WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral observation system

  1. Mirror neuron system and observational learning: behavioral and neurophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Lopez-Alonso, Virginia; Fernández-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    Three experiments were performed to study observational learning using behavioral, perceptual, and neurophysiological data. Experiment 1 investigated whether observing an execution model, during physical practice of a transitive task that only presented one execution strategy, led to performance improvements compared with physical practice alone. Experiment 2 investigated whether performing an observational learning protocol improves subjects' action perception. In experiment 3 we evaluated whether the type of practice performed determined the activation of the Mirror Neuron System during action observation. Results showed that, compared with physical practice, observing an execution model during a task that only showed one execution strategy does not provide behavioral benefits. However, an observational learning protocol allows subjects to predict more precisely the outcome of the learned task. Finally, intersperse observation of an execution model with physical practice results in changes of primary motor cortex activity during the observation of the motor pattern previously practiced, whereas modulations in the connectivity between primary and non primary motor areas (PMv-M1; PPC-M1) were not affected by the practice protocol performed by the observer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the Student-Instructional Setting Interface Using an Eco-Behavioral Observation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Jo M.

    1992-01-01

    An eco-behavioral observation system was developed for use with students with behavior disorders or emotional disturbances. Discussed are the ecosystem definition, the student-instructional setting interface, and the assessment procedure, including evaluation of the quality of academic responding, program evaluation, staff development, and…

  3. The Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) System as a Form of Intervention and Support for New Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The period covering the first 3 months of life consists of a series of pivotal, life-changing transitions for the infant, for the parents, and for the emerging parent-child relationship. The Newborn Behavioral Observations (NBO) system is a relationship-based tool that offers individualized information to parents about their baby's communication…

  4. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically-based system which guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by describing psychological, social, and biological correlates of the dominance behavioral system (DBS). Extensive research suggests that externalizing disorders, mania-proneness, and narcissistic traits are related to heightened dominance motivation and behaviors. Mania and narcissistic traits also appear related to inflated self-perceptions of power. Anxiety and depression are related to subordination and submissiveness, as well as a desire to avoid subordination. Models of the DBS have received support from research with humans and animals; from self-report, observational, and biological methods; and using naturalistic and experimental paradigms. Limitations of available research include the relative lack of longitudinal studies using multiple measures of the DBS and the absence of relevant studies using diagnosed samples to study narcissistic personality disorder and bipolar disorder. We provide suggestions for future research on the DBS and psychopathology, including investigations of whether the DBS can be used to differentiate specific disorder outcomes; the need for more sophisticated biological research; and the value of longitudinal dynamical research. Implications of using the DBS as a tool in clinical assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:22506751

  5. The Development and Validation of the Behavior and Emotion Expression Observation System to Characterize Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stacy R.; Finlon, Kristy J.; Izard, Carroll E.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: This article describes the development and evaluation of the Behavior and Emotion Expression Observation System (BEEOS), a direct observation tool to characterize preschoolers' social and emotion behaviors during semistructured activities in the classroom. The BEEOS was used to observe 148 Head Start preschoolers, and…

  6. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…

  7. Trouble Brewing: Using Observations of Invariant Behavior to Detect Malicious Agency in Distributed Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Thomas Richard; Wolthusen, Stephen D.

    Recent research on intrusion detection in supervisory data acquisition and control (SCADA) and DCS systems has focused on anomaly detection at protocol level based on the well-defined nature of traffic on such networks. Here, we consider attacks which compromise sensors or actuators (including physical manipulation), where intrusion may not be readily apparent as data and computational states can be controlled to give an appearance of normality, and sensor and control systems have limited accuracy. To counter these, we propose to consider indirect relations between sensor readings to detect such attacks through concurrent observations as determined by control laws and constraints.

  8. Experimental Observations of Multiscale Dynamics of Viscous Fluid Behavior: Implications in Volcanic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Spina, L.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of Newtonian fluids with viscosities (10-1000 Pa s; corresponding to mafic to intermediate silicate melts) during slow decompression, in a Plexiglas shock tube. As an analogue fluid we used silicon oil saturated with Argon gas for 72 hours. Slow decompression, dropping from 10 MPa to ambient pressure, acts as the excitation mechanism, initiating several processes with their own distinct timescales. The evolution of this multi-timescale phenomenon generates complex non-stationary microseismic signals, which have been recorded with 7 high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors located along the conduit. Correlation analysis of these time series with the associated high-speed imaging enables characterization of distinct phases of the dynamics of these viscous fluids and the extraction of the time and the frequency characteristics of the individual processes. We have identified fluid-solid elastic interaction, degassing, fluid mass expansion and flow, bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, foam building and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are sequentially coupled in time, occur within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution in space. Their coexistence and interactions constitute the stress field and driving forces that determine the dynamics of the system. Our observations point to the great potential of this experimental approach in the understanding of volcanic processes and volcanic seismicity.

  9. Bicritical behaviors observed in coupled diode resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngtae

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated bicritical behaviors of unidirectionally coupled diode resonators having a period doubling route to chaos. Depending on the dynamical states of the drive subsystem, the response subsystem showed a dynamical behavior other than that of the uncoupled system. The experimental results agreed well with the results obtained from the simulation of unidirectionally coupled logistic maps and oscillators. A new type of scaling behavior and a power spectrum of the hyperchaotic attractor appearing near a bicritical point were also observed.

  10. Analysis of the Optimal Duration of Behavioral Observations Based on an Automated Continuous Monitoring System in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor: Is One Hour Good Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Z Lendvai

    Full Text Available Studies of animal behavior often rely on human observation, which introduces a number of limitations on sampling. Recent developments in automated logging of behaviors make it possible to circumvent some of these problems. Once verified for efficacy and accuracy, these automated systems can be used to determine optimal sampling regimes for behavioral studies. Here, we used a radio-frequency identification (RFID system to quantify parental effort in a bi-parental songbird species: the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor. We found that the accuracy of the RFID monitoring system was similar to that of video-recorded behavioral observations for quantifying parental visits. Using RFID monitoring, we also quantified the optimum duration of sampling periods for male and female parental effort by looking at the relationship between nest visit rates estimated from sampling periods with different durations and the total visit numbers for the day. The optimum sampling duration (the shortest observation time that explained the most variation in total daily visits per unit time was 1h for both sexes. These results show that RFID and other automated technologies can be used to quantify behavior when human observation is constrained, and the information from these monitoring technologies can be useful for evaluating the efficacy of human observation methods.

  11. Model for behavior observation training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghausen, P.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Continued behavior observation is mandated by ANSI/ANS 3.3. This paper presents a model for behavior observation training that is in accordance with this standard and the recommendations contained in US NRC publications. The model includes seventeen major topics or activities. Ten of these are discussed: Pretesting of supervisor's knowledge of behavior observation requirements, explanation of the goals of behavior observation programs, why behavior observation training programs are needed (legal and psychological issues), early indicators of emotional instability, use of videotaped interviews to demonstrate significant psychopathology, practice recording behaviors, what to do when unusual behaviors are observed, supervisor rationalizations for noncompliance, when to be especially vigilant, and prevention of emotional instability

  12. Utilities/industries joint study on seismic isolation systems for LWR: Part II. Observed behaviors of base-isolated general buildings under real earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Takao; Sato, Shoji; Kato, Muneaki

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the observed behavior of base-isolated buildings under real earthquake conditions. These buildings were constructed by five construction companies participating in the Joint Study on Seismic Isolation Systems for lightwater reactors. All the buildings are medium- or low-height buildings of reinforced-concrete structures with combinations of laminated rubber bearing or sliding bearings and various damping devices

  13. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  14. Longline Observer Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LODS, the Hawaii Longline Observer Data System, is a complete suite of tools designed to collect, process, and manage quality fisheries data and information. Guided...

  15. Formal Observation of Students' Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank H.

    This module (part of a series of 24 modules) is on teachers' use of systematic observation records of social behavior to aid in assessing students' special needs and in evaluating the effects of specific programs. The genesis of these materials is in the 10 "clusters of capabilities," outlined in the paper, "A Common Body of…

  16. OBSCAN Observer Scanning System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program deployed on commercial fishing vessels. After the data...

  17. Observations on the behavior of Schroederichthys chilensis (Carcharhiniformes, Scyliorhinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Flores

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schroederichthys chilensis, the redspotted catshark or chilean catshark, is an endemic species to Peruvian and Chilean waters. Observations on its behavior in the National Reserve System of Guano Islands, Islets, and Capes – Punta San Juan and Paracas National Reserve reveal that it curls when threatened. This hypothesized survival strategy has not been previously documented in this species and we recommend further studies to elucidate this behavior.

  18. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among youth and adults, including— Behaviors that contribute ...

  19. Training Manual. Focused Observations: Nonverbal Teaching Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Banks; And Others

    Nonverbal teacher behavior is recognized as an important factor in establishing a positive social climate in the classroom. A feedback and analysis instrument is presented focusing on specific nonverbal teacher behaviors. These behaviors--facial expressions, gestures, body movements, and idiosyncratic characteristics--are categorized as either…

  20. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  1. Optimizing electrode-attached redox-peptide systems for kinetic characterization of protease action on immobilized substrates. Observation of dissimilar behavior of trypsin and thrombin enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne, Agnès; Chovin, Arnaud; Demaille, Christophe

    2012-06-12

    In this work, we experimentally address the issue of optimizing gold electrode attached ferrocene (Fc)-peptide systems for kinetic measurements of protease action. Considering human α-thrombin and bovine trypsin as proteases of interest, we show that the recurring problem of incomplete cleavage of the peptide layer by these enzymes can be solved by using ultraflat template-stripped gold, instead of polished polycrystalline gold, as the Fc-peptide bearing electrode material. We describe how these fragile surfaces can be mounted in a rotating disk configuration so that enzyme mass transfer no longer limits the overall measured cleavage kinetics. Finally, we demonstrate that, once the system has been optimized, in situ real-time cyclic voltammetry monitoring of the protease action can yield high-quality kinetic data, showing no sign of interfering effects. The cleavage progress curves then closely match the Langmuirian variation expected for a kinetically controlled surface process. Global fit of the progress curves yield accurate values of the peptide cleavage rate for both trypsin and thrombin. It is shown that, whereas trypsin action on the surface-attached peptide closely follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, thrombin displays a specific and unexpected behavior characterized by a nearly enzyme-concentration-independent cleavage rate in the subnanomolar enzyme concentration range. The reason for this behavior has still to be clarified, but its occurrence may limit the sensitivity of thrombin sensors based on Fc-peptide layers.

  2. Quantifying the role that laboratory experiment sample scale has on observed material properties and mechanistic behaviors that cause well systems to fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, N. J.; Fahrman, B.; Rod, K. A.; Fernandez, C. A.; Crandall, D.; Moore, J.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory experiments provide a robust method to analyze well integrity. Experiments are relatively cheap, controlled, and repeatable. However, simplifying assumptions, apparatus limitations, and scaling are ubiquitous obstacles for translating results from the bench to the field. We focus on advancing the correlation between laboratory results and field conditions by characterizing how failure varies with specimen geometry using two experimental approaches. The first approach is designed to measure the shear bond strength between steel and cement in a down-scaled (cement-casing geometries that either mimic the scaling ratios found in the field or maximize the amount of metal and cement in the sample. We subject the samples to thermal shock cycles to simulate damage to the interfaces from operations. The bond was then measured via a push-out test. We found that not only did expected parameters, e.g. curing time, play a role in shear-bond strength but also that scaling of the geometry was important. The second approach is designed to observe failure of the well system due to pressure applied on the inside of a lab-scale (1.5" diameter) cylindrical casing-cement-rock geometry. The loading apparatus and sample are housed within an industrial X-ray CT scanner capable of imaging the system while under pressure. Radial tension cracks were observed in the cement after an applied internal pressure of 3000 psi and propagated through the cement and into the rock as pressure was increased. Based on our current suite of tests we find that the relationship between sample diameters and thicknesses is an important consideration when observing the strength and failure of well systems. The test results contribute to our knowledge of well system failure, evaluation and optimization of new cements, as well as the applicability of using scaled-down tests as a proxy for understanding field-scale conditions.

  3. Behaviors and Motivations observed in the Zooniverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, P. L.; Brown, S.; Huang, A. D.; Lehan, C.; Moon Zoo Team

    2010-12-01

    Today, the total number of astronomers and geophysicists working in academia is dwarfed by the legions of citizen scientists who are flocking to citizen science programs like Moon Zoo, StarDust@Home, Solar Storm Watch, and Be a Martian. Through the Zooniverse collection of projects (including Moon Zoo and Solar Storm Watch), more than 2-dozen peer-reviewed science papers have been generated. These everyday people are, in their spare time, accomplishing necessary tasks and proving themselves to be a vital part of the research pipeline. While it is now understood they can make meaningful contributions to research, the questions of why they are contributing, and how they interact with the projects are still being investigated. In this presentation, preliminary results of a two-part study of Zooniverse user motivations and behaviors are presented. Motivations: We present the results of two sets of studies: detailed research into the motivations of Galaxy Zoo users during the Galaxy Zoo 1 and 2 projects and preliminary results into the investigations of Moon Zoo users. From Galaxy Zoo, we know that the largest primary motivation for people participating in Galaxy Zoo is the desire to contribute to science. At the time of this writing, interviews are being prepared to see if Moon Zoo users have similar motivations to Galaxy Zoo users, and to understand the personal context in which they make their contributions. Behaviors: As users explore the Zooniverse, they have the opportunity to participate in multiple science projects, to consume educational content, to take advantage of tutorials, and to be part of a community on the forums. Preliminary results examining how users moved between different science projects during the duration of Galaxy Zoo 2, and how they are moving between content and classifications in Galaxy Zoo Hubble and Moon Zoo are presented.

  4. Observing Animal Behavior at the Zoo: A Learning Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Debra B.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate students in a learning laboratory course initially chose a species to study; researched that species' physical and behavioral characteristics; then learned skills necessary to select, operationalize, observe, and record animal behavior accurately. After their classroom preparation, students went to a local zoo to observe the behavior…

  5. Crayfish Behavior: Observing Arthropods to Learn about Science & Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    This is a set of animal behavior investigations in which students will practice scientific inquiry as they observe crayfish, ask questions, and discuss territoriality, social interactions, and other behaviors. In doing this, they hone their skills of observation, learn to record and analyze data, control for variables, write hypotheses, make…

  6. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  7. Evaluation of a Computer-Based Recruitment System for Enrolling Men Who Have Sex With Men Into an Observational HIV Behavioral Risk Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropour, Christine M; Dombrowksi, Julia C; Hughes, James P; Manhart, Lisa E; Golden, Matthew R

    2016-09-15

    Enrolling large numbers of high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies is necessary for research with an HIV outcome, but the resources required for in-person recruitment can be prohibitive. New methods with which to efficiently recruit large samples of MSM are needed. At a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Seattle, Washington, in 2013-2014, we used an existing clinical computer-assisted self-interview that collects patients' medical and sexual history data to recruit, screen, and enroll MSM into an HIV behavioral risk study and compared enrollees with men who declined to enroll. After completing the clinical computer-assisted self-interview, men aged ≥18 years who reported having had sex with men in the prior year were presented with an electronic study description and consent statement. We enrolled men at 2,661 (54%) of 4,944 visits, including 1,748 unique individuals. Enrolled men were younger (mean age = 34 years vs. 37 years; P partners (11 vs. 8; P use (15% vs. 8%; P < 0.001) than men who declined to enroll, but the HIV test positivity of the two groups was similar (1.9% vs. 2.0%; P = 0.80). Adapting an existing computerized clinic intake system, we recruited a large sample of MSM who may be an ideal population for an HIV prevention study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  9. On the representativeness of behavior observation samples in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiger, Jeffrey H; Miller, Sarah J; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Scheithauer, Mindy C; Alvarez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    School consultants who rely on direct observation typically conduct observational samples (e.g., 1 30-min observation per day) with the hopes that the sample is representative of performance during the remainder of the day, but the representativeness of these samples is unclear. In the current study, we recorded the problem behavior of 3 referred students for 4 consecutive school days between 9:30 a.m. and 2:30 p.m. using duration recording in consecutive 10-min sessions. We then culled 10-min, 20-min, 30-min, and 60-min observations from the complete record and compared these observations to the true daily mean to assess their accuracy (i.e., how well individual observations represented the daily occurrence of target behaviors). The results indicated that when behavior occurred with low variability, the majority of brief observations were representative of the overall levels; however, when behavior occurred with greater variability, even 60-min observations did not accurately capture the true levels of behavior. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Observations of the Middle School Environment: The Context for Student Behavior beyond the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…

  11. Automated behavioral bioassay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitinger, T.L.; Prepejchal, W.; Haumann, J.

    1975-01-01

    An instrumentation system was designed to determine temperature avoidance, preference, and regulation by adult salmonid fishes. This design features a temperature gradient over time instead of the spatial gradients of classical temperature preference research. The experimental approach allows an individual fish to serve as a living thermostat to regulate its body temperature by controlling the temperature of its environs. Miniaturized radiotransmitters, attached to the fish, are used to monitor both environmental and internal body temperatures

  12. OBPRELIM Observer Preliminary Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program and Industry Funded Scallop Program deployed on...

  13. Experimental Observation of Densification Behavior of UO2 Annular Pellet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Rhee, Young-Woo; Kim, Jong-Hun; Yang, Jae-Ho; Kang, Ki-Won; Kim, Keon-Sik

    2007-01-01

    Recently, in the nuclear industry, one of the major issues is the improvement of a fuel economy. And many efforts have been made to develop a nuclear fuel for a high burnup and extended cycle. In the development of a high performance fuel, in-reactor fuel behavior (fission gas release, pellet-clad interaction, stress corrosion cracking, cladding corrosion, etc.) must be seriously reconsidered. Also, fuel fabrication (high enriched UO 2 powder handling, fuel rod and assembly manufacturing, fabricated fuel rod and assembly storage and transport, etc.) and an enrichment process (5 w/o criticality limit, etc.) must be discussed. A modification and an improvement of the nuclear fuel system will be also required. The typical fuel geometry of a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) is composed of a cylindrical pellet with a tubular cladding. And the outer surface of the cladding is cooled with water. However, to allow a substantial increase in the power density, an additional cooling is needed. One of the best ways is the application of the new fuel geometry that is of annular shape and has both internal and external cooling. From this point of view, the double cooled fuel is being developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), and as a part of the project, the development of a fabrication process of a UO 2 annular pellet is now in progress. The dimensional behavior of UO 2 fuel is an important parameter in an irradiation performance. Various investigations (resintering test, model calculation, in-pile dimensional change measuring, etc.) had been performed. In designing a double cooled fuel, the importance of the dimensional behavior of a fuel pellet is higher, because the gap distance between a pellet and cladding can considerably affect on the in reactor fuel performance (gap conductance). And the dimensional behavior of an inner/outer gap is different with a cylindrical pellet, when the pellet shrinks (densification), the inner gap distance decreases and the

  14. Observing Children's Stress Behaviors in a Kindergarten Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative methods to determine whether kindergarten children exhibited stress behaviors during the academic work period of the day. Sixteen children (8 male, 8 female) ages 5-6 years were observed. The data consisted of classroom observations by the researcher, open-ended interviews with teachers, artifacts collected from the…

  15. Agreement among Classroom Observers of Children's Stylistic Learning Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Helen Hamlet; McDermott, Paul A.; Schaefer, Barbara A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the interobserver agreement of the Learning Behavior Scale (LBS) by educators (n=16) observing students in special-education classes (n=72). No significant observer effect was found. Moreover, the LBS produced comparable levels of differential learning styles for assessments of individual children. (Author/MKA)

  16. System Identification with Quantized Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Le Yi; Zhang, Jifeng; Zhao, Yanlong

    2010-01-01

    This book presents recently developed methodologies that utilize quantized information in system identification and explores their potential in extending control capabilities for systems with limited sensor information or networked systems. The results of these methodologies can be applied to signal processing and control design of communication and computer networks, sensor networks, mobile agents, coordinated data fusion, remote sensing, telemedicine, and other fields in which noise-corrupted quantized data need to be processed. Providing a comprehensive coverage of quantized identification,

  17. Observations of Student Behavior in Collaborative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeffrey P.; Brissenden, Gina; Lindell, Rebecca S.; Slater, Timothy F.; Wallace, Joy

    In an effort to determine how our students were responding to the use of collaborative learning groups in our large enrollment introductory astronomy (ASTRO 101) courses, we systematically observed the behavior of 270 undergraduate students working in 48 self-formed groups. Their observed behaviors were classified as: (i) actively engaged; (ii) watching actively; (iii) watching passively; and (iv) disengaged. We found that male behavior is consistent regardless of the sex-composition of the groups. However, females were categorized as watching passively and or disengaged significantly more frequently when working in groups that contained uneven numbers of males and females. This case study observation suggests that faculty who use collaborative learning groups might find that the level of student participation in collaborative group learning activities can depend on the sex-composition of the group.

  18. Positive youth development and observed athlete behavior in recreational sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierimaa, Matthew; Bruner, Mark W; Côté, Jean

    2018-01-01

    Competence, confidence, connection, and character are regarded as outcomes of positive youth development (PYD) in sport. However, the specific athlete behaviors associated with different PYD profiles are not well understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between athletes' observed behavior during sport competitions and their perceptions of PYD outcomes. Cross-sectional study with systematic behavioral observation. Sixty-seven youth athletes were observed during basketball games near the end of their season, and the content of their behavior was systematically coded. Athletes also completed measures of the 4 Cs (competence, confidence connection, and character). A person-centered analysis approach was used to examine the relationship between PYD profiles and observed behavior. A cluster analysis identified two homogenous groups of athletes characterized by relatively high and low perceptions of confidence, connection, and character. A MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for gender and years of playing experience, the high Cs group engaged in more frequent sport communication with their coaches. Results re-affirm the critical role that coaches play in the developmental experiences of young athletes, and highlight the importance of contextual factors of the youth sport environment.

  19. Positive youth development and observed athlete behavior in recreational sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Vierimaa

    Full Text Available Competence, confidence, connection, and character are regarded as outcomes of positive youth development (PYD in sport. However, the specific athlete behaviors associated with different PYD profiles are not well understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between athletes' observed behavior during sport competitions and their perceptions of PYD outcomes.Cross-sectional study with systematic behavioral observation.Sixty-seven youth athletes were observed during basketball games near the end of their season, and the content of their behavior was systematically coded. Athletes also completed measures of the 4 Cs (competence, confidence connection, and character. A person-centered analysis approach was used to examine the relationship between PYD profiles and observed behavior.A cluster analysis identified two homogenous groups of athletes characterized by relatively high and low perceptions of confidence, connection, and character. A MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for gender and years of playing experience, the high Cs group engaged in more frequent sport communication with their coaches.Results re-affirm the critical role that coaches play in the developmental experiences of young athletes, and highlight the importance of contextual factors of the youth sport environment.

  20. First testing of an AUV mission planning and guidance system for water quality monitoring and fish behavior observation in net cage fish farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Karimanzira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, underwater vehicles have become low cost, reliable and affordable platforms for performing various underwater tasks. While many aquaculture systems are closed with no harmful output, open net cage fish farms and land-based fish farms can discharge significant amounts of wastewater containing nutrients, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals that impact on the surrounding environment. Although aquaculture development has often occurred outside a regulatory framework, government oversight is increasingly common at both the seafood quality control level, and at baseline initiatives addressing the basic problem of pollution generated by culture operations, e.g. the European marine and maritime directives. This requires regular, sustainable and cost-effective monitoring of the water quality. Such monitoring needs devices to detect the water quality in a large sea area at different depths in real time. This paper presents a concept for a guidance system for a carrier (an autonomous underwater vehicle of such devices for the automated detection and analysis of water quality parameters.

  1. Systematic observation of play behavior in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, M; Freeman, B J; Montgomery, J

    1975-12-01

    The play behavior, defined as interaction with peers and objects, of five autistic children was systematically observed in four environments, i.e., a stark environment, a theraplay unit, a playroom, and an outside play deck. The preliminary results suggested that (1) with some children environment has little or no effect on their play behavior; (2) with multiple objects, autistic children frequently related to the objects rather than to their peers; (3) object play was most frequently at the manipulative stage and often included repetitive and negative behavior; (4) within a confined space with no objects present, autistic children frequently engaged in solitary repetitive behavior; and (5) within a confined space designed to facilitate a movement flow (theraplay), autistic children modeled and imitated and were involved in gross motor play together.

  2. Size-dependent redox behavior of iron observed by in-situ single nanoparticle spectro-microscopy on well-defined model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Waiz; Kleibert, Armin; Hartfelder, Urs; Balan, Ana; Gobrecht, Jens; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-01-06

    Understanding the chemistry of nanoparticles is crucial in many applications. Their synthesis in a controlled manner and their characterization at the single particle level is essential to gain deeper insight into chemical mechanisms. In this work, single nanoparticle spectro-microscopy with top-down nanofabrication is demonstrated to study individual iron nanoparticles of nine different lateral dimensions from 80 nm down to 6 nm. The particles are probed simultaneously, under same conditions, during in-situ redox reaction using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy elucidating the size effect during the early stage of oxidation, yielding time-dependent evolution of iron oxides and the mechanism for the inter-conversion of oxides in nanoparticles. Fabrication of well-defined system followed by visualization and investigation of singled-out particles eliminates the ambiguities emerging from dispersed nanoparticles and reveals a significant increase in the initial rate of oxidation with decreasing size, but the reactivity per active site basis and the intrinsic chemical properties in the particles remain the same in the scale of interest. This advance of nanopatterning together with spatially-resolved single nanoparticle X-ray absorption spectroscopy will guide future discourse in understanding the impact of confinement of metal nanoparticles and pave way to solve fundamental questions in material science, chemical physics, magnetism, nanomedicine and nanocatalysis.

  3. Size-dependent redox behavior of iron observed by in-situ single nanoparticle spectro-microscopy on well-defined model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Waiz; Kleibert, Armin; Hartfelder, Urs; Balan, Ana; Gobrecht, Jens; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the chemistry of nanoparticles is crucial in many applications. Their synthesis in a controlled manner and their characterization at the single particle level is essential to gain deeper insight into chemical mechanisms. In this work, single nanoparticle spectro-microscopy with top-down nanofabrication is demonstrated to study individual iron nanoparticles of nine different lateral dimensions from 80 nm down to 6 nm. The particles are probed simultaneously, under same conditions, during in-situ redox reaction using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy elucidating the size effect during the early stage of oxidation, yielding time-dependent evolution of iron oxides and the mechanism for the inter-conversion of oxides in nanoparticles. Fabrication of well-defined system followed by visualization and investigation of singled-out particles eliminates the ambiguities emerging from dispersed nanoparticles and reveals a significant increase in the initial rate of oxidation with decreasing size, but the reactivity per active site basis and the intrinsic chemical properties in the particles remain the same in the scale of interest. This advance of nanopatterning together with spatially-resolved single nanoparticle X-ray absorption spectroscopy will guide future discourse in understanding the impact of confinement of metal nanoparticles and pave way to solve fundamental questions in material science, chemical physics, magnetism, nanomedicine and nanocatalysis.

  4. Behavior observation of major noise sources in critical care wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Kang, Jian; Mills, Gary H

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the behavior patterns of typical noise sources in critical care wards and relate their patterns to health care environment in which the sources adapt themselves in several different forms. An effective observation approach was designed for noise behavior in the critical care environment. Five descriptors have been identified for the behavior observations, namely, interval, frequency, duration, perceived loudness, and location. Both the single-bed and the multiple-bed wards at the selected Critical Care Department were randomly observed for 3 inconsecutive nights, from 11:30 pm to 7:00 am the following morning. The Matlab distribution fitting tool was applied afterward to plot several types of distributions and estimate the corresponding parameters. The lognormal distribution was considered the most appropriate statistical distribution for noise behaviors in terms of the interval and duration patterns. The turning of patients by staff was closely related to the increasing occurrences of noises. Among the observed noises, talking was identified with the highest frequency, shortest intervals, and the longest durations, followed by monitor alarms. The perceived loudness of talking in the nighttime wards was classified into 3 levels (raised, normal, and low). Most people engaged in verbal communication in the single-bed wards that occurred around the Entrance Zone, whereas talking in the multiple-bed wards was more likely to be situated in the Staff Work Zone. As expected, more occurrences of noises along with longer duration were observed in multiple-bed wards rather than single-bed wards. "Monitor plus ventilator alarms" was the most commonly observed combination of multiple noises. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  6. Observability of linear systems with saturated outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koplon, R.; Sontag, E.D.; Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for observability of the class of output-saturated systems. These are linear systems whose output passes through a saturation function before it can be measured.

  7. Observing System Simulation Experiments for Fun and Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prive, Nikki C.

    2015-01-01

    Observing System Simulation Experiments can be powerful tools for evaluating and exploring both the behavior of data assimilation systems and the potential impacts of future observing systems. With great power comes great responsibility - given a pure modeling framework, how can we be sure our results are meaningful? The challenges and pitfalls of OSSE calibration and validation will be addressed, as well as issues of incestuousness, selection of appropriate metrics, and experiment design. The use of idealized observational networks to investigate theoretical ideas in a fully complex modeling framework will also be discussed

  8. Behavioral and TMS Markers of Action Observation Might Reflect Distinct Neuronal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hétu, Sébastien; Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Jackson, Philip L; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, 14 healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus-response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus-response compatibility task. Contrary to a widespread assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings.

  9. Behavioral and TMS markers of action observation might reflect distinct neuronal processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Hétu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, fourteen healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus-response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus-response compatibility task. Contrary to a predominant assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings.

  10. Weak localization behavior observed in graphene grown on germanium substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinbo Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional electron systems (2DES usually show the weak localization behavior in consequence of electron interaction in the limited dimension. Distinct from other 2DES, the monolayer graphene, due to the chirality, exhibits unique weak localization behavior sensitive to not only inelastic but also elastic carrier scattering. Grain boundaries, which usually exist in monolayer graphene, are apparently related to the elastic carrier scattering process, thus affecting the weak localization behavior. However, their effect is scarcely studied due to the lack of an ideal platform. Here, a complementary system consisting of both single-crystalline graphene grown on Ge (110 and poly-crystalline graphene grown on Ge (111 is constructed. From the comparison of magnetoresistivity measurements, the weak localization effect is found to be greatly enhanced for the poly-crystalline graphene on Ge(111 compared to the single-crystalline graphene on Ge(110. The degraded transport performance in graphene/Ge(111 is due to the presence of grain boundary in poly-crystalline graphene, which results in the enhanced elastic intervalley scattering. In addition, the inelastic scattering originating from the strong electron-electron interaction at low temperature also contributes to weak localization of poly-crystalline graphene/Ge(111.

  11. Tropical behavior of mesospheric ozone as observed by SMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Kendig, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The seasonal behavior of low latitude mesospheric ozone, as observed by the SMM satellite solar occultation experiment, is detailed for the 1985-1989 period. Annual as well as semi-annual waves are observed in the 50-70 km altitude region. In the latitude range of +/- 30 deg the ozone phase and amplitude are functions of temperature and seasonal changes in solar flux. Temperature is the controlling factor for the equatorial region and seasonal changes in solar flux become more dominant at latitudes outside the equatorial zone (greater than +/- 15 deg). There is a hemispheric asymmetry in the ozone annual wave in the 20-30 deg region, with Northern Hemispheric ozone having a larger amplitude than Southern Hemispheric ozone.

  12. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  13. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  14. Sensorless magnetically levitated system with reduced observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, T [Inst. fuer Elektrische Maschinen, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Henneberger, G [Inst. fuer Elektrische Maschinen, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Ress, C [Inst. fuer Elektrische Maschinen, RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper describes the use of a reduced observer for a hybrid excited magnetic levitation system. The latter is part of a contactless and energy saving driven conveyance system. Thereby one has to select the working point of the system in such a way, that the force due to the weight of the vehicle including its load will be compensated only by the permanent magnets. The linearized model is observable even if only the current in the coils is measured. Therefore it seems reasonable to evaluate the other variables of the state vector by an observer. Thus the sensors for the airgap can be omitted. Using an observer has another advantage as well. It will tune the airgap automatically to the value which is necessary in order to operate the system in the most energy saving way. The whole design was simulated. (orig.)

  15. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda Romero, Juan A.; Miguel, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meetings June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the Earth Observing System Covariance Realism updates.

  16. Jefferson Teamwork Observation Guide (JTOG): An Instrument to Observe Teamwork Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kevin J; Giordano, Carolyn; Speakman, Elizabeth; Smith, Kellie; Horowitz, June A

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming an integral part of the education of health professions students. However, teaching students to become successful members of interprofessional teams is complex, and it is important for students to learn the combinations of skills necessary for teams to function effectively. There are many instruments available to measure many features related to IPE. However, these instruments are often too cumbersome to use in an observational situation since they tend to be lengthy and contain many abstract characteristics that are difficult to identify. The Jefferson Teamwork Observation Guide (JTOG) is a short tool that was created for students early in their educational program to observe teams in action with a set of guidelines to help them focus their observation on behaviors indicative of good teamwork. The JTOG was developed over a 2-year period based on student and clinician feedback and the input of experts in IPE. While initially developed as a purely educational tool for prelicensure students, it is becoming clear that it is an easy-to-use instrument that assesses the behavior of clinicians in practice.

  17. Improvement of seismic observation systems in JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumino, Kozo; Suto, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    In the experimental fast reactor 'Joyo' in order to perform the seismic observation in and around the building block and ground, SMAC type seismographs had continuously been used for about 38 years. However, this equipment aged, and the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake on Mach 11, 2011 increased the importance of seismic data of the reactor facilities from the viewpoint of earthquake-proof safety. For these reasons, Joyo updated the system to the seismic observation system reflecting the latest technology/information, while keeping consistency with the observation data of the former seismographs (SMAC type seismograph). This updating improved various problems on the former observation seismographs. In addition, the installation of now observation points in the locations that are important in seismic safety evaluation expanded the data, and further improved the reliability of the seismic observation and evaluation on 'Joyo'. (A.O.)

  18. A Behavior Rating Scale for Emotionally Disturbed Students: The Pupil Observation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Hugg, Robin L.; And Others

    The paper describes development of the Pupil Observation Schedule (POS), a computer based system which provides a framework for assessing, evaluating, and reporting behavioral progress of emotionally disturbed students. The POS is used to rate five skill areas--computation, language, reading, reference, and psychomotor skills; and nine behavioral…

  19. Chaotic Behavior in a Switched Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima El Guezar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study of an example of piecewise linear systems that constitute a class of hybrid systems. Precisely, we study the chaotic dynamics of the voltage-mode controlled buck converter circuit in an open loop. By considering the voltage input as a bifurcation parameter, we observe that the obtained simulations show that the buck converter is prone to have subharmonic behavior and chaos. We also present the corresponding bifurcation diagram. Our modeling techniques are based on the new French native modeler and simulator for hybrid systems called Scicos (Scilab connected object simulator which is a Scilab (scientific laboratory package. The followed approach takes into account the hybrid nature of the circuit.

