Points 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This dataset contains Address Points in Allegheny County. The Address Points were created by GDR for the Allegheny County CAD project, October 2008. Data is updated...

  7. Keeping climate research relevant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.; Lave, L.B.; Morgan, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent post-mortems of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) confirmed what Congress and other key parties to the acid rain debate already knew: that the 10-year, half-billion-dollar interagency program to guide US policy on acid rain control proved largely irrelevant to the effort to forge the new Clean Air Act last fall. Although NAPAP won praise for its scientific accomplishments, the program failed in its primary mission - to provide policy-relevant information in a timely manner. Now, government attempts to deal with the more difficult and far-reaching environmental issues associated with global warming appear to be headed down the same ill-fated path. Global climate change has become the most important environmental issue on the world agenda. The potentially enormous human and ecological implications of global warming - rising sea levels, altered precipitation patterns, and damage to natural ecosystems - have generated concern. But the equally large uncertainties about the timing and magnitude of possible effects, coupled with questions about the costs and impacts of possible abatement measures, have thus far kept policymakers from agreeing on what to do

  8. Identifying Critical States through the Relevance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Roli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The identification of critical states is a major task in complex systems, and the availability of measures to detect such conditions is of utmost importance. In general, criticality refers to the existence of two qualitatively different behaviors that the same system can exhibit, depending on the values of some parameters. In this paper, we show that the relevance index may be effectively used to identify critical states in complex systems. The relevance index was originally developed to identify relevant sets of variables in dynamical systems, but in this paper, we show that it is also able to capture features of criticality. The index is applied to two prominent examples showing slightly different meanings of criticality, namely the Ising model and random Boolean networks. Results show that this index is maximized at critical states and is robust with respect to system size and sampling effort. It can therefore be used to detect criticality.

  9. Pro SharePoint 2010 Search

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, J; Bakman-Mikalski, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Pro SharePoint 2010 Search gives you expert advice on planning, deploying and customizing searches in SharePoint 2010. Drawing on the authors' extensive experience of working with real-world SharePoint deployments, this book teaches everything you'll need to know to create well-designed SharePoint solutions that always keep the end-user's experience in mind. Increase your search efficiency with SharePoint 2010's search functionality: extend the search user interface using third-party tools, and utilize analytics to improve relevancy. This practical hands-on book is a must-have resource for any

  10. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...

  11. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone O; Møller, Arne; Lou, Hans C

    2014-09-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting the Relevance of a Library Catalog Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael D.; Chen, Hui-Min

    2001-01-01

    Proposes an operational definition of relevance for a Web-based library catalog. Proposes measures that characterize user behavior while searching a Web-based library catalog. Develops a methodology to predict when a user's search will be perceived to be relevant by the user. Tests the methodology with over 900,000 user search sessions with the…

  13. Clinically relevant mechanical testing of hernia graft constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sambit; DeLozier, Katherine R; Erdemir, Ahmet; Derwin, Kathleen A

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanical behavior of grafts in the context of hernia repair, there is a need to develop and adopt methods for mechanical testing of grafts in a clinically-relevant manner with clinically-relevant outcomes. Ball-burst and planar-biaxial methods were used to test three commercially-available hernia grafts (DermaMatrix, Biodesign, VitaMesh Blue). Both load-to-failure and cyclic fatigue tests were performed (n=6-11/group/test). Grafts were tested as sutured constructs in patch geometry. Dilatational strain analysis was performed considering the construct (both test methods) or the graft (planar-biaxial only) as the area of interest. DermaMatrix, Biodesign, and VitaMesh grafts showed differences in mechanical properties at the point of construct failure (load, in-plane load-per-suture and membrane tension) in ball-burst tests and differences in sub-failure properties (stiffness, dilatational strain at 16N/cm and cyclic mechanical properties) in planar-biaxial tests. In both load-to-failure and cyclic fatigue tests, each graft construct tended to be stiffer in planar-biaxial than ball-burst testing. In biaxial testing, the strain analysis method influenced the mechanical properties with the construct being more compliant than the graft. This study demonstrates that graft-fixation method, test mode and analysis method are important considerations for mechanical characterization of hernia grafts. Ball-burst tests can only estimate construct or material properties, whereas planar-biaxial tests capture anisotropy and can estimate construct, graft and material properties of the same test specimen. When the clinical performance of a graft in the context of hernia repair is of interest, testing a sutured construct and performing construct strain analysis arguably provides the most clinically-relevant assessment method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Discounting Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We re-evaluate the theory, experimental design and econometrics behind claims that individuals exhibit non-constant discounting behavior. Theory points to the importance of controlling for the non-linearity of the utility function of individuals, since the discount rate is defined over time......-dated utility flows and not flows of money. It also points to a menagerie of functional forms to characterize different types of non-constant discounting behavior. The implied experimental design calls for individuals to undertake several tasks to allow us to identify these models, and to several treatments...

  15. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance...... implications for relevance feedback in information retrieval systems, suggesting that systems accept and utilize multiple positive and negative relevance criteria from users. Systems designers may want to focus on supporting content criteria followed by full text criteria as these may provide the greatest cost....... These criteria can be grouped into six categories: abstract (e.g., citability, informativeness), author (e.g., novelty, discipline, affiliation, perceived status), content (e.g., accuracy/validity, background, novelty, contrast, depth/scope, domain, citations, links, relevant to other interests, rarity, subject...

  16. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy.

  17. Interval Mathematics Applied to Critical Point Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito A. Stradi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of critical points of mixtures is important for both practical and theoretical reasons in the modeling of phase behavior, especially at high pressure. The equations that describe the behavior of complex mixtures near critical points are highly nonlinear and with multiplicity of solutions to the critical point equations. Interval arithmetic can be used to reliably locate all the critical points of a given mixture. The method also verifies the nonexistence of a critical point if a mixture of a given composition does not have one. This study uses an interval Newton/Generalized Bisection algorithm that provides a mathematical and computational guarantee that all mixture critical points are located. The technique is illustrated using several example problems. These problems involve cubic equation of state models; however, the technique is general purpose and can be applied in connection with other nonlinear problems.

  18. Spatial priming in ecologically relevant reference frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower-Richardi, Sarah M; Leber, Andrew B; Golomb, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have observed many phenomena demonstrating how the visual system exploits spatial regularities in the environment in order to benefit behavior. In this paper, we question whether spatial priming can be considered one such phenomenon. Spatial priming is defined as a response time facilitation to a visual search target when its spatial position has been repeated in recent trials (Maljkovic & Nakayama, 1996, Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 977-991). Does this priming serve a behaviorally adaptive role or is it merely a byproduct of ongoing visual processing? Critically, an adaptive priming mechanism must actively transform visual inputs from native retinotopic (eye-centered) coordinates into ecologically relevant coordinates, e.g., spatiotopic (world-centered) and/or object-centered. In Experiment 1, we tested this hypothesis by having participants move their eyes between trials, which dissociated retinotopic and spatiotopic frames of reference. Results showed only weak retinotopic priming, but robust spatiotopic priming. The second experiment again had participants move their eyes between trials but also manipulated the placement of a grouped array of display objects from trial to trial. This allowed us to measure not just retinotopic and spatiotopic priming, but object-centered priming as well. Results from this experiment did not yield retinotopic priming but showed robust spatiotopic and object-centered priming. These findings demonstrate that spatial priming operates within ecologically relevant coordinate systems, and the findings support the notion that spatial priming serves an adaptive role in human behavior.

  19. Out of Sight and Out of Mind? Evaluating the Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans on Smoking-Related Beliefs and Behaviors in a Sample of Australian Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally; Kite, James; Grunseit, Anne C; Rissel, Chris; Perez, Donna A; Dessaix, Anita; Cotter, Trish; Bauman, Adrian; Young, Jane; Currow, David

    2015-07-01

    The Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland implemented bans on tobacco pack displays at point-of-sale (PoS) in July 2010 and November 2011, respectively. This study evaluated the medium-term impact of the bans on youth. Data were drawn from the Tobacco Promotion Impact Study, a repeated cross-sectional survey of youth (12-24 years) in NSW and Queensland conducted yearly 2010-2012 (n = 6,014). Regression analyses examined differences in youth's recall of PoS tobacco displays, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking behaviors in relation to the timing of the PoS display bans. Recall of PoS tobacco displays was significantly less likely for youth interviewed after the bans versus before (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.39, 0.52, p < .01). They were also less likely to report tobacco brand awareness (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62, 0.92, p < .01), to over-estimate peer smoking (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.96, p < .01), or be current smokers (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55, 0.96, p < .05). Stratified analyses showed that these differences were primarily apparent in the group of youth most likely to be affected by tobacco PoS displays: those who visit tobacco retailers most frequently. After the bans, smokers were less likely to report that they think about smoking as a result of seeing PoS tobacco displays (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.37, 0.97, p < .039). Our findings suggest an immediate impact of display bans on youth's exposure to tobacco pack displays, and likely impacts on smoking-related outcomes. These results suggest that removing tobacco displays from retail environments can positively contribute to the denormalization of smoking among youth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Nurbawono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

  1. Assessment of the failure behavior of dangerous goods containers made of high density polyethylene using relevant material parameters; Beurteilung des Versagensverhaltens von Gefahrengutbehaeltern aus Polyethylen hoher Dichte auf Basis relevanter Werkstoffkennwerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menrad, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    To obtain approval as dangerous goods packaging, different experimental tests are required to show the eligibility for the transportation of those goods. The data obtained from the material test performed on the pressed plates is not used to get absolute values for the failure time in an internal pressure test or the medium drop height. The goal is to see if there are changes in the behavior because a different HDPE is being used. All the jerrycans and pressed plates were specially made of four different materials to gain knowledge about the material properties. The plates and jerrycans were made of resin from the same batch to prevent variations caused by batch differences. The wall thickness is decisive and, therefore packagings were analyzed using computer tomography and the fringe projection technique. The results were compared to the magnetostatic measurement technique. The deformation under internal pressure was measured by digital image correlation. Deformations in the radial direction and the equivalent strains were determined. These deformations, strains, and their acceleration due to the swelling effect could be reproduced in the finite element analysis by using the temperature in the material model. The resistance against both internal pressure and absorption depend on the density of the material. Conditioning at elevated temperatures causes post crystallization and reduces internal stresses. Differences in the densities of the materials can be determined by using plates manufactured by compression molding. A higher density leads to a better performance under internal pressure. A correlation could be proved between the medium failure drop height (50 % of the packagings fail because of a crack) and the tensile impact strength of notched specimens cut out of the jerrycans side walls and the notched impact strength (NIS) of pressed plates. A higher NIS leads to a higher medium failure drop height. A low resistance against oxidative degradation will reduce

  2. Left hemisphere EEG coherence in infancy predicts infant declarative pointing and preschool epistemic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn-Popp, N; Kristen, S; Paulus, M; Meinhardt, J; Sodian, B

    2016-01-01

    Pointing plays a central role in preverbal communication. While imperative pointing aims at influencing another person's behavior, declarative gestures serve to convey epistemic information and to share interest in an object. Further, the latter are hypothesized to be a precursor ability of epistemic language. So far, little is known about their underlying brain maturation processes. Therefore, the present study investigated the relation between brain maturation processes and the production of imperative and declarative motives as well as epistemic language in N = 32 infants. EEG coherence scores were measured at 14 months, imperative and declarative point production at 15 months and epistemic language at 48 months. Results of correlational analyses suggest distinct behavioral and neural patterns for imperative and declarative pointing, with declarative pointing being associated with the maturation of the left hemisphere. Further, EEG coherence measures of the left hemisphere at 14 months and declarative pointing at 15 months are related to individual differences in epistemic language skills at 48 months, independently of child IQ. In regression analyses, coherence measures of the left hemisphere prove to be the most important predictor of epistemic language skills. Thus, neural processes of the left hemisphere seem particularly relevant to social communication.

  3. Zero Point of Historical Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khakimov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies are based on the assumption that there is a reference-starting point of the space-time – the Zero point of coordinate system. Due to the bifurcation in the Zero Point, the course of social processes changes sharply and the probabilistic causality replaces the deterministic one. For this reason, changes occur in the structure of social relations and statehood form as well as in the course of the ethnic processes. In such a way emerges a new discourse of the national behavior. With regard to the history of the Tatars and Tatarstan, such bifurcation points occurred in the periods of the formation: 1 of the Turkic Khaganate, which began to exist from the 6th century onward and became a qualitatively new State system that reformatted old elements in the new matrix introducing a new discourse of behavior; 2 of the Volga-Kama Bulgaria, where the rivers (Kama, Volga, Vyatka became the most important trade routes determining the singularity of this State. Here the nomadic culture was connected with the settled one and Islam became the official religion in 922; 3 and of the Golden Hordе, a powerful State with a remarkable system of communication, migration of huge human resources for thousands of kilometers, and extensive trade, that caused severe “mutations” in the ethnic terms and a huge mixing of ethnic groups. Given the dwelling space of Tatar population and its evolution within Russia, it can be argued that the Zero point of Tatar history, which conveyed the cultural invariants until today, begins in the Golden Horde. Neither in the Turkic khaganate nor in the Bulgar State, but namely in the Golden Horde. Despite the radical changes, the Russian Empire failed to transform the Tatars in the Russians. Therefore, contemporary Tatars preserved the Golden Horde tradition as a cultural invariant.

  4. The End of Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jo

    2018-01-01

    Have teachers become too dependent on points? This article explores educators' dependency on their points systems, and the ways that points can distract teachers from really analyzing students' capabilities and achievements. Feldman argues that using a more subjective grading system can help illuminate crucial information about students and what…

  5. GENDER AND SHOPPING BEHAVIOR OUTCOMES IN THE CONTEXT OF SHOPPING CENTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Nicoleta ABRUDAN

    2016-01-01

    Understanding consumer behavior can be divided into three parts: before visiting the stores or shopping centers, during the visit, and after. From the point of view of the final result intended by retailers, satisfying customers in terms of profitability, all three components are equally important. A relevant segmentation criterion for most products and stores is gender. Previous research suggests that gender influences shopping motivations, the way people shop and shopping behavior outcomes....

  6. Behavioral Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Richard H. Thaler

    2000-01-01

    Behavioral Economics is the combination of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications. We begin with a preliminary question about relevance. Does some combination of market forces, learning and evolution render these human qualities irrelevant? No. Because of limits of arbitrage less than perfect agents survive and influence market outcomes. We then discuss three important ways in which humans devi...

  7. A relevance theory of induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L; Coley, John D; Storms, Gert; Hayes, Brett K

    2003-09-01

    A framework theory, organized around the principle of relevance, is proposed for category-based reasoning. According to the relevance principle, people assume that premises are informative with respect to conclusions. This idea leads to the prediction that people will use causal scenarios and property reinforcement strategies in inductive reasoning. These predictions are contrasted with both existing models and normative logic. Judgments of argument strength were gathered in three different countries, and the results showed the importance of both causal scenarios and property reinforcement in category-based inferences. The relation between the relevance framework and existing models of category-based inductive reasoning is discussed in the light of these findings.

  8. Profiles of Dialogue for Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses argument diagrams, argumentation schemes, and some tools from formal argumentation systems developed in artificial intelligence to build a graph-theoretic model of relevance shown to be applicable (with some extensions as a practical method for helping a third party judge issues of relevance or irrelevance of an argument in real examples. Examples used to illustrate how the method works are drawn from disputes about relevance in natural language discourse, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate.

  9. Relevance theory and pragmatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, E; Kerbel, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes aspects of relevance theory that are useful for exploring impairment of pragmatic comprehension in children. It explores data from three children with pragmatic language difficulties within this framework. Relevance theory is seen to provide a means of explaining why, in a given context, a particular utterance is problematic. It thus enables one to move on from mere description of problematic behaviours towards their explanation. The theory provides a clearer delineation between the explicit and the implicit, and hence between semantics and pragmatics. This enables one to place certain difficulties more firmly within semantics and others within pragmatics. Relevance, and its maximization in communication, are squarely placed within human cognition, which suggests a close connection between pragmatic and cognitive (dis)functioning. Relevance theory thus emerges as a powerful tool in the exploration and understanding of pragmatic language difficulties in children and offers therapeutically valuable insight into the nature of interactions involving individuals with such impairments.

  10. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  12. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  13. How to use the Sun-Earth Lagrange points for fundamental physics and navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, A.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Lucchesi, D.; Pucacco, G.; Ruggiero, M. L.; Valko, P.

    2018-01-01

    We illustrate the proposal, nicknamed LAGRANGE, to use spacecraft, located at the Sun-Earth Lagrange points, as a physical reference frame. Performing time of flight measurements of electromagnetic signals traveling on closed paths between the points, we show that it would be possible: (a) to refine gravitational time delay knowledge due both to the Sun and the Earth; (b) to detect the gravito-magnetic frame dragging of the Sun, so deducing information about the interior of the star; (c) to check the possible existence of a galactic gravitomagnetic field, which would imply a revision of the properties of a dark matter halo; (d) to set up a relativistic positioning and navigation system at the scale of the inner solar system. The paper presents estimated values for the relevant quantities and discusses the feasibility of the project analyzing the behavior of the space devices close to the Lagrange points.

  14. Avaliação andrológica por pontos e comportamento sexual em touros da raça Nelore Andrologic evaluation by points and sexual behavior in Nelore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Guiselli Lopes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a relação entre dois métodos de avaliação do potencial reprodutivo - Classificação Andrológica por Pontos (CAP e comportamento sexual de touros da raça Nelore - e verificar a acurácia desses testes em predizer o potencial reprodutivo dos touros, avaliado pela taxa de gestação ao final da estação de monta, com duração média de 90 dias. Foram utilizados 14 touros, todos classificados como aptos à reprodução, após exame andrológico, CAP e observação do comportamento sexual a campo durante 12 horas. Onze touros foram avaliados em manejo individual, com proporção média touro:vaca de 1:46, e os três restantes, em manejo múltiplo, com proporção média touro:vaca de 1:23. A pontuação média obtida pela CAP foi 78,92 ± 8,92 (muito bom e o escore, 9,85 ± 0,36 (excelente para libido. Quanto maior o tempo de teste, maiores foram os escores da libido. Na primeira hora de observação, os touros foram classificados como de libido questionável e ao final do teste, como de libido excelente. As correlações da libido com circunferência escrotal (CE, características físicas e morfológicas do sêmen e taxa de gestação foram baixas. A pontuação pela CAP correlacionou-se positivamente com circunferência escrotal e características físicas do sêmen, mas não se correlacionou com características morfológicas dos sêmen. Não foi observada correlação entre CAP e taxa de gestação, nem entre libido e CAP. A taxa geral de gestação após o período de estação de monta foi de 74,69%. Os resultados indicam que tanto a CAP como o teste da libido não são eficientes para predizer o potencial reprodutivo de touros da raça Nelore e devem ser utilizados de forma complementar ao exame andrológico.The objective of this work was to study the relation between two reproductive potential evaluation methods - Andrologic Evaluation by Points - CAP and sexual behavior of Nelore bulls, and to verify the

  15. Metaharmonic Lattice Point Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi

    2011-01-01

    Metaharmonic Lattice Point Theory covers interrelated methods and tools of spherically oriented geomathematics and periodically reflected analytic number theory. The book establishes multi-dimensional Euler and Poisson summation formulas corresponding to elliptic operators for the adaptive determination and calculation of formulas and identities of weighted lattice point numbers, in particular the non-uniform distribution of lattice points. The author explains how to obtain multi-dimensional generalizations of the Euler summation formula by interpreting classical Bernoulli polynomials as Green

  16. Sources of sexual information and its relevance to sexual behavior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Résumé Une étude execute pour identifier les plusieurs sources de l'information sexuelle par les adolescents au Nigéria et leur influence sur leurs conduits sexuelles, en utilisant: a. le rapport sexuel avant le marriage (pré-sexuel avant le marriage) b. l'attente avec le premier rapport sexuel et c. d'être libre de discuter avec.

  17. Plasma experiments with relevance for the nonlinear behavior of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lozneanu, E; Sanduloviciu, M

    2003-01-01

    Abrupt transitions between different conduction states of a semiconductor, related to pattern formation, are phenomena the elucidation of which has gained substantial interest in solid-state physics. A possible progress in their understanding can be made considering a self-organization mechanism able to explain similar phenomena observed in gaseous conductors. Some examples justifying this assertion are presented in this paper.

  18. Doubly Sparse Relevance Vector Machine for Continuous Facial Behavior Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltwang, Sebastian; Todorovic, Sinisa; Pantic, Maja

    Certain inner feelings and physiological states like pain are subjective states that cannot be directly measured, but can be estimated from spontaneous facial expressions. Since they are typically characterized by subtle movements of facial parts, analysis of the facial details is required. To this

  19. Point charges optimally placed to represent the multipole expansion of charge distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu Anandakrishnan

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for approximating electrostatic charge distributions with a small number of point charges to optimally represent the original charge distribution. By construction, the proposed optimal point charge approximation (OPCA retains many of the useful properties of point multipole expansion, including the same far-field asymptotic behavior of the approximate potential. A general framework for numerically computing OPCA, for any given number of approximating charges, is described. We then derive a 2-charge practical point charge approximation, PPCA, which approximates the 2-charge OPCA via closed form analytical expressions, and test the PPCA on a set of charge distributions relevant to biomolecular modeling. We measure the accuracy of the new approximations as the RMS error in the electrostatic potential relative to that produced by the original charge distribution, at a distance 2x the extent of the charge distribution--the mid-field. The error for the 2-charge PPCA is found to be on average 23% smaller than that of optimally placed point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. The standard deviation in RMS error for the 2-charge PPCA is 53% lower than that of the optimal point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. We also calculate the 3-charge OPCA for representing the gas phase quantum mechanical charge distribution of a water molecule. The electrostatic potential calculated by the 3-charge OPCA for water, in the mid-field (2.8 Å from the oxygen atom, is on average 33.3% more accurate than the potential due to the point multipole expansion up to the octupole order. Compared to a 3 point charge approximation in which the charges are placed on the atom centers, the 3-charge OPCA is seven times more accurate, by RMS error. The maximum error at the oxygen-Na distance (2.23 Å is half that of the point multipole expansion up to the octupole

  20. Point defects and atomic transport in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidiard, A.B.

    1981-02-01

    There are two principle aspects to the theory of atomic transport in crystals as caused by the action of point defects, namely (1) the calculation of relevant properties of the point defects (energies and other thermodynamic characteristics of the different possible defects, activation energies and other mobility parameters) and (2) the statistical mechanics of assemblies of defects, both equilibrium and non-equilibrium assemblies. In the five lectures given here both these aspects are touched on. The first two lectures are concerned with the calculation of relevant point defect properties, particularly in ionic crystals. The first lecture is more general, the second is concerned particularly with some recent calculations of the free volumes of formation of defects in various ionic solids; these solve a rather long-standing problem in this area. The remaining three lectures are concerned with the kinetic theory of defects mainly in relaxation, drift and diffusion situations

  1. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure bas...

  2. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  3. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  4. Describing chaotic attractors: Regular and perpetual points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkowski, Dawid; Prasad, Awadhesh; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    We study the concepts of regular and perpetual points for describing the behavior of chaotic attractors in dynamical systems. The idea of these points, which have been recently introduced to theoretical investigations, is thoroughly discussed and extended into new types of models. We analyze the correlation between regular and perpetual points, as well as their relation with phase space, showing the potential usefulness of both types of points in the qualitative description of co-existing states. The ability of perpetual points in finding attractors is indicated, along with its potential cause. The location of chaotic trajectories and sets of considered points is investigated and the study on the stability of systems is shown. The statistical analysis of the observing desired states is performed. We focus on various types of dynamical systems, i.e., chaotic flows with self-excited and hidden attractors, forced mechanical models, and semiconductor superlattices, exhibiting the universality of appearance of the observed patterns and relations.

  5. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  6. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  7. Do acupuncture points exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi; Liu Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang Yuying; He Wei; Ding Guanghong

    2009-01-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  8. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  9. Point/Counterpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungar, David; Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Point Argument: "Dynamic Languages (in Reactive Environments) Unleash Creativity," by David Ungar. For the sake of creativity, the profession needs to concentrate more on inventing new and better dynamic languages and environments and less on improving static languages. Counterpoint Argument...

  10. Bedrock Outcrop Points Compilation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A compilation of bedrock outcrops as points and/or polygons from 1:62,500 and 1:24,000 geologic mapping by the Vermont Geological Survey, the United States...

  11. Triple Point Topological Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Topologically protected fermionic quasiparticles appear in metals, where band degeneracies occur at the Fermi level, dictated by the band structure topology. While in some metals these quasiparticles are direct analogues of elementary fermionic particles of the relativistic quantum field theory, other metals can have symmetries that give rise to quasiparticles, fundamentally different from those known in high-energy physics. Here, we report on a new type of topological quasiparticles—triple point fermions—realized in metals with symmorphic crystal structure, which host crossings of three bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level protected by point group symmetries. We find two topologically different types of triple point fermions, both distinct from any other topological quasiparticles reported to date. We provide examples of existing materials that host triple point fermions of both types and discuss a variety of physical phenomena associated with these quasiparticles, such as the occurrence of topological surface Fermi arcs, transport anomalies, and topological Lifshitz transitions.

  12. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  13. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  14. Designated Wildlife Lakes - points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is a point shapefile of Designated Wildlife Lakes in Minnesota. This shapefile was created by converting lake polygons from the Designated Wildlife Lakes...

  15. Arctic climate tipping points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-02-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  16. Computational Analysis of Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egnor, S E Roian; Branson, Kristin

    2016-07-08

    In this review, we discuss the emerging field of computational behavioral analysis-the use of modern methods from computer science and engineering to quantitatively measure animal behavior. We discuss aspects of experiment design important to both obtaining biologically relevant behavioral data and enabling the use of machine vision and learning techniques for automation. These two goals are often in conflict. Restraining or restricting the environment of the animal can simplify automatic behavior quantification, but it can also degrade the quality or alter important aspects of behavior. To enable biologists to design experiments to obtain better behavioral measurements, and computer scientists to pinpoint fruitful directions for algorithm improvement, we review known effects of artificial manipulation of the animal on behavior. We also review machine vision and learning techniques for tracking, feature extraction, automated behavior classification, and automated behavior discovery, the assumptions they make, and the types of data they work best with.

  17. Unconventional Quantum Critical Points

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cenke

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the theory of unconventional quantum critical points that are beyond the Landau's paradigm. Three types of unconventional quantum critical points will be discussed: (1). The transition between topological order and semiclassical spin ordered phase; (2). The transition between topological order and valence bond solid phase; (3). The direct second order transition between different competing orders. We focus on the field theory and universality class of these unconventio...

  18. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  19. A terapia comunitária em um centro de atenção psicossocial: (desatando pontos relevantes La terapia comunitaria en los centros de atención psicosocial: (desatando nudos relevantes Community therapy at psychosocial care centers: (disconnecting relevant points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Oliveira Ferreira Filha

    2010-06-01

    ón social de los mismos, ya que relataron cambios de comportamiento en las relaciones interpersonales. La experiencia tuvo excelentes resultados, ya que el estudio trabajó con un abordaje que contempla aspectos sociales aún poco investigados.This study aims at describing Community Therapy's implementation at a Mental Health Services (CAPS, identifying problems experienced by its users and families and the coping strategies; and analyzing CT's contributions to user's social inclusion. In this predominantly qualitative study, the technique of semi-structured interview and CT's assessment sheets were used. Family conflicts, insomnia and abandonment were the major problems cited, and several coping strategies were mentioned, such as: family support, religious belief, professional help, etc. It was proved that user's participation on CT have contributed to their social inclusion, because they report behavior changes in their interpersonal relationships. The experience has shown excellent results, because it works with neglected social aspects.

  20. Point Information Gain and Multidimensional Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rychtáriková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the point information gain (PIG and derived quantities, i.e., point information gain entropy (PIE and point information gain entropy density (PIED, for the case of the Rényi entropy and simulate the behavior of PIG for typical distributions. We also use these methods for the analysis of multidimensional datasets. We demonstrate the main properties of PIE/PIED spectra for the real data with the examples of several images and discuss further possible utilizations in other fields of data processing.

  1. Women Leadership and its Relevance to National Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women Leadership and its Relevance to National Development in the 21st Century. ... UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Over time in history, a few women who have been entrusted with the leading role to manage human and material resources have more often than not proved the same point that, given ...

  2. Relevance Vector Machine for Prediction of Soil Properties | Samui ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the first, most important steps in geotechnical engineering is site characterization. The ultimate goal of site characterization is to predict the in-situ soil properties at any half-space point for a site based on limited number of tests and data. In the present study, relevance vector machine (RVM) has been used to develop ...

  3. Generalized relevance learning vector quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new scheme for enlarging generalized learning vector quantization (GLVQ) with weighting factors for the input dimensions. The factors allow an appropriate scaling of the input dimensions according to their relevance. They are adapted automatically during training according to the specific classification task whereby training can be interpreted as stochastic gradient descent on an appropriate error function. This method leads to a more powerful classifier and to an adaptive metric with little extra cost compared to standard GLVQ. Moreover, the size of the weighting factors indicates the relevance of the input dimensions. This proposes a scheme for automatically pruning irrelevant input dimensions. The algorithm is verified on artificial data sets and the iris data from the UCI repository. Afterwards, the method is compared to several well known algorithms which determine the intrinsic data dimension on real world satellite image data.

  4. Point-point and point-line moving-window correlation spectroscopy and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin; Zhan, Daqi; Yu, Zhiwu

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we present a new extension of generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy. Two new algorithms, namely point-point (P-P) correlation and point-line (P-L) correlation, have been introduced to do the moving-window 2D correlation (MW2D) analysis. The new method has been applied to a spectral model consisting of two different processes. The results indicate that P-P correlation spectroscopy can unveil the details and re-constitute the entire process, whilst the P-L can provide general feature of the concerned processes. Phase transition behavior of dimyristoylphosphotidylethanolamine (DMPE) has been studied using MW2D correlation spectroscopy. The newly proposed method verifies that the phase transition temperature is 56 °C, same as the result got from a differential scanning calorimeter. To illustrate the new method further, a lysine and lactose mixture has been studied under thermo perturbation. Using the P-P MW2D, the Maillard reaction of the mixture was clearly monitored, which has been very difficult using conventional display of FTIR spectra.

  5. Heterodox Autonomy Doctrine: realism and purposes, and its relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bernal-Meza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Autonomy Doctrine, elaborated by Juan Carlos Puig, is a realist point of view of International Relations. It is an analysis, from the periphery, about the structure of world power, and a roadmap (from a theoretical point of view for the longing process of autonomization-regarding hegemonic power-for a country whose ruling class would decide to overcome dependency. The elements its author took into account when analyzing its own context are explained in this text and, afterwards, are reflected over its relevance nowadays. For that purpose, it is necessary to answer certain questions, such as which are the concepts and categories that may explain its relevance, its applicability to regional integration and cooperation models and projects, and what would be the analytical method to compare reality versus ideas, among others. The methodological proposal to analyze the relevance of Puig's doctrine is to compare it to different visions of regionalism that are currently in effect in Latin America.

  6. Lexicography and the Relevance Criterion | Bothma | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords:Lexicography, Function Theory, Cognitive Situations, Communicative Situations, Operative Situations, Interpretive Situations, Pre-Lexicographical Phase, Intra-Lexicographical Phase, Post-Lexicographical Phase, Information Science, Relevance Theory, Topical Relevance, Cognitive Relevance, Situational ...

  7. Cloud Point Depressants

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Wax formation and deposition in subsea crude oil piepline is most important problem in cold environments faced by petroleum industry. Significant research is been going on at industrial as well as academic levels to develop additives which are able to break the wax crystal structure or at least weakens it. Addition of cloud point depressants has been found to be an effective way of dealing with waxes. The main focus of this project is chemical control of wax gel formation by using cloud point...

  8. Revisiting verbs of emission: an update on some relevant theoretical accounts of lexical specification and argument structure of emission verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Milivojevic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of what semantic properties lexicalized in verbs determine their syntactic behavior in intransitive motion events and in resultative constructions in English and Serbian. Special attention is devoted to English and Serbian verbs of emission (specifically verbs of sound emission and partly also verbs of light, smell and substance emission regarding their potential to surface as main verbs in these constructions and to combine with directional phrases within specific morphosyntactic templates (unaccusatives and unergatives. The presented research promotes a theoretical view according to which the established syntactic patterns can be applied across the whole class of verbs of emission to express a full er range of atypical verb meanings in motion events. Theoretical conclusions of the research are also relevant for a wider theoretical description of motion events and resultatives in a cross - linguistic perspective. The paper puts forth additional implica tions regarding the projectionalist approach to semantic verb classes against the theoretical framework of Beth Levin (1993. Finally, the paper considers the relevant points of structurally realized similarities via relevant constructional templates in En glish and in Serbian, as well as some important points of morphosyntactic divergence between the two languages. The conclusions presented aim at a more comprehensive contrastive language typology based on language “framing” parameters.

  9. Dramatic lives and relevant becomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina; Miller, Jody

    2012-01-01

    The article explores how violence works to produce young women’s precarious positions in social milieus characterized by multiple marginalization. By paying attention to the micropolitics of violent engagements we argue that violent conflicts can be viewed as strategies for escaping positions...... of marginality into positions of relevance. The analysis builds on empirical data from Copenhagen, Denmark, gained through ethnographic fieldwork with the participation of 20 female informants aged 13–22. The theoretical contribution proposes viewing conflicts as multi-linear, multi-causal and non...

  10. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · CHANDIPURA VIRUS · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · VIRUSES · PROPERTIES OF VIRUSES · CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES · VIRUS FAMILIES · VIRUS FAMILIES – contd · General Classification · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  11. ACS Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes. The reason for this is that the ACS calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS images of the omega Cen standard field with all nine broadband ACS/WFC filters. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS zero points by comparison with excellent ground-based photometry, and should reduce their uncertainties to less than 0.01 magnitudes. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager. Finally, three of the filters will be repeated from my Cycle 12 observations, allowing for a measurement of any change in sensitivity.