  20. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed

  1. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  2. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  3. Behavioral observations of the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow in a conservation aquaculture facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tave Douglas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A major reason why conservation aquaculture is needed to improve the success of aquaculture-assisted fisheries is that traditional production aquaculture produces fish with mal-adaptive behaviors. These behaviors can be produced via domestication and culture techniques, and preventing these mal-adaptive behaviors requires integrating improvements in genetic management and culture protocols. The genetic protocols needed to minimize hatchery-induced genetic changes have received considerable attention, but changing the way fish are raised has received less effort. Conservation aquaculture cultures fish in environments that resemble their native habitats so that when stocked, they behave like wild fish rather than hatchery fish. A purpose built-conservation aquaculture facility can also be used to learn about a species’ behavior and how it reacts to changes in the environment, something which can be difficult or expensive to study in the wild. These observations can then be used to help direct both propagation and recovery management. This paper provides the rationale for why genetic management, culture systems, and management practices need to be altered to produce fish that are behaviorally similar to wild fish for aquaculture-assisted fisheries programs. It then provides a description of some of the behaviors of the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow Hybognathus amarus that were observed at the Los Lunas Silvery Minnow Refugium, a purpose-built conservation aquaculture facility, and explains how some of these behaviors can be used in culture and recovery management. Behaviors described are: schooling; predator avoidance; feeding behavior; use of vegetation for cover and predator avoidance; habitat use by bottom substrate; location in the water column; upstream movement via a fish ladder; movement upstream in a high-velocity channel; response to changes in water level; spawning behavior; seine avoidance; and Kaah-chee-nyee Srkaash, a behavior

  4. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systemssystems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  5. Identifying and Quantifying Emergent Behavior Through System of Systems Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the similarities and differences between Agent Based Modeling ( ABM ) and Equation Based Modeling (EBM). Both modeling approaches “simulate a system by...entities. For the latter difference, EBM focuses on the system level observables, while ABM defines behaviors at the individual agent level and observes...EMERGENT BEHAVIOR THROUGH SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS MODELING AND SIMULATION by Mary Ann Cummings September 2015 Dissertation Supervisor: Man-Tak Shing

  6. A Big-Data-based platform of workers' behavior: Observations from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S Y; Ding, L Y; Luo, H B; Jiang, X Y

    2016-08-01

    Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) has been used in construction to observe, analyze and modify workers' behavior. However, studies have identified that BBS has several limitations, which have hindered its effective implementation. To mitigate the negative impact of BBS, this paper uses a case study approach to develop a Big-Data-based platform to classify, collect and store data about workers' unsafe behavior that is derived from a metro construction project. In developing the platform, three processes were undertaken: (1) a behavioral risk knowledge base was established; (2) images reflecting workers' unsafe behavior were collected from intelligent video surveillance and mobile application; and (3) images with semantic information were stored via a Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). The platform was implemented during the construction of the metro-system and it is demonstrated that it can effectively analyze semantic information contained in images, automatically extract workers' unsafe behavior and quickly retrieve on HDFS as well. The research presented in this paper can enable construction organizations with the ability to visualize unsafe acts in real-time and further identify patterns of behavior that can jeopardize safety outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Observation of SASE in LEBRA FEL system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. E-mail: tanaka@lebra.nihon-u.ac.jp; Hayakawa, K.; Sato, I.; Hayakawa, Y.; Yokoyama, K

    2004-08-01

    A large enhancement of spontaneous undulator radiation has been observed during FEL lasing experiments at LEBRA. The enhancement has been observed only with the detector for the infrared fundamental radiation. The detector output signal showed spikes during the electron beam pulse, yet no apparent enhancement was observed with a CCD camera monitoring the visible harmonic radiations. An enhancement factor greater than 10 has been obtained with a 2.4 m long undulator with a completely detuned FEL optical cavity length and depends strongly on the parameters of the linac RF system. This implies that the SASE operation is possible even with a conventional electron beam by achieving suitable bunch compression.

  8. TRICLOBS portable triband color lowlight observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the design and first test results of the TRICLOBS (TRI-band Color Low-light OBServation) system The TRICLOBS is an all-day all-weather surveillance and navigation tool. Its sensor suite consists of two digital image intensifiers (Photonis ICU's) and an uncooled longwave infrared

  9. Earth observing system - Concepts and implementation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    The concepts of an Earth Observing System (EOS), an information system being developed by the EOS Science and Mission Requirements Working Group for international use and planned to begin in the 1990s, are discussed. The EOS is designed to study the factors that control the earth's hydrologic cycle, biochemical cycles, and climatologic processes by combining the measurements from remote sensing instruments, in situ measurement devices, and a data and information system. Three EOS platforms are planned to be launched into low, polar, sun-synchronous orbits during the Space Station's Initial Operating Configuration, one to be provided by ESA and two by the United States.

  10. Earth Observing System, Conclusions and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The following Earth Observing Systems (E.O.S.) recommendations were suggested: (1) a program must be initiated to ensure that present time series of Earth science data are maintained and continued. (2) A data system that provides easy, integrated, and complete access to past, present, and future data must be developed as soon as possible. (3) A long term research effort must be sustained to study and understand these time series of Earth observations. (4) The E.O.S. should be established as an information system to carry out those aspects of the above recommendations which go beyond existing and currently planned activities. (5) The scientific direction of the E.O.S. should be established and continued through an international scientific steering committee.

  11. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  12. Multiscale Behavior of Viscous Fluids Dynamics: Experimental Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Spina, Laura; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of Newtonian fluids with viscosities of mafic to intermediate silicate melts (10-1000 Pa s) during slow decompression present multi-time scale processes. To observe these processes we have performed several experiments on silicon oil saturated with Argon gas for 72 hours, in a Plexiglas autoclave. The slow decompression, dropping from 10 MPa to ambient pressure, acting as the excitation mechanism, triggered several processes with their own distinct timescales. These processes generate complex non-stationary microseismic signals, which have been recorded with 7 high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors located along the conduit flanked by high-speed video recordings. The analysis in time and frequency of these time series and their correlation with the associated high-speed imaging enables the characterization of distinct phases and the extraction of the individual processes during the evolution of decompression of these viscous fluids. We have observed fluid-solid elastic interaction, degassing, fluid mass expansion and flow, bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, foam building and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are sequentially coupled in time, occur within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution along the conduit. Their coexistence and interactions constitute the stress field and driving forces that determine the dynamics of the conduit system. Our observations point to the great potential of this experimental approach in the understanding of volcanic conduit dynamics and volcanic seismicity.

  13. Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) surface observation data.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — GMOS global surface elemental mercury (Hg0) observations from 2013 & 2014. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sprovieri, F., N. Pirrone,...

  14. Building Alliances with (In)Voluntary Clients: A Study Focused on Therapists' Observable Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotero, Luciana; Cunha, Diana; da Silva, José Tomás; Escudero, Valentín; Relvas, Ana Paula

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to compare therapists' observable behaviors to promote alliances with involuntary and voluntary clients during brief family therapy. The therapists' contributions to fostering alliances were rated in sessions 1 and 4 using videotapes of 29 families who were observed in brief therapy. Using the System for Observing Family Therapy Alliances, trained raters searched for specific therapist behaviors that contributed to or detracted from the four alliance dimensions: engagement in the therapeutic process, an emotional connection with the therapist, safety within the therapeutic system, and a shared sense of purpose within the family. The results showed that when working with involuntary clients, therapists presented more behaviors to foster the clients' engagement and to promote a shared sense of purpose within the family. However, in the fourth session, the therapists in both groups contributed to the alliance in similar ways. The results are discussed in terms of (a) the therapists' alliance-building behaviors, (b) the specificities of each client group, and (c) the implications for clinical practice, training, and research. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  15. GENERAL EARTHQUAKE-OBSERVATION SYSTEM (GEOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Jensen, E.G.; Maxwell, G.L.; VanSchaack, J.R.; Warrick, R.E.; Cranswick, E.; Johnston, M.J.S.; McClearn, R.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor technology has permitted the development of a General Earthquake-Observation System (GEOS) useful for most seismic applications. Central-processing-unit control via robust software of system functions that are isolated on hardware modules permits field adaptability of the system to a wide variety of active and passive seismic experiments and straightforward modification for incorporation of improvements in technology. Various laboratory tests and numerous deployments of a set of the systems in the field have confirmed design goals, including: wide linear dynamic range (16 bit/96 dB); broad bandwidth (36 hr to 600 Hz; greater than 36 hr available); selectable sensor-type (accelerometer, seismometer, dilatometer); selectable channels (1 to 6); selectable record mode (continuous, preset, trigger); large data capacity (1. 4 to 60 Mbytes); selectable time standard (WWVB, master, manual); automatic self-calibration; simple field operation; full capability to adapt system in the field to a wide variety of experiments; low power; portability; and modest costs. System design goals for a microcomputer-controlled system with modular software and hardware components as implemented on the GEOS are presented. The systems have been deployed for 15 experiments, including: studies of near-source strong motion; high-frequency microearthquakes; crustal structure; down-hole wave propagation; teleseismicity; and earth-tidal strains.

  16. Observed benefits from product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... affected by the use of product configu-ration systems e.g. increased sales, decrease in the number of SKU's, improved ability to introduce new products, and cost reductions.......This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... processes, on-time delivery of the specifica-tions, and resource consumption for making specifications, quality of specifications, optimization of products and services, and other observations. The purpose of the study is partly to identify specific impacts observed from implementing product configuration...

  17. The Observation of Manual Grasp Actions Affects the Control of Speech: A Combined Behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Campione, Giovanna Cristina; Volta, Riccardo Dalla; Bernardis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Does the mirror system affect the control of speech? This issue was addressed in behavioral and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) experiments. In behavioral experiment 1, participants pronounced the syllable /da/ while observing (1) a hand grasping large and small objects with power and precision grasps, respectively, (2) a foot interacting…

  18. Intermittent behavior of the logistic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Kress, G.; Haken, H.

    1981-03-01

    In the discrete logistic model a transition to chaotic behavior via intermittency occurs in a neighborhood of periodic bands. Intermittent behavior is also induced if a stable periodic orbit is perturbed by low-level external noise, whereas alterations due to computer digitalisation produce remarkable periodicities. We compare our numerical results with the predictions of Pomeau and Manneville for the Lorenz system.

  19. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  20. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  1. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. E.; Behnke, J.; Lowe, D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA’s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA’s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO’s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO’s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA’s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for

  2. Observed Parent Behaviors as Time-Varying Moderators of Problem Behaviors Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari L.

    2016-01-01

    Parent behaviors moderate the adverse consequences of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, it is unknown how these moderating effects change over time. This study examined the moderating effect of observed parent behaviors over time since injury on the relation between TBI and behavioral outcomes. Participants included children, ages…

  3. The CRF system and social behavior: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Caroline M; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2013-01-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system plays a key role in a diversity of behaviors accompanying stress, anxiety and depression. There is also substantial research on relationships between social behaviors and the CRF system in a variety of taxa including fish, birds, rodents, and primates. Some of these relationships are due to the broad role of CRF and urocortins in stress and anxiety, but these peptides also modulate social behavior specifically. For example, the social interaction (SI) test is often used to measure anxiety-like behavior. Many components of the CRF system including CRF, urocortin1, and the R1 receptor have been implicated in SI, via general effects on anxiety as well as specific effects depending on the brain region. The CRF system is also highly responsive to chronic social stressors such as social defeat and isolation. Animals exposed to these stressors display a number of anxiety- and stress-related behaviors, accompanied by changes in specific components the CRF system. Although the primary focus of CRF research on social behavior has been on the deleterious effects of social stress, there are also insights on a role for CRF and urocortins in prosocial and affiliative behaviors. The CRF system has been implicated in parental care, maternal defense, sexual behavior, and pair bonding. Species differences in the ligands and CRF receptors have been observed in vole and bird species differing in social behavior. Exogenous administration of CRF facilitates partner preference formation in monogamous male prairie voles, and these effects are dependent on both the CRF R1 and R2 receptors. These findings are particularly interesting as studies have also implicated the CRF and urocortins in social memory. With the rapid progress of social neuroscience and in understanding the complex structure of the CRF system, the next challenge is in parsing the exact contribution of individual components of this system to specific social behaviors.

  4. The CRF System and Social Behavior: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Hostetler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF system plays a key role in a diversity of behaviors accompanying stress, anxiety and depression. There is also substantial research on relationships between social behaviors and the CRF system in a variety of taxa including fish, birds, rodents, and primates. Some of these relationships are due to the broad role of CRF and urocortins in stress and anxiety, but these peptides also modulate social behavior specifically. For example, the social interaction (SI test is often used to measure anxiety-like behavior. Many components of the CRF system including CRF, urocortin1, and the R1 receptor have been implicated in SI, via general effects on anxiety as well as specific effects depending on the brain region. The CRF system is also highly responsive to chronic social stressors such as social defeat and isolation. Animals exposed to these stressors display a number of anxiety- and stress-related behaviors, accompanied by changes in specific components the CRF system. Although the primary focus of CRF research on social behavior has been on the deleterious effects of social stress, there are also insights on a role for CRF and urocortins in prosocial and affiliative behaviors. The CRF system has been implicated in parental care, maternal defense, sexual behavior, and pair bonding. Species differences in the ligands and CRF receptors have been observed in vole and bird species differing in social behavior. Exogenous administration of CRF facilitates partner preference formation in monogamous male prairie voles, and these effects are dependent on both the CRF R1 and R2 receptors. These findings are particularly interesting as studies have also implicated the CRF and urocortins in social memory. With the rapid progress of social neuroscience and in understanding the complex structure of the CRF system, the next challenge is in parsing the exact contribution of individual components of this system to specific social

  5. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  6. A Web Browsing Behavior Recording System

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmura, Hayato; Kitasuka, Teruaki; Aritsugi, Masayoshi; オオムラ, ハヤト; キタスカ, テルアキ; アリツギ, マサヨシ; 大村, 勇人; 北須賀, 輝明; 有次, 正義

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Web browsing behavior recording system for research. Web browsing behavior data can help us to providesophisticated services for human activities, because the data must indicate characteristics ofWeb users.We discuss the necessity of the data with potential benefits, and develop a system for collecting the data as an add-on for Firefox. We also report some results of preliminary experiments to test its usefulness in analyses on human activities in this paper.

  7. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  8. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Breanna J; Drury, Jonathan P; Blumstein, Daniel T; Pauly, Gregory B

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  9. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Jonathan P.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Pauly, Gregory B.

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes. PMID:28792983

  10. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna J Putman

    Full Text Available Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis, and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  11. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  12. Observation and Measurement of Smokers’ Ash Removal Behavior in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Linyu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the main factors behind hot coal fallout during cigarette smoking, an in-use behavior survey among smokers was conducted in three locations (Guiyang, Shijiazhuang and Nanchang in China. In addition, a measuring device was designed to record whether a flicking or tapping force was exerted to remove ash and to record the force applied as well as their characteristic parameters. We found that there was no significant difference among the behavior characteristic parameters of the users in the three locations. The proportion of consumers who applied flicking was higher than the proportion of consumers tapping. There were some differences in the in-use behavior when smoking King Size and Superslim cigarettes. The work could help to develop a suitable hot coal fallout test method.

  13. Observed ices in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Grundy, Will; Carlson, Robert R.; Noll, Keith; Gudipati, Murthy; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Ices have been detected and mapped on the Earth and all planets and/or their satellites further from the sun. Water ice is the most common frozen volatile observed and is also unambiguously detected or inferred in every planet and/or their moon(s) except Venus. Carbon dioxide is also extensively found in all systems beyond the Earth except Pluto although it sometimes appears to be trapped rather than as an ice on some objects. The largest deposits of carbon dioxide ice is on Mars. Sulfur dioxide ice is found in the Jupiter system. Nitrogen and methane ices are common beyond the Uranian system. Saturn’s moon Titan probably has the most complex active chemistry involving ices, with benzene (C6H6) and many tentative or inferred compounds including ices of Cyanoacetylene (HC3N), Toluene (C7H8), Cyanogen (C2N2), Acetonitrile (CH3CN), H2O, CO2, and NH3. Confirming compounds on Titan is hampered by its thick smoggy atmosphere. Ammonia was predicted on many icy moons but is notably absent among the definitively detected ices with the possible exception of Enceladus. Comets, storehouses of many compounds that could exist as ices in their nuclei, have only had small amounts of water ice definitively detected on their surfaces. Only one asteroid has had a direct detection of surface water ice, although its presence can be inferred in others. This chapter reviews some of the properties of ices that lead to their detection, and surveys the ices that have been observed on solid surfaces throughout the Solar System.

  14. Observation of molecular level behavior in molecular electronic junction device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitani, Masato

    In this dissertation, I utilize AFM based scanning probe measurement and surface enhanced Raman scattering based vibrational spectroscopic analysis to directly characterize topographic, electronic, and chemical properties of molecules confined in the local area of M3 junction to elucidate the molecular level behavior of molecular junction electronic devices. In the introduction, the characterization of molecular electronic devices with different types of metal-molecule-metal (M3) structures based upon self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is reviewed. A background of the characterization methods I use in this dissertation, conducting probe atomic force microscopy (cp-AFM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), is provided in chapter 1. Several attempts are performed to create the ideal top metal contacts on SAMs by metal vapor phase deposition in order to prevent the metal penetration inducing critical defects of the molecular electronic devices. The scanning probe microscopy (SPM), such as cp-AFM, contact mode (c-) AFM and non-contact mode (nc-) AFM, in ultra high vacuum conditions are utilized to study the process of the metal-SAM interface construction in terms of the correlation between the morphological and electrical properties including the metal nucleation and filament generation as a function of the functionalization of long-chain alkane thiolate SAMs on Au. In chapter 2, the nascent condensation process of vapor phase Al deposition on inert and reactive SAMs are studied by SPM. The results of top deposition, penetration, and filament generation of deposited Al are discussed and compared to the results previously observed by spectroscopic measurements. Cp-AFM was shown to provide new insights into Al filament formation which has not been observed by conventional spectroscopic analysis. Additionally, the electronic characteristics of individual Al filaments are measured. Chapter 3 reveals SPM characterization of Au deposition onto --COOH terminated SAMs

  15. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David

    2016-01-01

    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  16. Behavioral inhibition system (BIS), Behavioral activation system (BAS) and schizophrenia : Relationship with psychopathology and physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Marion R. M.; van Honk, Jack; Aleman, Andre; Kahn, Rene S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) have been conceptualized as two neural motivational systems that regulate sensitivity to punishment (BIS) and reward (BAS). Imbalance in BIS and BAS levels has been reported to be related to various forms of

  17. Citation Behaviors Observed in Japanese EFL Students' Argumentative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko

    2014-01-01

    Effective use of outside source texts is one of the key components of successful academic writing. This study aims at clarifying Japanese university EFL students' citation behaviors in producing argumentative writing. Twenty-six Japanese university EFL students wrote an argumentative essay. Their essays were analyzed quantitatively by six…

  18. Observing Arctic Ecology using Networked Infomechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, N. C.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Hollister, R. D.; Tweedie, C. E.; Welker, J. M.; Gould, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding ecological dynamics is important for investigation into the potential impacts of climate change in the Arctic. Established in the early 1990's, the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) began observational inquiry of plant phenology, plant growth, community composition, and ecosystem properties as part of a greater effort to study changes across the Arctic. Unfortunately, these observations are labor intensive and time consuming, greatly limiting their frequency and spatial coverage. We have expanded the capability of ITEX to analyze ecological phenomenon with improved spatial and temporal resolution through the use of Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS) as part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) program. The systems exhibit customizable infrastructure that supports a high level of versatility in sensor arrays in combination with information technology that allows for adaptable configurations to numerous environmental observation applications. We observe stereo and static time-lapse photography, air and surface temperature, incoming and outgoing long and short wave radiation, net radiation, and hyperspectral reflectance that provides critical information to understanding how vegetation in the Arctic is responding to ambient climate conditions. These measurements are conducted concurrent with ongoing manual measurements using ITEX protocols. Our NIMS travels at a rate of three centimeters per second while suspended on steel cables that are ~1 m from the surface spanning transects ~50 m in length. The transects are located to span soil moisture gradients across a variety of land cover types including dry heath, moist acidic tussock tundra, shrub tundra, wet meadows, dry meadows, and water tracks. We have deployed NIMS at four locations on the North Slope of Alaska, USA associated with 1 km2 ARCSS vegetation study grids including Barrow, Atqasuk, Toolik Lake, and Imnavait Creek. A fifth system has been deployed in Thule, Greenland beginning in

  19. In situ observation of the role of alumina particles on the crystallization behavior of slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrling, C.

    2000-09-01

    The confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) allows crystallization behavior in liquid slags to he observed in situ at high temperatures. Slags in the lime-silica-alumina-magnesia system are easily tinder cooled and it is possible to construct time temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams for this system. The presence of solid alumina particles its these liquid slags was studied to determine if these particles act as heterogeneous nucleation sites that cause she precipitation of solid material within slags. The introduction of alumina particles reduced the incubation time for the onset of crystallization and increased the temperature at which crystallization was observed in the slags to close to the liquidus temperature for the slag. Crystal growth rates are in a good agreement with Ivantsov's solution of the problem of diffusion controlled dendritic growth. Alumina appears to be a potent nucleating agent in the slag systems that were studied. (author)

  20. Collective Motion in Behaviorally Heterogeneous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhagen, Katherine

    Collective motion is a widespread phenomenon in nature where individuals actively propel themselves, gather together and move as a group. Some examples of collective motion are bird flocks, fish schools, bacteria swarms, cell clusters, and crowds of people. Many models seek to understand the effects of activity in collective systems including things such as environmental disorder, density, and interaction details primarily at infinite size limits and with uniform populations. In this dissertation I investigate the effects of finite sizes and behavioral heterogeneity as it exists in nature. Behavioral heterogeneity can originate from several different sources. Mixed populations of individuals can have inherently different behaviors such as mutant bacteria, injured fish, or agents that prefer individualistic behavior over coordinated motion. Alternatively, agents may modify their own behavior based on some local environmental dependency, such as local substrate, or density. In cases such as mutant cheaters in bacteria or malfunctioning drones in swarms, mixed populations of behaviorally heterogeneous agents can be modelled as arising in the form of aligning and non-aligning agents. When this kind of heterogeneity is introduced, there is a critical carrying capacity of non-aligners above which the system is unable to form a cohesive ordered group. However, if the cohesion of the group is relaxed to allow for fracture, the system will actively sort out non-aligning agents the system will exist at a critical non-aligner fraction. A similar heterogeneity could result in a mixture of high and low noise individuals. In this case there is also a critical carry capacity beyond which the system is unable to reach an ordered state, however the nature of this transition depends on the model details. Agents which are part of an ordered collective may vary their behavior as the group changes environments such as a flock of birds flying into a cloud. Using a unique model of a

  1. Conference on Earth Observation and Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    The NATO Science Committee and its subsidiary Programme Panels provide support for Advanced Research Institutes (ARI) in various fields. The idea is to bring together scientists of a chosen field with the hope that they will achieve a consensus on research direc­ tions for the future, and make recommendations for the benefit of a wider scientific community. Attendance is therefore limited to those whose experience and expertise make the conclusions significant and acceptable to the wider community. Participants are selected on the basis of substantial track records in research or in the synthesis of research results to serve mankind. The proposal for a one-week ARIon Earth Observation and In­ formation Systems was initiated by the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science (SPPOSS). In approving the ARI, the senior NATO Science Committee identified the subject as one of universal impor­ tance, requiring a broad perspective on the development of opera­ tional systems based on successful experimental s...

  2. Observation of the Earth system from space

    CERN Document Server

    Flury, Jakob; Reigber, Christoph; Rothacher, Markus; Boedecker, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    In the recent years, space-based observation methods have led to a subst- tially improved understanding of Earth system. Geodesy and geophysics are contributing to this development by measuring the temporal and spatial va- ations of the Earth's shape, gravity ?eld, and magnetic ?eld, as well as at- sphere density. In the frame of the GermanR&D programmeGEOTECHNO- LOGIEN,researchprojectshavebeen launchedin2002relatedto the satellite missions CHAMP, GRACE and ESA's planned mission GOCE, to comp- mentary terrestrial and airborne sensor systems and to consistent and stable high-precision global reference systems for satellite and other techniques. In the initial 3-year phase of the research programme (2002-2004), new gravity ?eld models have been computed from CHAMP and GRACE data which outperform previous models in accuracy by up to two orders of m- nitude for the long and medium wavelengths. A special highlight is the - termination of seasonal gravity variations caused by changes in continental water masses...

  3. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - EOSDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research. The Earth Science Data Systems provide end-to-end capabilities to deliver data and information products to users in support of understanding the Earth system. The presentation contains photographs from space of recent events, (i.e., the effects of the tsunami in Japan, and the wildfires in Australia.) It also includes details of the Data Centers that provide the data to EOSDIS and Science Investigator-led Processing Systems. Information about the Land, Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and some of the uses that the system has made possible are reviewed. Also included is information about how to access the data, and evolutionary plans for the future of the system.

  4. Behavioral Reference Model for Pervasive Healthcare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Arezoo; Adabi, Sahar; Rezaee, Ali

    2016-12-01

    The emergence of mobile healthcare systems is an important outcome of application of pervasive computing concepts for medical care purposes. These systems provide the facilities and infrastructure required for automatic and ubiquitous sharing of medical information. Healthcare systems have a dynamic structure and configuration, therefore having an architecture is essential for future development of these systems. The need for increased response rate, problem limited storage, accelerated processing and etc. the tendency toward creating a new generation of healthcare system architecture highlight the need for further focus on cloud-based solutions for transfer data and data processing challenges. Integrity and reliability of healthcare systems are of critical importance, as even the slightest error may put the patients' lives in danger; therefore acquiring a behavioral model for these systems and developing the tools required to model their behaviors are of significant importance. The high-level designs may contain some flaws, therefor the system must be fully examined for different scenarios and conditions. This paper presents a software architecture for development of healthcare systems based on pervasive computing concepts, and then models the behavior of described system. A set of solutions are then proposed to improve the design's qualitative characteristics including, availability, interoperability and performance.

  5. INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE PROVIDING BEHAVIORAL FEATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shvedenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of integrated information system architecture capable of supporting management decisions using behavioral features. The paper considers the architecture of information decision support system for production system management. The behavioral feature is given to an information system, and it ensures extraction, processing of information, management decision-making with both automated and automatic modes of decision-making subsystem being permitted. Practical implementation of information system with behavior is based on service-oriented architecture: there is a set of independent services in the information system that provides data of its subsystems or data processing by separate application under the chosen variant of the problematic situation settlement. For creation of integrated information system with behavior we propose architecture including the following subsystems: data bus, subsystem for interaction with the integrated applications based on metadata, business process management subsystem, subsystem for the current state analysis of the enterprise and management decision-making, behavior training subsystem. For each problematic situation a separate logical layer service is created in Unified Service Bus handling problematic situations. This architecture reduces system information complexity due to the fact that with a constant amount of system elements the number of links decreases, since each layer provides communication center of responsibility for the resource with the services of corresponding applications. If a similar problematic situation occurs, its resolution is automatically removed from problem situation metamodel repository and business process metamodel of its settlement. In the business process performance commands are generated to the corresponding centers of responsibility to settle a problematic situation.

  6. Performance Evaluation Of Behavioral Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cherifi , Fouad; Hemery , Baptiste; Giot , Romain; Pasquet , Marc; Rosenberger , Christophe

    2009-01-01

    We present in this chapter an overview of techniques for the performance evaluation of behavioral biometric systems. The BioAPI standard that defines the architecture of a biometric system is presented in the first part of the chapter... The general methodology for the evaluation of biometric systems is given including statistical metrics, definition of benchmark databases and subjective evaluation. These considerations rely with the ISO/IEC19795-1 standard describing the biometric performanc...

  7. Earth Observing Data System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klene, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) acquires and distributes an abundance of Earth science data on a daily basis to a diverse user community worldwide. The NASA Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) is an effort to make the acquired science data more discoverable, accessible, and usable. This presentation will provide a brief introduction to the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project and the nature of advances that have been made by BEDI to other Federal Users.

  8. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David

    2016-01-01

    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  9. Asymptotic behavior of observables in the asymmetric quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, J.; Kollar, M.

    2018-01-01

    The asymmetric quantum Rabi model with broken parity invariance shows spectral degeneracies in the integer case, that is when the asymmetry parameter equals an integer multiple of half the oscillator frequency, thus hinting at a hidden symmetry and accompanying integrability of the model. We study the expectation values of spin observables for each eigenstate and observe characteristic differences between the integer and noninteger cases for the asymptotics in the deep strong coupling regime, which can be understood from a perturbative expansion in the qubit splitting. We also construct a parent Hamiltonian whose exact eigenstates possess the same symmetries as the perturbative eigenstates of the asymmetric quantum Rabi model in the integer case.

  10. Self-Regulation of Practice Behavior Among Elite Youth Soccer Players : An Exploratory Observation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, Tynke; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Jordet, Geir; Jorna, Casper; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to measure behavioral correlates of self-regulation in elite youth soccer players. Behaviors regarded as indicative of self-regulated learning were identified by interviewing six expert youth soccer coaches. These behaviors were observed during practice of eight elite youth soccer

  11. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  12. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Hutchinson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling and physical activity (92 studies or sedentary behaviors (19 studies. Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14, including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste and other health behaviors ((n = 20 smoking, dietary intake, alcohol. These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain.

  13. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-30

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  14. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R; Amusia, M Ya; Popov, Konstantin G

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T c superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  15. Development of Creative Behavior Observation Form: A Study on Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Zeynep; Ömeroglu, Esra

    2018-01-01

    This study, Creative Behavior Observation Form was developed to assess creativity of the children. While the study group on the reliability and validity of Creative Behavior Observation Form was being developed, 257 children in total who were at the ages of 5-6 were used as samples with stratified sampling method. Content Validity Index (CVI) and…

  16. Mother-Child Interactions and Childhood OCD: Effects of CBT on Mother and Child Observed Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…

  17. Service discovery from observed behavior while guaranteeing deadlock freedom in collaborations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, R.; Stahl, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Westergaard, M.

    2013-01-01

    Process discovery techniques can be used to derive a process model from observed example behavior (i.e., an event log). As the observed behavior is inherently incomplete and models may serve different purposes, four competing quality dimensions --fi tness, precision, simplicity, and generalization--

  18. Service discovery from observed behavior while guaranteeing deadlock freedom in collaborations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, R.; Stahl, C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Westergaard, M.; Basu, S.; Pautasso, C.; Zhang, L.; Fu, X.

    2013-01-01

    Process discovery techniques can be used to derive a process model from observed example behavior (i.e., an event log). As the observed behavior is inherently incomplete and models may serve different purposes, four competing quality dimensions—fitness, precision, simplicity, and generalization—have

  19. A behavioral and systems view of professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Cara S; Lucey, Catherine R; Egener, Barry; Braddock, Clarence H; Linas, Stuart L; Levinson, Wendy

    2010-12-22

    Professionalism may not be sufficient to drive the profound and far-reaching changes needed in the US health care system, but without it, the health care enterprise is lost. Formal statements defining professionalism have been abstract and principle based, without a clear description of what professional behaviors look like in practice. This article proposes a behavioral and systems view of professionalism that provides a practical approach for physicians and the organizations in which they work. A more behaviorally oriented definition makes the pursuit of professionalism in daily practice more accessible and attainable. Professionalism needs to evolve from being conceptualized as an innate character trait or virtue to sophisticated competencies that can and must be taught and refined over a lifetime of practice. Furthermore, professional behaviors are profoundly influenced by the organizational and environmental context of contemporary medical practice, and these external forces need to be harnessed to support--not inhibit--professionalism in practice. This perspective on professionalism provides an opportunity to improve the delivery of health care through education and system-level reform.

  20. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeutigam S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system

  1. The observation of dust behavior in TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Hanada, K.; Nishino, N.; Tokitani, M.; Yoshida, N.; Sato, K.N.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakasihma, H.; Higashijima, A.

    2007-01-01

    The observation of dusts in plasmas was carried out by high speed camera in full non-inductive lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) plasma on TRIAM-1M. The velocities of dusts were 10-50 m/s. The number of dust generated per second increased with the discharge duration in the range of 20-57 s. This suggests that a part of dusts were generated from a movable limiter whose the surface temperature increases with the discharge duration. Dusts were coming from various directions even close to the movable limiter. Dusts were collected in the vacuum vessel by use of a kind of cleaner and the composition and the size of dust were examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Dust size was several μm and composition was Molybdenum mixed with small amount of elements of stainless metal. The poloidal distribution of the collected mass of dusts was almost uniform

  2. NOAA Observing System Integrated Analysis (NOSIA): development and support to the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reining, R. C.; Cantrell, L. E., Jr.; Helms, D.; LaJoie, M.; Pratt, A. S.; Ries, V.; Taylor, J.; Yuen-Murphy, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    There is a deep relationship between NOSIA-II and the Federal Earth Observation Assessment (EOA) efforts (EOA 2012 and 2016) chartered under the National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environment, Natural Resources, and Sustainability, co-chaired by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, NASA, NOAA, and USGS. NOSIA-1, which was conducted with a limited scope internal to NOAA in 2010, developed the methodology and toolset that was adopted for EOA 2012, and NOAA staffed the team that conducted the data collection, modeling, and analysis effort for EOA 2012. EOA 2012 was the first-ever integrated analysis of the relative impact of 379 observing systems and data sources contributing to the key objectives identified for 13 Societal Benefit Areas (SBA) including Weather, Climate, Disasters, Oceans and Coastal Resources, and Water Resources. This effort culminated in the first National Plan for Civil Earth Observations. NOAA conducted NOSIA-II starting in 2012 to extend the NOSIA methodology across all of NOAA's Mission Service Areas, covering a representative sample (over 1000) of NOAA's products and services. The detailed information from NOSIA-II is being integrated into EOA 2016 to underpin a broad array of Key Products, Services, and (science) Objectives (KPSO) identified by the inter-agency SBA teams. EOA 2016 is expected to provide substantially greater insight into the cross-agency impacts of observing systems contributing to a wide array of KPSOs, and by extension, to societal benefits flowing from these public-facing products. NOSIA-II is being adopted by NOAA as a corporate decision-analysis and support capability to inform leadership decisions on its integrated observing systems portfolio. Application examples include assessing the agency-wide impacts of planned decommissioning of ships and aircraft in NOAA's fleet, and the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative space-based architectures in the post-GOES-R and JPSS era

  3. Modelling aerosol behavior in reactor cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of some of the areas of concern in using computer codes to model fission-product aerosol behavior in the reactor cooling system (RCS) of a water-cooled nuclear reactor during a loss-of-coolant accident. The basic physical processes that require modelling include: fission product release and aerosol formation in the reactor core, aerosol transport and deposition in the reactor core and throughout the rest of the RCS, and the interaction between aerosol transport processes and the thermalhydraulics. In addition to these basic physical processes, chemical reactions can have a large influence on the nature of the aerosol and its behavior in the RCS. The focus is on the physics and the implications of numerical methods used in the computer codes to model aerosol behavior in the RCS

  4. Operator behaviors observed in following emergency operating procedure under a simulated emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Park, Jin Kyun

    2012-01-01

    A symptom-based procedure with a critical safety function monitoring system has been established to reduce the operator's diagnosis and cognitive burden since the Three-Mile Island (TMI) accident. However, it has been reported that a symptom-based procedure also requires an operator's cognitive efforts to cope with off-normal events. This can be caused by mismatches between a static model, an emergency operating procedure (EOP), and a dynamic process, the nature of an ongoing situation. The purpose of this study is to share the evidence of mismatches that may result in an excessive cognitive burden in conducting EOPs. For this purpose, we analyzed simulated emergency operation records and observed some operator behaviors during the EOP operation: continuous steps, improper description, parameter check at a fixed time, decision by information previously obtained, execution complexity, operation by the operator's knowledge, notes and cautions, and a foldout page. Since observations in this study are comparable to the results of an existing study, it is expected that the operational behaviors observed in this study are generic features of operators who have to cope with a dynamic situation using a static procedure.

  5. Observations of Bacterial Behavior during Infection Using the ARGOS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, A. J.; Algarni, S.; Iannacchione, G. S.

    2015-03-01

    This research employed the Area Recorded Generalized Optical Scattering (ARGOS) approach which allowed for the observation of bacterial changes in terms of individual particles and population dynamics in real time. This new approach allows for an aqueous environment to be manipulated while conducting time-specific measurements over an indefinite amount of time. This current study provides a more time-specific method in which the bacteria remained within the initial conditions and allows for more time precision than provided by analyzing concentrations of plaque-forming units (PFU). This study involved the bacteria (F-amp) during infection by bacteriophage (MS2). The relative total intensity allows for detailed measurements of the bacteria population over time. The bacteria characteristics were also evaluated such as the root mean square image difference (at specific wavevectors), fractal dimension and effective radius. The growth rate of the infected bacteria occurred at a rate higher than the uninfected bacteria similarly, the death rates were also higher for the infected bacteria than the uninfected bacteria. The present study indicates that bacteria may react to infection by increasing the rate of population growth.

  6. Modeling Adaptive Behavior for Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Field studies in modern work systems and analysis of recent major accidents have pointed to a need for better models of the adaptive behavior of individuals and organizations operating in a dynamic and highly competitive environment. The paper presents a discussion of some key characteristics.......) The basic difference between the models of system functions used in engineering and design and those evolving from basic research within the various academic disciplines and finally 3.) The models and methods required for closed-loop, feedback system design....

  7. Power System Oscillatory Behaviors: Sources, Characteristics, & Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dosiek, Luke A. [Union College, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pierre, John W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-05-17

    This document is intended to provide a broad overview of the sources, characteristics, and analyses of natural and forced oscillatory behaviors in power systems. These aspects are necessarily linked. Oscillations appear in measurements with distinguishing characteristics derived from the oscillation’s source. These characteristics determine which analysis methods can be appropriately applied, and the results from these analyses can only be interpreted correctly with an understanding of the oscillation’s origin. To describe oscillations both at their source within a physical power system and within measurements, a perspective from the boundary between power system and signal processing theory has been adopted.

  8. AFSC/FMA/Observer Logistics System (OLS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alaska groundfish fisheries observers have been monitoring domestic groundfish fishing activities in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off Alaska for over...

  9. Power system observability with minimum phasor measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Due to the high cost of having a PMU at each node, some of the studies performed in ..... through the process of expanding, which makes the observational topologies, ...... FACTS controllers”, International Journal of Engineering, Science and ...

  10. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  11. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  12. The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukley, Angelia P.; Mulqueen, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural disaster effects, a system is proposed which would combine the elements of remote sensing, data processing, information distribution, and communications support on a global scale for disaster mitigation.

  13. Observed Emotional and Behavioral Indicators of Motivation Predict School Readiness in Head Start Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhenke, Amanda; Miller, Alison L.; Brown, Eleanor; Seifer, Ronald; Dickstein, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Emotions and behaviors observed during challenging tasks are hypothesized to be valuable indicators of young children's motivation, the assessment of which may be particularly important for children at risk for school failure. The current study demonstrated reliability and concurrent validity of a new observational assessment of motivation in young children. Head Start graduates completed challenging puzzle and trivia tasks during their kindergarten year. Children's emotion expression and task engagement were assessed based on their observed facial and verbal expressions and behavioral cues. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that observed persistence and shame predicted teacher ratings of children's academic achievement, whereas interest, anxiety, pride, shame, and persistence predicted children's social skills and learning-related behaviors. Children's emotional and behavioral responses to challenge thus appeared to be important indicators of school success. Observation of such responses may be a useful and valid alternative to self-report measures of motivation at this age. PMID:21949599

  14. Pacific Islands Region Observer Program System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This system integrates the longline debriefing steps and procedures for Hawaii and American Samoa into one tool to standardize and streamline the debriefing process....

  15. Observation of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.

    1995-01-01

    When an electron beam is injected into a plasma, unstable waves are excited spontaneously near the electron plasma frequency f pe by the electron beam plasma instability. The experiment on subharmonics in an electron beam plasma system was performed with a glow discharge tube. The bifurcation of unstable waves with the electron plasma frequency f pe and 1/2 f pe was observed using a double-plasma device. Furthermore, the period doubling route to chaos around the ion plasma frequency in an electron beam plasma system was reported. However, the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system has not been clarified so far. We have studied nonlinear behaviors of the electron beam plasma instability. It was found that there are some cases: the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 2 period are excited by the electron beam plasma instability, the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 3 period are excited. In this paper, we measured the energy distribution functions of electrons and the dispersion relation of test waves in order to examine the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

  16. Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and

  17. Observing preschoolers' social-emotional behavior: structure, foundations, and prediction of early school success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K; Mincic, Melissa S; Sirotkin, Yana S; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private child-care and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and stability of both versions; and, using the shortened measure, to examine (b) age, gender, and risk status differences in social-emotional behaviors; (c) contributions of emotion knowledge and executive function to social-emotional behaviors; and (d) contributions of social-emotional behaviors to early school adjustment and kindergarten academic success. Results show that reliability of MPAC-R/S was as good, or better, than the MPAC-R. MPAC-R/S structure, at both times of observation, included emotionally negative/aggressive, emotionally regulated/prosocial, and emotionally positive/productive behaviors; MPAC-R structure was similar but less replicable over time. Age, gender, and risk differences were found. Children's emotion knowledge contributed to later emotionally regulated/prosocial behavior. Finally, preschool emotionally negative/aggressive behaviors were associated with concurrent and kindergarten school success, and there was evidence of social-emotional behavior mediating relations between emotion knowledge or executive function, and school outcomes. The importance of portable, empirically supported observation measures of social-emotional behaviors is discussed along with possible applications, teacher utilization, and implementation barriers.

  18. Adaptive Sliding Mode Observer for a Class of Systems

    OpenAIRE

    D.Elleuch; T.Damak

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of two adaptive observers applied to interconnected systems is studied. The nonlinearity of systems can be written in a fractional form. The first adaptive observer is an adaptive sliding mode observer for a Lipchitz nonlinear system and the second one is an adaptive sliding mode observer having a filtered error as a sliding surface. After comparing their performances throughout the inverted pendulum mounted on a car system, it was shown tha...

  19. Effective leader behaviors in regularly held staff meetings: Surveyed vs. Videotaped and Video-Coded Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, Marcella; Hoogeboom, Marcella; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Allen, Joseph A.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Rogelberg, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we report on two studies that took an exploratory behavioral approach to leaders in regular staff meetings. The goal of both studies, which used a still rarely deployed observation method, was to identify effective behavioral repertoires of leaders in staff meetings; we specifically

  20. A Bayesian approach to extracting meaning from system behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dress, W.B.

    1998-08-01

    The modeling relation and its reformulation to include the semiotic hierarchy is essential for the understanding, control, and successful re-creation of natural systems. This presentation will argue for a careful application of Rosen`s modeling relationship to the problems of intelligence and autonomy in natural and artificial systems. To this end, the authors discuss the essential need for a correct theory of induction, learning, and probability; and suggest that modern Bayesian probability theory, developed by Cox, Jaynes, and others, can adequately meet such demands, especially on the operational level of extracting meaning from observations. The methods of Bayesian and maximum Entropy parameter estimation have been applied to measurements of system observables to directly infer the underlying differential equations generating system behavior. This approach by-passes the usual method of parameter estimation based on assuming a functional form for the observable and then estimating the parameters that would lead to the particular observed behavior. The computational savings is great since only location parameters enter into the maximum-entropy calculations; this innovation finesses the need for nonlinear parameters altogether. Such an approach more directly extracts the semantics inherent in a given system by going to the root of system meaning as expressed by abstract form or shape, rather than in syntactic particulars, such as signal amplitude and phase. Examples will be shown how the form of a system can be followed while ignoring unnecessary details. In this sense, the authors are observing the meaning of the words rather than being concerned with their particular expression or language. For the present discussion, empirical models are embodied by the differential equations underlying, producing, or describing the behavior of a process as measured or tracked by a particular variable set--the observables. The a priori models are probability structures that

  1. TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE WASP-10 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, J. A.; Close, L. M.; Scuderi, L. J.; Morris, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present here observations of the transit of WASP-10b on 2009 October 14 UT taken from the University of Arizona's 1.55 m Kuiper telescope on Mount Bigelow. Conditions were photometric and accuracies of 2.0 mmag rms were obtained throughout the transit. We have found that the ratio of the planet to host star radii is in agreement with the measurements of Christian et al. instead of the refinements of Johnson et al., suggesting that WASP-10b is indeed inflated beyond what is expected from theoretical modeling. We find no evidence for large (>20 s) transit timing variations in WASP-10b's orbit from the ephemeris of Christian et al. and Johnson et al.

  2. Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using......Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate...... the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model....

  3. Pedestrian crossing behavior, an observational study in the city of Ushuaia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poó, Fernando Martín; Ledesma, Ruben Daniel; Trujillo, Roberto

    2018-04-03

    Pedestrian crashes are a critical problem in Latin American countries. However, little research has been published about pedestrians and even less about their behaviors in a naturalistic context. The objective of the present research was to explore risky pedestrian crossing behaviors in traffic intersections in an argentine city (Ushuaia). It is focused in different stages of the crossing process, traffic code violations, and other potentially risky behaviors such as distractions. A high frequency of risky behaviors among pedestrians was expected. Moreover, according to previous findings, it was hypothesized that men and younger pedestrians would show riskier behaviors. Participants were 802 pedestrians (53.9% females) observed at several intersections (with and without traffic lights) in the city of Ushuaia. Behaviors were codified following a standardized observation protocol. Observers documented information on behavior previous to, during, and after crossing. Gender and age were also registered. Data were gathered through video recording. Frequency analyses of observed behaviors were conducted for the total sample, as well as by gender and by age group. A general crossing risk index was calculated to facilitate comparisons between the genders and age groups. We conducted an analysis of variance to evaluate gender and age differences for this index. A high proportion of risky behaviors were observed among pedestrians. The majority of pedestrian waited in the street (as opposed to on the sidewalk) before crossing, did not comply with traffic lights, or crossed outside the crosswalk. A large number of pedestrians were distracted while crossing. Men presented higher scores on risky behaviors than women. No differences were observed by age group. The high level of risk behaviors during the different stages of street crossing is worrisome and reinforces the idea that pedestrians are responsible for many of the conflicts with motorists. Many of the risky behaviors

  4. Universal Behavior of Few-Boson Systems Using Potential Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kievsky, A.; Viviani, M.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, R.; Gattobigio, M.; Deltuva, A.

    2017-01-01

    The universal behavior of a three-boson system close to the unitary limit is encoded in a simple dependence of many observables in terms of few parameters. For example the product of the three-body parameter κ_∗ and the two-body scattering length a, κ_∗a depends on the angle ξ defined by E_3/E_2=tan"2ξ. A similar dependence is observed in the ratio a_A_D/a with a_A_D the boson-dimer scattering length. We use a two-parameter potential to determine this simple behavior and, as an application, to compute a_A_D for the case of three "4He atoms. (author)

  5. Polarimetry of Solar System Objects: Observations vs. Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    results of main belt comets, asteroids with ring system, lunar studies, planned exploration of planetary satellites that may harbour sub-surface oceans, there is increasing need to include polarimetric (linear, circular and differential) as an integral observing mode of instruments and facilities. For laboratory measurements, there is a need to identify simulants that mimic the polarimetric behaviour of solar system small bodies and measure their polarimetric behavior as function of various physical process they are subject to and have undergone radiation changes of their surfaces. Therefore, inclusion of polarimetric remote sensing and development of spectropolarimeters for groundbased facilities and instruments on space missions is needed, with similar maturation of vector radiative transfer models and related laboratory measurements.

  6. SYSTEMIC APPROACH OF THE CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Nicolae CAZACU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In an era of globalization, we witness the encounter of cultures and the exchanges between them. Often, the cultural influences affect the consumer's decision to purchase goods. Many cultures have their own specific product offer, which is a way of promoting them. In this regard, a good example is the media culture called "anime". As a result, the consumer is faced with many decisions and its choice is influenced by many internal and external factors. When studying the market fluctuations due to the social, cultural, or otherwise influences, which may create new categories of consumers, we consider it is important to analyse the consumer behavior in the systemic terms, which could lead us to a new overview of the effects of these various influences. This paper proposes a mathematical model, starting from an original scheme, based on the Veblen theory. The study uses a simple matrix algorithm for the optimal solution of the dynamical systems with quadratic cost function.

  7. Advancing the discussion about systematic classroom behavioral observation, a product review of Tenny, J. (2010). eCOVE observation software. Pacific City, OR: eCOVE Software, LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Smith, Liana

    2014-05-01

    Applied child psychologists and behavioral consultants often use systematic behavioral observations to inform the psychological assessment and intervention development process for children referred for attention and hyperactivity problems. This article provides a review of the 2010 version of the eCOVE classroom observation software in terms of its utility in tracking the progress of children with attention and hyperactive behaviors and its use in evaluating teacher behaviors that may impede or promote children's attention and positive behavior. The eCOVE shows promise as an efficient tool for psychologists and behavioral consultants who want to evaluate the effects of interventions for children with symptoms of ADHD, ODD, mood disorders and learning disorders; however, some research-based improvements for future models are suggested. The reviewers also share their firsthand experience in using eCOVE to evaluate teacher and student behavior exhibited on a television show about teaching urban high school students and during a movie about an eccentric new kindergarten teacher. Rich examples are provided of using strategic behavioral observations to reveal how to improve the classroom environment so as to facilitate attention, motivation and positive behavior among youth. Broader implications for enhancing the use of systematic behavioral observations in the assessment of children and adolescents with attention disorders and related behavioral problems are discussed. Key issues are examined such as the use of behavioral observations during psychological consultation to prevent the previously found gender bias in referrals for ADHD. Using behavioral observations to enhance differential diagnosis is also discussed.

  8. Behavioral-Progress Monitoring Using the Electronic Daily Behavioral Report Card (e-DBRC) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mack D.; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an overview of a Web-based electronic system for behavioral-progress monitoring. Behavioral-progress monitoring is necessary to evaluate responsiveness to behavioral interventions, the effects of positive behavioral support, and the attainment of individualized education program goals and objectives. The…

  9. An Observational Analysis of Coaching Behaviors for Career Development Event Teams: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Anna L.; Bowling, Amanda M.; Sharpless, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    School Based Agricultural Education (SBAE) teachers can use coaching behaviors, along with their agricultural content knowledge to help their Career Development Event (CDE) teams succeed. This mixed methods, collective case study observed three SBAE teachers preparing multiple CDEs throughout the CDE season. The teachers observed had a previous…

  10. First observation on the breeding behavior of endangered species, Chinese many-tooth snake, Sibynophis chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Soung Koo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observation of reproductive behavior of endangered snake, Sibynophis chinensis in South Korea. On September 24, 2014, one female and three males were observed during the group mating in Oedo-dong, Jeju. Our observation indicates that group mating and the breeding behavior of S. chinensis could be an important way to increase genetic diversity and survival rate. Moreover, autumnal mating affects the breeding success rate of species in isolated areas. Group and autumn mating strategies by S. chinensis are considered to be the most effective way to survive in isolated areas.

  11. Validity of an observation method for assessing pain behavior in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Karon F; Roddey, Toni S; Bamer, Alyssa M; Amtmann, Dagmar; Keefe, Francis J

    2013-09-01

    Pain is a common and complex experience for individuals who live with multiple sclerosis (MS) and it interferes with physical, psychological, and social function. A valid and reliable tool for quantifying observed pain behaviors in MS is critical to understand how pain behaviors contribute to pain-related disability in this clinical population. To evaluate the reliability and validity of a pain behavioral observation protocol in individuals who have MS. Community-dwelling volunteers with MS (N=30), back pain (N=5), or arthritis (N=8) were recruited based on clinician referrals, advertisements, fliers, web postings, and participation in previous research. Participants completed the measures of pain severity, pain interference, and self-reported pain behaviors and were videotaped doing typical activities (e.g., walking and sitting). Two coders independently recorded frequencies of pain behaviors by category (e.g., guarding and bracing) and interrater reliability statistics were calculated. Naïve observers reviewed videotapes of individuals with MS and rated their pain. The Spearman's correlations were calculated between pain behavior frequencies and self-reported pain and pain ratings by naïve observers. Interrater reliability estimates indicated the reliability of pain codes in the MS sample. Kappa coefficients ranged from moderate (sighing=0.40) to substantial agreements (guarding=0.83). These values were comparable with those obtained in the combined back pain and arthritis sample. Concurrent validity was supported by correlations with self-reported pain (0.46-0.53) and with self-reports of pain behaviors (0.58). Construct validity was supported by a finding of 0.87 correlation between total pain behaviors observed by coders and mean pain ratings by naïve observers. Results support the use of the pain behavior observation protocol for assessing pain behaviors of individuals with MS. Valid assessments of pain behaviors of individuals with MS could lead to

  12. One (rating) from many (observations): Factors affecting the individual assessment of voice behavior in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Maynes, Timothy D; Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M

    2015-07-01

    This article reports an investigation into how individuals form perceptions of overall voice behavior in group contexts. More specifically, the authors examine the effect of the proportion of group members exhibiting voice behavior in the group, the frequency of voice events in the group, and the measurement item referent (group vs. individual) on an individual's ratings of group voice behavior. In addition, the authors examine the effect that measurement item referent has on the magnitude of the relationship observed between an individual's ratings of group voice behavior and perceptions of group performance. Consistent with hypotheses, the results from 1 field study (N = 220) and 1 laboratory experiment (N = 366) indicate that: (a) When group referents were used, raters relied on the frequency of voice events (and not the proportion of group members exhibiting voice) to inform their ratings of voice behavior, whereas the opposite was true when individual-referent items were used, and (b) the magnitude of the relationship between observers' ratings of group voice behavior and their perceptions of group performance was higher when raters used group-referent, as opposed to an individual-referent, items. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for scholars interested in studying behavioral phenomena occurring in teams, groups, and work units in organizational behavior research. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Ionospheric and satellite observations for studying the dynamic behavior of typhoons and the detection of severe storms and tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Smith, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves associated with severe thunderstorms, tornadoes, typhoons (hurricanes) and tsunamis can be studied through the coupling between the ionosphere and the troposphere. Reverse ray tracing computations of acoustic-gravity waves observed by an ionospheric Doppler sounder array show that wave sources are in the nearby storm systems and that the waves are excited prior to the storms. Results show that ionospheric observations, together with satellite observations, can contribute to the understanding of the dynamical behavior of typhoons, severe storms and tsunamis.

  14. Constructing counterproductive behavior for supporting evironmental management system research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiarapuspa; Indyastuti, D. L.; Sari, W. R.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to explore the definition of counterproductive behavior based on supervisors’ and sub ordinaries’ perceptions. Recently, environmental management system is a strategic tool to gain a competitive advantage. Human resource is the vital factor for successful environmental management system. Counterproductive behavior will destroy environmental management system. Unfortunately, the construct of counterproductive behavior is still debatable. Different culture show different dimensions and indicators of counterproductive behavior. The unclear construct results ambiguous empirical evidence. This study results that many items are included of counterproductive behavior, such as come late, impolite communication, playing gadget in working time, and the other negative behaviors.

  15. Methodological considerations for observational coding of eating and feeding behaviors in children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Lumeng, Julie C

    2017-12-15

    Behavioral coding of videotaped eating and feeding interactions can provide researchers with rich observational data and unique insights into eating behaviors, food intake, food selection as well as interpersonal and mealtime dynamics of children and their families. Unlike self-report measures of eating and feeding practices, the coding of videotaped eating and feeding behaviors can allow for the quantitative and qualitative examinations of behaviors and practices that participants may not self-report. While this methodology is increasingly more common, behavioral coding protocols and methodology are not widely shared in the literature. This has important implications for validity and reliability of coding schemes across settings. Additional guidance on how to design, implement, code and analyze videotaped eating and feeding behaviors could contribute to advancing the science of behavioral nutrition. The objectives of this narrative review are to review methodology for the design, operationalization, and coding of videotaped behavioral eating and feeding data in children and their families, and to highlight best practices. When capturing eating and feeding behaviors through analysis of videotapes, it is important for the study and coding to be hypothesis driven. Study design considerations include how to best capture the target behaviors through selection of a controlled experimental laboratory environment versus home mealtime, duration of video recording, number of observations to achieve reliability across eating episodes, as well as technical issues in video recording and sound quality. Study design must also take into account plans for coding the target behaviors, which may include behavior frequency, duration, categorization or qualitative descriptors. Coding scheme creation and refinement occur through an iterative process. Reliability between coders can be challenging to achieve but is paramount to the scientific rigor of the methodology. Analysis approach

  16. Observation of Communication by Physical Education Teachers: Detecting Patterns in Verbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fariña, Abraham; Jiménez-Jiménez, F; Anguera, M Teresa

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the verbal behavior of primary school physical education teachers in a natural classroom setting in order to investigate patterns in social constructivist communication strategies before and after participation in a training program designed to familiarize teachers with these strategies. The participants were three experienced physical education teachers interacting separately with 65 students over a series of classes. Written informed consent was obtained from all the students' parents or legal guardians. An indirect observation tool (ADDEF) was designed specifically for the study within the theoretical framework, and consisted of a combined field format, with three dimensions, and category systems. Each dimension formed the basis for building a subsequent system of exhaustive and mutually exclusive categories. Twenty-nine sessions, grouped into two separate modules, were coded using the Atlas.ti 7 program, and a total of 1991 units (messages containing constructivist discursive strategies) were recorded. Analysis of intraobserver reliability showed almost perfect agreement. Lag sequential analysis, which is a powerful statistical technique based on the calculation of conditional and unconditional probabilities in prospective and retrospective lags, was performed in GSEQ5 software to search for verbal behavior patterns before and after the training program. At both time points, we detected a pattern formed by requests for information combined with the incorporation of students' contributions into the teachers' discourse and re-elaborations of answers. In the post-training phase, we detected new and stronger patterns in certain sessions, indicating that programs combining theoretical and practical knowledge can effectively increase teachers' repertoire of discursive strategies and ultimately promote active engagement in learning. This has important implications for the evaluation and development of teacher effectiveness in

  17. Current state of the construction of SPARC test facility for observing hydrogen′s behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong-Ho; Park, Ki Han; Hong, Seong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Hydrogen combustion can make a dynamic load, which can cause severe damage to a structure or facility. Many studies on hydrogen behavior, such as distribution, combustion and mitigation, have been conducted since the TMI accident, and they were recently summarized in. A large-scaled experimental facility is required for simulating the complex severe accident phenomena in a closed containment building. We are preparing the test facility, called the SPARC (Spray, Aerosol, Recombiner, Combustion), to resolve the international open issues regarding hydrogen risk as well as the validation of the Korean PAR (Passive Auto-catalytic Recombiner). This paper summarized the previous study submitted to the NUTHOS-11, which introduced the SPARC test facility. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is preparing a test facility, called the SPARC for an assessment of the containment integrity under a severe accident. In the SPARC test facility, the hydrogen behavior such as mixing with steam and air, distribution, and combustion will be observed under various thermal-hydraulic conditions. We will carry out the performance tests of the safety systems such as the spray, cooling fan, PAR, and igniter. The SPARC test facility consists of a pressure vessel with a 9.5 m height and 3.4 m diameter, and an operating system to control and measure the thermal hydraulic conditions. In a commissioning test, we verified the controllable thermal conditions. It took about 8,400 seconds to increase up to 5 bar. The increment rate of the atmosphere temperature is about 34° C/h from room temperature to 100° C.

  18. IPS observation system for the Miyun 50 m radio telescope and its commissioning observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinying; Zhang Xizhen; Zhang Hongbo; Kong Deqing; Qu Huipeng

    2012-01-01

    Ground-based observation of Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) is an important approach for monitoring solar wind. A ground-based IPS observation system has been newly implemented on a 50 m radio telescope at Miyun station, managed by the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This observation system has been constructed for the purpose of observing solar wind speed and the associated scintillation index by using the normalized cross-spectrum of a simultaneous dual-frequency IPS measurement. The system consists of a universal dual-frequency front-end and a dual-channel multi-function back-end specially designed for IPS. After careful calibration and testing, IPS observations on source 3C 273B and 3C 279 have been successfully carried out. The preliminary observation results show that this newly-developed observation system is capable of performing IPS observation. The system's sensitivity for IPS observation can reach over 0.3 Jy in terms of an IPS polarization correlator with 4 MHz bandwidth and 2 s integration time. (research papers)

  19. Cetacean mother-calf behavior observed from a small aircraft off Southern California. Animal Behavior and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari A. Smultea

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During early developmental stages, cetacean calves are dependent on their mothers for survival. Protection of young whales engaged in behaviors that are biologically important is critical for population recovery, so that appropriate management actions can be taken to minimize human disturbance. However, the occurrence and frequency of whale nursing and calves back-riding their mothers (both considered important to calf survival have rarely been observed nor adequately quantified or defined. Therefore, it may not always be clear when disruption is occurring. We used extended behavioral observations, still photography, and video camera footage obtained during aircraft surveys in the Southern California Bight in 2008 – 2013 to characterize cetacean mother-calf interactions. Based on observations of four mother/calf pairs (two gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus, one fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus, and one blue whale, B. musculus and one killer whale presumed mother/yearling pair (Orcinus orca, we describe bouts of nursing and calves riding on the backs of their presumed mothers, including activity duration, frequency, and relative body positioning. We conclude with specific definitions useful to wildlife conservation agencies authorizing and establishing restrictions to certain human activities when they might constitute behavioral disruptions.

  20. Effect of an observer's presence on facial behavior during dyadic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Suzuki, N

    2012-06-01

    In everyday life, people communicate not only with another person but also in front of other people. How do people behave during communication when observed by others? Effects of an observer (presence vs absence) and interpersonal relationship (friends vs strangers vs alone) on facial behavior were examined. Participants viewed film clips that elicited positive affect (film presentation) and discussed their impressions about the clips (conversation). Participants rated their subjective emotions and social motives. Durations of smiles, gazes, and utterances of each participant were coded. The presence of an observer did not affect facial behavior during the film presentation, but did affect gazes during conversation. Whereas the presence of an observer seemed to facilitate affiliation in pairs of strangers, communication between friends was exclusive and not affected by an observer.

  1. The Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel hydrogen battery. Information is given on the life evaluation test, cell characteristics, acceptance and characterization tests, and the battery system description.

  2. An exponential observer for the generalized Rossler chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized Rossler chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a state observer for the generalized Rossler chaotic system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be arbitrarily pre-specified. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the obtained result.

  3. A simple observer of the generalized Chen chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized Chen chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a simple observer for the generalized Chen chaotic system is proposed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Furthermore, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be correctly estimated. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the use of the main result.

  4. A simple observer design of the generalized Lorenz chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, the generalized Lorenz chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a simple observer for the generalized Lorenz chaotic system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be correctly estimated. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained result.

  5. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  6. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): Middle School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  7. Performance and Evaluation of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office Observing System Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prive, Nikki; Errico, R. M.; Carvalho, D.

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO) has spent more than a decade developing and implementing a global Observing System Simulation Experiment framework for use in evaluting both new observation types as well as the behavior of data assimilation systems. The NASA/GMAO OSSE has constantly evolved to relect changes in the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation data assimiation system, the Global Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5), and the real world observational network. Software and observational datasets for the GMAO OSSE are publicly available, along with a technical report. Substantial modifications have recently been made to the NASA/GMAO OSSE framework, including the character of synthetic observation errors, new instrument types, and more sophisticated atmospheric wind vectors. These improvements will be described, along with the overall performance of the current OSSE. Lessons learned from investigations into correlated errors and model error will be discussed.

  8. Dynamic behavior of district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, J.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a simulation model of a hot water system taking into account the time dependent phenomena which are important for the operational management of such a system. A state of the art literature review has shown that there is no such model considering all parts from the generation of the heat at the plant to its consumption in the connected buildings so far. First, an exhaustive list of all dynamic phenomena occurring in district heating systems has been drawn and analyzed. Considering this list, this thesis proposes that a model which satisfies the criteria listed above can be developed by superposing four sub-models which are a dynamic model of the heat generation plant, a steady state model of the hydraulic calculation of the distribution network, a dynamic model of the thermal behavior of the network and a dynamic model of the heat consumers. The development of the four sub-models starts from the fundamental conservation equations for fluid systems, i.e. the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The transformations of those general equations into simple calculation formulas show and justify the hypotheses made in the modeling process. The heat generation plant model itself is a set of sub-models: the models for steam boilers, hot water boilers and heat accumulators which take account of the dynamic evolution of the water temperature by a simple form of the energy conservation equation, as well as the steady state models for circulation pumps and pressurizers. Since the velocities in the network pipes are small, a consideration of steady states is adopted. A network model allowing to calculate the hydraulic variables in every point is adopted from the graph theory. The pressures and flow rates in the network are calculated at discrete time steps and they are considered to be constant for the duration between the time steps. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  9. Nonlinear observer based phase synchronization of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Juan; Wang Xingyuan

    2007-01-01

    This Letter analyzes the phase synchronization problem of autonomous chaotic systems. Based on the nonlinear state observer algorithm and the pole placement technique, a phase synchronization scheme is designed. The phase synchronization of a new chaotic system is achieved by using this observer controller. Numerical simulations further demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed phase synchronization scheme

  10. Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.

  11. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  12. Observed Family Interactions among Subtypes of Eating Disorders Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn

    1989-01-01

    Compared observations of family interactions among anorexic, bulimic-anorexic, bulimic, and normal families (N=74 families) consisting of father, mother, and teenage daughter. Benjamin's structural analysis of social behavior methodology differentiated clinical from normal families. Found unique patterns among subtypes of eating disorders which…

  13. Observing Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Behavior: Structure, Foundations, and Prediction of Early School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K.; Mincic, Melissa S.; Sirotkin, Yana S.; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private childcare and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest…

  14. An Observational Study of Intermediate Band Students' Self-Regulated Practice Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksza, Peter; Prichard, Stephanie; Sorbo, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate intermediate musicians' self-regulated practice behaviors. Thirty sixth- through eighth-grade students were observed practicing band repertoire individually for 20 min. Practice sessions were coded according to practice frame frequency and duration, length of musical passage selected, most prominent…

  15. Phase behavior of (CO2 + methanol + lauric acid) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Franciele M.; Ramos, Luiz P.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured SVL, LLE and VLE for the binary system {lauric acid + methanol + CO 2 }. → Bubble point and dew point were measured at high pressures. → The experimental data were modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals mixing rule. - Abstract: In this study the phase equilibrium behaviors of the binary system (CO 2 + lauric acid) and the ternary system (CO 2 + methanol + lauric acid) were determined. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed to obtain the experimental data in the temperature range of (293 to 343) K and pressures up to 24 MPa. The mole fractions of carbon dioxide were varied according to the systems as follows: (0.7524 to 0.9955) for the binary system (CO 2 + lauric acid); (0.4616 to 0.9895) for the ternary system (CO 2 + methanol + lauric acid) with a methanol to lauric acid molar ratio of (2:1); and (0.3414 to 0.9182) for the system (CO 2 + methanol + lauric acid) with a methanol to lauric acid molar ratio of (6:1). For these systems (vapor + liquid), (liquid + liquid), (vapor + liquid + liquid), and (solid + fluid) transitions were observed. The phase equilibrium data obtained for the systems were modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals mixing rule with a satisfactory correlation between experimental and calculated values.

  16. Observation of unusual critical region behavior in the magnetic susceptibility of EuSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovetz, N.; Klein, J.; Lin, C. L.

    2018-05-01

    The Europium Chalcogenides (EuCh: EuO, EuS, EuSe, and EuTe) have been regarded as model examples of simple, cubic, Heisenberg exchange coupled magnetic systems, with a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor exchange constant J1 and an antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor constant J2. Unlike the other EuCh, EuSe exhibits a range of complex magnetic behaviors, the latter being attributed to EuSe being near the point where J2=-J1, where its magnetism appears to consist of nearly de-coupled 2D ferromagnetic sheets. Analysis of precision SQUID measurements of the magnetic susceptibility χ in EuSe showed that in the region from ˜Tc to ˜2Tc, a fit of the data to the critical equation χ = χ2Tc(T/Tc-1)-γ gives γ=2.0, an exponent not predicted by any current theory. Additionally, this fit predicts that Tc should be ˜0K. We tentatively interpret this by saying that in the paramagnetic region the system "thinks" EuSe should not order above T=0. Tc=0K is predicted by the Mermin-Wagner theorem (MW) for Heisenberg-coupled 2D magnetic systems, and we can show that when J2=-J1, MW can also be applied to the J1, J2 exchange model of the EuCh to give a rigorous Tc=0 prediction. Under 10 kbar applied pressure EuSe exhibits a different γ and fitted Tc. An additional, and rather strange, critical-region effect was discovered. The EuSe sample was found to exhibit a relaxation effect in a small range of temperatures, just above and just below the actual Tc of 4.7K, with time constants of up to 5 minutes. We cannot yet fully explain this observed macroscopic effect.

  17. Behavioral inhibition and activation systems in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina G; Rapport, Lisa J; Meachen, Sarah-Jane; Hanks, Robin A; Lumley, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Personality has been linked to cognitive appraisal and health outcomes; however, research specific to traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been sparse. Gray's theory of behavioral inhibition system and behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) offers a neurobiologic view of personality that may be especially relevant to neurobehavioral change associated with TBI. The present study examined theoretical and psychometric issues of using the BIS/BAS scale among adults with TBI as well as BIS/BAS personality correlates of TBI. Research Method/Design: Eighty-one adults with complicated-mild to severe TBI and 76 of their significant others (SOs) participated. Measures included the BIS/BAS scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and Awareness Questionnaire. Among adults with TBI, BIS/BAS internal consistency reliabilities were similar to those found in normative samples of adults without TBI. The TBI group endorsed significantly higher BAS than did the SO group, and injury severity was positively correlated to BAS. The SO group showed expected patterns of correlation between personality and affect; positive affect was associated with BAS, and negative affect with BIS. In contrast, in the TBI group, BAS was positively correlated to both positive and negative affect. Impaired awareness of abilities moderated the intensity of relationships between BIS/BAS and affect. TBI was associated with relatively intensified BAS (approach behavior) but not BIS (avoidance behavior). The observed pattern is consistent with the neurobiology of TBI-related personality change and with theory regarding the independence of the BIS and BAS systems. The BIS/BAS scale shows promise as a personality measure in TBI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Comments on Current Space Systems Observing the Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, L. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), which was established in 1992, has been effective in specifying the observations needed for climate studies, and advocating that these observations be made. As a result, there are essential climate variables being observed, particularly from space, and these have formed the basis for our ever-improving models of how the Earth system functions and the human impact on it. We cannot conclude, however, that the current observing system in space is adequate. Climate change is accelerating, and we need to ensure that our observations capture, with completeness and with proper resolution and cadence, the most important changes. Perhaps of most significance, we need to use observations from space to guide the mitigation and adaptation strategies on which at last our civilization seems prepared to embark. And we need to use our observations to educate particularly policy makers on the reality of climate change, so that none deny the need to act. COSPAR is determined to play its part in highlighting the need to strengthen the climate observing system and notably its research component. This is being accomplished through events like the present roundtable, through the work of its Scientific Commission A, its Task Group on GEO (where COSPAR is serving as a member of its Program Board), and by promoting among space agencies and policy-makers the recently released scientific roadmap on Integrated Earth System Science for the period 2016-2025.