  12. Building Temperature Set Point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meincke, Carol L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, Christopher A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This white paper provides information and recommendations for an actionable and enforceable corporate policy statement on temperature set points for office and related spaces at Sandia and presents a strategy that balances the need to achieve the energy goals with optimizing employee comfort and productivity.

  13. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  14. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Receptor-mediated endocytosis · Slide 4 · Publications – Direct therapeutic approaches · Importance of ECM recognition · Publications – ECM interactions · Slide 8 · L. donovani, when attached to the macrophage surface, behaves like any other microbe which are killed ...

  15. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  16. Holographic Three point Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Ara

    . In the spirit of understanding this problem better, the thesis discusses the divergences appearing in the calculation of structure constants involving two giant and one point-like gravitons in the string theories on AdS_5 x S^5 and AdS_4 x S^7/Z_k backgrounds. Coherent state approach for the tree-level...

  17. New Novae snack point

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  18. Hillclimbing saddle point inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana, Kiyoharu; Sakai, Katsuta

    2018-03-01

    Recently a new inflationary scenario was proposed in [1] which can be applicable to an inflaton having multiple vacua. In this letter, we consider a more general situation where the inflaton potential has a (UV) saddle point around the Planck scale. This class of models can be regarded as a natural generalization of the hillclimbing Higgs inflation [2].

  19. Point kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpland, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    A normalized form of the point kinetics equations, a prompt jump approximation, and the Nordheim-Fuchs model are used to model nuclear systems. Reactivity feedback mechanisms considered include volumetric expansion, thermal neutron temperature effect, Doppler effect and void formation. A sample problem of an excursion occurring in a plutonium solution accidentally formed in a glovebox is presented

  20. The Impact of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" on Organizational Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric J.; VanStelle, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    In the book "Verbal Behavior," Skinner provided a comprehensive, behavioral account of language. While the impact of Skinner's analysis on empirical research has been examined broadly, this review of the literature focused on studies relevant to organizational behavior management (OBM). Both empirical and nonempirical journal articles in OBM were…

  1. 我國「電子化政府整合型入口網站」使用者行為分析 | The Analysis of User Behavior to E-government Entry-point of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳祥、林明童 Hsinag Chen、Ming-Tong Lin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:26-38

    本研究藉由分析我國「電子化政府整合型入口網站」的LOG檔案,來具體描述該網站使用者的使用行為模式,並依據歸納的結果,提出對於我國電子化政府整合型入口網站的修正參考。研究結果指出,入口網站的使用者與上班族的作息相仿;網站資訊與內容的提供尚無法符合使用者的資訊需求;使用者資訊的使用依然淺薄,對於入口網站資訊的利用著重在輕薄短小的即時影像;網站實際提供的政府整合性資訊則較乏人問津。此外,使用者進入網站後停留的時間相當短暫,瀏覽的網頁數量相當小,顯示入口網站在便用者的社群經營上缺乏著力點。

    The users’ patterns of e-government entry-point of Taiwan are reported through log file examinations. Recommendations to improve the

  2. Fathers' behaviors and children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2010-04-01

    The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Point-of-care salivary microbial tests for detection of cariogenic species - Clinical relevance thereof - review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenčová, E.; Broukal, Z.; Spížek, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 55 (2010), s. 559-568 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : CARIES RISK-ASSESSMENT * EARLY-CHILDHOOD CARIES * ROOT SURFACE CARIES Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.977, year: 2010

  4. ICS teaching module: Detrusor leak point pressures in patients with relevant neurological abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarcan, Tufan; Demirkesen, Oktay; Plata, Mauricio; Castro-Diaz, David

    2017-02-01

    This manuscript serves as a scientific background review; the evidence base, for the presentation made available on ICS website to summarize current knowledge and recommendations for the measurement and use of the DLPP. This review has been prepared by a Working Group of The ICS Urodynamics Committee. The methodology used included comprehensive literature review, consensus formation by the members of the Working Group, and review by members of the ICS Urodynamics Committee core panel. DLPP has been recommended and utilized in the urodynamic evaluation of N-LUTD for many years, but it lacks standardization and there are numerous pitfalls in its measurement. EFP and LPP associated with N-DO are frequently and mistakenly reported as DLPP. The information that high DLPP predicts UUTD originates from retrospective cohort studies of a low level of evidence (LoE 3). Existing data confirm that patients with lower DLPP do better than patients with higher DLPP in terms of their upper urinary tract. However, there appears to be no reliable 'safe/no safe' cut-off for DLPP since there are other urodynamic factors that influence UUTD such as bladder compliance and more. Although higher DLPP is associated with a greater risk of UUTD, there is no reliable cut-off level to undoubtedly discriminate the risky group, including the traditional cut-off level of 40 cm H 2 O. Therefore, DLPP should not be used as the sole urodynamic parameter. Future research should be directed to standardization of the technique and better classification of DLPP cut-offs in N-LUTD. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:259-262, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Epilepsy-induced behavioral changes during the ictal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy, experiential phenomena and behavioral manifestations may pose a number of problems in terms of differential diagnosis. From a clinical point of view, ictal psychiatric symptoms represent partial seizures, mainly partial ones. In the majority of cases, they are very brief (lasting from a few seconds to a few minutes), stereotyped, out of context, and frequently associated with subtle or overt automatisms and postictal confusion of variable duration. In some cases, such symptoms are followed by alteration of consciousness as the ictus evolves to a complex partial seizure or a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. This paper reviews clinically relevant behavioral patterns during seizures discussing clinical phenomenology and relevance in terms of lateralizing value. © 2013.

  6. Point of Care Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Goudie, Adrian; Chiorean, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of portable ultrasound scanners has enhanced the concept of point of care ultrasound (PoC-US), namely, "ultrasound performed at the bedside and interpreted directly by the treating clinician." PoC-US is not a replacement for comprehensive ultrasound, but rather allow...... and critical care medicine, cardiology, anesthesiology, rheumatology, obstetrics, neonatology, gynecology, gastroenterology and many other applications. In the future, PoC-US will be more diverse than ever and be included in medical student training.......Over the last decade, the use of portable ultrasound scanners has enhanced the concept of point of care ultrasound (PoC-US), namely, "ultrasound performed at the bedside and interpreted directly by the treating clinician." PoC-US is not a replacement for comprehensive ultrasound, but rather allows...

  7. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    performance of point positioning for kinematic applications, the precise point positioning attracted a lot of attention and opened a new alternative door to kinematic positioning. In this report different tests have been done to evaluate the ability and accuracy of the software TriP in the kinematic...... and static case by using internal consistency (residuals, RMS, repeatability etc.), known coordinates, ground truth and double-differenced solutions. The kinematic GPS positioning accuracy using four different software systems has been investigated and tested by comparing the degree of agreement between...... the airborne lidar system misalignment angle by automating the matching of lidar data with ground truth. Kinematic GPS positioning has been widely used, but the available commercial software systems are normally only suitable for the short or medium range kinematic baseline. However, in polar areas, airborne...

  8. Point clouds in BIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antova, Gergana; Kunchev, Ivan; Mickrenska-Cherneva, Christina

    2016-10-01

    The representation of physical buildings in Building Information Models (BIM) has been a subject of research since four decades in the fields of Construction Informatics and GeoInformatics. The early digital representations of buildings mainly appeared as 3D drawings constructed by CAD software, and the 3D representation of the buildings was only geometric, while semantics and topology were out of modelling focus. On the other hand, less detailed building representations, with often focus on ‘outside’ representations were also found in form of 2D /2,5D GeoInformation models. Point clouds from 3D laser scanning data give a full and exact representation of the building geometry. The article presents different aspects and the benefits of using point clouds in BIM in the different stages of a lifecycle of a building.

  9. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · HABITAT TYPES & PRIMATE GROUPS · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · TOPOGRAPHY OF KARNATAKA · SOUTHERN PLATEAU · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · WESTERN GHATS · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · LARGE SQUIRRELS · Slide 19 · OPEN PLAINS · Slide 21 · Slide 22.

  10. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Getting Smart with Smart Windows! Slide 5 · Energy Crisis!! Total World Primary Energy Supply · “We Ride on Water!” Volume for storage of 4 kg H2 in different states · Slide 10 · Linkers make a Difference! Coordination Polymers · Principle Behind Formation of MOFs · Slide 14.

  11. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Distribution of viral encephalitis · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Status dystonicus in Japanese encephalitis.

  12. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25.

  13. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Planck CMB sky map · Slide 9 · Planck Angular power spectrum · CMB Polarization spectra · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Cosmological Parameters · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Hemispherical asymmetry · Modulation model of SI ...

  14. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · The Heat Engine of the Earth · Slide 4 · Volcanoes at various settings · Slide 6 · Why study carbonatites? Uniqueness of Carbonatites · Origin of Carbonatites · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Primary Objectives · Methods/Tracers Used · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Demands for Space Transportation Systems for the next 30 years · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Launch demand & costs · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24.

  16. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 mai 2012 ... cervico-thoracique confirme l'existence d'un goitre plon- geant aux dépens du lobe droit restant à 15 mm de la crosse aortique associé à un processus expansif tissulai- ... DU CANCER DIFFERENCIE DE LA ThYROIDE. R. BEN M'hAMED et al. Journal ORL N°26 .ai:Mise au point 07/05/12 09:45 page54 ...

  17. The Relevance of Hegel's Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Burbidge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance.

  18. Other relevant numerical modelling papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ocean modelling is a rapidly evolving science and a large number of results have been published. Several categories of papers are of particular interest for this review: the papers published by the international atomic institutions, such as the NEA (for the CRESP or Subseabed Programs), the IAEA (for example the Safety Series, the Technical Report Series or the TECDOC), and the ICRP, and the papers concerned by more fundamental research, which are published in specific scientific literature. This paper aims to list some of the most relevant publications for the CRESP purposes. It means by no way to be exhaustive, but informative on the incontestable progress recently achieved in that field. One should note that some of these papers are so recent that their final version has not yet been published

  19. Critical point predication device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kazuhiko; Kariyama, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    An operation for predicting a critical point by using a existent reverse multiplication method has been complicated, and an effective multiplication factor could not be plotted directly to degrade the accuracy for the prediction. The present invention comprises a detector counting memory section for memorizing the counting sent from a power detector which monitors the reactor power, a reverse multiplication factor calculation section for calculating the reverse multiplication factor based on initial countings and current countings of the power detector, and a critical point prediction section for predicting the criticality by the reverse multiplication method relative to effective multiplication factors corresponding to the state of the reactor core previously determined depending on the cases. In addition, a reactor core characteristic calculation section is added for analyzing an effective multiplication factor depending on the state of the reactor core. Then, if the margin up to the criticality is reduced to lower than a predetermined value during critical operation, an alarm is generated to stop the critical operation when generation of a period of more than a predetermined value predicted by succeeding critical operation. With such procedures, forecasting for the critical point can be easily predicted upon critical operation to greatly mitigate an operator's burden and improve handling for the operation. (N.H.)

  20. Modeling of the behavior under fuel dispersed irradiation of U-Mo with aluminum matrix from the thermal point of view and its interrelationship with the interdiffusion phase fuel / matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscarda, Maria V.; Taboada, Horacio H.; Rest, J.

    2009-01-01

    Results from postirradiation examinations of U-Mo / Al dispersion fuels plates denotes a strong interrelation and feedback between the fuel-matrix interaction and the fuel temperature, bringing undesired consequences on the total swelling and behavior under irradiation. The present work approaches this problem, modeling the profile of temperatures moment by moment to be able to evaluate the increase of this interaction. The Fast Dart program is used, optimized version of program Dart, developed by Dr. J. Rest in collaboration with Dr. H. Taboada. A subroutine of thermal calculation was implemented in this code, which allowed to calculate the evolution of the interaction between the fuel and the matrix. The results of simulations are compared with the results of postirradiation examinations realized by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors International Program. In particular, a good adjustment in the calculation of the depth of interdiffusion U-Mo/Al is observed, demonstrating a right estimation of the profile of temperatures on the fuel plate. It is considered necessary the inclusion of a model that describes the phases that form in the zone of interaction, denoting its thermal dependency and effects due to the radiation damage. (author)

  1. Approach behavior as information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uijen, Sophie L; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M

    2017-12-01

    Anxious individuals infer danger from information about physiological responses, anxiety responses, and safety behaviors. This study investigated whether anxious individuals also infer safety from approach behavior. 325 students rated the danger they perceived in general and spider-relevant scenarios in which information about objective safety versus objective danger, and approach behavior versus no approach behavior, was varied. A high and low spider fearful group was created with a median split on spider fear. Participants with a high fear of spiders, compared to participants with low spider fear, rated spider scenarios with approach behavior as safer than spider scenarios without approach behavior. This effect was similar for objectively dangerous and safe spider scenarios. No behavior as information effects were found for general scenarios. The data were collected in a non-clinical student sample. Spider fearful individuals infer safety from approach behavior in spider-relevant scenarios. For spider fearful individuals, approach behavior may add to the beneficial effects of exposure therapy. Future research is needed to investigate whether patients with anxiety disorders also show a tendency to infer safety from approach behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of methods for finding saddle points without knowledge of the final states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R A; Kroes, G J; Henkelman, G; Arnaldsson, A; Jónsson, H

    2004-11-22

    Within the harmonic approximation to transition state theory, the biggest challenge involved in finding the mechanism or rate of transitions is the location of the relevant saddle points on the multidimensional potential energy surface. The saddle point search is particularly challenging when the final state of the transition is not specified. In this article we report on a comparison of several methods for locating saddle points under these conditions and compare, in particular, the well-established rational function optimization (RFO) methods using either exact or approximate Hessians with the more recently proposed minimum mode following methods where only the minimum eigenvalue mode is found, either by the dimer or the Lanczos method. A test problem involving transitions in a seven-atom Pt island on a Pt(111) surface using a simple Morse pairwise potential function is used and the number of degrees of freedom varied by varying the number of movable atoms. In the full system, 175 atoms can move so 525 degrees of freedom need to be optimized to find the saddle points. For testing purposes, we have also restricted the number of movable atoms to 7 and 1. Our results indicate that if attempting to make a map of all relevant saddle points for a large system (as would be necessary when simulating the long time scale evolution of a thermal system) the minimum mode following methods are preferred. The minimum mode following methods are also more efficient when searching for the lowest saddle points in a large system, and if the force can be obtained cheaply. However, if only the lowest saddle points are sought and the calculation of the force is expensive but a good approximation for the Hessian at the starting position of the search can be obtained at low cost, then the RFO approaches employing an approximate Hessian represent the preferred choice. For small and medium sized systems where the force is expensive to calculate, the RFO approaches employing an approximate

  3. Myositis ossificans of the elbow after a trigger point injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Kang, Sung Shik

    2011-03-01

    Trigger point injection is a simple procedure that is widely performed for relieving pain. Even though there are several complications of trigger point injection, myositis ossificans has not been documented as one of its complications. We treated a patient who suffered from painful limitation of elbow motion and this was caused by myositis ossificans between the insertions of brachialis and supinator muscles after a trigger point injection containing lidocaine mixed with saline, and we also review the relevant medical literature.

  4. Critical Behavior of Thermal Expansion and Magnetostriction in the Vicinity of the First order transition at the Curie Point of Gd5(SixGe1-x)4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mangui [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Thermal expansion (TE) and magnetostriction (MS) measurements have been conducted for Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 with a series of x values to study its critical behavior in the vicinity of transition temperatures. It was found that the Curie temperature of Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 for x 0 ~ 0.5 is dependent on magnetic field, direction of change of temperature (Tc on cooling was lower than Tc on heating), purity of Gd starting material, compositions, material preparation methods, and also can be triggered by the external magnetic field with a different dT/dB rate for different x values. For Gd5(Si1.95Ge2.05), Gd5(Si2Ge2), Gd5(Si2.09Ge1.91), it was also found that the transition is a first order magneto-structural transition, which means the magnetic transition and crystalline structure transition occur simultaneously, and completely reversible. Temperature hysteresis and phase coexistence have been found to confirm that it is a first order transformation. While for Gd5(Si0.15Ge3.85), it is partially reversible at some temperature range between the antiferromagnetic and the ferromagnetic state. For Gd5(Si2.3Ge1.7) and Gd5(Si3Ge1), it was a second order transformation between the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, because no ΔT have been found. Giant magnetostriction was only found on Gd5(Si1.95Ge2.05), Gd5(Si2Ge2), Gd5(Si2.09Ge1.91) in their vicinity of first order transformation. MFM images have also been taken on polycrystal sample Gd5(Si2.09Ge1.91) to investigate the transformation process. The results also indicates that the Curie temperature was lower and the thermally

  5. The relevance of "non-relevant metabolites" from plant protection products (PPPs) for drinking water: the German view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Hermann H

    2010-03-01

    "Non-relevant metabolites" are those degradation products of plant protection products (PPPs), which are devoid of the targeted toxicities of the PPP and devoid of genotoxicity. Most often, "non-relevant metabolites" have a high affinity to the aquatic environment, are very mobile within this environment, and, usually, are also persistent. Therefore, from the point of drinking water hygiene, they must be characterized as "relevant for drinking water" like many other hydrophilic/polar environmental contaminants of different origins. "Non-relevant metabolites" may therefore penetrate to water sources used for abstraction of drinking water and may thus ultimately be present in drinking water. The presence of "non-relevant metabolites" and similar trace compounds in the water cycle may endanger drinking water quality on a long-term scale. During oxidative drinking water treatment, "non-relevant metabolites" may also serve as the starting material for toxicologically relevant transformation products similar to processes observed by drinking water disinfection with chlorine. This hypothesis was recently confirmed by the detection of the formation of N-nitroso-dimethylamine from ozone and dimethylsulfamide, a "non-relevant metabolite" of the fungicide tolylfluanide. In order to keep drinking water preferably free of "non-relevant metabolites", the German drinking water advisory board of the Federal Ministry of Health supports limiting their penetration into raw and drinking water to the functionally (agriculturally) unavoidable extent. On this background, the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) recently has recommended two health related indication values (HRIV) to assess "non-relevant metabolites" from the view of drinking water hygiene. Considering the sometimes incomplete toxicological data base for some "non-relevant metabolites", HRIV also have the role of health related precautionary values. Depending on the completeness and quality of the toxicological

  6. Problems in the theory of point explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobeinikov, V. P.

    The book is concerned with the development of the theory of point explosions, which is relevant to the study of such phenomena as the initiation of detonation, high-power explosions, electric discharges, cosmic explosions, laser blasts, and hypersonic aerodynamics. The discussion covers the principal equations and the statement of problems; linearized non-self-similar one-dimensional problems; spherical, cylindrical, and plane explosions with allowance for counterpressure under conditions of constant initial density; explosions in a combustible mixture of gases; and point explosions in inhomogeneous media with nonsymmetric energy release. Attention is also given to point explosions in an electrically conducting gas with allowance for the effect of the magnetic field and to the propagation of perturbations from solar flares.

  7. The tipping point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilly Salmon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available How delightful that Pam Moule (2007 has taken the trouble to challenge the fivestage model for e-learning! I would hate to think that the model has served to cut off any discourses about e-learning at a time of huge potential for the future of higher and professional education. No one benefits by any model being taken or used uncritically or out of context or culture. The challenges we face in providing exciting, worthwhile and effective learning through whatever medium grow daily. I would be so pleased if others could respond too, so that this model, first developed more than 12 years ago in a different era but since used extensively, could continue to be further examined for relevance and helpfulness.

  8. Tipping point leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2003-04-01

    When William Bratton was appointed police commissioner of New York City in 1994, turf wars over jurisdiction and funding were rife and crime was out of control. Yet in less than two years, and without an increase in his budget, Bratton turned New York into the safest large city in the nation. And the NYPD was only the latest of five law-enforcement agencies Bratton had turned around. In each case, he succeeded in record time despite limited resources, a demotivated staff, opposition from powerful vested interests, and an organization wedded to the status quo. Bratton's turnarounds demonstrate what the authors call tipping point leadership. The theory of tipping points hinges on the insight that in any organization, fundamental changes can occur quickly when the beliefs and energies of a critical mass of people create an epidemic movement toward an idea. Bratton begins by overcoming the cognitive hurdles that block organizations from recognizing the need for change. He does this by putting managers face-to-face with operational problems. Next, he manages around limitations on funds, staff, or equipment by concentrating resources on the areas that are most in need of change and that have the biggest payoffs. He meanwhile solves the motivation problem by singling out key influencers--people with disproportionate power due to their connections or persuasive abilities. Finally, he closes off resistance from powerful opponents. Not every CEO has the personality to be a Bill Bratton, but his successes are due to much more than his personality. He relies on a remarkably consistent method that any manager looking to turn around an organization can use to overcome the forces of inertia and reach the tipping point.

  9. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Metal Oxides: Range of properties · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27.

  10. PowerPoint Presentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · 2-D Aromaticity · Condensed Aromatics and Hückel Rule · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24 · Slide 25 · Slide 26 · Slide 27 · Slide 28.

  11. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tomie est replacé et fixé par des fils d'acier, krönlein lais- sait ce fragment pédiculé au fascia temporalis afin d'évi- ter la dépression de la fosse temporale due à la désinser- tion du muscle temporal [20] ; dans notre série, après reconstitution du cadre, le muscle temporal est suturé à son point d'insertion. pour les tumeurs ...

  12. The point on.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this last article, we find the point of view about the world petroleum activity, the reserves and the recent discoveries, the deep offshore, the technological developments in petroleum upstream. The petroleum situation in China is treated. The trends of world refining are described. The recent technological developments in the petroleum downstream are detailed. The prices of crude oil and the refining margins are the subject of a chapter. The investments of hydrocarbons area are given, the world trade and the lng projects, the gas availability in Western Europe have their place. The trends of European automobile industry and the fuels distribution are also discussed. (N.C.)

  13. Torsades de Pointes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Chen, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 70-year-old male with a history ventricular arrhythmia, AICD (automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator, coronary artery disease and cardiac stents presented to the Emergency Department after three AICD discharges with dyspnea but no chest pain. During triage, he was found to have an irregular radial pulse and was placed on a cardiac monitor. Significant findings: The patient was found to be in a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; he was alert, awake and asymptomatic. A rhythm strip showed a wide complex tachycardia with the QRS complex varying in amplitude around the isoelectric line consistent with Torsades de Pointes. Discussion: Torsades de Pointes (TdP is a specific type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The arrhythmia’s characteristic morphology consists of the QRS complex “twisting” around the isoelectric line with gradual variation of the amplitude, reflecting its literal translation of “twisting of the points.”1 This arrhythmia occurs in the context of prolonged QT. The most common form of acquired QT prolongation is medication induced. Common causes include antiarrhythmics, antipsychotics, antiemetics, and antibiotics.2 Patient specific risk factors include female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypothermia and heart disease.3 In the setting of prolonged QT, the repolarization phase is extended. TdP is initiated when a PVC (premature ventricular contraction occurs during this repolarization, known as an ‘R on T’ phenomenon. TdP is often asymptomatic and self-limited. The danger in TdP is its potential to deteriorate into ventricular fibrillation. A mainstay of management of TdP is prevention of risk factors when possible.4 Unstable patients should be treated with synchronized cardioversion. Magnesium sulfate should be administered in all cases of TdP.1 If a patient is not responsive to magnesium, consider isoproterenol, amiodarone, and overdrive

  14. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relative Critical Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.

  16. Referential Zero Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Potrč

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most important controversy in which ordinary language philosophy was involved is that of definite descriptions, presenting referential act as a community-involving communication-intention endeavor, thereby opposing the direct acquaintance-based and logical proper names inspired reference aimed at securing truth conditions of referential expression. The problem of reference is that of obtaining access to the matters in the world. This access may be forthcoming through the senses, or through descriptions. A review of how the problem of reference is handled shows though that one main practice is to indulge in relations of acquaintance supporting logical proper names, demonstratives, indexicals and causal or historical chains. This testifies that the problem of reference involves the zero point, and with it phenomenology of intentionality. Communication-intention is but one dimension of rich phenomenology that constitutes an agent’s experiential space, his experiential world. Zero point is another constitutive aspect of phenomenology involved in the referential relation. Realizing that the problem of reference is phenomenology based opens a new perspective upon the contribution of analytical philosophy in this area, reconciling it with continental approach, and demonstrating variations of the impossibility related to the real. Chromatic illumination from the cognitive background empowers the referential act, in the best tradition of ordinary language philosophy.

  17. Bright point study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona

  18. The problem of a psychological definition of "Legally relevant situations"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich N. V.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the concept of "legally significant situation." Discusses the classification of situations from the point of view of criminology and forensic psychological assessment. Highlights the main features of this type of situations from the point of view of psychology: the nature of conflict, involving the participation of third parties, as well as the presence of certain psychological consequences. This allows to describe the Genesis of certain situations, and to identify the States generated at each stage. It is also noted that the specificity of the legally significant cases involving minors is its group nature (the child as part of a family or other group. Thus, it is possible to give the following definition of a legally relevant situation within legal psychology, children and adolescents: a situation involving minors, subjects who are in relationships, conflict is caused by interactions in the legal context, which leads not only to legally relevant, but also to the psychological consequences for its participants.

  19. THE RELEVANCE OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING FOR THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Briciu Sorin; Scorte Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In the contemporary period the tourism and hospitality industry has experienced dynamic growth despite the challenges facing not only the global crisis, but also market changes, consumer behavior and technological trends. Accounting, the language of business is required to keep up with changes made to each particular area of activity so that they can provide timely relevant information to be managed by an efficient information system. Our article focuses on presenting the importance of manage...

  20. Media and mental illness: Relevance to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Media has a complex interrelationship with mental illnesses. This narrative review takes a look at the various ways in which media and mental illnesses interact. Relevant scientific literature and electronic databases were searched, including Pubmed and GoogleScholar, to identify studies, viewpoints and recommendations using keywords related to media and mental illnesses. This review discusses both the positive and the negative portrayals of mental illnesses through the media. The portrayal of mental health professionals and psychiatric treatment is also discussed. The theories explaining the relationship of how media influences the attitudes and behavior are discussed. Media has also been suggested to be a risk factor for the genesis or exacerbation of mental illnesses like eating disorders and substance use disorders. The potential use of media to understand the psychopathology and plight of those with psychiatric disorders is referred to. The manner in which media can be used as a tool for change to reduce the stigma surrounding mental illnesses is explored.

  1. Comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty: relevant radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, L.E. de

    2001-01-01

    With the first version of the IDC software all known radionuclides, less the natural ones and one 'naturalised' man-made one, caused a spectrum measured in the IMS network to be characterised as interesting from a CTBT point of view. But this is really not true for the majority of nuclides, so a change has been made to let only nuclides from a limited set of so called CTBT relevant nuclides have an impact on the characterization scheme. In the present paper the concept of CTBT relevance is analysed and a set of 96 relevant nuclides are defined. Out of these 51 are fission products and 41 are neutron activation products. There are also 4 nuclides which are residues from the nuclear fuel itself or added tracers. (orig.) [de

  2. Learning Enhances Sensory Processing in Mouse V1 before Improving Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjut, Ovidiu; Georgieva, Petya; Busse, Laura; Katzner, Steffen

    2017-07-05

    A fundamental property of visual cortex is to enhance the representation of those stimuli that are relevant for behavior, but it remains poorly understood how such enhanced representations arise during learning. Using classical conditioning in adult mice of either sex, we show that orientation discrimination is learned in a sequence of distinct behavioral stages, in which animals first rely on stimulus appearance before exploiting its orientation to guide behavior. After confirming that orientation discrimination under classical conditioning requires primary visual cortex (V1), we measured, during learning, response properties of V1 neurons. Learning improved neural discriminability, sharpened orientation tuning, and led to higher contrast sensitivity. Remarkably, these learning-related improvements in the V1 representation were fully expressed before successful orientation discrimination was evident in the animals' behavior. We propose that V1 plays a key role early in discrimination learning to enhance behaviorally relevant sensory information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Decades of research have documented that responses of neurons in visual cortex can reflect the behavioral relevance of visual information. The behavioral relevance of any stimulus needs to be learned, though, and little is known how visual sensory processing changes, as the significance of a stimulus becomes clear. Here, we trained mice to discriminate two visual stimuli, precisely quantified when learning happened, and measured, during learning, the neural representation of these stimuli in V1. We observed learning-related improvements in V1 processing, which were fully expressed before discrimination was evident in the animals' behavior. These findings indicate that sensory and behavioral improvements can follow different time courses and point toward a key role of V1 at early stages in discrimination learning. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376460-15$15.00/0.

  3. EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES: CLASSIFICATION, FUNCTIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Oberemko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a generalized definition of vesicles as bilayer extracellular organelles of all celular forms of life: not only eu-, but also prokaryotic. The structure and composition of extracellular vesicles, history of research, nomenclature, their impact on life processes in health and disease are discussed. Moreover, vesicles may be useful as clinical instruments for biomarkers, and they are promising as biotechnological drug. However, many questions in this area are still unresolved and need to be addressed in the future. The most interesting from the point of view of practical health care represents a direction to study the effect of exosomes and microvesicles in the development and progression of a particular disease, the possibility of adjusting the pathological process by means of extracellular vesicles of a particular type, acting as an active ingredient. Relevant is the further elucidation of the role and importance of exosomes to the surrounding cells, tissues and organs at the molecular level, the prospects for the use of non-cellular vesicles as biomarkers of disease.

  4. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  5. The Temporal Tipping Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    “Slow journalism” is a term anthropologist and sociologists sometimes use to describe their empirical work, ethnography. To journalists and media observers, meanwhile, “slow journalism” signifies a newfound dedication to serious long-form journalism. Not surprisingly, thus, “ethnographic journalism......”—a genre where reporters adopt research strategies from social science—takes “slow” to the extreme. Immersing themselves in communities for weeks, months and years, ethnographic journalists seek to gain what anthropologists call “the native's point of view”. Based on in-depth interviews with practitioners...... and analyses of their journalistic works, this paper offers a study of ethnographic journalism suggesting that slow time operates in at least three separate registers. First, in terms of regimentation, ethnographic journalism is mostly long-form pieces that demand time-consuming research and careful writing...

  6. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    In contemporary urban societies multiple networks and systems interact, overlap, exist in parallel, converge, conflict etc. creating unforeseen complexity and less transparency. By exploring how layered networks of physical movement, service information, goods delivery, commercial communication etc....... are connected (and disconnected) we get a much better understanding of how to design and intervene regardless if we are thinking about public spaces in the city or new systems of service design. The many networks orchestrating and facilitating contemporary everyday life are dependent on the strategic sites...... where the networks meet and establish contact. Thus we argue for the usefulness of the notion of Critical Point of Contact (CPC) to deepen our understanding of the actual life within networks. En route to this notion we draw upon theories within as diverse realms such as interaction design, service...

  7. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  8. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  9. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  10. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2012-01-01

    student studios made at the 1st semester of the Urban Design Master Programme in the fall of 2009 and 2010. The CPC concept is double edged since it both provides the stepping-stone for analysis as well as scaffolding for intervention and re-design. Thereby, it fits the underlying philosophy of teaching......In this brief article, we shall illustrate the application of the analytical and interventionist concept of ‘Critical Points of Contact’ (CPC) through a number of urban design studios. The notion of CPC has been developed over a span of the last three to four years and is reported in more detail...... elsewhere (Jensen & Morelli 2011). In this article, we will only discuss the conceptual and theoretical framing superficially, since our real interest is to show and discuss the concept's application value to spatial design in a number of urban design studios. The 'data' or the projects presented are seven...

  11. Arousal and consumer in-store behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeppel-Klein, Andrea

    2005-11-15

    From a psychophysiological point of view, arousal is a fundamental feature of behavior. As reported in different empirical studies based on insights from theories of consumer behavior, store atmosphere should evoke phasic arousal reactions to attract consumers. Most of these empirical investigations used verbal scales to measure consumers' perceived phasic arousal at the point-of-sale (POS). However, the validity of verbal arousal measurement is questioned; self-reporting methods only allow a time-lagged measurement. Furthermore, the selection of inappropriate items to represent perceived arousal is criticized, and verbal reports require some form of cognitive evaluation of perceived arousal by the individual, who might (in a non-measurement condition) not even be aware of the arousal. By contrast, phasic electrodermal reaction (EDR) has proven to be the most appropriate and valid indicator for measuring arousal [W. Boucsein, Physiologische Grundlagen und Messmethoden der dermalen Aktivität. In: F. Rösler (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Bereich Psychophysiologie, Band 1: Grundlagen and Methoden der Psychophysiologie, Kapitel, Vol. 7, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 2001, pp. 551-623] that could be relevant to behavior. EDR can be recorded simultaneously to the perception of stimuli. Furthermore, telemetric online device can be used, which enables physiological arousal measurement while participants can move freely through the store and perform the assigned task in the experiments. The present paper delivers insights on arousal theory and results from empirical studies using EDR to measure arousal at the POS.

  12. Simulating living organisms with populations of point vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The author has found that time-averaged images of small populations of point vortices can exhibit motions suggestive of the behavior of individual organisms. As an example, the author shows that collections of point vortices confined in a box and subjected to heating can generate patterns that are broadly similar to interspecies defense in certain sea anemones. It is speculated that other simple dynamical systems can be found to produce similar complex organism-like behavior.

  13. Relationships between melting point and boiling point of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalkowsky, S.H.; Krzyzaniak, J.F.; Myrdal, P.B. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). College of Pharmacy)

    1994-07-01

    Relationships between melting point and boiling point are shown to be dependent upon the molecular symmetry number and a modified count of the total number of atoms in the molecule. Using the above relationships, the boiling and melting points of nearly 1,000 non-hydrogen-bonding organic compounds have been correlated. The correlations for boiling point and melting point have root mean square errors of 28 and 36 C, respectively.