  19. Drinking behavior in nursery pigs: determining the accuracy between an automatic water meter versus human observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiszberg, A M; Johnson, A K; Sadler, L J; Carroll, J A; Dailey, J W; Krebs, N

    2009-12-01

    Assimilating accurate behavioral events over a long period can be labor-intensive and relatively expensive. If an automatic device could accurately record the duration and frequency for a given behavioral event, it would be a valuable alternative to the traditional use of human observers for behavioral studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the accuracy in the time spent at the waterer and the number of visits to the waterer by individually housed nursery pigs between human observers scoring video files using Observer software (OBS) and an automatic water meter Hobo (WM, control) affixed onto the waterline. Eleven PIC USA genotype gilts (22 +/- 2 d of age; 6.5 +/- 1.4 kg of BW) were housed individually in pens with ad libitum access to a corn-based starter ration and one nipple waterer. Behavior was collected on d 0 (day of weaning), 7, and 14 of the trial using 1 color camera positioned over 4 attached pens and a RECO-204 DVR at 1 frame per second. For the OBS method, 2 experienced observers recorded drinking behavior from the video files, which was defined as when the gilt placed her mouth over the nipple waterer. Data were analyzed using nonparametric methods and the general linear model and regression procedures in SAS. The experimental unit was the individual pen housing 1 gilt. The GLM model included the method of observation (WM vs. OBS) and time (24 h) as variables, and the gilt nested within method was used as the error term. Gilts consumed more water (P = 0.04) on d 14 than on d 0. The time of day affected (P waterer regardless of the method. However, the OBS method underestimated (P waterer (3.48 +/- 0.33 visits/h for OBS vs. 4.94 +/- 0.33 for WM) and overestimated (P waterer (22.6 +/- 1.46 s/h for OBS vs. 13.9 +/- 1.43 for WM) compared with WM. The relationship between the 2 methods for prediction of time spent at the waterer and number of visits made by the gilts was weak (R(2) = 0.56 and 0.69, respectively). Collectively

  20. Vibration behavior of the artificial barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Izuru

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at production of a mimic specimen of artificial barrier, experimental elucidation of influence of seismic motion due to a vibration experiment on the artificial barrier system, and establishment of an evaluating method on its long-term behavior. The study has been carried out under a cooperative study of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In 1998 fiscal year, an artificial barrier specimen initiated by crosscut road was produced, and their random wave and actual seismic wave vibrations were carried out to acquire their fundamental data. As a result of the both vibrations, it was found that in a Case 2 specimen of which buffer material was swelled by poured water, the material was integrated with a mimic over-pack to vibrate under judgement of eigen-frequency, maximum acceleration ratio, and so forth on the test results. And, in a Case 1 specimen, it was thought that the mimic over-pack showed an extreme non-linear performance (soft spring) because of reducing eigen-frequency with increase of its vibration level. (G.K.)

  1. Vibration behavior of the artificial barrier system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikoshiba, Tadashi; Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Izuru [National Research Inst. for Earth sceince and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This study aims at production of a mimic specimen of artificial barrier, experimental elucidation of influence of seismic motion due to a vibration experiment on the artificial barrier system, and establishment of an evaluating method on its long-term behavior. The study has been carried out under a cooperative study of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention and the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. In 1998 fiscal year, an artificial barrier specimen initiated by crosscut road was produced, and their random wave and actual seismic wave vibrations were carried out to acquire their fundamental data. As a result of the both vibrations, it was found that in a Case 2 specimen of which buffer material was swelled by poured water, the material was integrated with a mimic over-pack to vibrate under judgement of eigen-frequency, maximum acceleration ratio, and so forth on the test results. And, in a Case 1 specimen, it was thought that the mimic over-pack showed an extreme non-linear performance (soft spring) because of reducing eigen-frequency with increase of its vibration level. (G.K.)

  2. Designing, Modeling and Evaluating Influence Strategiesfor Behavior Change Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öörni, Anssi; Kelders, Saskia Marion; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2014-01-01

    Behavior change support systems (BCSS) research is an evolving area. While the systems have been demonstrated to work to the effect, there is still a lot of work to be done to better understand the influence mechanisms of behavior change, and work out their influence on the systems architecture. The

  3. Quality of Parent-Adolescent Conversations About Sex and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Adam A; Ha, Thao; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Dishion, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Studies suggest that the quality of parent-adolescent communication about sex uniquely predicts adolescent sexual behavior. Previous studies have relied predominantly on self-report data. Observational methods, which are not susceptible to self-report biases, may be useful in examining the associations between the quality of parent-adolescent communication about sex and adolescent sexual behavior more objectively. With a sample of adolescents (N = 55, 58% male, 44% white, Mage = 15.8) and their parents, we used hierarchical logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between the observed quality of parent-adolescent communication about dating and sex and the likelihood of adolescents' sexual intercourse. The quality of parent-adolescent communication about dating and sex predicted sexual behavior. Specifically, lecturing was associated with a higher likelihood of adolescents having had sexual intercourse. The quality of parent-adolescent communication about sex is a unique correlate of adolescent sexual behavior and warrants further investigation. Thus, it serves as a potential target of preventive interventions that aim to foster adolescent sexual health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Behaviors of tritium in terrestrial biological system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Tsuyako

    1983-01-01

    The in vivo behaviors of HTO- 3 H in food chain models in experimental animals were described. Of pregnant mice that had ingested HTO and drinking water alone for 19 days, the total 3 H content in the tissue/wet weight was greater by 20% in fetuses and newborns than in mothers, and the proportion of tissue-bound 3 H was 8-24% in mothers and 3% in fetuses. The mean 3 H concentration in the free water in tissues was about 36% of ingested HTO. When only 3 H foods were ingested for 18 days, the total 3 H content in the tissue/wet weight showed no marked difference among the mother, fetuses and newborns, nor did the bound 3 H level show great differences. With respect to the tissue distribution of 3 H, only the incorporation rate by the mother's brain from HTO was satisfactory, whereas in other organs, the mother, fetuses and newborns showed higher incorporation rates from 3 H foods. The ratio of specific radioactivity of soft tissue 3 H in mothers to HTO in drinking water exceeded 1 only for the spleen, but other tissues showed no biological concentration. Again, no biological concentration was observed with 3 H foods. Environmental HTO did not result in biological concentration of 3 H in mother mice that had ingested 3 H foods, but 3 H was rather diluted. Tissues other than the spleen showed similar values of 3 H ingestion from environmental HTO through all routes. However, the proportion of bound 3 H in the total 3 H in the soft tissue was about 1.4-1.6 times that on ingestion of HTO alone. (Chiba, N.)

  5. Ethnic Differences in Nonverbal Pain Behaviors Observed in Older Adults with Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brianne; Snow, A Lynn; Herr, Keela; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Research supports using nonverbal pain behaviors to identify pain in persons with dementia. It is unknown whether variations exist among ethnic groups in the expression of nonverbal pain behaviors in this special population. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine ethnic differences in the presentation and intensity of nonverbal pain behaviors among African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic older adults with dementia when screened for pain by certified nursing assistants. Six certified nursing assistants were trained to review and score 28 video recordings of subjects with dementia for nonverbal pain behaviors using the Non-Communicative Patient's Pain Assessment Instrument. Chi-square was used to examine differences among ethnic groups with regard to the display of nonverbal pain behaviors, and ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in the intensity of overall pain across ethnic groups. Of the 168 assessments, pain words (28%), pain noises (29.8%), and pain faces (28%) were observed most often as indicators of pain. Rubbing, bracing, and restlessness were rarely noted. Chi-square analysis revealed ethnic differences in the expression of pain words (χ(2) = 19.167, p ethnic groups with regards to overall pain intensity. These findings are the first to examine ethnic differences in nonverbal pain behaviors for older adults with dementia. However, future work should examine assessment tendencies of providers in a larger, more diverse sample. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. All rights reserved.

  6. Designing virtual audiences for fear of public speaking training - an observation study on realistic nonverbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Reality technology offers great possibilities for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of fear of public speaking: Clients can be exposed to virtual fear-triggering stimuli (exposure) and are able to role-play in virtual environments, training social skills to overcome their fear. Usually, prototypical audience behavior (neutral, social and anti-social) serves as stimulus in virtual training sessions, although there is significant lack of theoretical basis on typical audience behavior. The study presented deals with the design of a realistic virtual presentation scenario. An audience (consisting of n=18 men and women) in an undergraduate seminar was observed during three frontal lecture sessions. Behavior frequency of four nonverbal dimensions (eye contact, facial expression, gesture, and posture) was rated by means of a quantitative content analysis. Results show audience behavior patterns which seem to be typical in frontal lecture contexts, like friendly and neutral face expressions. Additionally, combined and even synchronized behavioral patterns between participants who sit next to each other (like turning to the neighbor and start talking) were registered. The gathered data serve as empirical design basis for a virtual audience to be used in virtual training applications that stimulate the experiences of the participants in a realistic manner, thereby improving the experienced presence in the training application.

  7. A Miniaturized Video System for Monitoring Drosophila Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Inan, Omer; Kovacs, Gregory; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Sanchez, Max; Marcu, Oana

    2011-01-01

    Long-term spaceflight may induce a variety of harmful effects in astronauts, resulting in altered motor and cognitive behavior. The stresses experienced by humans in space - most significantly weightlessness (microgravity) and cosmic radiation - are difficult to accurately simulate on Earth. In fact, prolonged and concomitant exposure to microgravity and cosmic radiation can only be studied in space. Behavioral studies in space have focused on model organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila is often used due to its short life span and generational cycle, small size, and ease of maintenance. Additionally, the well-characterized genetics of Drosophila behavior on Earth can be applied to the analysis of results from spaceflights, provided that the behavior in space is accurately recorded. In 2001, the BioExplorer project introduced a low-cost option for researchers: the small satellite. While this approach enabled multiple inexpensive launches of biological experiments, it also imposed stringent restrictions on the monitoring systems in terms of size, mass, data bandwidth, and power consumption. Suggested parameters for size are on the order of 100 mm3 and 1 kg mass for the entire payload. For Drosophila behavioral studies, these engineering requirements are not met by commercially available systems. One system that does meet many requirements for behavioral studies in space is the actimeter. Actimeters use infrared light gates to track the number of times a fly crosses a boundary within a small container (3x3x40 mm). Unfortunately, the apparatus needed to monitor several flies at once would be larger than the capacity of the small satellite. A system is presented, which expands on the actimeter approach to achieve a highly compact, low-power, ultra-low bandwidth solution for simultaneous monitoring of the behavior of multiple flies in space. This also provides a simple, inexpensive alternative to the current systems for monitoring Drosophila

  8. Assessment of Shopping Behavior : Automatic System for Behavioral Cues Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of public places (e.g. cities, schools, transit districts, and public buildings) are deploying CCTV surveillance systems to monitor and protect the people in those areas. Since events like the terrorist attack in Madrid and London, there has been a further increasing demand for

  9. Designing the Climate Observing System of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Elizabeth C.; Wielicki, Bruce A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Abbott, Mark; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Atlas, Robert; Brasseur, Guy; Bruhwiler, Lori; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Butler, James H.; Clack, Christopher T. M.; Cooke, Roger; Cucurull, Lidia; Davis, Sean M.; English, Jason M.; Fahey, David W.; Fine, Steven S.; Lazo, Jeffrey K.; Liang, Shunlin; Loeb, Norman G.; Rignot, Eric; Soden, Brian; Stanitski, Diane; Stephens, Graeme; Tapley, Byron D.; Thompson, Anne M.; Trenberth, Kevin E.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2018-01-01

    Climate observations are needed to address a large range of important societal issues including sea level rise, droughts, floods, extreme heat events, food security, and freshwater availability in the coming decades. Past, targeted investments in specific climate questions have resulted in tremendous improvements in issues important to human health, security, and infrastructure. However, the current climate observing system was not planned in a comprehensive, focused manner required to adequately address the full range of climate needs. A potential approach to planning the observing system of the future is presented in this article. First, this article proposes that priority be given to the most critical needs as identified within the World Climate Research Program as Grand Challenges. These currently include seven important topics: melting ice and global consequences; clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity; carbon feedbacks in the climate system; understanding and predicting weather and climate extremes; water for the food baskets of the world; regional sea-level change and coastal impacts; and near-term climate prediction. For each Grand Challenge, observations are needed for long-term monitoring, process studies and forecasting capabilities. Second, objective evaluations of proposed observing systems, including satellites, ground-based and in situ observations as well as potentially new, unidentified observational approaches, can quantify the ability to address these climate priorities. And third, investments in effective climate observations will be economically important as they will offer a magnified return on investment that justifies a far greater development of observations to serve society's needs.

  10. Using Combined Marine Spatial Planning Tools and Observing System Experiments to define Gaps in the Emerging European Ocean Observing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, G.; Pinardi, N.; Vukicevic, T.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Fernandez, V.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean observations are critical to providing accurate ocean forecasts that support operational decision making in European open and coastal seas. Observations are available in many forms from Fixed platforms e.g. Moored Buoys and tide gauges, underway measurements from Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars and more recently from underwater Gliders and profiling floats. Observing System Simulation Experiments have been conducted to examine the relative contribution of each type of platform to an improvement in our ability to accurately forecast the future state of the ocean with HF radar and Gliders showing particular promise in improving model skill. There is considerable demand for ecosystem products and services from today's ocean observing system and biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. There is a need to widen the techniques used to assess the fitness for purpose and gaps in the ocean observing system. As well as Observing System Simulation Experiments that quantify the effect of observations on the overall model skill we present a gap analysis based on (1) Examining where high model skill is required based on a marine spatial planning analysis of European seas i.e where does activity take place that requires more accurate forecasts? and (2) assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems. The broad based analysis will inform the development of the proposed European Ocean Observing System as a contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS).

  11. Chaotic Secure Communication Systems with an Adaptive State Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Der Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a new digital communication scheme based on using a unified chaotic system and an adaptive state observer. The proposed communication system basically consists of five important elements: signal modulation, chaotic encryption, adaptive state observer, chaotic decryption, and signal demodulation. A sequence of digital signals will be delivered from the transmitter to the receiver through a public channel. It is rather reasonable that if the number of signals delivered on the public channel is fewer, then the security of such communication system is more guaranteed. Therefore, in order to achieve this purpose, a state observer will be designed and its function is to estimate full system states only by using the system output signals. In this way, the signals delivered on the public channel can be reduced mostly. According to these estimated state signals, the original digital sequences are then retrieved completely. Finally, experiment results are provided to verify the applicability of the proposed communication system.

  12. Data Observations on Double Shell Tank (DST) Flammable Gas Watch List Tank Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-09-28

    This report provides the data from the retained gas sampler, void fraction instrument, ball rheometer, standard hydrogen monitoring system, and other tank data pertinent to gas retention and release behavior in the waste stored in double-shelled Flammable Gas Watch List tanks at Hanford. These include tanks 241-AN-103,241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AW-101, 241-SY-101, and 241-SY-103. The tanks and the waste they contain are described in terms of fill history and chemistry. The results of mixer pump operation and recent waste transfers and back-dilution in SY-101 are also described. In-situ measurement and monitoring systems are described and the data are summarized under the categories of thermal behavior, waste configuration and properties, gas generation and composition, gas retention and historical gas release behavior.

  13. Observational studies of X-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klis, M. van der.

    1983-01-01

    The subject of Chapter 1 is theoretical. The other chapters, Ch. 2 to 6, contain original observational data and efforts towards their interpretation. Of these, Ch. 3, 4 and 5 deal with massive X-ray binaries, Ch. 6 with low-mass systems and Ch. 2 with Cygnus X-3, which we have not yet been able to assign to any of these two classes. The X-ray observations described were made with the COS-B satellite. Work based on UV and optical observations is described in Ch. 5. The UV observations were made with the IUE satellite, the optical observations at several ground-based observatories. (Auth.)

  14. Virtual Estimator for Piecewise Linear Systems Based on Observability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Morales, Cornelio; Adam-Medina, Manuel; Cervantes, Ilse; Vela-Valdés and, Luis G.; García Beltrán, Carlos Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a virtual sensor for piecewise linear systems based on observability analysis that is in function of a commutation law related with the system's outpu. This virtual sensor is also known as a state estimator. Besides, it presents a detector of active mode when the commutation sequences of each linear subsystem are arbitrary and unknown. For the previous, this article proposes a set of virtual estimators that discern the commutation paths of the system and allow estimating their output. In this work a methodology in order to test the observability for piecewise linear systems with discrete time is proposed. An academic example is presented to show the obtained results. PMID:23447007

  15. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We develop a methodology to estimate the potential economic benefits from new investments in regional coastal ocean observing systems in US waters, and apply this methodology to generate preliminary...

  16. Estimating the Economic Benefits of Regional Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Wellman, Katharine F; Pelsoci, Thomas; Wieand, Kenneth; Pendleton, Linwood; Kaiser, Mark J; Pulsipher, Allan G; Luger, Michael

    2005-01-01

    ... prediction, offshore energy, power generation, and commercial fishing. Our findings suggest that annual benefits to users from the deployment of ocean observing systems are likely to run in the multiple...

  17. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data, 2004-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  18. Control landscapes for observable preparation with open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rebing; Pechen, Alexander; Rabitz, Herschel; Hsieh, Michael; Tsou, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    A quantum control landscape is defined as the observable as a function(al) of the system control variables. Such landscapes were introduced to provide a basis to understand the increasing number of successful experiments controlling quantum dynamics phenomena. This paper extends the concept to encompass the broader context of the environment having an influence. For the case that the open system dynamics are fully controllable, it is shown that the control landscape for open systems can be lifted to the analysis of an equivalent auxiliary landscape of a closed composite system that contains the environmental interactions. This inherent connection can be analyzed to provide relevant information about the topology of the original open system landscape. Application to the optimization of an observable expectation value reveals the same landscape simplicity observed in former studies on closed systems. In particular, no false suboptimal traps exist in the system control landscape when seeking to optimize an observable, even in the presence of complex environments. Moreover, a quantitative study of the control landscape of a system interacting with a thermal environment shows that the enhanced controllability attainable with open dynamics significantly broadens the range of the achievable observable values over the control landscape

  19. Faculty development and organizational systems behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, C E; Magelssen, D

    1990-06-01

    Faculty development is that process that fosters improvement in faculty members' skills in teaching and research and promotes their career advancement. This study investigated the association between organizational behavior in military medical centers and the faculty development of its medical corps officers assigned to teaching positions. Such organizational behaviors as defining tasks clearly and resolving conflicts satisfactorily correlated well with the faculty members' overall satisfaction and other parameters of good faculty development. The results suggest that a strong relationship exists between the organizational behavior of an institution and the sense of identity, productivity, and continued career growth of its individual faculty members.

  20. An Observation-based Assessment of Instrument Requirements for a Future Precipitation Process Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Wood, N.; Smalley, M.; Kulie, M.; Hahn, W.

    2017-12-01

    Global models exhibit substantial biases in the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial scales of precipitation systems. Much of this uncertainty stems from an inadequate representation of the processes by which water is cycled between the surface and atmosphere and, in particular, those that govern the formation and maintenance of cloud systems and their propensity to form the precipitation. Progress toward improving precipitation process models requires observing systems capable of quantifying the coupling between the ice content, vertical mass fluxes, and precipitation yield of precipitating cloud systems. Spaceborne multi-frequency, Doppler radar offers a unique opportunity to address this need but the effectiveness of such a mission is heavily dependent on its ability to actually observe the processes of interest in the widest possible range of systems. Planning for a next generation precipitation process observing system should, therefore, start with a fundamental evaluation of the trade-offs between sensitivity, resolution, sampling, cost, and the overall potential scientific yield of the mission. Here we provide an initial assessment of the scientific and economic trade-space by evaluating hypothetical spaceborne multi-frequency radars using a combination of current real-world and model-derived synthetic observations. Specifically, we alter the field of view, vertical resolution, and sensitivity of a hypothetical Ka- and W-band radar system and propagate those changes through precipitation detection and intensity retrievals. The results suggest that sampling biases introduced by reducing sensitivity disproportionately affect the light rainfall and frozen precipitation regimes that are critical for warm cloud feedbacks and ice sheet mass balance, respectively. Coarser spatial resolution observations introduce regime-dependent biases in both precipitation occurrence and intensity that depend on cloud regime, with even the sign of the bias varying within a

  1. Deep Roots? Behavioral Inhibition and Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Sensitivity and Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerner, Daniel; Hatak, Isabella; Rauch, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    A growing number of studies suggest a link between disinhibition and entrepreneurship. Separately, psychology literature has theorized and empirically shown that the roots of disinhibition can largely be traced to two psychophysiological systems – the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and

  2. Adolescents' Observations of Parent Pain Behaviors: Preliminary Measure Validation and Test of Social Learning Theory in Pediatric Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Amanda L; Walker, Lynn S

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate psychometric properties of a measure of adolescents’ observations of parental pain behaviors and use this measure to test hypotheses regarding pain-specific social learning. We created a proxy-report of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Pain Behavior–Short Form (PPB) for adolescents to report on parental pain behaviors, which we labeled the PPB-Proxy. Adolescents (n = 138, mean age = 14.20) with functional abdominal pain completed the PPB-Proxy and a parent completed the PPB. Adolescents and their parents completed measures of pain and disability during the adolescent’s clinic visit for abdominal pain. Adolescents subsequently completed a 7-day pain diary period. The PPB-Proxy moderately correlated with the PPB, evidencing that adolescents observe and can report on parental pain behaviors. Both the PPB-Proxy and PPB significantly correlated with adolescents’ pain-related disability. Parental modeling of pain behaviors could represent an important target for assessment and treatment in pediatric chronic pain patients.

  3. The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA)

    OpenAIRE

    Baschek, Burkard; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Brix, Holger; Riethmüller, Rolf; Badewien, Thomas H.; Breitbach, Gisbert; Brügge, Bernd; Colijn, Franciscus; Doerffer, Roland; Eschenbach, Christiane; Friedrich, Jana; Fischer, Philipp; Garthe, Stefan; Horstmann, Jochen; Krasemann, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) was established in order to better understand the complex interdisciplinary processes of northern seas and the Arctic coasts in a changing environment. Particular focus is given to the German Bight in the North Sea as a prime example of a heavily used coastal area, and Svalbard as an example of an Arctic coast that is under strong pressure due to global change. The COSYNA automated observing and modelling system is designed...

  4. Operator symbols in the description of observable-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassner, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    For the observable-state system of finite degree of freedom N topological properties of the kernels and symbols belonging to the considered operators are investigated. For the operators of the observable algebra of rho + (delta) kernels and symbols are distributions and for density matrices p they are smooth functions

  5. Non-statistical behavior of coupled optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Pando Lambruschini, C.; Sinha, S.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1991-10-01

    We study globally coupled chaotic maps modeling an optical system, and find clear evidence of non-statistical behavior: the mean square deviation (MSD) of the mean field saturates with respect to increase in the number of elements coupled, after a critical value, and its distribution is clearly non-Gaussian. We also find that the power spectrum of the mean field displays well defined peaks, indicating a subtle coherence among different elements, even in the ''turbulent'' phase. This system is a physically realistic model that may be experimentally realizable. It is also a higher dimensional example (as each individual element is given by a complex map). Its study confirms that the phenomena observed in a wide class of coupled one-dimensional maps are present here as well. This gives more evidence to believe that such non-statistical behavior is probably generic in globally coupled systems. We also investigate the influence of parametric fluctuations on the MSD. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  6. Symmetries and statistical behavior in fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Draayer, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The interplay between statistical behavior and symmetries in nuclei, as revealed, for example, by spectra and by distributions for various kinds of excitations is considered. Methods and general results, rather than specific applications, are given. 16 references

  7. Symmetries and statistical behavior in fermion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, J.B.; Draayer, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    The interplay between statistical behavior and symmetries in nuclei, as revealed, for example, by spectra and by distributions for various kinds of excitations is considered. Methods and general results, rather than specific applications, are given. 16 references. (JFP)

  8. The wireless networking system of Earthquake precursor mobile field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Teng, Y.; Wang, X.; Fan, X.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    The mobile field observation network could be real-time, reliably record and transmit large amounts of data, strengthen the physical signal observations in specific regions and specific period, it can improve the monitoring capacity and abnormal tracking capability. According to the features of scatter everywhere, a large number of current earthquake precursor observation measuring points, networking technology is based on wireless broadband accessing McWILL system, the communication system of earthquake precursor mobile field observation would real-time, reliably transmit large amounts of data to the monitoring center from measuring points through the connection about equipment and wireless accessing system, broadband wireless access system and precursor mobile observation management center system, thereby implementing remote instrument monitoring and data transmition. At present, the earthquake precursor field mobile observation network technology has been applied to fluxgate magnetometer array geomagnetic observations of Tianzhu, Xichang,and Xinjiang, it can be real-time monitoring the working status of the observational instruments of large area laid after the last two or three years, large scale field operation. Therefore, it can get geomagnetic field data of the local refinement regions and provide high-quality observational data for impending earthquake tracking forecast. Although, wireless networking technology is very suitable for mobile field observation with the features of simple, flexible networking etc, it also has the phenomenon of packet loss etc when transmitting a large number of observational data due to the wireless relatively weak signal and narrow bandwidth. In view of high sampling rate instruments, this project uses data compression and effectively solves the problem of data transmission packet loss; Control commands, status data and observational data transmission use different priorities and means, which control the packet loss rate within

  9. Reported and observed controlling feeding practices predict child eating behavior after 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmeier, Heidi J; Skouteris, Helen; Haycraft, Emma; Haines, Jess; Hooley, Merrilyn

    2015-06-01

    Controlling feeding practices are linked to children's self-regulatory eating practices and weight status. Maternal reports of controlling feeding practices are not always significantly related to independently rated mealtime observations. However, prior studies only assessed 1 mealtime observation, which may not be representative of typical mealtime settings or routines. The first aim was to examine associations between reported and observed maternal pressure to eat and restriction feeding practices at baseline (T1) and after ∼ 12 mo (T2). The second aim was to evaluate relations between maternal and child factors [e.g., concern about child weight, child temperament, child body mass index (BMI)-for-age z scores (BMIz)] at T1 and reported and observed maternal pressure to eat and restriction feeding practices (T1 and T2). The third aim was to assess prospective associations between maternal feeding practices (T1) and child eating behaviors (T2) and child BMIz (T2). A sample of 79 mother-child dyads in Victoria, Australia, participated in 2 lunchtime home observations (T1 and T2). BMI measures were collected during the visits. Child temperament, child eating behaviors, maternal parenting styles, and maternal feeding practices were evaluated at T1 and T2 via questionnaires. Associations were assessed with Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired t tests, and hierarchical regressions. Reported restriction (T1) was inversely associated with observed restriction at T1 (r = -0.24, P controlling strategies. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus Behavior and Group Dynamics as Observed from an Aircraft off Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lomac-MacNair

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group behavior and interactions of endangered blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus have not been systematically studied. Such behavioral data are often overlooked when assessing anthropogenic effects. Yet behavioral data are necessary to compare “normal” behaviors with behavior affected by anthropogenic factors of concern relative to effective management and recovery of blue whales. For a baseline study, we hypothesized that the response variables sighting rate, group size, calf presence and group cohesion (i.e., spacing between individuals within a group differed according to the spatio-temporal explanatory variables behavioral state, time of day, season, water depth and distance from shore. To address our hypotheses, we flew systematic line transect surveys in southern California and collected focal group data. Two sets of data were separately analyzed using different sampling approaches: (1 point sample data associated with the first sighting of a blue whale(s, and (2 extended all-occurrence focal group behavioral sampling data (i.e., focal follows collected on a subsample of all sightings while the aircraft circled at a radial distance of approximately 0.5-1 km and an altitude of 1,500 m for extended periods of 5 – 60 minutes. Chi-square contingency table and G² analyses were used to assess statistical relationships between response and explanatory variables. We conducted 18 one-week-long aerial surveys spanning October 2008 through May 2013 (at least once during every month except December, totaling 87,555 km of observation effort. Seventy blue whale sightings (117 individuals were seen, ranging in size from 1 – 6 whales, and focal follow was performed on over half (55% of these sightings. Results supported our hypotheses that blue whale group characteristics were related to behavioral state and spatio-temporal variables. Sighting rates were significantly highest during summer followed by spring, fall, and winter. Group type differed

  11. Advertising Systems in Japan Marketing Behavior, Advertising Industry, Advertising Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    KISHIYA, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    This paper clarifies advertising systems unique to Japan. As typical of Japanese advertising systems, advertising expression tend to adopt soft sell and transformational type. The advertising expression is explained not only by the cultural value but also marketing behavior of advertisers and the characteristics of Advertising transactions. As to marketing behavior channel-oriented marketing behavior has an impact on advertising expressions. As to characteristics of Advertising transactions, ...

  12. Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems Systems and Software Technology Conference April 2010 Dr. Suzette S. Johnson...2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive...as they evolve – Control is dispersed and decentralized – Simple rules and governance used to direct behavior • Complexity Leadership Theory – Built on

  13. Communicative Coping Behavior Checklist: Observation of Persons With Dementia in the Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Pamela A; Ruth, Julia; Latella, Lauren; Talisman, Nicholas

    2016-08-01

    Communication contributes to increased stress, mortality, and decreased quality of life (QOL) for persons with dementia (PWD) and caregivers. PWD use communicative coping behaviors (CCBs) to manage the demands of the disease. However, most assessments neither look for nor give credit to communication behaviors. This is the first study to examine CCBs in the home environment as measured by the Communicative Coping Behavior Checklist (CCBC). This cross-sectional quantitative study included 26 dementia and 18 cognitively normal control dyads. Raters observed their partners' CCBs at home, over several weeks and completed the CCBC. We analyzed the endorsement rates (how often behaviors were observed by a rater) of emotion and activity-focused CCBs in dementia and control dyads. The primary outcome was rate of CCB endorsement. Secondary outcomes included dementia diagnosis, cognitive status, depressive mood, life satisfaction (SWL) and QOL. Dementia dyads endorsed 11 of 23 CCBs significantly more than control dyads. Action-focused CCBs (p endorsement rates of action-focused than emotion-focused CCBs were seen in dementia dyads. We conclude that attention to CCBs during treatment and care will improve QOL and SWL of PWD and caregivers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The effect of observers on behavior and the brain during aggressive encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Julie K; Becker, Lisa; Fernald, Russell D

    2015-10-01

    What effect does an audience have on an animal's behavior and where is this influence registered in the brain? To answer these questions, we analyzed male cichlid fish fighting in the presence of audiences of various compositions and measured expression of immediate early genes in the brain as a proxy for neural activity. We hypothesized their behavior would change depending on who was watching them. We measured behavioral responses from both the "watchers" and the "watched" during aggressive encounters and found that males fighting in the presence of an audience were more aggressive than males fighting without an audience. Depending on the nature of the audience, immediate early gene expression in key brain nuclei was differentially influenced. Both when an audience of larger males watched fighting males, and when they were watching larger males fighting, nuclei in the brain considered homologous with mammalian nuclei known to be associated with anxiety showed increased activity. When males were in the presence of any audience or when males saw any other males fighting, nuclei in the brain known to be involved in reproduction and aggression were differentially activated relative to control animals. In all cases, there was a close relationship between patterns of brain gene expression between fighters and observers. This suggests that the network of brain regions known as the social behavior network, common across vertebrates, are activated not only in association with the expression of social behavior but also by the reception of social information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fault Diagnosis in Dynamic Systems Using Fuzzy Interacting Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kolesov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of fault diagnosis in dynamic systems based on a fuzzy approach is proposed. The new method possesses two basic specific features which distinguish it from the other known fuzzy methods based on the application of fuzzy logic and a bank of state observers. First, this method uses a bank of interacting observers instead of traditional independent observers. The second specific feature of the proposed method is the assumption that there is no strict boundary between the serviceable and disabled technical states of the system, which makes it possible to specify a decision making rule for fault diagnosis.

  16. Observation of multicellular spinning behavior of Proteus mirabilis by atomic force microscopy and multifunctional microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxia; Deng, Yuanxin; Luo, Shuxiu; Deng, Yu; Guo, Linming; Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Lei; Liu, Junkang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to observe the multicellular spinning behavior of Proteus mirabilis by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and multifunctional microscopy in order to understand the mechanism underlying this spinning movement and its biological significance. Multifunctional microscopy with charge-coupled device (CCD) and real-time AFM showed changes in cell structure and shape of P. mirabilis during multicellular spinning movement. Specifically, the morphological characteristics of P. mirabilis, multicellular spinning dynamics, and unique movement were observed. Our findings indicate that the multicellular spinning behavior of P. mirabilis may be used to collect nutrients, perform colonization, and squeeze out competitors. The movement characteristics of P. mirabilis are vital to the organism's biological adaptability to the surrounding environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescent Perceptions of Overall Family System Functioning and Parental Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn S.; Robinson, Linda C.; Neal, Rachel A.; Huey, Erron L.

    2006-01-01

    We used a systems perspective to examine relationships between adolescents' perceptions of overall family system functioning and selected parental behaviors. Self-report questionnaire data from 160 ninth and tenth grade students were analyzed using MANCOVA and discriminant analysis. The results showed two parental behaviors, support and monitoring…

  18. Expanding the research area of behavior change support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Langrial, Sitwat; Ploderer, Bernd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The First International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems attracted a great research interest. The selected papers focused on abstraction, implementation and evaluation of Behavior Change Support Systems. The workshop is an evidence of how researchers from around the globe have their own

  19. Interoperable Access to Near Real Time Ocean Observations with the Observing System Monitoring Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, K.; Hankin, S.; Mendelssohn, R.; Simons, R.; Smith, B.; Kern, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Observing System Monitoring Center (OSMC), a project funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Observations Division (COD), exists to join the discrete 'networks' of In Situ ocean observing platforms -- ships, surface floats, profiling floats, tide gauges, etc. - into a single, integrated system. The OSMC is addressing this goal through capabilities in three areas focusing on the needs of specific user groups: 1) it provides real time monitoring of the integrated observing system assets to assist management in optimizing the cost-effectiveness of the system for the assessment of climate variables; 2) it makes the stream of real time data coming from the observing system available to scientific end users into an easy-to-use form; and 3) in the future, it will unify the delayed-mode data from platform-focused data assembly centers into a standards- based distributed system that is readily accessible to interested users from the science and education communities. In this presentation, we will be focusing on the efforts of the OSMC to provide interoperable access to the near real time data stream that is available via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS). This is a very rich data source, and includes data from nearly all of the oceanographic platforms that are actively observing. We will discuss how the data is being served out using a number of widely used 'web services' (including OPeNDAP and SOS) and downloadable file formats (KML, csv, xls, netCDF), so that it can be accessed in web browsers and popular desktop analysis tools. We will also be discussing our use of the Environmental Research Division's Data Access Program (ERDDAP), available from NOAA/NMFS, which has allowed us to achieve our goals of serving the near real time data. From an interoperability perspective, it's important to note that access to the this stream of data is not just for humans, but also for machine-to-machine requests. We'll also delve into how we

  20. Maintenance Effectiveness and Target Observation System and its ERP Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, Han Seong; Kim, Gi Yong; Seo, Mi Ro; Jeong, Hun Jong; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Sung Yull

    2005-01-01

    Maintenance effectiveness and target observation system (MENTOS) is a maintenance rule (MR) implementation software for plant personnel to collect, edit, store, and analyze all information required for the MR implementation. Potential users and the developers of MENTOS have decided that MENTOS is implemented in the ERP system of KHNP. This article describes MENTOS briefly and introduces the ERP interface of MENTOS

  1. The GO Cygni system: photoelectric observations and light curves analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovithis, P.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.; Niarchos, P.G.

    1990-01-01

    Photoelectric observations, in B and V, of the system GO Cygni obtained during 1985 at the Kryonerion Astronomical Station of the National Observatory of Greece are given. The corresponding light curves (typical β Lyrae) are analysed using Frequency Domain techniques. New photoelectric and absolute elements for the system are given, and its period was found to continue its increasing

  2. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ER-Orionis ... February to April 2008 with the 51 cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.

  3. Photocatalytic and Magnetic Behaviors Observed in BiFeO3 Nanofibers by Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite-type BiFeO3 nanofibers with wave nodes-like morphology were prepared by electrospinning. The nanofibers show a highly enhanced visible-light-active photocatalytic property. The results also showed that the diameter could affect the band gap and photocatalytic performances of nanofibers. Additionally, weak ferromagnetic behaviors can be observed at room temperature, which should be correlated to the size-confinement effect on the magnetic ordering of BiFeO3 structure.

  4. A cooperative control algorithm for camera based observational systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last several years, there has been considerable growth in camera based observation systems for a variety of safety, scientific, and recreational applications. In order to improve the effectiveness of these systems, we frequently desire the ability to increase the number of observed objects, but solving this problem is not as simple as adding more cameras. Quite often, there are economic or physical restrictions that prevent us from adding additional cameras to the system. As a result, we require methods that coordinate the tracking of objects between multiple cameras in an optimal way. In order to accomplish this goal, we present a new cooperative control algorithm for a camera based observational system. Specifically, we present a receding horizon control where we model the underlying optimal control problem as a mixed integer linear program. The benefit of this design is that we can coordinate the actions between each camera while simultaneously respecting its kinematics. In addition, we further improve the quality of our solution by coupling our algorithm with a Kalman filter. Through this integration, we not only add a predictive component to our control, but we use the uncertainty estimates provided by the filter to encourage the system to periodically observe any outliers in the observed area. This combined approach allows us to intelligently observe the entire region of interest in an effective and thorough manner.

  5. Accelerating assimilation development for new observing systems using EFSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Guo-Yuan; Hotta, Daisuke; Kalnay, Eugenia; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Chen, Tse-Chun

    2018-03-01

    To successfully assimilate data from a new observing system, it is necessary to develop appropriate data selection strategies, assimilating only the generally useful data. This development work is usually done by trial and error using observing system experiments (OSEs), which are very time and resource consuming. This study proposes a new, efficient methodology to accelerate the development using ensemble forecast sensitivity to observations (EFSO). First, non-cycled assimilation of the new observation data is conducted to compute EFSO diagnostics for each observation within a large sample. Second, the average EFSO conditionally sampled in terms of various factors is computed. Third, potential data selection criteria are designed based on the non-cycled EFSO statistics, and tested in cycled OSEs to verify the actual assimilation impact. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated with the assimilation of satellite precipitation data. It is shown that the EFSO-based method can efficiently suggest data selection criteria that significantly improve the assimilation results.

  6. ANALYSIS OF OBSERVED BEHAVIORS DISPLAYED BY DEPRESSED-PATIENTS DURING A CLINICAL INTERVIEW - RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL-FACTORS AND CLINICAL CONCEPTS OF ACTIVATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOUHUYS, AL; JANSEN, CJ; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    In 61 drug-free depressed patients, relationships were studied between observed behaviors and measures of common clinical concepts of activation. The behaviors were observed during a clinical interview and analyzed with ethological methods. Activation was assessed by means of self-ratings (Thayer,

  7. Observations of Warm Water in Young Solar-System Analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm

    dioxide). The amount of warm water is deduced and its origin is observationally constrained. With both isotopologues observed, the HDO/H2O ratio is deduced. This ratio is then compared to other sources, e.g., comets and the Earth’s ocean, to gain understanding of the origin of the water in our own solar...... system. The emission line fluxes are modeled with radiative transfer tools and compared to other results of water abundances in the same source. The observed water emission, both H18(2 O and HDO is compact for all observed sources and traces the emission on R 150 AU scales or less. In one source...

  8. Role of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitters in behavioral alterations observed in rodent model of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda, Saurabh; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in behavioral alterations observed in rat model of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) following bile duct ligation (BDL). Male Wistar rats subjected to BDL developed biliary fibrosis after four weeks which was supported by altered liver function tests, increased ammonia levels and histological staining (Sirius red). Animals were assessed for their behavioral performance in terms of cognitive, anxiety and motor functions. The levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) were estimated in different regions of brain viz. cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum using HPLC along with activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Cognitive assessment of BDL rats revealed a progressive decline in learning, memory formation, retrieval, exploration of novel environment and spontaneous locomotor activity along with decrease in 5-HT and NE levels. This was accompanied by an increase in MAO activity. Motor functions of BDL rats were also altered which were evident from decrease in the time spent on the rotating rod and higher foot faults assessed using narrow beam walk task. A global decrease was observed in the DA content along with an increase in MAO activity. Histopathological studies using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and cresyl violet exhibited marked neuronal degeneration, wherein neurons appeared more pyknotic, condensed and damaged. The results reveal that dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways are disturbed in chronic liver failure post-BDL which may be responsible for behavioral impairments observed in HE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal factors and experiences associated with observed parenting behavior in mothers attending a residential parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Rogers, Susan; Matthews, Jan; Allen, Beverley

    2010-01-01

    Parents experiencing early parenting difficulties often seek support through parenting programs. Characteristics of mothers seeking parenting support and information at an early parenting center in Victoria, Australia and the relationships between these factors and parenting behavior were explored using an observational measure of parent-child interaction. Participants were 43 mothers and children attending a 5-day residential parenting program at the Queen Elizabeth Centre. Maternal and sociodemographic data as well as an observational mother-child interaction task from the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training Parent Child Interaction Teaching scale were completed and scored on the first day of the program. Certain maternal factors and experiences were associated with observed parenting behavior. Poorer maternal sleeping quality, unplanned pregnancy and preterm birth were all associated with less optimal parenting behavior in certain domains. Findings are discussed with reference to the impact of past experiences around pregnancy and birth as well as the current context and well-being of mothers attending early parenting centers. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Children’s Behavioral Pain Cues: Implicit Automaticity and Control Dimensions in Observational Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kaur Sekhon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some pain behaviors appear to be automatic, reflexive manifestations of pain, whereas others present as voluntarily controlled. This project examined whether this distinction would characterize pain cues used in observational pain measures for children aged 4–12. To develop a comprehensive list of cues, a systematic literature search of studies describing development of children’s observational pain assessment tools was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Twenty-one articles satisfied the criteria. A total of 66 nonredundant pain behavior items were identified. To determine whether items would be perceived as automatic or controlled, 277 research participants rated each on multiple scales associated with the distinction. Factor analyses yielded three major factors: the “Automatic” factor included items related to facial expression, paralinguistics, and consolability; the “Controlled” factor included items related to intentional movements, verbalizations, and social actions; and the “Ambiguous” factor included items related to voluntary facial expressions. Pain behaviors in observational pain scales for children can be characterized as automatic, controlled, and ambiguous, supporting a dual-processing, neuroregulatory model of pain expression. These dimensions would be expected to influence judgments of the nature and severity of pain being experienced and the extent to which the child is attempting to control the social environment.

  11. "New Space Explosion" and Earth Observing System Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensaas, G. L.; Casey, K.; Snyder, G. I.; Christopherson, J.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe recent developments in spaceborne remote sensing, including introduction to some of the increasing number of new firms entering the market, along with new systems and successes from established players, as well as industry consolidation reactions to these developments from communities of users. The information in this presentation will include inputs from the results of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) 2017 Civil Commercial Imagery Evaluation Workshop and the use of the US Geological Survey's Requirements Capabilities and Analysis for Earth Observation (RCA-EO) centralized Earth observing systems database and how system performance parameters are used with user science applications requirements.

  12. Weather Observation Systems and Efficiency of Fighting Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarov, N.; Moltchanova, E.; Obersteiner, M.

    2007-12-01

    Weather observation is an essential component of modern forest fire management systems. Satellite and in-situ based weather observation systems might help to reduce forest loss, human casualties and destruction of economic capital. In this paper, we develop and apply a methodology to assess the benefits of various weather observation systems on reductions of burned area due to early fire detection. In particular, we consider a model where the air patrolling schedule is determined by a fire hazard index. The index is computed from gridded daily weather data for the area covering parts Spain and Portugal. We conduct a number of simulation experiments. First, the resolution of the original data set is artificially reduced. The reduction of the total forest burned area associated with air patrolling based on a finer weather grid indicates the benefit of using higher spatially resolved weather observations. Second, we consider a stochastic model to simulate forest fires and explore the sensitivity of the model with respect to the quality of input data. The analysis of combination of satellite and ground monitoring reveals potential cost saving due to a "system of systems effect" and substantial reduction in burned area. Finally, we estimate the marginal improvement schedule for loss of life and economic capital as a function of the improved fire observing system.

  13. Construction of a patient observation system using KINECTTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaura, Kazunori; Kumazaki, Yu; Kato, Shingo; Fukushima, Chika; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in the positional accuracy of irradiation is expected by capturing patient motion (intra-fractional error) during irradiation. The present study reports the construction of a patient observation system using Microsoft® KINECT TM . By tracking movement, we made it possible to add a depth component to the acquired position coordinates and to display three-axis (X, Y, and Z) movement. Moreover, the developed system can be displayed in a graph which is constructed from the coordinate position at each time interval. Using the developed system, an observer can easily visualize patient movement. When the body phantom was moved a known distance in the X, Y, and Z directions, good coincidence was shown with each axis. We built a patient observation system which captures a patient's motion using KINECT TM .

  14. Internal-time observable of classical relativistic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Ya'acov, Uri

    2006-01-01

    The relativistic framework with its symmetries offers a natural definition for the internal time of classical (non-quantum) physical systems as a Lorentz-invariant observable. The internal-time observable, measuring the system's aging or internal evolution, is identified with the proper time of the system derived from its centre-of-mass (CM) coordinate. For its definition as an observable it is required that the system be symmetric not only under Lorentz-Poincare transformations but also under uniform scaling, with the associated existence of a dilatation function D, and yet that D be a varying-not conserved-quantity. Two alternative definitions are discussed, and it is found that in order to maintain simultaneity of the CM time with the events that define it, it is necessary to split the dilatation function into a CM part and an internal part

  15. The diversity of planetary system architectures: contrasting theory with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Y.; Guilera, O. M.; Brunini, A.

    2011-10-01

    In order to explain the observed diversity of planetary system architectures and relate this primordial diversity to the initial properties of the discs where they were born, we develop a semi-analytical model for computing planetary system formation. The model is based on the core instability model for the gas accretion of the embryos and the oligarchic growth regime for the accretion of the solid cores. Two regimes of planetary migration are also included. With this model, we consider different initial conditions based on recent results of protoplanetary disc observations to generate a variety of planetary systems. These systems are analysed statistically, exploring the importance of several factors that define the planetary system birth environment. We explore the relevance of the mass and size of the disc, metallicity, mass of the central star and time-scale of gaseous disc dissipation in defining the architecture of the planetary system. We also test different values of some key parameters of our model to find out which factors best reproduce the diverse sample of observed planetary systems. We assume different migration rates and initial disc profiles, in the context of a surface density profile motivated by similarity solutions. According to this, and based on recent protoplanetary disc observational data, we predict which systems are the most common in the solar neighbourhood. We intend to unveil whether our Solar system is a rarity or whether more planetary systems like our own are expected to be found in the near future. We also analyse which is the more favourable environment for the formation of habitable planets. Our results show that planetary systems with only terrestrial planets are the most common, being the only planetary systems formed when considering low-metallicity discs, which also represent the best environment for the development of rocky, potentially habitable planets. We also found that planetary systems like our own are not rare in the

  16. Anesthesia, brain changes, and behavior: Insights from neural systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Elisabeth; Bittner, Edward A; Kussman, Barry; McCann, Mary Ellen; Soriano, Sulpicio; Borsook, David

    2017-06-01

    Long-term consequences of anesthetic exposure in humans are not well understood. It is possible that alterations in brain function occur beyond the initial anesthetic administration. Research in children and adults has reported cognitive and/or behavioral changes after surgery and general anesthesia that may be short lived in some patients, while in others, such changes may persist. The changes observed in humans are corroborated by a large body of evidence from animal studies that support a role for alterations in neuronal survival (neuroapoptosis) or structure (altered dendritic and glial morphology) and later behavioral deficits at older age after exposure to various anesthetic agents during fetal or early life. The potential of anesthetics to induce long-term alterations in brain function, particularly in vulnerable populations, warrants investigation. In this review, we critically evaluate the available preclinical and clinical data on the developing and aging brain, and in known vulnerable populations to provide insights into potential changes that may affect the general population of patients in a more, subtle manner. In addition this review summarizes underlying processes of how general anesthetics produce changes in the brain at the cellular and systems level and the current understanding underlying mechanisms of anesthetics agents on brain systems. Finally, we present how neuroimaging techniques currently emerge as promising approaches to evaluate and define changes in brain function resulting from anesthesia, both in the short and the long-term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The cognitive-behavioral system of leadership: cognitive antecedents of active and passive leadership behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóci, Edina; Stouten, Jeroen; Hofmans, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a cognitive-behavioral understanding of active and passive leadership. Building on core evaluations theory, we offer a model that explains the emergence of leaders’ active and passive behaviors, thereby predicting stable, inter-individual, as well as variable, intra-individual differences in both types of leadership behavior. We explain leaders’ stable behavioral tendencies by their fundamental beliefs about themselves, others, and the world (core evaluations), while their variable, momentary behaviors are explained by the leaders’ momentary appraisals of themselves, others, and the world (specific evaluations). By introducing interactions between the situation the leader enters, the leader’s beliefs, appraisals, and behavior, we propose a comprehensive system of cognitive mechanisms that underlie active and passive leadership behavior. PMID:26441721

  18. Selecting effective persuasive strategies in behavior change support systems: Third International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSS 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelders, Saskia Marion; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Kelders, Saskia; Kulyk, Olga; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri

    2015-01-01

    The Third International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems provides a place to discuss recent advances in BCSS research. The selected papers show that research into behavior change support systems is expanding: not only by trying to reach more and other people, but also by expanding the

  19. Observation of Subdiffusion in a Disordered Interacting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucioni, E.; Deissler, B.; Tanzi, L.; Roati, G.; Zaccanti, M.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.; Modugno, M.; Larcher, M.; Dalfovo, F.

    2011-01-01

    We study the transport dynamics of matter-waves in the presence of disorder and nonlinearity. An atomic Bose-Einstein condensate that is localized in a quasiperiodic lattice in the absence of atom-atom interaction shows instead a slow expansion with a subdiffusive behavior when a controlled repulsive interaction is added. The measured features of the subdiffusion are compared to numerical simulations and a heuristic model. The observations confirm the nature of subdiffusion as interaction-assisted hopping between localized states and highlight a role of the spatial correlation of the disorder.

  20. Field observations of mating behavior in the neck-banded snake Scaphiodontophis annulatus (Serpentes: Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Sasa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We observed the mating behavior of the neck-banded snake Scaphiodontophis annulatus (a common species of colubrid in the South Pacific of Costa Rica in the pre-montane wet forest of Las Cruces Biological Station (San Vito de Java, Costa Rica. Three S. annulatus were observed during courtship between 10-12 AM in a patch of primary forest. The two males were observed to interact with the female, but not signs of male-male agonistic interactions were observed. Their behavior includes grabbing and holding the female, copula, and biting during the copula. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 647-650. Epub 2006 Jun 01.El comportamiento de apareamiento es descrito para la serpiente Scaphiodontophis annulatus, una especie de colúbrido común en el Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. El comportamiento incluye capturar y sujetar a la hembra, mordiscos durante la cópula y coito. Dos machos fueron observados al interactuar con una sola hembra, pero no se detectó señales de interacciones antagónicas macho-macho.

  1. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  2. Predicting the future completing models of observed complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abarbanel, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the Future: Completing Models of Observed Complex Systems provides a general framework for the discussion of model building and validation across a broad spectrum of disciplines. This is accomplished through the development of an exact path integral for use in transferring information from observations to a model of the observed system. Through many illustrative examples drawn from models in neuroscience, fluid dynamics, geosciences, and nonlinear electrical circuits, the concepts are exemplified in detail. Practical numerical methods for approximate evaluations of the path integral are explored, and their use in designing experiments and determining a model's consistency with observations is investigated. Using highly instructive examples, the problems of data assimilation and the means to treat them are clearly illustrated. This book will be useful for students and practitioners of physics, neuroscience, regulatory networks, meteorology and climate science, network dynamics, fluid dynamics, and o...

  3. American black bear denning behavior: Observations and applications using remote photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, A.S.; Fox, J.A.; Olfenbuttel, C.; Vaughan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers examining American black bear (Ursus americanus) denning behavior have relied primarily on den-site visitation and radiotelemetry to gather data. Repeated den-site visits are time-intensive and may disturb denning bears, possibly causing den abandonment, whereas radiotelemetry is sufficient only to provide gross data on den emergence. We used remote cameras to examine black bear denning behavior in the Allegheny Mountains of western Virginia during March-May 2003. We deployed cameras at 10 den sites and used 137 pictures of black bears. Adult female black bears exhibited greater extra-den activity than we expected prior to final den emergence, which occurred between April 12 and May 6, 2003. Our technique provided more accurate den-emergence estimation than previously published methodologies. Additionally, we observed seldom-documented behaviors associated with den exits and estimated cub age at den emergence. Remote cameras can provide unique insights into denning ecology, and we describe their potential application to reproductive, survival, and behavioral research.

  4. Novel classification system of rib fractures observed in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jennifer C; Derrick, Sharon M; Wiersema, Jason M; Pinto, Deborrah C; Greeley, Christopher; Donaruma-Kwoh, Marcella; Bista, Bibek

    2013-03-01

    Rib fractures are considered highly suspicious for nonaccidental injury in the pediatric clinical literature; however, a rib fracture classification system has not been developed. As an aid and impetus for rib fracture research, we developed a concise schema for classifying rib fracture types and fracture location that is applicable to infants. The system defined four fracture types (sternal end, buckle, transverse, and oblique) and four regions of the rib (posterior, posterolateral, anterolateral, and anterior). It was applied to all rib fractures observed during 85 consecutive infant autopsies. Rib fractures were found in 24 (28%) of the cases. A total of 158 rib fractures were identified. The proposed schema was adequate to classify 153 (97%) of the observed fractures. The results indicate that the classification system is sufficiently robust to classify rib fractures typically observed in infants and should be used by researchers investigating infant rib fractures. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  6. Water resource monitoring systems and the role of satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial water resource monitoring systems (SWRMS can provide valuable information in support of water management, but current operational systems are few and provide only a subset of the information required. Necessary innovations include the explicit description of water redistribution and water use from river and groundwater systems, achieving greater spatial detail (particularly in key features such as irrigated areas and wetlands, and improving accuracy as assessed against hydrometric observations, as well as assimilating those observations. The Australian water resources assessment (AWRA system aims to achieve this by coupling landscape models with models describing surface water and groundwater dynamics and water use. A review of operational and research applications demonstrates that satellite observations can improve accuracy and spatial detail in hydrological model estimation. All operational systems use dynamic forcing, land cover classifications and a priori parameterisation of vegetation dynamics that are partially or wholly derived from remote sensing. Satellite observations are used to varying degrees in model evaluation and data assimilation. The utility of satellite observations through data assimilation can vary as a function of dominant hydrological processes. Opportunities for improvement are identified, including the development of more accurate and higher spatial and temporal resolution precipitation products, and the use of a greater range of remote sensing products in a priori model parameter estimation, model evaluation and data assimilation. Operational challenges include the continuity of research satellite missions and data services, and the need to find computationally-efficient data assimilation techniques. The successful use of observations critically depends on the availability of detailed information on observational error and understanding of the relationship between remotely-sensed and model variables, as

  7. OBSERVATIONS OF THE WASP-2 SYSTEM BY THE APOSTLE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Andrew C.; Kundurthy, Praveen; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rose, Amy E. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We present transit observations of the WASP-2 exoplanet system by the Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) program. Model fitting to these data allows us to improve measurements of the hot-Jupiter exoplanet WASP-2b and its orbital parameters by a factor of {approx}2 over prior studies; we do not find evidence for transit depth variations. We do find reduced {chi}{sup 2} values greater than 1.0 in the observed minus computed transit times. A sinusoidal fit to the residuals yields a timing semi-amplitude of 32 s and a period of 389 days. However, random rearrangements of the data provide similar quality fits, and we cannot with certainty ascribe the timing variations to mutual exoplanet interactions. This inconclusive result is consistent with the lack of incontrovertible transit timing variations (TTVs) observed in other hot-Jupiter systems. This outcome emphasizes that unique recognition of TTVs requires dense sampling of the libration cycle (e.g., continuous observations from space-based platforms). However, even in systems observed with the Kepler spacecraft, there is a noted lack of transiting companions and TTVs in hot-Jupiter systems. This result is more meaningful, and indicates that hot-Jupiter systems, while they are easily observable from the ground, do not appear to be currently configured in a manner favorable to the detection of TTVs. The future of ground-based TTV studies may reside in resolving secular trends, and/or implementation at extreme quality observing sites to minimize atmospheric red noise.

  8. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar...

  9. Development of KIAPS Observation Processing Package for Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeon-Ho; Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Sihye; Han, Hyun-Jun; Ha, Su-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) was founded in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) to develop Korea's own global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system as nine year (2011-2019) project. Data assimilation team at KIAPS has been developing the observation processing system (KIAPS Package for Observation Processing: KPOP) to provide optimal observations to the data assimilation system for the KIAPS Global Model (KIAPS Integrated Model - Spectral Element method based on HOMME: KIM-SH). Currently, the KPOP is capable of processing the satellite radiance data (AMSU-A, IASI), GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO), AIRCRAFT (AMDAR, AIREP, and etc…), and synoptic observation (SONDE and SURFACE). KPOP adopted Radiative Transfer for TOVS version 10 (RTTOV_v10) to get brightness temperature (TB) for each channel at top of the atmosphere (TOA), and Radio Occultation Processing Package (ROPP) 1-dimensional forward module to get bending angle (BA) at each tangent point. The observation data are obtained from the KMA which has been composited with BUFR format to be converted with ODB that are used for operational data assimilation and monitoring at the KMA. The Unified Model (UM), Community Atmosphere - Spectral Element (CAM-SE) and KIM-SH model outputs are used for the bias correction (BC) and quality control (QC) of the observations, respectively. KPOP provides radiance and RO data for Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) and also provides SONDE, SURFACE and AIRCRAFT data for Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation (3DVAR). We are expecting all of the observation type which processed in KPOP could be combined with both of the data assimilation method as soon as possible. The preliminary results from each observation type will be introduced with the current development status of the KPOP.

  10. Transitional behavior of different energy protons based on Van Allen Probes observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Chen, Lunjin; Ma, Qianli

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the dynamical behavior of ~1 eV to 50 keV ions and identifying the energies at which the morphologies transit are important in that they involve the relative intensities and distributions of the large-scale electric and magnetic fields, the outflow, and recombination rates. However, there have been only few direct observational investigations of the transition in drift behaviors of different energy ions before the Van Allen Probes era. In this paper, we statistically analyze ~1 eV to 50 keV hydrogen (H + ) differential flux distributions near geomagnetic equator by using Van Allen Probes observations to investigate the H + dynamics under the regulation of large-scale electric and magnetic fields. Our survey clearly indicates three types of H + behaviors within different energy ranges, which is consistent with previous theory predictions. Finally, using simple electric and magnetic field models in UBK coordinates, we have further constrained the source regions of different energy ions and their drift directions.

  11. Fine Scale Baleen Whale Behavior Observed Via Tagging Over Daily Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    system to do a comparison between the two. While at Wildlife Computers, I also asked for and they kindly provided a small change in how their MK10...cetacean behavior at intermediate daily time scales. Recent efforts to assess the impacts of sound on marine mammals and to estimate foraging ...efficiency have called for the need to measure daily activity budgets to quantify how much of each day an individual devotes to foraging , resting

  12. Experimental observation of the quantum behavior of a macroscopic degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoret, M.H.; Martinis, J.M.; Esteve, D.

    1986-08-01

    At Berkeley a series of experiments have been performed, that demonstrates the quantum behavior of one macroscopic degree of freedom, namely the phase difference across a current biased Josephson junction. Here we will focus on the praticalities involved in such a demonstration. The emphasis is put on the particular procedures used to solve the two problems of noise shielding and parameter determination. To begin, a short description of the macroscopic system investigated, the current biased Josephson junction is given

  13. How accurately do drivers evaluate their own driving behavior? An on-road observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Sonia; Arıkan, Elvan; Kaça, Gülin; Koyuncu, Mehmet; Turkan, B Nilay

    2014-02-01

    Self-assessment of driving skills became a noteworthy research subject in traffic psychology, since by knowing one's strenghts and weaknesses, drivers can take an efficient compensatory action to moderate risk and to ensure safety in hazardous environments. The current study aims to investigate drivers' self-conception of their own driving skills and behavior in relation to expert evaluations of their actual driving, by using naturalistic and systematic observation method during actual on-road driving session and to assess the different aspects of driving via comprehensive scales sensitive to different specific aspects of driving. 19-63 years old male participants (N=158) attended an on-road driving session lasting approximately 80min (45km). During the driving session, drivers' errors and violations were recorded by an expert observer. At the end of the driving session, observers completed the driver evaluation questionnaire, while drivers completed the driving self-evaluation questionnaire and Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ). Low to moderate correlations between driver and observer evaluations of driving skills and behavior, mainly on errors and violations of speed and traffic lights was found. Furthermore, the robust finding that drivers evaluate their driving performance as better than the expert was replicated. Over-positive appraisal was higher among drivers with higher error/violation score and with the ones that were evaluated by the expert as "unsafe". We suggest that the traffic environment might be regulated by increasing feedback indicators of errors and violations, which in turn might increase the insight into driving performance. Improving self-awareness by training and feedback sessions might play a key role for reducing the probability of risk in their driving activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A behavioral framework for compositionality: linear systems, discrete event systems and hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anak Agung Julius, A.A.J.; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we formulate a general framework based on the behavioral approach to dynamical systems, in which various issues regarding interconnection of systems can be addressed. The main part of the framework is that interconnections or compositions of systems can be modelled with interconnection

  15. The co-occurrence of self-observed norm-conforming behavior, reduction of zero observations and remaining measurement quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsheer, Johannes A

    2014-01-01

    Norm-violating behavior is characterized by clear social norms which prescribe the non-occurrence of that behavior. From the theoretical framework of Allport it is derived that specifically norm-conformation is consistent, while violating norms is expected to be inconsistent and more circumstantial.

  16. Observing the Behavior of Larval Sea Lamprey in the St Clair River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M.

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use student-built underwater water quality monitoring systems to monitor the behavior of larval sea lamprey during a lampricide treatment in the St Clair River, MI. In addition, the monitoring systems were used to gather video evidence to show that lampricide does not affect the surrounding wildlife. This camera system was an addition to the Great Lakes Fisheries Commission's (GLFC) study because they previously did not have video recording capabilities. To collect the needed video data, we lined eight cameras down each side of a 25 by 20 meter lampricide plot in the middle channel of the St Clair River, which was approximately 1 to 5 meters deep. This setup allowed us to collect 8 hours worth of video after a 24 hour delay, which was then saved as a MP4 format for easy access by the GLFC scientists. After retrieving the systems from the study plot, we had found mussels growing on the monitoring systems' housings. When analyzing the cameras' data, we also saw regular wildlife activity, such as groups of fish swimming normally past the cameras. We know that the wildlife's behavior was not affected, because in the videos that were captured during the application of this lampricide treatment showed no abnormal wildlife behavior. Through this study, we learned that the Bayluscide 70% wettable powder did not affect fish, aquatic plants, or any other sea life in the treatment area. Our water quality monitoring systems were an impact in the GLFC's lampricide study, because they provided evidence that lampricide does not affect any other wildlife in the treatment area.

  17. EXTREME AO OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRIPLE ASTEROID SYSTEMS WITH SPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M.; Beauvalet, L.; Marchis, F.; Nielsen, E. L.; Vachier, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured

  18. EXTREME AO OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRIPLE ASTEROID SYSTEMS WITH SPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Beauvalet, L. [National Observatory, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marchis, F.; Nielsen, E. L. [Carl Sagan Center at the SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States); Vachier, F., E-mail: byang@eso.org [Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides, Paris (France)

    2016-04-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured.

  19. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  20. Observer-Based Robust Control for Hydraulic Velocity Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problems of robust stabilization and robust control for the secondary component speed control system with parameters uncertainty and load disturbance. The aim is to enhance the control performance of hydraulic system based on Common Pressure Rail (CPR. Firstly, a mathematical model is presented to describe the hydraulic control system. Then a novel observer is proposed, and an observed-based control strategy is designed such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and satisfies the disturbance attenuation level. The condition for the existence of the developed controller can by efficiently solved by using the MATLAB software. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Full Two-Body Problem Mass Parameter Observability Explored Through Doubly Synchronous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alex Benjamin; Scheeres, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The full two-body problem (F2BP) is often used to model binary asteroid systems, representing the bodies as two finite mass distributions whose dynamics are influenced by their mutual gravity potential. The emergent behavior of the F2BP is highly coupled translational and rotational mutual motion of the mass distributions. For these systems the doubly synchronous equilibrium occurs when both bodies are tidally-locked and in a circular co-orbit. Stable oscillations about this equilibrium can be shown, for the nonplanar system, to be combinations of seven fundamental frequencies of the system and the mutual orbit rate. The fundamental frequencies arise as the linear periods of center manifolds identified about the equilibrium which are heavily influenced by each body’s mass parameters. We leverage these eight dynamical constraints to investigate the observability of binary asteroid mass parameters via dynamical observations. This is accomplished by proving the nonsingularity of the relationship between the frequencies and mass parameters for doubly synchronous systems. Thus we can invert the relationship to show that given observations of the frequencies, we can solve for the mass parameters of a target system. In so doing we are able to predict the estimation covariance of the mass parameters based on observation quality and define necessary observation accuracies for desired mass parameter certainties. We apply these tools to 617 Patroclus, a doubly synchronous Trojan binary and flyby target of the LUCY mission, as well as the Pluto and Charon system in order to predict mutual behaviors of these doubly synchronous systems and to provide observational requirements for these systems’ mass parameters

  2. Managing lifelike behavior in a dynamic self-assembled system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropp, Chad; Bachelard, Nicolas; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    Self-organization can arise outside of thermodynamic equilibrium in a process of dynamic self-assembly. This is observed in nature, for example in flocking birds, but can also be created artificially with non-living entities. Such dynamic systems often display lifelike properties, including the ability to self-heal and adapt to environmental changes, which arise due to the collective and often complex interactions between the many individual elements. Such interactions are inherently difficult to predict and control, and limit the development of artificial systems. Here, we report a fundamentally new method to manage dynamic self-assembly through the direct external control of collective phenomena. Our system consists of a waveguide filled with mobile scattering particles. These particles spontaneously self-organize when driven by a coherent field, self-heal when mechanically perturbed, and adapt to changes in the drive wavelength. This behavior is governed by particle interactions that are completely mediated by coherent wave scattering. Compared to hydrodynamic interactions which lead to compact ordered structures, our system displays sinusoidal degeneracy and many different steady-state geometries that can be adjusted using the external field.

  3. Observed fearlessness and positive parenting interact to predict childhood callous-unemotional behaviors among low-income boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Hyde, Luke W

    2017-03-01

    Callous-unemotional behaviors identify children at risk for severe and chronic antisocial behavior. Research is needed to establish pathways from temperament and parenting factors that give rise to callous-unemotional behaviors, including interactions of positive versus harsh parenting with child fearlessness. Multimethod data, including parent reports and observations of parent and child behavior, were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal sample of low-income boys (N = 310) with assessments at 18, 24, and 42 months, and at ages 10-12 years old. Parent-reported callous-unemotional, oppositional, and attention-deficit factors were separable at 42 months. Callous-unemotional behaviors at 42 months predicted callous-unemotional behaviors at ages 10-12, accounting for earlier oppositional and attention-deficit behaviors and self-reported child delinquency at ages 10-12. Observations of fearlessness at 24 months predicted callous-unemotional behaviors at 42 months, but only when parents exhibited low observed levels of positive parenting. The interaction of fearlessness and low positive parenting indirectly predicted callous-unemotional behaviors at 10-12 via callous-unemotional behaviors at 42 months. Early fearlessness interacts with low positive parenting to predict early callous-unemotional behaviors, with lasting effects of this person-by-context interaction on callous-unemotional behaviors into late childhood. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. The effectiveness of the telehomecare for self-care behaviors of patients with diabetes in Taiwan: A consecutive observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Han Chiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus can increase associated complications and mortality. We use the telehomecare system in patients with diabetes and investigate the associated impact in clinical practice. Materials and Methods: The purpose of the study is to examine the effectiveness of the telehomecare system on diabetic self-care. The telehomecare system incorporated into the daily care program in the experimental group. A cloud health-care platform designed for information storage and exchange be constructed and monitored by case managers. Comprehensive care instructions and in-time consultation in case of abnormalities were provided. The patients in the control group adopted conventional care program. Self-care questionnaires were completed by both groups before and after the study. All participants measured before the experiment and at 4 months after. Results: The participants were 117 patients (including 56 at the experimental and 61 at the control group, which recruited from a community hospital in New Taipei city, Taiwan. In two-way mixed design ANCOVA, in self-care behaviors, there are significant differences between two groups. The outcome of experimental group is superior to the control group both in posttest. However, there is no significant difference between two groups in subscales of foot care and athletics care. Moreover, there is no delayed effect in self-care behaviors of drug adjustment and blood sugar surveillance. Conclusions: This observational study revealed early intervention model to the health education strategy, the telehomecare might strengthen self-care behaviors of the participants. To the future study, we can put emphasis on the diabetes mellitus patient's foot care and exercise behaviors. The telehomecare model could also become the important health-care policy for the government in the future.

  5. Electrochemical behavior of molten fluoride-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenaka, Toshihide; Ito, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Takayasu; Oishi, Jun

    1984-11-01

    The cathodic behavior of a molten fluoride-water system was investigated by the potential sweep method. LiF-KF-NaF eutectic melt was used as an electrolyte and HF-H/sub 2/O gas mixture with Ar as a carrier was bubbled into it. Gold wire was used as a working electrode. The peak currents due to the reduction of HF and H/sub 2/O were clearly observed. The relations between peak currents and the square roots of the scanning rates were linear, strongly suggesting that the reduction reactions of the HF and H/sub 2/O dissolved in the melt were diffusion controlled. From the linearity of the relations between peak currents and partial pressures of HF and H/sub 2/O in the low partial pressure region, it was concluded that the concentrations of HF and H/sub 2/O in a fluoride melt are proportional to the partial pressure of each gas. The peak current due to the reduction of OH/sup -/ ion could not be observed, though a clear peak current was observed when OH/sup -/ ion was added to the melt and a cathodic scan was applied immediately. This indicates that OH/sup -/ ion is unstable in a fluoride melt under HF-H/sub 2/O atmosphere.

  6. On the complete system of observables in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, César R.

    1990-10-01

    This paper contains a series of remarks about the concept of Complete System of Observables (CSO) in quantum mechanics and a discussion of two definitions of CSO, one given by Jauch [Helv. Phys. Acta 33, 711 (1960)] and the other by Prugovecki [Can. J. Phys. 47, 1083 (1968)].

  7. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barre, de la Suzanne; Maher, Patrick; Dawson, Jackie; Hillmer-Pegram, Kevin; Huijbens, Edward; Lamers, M.A.J.; Liggett, D.; Müller, D.; Pashkevich, A.; Stewart, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing

  8. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Photometric observations of the over-contact binary ER ORI were performed during November 2007 and February to April 2008 with the 51cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. We used these data to obtain the light curves ...