  14. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  15. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  16. Biology relevant to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors

  17. Does relevance matter in academic policy research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....

  18. Approximate Model for Turbulent Stagnation Point Flow.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Here we derive an approximate turbulent self-similar model for a class of favorable pressure gradient wedge-like flows, focusing on the stagnation point limit. While the self-similar model provides a useful gross flow field estimate this approach must be combined with a near wall model is to determine skin friction and by Reynolds analogy the heat transfer coefficient. The combined approach is developed in detail for the stagnation point flow problem where turbulent skin friction and Nusselt number results are obtained. Comparison to the classical Van Driest (1958) result suggests overall reasonable agreement. Though the model is only valid near the stagnation region of cylinders and spheres it nonetheless provides a reasonable model for overall cylinder and sphere heat transfer. The enhancement effect of free stream turbulence upon the laminar flow is used to derive a similar expression which is valid for turbulent flow. Examination of free stream enhanced laminar flow suggests that the rather than enhancement of a laminar flow behavior free stream disturbance results in early transition to turbulent stagnation point behavior. Excellent agreement is shown between enhanced laminar flow and turbulent flow behavior for high levels, e.g. 5% of free stream turbulence. Finally the blunt body turbulent stagnation results are shown to provide realistic heat transfer results for turbulent jet impingement problems.

  19. Addressing special structure in the relevance feedback learning problem through aspect-based image search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we focus on a number of issues regarding special structure in the relevance feedback learning problem, most notably the effects of image selection based on partial relevance on the clustering behavior of examples. We propose a simple scheme, aspect-based image search, which

  20. The Development of Relevance in Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese

  1. The Need for Culturally Relevant Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Brown, Nyama

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for culturally relevant teaching in dance education. Many dance teachers have heard the buzz words "culturally relevant teaching methods." Yet these dance educators acknowledge that the "dance culture" is not always synonymous with "culturally relevant." This paper examines the issue of culturally…

  2. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  3. Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Marquita L; McCoy, Kathleen P; Abram, Karen M; Byck, Gayle R; Teplin, Linda A

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is prevalent among youth, especially those involved in the juvenile justice system. Although many studies have examined suicidal ideation and behavior in delinquent youth, prevalence rates vary widely. This article reviews studies of suicidal ideation and behavior in youth in the juvenile justice system, focusing on the point of contact: incarceration status and stage of judicial processing. Suicidal ideation and behavior are prevalent and increase with greater involvement in the juvenile justice system. Depression, sexual abuse, and trauma were the most commonly identified predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. Prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and behavior vary by gender and race/ethnicity, indicating the need for gender-specific and culturally relevant interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Exploring the Relationships between Theories of Second Language Acquisition and Relevance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia de Paiva, Beatriz Mariz; Foster-Cohen, Susan H.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores a number of points at which Relevance Theory makes a useful contribution to second language theoretical models, specifically those of Bialystok and Schmidt and their respective notions of "analysis", "control" and "noticing". It is suggested that the inferential mechanisms of Relevance Theory can account for the contingencies…

  5. The Analysis of Human Behavior in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Murray

    2004-01-01

    Does the name of the special interest group, "The Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior," imply that those who analyze the behavior of human animals must organize themselves apart from those who analyze the behavior of nonhuman animals? Is the use of nonhumans in experiments really not relevant to the analysis of the behavior of humans? If so,…

  6. Aspectos epidemiológicos e imunitários da poliomielite em crianças menores de um ano em área da região da Grande São Paulo, Brasil Some aspects of epidemiological relevance of the behavior of poliomyelitis in children of less than one year of age in an area of Greater S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu Alves Waldman

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas algumas características, de interesse epidemiológico, do comportamento da poliomielite na Região da Grande São Paulo, Brasil, salientando a importância da sua ocorrência em menores de um ano. Foram analisados os resultados de um inquérito sorológico, por provas de neutralização, em gestantes atendidas em Centros de Saúde de 16 Distritos Sanitários dessa Região. Com base nessas observações, foi dado destaque para determinadas condições que propiciam a infecção por poliovírus muito precoce, das crianças da área em estudo. Foi proposta a imunização, com a vacina Salk, das gestantes nos 5º e 6º meses de gravidez ou a imunização das crianças, com vacina oral trivalente tipo Sabin, em período anterior aos dois meses de idade, ou seja, em torno do terceiro dia de vida, mas sem prejuízo da aplicação, em seguida, do esquema básico de imunização preconizada pelo Calendário de Vacinação oficial em vigor. Tais medidas visam à eliminação de possível lacuna imunitária na faixa etária de menores de um ano.Some characteristics of epidemiological relevance of the behavior of poliomyelitis in some Health Districts of Greater S. Paulo were studied, special emphasis being put on its occurrence in children of less than one year of agre. Next, the results of serological investigation, performed by means of neutralization tests, on pregnant women attended by Health Centers in sixteen Health Districts of Greater S. Paulo were analysed. Based on these observations the authors draw attention to certain conditions poliovirus infection in children. The immunization of pregnant women with Salk vaccine, during the fifth and sixth months of pregnancy, or, alternatively, the immunization of children with oral trivalent Sabin-type vaccine in the period before the age of two months, possibly about the third day after birth, is proposed; without, however, any change in the normal later application of the basic

  7. ELEVATION ON BOINLING POINT OF COFFE EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telis-Romero J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise in boiling point of coffee extract was experimentally measured at soluble solids concentrations in the range of 9.2 to 52.4ºBrix and pressures between 5.8 × 10³ and 9.4 × 10(4 Pa (abs.. Different approaches to representing experimental data, including the Dühring's rule, the Antoine equation and empirical models proposed in the literature were tested. In the range of 9.2 to 16.2ºBrix, the rise in boiling point was nearly independent of pressure, varying only with extract concentration. Considerable deviations of this behavior began to occur at concentrations higher than 16.2ºBrix. Experimental data could best be predicted by adjusting an empirical model which consists of a single equation that takes into account the dependence of rise in boiling point on pressure and concentration.

  8. Visibility of noisy point cloud data

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish

    2010-06-01

    We present a robust algorithm for estimating visibility from a given viewpoint for a point set containing concavities, non-uniformly spaced samples, and possibly corrupted with noise. Instead of performing an explicit surface reconstruction for the points set, visibility is computed based on a construction involving convex hull in a dual space, an idea inspired by the work of Katz et al. [26]. We derive theoretical bounds on the behavior of the method in the presence of noise and concavities, and use the derivations to develop a robust visibility estimation algorithm. In addition, computing visibility from a set of adaptively placed viewpoints allows us to generate locally consistent partial reconstructions. Using a graph based approximation algorithm we couple such reconstructions to extract globally consistent reconstructions. We test our method on a variety of 2D and 3D point sets of varying complexity and noise content. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Function Point Analysis Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.

  10. Five points on columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S Rockland

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract “Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five points, in no way comprehensive or canonical, but which may nevertheless serve as a prompt and aid for further discussions and reevaluation. These are: that anatomical columns are not solid structures, that they are part of locally interdigitating systems, that any delimited column also participates in a widely distributed network, that columns are not an obligatory cortical feature, and that columns (as “modules” occur widely in the brain in non-cortical structures. I focus on the larger scale macrocolumns, mainly from an anatomical perspective. My position is that cortical organization is inherently dynamic and likely to incorporate multiple processing styles. One can speculate that the distributed mappings within areas like piriform cortex may resemble at least one mode of neocortical processing strategy.

  11. ATLAS Point 1 Construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    After 3 years of work in point 1, a number of surface buildings have already been completed and handed over to CERN (the control, the gas and the cooling and ventilation buildings) and, probably more appealing to the public, 60,000 m3 of earth have already been excavated from underground. At present, the technical cavern USA15 and its access shaft are almost finished, leaving only the main cavern and the liaison galleries to be completed in the coming year and a half. The main cavern has been excavated down to the radiation limit and its walls and vault will presently be concreted (see below the picture of the section of the vault with the impressive shell of 1.2 m thickness). The excavation of the bench (27 vertical metres to go yet!) will proceed from August, when some additional civil engineering work in the LHC tunnel will be undertaken. Needless to say many different services are necessary around the detector, both for its installation and future operation for physics. To that end much of the heavy...

  12. Point 1 Updates

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J.

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Not only has Civil Engineering finished the construction of the USA15 technical cavern, but the excavation of the main UX15 cavern has resumed below the machine tunnel, after a brief halt to allow the construction of the UJ-caverns for the power converters of the LHC machine. The excavation work should end in August 2002. The UX15 hand-over to ATLAS is expected in April 2003. On the surface civil engineering is starting to complete the last two surface buildings (SDX1 and SH1), once the services (cooling pipes, ventilation ducts and the largest item, the lift modules and its lift of course) in the shaft PX15 have been completed. But the civil engineering is not all. A lot more is under way. The site installation of the steel structures in the caverns is to begin in Autumn, along with all the cooling pipes, airconditi...

  13. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  14. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  15. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  16. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  17. Behaviorism and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work.

  18. On Motivating Operations at the Point of Online Purchase Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Arntzen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior analysis can be applied over a wide range of economic topics in which the main focus is the contingencies that influence the behavior of the economic agent. This paper provides an overview on the work that has been done on the impact from motivating operations at the point of online purchase situation. Motivating operations, a…

  19. Nostalgia's place among self-relevant emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-07-24

    How is nostalgia positioned among self-relevant emotions? We tested, in six studies, which self-relevant emotions are perceived as most similar versus least similar to nostalgia, and what underlies these similarities/differences. We used multidimensional scaling to chart the perceived similarities/differences among self-relevant emotions, resulting in two-dimensional models. The results were revealing. Nostalgia is positioned among self-relevant emotions characterised by positive valence, an approach orientation, and low arousal. Nostalgia most resembles pride and self-compassion, and least resembles embarrassment and shame. Our research pioneered the integration of nostalgia among self-relevant emotions.

  20. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. a Curvature Based Adaptive Neighborhood for Individual Point Cloud Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, E.; Chen, Q.; Wang, H.; Liu, X.

    2017-09-01

    As a key step in 3D scene analysis, point cloud classification has gained a great deal of concerns in the past few years. Due to the uneven density, noise and data missing in point cloud, how to automatically classify the point cloud with a high precision is a very challenging task. The point cloud classification process typically includes the extraction of neighborhood based statistical information and machine learning algorithms. However, the robustness of neighborhood is limited to the density and curvature of the point cloud which lead to a label noise behavior in classification results. In this paper, we proposed a curvature based adaptive neighborhood for individual point cloud classification. Our main improvement is the curvature based adaptive neighborhood method, which could derive ideal 3D point local neighborhood and enhance the separability of features. The experiment result on Oakland benchmark dataset shows that the proposed method can effectively improve the classification accuracy of point cloud.

  2. Study of behavior, preferences and attitudes visitors tourist destinations Tara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic development of the Serbian economy is tourism. Tourist destinations Tara has great tourism potential. The starting assumption for the development of tourism and creating a tourist destination brand of Tara is the analysis of image of tourism, and this is exactly the subject of the current paper. The image analysis includes the examination of preferences, attitudes and behavior of visitors to this tourist destination. This research is exploratory, but may be a useful starting point for further, more comprehensive research on which the results would be based upon serious analysis and making relevant decisions.

  3. Earning points for moral behavior: organ allocation based on reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelingien, An; Krom, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Anticipating the reevaluation of the Dutch organ procurement system, in late 2003 the Rathenau Institute published a study entitled 'Gift or Contribution?' In this study, the author, Govert den Hartogh, carries out a thorough moral analysis of the problem of organ shortage and fair allocation of organs. He suggests there should be a change in mentality whereby organ donation is no longer viewed in terms of charity and the volunteer spirit, but rather in terms of duty and reciprocity. The procurement and allocation of donor organs should be seen as a system of mutually assured help. Fair allocation would imply to give priority to those who recognize and comply with their duty: the registered donors. The idea of viewing organ donation as an undertaking involving mutual benefit rather than as a matter of charity, however, is not new. Notwithstanding the fact that reference to charity and altruism is not required in order for the organ donation to be of moral significance, we will argue against the reciprocity-based scenario. Steering organ allocation towards those who are themselves willing to donate organs is both an ineffective and morally questionable means of attempting to counter organ shortage.

  4. Root and critical point behaviors of certain sums of polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seon-Hong Kim

    2018-04-24

    Apr 24, 2018 ... Introduction. There is an extensive literature concerning roots of sums of polynomials. Many authors. [5–7] have written about these polynomials. Perhaps the most immediate question of sums of polynomials, A+ B = C is: 'given bounds for the roots of A and B, what bounds can be given for the roots of C?' ...

  5. Root and Critical Point Behaviors of Certain Sums of Polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    13

    There is an extensive literature concerning roots of sums of polynomials. Many papers and books([5], [6],. [7]) have written about these polynomials. Perhaps the most immediate question of sums of polynomials,. A + B = C, is “given bounds for the roots of A and B, what bounds can be given for the roots of C?” By. Fell [3], if ...

  6. Zero point energy and zero point oscillations: how they are detected experimentally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipenyuk, Yurii M.

    2012-08-01

    The zero point energy of a system in a potential well is reviewed as a concept, with some history of the development behind it, and a discussion is given of how it can be detected experimentally from the electronic-vibrational spectrum of molecules with different isotopes (isotope effect). Also discussed is how the zero point oscillations of crystal lattice atoms show up in the diffraction of X-rays and neutrons from crystals and in the temperature dependence of the Mössbauer effect probability. Other topics include measuring zero point oscillations of water molecules in a nanotube to determine the form of the potential energy of the system; the role of zero point oscillations in the dynamics of electrons in semiconductors, and experiments on the optical cooling and quantum behavior of mechanical oscillators.

  7. Introduction to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A

    2010-09-01

    Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.

  8. Turning points in climate change adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Elisabeth. Werners

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concerned decision makers increasingly pose questions as to whether current management practices are able to cope with climate change and increased climate variability. This signifies a shift in the framing of climate change from asking what its potential impacts are to asking whether it induces policy failure and unacceptable change. In this paper, we explore the background, feasibility, and consequences of this new framing. We focus on the specific situation in which a social-political threshold of concern is likely to be exceeded as a result of climate change, requiring consideration of alternative strategies. Action is imperative when such a situation is conceivable, and at this point climate change becomes particularly relevant to decision makers. We call this situation an "adaptation turning point." The assessment of adaptation turning points converts uncertainty surrounding the extent of a climate impact into a time range over which it is likely that specific thresholds will be exceeded. This can then be used to take adaptive action. Despite the difficulty in identifying adaptation turning points and the relative newness of the approach, experience so far suggests that the assessment generates a meaningful dialogue between stakeholders and scientists. Discussion revolves around the amount of change that is acceptable; how likely it is that unacceptable, or more favorable, conditions will be reached; and the adaptation pathways that need to be considered under these circumstances. Defining and renegotiating policy objectives under climate change are important topics in the governance of adaptation.

  9. The computed cranial focal point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G.A. de; Maal, T.J.J.; Delye, H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stereophotogrammetry is a radiation-free method for monitoring skull development after craniosynostosis repair. Lack of clear fixed reference points complicate longitudinal comparison of 3D photographs. Therefore we developed the 'computed cranial focal point' (CCFP). METHODS: The CCFP

  10. What's the Point?: A Review of Reward Systems Implemented in Gamification Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Swartz, Maria C; Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2016-04-01

    Rewards are commonly used in interventions to change behavior, but they can inhibit development of intrinsic motivation, which is associated with long-term behavior maintenance. Gamification is a novel intervention strategy that may target intrinsic motivation through fun and enjoyment. Before the effects of gamified interventions on motivation can be determined, there must be an understanding of how gamified interventions operationalize rewards, such as point systems. The purpose of this review is to determine the prevalence of different reward types, specifically point systems, within gamified interventions. Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles. Data sources included Medline OVID, Medline PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, and PsycINFO. Out of the 21 articles retrieved, 18 studies described a reward system and were included in this review. Gamified interventions were designed to target a myriad of clinical outcomes across diverse populations. Rewards included points (n = 14), achievements/badges/medals (n = 7), tangible rewards (n = 7), currency (n = 4), other unspecified rewards (n = 3), likes (n = 2), animated feedback (n = 1), and kudos (n = 1). Rewards, and points in particular, appear to be a foundational component of gamified interventions. Despite their prevalence, authors seldom described the use of noncontingent rewards or how the rewards interacted with other game features. The reward systems relying on tangible rewards and currency may have been limited by inhibited intrinsic motivation. As gamification proliferates, future research should explicitly describe how rewards were operationalized in the intervention and evaluate the effects of gamified rewards on motivation across populations and research outcomes.

  11. Modelling Complex Relevance Spaces with Copulas

    OpenAIRE

    Eickhoff, Carsten; Vries, Arjen

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractModern relevance models consider a wide range of criteria in order to identify those documents that are expected to satisfy the user's information need. With growing dimensionality of the underlying relevance spaces the need for sophisticated score combination and estimation schemes arises. In this paper, we investigate the use of copulas, a model family from the domain of robust statistics, for the formal estimation of the probability of relevance in high-dimensional spaces. Our ...