  9. INVIS : Integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite

  10. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS): New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summerhayes, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    GOOS will provide information about the present and future states of seas and oceans and their living resources, and on the role of the oceans in climate change. Among other things, it will include monitoring the extent to which the sea is polluted, and applying models enabling the behaviour of polluted environments to be forecast given a variety of forcing conditions including anthropogenic and natural changes. Implementation has begun through integration of previously separate existing observing systems into a GOOS Initial Observing System, and through the development of Pilot Projects, most notably in the coastal seas of Europe and North-east Asia. Although the present emphasis is on the measurement of physical properties, plans are underway for increasing the observation of chemical and biological parameters. The main biological thrust at present comes through the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN). Consideration needs to be given to incorporation into the GOOS Initial Observing System of present national, international and global chemical and biological monitoring systems, and the development and implementation of new chemical and biological monitoring subsystems, especially in coastal seas for monitoring the health of those environments. GOOS will offer marine scientists and other users a scheme of continuing measurements on a scale larger in time and space than can be accomplished by individuals for their own applications, and a vastly improved store of basic marine environmental data for a multitude of purposes. For GOOS news see the GOOS Homepage at http://ioc.unesco.org/GOOS/. (author)

  11. Measurement of Child Behavior via Classroom Observations in the Good Behavior Game Professional Development Models Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurki, Anja; Wang, Wei; Li, Yibing; Poduska, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a classroom-based behavior management strategy aimed at reducing aggressive/disruptive behavior and socializing children into the role of student. GBG, delivered in first and second grades, has been shown to reduce rates of substance abuse and other deleterious outcomes into young adulthood (Brown, C.H. et al 2007,…

  12. Representing System Behaviors and Expert Behaviors for Intelligent Tutoring. Technical Report No. 108.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Douglas M.; And Others

    Simulation-based software tools that can infer system behaviors from a deep model of the system have the potential for automatically building the semantic representations required to support intelligent tutoring in fault diagnosis. The Intelligent Maintenance Training System (IMTS) is such a resource, designed for use in training troubleshooting…

  13. Emerging Methods and Systems for Observing Life in the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, F.; Pearlman, J.; Simmons, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    There is a growing need for observations of life in the sea at time and space scales consistent with those made for physical and chemical parameters. International programs such as the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and Marine Biodiversity Observation Networks (MBON) are making the case for expanded biological observations and working diligently to prioritize essential variables. Here we review past, present and emerging systems and methods for observing life in the sea from the perspective of maintaining continuous observations over long time periods. Methods that rely on ships with instrumentation and over-the-side sample collections will need to be supplemented and eventually replaced with those based from autonomous platforms. Ship-based optical and acoustic instruments are being reduced in size and power for deployment on moorings and autonomous vehicles. In parallel a new generation of low power, improved resolution sensors are being developed. Animal bio-logging is evolving with new, smaller and more sophisticated tags being developed. New genomic methods, capable of assessing multiple trophic levels from a single water sample, are emerging. Autonomous devices for genomic sample collection are being miniaturized and adapted to autonomous vehicles. The required processing schemes and methods for these emerging data collections are being developed in parallel with the instrumentation. An evolving challenge will be the integration of information from these disparate methods given that each provides their own unique view of life in the sea.

  14. Clinical observations of a Cantonese cognitive-behavioral treatment program for Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Edward K; Alden, Lynn E; Söchting, Ingrid; Tsang, Pheobe

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe our clinical observations about the process of delivering a Cantonese-language cognitive- behavioral therapy program to treat depression in Hong Kong immigrants to Vancouver, Canada. Our experiences indicated that standard referral and assessment procedures were not optimal for this population. Other factors that required consideration were how to convert Cantonese terms for dysphoric affect into English equivalents and how to implement cognitive modification strategies when dealing with culture-syntonic beliefs about social relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. A tethered balloon system for observation of atmospheric temperature inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takashi; Kakuta, Michio

    1979-05-01

    In environmental assessment of near-shore nuclear plants, information is often required on the development of internal boundary layer (IBL) and associated fumigation condition. Single tower data is not sufficient to clarify the site-dependent IBL structure that affects the atmospheric diffusion in shoreline-stack-site boundary complex. A tethered balloon system has been developed, which comprises a fixed point kitoon and a car-borne small balloon. The system enables us to measure the detailed time-space distribution of temperature without much man-power. The system and example of field observations with it are described. (author)

  16. The RITMARE Ocean Observing System for the Italian Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crise, A.

    2016-02-01

    Among its objectives, the Italian RITMARE Flagship Programme has the aim to produce a prototype of the RITMARE Ocean observing system explicitelly designed to provide a powerful infrastructure to the Italian marine science community, to help implement national and Europen environmental regulations and to contribute to the future European Ocean Observing System. The projects takes advantage of the existing platforms (fixed-point moorings, HF and X-band radars, gliders, satellite products), that constitute the basic components of the system. The structure of the RITMARE Ocean observing system is composed by a permanent component (mooring network, satellite images, HF radars) and relocatable component (gliders, drifters, relocatable infrastructures). The increasing number of available relocatable/expandable platforms allow a much larger flexibility in term of allocation of observations but requires an sampling strategy the can be modified according the scientific and socio-economic priorities. As an example, RITMARE focus is set on an experiment on the South Adriatic Pit convective area and its dynamic interactions with the adjacent Bari Canyon cascading site. (Central Mediterranean Sea). Additional effort is paid to support innovation for sensors (e.g. ship-borne LIDAR, stereo-optic directional wave detection, X-band radar innovative products), operational employment of gliders (e.g. Wave Glider) and new class of operational models. The integration can be obtained at different level: the is expected to be achieved at ICT level by defining standard interfaces (NedCDF, SOS) and catalogs in order to facilitate the discovery, viewing and downloading services of data and products. The implementation of a distributed platform-oriented RT repositories adopt a number of THREDDS web servers that act as endpoints for the RITMARE portal. The final aim is to decouple the platforms from the observations, moving from a set of observation to a suite of Essential Ocean Variables by

  17. Evaluating system behavior through Dynamic Master Logic Diagram (DMLD) modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y.-S.; Modarres, Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the Dynamic Master Logic Diagram (DMLD) is introduced for representing full-scale time-dependent behavior and uncertain behavior of complex physical systems. Conceptually, the DMLD allows one to decompose a complex system hierarchically to model and to represent: (1) partial success/failure of the system, (2) full-scale logical, physical and fuzzy connectivity relations, (3) probabilistic, resolutional or linguistic uncertainty, (4) multiple-state system dynamics, and (5) floating threshold and transition effects. To demonstrate the technique, examples of using DMLD to model, to diagnose and to control dynamic behavior of a system are presented. A DMLD-based expert system building tool, called Dynamic Reliability Expert System (DREXs), is introduced to automate the DMLD modeling process

  18. Phase change heat transfer and bubble behavior observed on twisted wire heater geometries in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Troy R.; Koeln, Justin P.; Fassmann, Andrew W.; Barnett, Robert J.; Ban, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Subcooled water boiled in microgravity on twists of thin wires. • Wire twisting creates heat transfer enhancements because of high local temperatures. • A preliminary version of a new bubble dynamics method is discussed. • A critical distance that fluid must be superheated for boiling onset is presented. - Abstract: Phase change is an effective method of transferring heat, yet its application in microgravity thermal management systems requires greater understanding of bubble behavior. To further this knowledge base, a microgravity boiling experiment was performed (floating) onboard an aircraft flying in a parabolic trajectory to study the effect of surface geometry and heat flux on phase change heat transfer in a pool of subcooled water. A special emphasis was the investigation of heat transfer enhancement caused by modifying the surface geometry through the use of a twist of three wires and a twist of four wires. A new method for bubble behavior analysis was developed to quantify bubble growth characteristics, which allows a quantitative comparison of bubble dynamics between different data sets. It was found that the surface geometry of the three-wire twist enhanced heat transfer by reducing the heat flux needed for bubble incipience and the average wire temperature in microgravity. Simulation results indicated that increased local superheating in wire crevices may be responsible for the change of bubble behavior seen as the wire geometry configuration was varied. The convective heat transfer rate, in comparison to ground experiments, was lower for microgravity at low heating rates, and higher at high heating rates. This study provides insights into the role of surface geometry on superheating behavior and presents an initial version of a new bubble behavior analysis method. Further research on these topics could lead to new designs of heater surface geometries using phase change heat transfer in microgravity applications

  19. Design of coherent quantum observers for linear quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuglar, Shanon L; Amini, Hadis

    2014-01-01

    Quantum versions of control problems are often more difficult than their classical counterparts because of the additional constraints imposed by quantum dynamics. For example, the quantum LQG and quantum H ∞ optimal control problems remain open. To make further progress, new, systematic and tractable methods need to be developed. This paper gives three algorithms for designing coherent quantum observers, i.e., quantum systems that are connected to a quantum plant and their outputs provide information about the internal state of the plant. Importantly, coherent quantum observers avoid measurements of the plant outputs. We compare our coherent quantum observers with a classical (measurement-based) observer by way of an example involving an optical cavity with thermal and vacuum noises as inputs. (paper)

  20. Diffusion behavior in the films of Nb-Ti systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitake, Michiko; Yoshihara, Kazuhiro

    1990-01-01

    The diffusion behavior of substrate element into a deposited film was investigated. The observed systems were a Nb film/Ti substrate and a Ti film/Nb substrate. When the Nb film/Ti substrate was heated in a vacuum, Ti diffused very rapidly in the Nb film. The pre-exponential factor of the diffusion constant of Ti in the Nb film was 5.6x10 -2 m 2 s -1 , and the activation energy was 220 kJmol -1 . The observed activation energy is about 60% of that of Ti in the bulk Nb. On the other hand, when the Ti film/Nb substrate was heated in a vacuum, Nb did not diffuse so rapidly. Titanium diffused through the Nb film rapidly and was concentrated on the surface of the Nb film. The chemical state of the concentrated Ti was metallic, and neither titanium oxides nor titanium carbide was observed. Therefore, the driving force of the rapid diffusion of Ti in the Nb film is considered as the reduction of the surface energy of Nb film. The difference in the diffusion behavior between Ti through the Nb film and Nb through the Ti film is explained supposing that the segregation of Ti reduces the surface energy of the Nb film but the segregation of Nb does not reduce the surface energy of the Ti film. After heating of the Nb film/Ti substrate for a long time, a new phase was formed at the interface between the Nb film and the Ti substrate. The chemical composition of the new phase is about 50% of Ti and 50% of Nb. This phase has not been reported in the phase diagram of the bulk Ti-Nb system. The surface area of the Nb film is considered to be quite large, so the contribution of surface energy to the thermodynamic state of the Nb film cannot be neglected. Therefore, the chemical potential of the film is different from that of the bulk. Then, the new phase, which does not exist in the phase diagram of the bulk system, is formed by an interaction of the films. (author)

  1. Qualitative behavior of global solutions to inhomogeneous quasilinear hyperbolic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, L.

    1994-01-01

    The emphasis is the influence to the qualitative behavior of solutions caused by the lower order term, which is certain dissipation, in quasilinear hyperbolic systems. Both classical solutions and discontinuous weak solutions are discussed. (author). 12 refs

  2. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  3. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adolescent's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This data is used for...

  4. Associations of group level popularity with observed behavior and influence in a dyadic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between popularity in the peer group and adolescents' behavior in a dyadic context. After collecting peer nominations for popularity, 218 early adolescents (M(age) = 11.0 years) in 109 randomly composed same-sex dyads participated in a discussion task where they planned a party for their classroom. From digital recordings of the sessions, each participant's influence, involvement, skillful leadership, coercive resource control, submissiveness, positivity, and negativity were observed. Analyses with the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) demonstrated that for girls high group level popularity was associated with a socially sensitive interaction style and influence in the dyadic context. For both boys and girls, the interaction partner's group level popularity negatively predicted their use of coercive resource control strategies and negative behavior in the dyad. For girls, in addition, the interaction partner's group level popularity also positively predicted their submissiveness and negatively predicted their task influence. These results indicate that, in particular for girls, adolescents' group level popularity plays an important role in the behavior of both peers in a cooperative dyadic context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tourism Attraction Systems. Exploring cultural behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, G.W.

    2002-01-01

    Attractions are vital sub-elements in all whole tourism systems, and yet their study suffers from lack of theoretical depth and empirical foundation. This paper presents an empirical exploration of the attraction system model, based on a survey of over 6,000 tourists to cultural attractions. The

  6. Behavioral Priming 2.0: Enter a Dynamical Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Krpan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis, people are exposed to numerous stimuli, ranging from colors and smells to sounds and words, that could potentially activate different cognitive constructs and influence their actions. This type of influence on human behavior is referred to as priming. Roughly two decades ago, behavioral priming was hailed as one of the core forces that shape automatic behavior. However, failures to replicate some of the representative findings in this domain soon followed, which posed the following question: “How robust are behavioral priming effects, and to what extent are they actually important in shaping people's actions?” To shed a new light on this question, I revisit behavioral priming through the prism of a dynamical systems perspective (DSP. The DSP is a scientific paradigm that has been developed through a combined effort of many different academic disciplines, ranging from mathematics and physics to biology, economics, psychology, etc., and it deals with behavior of simple and complex systems over time. In the present paper, I use conceptual and methodological tools stemming from the DSP to propose circumstances under which behavioral priming effects are likely to occur. More precisely, I outline three possible types of the influence of priming on human behavior, to which I refer as emergence, readjustment, and attractor switch, and propose experimental designs to examine them. Finally, I discuss relevant implications for behavioral priming effects and their replications.

  7. Behavioral Priming 2.0: Enter a Dynamical Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpan, Dario

    2017-01-01

    On a daily basis, people are exposed to numerous stimuli, ranging from colors and smells to sounds and words, that could potentially activate different cognitive constructs and influence their actions. This type of influence on human behavior is referred to as priming. Roughly two decades ago, behavioral priming was hailed as one of the core forces that shape automatic behavior. However, failures to replicate some of the representative findings in this domain soon followed, which posed the following question: “How robust are behavioral priming effects, and to what extent are they actually important in shaping people's actions?” To shed a new light on this question, I revisit behavioral priming through the prism of a dynamical systems perspective (DSP). The DSP is a scientific paradigm that has been developed through a combined effort of many different academic disciplines, ranging from mathematics and physics to biology, economics, psychology, etc., and it deals with behavior of simple and complex systems over time. In the present paper, I use conceptual and methodological tools stemming from the DSP to propose circumstances under which behavioral priming effects are likely to occur. More precisely, I outline three possible types of the influence of priming on human behavior, to which I refer as emergence, readjustment, and attractor switch, and propose experimental designs to examine them. Finally, I discuss relevant implications for behavioral priming effects and their replications. PMID:28769846

  8. THE EMPIRICAL METHOD OF INVESTIGATING THE CHILDHOOD SUBCULTURE: GROUP OF CHILDREN BEHAVIOR OBSERVATION IN THE GUESTHOUSE POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Yelena N. Suvorkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the empirical research methods investigating the childhood sub-culture. The method is called observation. The author marked general theoretical position, recommendations on its implementation. Based on observations of the group of children behavior in the guesthouse pool it is found out that such category, as honesty is very important in the organization of the order, taking into account that the subculture of childhood is an open, self-organizing system. In the pool, the children come up with a wide variety of games. The adjacent areas are also involved. The author identified two borders, taking place for the child: a clear (fixed border is the side of the pool and unclear border as the transitional designation of states, qualities (dangerous – safe.

  9. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, Masaaki; Ikeda, Soichiro; Morimoto, Yuji; Kabashima, Hisayuki

    2016-01-01

    We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy)-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  10. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takezawa, Masaaki, E-mail: take@ele.kyutech.ac.jp; Ikeda, Soichiro; Morimoto, Yuji [Department of Applied Science for Integrated System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui-cho, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Kabashima, Hisayuki [Mazda Motor Corporation,3-1, Shinchi, Fuchu-cho, Aki-gun Hiroshima 730-8670 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy)-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  11. Organizational Behavior Analysis Focusing on the University of Texas System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Bobby K.

    2011-01-01

    This project analyzes the organizational behavior of the University of Texas System. The University of Texas System is comprised of nine academic and six health institutions. The University of Texas System has over 85,000 employees; the student enrollment is 202,240 with a budget of $2.25 billion dollars. This project has a total of four parts and…

  12. Critical behavior in the system cyclopentanone + water + secondary butyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, U. Santhi; Unni, P. K. Madhavan

    2018-05-01

    We report detailed measurements of coexistence surface in the ternary system cylcopentanone + water + secondary butyl alcohol. The coexistence surface is seen to have an unusual tunnel like feature and is a potential system in which special critical points such as the Quadruple Critical Point (QCP) could be studied. Analysis of coexistence curves indicates that the system shows 3D-Ising like critical behavior.

  13. Introduction to Mathematical Systems Theory: A Behavioral Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan W.; Willems, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This is a book about modelling, analysis, and control of linear time-invariant systems. The book uses what is called the behavioral approach towards mathematical modelling. Thus a system is viewed as a dynamical relation between manifest and latent variables. The emphasis is on dynamical systems

  14. SCHeMA web-based observation data information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Antonio; Benedetti, Giacomo; D'Angelo, Paolo; Confalonieri, Fabio; Massa, Francesco; Povero, Paolo; Tercier-Waeber, Marie-Louise

    2016-04-01

    It is well recognized that the need of sharing ocean data among non-specialized users is constantly increasing. Initiatives that are built upon international standards will contribute to simplify data processing and dissemination, improve user-accessibility also through web browsers, facilitate the sharing of information across the integrated network of ocean observing systems; and ultimately provide a better understanding of the ocean functioning. The SCHeMA (Integrated in Situ Chemical MApping probe) Project is developing an open and modular sensing solution for autonomous in situ high resolution mapping of a wide range of anthropogenic and natural chemical compounds coupled to master bio-physicochemical parameters (www.schema-ocean.eu). The SCHeMA web system is designed to ensure user-friendly data discovery, access and download as well as interoperability with other projects through a dedicated interface that implements the Global Earth Observation System of Systems - Common Infrastructure (GCI) recommendations and the international Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE) standards. This approach will insure data accessibility in compliance with major European Directives and recommendations. Being modular, the system allows the plug-and-play of commercially available probes as well as new sensor probess under development within the project. The access to the network of monitoring probes is provided via a web-based system interface that, being implemented as a SOS (Sensor Observation Service), is providing standard interoperability and access tosensor observations systems through O&M standard - as well as sensor descriptions - encoded in Sensor Model Language (SensorML). The use of common vocabularies in all metadatabases and data formats, to describe data in an already harmonized and common standard is a prerequisite towards consistency and interoperability. Therefore, the SCHeMA SOS has adopted the SeaVox common vocabularies populated by

  15. Enhancement of observability and protection of smart power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Abdul Hasib

    It is important for a modern power grid to be smarter in order to provide reliable and sustainable supply of electricity. Traditional way of receiving data from the wired system is a very old and outdated technology. For a quicker and better response from the electric system, it is important to look at wireless systems as a feasible option. In order to enhance the observability and protection it is important to integrate wireless technology with the modern power system. In this thesis, wireless network based architecture for wide area monitoring and an alternate method for performing current measurement for protection of generators and motors, has been adopted. There are basically two part of this project. First part deals with the wide area monitoring of the power system and the second part focuses more on application of wireless technology from the protection point of view. A number of wireless method have been adopted in both the part, these includes Zigbee, analog transmission (Both AM and FM) and digital transmission. The main aim of our project was to propose a cost effective wide area monitoring and protection method which will enhance the observability and stability of power grid. A new concept of wireless integration in the power protection system has been implemented in this thesis work.

  16. Technetium-99 behavior in the terrestrial environment. Field observations and radiotracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining data on 99 Tc in the rice paddy field environment is important because Tc is a redox sensitive element. The behavior of Tc is expected to be different under upland field and rice paddy field conditions since the redox conditions in the soil environment differ. However, most of the data on the nuclide behavior in soil were obtained under upland field conditions. To understand the global fallout 99 Tc distributions in soil samples collected in Japan, a simple and rapid separation method was developed in order to determine low-levels of 99 Tc in soil samples by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Also, radiotracer experiments using soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were carried out to clarify the Tc behavior under paddy field conditions. The results of determination of global fallout 99 Tc in Japanese soils indicated that the radionuclide had been accumulating in rice paddy fields. The mechanisms can be explained by the immobilization of Tc in soil under anaerobic conditions. From the radiotracer experiments, it was clear that under waterlogged conditions, the highly mobile TcO 4 - in soil was readily changed to other immobilized forms, such as TcO 2 , TcS 2 and organically bound forms. To this immobilization, the microbial activity seemed to have an important role in Tc sorption reactions. When the soil, which was once kept in anaerobic conditions, was air-dried again and kept in aerobic conditions, the chemical forms of immobilized Tc did not change remarkably. Interestingly, the similar Tc behavior was observed in a real wet forest near the Chernobyl Reactor. (author)

  17. Observation of sandhill cranes' (Grus canadensis) flight behavior in heavy fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Wellik, Mike J.; Suarez, Manuel J.; Diehl, Robert H.; Lutes, Jim; Woyczik, Wendy; Krapfl, Jon; Sojda, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The behaviors of birds flying in low visibility conditions remain poorly understood. We had the opportunity to monitor Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) flying in heavy fog with very low visibility during a comprehensive landscape use study of refuging cranes in the Horicon Marsh in southeastern Wisconsin. As part of the study, we recorded flight patterns of cranes with a portable marine radar at various locations and times of day, and visually counted cranes as they departed the roost in the morning. We compared flight patterns during a fog event with those recorded during clear conditions. In good visibility, cranes usually departed the night roost shortly after sunrise and flew in relatively straight paths toward foraging areas. In fog, cranes departed the roost later in the day, did not venture far from the roost, engaged in significantly more circling flight, and returned to the roost site rather than proceeding to foraging areas. We also noted that compared to mornings with good visibility, cranes flying in fog called more frequently than usual. The only time in this 2-year study that observers heard young of the year calling was during the fog event. The observed behavior of cranes circling and lingering in an area while flying in poor visibility conditions suggests that such situations may increase chances of colliding with natural or anthropogenic obstacles in the vicinity.

  18. Multimodal Analysis of Estimated and Observed Social Competence in Preschoolers With/Without Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Pereira Dias

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social skills compete with behavior problems, and the combination of these aspects may cause differences in social competence. This study was aimed at assessing the differences and similarities in the social competence of 26 preschoolers resulting from: (1 groups which they belonged to, being one with social skills and three with behavior problems (internalizing, externalizing and mixed; (2 types of assessment, considering the estimates of mothers and teachers, as well as direct observation in a structured situation; (3 structured situations as demands for five categories of social skills. Children’s performance in each situation was assessed by judges and estimated by mothers and teachers. There was a similarity in the social competence estimated by mothers, teachers and in the performance observed. Only the teachers distinguished the groups (higher social competence in the group with social skills and lower in the internalizing and mixed groups. Assertiveness demands differentiated the groups. The methodological aspects were discussed, as well as the clinical and educational potential of the structured situations to promote social skills.

  19. Creating adaptive web recommendation system based on user behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walek, Bogdan

    2018-01-01

    The paper proposes adaptive web recommendation system based on user behavior. The proposed system uses expert system to evaluating and recommending suitable items of content. Relevant items are subsequently evaluated and filtered based on history of visited items and user´s preferred categories of items. Main parts of the proposed system are presented and described. The proposed recommendation system is verified on specific example.

  20. Verifying Embedded Systems using Component-based Runtime Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae; Angelov, Christo K.

    against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers, which are configured from instances of prefabricated reusable components---Predicate Evaluator (PE) and Temporal Evaluator (TE). The PE computes atomic propositions for the TE; the latter...... is a reconfigurable component processing a data structure, representing the state transition diagram of a non-deterministic state machine, i.e. a Buchi automaton derived from a system property specified in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). Observer components have been implemented using design models and design patterns...

  1. Observability of linear control systems on Lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, V.; Hacibekiroglu, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we study the observability problem for a linear control system Σ on a Lie group G. The drift vector field of Σ is an infinitesimal automorphism of G and the control vectors are elements in the Lie algebra of G. We establish algebraic conditions to characterize locally and globally observability for Σ. As in the linear case on R n , these conditions are independent of the control vector. We give an algorithm on the co-tangent bundle of G to calculate the equivalence class of the neutral element. (author). 6 refs

  2. The Global Geodetic Observing System: Recent Activities and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) provides the basis on which future advances in geosciences can be built. By considering the Earth system as a whole (including the geosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere and biosphere), monitoring Earth system components and their interactions by geodetic techniques and studying them from the geodetic point of view, the geodetic community provides the global geosciences community with a powerful tool consisting mainly of high-quality services, standards and references, and theoretical and observational innovations. The mission of GGOS is: (a) to provide the observations needed to monitor, map and understand changes in the Earth's shape, rotation and mass distribution; (b) to provide the global frame of reference that is the fundamental backbone for measuring and consistently interpreting key global change processes and for many other scientific and societal applications; and (c) to benefit science and society by providing the foundation upon which advances in Earth and planetary system science and applications are built. The goals of GGOS are: (1) to be the primary source for all global geodetic information and expertise serving society and Earth system science; (2) to actively promote, sustain, improve, and evolve the integrated global geodetic infrastructure needed to meet Earth science and societal requirements; (3) to coordinate with the international geodetic services that are the main source of key parameters and products needed to realize a stable global frame of reference and to observe and study changes in the dynamic Earth system; (4) to communicate and advocate the benefits of GGOS to user communities, policy makers, funding organizations, and society. In order to accomplish its mission and goals, GGOS depends on the IAG Services, Commissions, and Inter-Commission Committees. The Services provide the infrastructure and products on which all contributions

  3. Towards disruptions in Earth observation? New Earth Observation systems and markets evolution: Possible scenarios and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Gil; Claverie, Alain; Pasco, Xavier; Darnis, Jean-Pierre; de Maupeou, Benoît; Lafaye, Murielle; Morel, Eric

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews the trends in Earth observation (EO) and the possible impacts on markets of the new initiatives, launched either by existing providers of EO data or by new players, privately funded. After a presentation of the existing models, the paper discusses the new approaches, addressing both commercial and institutional markets. New concepts for the very high resolution markets, in Europe and in the US, are the main focus of this analysis. Two complementary perspectives are summarised: on the one hand, the type of system and its operational performance and, on the other, the related business models, concepts of operation and ownership schemes.

  4. LBT observations of the HR8799 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, D.; Arcidiacono, C.; Claudi, R. U.; Desidera, S.; Esposito, S.; Gratton, R.; Masciadri, E.

    2013-09-01

    We present here observations of the HR8799 planetary system performed in H and Ks band exploiting the AO system at the Large Binocular Telescope and the PISCES camera. Thanks to the excellent performence of the instrument we were able to detect for the first time the inner known planet of the system (HR8799) in the H band. Precise photometric and astrometric measures have been taken for all the four planets. Further, exploiting ours and previous astrometric results, we were able to put some limits on the planetary orbits of the four planets. The analysis of the dinamical stability of the system seems to show lower planetary masses than the ones adopted until now.

  5. OBSERVING LYAPUNOV EXPONENTS OF INFINITE-DIMENSIONAL DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, William; Rivas, Mauricio A; West, James

    2015-12-01

    Can Lyapunov exponents of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems be observed by projecting the dynamics into ℝ N using a 'typical' nonlinear projection map? We answer this question affirmatively by developing embedding theorems for compact invariant sets associated with C 1 maps on Hilbert spaces. Examples of such discrete-time dynamical systems include time- T maps and Poincaré return maps generated by the solution semigroups of evolution partial differential equations. We make every effort to place hypotheses on the projected dynamics rather than on the underlying infinite-dimensional dynamical system. In so doing, we adopt an empirical approach and formulate checkable conditions under which a Lyapunov exponent computed from experimental data will be a Lyapunov exponent of the infinite-dimensional dynamical system under study (provided the nonlinear projection map producing the data is typical in the sense of prevalence).

  6. Effects of picture exchange communication system on communication and behavioral anomalies in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Bhatia, Manjeet S; Singh, Tej B

    2010-07-01

    Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child to be the communication initiator. The present paper throws light on the process of using PECS along with other traditional behavioral approaches in managing communication deficits and behavioral stereotypies in a seven-year-old male child diagnosed as having childhood autism. The identified target behaviors of repeated head turning, flapping his hands, poor communication skills were assessed using various rating scales including visual analogue scale as per clinician observation and parental reports and managed using PECS as an adjunct to traditional behavioral techniques of contingency management, differential reinforcement, task direction and reprimand. Outcome was assessed using same tools after thirty-two sessions of interventions spread over three months. Significant improvements of around 60% were observed in the target behaviors.

  7. Economic Value of an Advanced Climate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific missions increasingly need to show the monetary value of knowledge advances in budget-constrained environments. For example, suppose a climate science mission promises to yield decisive information on the rate of human caused global warming within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) creates a standard yardstick for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, setting uncertainty in climate sensitivity to a truncated Roe and Baker (2007) distribution, setting discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate mitigation response DICE Optimal, and a strong response scenario (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we are on the BAU emissions scenario, and that we would switch to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on the uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain that it happens depends, in addition, on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can shorten the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. Our results (Cooke et al. 2013

  8. An operational, multistate, earth observation data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Hays, T. R.; Hill, C. T.; Ballard, R. J.; Morgan, R. P.; Crnkovich, G. G.; Gohagan, J. K.; Schaeffer, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a group of potential users of satellite remotely sensed data - state, local, and regional agencies involved in natural resources management. We assess this group's needs in five states and outline alternative data management systems to serve some of those needs. We conclude that an operational Earth Observation Data Management System (EODMS) will be of most use to these user agencies if it provides a full range of information services - from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  9. Dynamic Stochastic Superresolution of sparsely observed turbulent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branicki, M.; Majda, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Real-time capture of the relevant features of the unresolved turbulent dynamics of complex natural systems from sparse noisy observations and imperfect models is a notoriously difficult problem. The resulting lack of observational resolution and statistical accuracy in estimating the important turbulent processes, which intermittently send significant energy to the large-scale fluctuations, hinders efficient parameterization and real-time prediction using discretized PDE models. This issue is particularly subtle and important when dealing with turbulent geophysical systems with an vast range of interacting spatio-temporal scales and rough energy spectra near the mesh scale of numerical models. Here, we introduce and study a suite of general Dynamic Stochastic Superresolution (DSS) algorithms and show that, by appropriately filtering sparse regular observations with the help of cheap stochastic exactly solvable models, one can derive stochastically ‘superresolved’ velocity fields and gain insight into the important characteristics of the unresolved dynamics, including the detection of the so-called black swans. The DSS algorithms operate in Fourier domain and exploit the fact that the coarse observation network aliases high-wavenumber information into the resolved waveband. It is shown that these cheap algorithms are robust and have significant skill on a test bed of turbulent solutions from realistic nonlinear turbulent spatially extended systems in the presence of a significant model error. In particular, the DSS algorithms are capable of successfully capturing time-localized extreme events in the unresolved modes, and they provide good and robust skill for recovery of the unresolved processes in terms of pattern correlation. Moreover, we show that DSS improves the skill for recovering the primary modes associated with the sparse observation mesh which is equally important in applications. The skill of the various DSS algorithms depends on the energy spectrum

  10. Observation on scintigram of bone tumors by color data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kyuman

    1982-01-01

    The uptake of RI on bone scintigram was converted with a color data system to a color pattern of 12 colors. The color patterns of bone tumors were analysed in comparison them with those in contralateral part of body. The author observed on color patterns of bone scintigrams in 70 cases of bone tumors, of which 28 cases were malignant, 32 benign and 10 giant cell tumors. Differences of color pattern were found relatively low in tumors of the pelvis, whereas they were high in tumors of the limbs and shoulder. In malignant tumors, differences of the color patterns were marked and wide in range. Applying the color data system to bone scintigram, bone tumors could be objectively observed and the method was very helpful for diagnosis of bone tumors. (author)

  11. Linear system identification via backward-time observer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to identify a state-space model of a linear system using a backward-time approach. The procedure consists of three basic steps. First, the Markov parameters of a backward-time observer are computed from experimental input-output data. Second, the backward-time observer Markov parameters are decomposed to obtain the backward-time system Markov parameters (backward-time pulse response samples) from which a backward-time state-space model is realized using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm. Third, the obtained backward-time state space model is converted to the usual forward-time representation. Stochastic properties of this approach will be discussed. Experimental results are given to illustrate when and to what extent this concept works.

  12. THE TAX SYSTEM AND TAXPAYERS BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Brindusa Tudose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to examine the behavioural coordinates of tax subjects and the intensity of the interaction between taxpayers and authorities. Research on the behaviour of subjects of the tax system is justified given the tension existing between taxpayers, on the one hand, and the tax system, on the other. The tax systems of the world have been classified into two models: antagonistic and synergistic. As long as in Romania the tax elements have been and continue to be an overwhelming burden on taxpayers, their behaviour has evolved and adjusted to a negative outlook. This type of behaviour, associated with the behaviour of tax authorities built on lack of trust and virulent anti-tax avoidance strategies, has generated a tense and antagonistic tax environment.

  13. CORONAGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS OF FOMALHAUT AT SOLAR SYSTEM SCALES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Meshkat, Tiffany; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Girard, Julien H.; Kasper, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We report on a search for low mass companions within 10 AU of the star Fomalhaut, using narrowband observations at 4.05 μm obtained with the Apodizing Phase Plate coronagraph on the VLT/NaCo. Our observations place a model-dependent upper mass limit of 12-20 M jup from 4 to 10 AU, covering the semimajor axis search space between interferometric imaging measurements and other direct imaging non-detections. These observations rule out models where the large semimajor axis for the putative candidate companion Fomalhaut b is explained by dynamical scattering from a more massive companion in the inner stellar system, where such giant planets are thought to form.

  14. Development of the AuScope Australian Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawling, T.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in monitoring technology and significant investment in new national research initiatives, will provide significant new opportunities for delivery of novel geoscience data streams from across the Australian continent over the next decade. The AuScope Australian Earth Observing System (AEOS) is linking field and laboratory infrastructure across Australia to form a national sensor array focusing on the Solid Earth. As such AuScope is working with these programs to deploy observational infrastructure, including MT, passive seismic, and GNSS networks across the entire Australian Continent. Where possible the observational grid will be co-located with strategic basement drilling in areas of shallow cover and tied with national reflection seismic and sampling transects. This integrated suite of distributed earth observation and imaging sensors will provide unprecedented imaging fidelity of our crust, across all length and time scales, to fundamental and applied researchers in the earth, environmental and geospatial sciences. The AEOS will the Earth Science community's Square Kilometer Array (SKA) - a distributed telescope that looks INTO the earth rather than away from it - a 10 million SKA. The AEOS is strongly aligned with other community strategic initiatives including the UNCOVER research program as well as other National Collaborative Research Infrastructure programs such as the Terrestrial Environmental Research Network (TERN) and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) providing an interdisciplinary collaboration platform across the earth and environmental sciences. There is also very close alignment between AuScope and similar international programs such as EPOS, the USArray and EarthCube - potential collaborative linkages we are currently in the process of pursuing more fomally. The AuScope AEOS Infrastructure System is ultimately designed to enable the progressive construction, refinement and ongoing enrichment of a live, "FAIR" four

  15. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  16. IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Balbin, R.; Cabanas, J. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Garcia-Martinez, M. C.; Gonzalez-Pola, C.; Lavin, A.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Rodriguez, C.; Ruiz-Villarreal, M.; Sanchez-Leal, R. F.; Vargas-Yanez, M.; Velez-Belchi, P.

    2015-10-01

    Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography (OO). Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The IEO standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the IEO Observing System (IEOOS) includes 6 permanent moorings equipped with currentmeters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and an SST satellital image reception station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the ARGO international program with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and ADCP onboard the IEO research vessels. The system is completed with the IEO contribution to the RAIA and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, etc, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programs Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits following spatio-temporal description of some events, as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.

  17. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: The Gulf Component of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L. J.; Moersdorf, P. F.

    2005-05-01

    The United States is developing an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) as the U.S. component of the international Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). IOOS consists of: (1) a coastal observing system for the U.S. EEZ, estuaries, and Great Lakes; and (2) a contribution to the global component of GOOS focused on climate and maritime services. The coastal component will consist of: (1) a National Backbone of observations and products from our coastal ocean supported by federal agencies; and (2) contributions of Regional Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (RCOOS). The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) is one of eleven RCOOS. This paper describes how GCOOS is progressing as a system of systems to carry out data collection, analysis, product generation, dissemination of information, and data archival. These elements are provided by federal, state, and local government agencies, academic institutions, non-government organization, and the private sector. This end-to-end system supports the seven societal goals of the IOOS, as provided by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy: detect and forecast oceanic components of climate variability, facilitate safe and efficient marine operations, ensure national security, manage marine resources, preserve and restore healthy marine ecosystems, mitigate natural hazards, and ensure public health. The initial building blocks for GCOOS include continuing in situ observations, satellite products, models, and other information supported by federal and state government, private industry, and academia. GCOOS has compiled an inventory of such activities, together with descriptions, costs, sources of support, and possible out-year budgets. These activities provide information that will have broader use as they are integrated and enhanced. GCOOS has begun that process by several approaches. First, GCOOS has established a web site (www.gcoos.org) which is a portal to such activities and contains pertinent information

  18. NIRCam Coronagraphic Observations of Disks and Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Ygouf, Marie; Gaspar, Andras; NIRCam Science Team

    2017-06-01

    The NIRCam coronagraph offers a dramatic increase in sensitivity at wavelengths of 3-5 um where young planets are brightest. While large ground-based telescopes with Extreme Adaptive Optics have an advantage in inner working angle, NIRCam's sensitivity will allow high precision photometry for known planets and searches for planets with masses below that of Saturn. For debris disk science NIRCam observations will address the scattering properties of dust, look for evidence of ices and tholins, and search for planets which affect the structure of the disk itself.The NIRCam team's GTO program includes medium-band filter observations of known young planets having 1-5 Jupiter masses. A collaborative program with the MIRI team will provide coronagraphic observations at longer wavelengths. The combined dataset will yield the exoplanet’s total luminosity and effective temperature, an estimate of the initial entropy of the newly-formed planet, and the retrieval of atmospheric properties.The program will also make deep searches for lower mass planets toward known planetary systems, nearby young M stars and debris disk systems. Achievable mass limits range from ~1 Jupiter mass beyond 20 AU for the brightest A stars to perhaps a Uranus mass within 10 AU for the closest M stars.We will discuss details of the coronagraphic program for both the exoplanet and debris disk cases with an emphasis on using APT to optimize the observations of target and reference stars.

  19. Climate Outreach Using Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Hernandez, D. L.; Wakely, A.; Bochenek, R. J.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal oceans are dynamic, changing environments affected by processes ranging from seconds to millennia. On the east and west coast of the U.S., regional observing systems have deployed and sustained a remarkable diverse array of observing tools and sensors. Data portals visualize and provide access to real-time sensor networks. Portals have emerged as an interactive tool for educators to help students explore and understand climate. Bringing data portals to outreach events, into classrooms, and onto tablets and smartphones enables educators to address topics and phenomena happening right now. For example at the 2015 Charleston Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Festival, visitors navigated the SECOORA (Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing regional Association) data portal to view the real-time marine meteorological conditions off South Carolina. Map-based entry points provide an intuitive interface for most students, an array of time series and other visualizations depict many of the essential principles of climate science manifest in the coastal zone, and data down-load/ extract options provide access to the data and documentation for further inquiry by advanced users. Beyond the exposition of climate principles, the portal experience reveals remarkable technologies in action and shows how the observing system is enabled by the activity of many different partners.

  20. Nonlinear transport behavior of low dimensional electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingqiao

    The nonlinear behavior of low-dimensional electron systems attracts a great deal of attention for its fundamental interest as well as for potentially important applications in nanoelectronics. In response to microwave radiation and dc bias, strongly nonlinear electron transport that gives rise to unusual electron states has been reported in two-dimensional systems of electrons in high magnetic fields. There has also been great interest in the nonlinear response of quantum ballistic constrictions, where the effects of quantum interference, spatial dispersion and electron-electron interactions play crucial roles. In this thesis, experimental results of the research of low dimensional electron gas systems are presented. The first nonlinear phenomena were observed in samples of highly mobile two dimensional electrons in GaAs heavily doped quantum wells at different magnitudes of DC and AC (10 KHz to 20 GHz) excitations. We found that in the DC excitation regime the differential resistance oscillates with the DC current and external magnetic field, similar behavior was observed earlier in AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures [C.L. Yang et al. ]. At external AC excitations the resistance is found to be also oscillating as a function of the magnetic field. However the form of the oscillations is considerably different from the DC case. We show that at frequencies below 100 KHz the difference is a result of a specific average of the DC differential resistance during the period of the external AC excitations. Secondly, in similar samples, strong suppression of the resistance by the electric field is observed in magnetic fields at which the Landau quantization of electron motion occurs. The phenomenon survives at high temperatures at which the Shubnikov de Haas oscillations are absent. The scale of the electric fields essential for the effect, is found to be proportional to temperature in the low temperature limit. We suggest that the strong reduction of the longitudinal resistance

  1. Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaoming; Luo Haigeng; Yue Chaoyuan; Liao Xiaoxin

    2008-01-01

    Parameter identification of chaos system based on unknown parameter observer is discussed generally. Based on the work of Guan et al. [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26], the design of unknown parameter observer is improved. The application of the improved approach is extended greatly. The works in some literatures [X.P. Guan, H.P. Peng, L.X. Li, et al., Acta Phys. Sinica 50 (2001) 26; J.H. Lue, S.C. Zhang, Phys. Lett. A 286 (2001) 148; X.Q. Wu, J.A. Lu, Chaos Solitons Fractals 18 (2003) 721; J. Liu, S.H. Chen, J. Xie, Chaos Solitons Fractals 19 (2004) 533] are only the special cases of our Corollaries 1 and 2. Some observers for Lue system and a new chaos system are designed to test our improved method, and simulations results demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the improved approach

  2. Associations between informant ratings of personality disorder traits, self-reports of personality, and directly observed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurin, Aleksandra; Sauerberger, Kyle S; Funder, David C

    2018-03-02

    Diagnoses of personality disorders (PD) must rely on judgments of observers-either clinicians or acquaintances-because personality disorders are primarily defined in terms of maladaptive interpersonal behavior. Little is known, however, about how closely acquaintances' judgments of PD traits relate to self-reports of theoretically relevant Big Five traits or directly observed behavioral outcomes in interpersonal situations. The present study examines associations between judgments of the 10 PD traits provided by close acquaintances, self-reports of PD-relevant Big Five personality traits, and observed interpersonal behaviors across three different three-person laboratory interactions (i.e., unstructured chat, cooperative task, competitive game). The sample consisted of 256 undergraduate students (130 females; M age  = 19.83, SD = 1.25). Four unacquainted observers independently rated participants' behaviors from video recordings. In line with previous work, informant reports of PD traits demonstrate strong convergent validity with relevant self-reported Big Five traits (as identified by Lynam & Widiger, 2001). Directly observed behavior is meaningfully associated with acquaintances' judgments and self-reports of PD-relevant traits, and the associations between these judgments and behavior are strongest for traits associated with histrionic and schizoid PD. Vector correlations between behavioral profiles associated with informant and self-reports show that both assessments have similar behavioral correlates. Associations between PD trait ratings and behavior appeared to differ as a function of gender, with males showing more and stronger correlations. Informants' ratings of PD traits are impressively accurate, converging both with self-reports of relevant traits and directly observed interpersonal behavior. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of PDs and associated traits can be augmented by information from multiple acquaintances who have the

  3. Nonlinear observer designs for fuel cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgun, Haluk

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen, with the aid of electro-catalysts, to produce electricity. A fuel cell consists of a negatively charged anode, a positively charged cathode and an electrolyte, which transports protons or ions. A low temperature fuel cell has an electrical potential of about 0.7 Volt when generating a current density of 300--500 mA/cm2. Practical fuel cell power systems will require a combination of several cells in series (a stack) to satisfy the voltage requirements of specific applications. Fuel cells are suitable for a potentially wide variety of applications, from stationary power generation in the range of hundreds of megawatts to portable electronics in the range of a couple of watts. Efficient operation of a fuel cell system requires advanced feedback control designs. Reliable measurements from the system are necessary to implement such designs. However, most of the commercially available sensors do not operate properly in the reformate and humidified gas streams in fuel cell systems. Sensors working varying degrees of success are too big and costly, and sensors that are potentially low cost are not reliable or do not have the required life time [28]. Observer designs would eliminate sensor needs for measurements, and make feedback control implementable. Since the fuel cell system dynamics are highly nonlinear, observer design is not an easy task. In this study we aim to develop nonlinear observer design methods applicable to fuel cell systems. In part I of the thesis we design an observer to estimate the hydrogen partial pressure in the anode channel. We treat inlet partial pressure as an unknown slowly varying parameter and develop an adaptive observer that employs a nonlinear voltage injection term. However in this design Fuel Processing System (FPS) dynamics are not modelled, and their effect on the anode dynamics are treated as plant uncertainty. In part II of the thesis we study the FPS

  4. System pressure effects on reflooding phenomena observed in the SCTF Core-I forced flooding tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Hiromichi; Sudo, Yukio; Sobajima, Makoto; Iwamura, Takamichi; Osakabe, Masahiro; Ohnuki, Akira; Abe, Yutaka

    1983-06-01

    The Slab Core Test Facility was constructed to investigate two-dimensional thermo-hydrodynamics in the core and the interaction in fluid behavior between the core and the upper plenum during the last part of blowdown, refill and reflood phases of a posturated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The present report described the analytical results on the effects of system pressure on reflooding phenomena observed in Tests Sl-SH2, Sl-01 and Sl-02 which are belonging to the SCTF Core-I forced-feed reflooding test series. Nominal system pressures in these tests are 0.4, 0.2 and 0.15 MPa, respectively. By comparison among the data of these three tests, the effects of system pressure on thermo-hydrodynamic behavior in the pressure vessel including the core and the primary coolant loops of the SCTF can be clarified under the forced flooding condition. Major items investigated in the present report are (1) overall temperature behaviors in the core, (2) change of heat transfer coefficient and heat flux at the rod surface before the quench, (3) two-dimensional thermo-hydrodynamic behaviors in the core and upper plenum and (4) hot leg carryover. (author)

  5. Is structured observation a valid technique to measure handwashing behavior? Use of acceleration sensors embedded in soap to assess reactivity to structured observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Pavani K; Halder, Amal K; Granger, Stewart P; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-11-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3-10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0-18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior.

  6. Is Structured Observation a Valid Technique to Measure Handwashing Behavior? Use of Acceleration Sensors Embedded in Soap to Assess Reactivity to Structured Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Pavani K.; Halder, Amal K.; Granger, Stewart P.; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M. Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3–10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0–18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior. PMID:21036840

  7. Collective motion in behaviorally heterogeneous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Copenhagen, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Collective motion is a widespread phenomenon in nature where individuals actively propel themselves, gather together and move as a group. Some examples of collective motion are bird flocks, fish schools, bacteria swarms, cell clusters, and crowds of people. Many models seek to understand the effects of activity in collective systems including things such as environmental disorder, density, and interaction details primarily at infinite size limits and with uniform populations. In this disserta...

  8. Genetic dissection of pheromone processing reveals main olfactory system-mediated social behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuya; Asaba, Akari; Inoue, Naokazu; Kanomata, Nobuhiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko

    2015-01-20

    Most mammals have two major olfactory subsystems: the main olfactory system (MOS) and vomeronasal system (VNS). It is now widely accepted that the range of pheromones that control social behaviors are processed by both the VNS and the MOS. However, the functional contributions of each subsystem in social behavior remain unclear. To genetically dissociate the MOS and VNS functions, we established two conditional knockout mouse lines that led to either loss-of-function in the entire MOS or in the dorsal MOS. Mice with whole-MOS loss-of-function displayed severe defects in active sniffing and poor survival through the neonatal period. In contrast, when loss-of-function was confined to the dorsal MOB, sniffing behavior, pheromone recognition, and VNS activity were maintained. However, defects in a wide spectrum of social behaviors were observed: attraction to female urine and the accompanying ultrasonic vocalizations, chemoinvestigatory preference, aggression, maternal behaviors, and risk-assessment behaviors in response to an alarm pheromone. Functional dissociation of pheromone detection and pheromonal induction of behaviors showed the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON)-regulated social behaviors downstream from the MOS. Lesion analysis and neural activation mapping showed pheromonal activation in multiple amygdaloid and hypothalamic nuclei, important regions for the expression of social behavior, was dependent on MOS and AON functions. Identification of the MOS-AON-mediated pheromone pathway may provide insights into pheromone signaling in animals that do not possess a functional VNS, including humans.

  9. Experimental studies of x-ray laser spectral profiles: Observation of gain narrowing and saturation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss our recent measurements of the spectral width of the 206.38 Angstrom x-ray laser transition in Ne-like Se. These measurements used a high-resolution grating spectrometer and were performed over a wide range of laser amplifier lengths. The data have enabled us to extrapolate the intrinsic line width and to observe the effects of gain-narrowing and saturation on the line profile. We find an intrinsic width which is 1.4 times the Doppler width, we observe gain-narrowing in intermediate length amplifiers, and we observe no re-broadening in long, saturated amplifiers. These results suggest that collisional line-broadening has a significant effect on the line profile and saturation behavior of this laser. We discuss modeling we have performed in order to simulate the experimental data, and we discuss future experimental and theoretical efforts we believe are necessary in order to understand line broadening and line transfer issues in x-ray laser plasmas

  10. New Directions in the NOAO Observing Proposal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, David; Bell, Dave

    For the past eight years NOAO has been refining its on-line observing proposal system. Virtually all related processes are now handled electronically. Members of the astronomical community can submit proposals through email, web form, or via the Gemini Phase I Tool. NOAO staff can use the system to do administrative tasks, scheduling, and compilation of various statistics. In addition, all information relevant to the TAC process is made available on-line, including the proposals themselves (in HTML, PDF and PostScript) and technical comments. Grades and TAC comments are entered and edited through web forms, and can be sorted and filtered according to specified criteria. Current developments include a move away from proprietary solutions, toward open standards such as SQL (in the form of the MySQL relational database system), Perl, PHP and XML.

  11. Initial Assessment of Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKague, D. S.; Ruf, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYNSS) mission provides high temporal resolution observations of cyclones from a constellation of eight low-Earth orbiting satellites. Using the relatively new technique of Global Navigation Satellite System reflectometry (GNSS-R), all-weather observations are possible, penetrating even deep convection within hurricane eye walls. The compact nature of the GNSS-R receivers permits the use of small satellites, which in turn enables the launch of a constellation of satellites from a single launch vehicle. Launched in December of 2016, the eight CYGNSS satellites provide 25 km resolution observations of mean square slope (surface roughness) and surface winds with a 2.8 hour median revisit time from 38 S to 38 N degrees latitude. In addition to the calibration and validation of CYGNSS sea state observations, the CYGNSS science team is assessing the ability of the mission to provide estimates of cyclone size, intensity, and integrated kinetic energy. With its all-weather ability and high temporal resolution, the CYGNSS mission will add significantly to our ability to monitor cyclone genesis and intensification and will significantly reduce uncertainties in our ability to estimate cyclone intensity, a key variable in predicting its destructive potential. Members of the CYGNSS Science Team are also assessing the assimilation of CYGNSS data into hurricane forecast models to determine the impact of the data on forecast skill, using the data to study extra-tropical cyclones, and looking at connections between tropical cyclones and global scale weather, including the global hydrologic cycle. This presentation will focus on the assessment of early on-orbit observations of cyclones with respect to these various applications.

  12. Instabilities and nonstatistical behavior in globally coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1992-08-01

    The mean field in a globally coupled system of chaotic logistic maps does not obey the standard rules of statistics, even for systems of very large sizes. This indicates the existence of intrinsic instabilities in its evolution. Here these instabilities are related to the very non-smooth behavior of mean values in a single logistic map, as a function of its parameter. Problems of this kind do not affect a similar system of coupled tent maps, where good statistical behavior has been found. We also explore the transition between these two regimes. (author). 15 refs, 9 figs

  13. Instabilities and nonstatistical behavior in globally coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    The mean field in a globally coupled system of chaotic logistic maps does not obey the standard rules of statistics, even for systems of very large sizes. This indicates the existence of intrinsic instabilities in its evolution. Here these instabilities are related to the very nonsmooth behavior of mean values in a single logistic map, as a function of its parameter. Problems of this kind do not affect a similar system of coupled tent maps, where good statistical behavior has been found. We also explore the transition between these two regimes

  14. Hydrogen and oxygen behaviors on Porous-Si surfaces observed using a scanning ESD ion microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yuki; Ueda, Kazuyuki

    2004-01-01

    A scanning electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) ion microscope (SESDIM) measured the 2-D images of hydrogen and oxygen distribution on solid surfaces. A primary electron beam at 600 eV, with a pulse width of 220 ns, resulted in ion yields of H + and O + . This SESDIM is applied to the surface analysis of Porous-Si (Po-Si) partially covered with SiN films. During the heating of a specimen of the Po-Si at 800 deg. C under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions, the components of the surface materials were moved or diffused by thermal decomposition accompanied by a redistribution of hydrogen and oxygen. After cyclic heating of above 800 deg. C, the dynamic behaviors of H + and O + accompanied by the movements of the SiN layers were observed as images of H + and O + . This was because the H + and O + ions have been identified as composite materials by their kinetic energies

  15. Microrheological observations of the onset of non-Newtonian behavior in suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, L A; Graham, A L; Gottlieb, M

    1988-01-01

    As the column fraction of solids increases above about 0.30, suspensions of non-Brownian, uniform spheres in Newtonian liquids begin to exhibit shear-thinning, normal stresses, and other non- Newtonian behavior. Here, we report on observations obtained from falling-ball and capillary rheometry at these high volume fractions. Specifically, we find that measured viscosity values are dependent on the size-scale of the viscometer (cylinder diameter, D, and falling- ball diameter, d) relative to the diameter of the suspended spheres d/sub s/. We report the dependence of the measured viscosity on the ratios d/d/sub s/, D/d, and D/d/sub s/, as well as critical values of these ratios above which the apparent viscosity is constant. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Observation of Self-Similar Behavior of the 3D, Nonlinear Rayleigh-Taylor Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadot, O.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Delettrez, J.A.; Sangster, T.C.; Goncharov, V.N.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Betti, R.; Shvarts, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor unstable growth of laser-seeded, 3D broadband perturbations was experimentally measured in the laser-accelerated, planar plastic foils. The first experimental observation showing the self-similar behavior of the bubble size and amplitude distributions under ablative conditions is presented. In the nonlinear regime, the modulation σ rms grows as α σ gt 2 , where g is the foil acceleration, t is the time, and α σ is constant. The number of bubbles evolves as N(t)∝(ωt√(g)+C) -4 and the average size evolves as (t)∝ω 2 gt 2 , where C is a constant and ω=0.83±0.1 is the measured scaled bubble-merging rate

  17. Applying signal-detection theory to the study of observer accuracy and bias in behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Bellaci, Emily; Miller, Jonathan; Karp, Hilary; Mahmood, Angela; Strobel, Maggie; Mullen, Shelley; Keyl, Alice; Toupard, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and utility of a laboratory model for examining observer accuracy within the framework of signal-detection theory (SDT). Sixty-one individuals collected data on aggression while viewing videotaped segments of simulated teacher-child interactions. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to determine if brief feedback and contingencies for scoring accurately would bias responding reliably. Experiment 2 focused on one variable (specificity of the operational definition) that we hypothesized might decrease the likelihood of bias. The effects of social consequences and information about expected behavior change were examined in Experiment 3. Results indicated that feedback and contingencies reliably biased responding and that the clarity of the definition only moderately affected this outcome.

  18. Risk factors for suicide behaviors in the observational schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (SOHO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify risk factors for suicide using data from a large, 3-year, multinational follow-up study of schizophrenia (SOHO study. Methods Baseline characteristics of 8,871 adult patients with schizophrenia were included in a logistic regression post-hoc analysis comparing patients who attempted and/or committed suicide during the study with those who did not. Results 384 (4.3% patients attempted or committed suicide. Completed suicides were 27 (0.3%. The significant risk factors for suicide behaviors were previous suicidality, depressive symptoms, prolactin-related adverse events, male gender and history of hospitalization for schizophrenia. Conclusions In view of the observational design of the study and the post-hoc nature of the analysis, the identified risk factors should be confirmed by ad-hoc specifically designed studies.

  19. Optimal angle reduction - a behavioral approach to linear system appromixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, B.; Weiland, S.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the problem of optimal state reduction under minimization of the angle between system behaviors. The angle is defined in a worst-case sense, as the largest angle that can occur between a system trajectory and its optimal approximation in the reduced-order model. This problem is

  20. Development of the Observation Scale for Aggressive Behavior (OSAB) for Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients with an antisocial personality disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Hollin, C.R.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Observation Scale for Aggressive Behavior (OSAB) has been developed to evaluate inpatient treatment programs designed to reduce aggressive behavior in Dutch forensic psychiatric patients with an antisocial personality disorder, who are "placed at the disposal of the government". The scale should

  1. Observation of High School Students' Food Handling Behaviors: Do They Improve following a Food Safety Education Intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diplock, Kenneth J; Dubin, Joel A; Leatherdale, Scott T; Hammond, David; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Majowicz, Shannon E

    2018-06-01

    Youth are a key audience for food safety education. They often engage in risky food handling behaviors, prepare food for others, and have limited experience and knowledge of safe food handling practices. Our goal was to investigate the effectiveness of an existing food handler training program for improving safe food handling behaviors among high school students in Ontario, Canada. However, because no schools agreed to provide control groups, we evaluated whether behaviors changed following delivery of the intervention program and whether changes were sustained over the school term. We measured 32 food safety behaviors, before the intervention and at 2-week and 3-month follow-up evaluations by in-person observations of students ( n = 119) enrolled in grade 10 and 12 Food and Nutrition classes ( n = 8) and who individually prepared recipes. We examined within-student changes in behaviors across the three time points, using mixed effects regression models to model trends in the total food handling score (of a possible 32 behaviors) and subscores for "clean" (17 behaviors), "separate" (14 behaviors), and "cook" (1 behavior), adjusting for student characteristics. At baseline, students ( n = 108) averaged 49.1% (15.7 of 32 behaviors; standard deviation = 5.8) correct food handling behaviors, and only 5.5% (6) of the 108 students used a food thermometer to check the doneness of the chicken (the "cook" behavior). All four behavior score types increased significantly ∼2 weeks postintervention and remained unchanged ∼3 months later. Student characteristics (e.g., having taken a prior food handling course) were not significant predictors of the total number of correctly performed food handling behaviors or of the "clean" or "separate" behaviors, working or volunteering in a food service establishment was the only characteristic significantly associated with food thermometer use (i.e., "cook"). Despite the significant increase in correct behaviors, students continued to

  2. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne de la Barre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

  3. Robust mechanobiological behavior emerges in heterogeneous myosin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Paul F.; Moore, Jeffrey R.; Ehrlicher, Allen J.; Weitz, David A.; Schunn, Christian; Cagan, Jonathan; LeDuc, Philip

    2017-09-01

    Biological complexity presents challenges for understanding natural phenomenon and engineering new technologies, particularly in systems with molecular heterogeneity. Such complexity is present in myosin motor protein systems, and computational modeling is essential for determining how collective myosin interactions produce emergent system behavior. We develop a computational approach for altering myosin isoform parameters and their collective organization, and support predictions with in vitro experiments of motility assays with α-actinins as molecular force sensors. The computational approach models variations in single myosin molecular structure, system organization, and force stimuli to predict system behavior for filament velocity, energy consumption, and robustness. Robustness is the range of forces where a filament is expected to have continuous velocity and depends on used myosin system energy. Myosin systems are shown to have highly nonlinear behavior across force conditions that may be exploited at a systems level by combining slow and fast myosin isoforms heterogeneously. Results suggest some heterogeneous systems have lower energy use near stall conditions and greater energy consumption when unloaded, therefore promoting robustness. These heterogeneous system capabilities are unique in comparison with homogenous systems and potentially advantageous for high performance bionanotechnologies. Findings open doors at the intersections of mechanics and biology, particularly for understanding and treating myosin-related diseases and developing approaches for motor molecule-based technologies.

  4. Behavior-aware decision support systems : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Gary B.; Homer, Jack (Homer Consulting); Chenoweth, Brooke N.; Backus, George A.; Strip, David R.

    2007-11-01

    As Sandia National Laboratories serves its mission to provide support for the security-related interests of the United States, it is faced with considering the behavioral responses that drive problems, mitigate interventions, or lead to unintended consequences. The effort described here expands earlier works in using healthcare simulation to develop behavior-aware decision support systems. This report focuses on using qualitative choice techniques and enhancing two analysis models developed in a sister project.

  5. Behavior of americium in aqueous carbonate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.J.

    1983-11-01

    The solubilities of crystalline Am(OH)/sub 3/ and AmOHCO/sub 3/ were measured at 25/sup 0/C in aqueous solutions of 0.1 M NaClO/sub 4/ by determination of the solution concentrations of Am. Prior to use in the measurements, the solid materials were characterized by their x-ray powder diffraction patterns. The solubility product quotients were calculated from the experimental data. The hydrolysis quotients of Am/sup 3 +/ were also estimated from the hydroxide solubility data. Using the thermodynamic data derived from these experiments and the recently reported formation constants for the Am/sup 3 +/ carbonate complexes, the solid phases and concentrations of solution species of americium in several aqueous carbonate systems were calculated using the computer code MINEQL. 20 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  6. Test-based approach to cable tray support system analysis and design: Behavior and test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigles, Damon G., E-mail: dreigles@engnovex.com [engNoveX, Inc., 19C Trolley Square, Wilmington, DE 19806 (United States); Brachmann, Ingo; Johnson, William H. [Bechtel Nuclear, Security & Environmental, 12011 Sunset Hills Rd, Suite 110, Reston, VA 20190 (United States); Gürbüz, Orhan [Tobolski Watkins Engineering, Inc., 4125 Sorrento Valley Blvd, Suite B, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Describes dynamic response behavior of unistrut type cable tray supports. • Summarizes observations from past full-scale shake table test programs. • Outlines testing methodologies necessary to identify key system parameters. - Abstract: Nuclear power plant safety-related cable tray support systems subjected to seismic loadings were originally understood and designed to behave as linear elastic systems. This behavioral paradigm persisted until the early 1980s when, due to evolution of regulatory criteria, some as-installed systems needed to be qualified to higher seismic motions than originally designed for. This requirement prompted a more in-depth consideration of the true seismic response behavior of support systems. Several utilities initiated extensive test programs, which demonstrated that trapeze strut-type cable tray support systems exhibited inelastic and nonlinear response behaviors with plastic hinging at the connections together with high damping due to bouncing of cables in the trays. These observations were used to demonstrate and justify the seismic adequacy of the aforementioned as-installed systems. However, no formalized design methodology or criteria were ever established to facilitate use of these test data for future evaluations. This paper assimilates and reviews the various test data and conclusions for the purpose of developing a design methodology for the seismic qualification of safety-related cable tray support systems.

  7. Observations of multiple order parameters in 5f electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, E.

    2005-12-01

    In this thesis, multiple order parameters originating in the same electronic system are studied. The multi-k magnetic structures, where more than one propagation wavevector, k, is observed in the same volume, are considered as prototypical models. The effect of this structure on the elastic and inelastic response is studied. In cubic 3-k uranium rock-salts, unexpected elastic diffraction events were observed at positions in reciprocal space where the structure factor should have been zero. These diffraction peaks are identified with correlations between the (orthogonal) magnetic order parameters. The 3-k structure also affects the observed dynamics; the spin-wave fluctuations in uranium dioxide as observed by inelastic neutron polarization analysis can only be explained on the basis of a 3-k structure. In the antiferromagnetic superconductor UPd 2 Al 3 the magnetic order and the super-conducting state coexist, and are apparently generated by the same heavy fermions. The effect of an external magnetic field on both the normal and superconducting states is examined. In the normal state, the compound displays Fermi-liquid-like behaviour. The inelastic neutron response is strongly renormalized on entering the superconducting state, and high-precision measurements of the low-energy transfer part of this response confirm that the superconducting energy gap has the same symmetry as the antiferromagnetic lattice. (author)

  8. Fires and Smoke Observed from the Earth Observing System MODIS Instrument: Products, Validation, and Operational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Ichoku, C.; Giglio, L.; Korontzi, S.; Chu, D. A.; Hao, W. M.; Justice, C. O.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MODIS sensor, launched on NASA's Terra satellite at the end of 1999, was designed with 36 spectral channels for a wide array of land, ocean, and atmospheric investigations. MODIS has a unique ability to observe fires, smoke, and burn scars globally. Its main fire detection channels saturate at high brightness temperatures: 500 K at 4 microns and 400 K at 11 microns, which can only be attained in rare circumstances at the I kin fire detection spatial resolution. Thus, unlike other polar orbiting satellite sensors with similar thermal and spatial resolutions, but much lower saturation temperatures (e.g. AVHRR and ATSR), MODIS can distinguish between low intensity ground surface fires and high intensity crown forest fires. Smoke column concentration over land is for the first time being derived from the MOMS solar channels, extending from 0.41 microns to 2.1 microns. The smoke product has been provisionally validated both globally and regionally over southern Africa and central and south America. Burn scars are observed from MODIS even in the presence of smoke, using the 1.2 to 2.1 micron channels. MODIS burned area information is used to estimate pyrogenic emissions. A wide range of these fire and related products and validation are demonstrated for the wild fires that occurred in northwestern United States in the summer of 2000. The MODIS rapid response system and direct broadcast capability is being developed to enable users to obtain and generate data in near real time. It is expected that health and land management organizations will use these systems for monitoring the occurrence of fires and the dispersion of smoke within two to six hours after data acquisition.

  9. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  10. Arctic daily temperature and precipitation extremes: Observed and simulated physical behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisan, Justin Michael

    Simulations using a six-member ensemble of Pan-Arctic WRF (PAW) were produced on two Arctic domains with 50-km resolution to analyze precipitation and temperature extremes for various periods. The first study used a domain developed for the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). Initial simulations revealed deep atmospheric circulation biases over the northern Pacific Ocean, manifested in pressure, geopotential height, and temperature fields. Possible remedies to correct these large biases, such as modifying the physical domain or using different initial/boundary conditions, were unsuccessful. Spectral (interior) nudging was introduced as a way of constraining the model to be more consistent with observed behavior. However, such control over numerical model behavior raises concerns over how much nudging may affect unforced variability and extremes. Strong nudging may reduce or filter out extreme events, since the nudging pushes the model toward a relatively smooth, large-scale state. The question then becomes---what is the minimum spectral nudging needed to correct biases while not limiting the simulation of extreme events? To determine this, we use varying degrees of spectral nudging, using WRF's standard nudging as a reference point during January and July 2007. Results suggest that there is a marked lack of sensitivity to varying degrees of nudging. Moreover, given that nudging is an artificial forcing applied in the model, an important outcome of this work is that nudging strength apparently can be considerably smaller than WRF's standard strength and still produce reliable simulations. In the remaining studies, we used the same PAW setup to analyze daily precipitation extremes simulated over a 19-year period on the CORDEX Arctic domain for winter and summer. We defined these seasons as the three-month period leading up to and including the climatological sea ice maximum and minimum, respectively. Analysis focused on four North American regions defined using

  11. Foraging behavior analysis of swarm robotics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivelmurugan E.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Swarm robotics is a number of small robots that are synchronically works together to accomplish a given task. Swarm robotics faces many problems in performing a given task. The problems are pattern formation, aggregation, Chain formation, self-assembly, coordinated movement, hole avoidance, foraging and self-deployment. Foraging is most essential part in swarm robotics. Foraging is the task to discover the item and get back into the shell. The researchers conducted foraging experiments with random-movement of robots and they have end up with unique solutions. Most of the researchers have conducted experiments using the circular arena. The shell is placed at the centre of the arena and environment boundary is well known. In this study, an attempt is made to different strategic movements like straight line approach, parallel line approach, divider approach, expanding square approach, and parallel sweep approach. All these approaches are to be simulated by using player/stage open-source simulation software based on C and C++ programming language in Linux operating system. Finally statistical comparison will be done with task completion time of all these strategies using ANOVA to identify the significant searching strategy.

  12. Using Interval-Based Systems to Measure Behavior in Early Childhood Special Education and Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D.; Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the current literature on the accuracy and reliability of interval systems using data from previously published experimental studies that used either human observations of behavior or computer simulations. Although multiple comparison studies provided mathematical adjustments or modifications to interval…

  13. Behavioral and brain pattern differences between acting and observing in an auditory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventouras Errikos M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has shown that errors seem to influence the patterns of brain activity. Additionally current notions support the idea that similar brain mechanisms are activated during acting and observing. The aim of the present study was to examine the patterns of brain activity of actors and observers elicited upon receiving feedback information of the actor's response. Methods The task used in the present research was an auditory identification task that included both acting and observing settings, ensuring concurrent ERP measurements of both participants. The performance of the participants was investigated in conditions of varying complexity. ERP data were analyzed with regards to the conditions of acting and observing in conjunction to correct and erroneous responses. Results The obtained results showed that the complexity induced by cue dissimilarity between trials was a demodulating factor leading to poorer performance. The electrophysiological results suggest that feedback information results in different intensities of the ERP patterns of observers and actors depending on whether the actor had made an error or not. The LORETA source localization method yielded significantly larger electrical activity in the supplementary motor area (Brodmann area 6, the posterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 31/23 and the parietal lobe (Precuneus/Brodmann area 7/5. Conclusion These findings suggest that feedback information has a different effect on the intensities of the ERP patterns of actors and observers depending on whether the actor committed an error. Certain neural systems, including medial frontal area, posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus may mediate these modulating effects. Further research is needed to elucidate in more detail the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological substrates of these systems.

  14. GAP: yet another image processing system for solar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, C. U.

    GAP is a versatile, interactive image processing system for analyzing solar observations, in particular extended time sequences, and for preparing publication quality figures. It consists of an interpreter that is based on a language with a control flow similar to PASCAL and C. The interpreter may be accessed from a command line editor and from user-supplied functions, procedures, and command scripts. GAP is easily expandable via external FORTRAN programs that are linked to the GAP interface routines. The current version of GAP runs on VAX, DECstation, Sun, and Apollo computers. Versions for MS-DOS and OS/2 are in preparation.

  15. OBSERVATIONS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION IN A SOLAR CORONAL LOOP PROMINENCE SYSTEM OBSERVED NEAR 6173 Å

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Martínez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Hudson, Hugh S.; Krucker, Säm; Bain, Hazel [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schou, Jesper [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Couvidat, Sébastien, E-mail: shilaire@ssl.berkeley.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    White-light observations by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager of a loop-prominence system occurring in the aftermath of an X-class flare on 2013 May 13 near the eastern solar limb show a linearly polarized component, reaching up to ∼20% at an altitude of ∼33 Mm, about the maximum amount expected if the emission were due solely to Thomson scattering of photospheric light by the coronal material. The mass associated with the polarized component was 8.2 × 10{sup 14} g. At 15 Mm altitude, the brightest part of the loop was 3(±0.5)% linearly polarized, only about 20% of that expected from pure Thomson scattering, indicating the presence of an additional unpolarized component at wavelengths near Fe I (617.33 nm). We estimate the free electron density of the white-light loop system to possibly be as high as 1.8 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}.