  12. Magic Pointing for Eyewear Computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalaliniya, Shahram; Mardanbegi, Diako; Pederson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a combination of head and eye movements for touchlessly controlling the "mouse pointer" on eyewear devices, exploiting the speed of eye pointing and accuracy of head pointing. The method is a wearable computer-targeted variation of the original MAGIC pointing approach...

  13. Characterization of Nanoparticle Aggregation in Biologically Relevant Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnnis, Kathleen; Lahann, Joerg

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are often studied as drug delivery vehicles, but little is known about their behavior in blood once injected into animal models. If the NPs aggregate in blood, they will be shunted to the liver or spleen instead of reaching the intended target. The use of animals for these experiments is costly and raises ethical questions. Typically dynamic light scattering (DLS) is used to analyze aggregation behavior, but DLS cannot be used because the components of blood also scatter light. As an alternative, a method of analyzing NPs in biologically relevant fluids such as blood plasma has been developed using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) with fluorescent filters. In this work, NTA was used to analyze the aggregation behavior of fluorescent polystyrene NPs with different surface modifications in blood plasma. It was expected that different surface chemistries on the particles will change the aggregation behavior. The effect of the surface modifications was investigated by quantifying the percentage of NPs in aggregates after addition to blood plasma. The use of this characterization method will allow for better understanding of particle behavior in the body, and potential problems, specifically aggregation, can be addressed before investing in in vivo studies.

  14. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X H; Zhang, X Y [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Physics Department, and Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory) of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu, C L [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, R S [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ando, M [DDS center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Yamasaki 2541, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Sugiyama, H [Photon Factory, Institute of Material Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Chen, H S [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ding, G H, E-mail: xy-zhang@fudan.edu.c [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-09-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  15. Imaging study on acupuncture points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, X H; Zhang, X Y; Liu, C L; Dang, R S; Ando, M; Sugiyama, H; Chen, H S; Ding, G H

    2009-01-01

    The topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using the synchrotron radiation based Dark Field Image (DFI) method. Four following acupuncture points were studied: Sanyinjiao, Neiguan, Zusanli and Tianshu. We have found that at acupuncture point regions there exists the accumulation of micro-vessels. The images taken in the surrounding tissue out of the acupuncture points do not show such kind of structure. It is the first time to reveal directly the specific structure of acupuncture points by X-ray imaging.

  16. PowerPoint 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2010-01-01

    Master PowerPoint and improve your presentation skills-with one book!. It's no longer enough to have slide after slide of text, bullets, and charts. It's not even enough to have good speaking skills if your PowerPoint slides bore your audience. Get the very most out of all that PowerPoint 2010 has to offer while also learning priceless tips and techniques for making good presentations in this new PowerPoint 2010 Bible. Well-known PowerPoint expert and author Faithe Wempen provides formatting tips; shows you how to work with drawings, tables, and SmartArt; introduces new collaboration tools; wa

  17. Relevant energy scale of color confinement from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Arata; Suganuma, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new lattice framework to extract the relevant gluonic energy scale of QCD phenomena which is based on a 'cut' on link variables in momentum space. This framework is expected to be broadly applicable to all lattice QCD calculations. Using this framework, we quantitatively determine the relevant energy scale of color confinement, through the analyses of the quark-antiquark potential and meson masses. The relevant energy scale of color confinement is found to be below 1.5 GeV in the Landau gauge. In fact, the string tension is almost unchanged even after cutting off the high-momentum gluon component above 1.5 GeV. When the relevant low-energy region is cut, the quark-antiquark potential is approximately reduced to a Coulomb-like potential, and each meson becomes a quasifree quark pair. As an analytical model calculation, we also investigate the dependence of the Richardson potential on the cut, and find the consistent behavior with the lattice result.

  18. Creativity-Relevant Personal Characteristics among Indonesia Creative Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho J. Setiadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify Creativity-relevant Personal Characteristics among creative workers in Indonesia’s creative industry. Identification of the constituent elements of the nature of the changes needs to be measured. Researchers have advocated replacing creativity-relevant personal characteristics based on the five-factor model to investigate how individual differences stimulate creativity. This study presents data supporting reliability (internal consistency and validity (criterion and construct of the instrument. Validity of the instrument is based on the content validity involving art and design experts. The 220 creative workers from several creative industry firms in Indonesia participated as samples in this research. Results of a factor analysis indicated a five factor solution of creative characteristics and behavior. Discussion of findings and the most important ways in which individuals differ in their enduring emotional, interpersonal, experiential, attitudinal, and motivational styles for stimulating creativity are presented.

  19. Modelling Complex Relevance Spaces with Copulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Eickhoff (Carsten); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractModern relevance models consider a wide range of criteria in order to identify those documents that are expected to satisfy the user's information need. With growing dimensionality of the underlying relevance spaces the need for sophisticated score combination and estimation schemes

  20. Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    the music based on its relevance and importance. The fusion is controlled by a single parameter, which can be intuitively tuned by the user. The notion of authoritative music among relevant music is introduced, and social media mined from the Web is used in an innovative manner to determine both...

  1. Does relevance matter in academic policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter...

  2. Inoculating Relevance Feedback Against Poison Pills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehghani, Mostafa; Azarbonyad, Hosein; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Marx, Maarten

    Relevance Feedback is a common approach for enriching queries, given a set of explicitly or implicitly judged documents to improve the performance of the retrieval. Although it has been shown that on average, the overall performance of retrieval will be improved after relevance feedback, for some

  3. The foundation of the concept of relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2010-01-01

    In 1975 Tefko Saracevic declared “the subject knowledge view” to be the most fundamental perspective of relevance. This paper examines the assumptions in different views of relevance, including “the system's view” and “the user's view” and offers a reinterpretation of these views. The paper finds...

  4. Translation as secondary communication. The relevance theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ernst-August Gutt started one of the greatest translation debates of the past ten years when he suggested that relevance theory holds the key to providing a unified account of translation. The bulk of the debate has been between practitioners of functional equivalence and advocates of a relevance theoretic approach to ...

  5. Lefschetz Fixed Point Theorem and Lattice Points in Convex Polytopes

    OpenAIRE

    Sardo-Infirri, Sacha

    1993-01-01

    A simple convex lattice polytope $\\Box$ defines a torus-equivariant line bundle $\\LB$ over a toric variety $\\XB.$ Atiyah and Bott's Lefschetz fixed-point theorem is applied to the torus action on the $d''$-complex of $\\LB$ and information is obtained about the lattice points of $\\Box$. In particular an explicit formula is derived, computing the number of lattice points and the volume of $\\Box$ in terms of geometric data at its extreme points. We show this to be equivalent the results of Brion...

  6. Relevance ranking for vertical search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    In plain, uncomplicated language, and using detailed examples to explain the key concepts, models, and algorithms in vertical search ranking, Relevance Ranking for Vertical Search Engines teaches readers how to manipulate ranking algorithms to achieve better results in real-world applications. This reference book for professionals covers concepts and theories from the fundamental to the advanced, such as relevance, query intention, location-based relevance ranking, and cross-property ranking. It covers the most recent developments in vertical search ranking applications, such as freshness-based relevance theory for new search applications, location-based relevance theory for local search applications, and cross-property ranking theory for applications involving multiple verticals. It introduces ranking algorithms and teaches readers how to manipulate ranking algorithms for the best results. It covers concepts and theories from the fundamental to the advanced. It discusses the state of the art: development of ...

  7. Fermi-surface collapse and dynamical scaling near a quantum-critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Sven; Oeschler, Niels; Wirth, Steffen; Krellner, Cornelius; Geibel, Christoph; Steglich, Frank; Paschen, Silke; Kirchner, Stefan; Si, Qimiao

    2010-01-01

    Quantum criticality arises when a macroscopic phase of matter undergoes a continuous transformation at zero temperature. While the collective fluctuations at quantum-critical points are being increasingly recognized as playing an important role in a wide range of quantum materials, the nature of the underlying quantum-critical excitations remains poorly understood. Here we report in-depth measurements of the Hall effect in the heavy-fermion metal YbRh2Si2, a prototypical system for quantum criticality. We isolate a rapid crossover of the isothermal Hall coefficient clearly connected to the quantum-critical point from a smooth background contribution; the latter exists away from the quantum-critical point and is detectable through our studies only over a wide range of magnetic field. Importantly, the width of the critical crossover is proportional to temperature, which violates the predictions of conventional theory and is instead consistent with an energy over temperature, E/T, scaling of the quantum-critical single-electron fluctuation spectrum. Our results provide evidence that the quantum-dynamical scaling and a critical Kondo breakdown simultaneously operate in the same material. Correspondingly, we infer that macroscopic scale-invariant fluctuations emerge from the microscopic many-body excitations associated with a collapsing Fermi-surface. This insight is expected to be relevant to the unconventional finite-temperature behavior in a broad range of strongly correlated quantum systems. PMID:20668246

  8. Viscoelasticity of Xenon near the Critical Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

    1999-01-01

    Using a novel, overdamped, oscillator flown aboard the Space Shuttle, we measured the viscosity of xenon near the liquid-vapor critical point in the frequency range 2 Hz less than or equal to f less than or equal to 12 Hz. The measured viscosity divergence is characterized by the exponent z(sub eta) = 0.0690 +/- 0.0006, in agreement with the value z(sub eta) = 0.067 +/- 0.002 calculated from a two-loop perturbation expansion. Viscoelastic behavior was evident when t = (T - T(sub c))/T(sub c) less than 10(exp -5) and dominant when t less than 10(exp -6), further from T(sub c) than predicted. Viscoelastic behavior scales as Af(tau) where tau is the fluctuation decay time. The measured value of A is 2.0 +/- 0.3 times the result of a one-loop calculation. (Uncertainties stated are one standard uncertainty.)

  9. Attitude-behavior congruity, mindfulness, and self-focused attention: A behavior-analytic reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Warren R.

    1994-01-01

    Social psychologists have responded to research reporting low agreement between attitude measures and related behavior with attempts to explain the incongruities and enhance agreement. This article examines attitude-behavior incongruity from a behavior-analytic point of view. Traditional and behavior-analytic views of attitudes and behaviors are compared. In the behavior-analytic view, answering an attitude scale should be considered as behavior displayed by a person under rather unusual soci...

  10. Extreme values, regular variation and point processes

    CERN Document Server

    Resnick, Sidney I

    1987-01-01

    Extremes Values, Regular Variation and Point Processes is a readable and efficient account of the fundamental mathematical and stochastic process techniques needed to study the behavior of extreme values of phenomena based on independent and identically distributed random variables and vectors It presents a coherent treatment of the distributional and sample path fundamental properties of extremes and records It emphasizes the core primacy of three topics necessary for understanding extremes the analytical theory of regularly varying functions; the probabilistic theory of point processes and random measures; and the link to asymptotic distribution approximations provided by the theory of weak convergence of probability measures in metric spaces The book is self-contained and requires an introductory measure-theoretic course in probability as a prerequisite Almost all sections have an extensive list of exercises which extend developments in the text, offer alternate approaches, test mastery and provide for enj...

  11. Exceptional Points and Dynamical Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rotter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of non-Hermitian quantum physics, the relation between exceptional points,dynamical phase transitions and the counter intuitive behavior of quantum systems at high level density is considered. The theoretical results obtained for open quantum systems and proven experimentally some years ago on a microwave cavity, may explain environmentally induce deffects (including dynamical phase transitions, which have been observed in various experimental studies. They also agree(qualitatively with the experimental results reported recently in PT symmetric optical lattices.

  12. Microbial profile and critical control points during processing of 'robo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results were used to evaluate the relevant critical control points especially in relation to raw materials and human contaminations, process requirements and contacting of ingredients with equipment. The observed contaminants common to all samples and irrespective of the producers were the Staphylococcus aureus ...

  13. Electroacupuncturing At Zusanli Point (St36) Attenuates Pro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: EA at Zusanli points obviously lowered the elevated levels of plasma TNF-α, and attenuated changes in parameters relevant to various organ functions at 2 h after LPS challenge. ɑ-BGT injection or bilateral cervical vagotomy could weaken or eliminate the effects of EA, and further aggravated the elevated levels of ...

  14. Simulación numérica del comportamiento no-lineal de materiales utilizando el método sin malla de puntos finitos Meshless numerical simulation of the non-linear behavior of a material using the finite point method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pérez P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La formulación sin malla del método de puntos finitos permite aprovechar en toda su potencialidad la ventaja de este tipo de técnica numérica, habiéndose comprobado su buen funcionamiento para aplicaciones en los campos de la mecánica de fluidos, mecánica de sólidos, ciencia de materiales y más tarde en adaptividad y electromagnetismo. En el presente trabajo se desarrolla una metodología numérica para aproximar el comportamiento no-lineal de un material mediante el método de puntos finitos, basada en la teoría de deformación total de Hencky, en conjunto con un enfoque elástico para aproximar la distribución de tensiones y de deformaciones. Esta aproximación introduce el concepto de propiedades efectivas del material, las cuales se obtienen en forma iterativa mediante un procedimiento de corrección aplicado sobre la curva experimental de tensión-deformación. Los ejemplos desarrollados demuestran el correcto comportamiento de la metodología utilizada, siendo una de sus principales ventajas la sencillez y facilidad de su implementación, puesto que no es necesaria la partición o subdivisión del dominio de solución.The use of fully meshless formulation of the finite point method allows taking advantage the benefit of this type of numerical technique for applications in the fields of fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, material science and later in adaptivity and electromagnetism. In this work a meshless numerical method to approximate the non-linear behavior of a material using the finite point method, based on the theory of Hencky total strain and elastic approach to approximate the distribution of stresses and deformation, is developed. This approach introduces the concept of effective properties of the material which are obtained using a correction procedure applied to the stress-strain curve. The examples show the good behavior of the methodology that is used, being one of the main advantages the simplicity and the ease of

  15. Introduction to Search with Sphinx From installation to relevance tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Aksyonoff, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This concise introduction to Sphinx shows you how to use this free software to index an enormous number of documents and provide fast results to both simple and complex searches. Written by the creator of Sphinx, this authoritative book is short and to the point. Understand the particular way Sphinx conducts searchesInstall and configure Sphinx, and run a few basic testsIssue basic queries to Sphinx at the application levelLearn the syntax of search text and the effects of various search optionsGet strategies for dealing with large data sets, such as multi-index searchingApply relevance and r

  16. The Relevance of Professional Ethics of Archaeologists in Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zirne

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues surrounding the importance and protection of archaeological heritage became topical in Latvia in 2012 with the amendments to the law 'On Protection of Cultural Monuments' and they still have not lost their relevance. Discussions in the media that arose before and after the amendments to the law attracted a great deal of public interest towards archaeology, at the same time surfaced a lack of understanding of the work of archaeologists, of archaeological processes, research methods and results. It also points to the need for establishing standards on ethics for archaeologists in the country.

  17. Exact renormalization group equation for the Lifshitz critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervillier, C.

    2004-10-01

    An exact renormalization equation (ERGE) accounting for an anisotropic scaling is derived. The critical and tricritical Lifshitz points are then studied at leading order of the derivative expansion which is shown to involve two differential equations. The resulting estimates of the Lifshitz critical exponents compare well with the O(ε) calculations. In the case of the Lifshitz tricritical point, it is shown that a marginally relevant coupling defies the perturbative approach since it actually makes the fixed point referred to in the previous perturbative calculations O(ε) finally unstable.

  18. [Relevance between writing characteristic and therapeutic effect in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Cai, Wei-Xiong

    2014-04-01

    To explore the relevance between writing characteristic and therapeutic effect in schizophrenia and to discuss the influence of aggressive behavior on writing characteristic. Recoding the casual and fixed writing in admission, one week, two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks after treatment and rating Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS). Choosing two characteristics, "relationship between font and grid lines" and "having big strokes or not", and comparing before and after treatment. Eight weeks after treatment, the score of PANSS decreased. The condition of patients and the writing characteristic improved as well. The differences of writing characteristics were statistically significant in patients with aggressive behavior before and after treatment (P aggressive patients.

  19. Making Sense of Boiling Points and Melting Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 6. Making Sense of Boiling Points and Melting Points. S Prahlada Rao Shravan Sunkada. General Article Volume 12 Issue 6 June 2007 pp 43-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Approximation point par point pour la resolution du probleme de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approximation point par point pour la resolution du probleme de dirichlet dans un disque pour l'equation elliptique du second ordre a coefficients constants dans le cas ou les racines de l'equation caracteristique sont distinctes. AMJ Tchalla, K Tcharie ...

  1. Point Genetics: A New Concept to Assess Neutron Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein Meulekamp, R.; Kuijper, J.C.; Schikorr, M.

    2005-01-01

    Point genetic equations are introduced. These equations are similar to the well-known point kinetic equations but characterize and couple individual fission generations in subcritical systems. Point genetic equations are able to describe dynamic behavior of source-driven subcritical systems on shorter timescales than is possible with point kinetic equations. Point genetic parameters can be used as a first-order characterization of the system and can be calculated using standard Monte Carlo techniques; the implementation in other calculational schemes seems straightforward. A Godiva sphere is considered to show the applicability of the point genetic equations in describing a detector response on short timescales. For this system the point genetic parameters are calculated and compared with reference calculations. Typical dynamic source behavior is considered by studying a transient in which the neutron source energy decreases from 20 to 1 MeV. For all cases studied, the point genetic equations are compared to full space-time kinetic solutions, and it is shown that point genetics performs well

  2. Astrophysical relevance of γ transition energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The relevant γ energy range is explicitly identified where additional γ strength must be located to have an impact on astrophysically relevant reactions. It is shown that folding the energy dependences of the transmission coefficients and the level density leads to maximal contributions for γ energies of 2≤E γ ≤4 unless quantum selection rules allow isolated states to contribute. Under this condition, electric dipole transitions dominate. These findings allow us to more accurately judge the relevance of modifications of the γ strength for astrophysics

  3. Neutrophil programming dynamics and its disease relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Taojing; Geng, Shuo; Li, Liwu

    2017-11-01

    Neutrophils are traditionally considered as first responders to infection and provide antimicrobial host defense. However, recent advances indicate that neutrophils are also critically involved in the modulation of host immune environments by dynamically adopting distinct functional states. Functionally diverse neutrophil subsets are increasingly recognized as critical components mediating host pathophysiology. Despite its emerging significance, molecular mechanisms as well as functional relevance of dynamically programmed neutrophils remain to be better defined. The increasing complexity of neutrophil functions may require integrative studies that address programming dynamics of neutrophils and their pathophysiological relevance. This review aims to provide an update on the emerging topics of neutrophil programming dynamics as well as their functional relevance in diseases.

  4. Sandia programs relevant to microelectronics fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, S.T.; Vook, F.L.; Gregory, B.L.

    1987-04-01

    This report was prepared for the Semiconductor Industry and the National Laboratories Workshop held at the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, February 24, 1987. It details the current Sandia program activities relevant to microelectronics fabrication.

  5. Development and crosstransferability of functionally relevant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Development and crosstransferability of functionally relevant microsatellite markers in Dendrocalamus latiflorus and related bamboo species. ABHISHEK BHANDAWAT, VIKAS SHARMA, HIMANSHU SHARMA, ANIL SOOD and RAM KUMAR SHARMA. ∗. Division of Biotechnology, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource ...

  6. Anderson's Relevant Deontic and Eubouliatic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, G.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    We present axiomatizations of the deontic fragment of Anderson's relevant deontic logic (the logic of obligation and related concepts) and the eubouliatic fragment of Anderson's eubouliatic logic (the logic of prudence, safety, risk, and related concepts).

  7. Post-Processing in the Material-Point Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    such as the finite element method. In the material-point method, a set of material points is utilized to track the problem in time and space, while a computational background grid is utilized to obtain spatial derivatives relevant to the physical problem. Currently, the research within the material-point method...... the visual presentation of results from material-point method simulations and hence the understanding of the underlying physical problems to which the method is applied. Further, the way the stresses can be extracted reveals some pitfalls for the method and suggests a place to direct future research.......The material-point method (MPM) is a numerical method for dynamic or static analysis of solids using a discretization in time and space. The method has shown to be successful in modelling physical problems involving large deformations, which are difficult to model with traditional numerical tools...

  8. Brocard Point and Euler Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, K. R. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes a known point from Brocard geometry, a known result from the geometry of the equilateral triangle, and bring in Euler's [empty set] function. It then demonstrates how to obtain new Brocard Geometric number theory results from them. Furthermore, this paper aims to determine a [triangle]ABC whose Crelle-Brocard Point [omega]…

  9. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  10. The Random Material Point Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, B.; Vardon, P.J.; Hicks, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The material point method is a finite element variant which allows the material, represented by a point-wise discretization, to move through the background mesh. This means that large deformations, such as those observed post slope failure, can be computed. By coupling this material level

  11. Mathematical points as didactical ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    Mathematics teaching in Denmark was recently recommended better organized in sequences with clear mathematical pedagogical goals and a focus on mathematical points. In this paper I define a mathematical point and inform on coding of transcripts in a video based Danish research study on grade 8...

  12. Conditioning in spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This tutorial provides an introduction to conditioning in spatial point processes or so-called Palm distributions. Initially, in the context of finite point processes, we give an explicit definition of Palm distributions in terms of their density functions. Then we review Palm distributions...... in the general case. Finally we discuss some examples of specific models and applications...

  13. Review of NJ point system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the comparative effectiveness of point-based versus incident-based : negligent driver monitoring systems and to explore how certain changes to the existing point-based system used in : New Jersey might impr...

  14. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  15. Inertial Pointing and Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Robert (Inventor); Robbins, Fred (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An inertial pointing and control system and method for pointing to a designated target with known coordinates from a platform to provide accurate position, steering, and command information. The system continuously receives GPS signals and corrects Inertial Navigation System (INS) dead reckoning or drift errors. An INS is mounted directly on a pointing instrument rather than in a remote location on the platform for-monitoring the terrestrial position and instrument attitude. and for pointing the instrument at designated celestial targets or ground based landmarks. As a result. the pointing instrument and die INS move independently in inertial space from the platform since the INS is decoupled from the platform. Another important characteristic of the present system is that selected INS measurements are combined with predefined coordinate transformation equations and control logic algorithms under computer control in order to generate inertial pointing commands to the pointing instrument. More specifically. the computer calculates the desired instrument angles (Phi, Theta. Psi). which are then compared to the Euler angles measured by the instrument- mounted INS. and forms the pointing command error angles as a result of the compared difference.

  16. From rapid place learning to behavioral performance: a key role for the intermediate hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bast

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid place encoding by hippocampal neurons, as reflected by place-related firing, has been intensely studied, whereas the substrates that translate hippocampal place codes into behavior have received little attention. A key point relevant to this translation is that hippocampal organization is characterized by functional-anatomical gradients along the septotemporal axis: Whereas the ability of hippocampal neurons to encode accurate place information declines from the septal to temporal end, hippocampal connectivity to prefrontal and subcortical sites that might relate such place information to behavioral-control processes shows an opposite gradient. We examined in rats the impact of selective lesions to relevant parts of the hippocampus on behavioral tests requiring place learning (watermaze procedures and on in vivo electrophysiological models of hippocampal encoding (long-term potentiation [LTP], place cells. We found that the intermediate hippocampus is necessary and largely sufficient for behavioral performance based on rapid place learning. In contrast, a residual septal pole of the hippocampus, although displaying intact electrophysiological indices of rapid information encoding (LTP, precise place-related firing, and rapid remapping, failed to sustain watermaze performance based on rapid place learning. These data highlight the important distinction between hippocampal encoding and the behavioral performance based on such encoding, and suggest that the intermediate hippocampus, where substrates of rapid accurate place encoding converge with links to behavioral control, is critical to translate rapid (one-trial place learning into navigational performance.

  17. The primatologist as a behavioral engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L

    2017-01-01

    The field of primate behavior management has had only limited success in preventing and treating abnormal behaviors, such as stereotypy and self-injury, in captive non-human primates (NHP). In contrast, applied behavior analysts have had great success in treating similar topographies of behavior in human clinical settings. By adapting and adopting the behavioral principles and methodologies commonly used by applied behavior analysts, primatologists may be able to develop more effective ways to analyze, reduce, and prevent these aberrant behaviors in NHP. This article reviews studies that have used behavior analytic techniques to successfully address problem behaviors in NHP. Additionally, relevant literature from the field of applied behavior analysis is reviewed to illustrate how adopting a theoretical framework that emphasizes the determination of the underlying operant functions of behavior could lead to new behavioral technologies and advance the field of captive primate management. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22500, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Behavioral Nutraceuticals and Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Jillian M

    2018-05-01

    Behavioral problems of companion animals are becoming more widely recognized. As a result, there are a growing number of behavioral nutraceuticals and diets on the market. These products may be useful for the treatment of mild conditions, for clients who are hesitant to give their pet a psychopharmacologic agent, or sometimes in conjunction with psychopharmacologic agents. Veterinarians should critically review the research associated with nutraceuticals and diets, and have an understanding of the functional ingredients and their mechanisms of action before prescribing treatment. This article provides an overview of nutraceuticals, their mechanisms of action, and relevant research regarding their use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Geodetic Control Points - Multi-State Control Point Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — The Multi-State Control Point Database (MCPD) is a database of geodetic and mapping control covering Idaho and Montana. The control were submitted by registered land...

  20. Experimental determination and modeling of the phase behavior for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Musko, Nikolai E.; Baiker, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    -Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state was applied to model the phase behavior of the experimentally studied systems. In this regard, the CPA binary interaction parameters were estimated based on experimental data for the corresponding binary systems available in the literature, and subsequently the model was applied......This study focuses on the investigation of the phase behavior of mixtures relevant to the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide. The bubble points of corresponding quaternary mixtures of varying composition were experimentally determined. The Cubic...

  1. Is it pointing to grasping or grasping pointing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelsbergh, G J; Van der Kamp, J

    1999-07-01

    The Smeets and Brenner view on grasping is simple: grasping is in fact pointing. In our comments we examine the model beyond the reach-to-grasp task, namely, by grasping (without reaching) of moving objects and eating. The model fits the data of both tasks. Although generalization of a model to different tasks usually strengthens its acceptance, in the present case it reveals its shortcomings, namely, both tasks include a clear grasping component that is hard to accept as pointing.

  2. A content relevance model for social media health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment.

  3. Renormalization-group flows and fixed points in Yukawa theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Esben; Shrock, R.

    2014-01-01

    We study renormalization-group flows in Yukawa theories with massless fermions, including determination of fixed points and curves that separate regions of different flow behavior. We assess the reliability of perturbative calculations for various values of Yukawa coupling y and quartic scalar....... In the regime of weak couplings where the perturbative calculations are most reliable, we find that the theories have no nontrivial fixed points, and the flow is toward a free theory in the infrared....

  4. Myofascial Trigger Point Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, Robert D

    2016-10-01

    Myofascial pain syndromes caused by trigger points (TrPs) in muscle are a common cause of local and generalized pain. Trigger points are hyperirritable zones in contracted bands of muscle, thought to be caused by muscle overload or stress. Stress TrPs have characteristic electromyographic features, and can be visualized with ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography. Trigger point needling or injection can be effective in inactivating TrP, but correcting triggers is also critical. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. NOTE: Do acupuncture points exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi; Liu, Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang, Yuying; He, Wei; Ding, Guanghong

    2009-05-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian.

  6. PowerPoint 2013 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2013-01-01

    Master PowerPoint and improve your presentation skills with one book! In today's business climate, you need to know PowerPoint inside and out, and that's not all. You also need to be able to make a presentation that makes an impact. From using sophisticated transitions and animation in your PowerPoint presentations to interfacing in person with your audience, this information-packed book helps you succeed. Start creating professional-quality slides that captivate audiences and discover essential tips and techniques for making first-rate presentations, whether you're at a podium or

  7. Calorimetry end-point predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a portion of the work presently in progress at Rocky Flats in the field of calorimetry. In particular, calorimetry end-point predictions are outlined. The problems associated with end-point predictions and the progress made in overcoming these obstacles are discussed. The two major problems, noise and an accurate description of the heat function, are dealt with to obtain the most accurate results. Data are taken from an actual calorimeter and are processed by means of three different noise reduction techniques. The processed data are then utilized by one to four algorithms, depending on the accuracy desired to determined the end-point

  8. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  9. Culturally relevant model program to prevent and reduce agricultural injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helitzer, D L; Hathorn, G; Benally, J; Ortega, C

    2014-07-01

    Limited research has explored pesticide injury prevention among American Indian farmers. In a five-year agricultural intervention, a university-community partnership, including the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, New Mexico State University, Shiprock Area Cooperative Extension Service, and Navajo Nation communities, used a culturally relevant model to introduce and maintain safe use of integrated pest management techniques. We applied the Diffusion of Innovations theory and community-based approaches to tailor health promotion strategies for our intervention. In a longitudinal study with repeated measures, we trained six "model farmers" to be crop management experts in pesticide safety, application, and control. Subsequently, these model farmers worked with 120 farm families randomized into two groups: intervention (Group 1) and delayed intervention (Group 2). Measurements included a walk-through analysis, test of knowledge and attitudes, and yield analysis. Both groups demonstrated improvements in pesticide storage behaviors after training. Test scores regarding safety practices improved significantly: from 57.3 to 72.4 for Group 1 and from 52.6 to 76.3 for Group 2. Group 1 maintained their knowledge and safety practices after the intervention. Attitudes about pesticides and communication of viewpoints changed across the study years. With pesticides and fertilizer, the number of corn ears increased by 56.3% and yield (kg m(-2)) of alfalfa increased by 41.2%. The study combined traditional farming practices with culturally relevant approaches and behavior change theory to affect knowledge, safety practices, attitudes, communication channels, and crop yield. Storage behaviors, use of pesticides and safety and application equipment, and safety practice knowledge changed significantly, as did attitudes about social networking, social support, and the compatibility and relative advantage of pesticides for farms.

  10. Maryland ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for raptors in Maryland. Vector points in this data set represent bird nesting sites. Species-specific...

  11. Parametric statistical change point analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jie

    2000-01-01

    This work is an in-depth study of the change point problem from a general point of view and a further examination of change point analysis of the most commonly used statistical models Change point problems are encountered in such disciplines as economics, finance, medicine, psychology, signal processing, and geology, to mention only several The exposition is clear and systematic, with a great deal of introductory material included Different models are presented in each chapter, including gamma and exponential models, rarely examined thus far in the literature Other models covered in detail are the multivariate normal, univariate normal, regression, and discrete models Extensive examples throughout the text emphasize key concepts and different methodologies are used, namely the likelihood ratio criterion, and the Bayesian and information criterion approaches A comprehensive bibliography and two indices complete the study

  12. Model plant key measurement points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The key measurement points for the model low enriched fuel fabrication plant are described as well as the measurement methods. These are the measurement points and methods that are used to complete the plant's formal material balance. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the basis for each key measurement; and (2) understand the importance of each measurement to the overall plant material balance. The feed to the model low enriched uranium fuel fabrication plant is UF 6 and the product is finished light water reactor fuel assemblies. The waste discards are solid and liquid wastes. The plant inventory consists of unopened UF 6 cylinders, UF 6 heels, fuel assemblies, fuel rods, fuel pellets, UO 2 powder, U 3 O 8 powder, and various scrap materials. At the key measurement points the total plant material balance (flow and inventory) is measured. The two types of key measurement points-flow and inventory are described

  13. Virginia ESI: REPTPT (Reptile Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles in Virginia. Vector points in this data set represent nesting sites. Species-specific...

  14. Louisiana ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird and wading bird nesting colonies in coastal Louisiana. Vector points in this data set represent...

  15. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  16. Calcareous Fens - Source Feature Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Pursuant to the provisions of Minnesota Statutes, section 103G.223, this database contains points that represent calcareous fens as defined in Minnesota Rules, part...

  17. Control Point Generated PLS - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Control Point Generated PLS layer contains line and polygon features to the 1/4 of 1/4 PLS section (approximately 40 acres) and government lot level. The layer...

  18. Control Point Generated PLS - polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Control Point Generated PLS layer contains line and polygon features to the 1/4 of 1/4 PLS section (approximately 40 acres) and government lot level. The layer...

  19. Hawaii ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seabird nesting colonies in coastal Hawaii. Vector points in this data set represent locations of...

  20. A generalized saddle point theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.Q.

    1988-11-01

    The well-known saddle point theorem is extended to the case of functions defined on a product space X x V, where X is a Banach space and V is a compact manifold. Under some linking conditions, the existence of at least cuplength (V) + 1 critical points is proved. The abstract theorems are applied to the existence problems of periodic solutions of Hamiltonian systems with periodic nonlinearity and/or resonance. (author). 8 refs

  1. Developing SharePoint applications

    OpenAIRE

    Rupnik, Gašper

    2011-01-01

    The thesis includes a research on SharePoint 2010 programming capabilities and a display of products created by this knowledge. The introduction part includes background information on how the topic was chosen and how the thesis was developed. The second chapter presents the SharePoint platform, which includes a description of its structure, function and usability. The third chapter focuses solely on the programming of the platform. First, some of the most useful software tools for i...

  2. SharePoint User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Corporation, Infusion Development

    2009-01-01

    This straightforward guide shows SharePoint users how to create and use web sites for sharing and collaboration. Learn to use the document and picture libraries for adding and editing content, add discussion boards and surveys, receive alerts when documents and information have been added or changed, and enhance security. Designed to help you find answers quickly, the book shows how to make the most of SharePoint for productivity and collaboration.

  3. Some remarks on farthest points

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montesinos, V.; Zizler, P.; Zizler, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 1 (2011), s. 119-131 ISSN 1578-7303 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : farthest points * strongly exposed points * generic differentiability * convex functions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2011 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13398-011-0012-z

  4. Influencing factors on high-risk sexual behaviors in young people: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi-Mianrood, Hoda; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Khoori, Elham; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2017-04-19

    Background In recent years, high-risk sexual behaviors due to their negative consequences both for the individual and society have received more attention than other high-risk behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to review the influencing factors of high-risk sexual behaviors among young people from an ecological point of view. Methods This review was conducted through searching databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library with keywords such as sexual risk-taking behavior, high-risk sex, unprotected sex and unsafe sex. The relevant papers published between 1995 and 2016 were extracted. After reviewing the abstract and full text of the articles, 45 papers were used to write this article. Results From an ecological theory approach, factors which influence high-risk sexual behaviors are divided into three categories - the microsystem, the mesosystem and the macrosystem. The microsystem includes factors such as age, gender, race, marital status, place of residence, religion, level of education, personality traits, psychological problems, childhood experiences, body image and coincidence of high-risk behaviors; the mesosystem includes factors such as family structure, peers and sex education; in the macrosystem, the impact of culture and traditions of the society, economic status and the media are presented. Conclusion Given that high-risk sexual behaviors often have multiple causes, it seems that health policymakers must consider multi-dimensional interventions to influence high-risk sexual behaviors based on the ecological approach.

  5. Bliss points vs. minimum needs: Tests of competing motivational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagel, J H; Dwyer, G P; Battalio, R C

    1985-06-01

    This paper tests two competing hypotheses concerning the motivational forces underlying concurrent choice behavior: a generalized version of Staddon's minimum-distance hypothesis, which characterizes behavior in terms of minimizing the distance to a "bliss" point, and a generalized minimum-needs hypothesis, which emphasizes meeting minimum survival requirements first, after which the organism is free to allocate behavior in any fashion desired. The models specify distinctly different preference structures. The generalized minimum-needs hypothesis is shown to provide a superior fit to molar choice data from experiments involving food and fluid consumption. Copyright © 1985. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Ophir

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.

  7. Is relevance theory applicable to proverbs’ translation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegulescu Anca-Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation, viewed as a multi-faceted task, can arise different types of difficulties. Proverbs have been considered special patterns, displaying sometimes hidden meanings or suggesting morals issuing from a particular example. These paremic units - the proverbs - conveyed feelings, states of mind, behaviours or ‘metaphorical descriptions of certain situations’(Krikmann. Starting from Savory’s list of pair-wise contradictory translation principles, I intend to prove that the link between different ‘forms’ and their ‘contents’ lies in the principle of relevance when referring to proverbs. Even if relevance theory is not a theory of linguistic structure - and many translation problems imply structural mismatches - relevance theory offers insights about contextual information. Proverbs are seen as texts in themselves. My analysis will target the ethnofields of ‘to buy’ and ‘to sell’ in English proverbs and their Romanian corresponding versions.

  8. Has Financial Statement Information become Less Relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper

    ? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period......This paper presents insights into the question of whether accounting information based on the EU’s Accounting Directives has become less value-relevant to investors over time. The study is based on a research design first used by Francis and Schipper (1999), where value-relevance is measured...... as the total market-adjusted return that could be earned from investment strategies based on foreknowledge of financial statement information. It answers the question: Are investments based on financial statement information able to capture progressively less information in security returns over time...

  9. Study of freezing-point depression of selected food extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Fumihiko [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Systems Engineering; Murata, Satoshi; Habara, Kazuhiro; Amaratunga, K.S.P. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The phenomenon of freezing-point depression that accompanies the solute concentration of selected food extracts was investigated to reveal the characteristics of solid-liquid phase equilibrium. The freezing curves of various food extracts did not exhibit ideal solution behavior in the higher concentration range. The experimental data were fitted to new freezing-point depression equations by the method of nonlinear least squares, and the results clearly indicated that the calculated freezing points at various concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, by using the determined parameters, the freezing ratio and the activation coefficient were derived.

  10. Leidenfrost point reduction on micropatterned metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Cerro, Daniel Arnaldo; Marín, Alvaro G; Römer, Gertwillem R B E; Pathiraj, B; Lohse, Detlef; Huis in 't Veld, Albertus J

    2012-10-23

    Droplets are able to levitate when deposited over a hot surface exceeding a critical temperature. This is known as the Leidenfrost effect. This phenomenon occurs when the surface is heated above the so-called Leidenfrost point (LFP), above which the vapor film between the droplet and hot surface is able to levitate the droplet. Such a critical temperature depends on several factors. One of the most studied parameters has been the surface roughness. Almost all of the experimental studies in the literature have concluded that the LFP increases with the roughness. According to these results, it seems that the roughness is detrimental for the stability of the vapor film. In contrast with these results, we present here a micropatterned surface that significantly reduces the LFP. The temperature increase, relative to the boiling point, required to reach the LFP is 70% lower than that on the flat surface. The reasons for such an effect are qualitatively and quantitatively discussed with a simple semiempirical model. This result can be relevant to save energy in applications that take advantage of the Leidenfrost effect for drop control or drag reduction.

  11. Relevance is in the eye of the beholder: attentional bias to relevant stimuli in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeren, Suzanne; Lester, Kathryn J

    2013-04-01

    Attentional biases are most often framed in a threat relevance framework. Alternatively, it could be that not only threat-related stimuli draw attention but also that preferential attention is drawn to all stimuli that have relevance for an individual. We investigated this stimulus relevance theory in primary school-age children by means of a visual search task. As predicted, children displayed attentional biases toward evolutionary and modern threat-related stimuli, such as spiders and guns, but also toward other relevant, positive stimuli (i.e., cakes, gifts, and happy faces). These results suggest that attentional biases are not specific to threat, but seem to apply to all relevant stimuli, both positive and negative in valence, providing first evidence for the stimulus relevance theory of preferential attention in children. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Differential UCS expectancy bias in spider fearful individuals : Evidence toward an association between spiders and disgust-relevant outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, M; de Jong, PJ; Peters, ML

    Recently, differential UCS expectancies were found for high- and low-predatory fear-relevant animals [Davey, G. C. L., Cavanagh, K., & Lamb, A. (2003). Differential aversive outcome expectancies for high- and low-predation fear-relevant animals. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental

  13. Relevance and the interpretation of literary works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been some discussion about how far relevance theory can help in analysing the interpretation of literary works. Starting from the assumption that literary works are not entirely sui generis but exploit at least some of the abilities used in other varieties of verbal communication, I show how the same theoretical machinery used in analysing the interpretation of ordinary utterances can shed light on the interpretation of literary texts, and touch briefly on two more general issues: how can fictional works be relevant, and how can illocutionary and perlocutionary effects be disentangled in the case of literary works? [translated by Deirdre Wilson].

  14. An Emprical Point Error Model for Tls Derived Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozendi, Mustafa; Akca, Devrim; Topan, Hüseyin

    2016-06-01

    The random error pattern of point clouds has significant effect on the quality of final 3D model. The magnitude and distribution of random errors should be modelled numerically. This work aims at developing such an anisotropic point error model, specifically for the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) acquired 3D point clouds. A priori precisions of basic TLS observations, which are the range, horizontal angle and vertical angle, are determined by predefined and practical measurement configurations, performed at real-world test environments. A priori precision of horizontal (𝜎𝜃) and vertical (𝜎𝛼) angles are constant for each point of a data set, and can directly be determined through the repetitive scanning of the same environment. In our practical tests, precisions of the horizontal and vertical angles were found as 𝜎𝜃=±36.6𝑐𝑐 and 𝜎𝛼=±17.8𝑐𝑐, respectively. On the other hand, a priori precision of the range observation (𝜎𝜌) is assumed to be a function of range, incidence angle of the incoming laser ray, and reflectivity of object surface. Hence, it is a variable, and computed for each point individually by employing an empirically developed formula varying as 𝜎𝜌=±2-12 𝑚𝑚 for a FARO Focus X330 laser scanner. This procedure was followed by the computation of error ellipsoids of each point using the law of variance-covariance propagation. The direction and size of the error ellipsoids were computed by the principal components transformation. The usability and feasibility of the model was investigated in real world scenarios. These investigations validated the suitability and practicality of the proposed method.

  15. Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K

    2017-08-01

    The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Digital microwave communication engineering point-to-point microwave systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kizer, George

    2013-01-01

    The first book to cover all engineering aspects of microwave communication path design for the digital age Fixed point-to-point microwave systems provide moderate-capacity digital transmission between well-defined locations. Most popular in situations where fiber optics or satellite communication is impractical, it is commonly used for cellular or PCS site interconnectivity where digital connectivity is needed but not economically available from other sources, and in private networks where reliability is most important. Until now, no book has adequately treated all en

  17. Recent progress in fission at saddle point and scission point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blons, J.; Paya, D.; Signarbieux, C.

    High resolution measurements of 230 Th and 232 Th fission cross sections for neutrons exhibit a fine structure. Such a structure is interpreted as a superposition of two rotational bands in the third, asymmetric, well of the fission barrier. The fragment mass distribution in the thermal fission of 235 U and 233 U does not show any even-odd effect, even at the highest kinetic energies. This is the mark of a strong viscosity in the descent from saddle point to scission point [fr

  18. March 2003 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  19. December 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (latitude and longitude) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs)...

  20. April 2004 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data (Geodetic Coordinates) from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from...

  1. ERP investigation of attentional disengagement from suicide-relevant information in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Seung Yeon; Jeong, Minkyung; Kim, Hyang Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies suggest the presence of attentional bias towards suicide-relevant information in suicidal individuals. However, the findings are limited by their reliance on behavioral measures. This study investigates the role of difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli using the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty-four adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were administered the spatial cueing task using suicide-relevant and negatively-valenced words as cue stimuli. Disengagement difficulty was measured using reaction time and P300 during invalid trials. P300 amplitudes at Pz were higher in suicide-relevant compared to negatively-valenced word condition on invalid trials for participants with low rates of suicidal behavior. However, no such difference was found among participants with high rates of suicidal behavior. P300 amplitudes for suicide-relevant word condition were negatively correlated with "lifetime suicide ideation and attempt" at Pz. No significant results were found for the reaction time data, indicating that the ERP may be more sensitive in capturing the attentional disengagement effect. The groups were divided according to Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) total score. Neutral stimulus was not included as cue stimuli. Most participants were under medication during the experiment. Our results indicate that patients with MDD and low rates of suicidal behavior show difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli. We suggest that suicide-specific disengagement difficulties may be related to recentness of suicide attempt and that acquired capability for suicide may contribute to reduced disengagement difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metadata elements preferred in searching and assessing relevance of archived television broadcast by scholars and students in media studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Brian

    relevance criteria.  Subsequently, 24 access points are identified to be appropriate in relation to a future broadcast retrieval system, including novel as well as previously identified access points.  The function of each access point is discussed, and recommendations provided regarding the value...... indexing, while of no or minor value for subject indexing.  Exchange of surrogate records is valuable as a supplement for construction of the identified appropriate access points, only. In brief, the thesis expands our knowledge on academics’ information needs and access points for searching and relevance...... systems.  The three aspects of information seeking behaviour in focus are information need characteristics, preferred search entries, and application of relevance criteria.  The thesis provides considerations regarding the construction of surrogate records for broadcasts in the Danish national collection...

  3. The Relevance of Chemistry to Nonscience Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bal Ram

    1995-01-01

    Provides examples and a summary of the results of a survey completed by nonscience majors (n=57). Students provided information about the importance of chemistry to their majors and argued their point of view in a paper. (DDR)

  4. Natural Preconditioning and Iterative Methods for Saddle Point Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. The solution of quadratic or locally quadratic extremum problems subject to linear(ized) constraints gives rise to linear systems in saddle point form. This is true whether in the continuous or the discrete setting, so saddle point systems arising from the discretization of partial differential equation problems, such as those describing electromagnetic problems or incompressible flow, lead to equations with this structure, as do, for example, interior point methods and the sequential quadratic programming approach to nonlinear optimization. This survey concerns iterative solution methods for these problems and, in particular, shows how the problem formulation leads to natural preconditioners which guarantee a fast rate of convergence of the relevant iterative methods. These preconditioners are related to the original extremum problem and their effectiveness - in terms of rapidity of convergence - is established here via a proof of general bounds on the eigenvalues of the preconditioned saddle point matrix on which iteration convergence depends.

  5. Universal self-similar dynamics of relativistic and nonrelativistic field theories near nonthermal fixed points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro Orioli, Asier; Boguslavski, Kirill; Berges, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    We investigate universal behavior of isolated many-body systems far from equilibrium, which is relevant for a wide range of applications from ultracold quantum gases to high-energy particle physics. The universality is based on the existence of nonthermal fixed points, which represent nonequilibrium attractor solutions with self-similar scaling behavior. The corresponding dynamic universality classes turn out to be remarkably large, encompassing both relativistic as well as nonrelativistic quantum and classical systems. For the examples of nonrelativistic (Gross-Pitaevskii) and relativistic scalar field theory with quartic self-interactions, we demonstrate that infrared scaling exponents as well as scaling functions agree. We perform two independent nonperturbative calculations, first by using classical-statistical lattice simulation techniques and second by applying a vertex-resummed kinetic theory. The latter extends kinetic descriptions to the nonperturbative regime of overoccupied modes. Our results open new perspectives to learn from experiments with cold atoms aspects about the dynamics during the early stages of our universe.

  6. Experimental design optimization for screening relevant free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental design methodology was used to optimize the HPLC separation of various relevant phenolic acids from an artificial mixture. The effect of four characteristic factors of the HPLC procedure on the Chromatographic Response Function was investigated by a Central Composite Face-Centred Design and Multi ...

  7. Is Enterprise Education Relevant to Social Enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Both enterprise education and social enterprise have become fashionable but what, if any, should be the connections between them? The purpose of this paper is to explore those connections and to reflect on what relevance the two concepts might have for each other. Design/methodology/approach: Both enterprise education and social…

  8. 28 CFR 51.57 - Relevant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relevant factors. 51.57 Section 51.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF... factors. Among the factors the Attorney General will consider in making determinations with respect to the...

  9. The Current Relevance and Applications of Erythrocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a simple and inexpensive laboratory test. It is commonly used to assess the acute phase response. A review of relevant literature was done to evaluate the role of the ESR and its importance in different clinical conditions both inflammatory and non-inflammatory. Despite the critical ...

  10. Interpersonal communication: It's relevance to nursing practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is aimed at highlighting how essential interpersonal communication is necessary for establishing rapport, understanding the needs of the patients and planning effective intervention for meeting holistic health care. To be continually relevant, Nurses have to improve on their communication skills to meet the ...

  11. The Relevance of Anthropology to Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Beverly

    1976-01-01

    The relevance of anthropological theory, methodology, and literature to language teaching is discussed. It is argued that culture should be taught explicitly in the language classroom, and that the anthropological theory of cultural relativity is useful in creating a judgment-free atmosphere. (Author/RM)

  12. Bootstrapping Visual Categorization with Relevant Negatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Learning classifiers for many visual concepts are important for image categorization and retrieval. As a classifier tends to misclassify negative examples which are visually similar to positive ones, inclusion of such misclassified and thus relevant negatives should be stressed during learning.

  13. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory | Deist | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory. F Deist ...

  14. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puente-Diaz, Rogelio; Cavazos Arroyo, Judith; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cogni- tion. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representa...

  15. Seeking Relevance: American Political Science and America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranto, Robert; Woessner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors talk about the relevance of American political science and America. Political science has enormous strengths in its highly talented practitioners and sophisticated methods. However, its disconnection from its host society, while not so severe as for fields like English and sociology, nonetheless poses an existential…

  16. Academic Relevance: College Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarik, Christopher; Whelchel, Taylor

    2018-01-01

    This study examined academic relevance from the perspective of college students. A qualitative focus group method was used to explore how students perceived the applicability and usefulness of their academic courses and coursework. Two focus groups of college students (N = 22) with varied class rank and academic majors were conducted. Data…

  17. The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdica Hazard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.

  18. The relevance of cosmopolitanism for moral education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.; de Ruyter, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that

  19. Ecologically relevant stress resistance: from microarrays and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-10-15

    Oct 15, 2004 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 29; Issue 4. Ecologically relevant stress resistance: from microarrays and quantitative trait loci to candidate genes – A research plan and preliminary results using Drosophila as a model organism and climatic and genetic stress as model stresses.

  20. Relevance theory explains the selection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, D; Cara, F; Girotto, V

    1995-10-01

    We propose a general and predictive explanation of the Wason Selection Task (where subjects are asked to select evidence for testing a conditional "rule"). Our explanation is based on a reanalysis of the task, and on Relevance Theory. We argue that subjects' selections in all true versions of the Selection Task result from the following procedure. Subjects infer from the rule directly testable consequences. They infer them in their order of accessibility, and stop when the resulting interpretation of the rule meets their expectations of relevance. Subjects then select the cards that may test the consequences they have inferred from the rule. Order of accessibility of consequences and expectations of relevance vary with rule and context, and so, therefore, does subjects' performance. By devising appropriate rule-context pairs, we predict that correct performance can be elicited in any conceptual domain. We corroborate this prediction with four experiments. We argue that past results properly reanalyzed confirm our account. We discuss the relevance of the Selection Task to the study of reasoning.