  16. In-situ observation system for dual ion irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuno, Shigemi; Hojou, Kiichi; Otsu, Hitoshi; Sasaki, T.A.; Izui, Kazuhiko; Tukamoto, Tetsuo; Hata, Takao.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed an in-situ observation and analysis system during dual ion beam irradiation in an electron microscope. This system consists of an analytical electron microscope of JEM-4000FX type equipped with a parallel EELS and an EDS attachments and linked with two sets of ion accelerators of 40 kV. Hydrogen and helium dual-ion beam irradiation experiments were performed for SiC crystals. The result of dual-ion beam irradiation was compared with those of helium and hydrogen single ion irradiations. It is clearly seen that the dual-ion irradiation has the effect of suppressing bubble formation and growth in comparison with the case of single helium ion irradiation. (author)

  17. Upper wind observing systems used for meteorological operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nash

    Full Text Available Methods of upper wind measurements used in operational meteorology have been reviewed to provide guidance to those developing wind profiler radar systems. The main limitations of the various methods of tracking weather balloons are identified using results from the WMO radiosonde comparisons and additional tests in the United Kingdom. Costs associated with operational balloon measurements are reviewed. The sampling and quality of operational aircraft wind observations are illustrated with examples from the ASDAR system. Measurement errors in horizontal winds are quantified wherever possible. When tracking equipment is functioning correctly, random errors in southerly and westerly wind component measurements from aircraft and weather balloons are usually in the range 0.5-2 m s-1.

  18. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law interarrival time distribution with an exponent α=2.5 and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  19. Synthesis and Assimilation Systems - Essential Adjuncts to the Global Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienecker, Michele M.; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Barnier, Bernard; Behringer, David; Bell, Mike; Bourassa, Mark; Brasseur, Pierre; Breivik, Lars-Anders; Carton, James; hide

    2009-01-01

    Ocean assimilation systems synthesize diverse in situ and satellite data streams into four-dimensional state estimates by combining the various observations with the model. Assimilation is particularly important for the ocean where subsurface observations, even today, are sparse and intermittent compared with the scales needed to represent ocean variability and where satellites only sense the surface. Developments in assimilation and in the observing system have advanced our understanding and prediction of ocean variations at mesoscale and climate scales. Use of these systems for assessing the observing system helps identify the strengths of each observation type. Results indicate that the ocean remains under-sampled and that further improvements in the observing system are needed. Prospects for future advances lie in improved models and better estimates of error statistics for both models and observations. Future developments will be increasingly towards consistent analyses across components of the Earth system. However, even today ocean synthesis and assimilation systems are providing products that are useful for many applications and should be considered an integral part of the global ocean observing and information system.

  20. Nonlinear Inference in Partially Observed Physical Systems and Deep Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozdeba, Paul J.

    The problem of model state and parameter estimation is a significant challenge in nonlinear systems. Due to practical considerations of experimental design, it is often the case that physical systems are partially observed, meaning that data is only available for a subset of the degrees of freedom required to fully model the observed system's behaviors and, ultimately, predict future observations. Estimation in this context is highly complicated by the presence of chaos, stochasticity, and measurement noise in dynamical systems. One of the aims of this dissertation is to simultaneously analyze state and parameter estimation in as a regularized inverse problem, where the introduction of a model makes it possible to reverse the forward problem of partial, noisy observation; and as a statistical inference problem using data assimilation to transfer information from measurements to the model states and parameters. Ultimately these two formulations achieve the same goal. Similar aspects that appear in both are highlighted as a means for better understanding the structure of the nonlinear inference problem. An alternative approach to data assimilation that uses model reduction is then examined as a way to eliminate unresolved nonlinear gating variables from neuron models. In this formulation, only measured variables enter into the model, and the resulting errors are themselves modeled by nonlinear stochastic processes with memory. Finally, variational annealing, a data assimilation method previously applied to dynamical systems, is introduced as a potentially useful tool for understanding deep neural network training in machine learning by exploiting similarities between the two problems.

  1. MARKETING AS A BEHAVIORAL SYSTEM: An Illustration of Retail Loans

    OpenAIRE

    Pamir, Can; Tosun, Petek; Sezgin, Selime

    2015-01-01

    Marketing management, which has elevated the position of marketing to a strategic level in institutions, is generally executed within complex systems. These complex marketing systems are inherently not only “open” but also “behavioral” paradigms, which continuously and overtly interact with their environment and adjust themselves accordingly. Taking the open and behavioral aspects of systems approach into consideration, this paper analyzes the marketing management practice of consumer loans i...

  2. Characteristic interpersonal behavior in dependent and avoidant personality disorder can be observed within very short interaction sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel; Sporberg, Doreen; Rehbein, Diana

    2006-08-01

    We present a behavior observation study of interpersonal behavior in 96 female subjects, who had been screened for the presence of dependent, avoidant, narcissistic and histrionic personality disorder features. Each subject took part in three short role-plays, taken from assertiveness training. Afterwards, both the subject and her role-play partner judged, how assertive the subject had been. Although observation time was very short, dependent and avoidant subjects could be easily identified from their overly submissive behavior in the role-plays. Histrionic and narcissistic subjects did not show distinctive interpersonal behavior. Contrary to a common belief, higher scores on some personality disorder (PD) scales were positively related to cross-situational variability of behavior. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for clinical diagnostics, therapy and the methodology of personality disorder research in general.

  3. Information System Engineering Supporting Observation, Orientation, Decision, and Compliant Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    The majority of today's software systems and organizational/business structures have been built on the foundation of solving problems via long-term data collection, analysis, and solution design. This traditional approach of solving problems and building corresponding software systems and business processes, falls short in providing the necessary solutions needed to deal with many problems that require agility as the main ingredient of their solution. For example, such agility is needed in responding to an emergency, in military command control, physical security, price-based competition in business, investing in the stock market, video gaming, network monitoring and self-healing, diagnosis in emergency health care, and many other areas that are too numerous to list here. The concept of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA) loops is a guiding principal that captures the fundamental issues and approach for engineering information systems that deal with many of these problem areas. However, there are currently few software systems that are capable of supporting OODA. In this talk, we provide a tour of the research issues and state of the art solutions for supporting OODA. In addition, we provide specific examples of OODA solutions we have developed for the video surveillance and emergency response domains.

  4. Mobile Disdrometer Observations of Nocturnal Mesoscale Convective Systems During PECAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, D. J.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding microphysical processes in nocturnal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is an important objective of the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) experiment, which occurred from 1 June - 15 July 2015 in the central Great Plains region of the United States. Observations of MCSs were collected using a large array of mobile and fixed instrumentation, including ground-based radars, soundings, PECAN Integrated Sounding Arrays (PISAs), and aircraft. In addition to these observations, three mobile Parsivel disdrometers were deployed to obtain drop-size distribution (DSD) measurements to further explore microphysical processes in convective and stratiform regions of nocturnal MCSs. Disdrometers were deployed within close range of a multiple frequency network of mobile and fixed dual-polarization radars (5 - 30 km range), and near mobile sounding units and PISAs. Using mobile disdrometer and multiple-wavelength, dual-polarization radar data, microphysical properties of convective and stratiform regions of MCSs are investigated. The analysis will also examine coordinated Range-Height Indicator (RHI) scans over the disdrometers to elucidate vertical DSD structure. Analysis of dense observations obtained during PECAN in combination with mobile disdrometer DSD measurements contributes to a greater understanding of the structural characteristics and evolution of nocturnal MCSs.

  5. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques

  6. NARROW-K-BAND OBSERVATIONS OF THE GJ 1214 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colón, Knicole D.; Gaidos, Eric, E-mail: colonk@hawaii.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    GJ 1214 is a nearby M dwarf star that hosts a transiting super-Earth-size planet, making this system an excellent target for atmospheric studies. Most studies find that the transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b is flat, which favors either a high mean molecular weight or cloudy/hazy hydrogen (H) rich atmosphere model. Photometry at short wavelengths (<0.7 μm) and in the K band can discriminate the most between these different atmosphere models for GJ 1214b, but current observations do not have sufficiently high precision. We present photometry of seven transits of GJ 1214b through a narrow K-band (2.141 μm) filter with the Wide Field Camera on the 3.8 m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. Our photometric precision is typically 1.7 × 10{sup –3} (for a single transit), comparable with other ground-based observations of GJ 1214b. We measure a planet-star radius ratio of 0.1158 ± 0.0013, which, along with other studies, also supports a flat transmission spectrum for GJ 1214b. Since this does not exclude a scenario where GJ 1214b has an H-rich envelope with heavy elements that are sequestered below a cloud/haze layer, we compare K-band observations with models of H{sub 2} collision-induced absorption in an atmosphere for a range of temperatures. While we find no evidence for deviation from a flat spectrum (slope s = 0.0016 ± 0.0038), an H{sub 2}-dominated upper atmosphere (<60 mbar) cannot be excluded. More precise observations at <0.7 μm and in the K band, as well as a uniform analysis of all published data, would be useful for establishing more robust limits on atmosphere models for GJ 1214b.

  7. Does Observed Controlling Teaching Behavior Relate to Students' Motivation in Physical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Jotie; Tallir, Isabel B.; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Aelterman, Nathalie; Van den Berghe, Lynn; Speleers, Lise; Haerens, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) has served as a theoretical framework for considerable research on teaching behavior and student motivation. The majority of studies have focused on need-supportive teaching behavior at the expense of need-thwarting teaching behavior (i.e., the "dark side" of teaching). The goal of the present study was to…

  8. Nonverbal Interaction Analysis. A Method of Systematically Observing and Recording Nonverbal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Peggy

    These materials will help the educator develop an awareness of nonverbal behavior, which is complimentary to and independent of the verbal realm, to give a complete picture of the classroom. The purpose of the manual is to enable the teacher to identify nonverbal components of behavior, including dimensions other than behavioral of the teacher's…

  9. Sequential analysis of child pain behavior and maternal responses: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Romano, Joan; Brown, Jonathon D; Nielson, Heather; Ou, Bobby; Rauch, Christina; Zullo, Lirra; Levy, Rona L

    2017-09-01

    This laboratory-based study examined lagged associations between child pain behavior and maternal responses as a function of maternal catastrophizing (CAT). Mothers completed the parent version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Children participated in a validated water ingestion procedure to induce abdominal discomfort with mothers present. Video recordings of their interactions were edited into 30-second segments and coded by 2 raters for presence of child pain behavior, maternal solicitousness, and nontask conversation. Kappa reliabilities ranged from 0.83 to 0.95. Maternal CAT was positively associated with child pain behavior and maternal solicitousness, P values behavior during a given segment (T) was positively associated with child pain behavior during the subsequent segment (T + 1), P CAT moderated the association between (1) child pain behavior at T and maternal solicitousness at T + 1, and (2) solicitousness at T and child pain behavior at T + 1, P values CAT responded solicitously at T + 1 irrespective of their child's preceding pain behavior, and their children exhibited pain behavior at T + 1 irrespective of the mother's preceding solicitousness. Mothers lower in CAT were more likely to respond solicitously at T + 1 after child pain behavior, and their children were more likely to exhibit pain behavior at T + 1 after maternal solicitousness. These findings indicate that high CAT mothers and their children exhibit inflexible patterns of maternal solicitousness and child pain behavior, and that such families may benefit from interventions to decrease CAT and develop more adaptive responses.

  10. Seismic behavior and design of wall-EDD-frame systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren eLavan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Walls and frames have different deflection lines and, depending on the seismic mass they support, may often poses different natural periods. In many cases, wall-frame structures present an advantageous behavior. In these structures the walls and the frames are rigidly connected. Nevertheless, if the walls and the frames were not rigidly connected, an opportunity for an efficient passive control strategy would arise: Connecting the two systems by energy dissipation devices (EDDs to result in wall-EDD-frame systems. This, depending on the parameters of the system, is expected to lead to an efficient energy dissipation mechanism.This paper studies the seismic behavior of wall-EDD-frame systems in the context of retrofitting existing frame structures. The controlling non-dimensional parameters of such systems are first identified. This is followed by a rigorous and extensive parametric study that reveals the pros and cons of the new system versus wall-frame systems. The effect of the controlling parameters on the behavior of the new system are analyzed and discussed. Finally, tools are given for initial design of such retrofitting schemes. These enable both choosing the most appropriate retrofitting alternative and selecting initial values for its parameters.

  11. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  12. Moral Behavior as Rule Governed Behavior: Person and System Effects on Moral Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtines, William M.; And Others

    Recent approaches to research on moral development have considered the preeminence of situational factors in moral development and moral behavior. An open systems approach emphasizes the interactive effects of person and situation variables on moral decision-making. The interactive effects of three sets of variables on moral decision-making were…

  13. Information Processing Features Can Detect Behavioral Regimes of Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Quax

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In dynamical systems, local interactions between dynamical units generate correlations which are stored and transmitted throughout the system, generating the macroscopic behavior. However a framework to quantify exactly how these correlations are stored, transmitted, and combined at the microscopic scale is missing. Here we propose to characterize the notion of “information processing” based on all possible Shannon mutual information quantities between a future state and all possible sets of initial states. We apply it to the 256 elementary cellular automata (ECA, which are the simplest possible dynamical systems exhibiting behaviors ranging from simple to complex. Our main finding is that only a few information features are needed for full predictability of the systemic behavior and that the “information synergy” feature is always most predictive. Finally we apply the idea to foreign exchange (FX and interest-rate swap (IRS time-series data. We find an effective “slowing down” leading indicator in all three markets for the 2008 financial crisis when applied to the information features, as opposed to using the data itself directly. Our work suggests that the proposed characterization of the local information processing of units may be a promising direction for predicting emergent systemic behaviors.

  14. Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) Observations Suggest Widespread Occurrence and Complex Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.; Wagstaff, K.; Bue, B. D.; Michaels, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    . Thus, our presentation will exhibit the complex behaviors of RSL and compare these behaviors to wet, dry, and hybrid formation mechanisms. Overall, a formation mechanism that is consistent with all the observations remains elusive.

  15. Interstellar Explorer Observations of the Solar System's Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.; McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Brandt, P. C.

    2017-12-01

    Planetesimal belts and debris disks full of dust are known as the "signposts of planet formation" in exosystems. The overall brightness of a disk provides information on the amount of sourcing planetesimal material, while asymmetries in the shape of the disk can be used to search for perturbing planets. The solar system is known to house two such belts, the Asteroid belt and the Kuiper Belt; and at least one debris cloud, the Zodiacal Cloud, sourced by planetisimal collisions and Kuiper Belt comet evaporative sublimation. However these are poorly understood in toto because we live inside of them. E.g., while we know of the two planetesimal belt systems, it is not clear how much, if any, dust is produced from the Kuiper belt since the near-Sun comet contributions dominate near-Earth space. Understanding how much dust is produced in the Kuiper belt would give us a much better idea of the total number of bodies in the belt, especially the smallest ones, and their dynamical collisional state. Even for the close in Zodiacal cloud, questions remain concerning its overall shape and orientation with respect to the ecliptic and invariable planes of the solar system - they aren't explainable from the perturbations caused by the known planets alone. In this paper we explore the possibilities of using an Interstellar Explorer telescope placed at 200 AU from the sun to observe the brightness, shape, and extent of the solar system's debris disk(s). We should be able to measure the entire extent of the inner, near-earth zodiacal cloud; whether it connects smoothly into an outer cloud, or if there is a second outer cloud sourced by the Kuiper belt and isolated by the outer planets, as predicted by Stark & Kuchner (2009, 2010) and Poppe et al. (2012, 2016; Figure 1). VISNIR imagery will inform about the dust cloud's density, while MIR cameras will provide thermal imaging photometry related to the cloud's dust particle size and composition. Observing at high phase angle by looking

  16. Tracking Behavioral Progress within a Children's Mental Health System: The Vermont Community Adjustment Tracking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Eric J.; Burchard, John D.; Froelich, Peter; Yoe, James T.; Tighe, Theodore

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Vermont Community Adjustment Tracking System (VT-CATS), which utilizes four behavioral instruments to allow intensive, ongoing, and interpretable behavioral assessment of a service system's most challenging children and adolescents. Also explains the adjustment indicator checklists and the ability of VT-CATS to address agencies'…

  17. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent…

  18. Functional Observational Battery Testing for Nervous System Effects of Drugs and Other Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has become standard practice in preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicology. Behavior represents the integrated sum of activities mediated by the nervous system. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observat...

  19. Development of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley M; Komton, Vilailert; Adegbite-Adeniyi, Clara; Dolansky, Mary A; Hardin, Heather K; Borawski, Elaine A

    2018-03-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric testing of the Systems Thinking Scale for Adolescent Behavior Change (STS-AB). Following item development, initial assessments of understandability and stability of the STS-AB were conducted in a sample of nine adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Exploratory factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB and internal consistency assessments were then done with 359 adolescents enrolled in a weight management program. Test-retest reliability of the STS-AB was .71, p = .03; internal consistency reliability was .87. Factor analysis of the 16-item STS-AB indicated a one-factor solution with good factor loadings, ranging from .40 to .67. Evidence of construct validity was supported by significant correlations with established measures of variables associated with health behavior change. We provide beginning evidence of the reliability and validity of the STS-AB to measure systems thinking for health behavior change in young adolescents.

  20. Migration to Earth Observation Satellite Product Dissemination System at JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Y.; Matsunaga, M.

    2017-12-01

    JAXA released "G-Portal" as a portal web site for search and deliver data of Earth observation satellites in February 2013. G-Portal handles ten satellites data; GPM, TRMM, Aqua, ADEOS-II, ALOS (search only), ALOS-2 (search only), MOS-1, MOS-1b, ERS-1 and JERS-1 and archives 5.17 million products and 14 million catalogues in total. Users can search those products/catalogues in GUI web search and catalogue interface(CSW/Opensearch). In this fiscal year, we will replace this to "Next G-Portal" and has been doing integration, test and migrations. New G-Portal will treat data of satellites planned to be launched in the future in addition to those handled by G - Portal. At system architecture perspective, G-Portal adopted "cluster system" for its redundancy, so we must replace the servers into those with higher specifications when we improve its performance ("scale up approach"). This requests a lot of cost in every improvement. To avoid this, Next G-Portal adopts "scale out" system: load balancing interfaces, distributed file system, distributed data bases. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2015(IN23D-1748).) At customer usability perspective, G-Portal provides complicated interface: "step by step" web design, randomly generated URLs, sftp (needs anomaly tcp port). Customers complained about the interfaces and the support team had been tired from answering them. To solve this problem, Next G-Portal adopts simple interfaces: "1 page" web design, RESTful URL, and Normal FTP. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2016(IN23B-1778).) Furthermore, Next G-Portal must merge GCOM-W data dissemination system to be terminated in the next March as well as the current G-Portal. This might arrise some difficulties, since the current G-Portal and GCOM-W data dissemination systems are quite different from Next G-Portal. The presentation reports the knowledge obtained from the process of merging those systems.

  1. Behavioral observation differentiates the effects of an intervention to promote sleep in premature infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Linda; Casper, Tammy; Dixon, Melodie; Harmeyer, Joann; Haberman, Beth; Alberts, Jeffrey R; Simakajornboon, Narong; Visscher, Marty O

    2015-02-01

    Sleep and ongoing cycling of sleep states are required for neurosensory processing, learning, and brain plasticity. Many aspects of neonatal intensive care environments such as handling for routine and invasive procedures, bright lighting, and noise can create stress, disrupt behavior, and interfere with sleep in prematurely born infants. The study empirically investigated whether a 30-minute observation of infant sleep states and behavior could differentiate an intervention to promote sleep in premature infants with feeding difficulties relative to conventional care (standard positioning, standard crib mattress [SP]). We included an intervention to determine the ability of the method to discriminate treatments and generate a benchmark for future improvements. The intervention, a conformational positioner (CP), is contoured around the infant to provide customized containment and boundaries. To more fully verify the 30-minute observational sleep results, standard polysomnography was conducted simultaneously and sleep outcomes for the 2 modalities were compared. In a randomized crossover clinical trial, 25 infants, 31.5 ± 0.6 weeks' gestational age and 38.4 ± 0.6 weeks at the study, with gastrointestinal conditions or general feeding difficulties used each intervention during an overnight neonatal intensive care unit sleep study. Infant sleep states and behaviors were observed during two 30-minute periods--that is, on the positioner and mattress--using the naturalistic observation of newborn behavior. Two certified developmental care nurses assessed sleep state, self-regulatory, and stress behaviors during 2-minute intervals and summed over 30 minutes. Sleep characteristics from standard polysomnography were measured at the time of behavior observations. Infants on CP spent significantly less time in alert, active awake, or crying states by observation compared with SP. Surgical subjects spent more time awake, active awake, or crying and displayed a higher number

  2. A STUDY OF THE LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS REPORTED BY PRINCIPALS AND OBSERVED BY TEACHERS AND ITS RELATION WITH PRINCIPALS’ MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Sardarzahi, Zaid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to study the leadership behaviors reported by principals and observed by teachers and its relationship with management experience of principals. A quantitative method used in this study. Target population included all principals and teachers of guidance schools and high schools in Dashtiari District, Iran. A sample consisted of 46 principals and 129 teachers were selected by stratified sampling and simple random sampling methods. Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ developed by Kozes and Posner (2001 was used for data collection. The obtained data were analyzed using one sample and independent t-test, correlation coefficient and pearson chi-square test. The results showed that teachers describe the leadership behaviors of their principals relatively good. However, the principals themselves evaluated their leadership behaviors as very good. In comparison between leadership behaviors self-reported by principals and those observed by teachers, it was found that there is a significant difference between the views and evaluations of teachers and principals on all components of leadership behaviors of principals, except empowerment. In fact, principals have described their leadership behaviors at a better and more appropriate level than what teachers have done. From the perspective of both teachers and principals, there is no significant relationship between none of the components of leadership behaviors and management experience of principals.

  3. Sexual behavior and sex-associated environmental cues activate the mesolimbic system in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Yu, Lei; Coolen, Lique M

    2004-04-01

    The mesolimbic system plays an important role in the regulation of both pathological behaviors such as drug addiction and normal motivated behaviors such as sexual behavior. The present study investigated the mechanism by which this system is endogenously activated during sexual behavior. Specifically, the effects of sexual experience and sex-related environmental cues on the activation of several components of the mesolimbic system were studied. The mesolimbic system consists of a dopaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Previous studies suggest that these neurons are under tonic inhibition by local GABA interneurons, which are in turn modulated by mu opioid receptor (MOR) ligands. To test the hypothesis that opioids are acting in the VTA during sexual behavior, visualization of MOR internalization in VTA was used as a marker for ligand-induced activation of the receptor. Significant increases in MOR internalization were observed following copulation or exposure to sex-related environmental cues. The next goal was to determine if sexual behavior activates dopamine neurons in the VTA, using tyrosine hydroxylase as a marker for dopaminergic neurons and Fos-immunoreactivity as a marker for neuronal activation. Significant increases in the percentage of activated dopaminergic neurons were observed following copulation or exposure to sex-related environmental cues. In addition, mating and sex-related cues activated a large population of nondopaminergic neurons in VTA as well as neurons in both the NAc Core and Shell. Taken together, our results provide functional neuroanatomical evidence that the mesolimbic system is activated by both sexual behavior and exposure to sex-related environmental cues.

  4. Studies in photo chromic behavior of some potassium hexacyanoferrate (2)-dye systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneja, Hanshu; Paliwala, Mukesh; Kumara Anil; Singh Sadhana; Ameta, Suresh C.; Ameta, Rameshwar

    2009-01-01

    The photo chromic behavior of potassium hexacyanoferrate (2)-fuchsin basic and potassium hexacyanoferrate (2)-malachite green systems was investigated in detail. The effect of variation of various parameters, like ph, light intensity, concentration of dyes, and concentration of potassium hexacyanoferrate(2), on the rates of forward and backward reactions of these systems has been observed. Based on experimental data, a tentative mechanism has also been proposed. (author)

  5. Observation of electromagnetically induced Talbot effect in an atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Dan; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2018-01-01

    The electromagnetically induced Talbot effect (EITE) resulting from the repeated self-reconstruction of a spatially intensity-modulated probe field is experimentally demonstrated in a three-level atomic configuration. The probe beam is launched into an optically induced lattice (established by the interference of two coupling fields) inside a rubidium vapor cell and is diffracted by the electromagnetically induced grating that was formed. The diffraction pattern repeats itself at the planes of integer multiple Talbot lengths. In addition, a fractional EITE is also investigated. The experimental observations agree well with the theoretical predictions. This investigation may potentially pave the way for studying the nonlinear and quantum dynamical features that have been predicted for established periodic optical systems.

  6. Submillimeter and millimeter observations of solar system objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhleman, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    Planetary atmospheres and satellite surfaces are observed with the three element array at Caltech's Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Caltech's submillimeter telescope on Mauna Kea and at the 12-meter telescope at Kitt Peak. Researchers are primarily interested in spectroscopy of the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan and the continuum structure of Saturn Rings, Galilean satellites, Neptune and Uranus. During the last year researchers completed a supersynthesis of the Saturn system at 2.8 mm with spatial resolution of 3 arc sec. They just completed a 4-confuguration synthesis of Venus in the CO absorption line. They hope to recover the wind patterns in the altitude range from 60 to 100 km where winds have never been measured. Two important questions are being investigated: (1) how high in the Venus atmosphere do 4-day winds extend, and (2) can we produce experiment proof (or disproof) of the subsolar-to-anti-solar flow (Dickenson winds) predicted by general circulation models

  7. Plant origin of Okinawan propolis: honeybee behavior observation and phytochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Shigenori; Nakamura, Jun; Murase, Masayo; Miyagawa, Mariko; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Fukumoto, Shuichi

    2008-08-01

    Propolis is a natural resinous product collected by honeybees from certain plants. It has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Poplar and Baccharis are well known as the source plants of European and Brazilian propolis, respectively. However, the propolis from Okinawa, Japan, contains some prenylflavonoids not seen in other regions such as Europe and Brazil, suggesting that the plant origin of Okinawan propolis is a particular plant that grows in Okinawa. To identify the plant origin of Okinawan propolis, we observed the behavior of honeybees as they collected material from plants and caulked it inside the hive. Honeybees scraped resinous material from the surface of plant fruits of Macaranga tanarius and brought it back to their hive to use it as propolis. We collected samples of the plant and propolis, and compared their constituents by high-performance liquid chromatography with a photo-diode array detector. We also compared their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The chemical constituents and biological activity of the ethanol extracts of the plant did not differ from those of propolis. This indicates directly that the plant origin of Okinawan propolis is M. tanarius.

  8. Hot magnetospheric O+ and cold ion behavior in magnetopause reconnection: Cluster observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C. G.; Liu, Y.; Genestreti, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    In reconnection, the presence of heavy ions like O+ increases the ion mass density reducing the fluid's Alfvén speed. In addition, it may modify the reconnection structure, which can also change the reconnection rate. However, because O+ ions have a larger Larmor radii than H+ ions at the same velocity, they may not be fully entrained in the reconnection flow and may have kinetic effects other than just increasing the mass density. In this study, for the first time, the ion velocity distribution functions of H+ and O+ from one magnetopause reconnection event with a strong guide field are analyzed to determine in detail the behavior of the different ion populations. We show that the hot magnetospheric O+ ions, along with the hot magnetospheric H+ ions almost fully participate in the reconnection exhaust flows. Finite Larmor radius effects are also apparent and control how far the ions extend on the magnetosheath side. Ion signatures consistent with heating after being picked up in the reconnection exhaust flow are observed in the H+ and O+ distribution functions. The dynamics of the cold magnetospheric ions depends on where they enter the reconnection region. If they enter the reconnection region at the downstream separatrix, they will be taken away by the magnetic field in an adiabatic way as analyzed by Drake et al. (2009a); if they enter close to the diffusion region, they behave as pick-up ions.

  9. Observation of self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior during edge biasing experiment on TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R. [Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Brussels, Belgium, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been investigated using the fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of TEXTOR tokamak before and during the edge electrode biasing experiments. In the 'non-shear' discharge phase before biasing, both the potential and density fluctuations clearly exhibit some of the characteristics associated with SOC: (1) existence of f{sup -1} power-law dependence in the frequency spectrum, (2) slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, (3) values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, (4) non-Gaussian probability density function of fluctuations and (5) radial propagation of avalanche-like events in the edge plasma area. During the biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and hence a sheared E{sub r} x B flow, the local turbulence is found to be well de-correlated by the E{sub r} x B velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions. Nevertheless, it is concomitantly found that the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well, which is contrary to theoretical expectation. Implication of these observations to our understanding of plasma transport mechanisms is discussed. (authors)

  10. Subsocial Neotropical Doryphorini (Chrysomelidae, Chrysomelinae: new observations on behavior, host plants and systematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M. Windsor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A summary of literature, documented observations and field studies finds evidence that mothers actively defend offspring in at least eight species and three genera of Neotropical Chrysomelinae associated with two host plant families. Reports on three Doryphora species reveal that all are oviparous and feed on vines in the Apocyanaceae. Mothers in the two subsocial species defend eggs and larvae by straddling, blocking access at the petiole and greeting potential predators with leaf-shaking and jerky advances. A less aggressive form of maternal care is found in two Platyphora and four Proseicela species associated with Solanaceae, shrubs and small trees. For these and other morphologically similar taxa associated with Solanaceae, genetic distances support morphology-based taxonomy at the species level, reveal one new species, but raise questions regarding boundaries separating genera. We urge continued study of these magnificent insects, their enemies and their defenses, both behavioral and chemical, especially in forests along the eastern versant of the Central and South American cordillera.

  11. Behavior Change Support Systems for Privacy and Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kegel, Roeland Hendrik,Pieter; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Kelders, S.; van Gemert-Pijnen, L.; Oinas-Kukkonen, H

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes to use Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSSs) to improve the security of IT applications and the privacy of its users. We discuss challenges specific to BCSSs applied to information security, list research questions to be answered in order to meet these challenges, and propose

  12. A Selectionist Perspective on Systemic and Behavioral Change in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaker, Ingunn

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of how different dynamics in production processes and communication structures in the organization serve as different environmental contingencies favoring different behavioral patterns and variability of performance in organizations. Finally, an elaboration on a systems perspective on the selection of corporate…

  13. Measuring progress of the global sea level observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Philip L.; Aarup, Thorkild; Merrifield, Mark; Mitchum, Gary T.; Le Provost, Christian

    Sea level is such a fundamental parameter in the sciences of oceanography geophysics, and climate change, that in the mid-1980s, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) established the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). GLOSS was to improve the quantity and quality of data provided to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), and thereby, data for input to studies of long-term sea level change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It would also provide the key data needed for international programs, such as the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and later, the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR).GLOSS is now one of the main observation components of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) of IOC and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Progress and deficiencies in GLOSS were presented in July to the 22nd IOC Assembly at UNESCO in Paris and are contained in the GLOSS Assessment Report (GAR) [IOC, 2003a].

  14. Crafting decision options and alternatives for designing cultural observation system using general morphological modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Moghaddampour

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available According to connoisseurs, cultural system is encountering a fully new space in future decades and cultural indicators will be exposed by some dangers; for the same reason, cultural observation activities in management dialogue of Iran are emphasized; the concept of “observation” in Iran is facing with challenges including being far from the concepts of futures studies and the focus on “cultural indicators monitoring” while cultural engineering needs foresight and identification of affecting progressive and deterring factors on the culture. The present study aims at providing alternatives to design an observation system by considering the monitoring and scanning simultaneously to bring out strategic and futurist vision for cultural organizations. To this end, the solution space and morphological field of observation (parameters and values by using MA/Carma Viewer software package is designed based on the literature review and forming a five-member expert group and specialized conversations. Upon Internal Consistency Assessment of parameters and by considering some values as drivers, Parameters Activity Check was conducted to study the reactions by other parameters and values. After sense-making and proper understanding of the model behavior, an Inference and “What-If” model were devised; some configurations were studied and provided in order to aware a part of proper alternatives for designing a cultural observation system (two scenarios. Scenario selection is different due to contingencies and conditions of executing the process as well as the users’ needs and goals in cultural observation system and cultural organizations can make decisions and design detailed observation systems by using morphological models, solution space and alternatives provided in the present study and depended on their goals and needs.

  15. Systems of independent Markov components and their transient behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keilson, J.

    1975-01-01

    The transient behavior of redundant systems of independent, repairable, memoryless (two state) components is studied. Four failure times for such systems are considered, each an exit time from the set of working states for initial system conditions of interest: the failure time from the perfect state, the post-recovery exit time, the ergodic exit time, and the quasi-stationary exit time. The structure of these failure time distributions and their interrelation are discussed and asymptotic estimates and bounds for their expectations are presented. When such systems have high reliability, the failure time distributions are approximately exponential and asymptotically equivalent

  16. Observation of the molten metal behaviors during the laser cutting of thick steel specimens using attenuated process images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Yamagishi, Ryuichiro

    2017-01-01

    Molten metal behaviors during the laser cutting of carbon steel and stainless steel specimens up to 300 mm in thickness were observed to dismantle large steel objects for the nuclear decommissioning, where attenuated process images from both steels were observed for detailed process analysis. Circular and rod-like molten metal structures were observed at the laser irradiated region depending on the assist gas flow conditions. Molten metal blow-off and flow processes were observed as cutting processes. The observations were explained by the aerodynamic interaction of the melted surface layer. The method is useful for the detailed observation of the molten metal behaviors, and the results are informative to understand and optimize the laser cutting process of very thick steel specimens. (author)

  17. Incorporating Parallel Computing into the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jay W.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining actual observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the earth system than the observations or forecast alone can provide. The output of data assimilation, sometimes called the analysis, are regular, gridded datasets of observed and unobserved variables. Analysis plays a key role in numerical weather prediction and is becoming increasingly important for climate research. These applications, and the need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system pose computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. The mission of the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is to provide datasets for climate research and to support NASA satellite and aircraft missions. The system used to create these datasets is the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The core components of the the GEOS DAS are: the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM), the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS), the Observer, the on-line Quality Control (QC) system, the Coupler (which feeds analysis increments back to the GCM), and an I/O package for processing the large amounts of data the system produces (which will be described in another presentation in this session). The discussion will center on the following issues: the computational complexity for the whole GEOS DAS, assessment of the performance of the individual elements of GEOS DAS, and parallelization strategy for some of the components of the system.

  18. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  19. Observer model optimization of a spectral mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Åslund, Magnus; Cederström, Björn; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Spectral imaging is a method in medical x-ray imaging to extract information about the object constituents by the material-specific energy dependence of x-ray attenuation. Contrast-enhanced spectral imaging has been thoroughly investigated, but unenhanced imaging may be more useful because it comes as a bonus to the conventional non-energy-resolved absorption image at screening; there is no additional radiation dose and no need for contrast medium. We have used a previously developed theoretical framework and system model that include quantum and anatomical noise to characterize the performance of a photon-counting spectral mammography system with two energy bins for unenhanced imaging. The theoretical framework was validated with synthesized images. Optimal combination of the energy-resolved images for detecting large unenhanced tumors corresponded closely, but not exactly, to minimization of the anatomical noise, which is commonly referred to as energy subtraction. In that case, an ideal-observer detectability index could be improved close to 50% compared to absorption imaging. Optimization with respect to the signal-to-quantum-noise ratio, commonly referred to as energy weighting, deteriorated detectability. For small microcalcifications or tumors on uniform backgrounds, however, energy subtraction was suboptimal whereas energy weighting provided a minute improvement. The performance was largely independent of beam quality, detector energy resolution, and bin count fraction. It is clear that inclusion of anatomical noise and imaging task in spectral optimization may yield completely different results than an analysis based solely on quantum noise.

  20. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Ciais; A. J. Dolman; A. Bombelli; R. Duren; A. Peregon; P. J. Rayner; C. Miller; N. Gobron; G. Kinderman; G. Marland; N. Gruber; F. Chevallier; R. J. Andres; G. Balsamo; L. Bopp; F.-M. Bréon; G. Broquet; R. Dargaville; T. J. Battin; A. Borges; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. Butler; J. G. Canadell; R. B. Cook; R. DeFries; R. Engelen; K. R. Gurney; C. Heinze; M. Heimann; A. Held; M. Henry; B. Law; S. Luyssaert; J. Miller; T. Moriyama; C. Moulin; R. B. Myneni; C. Nussli; M. Obersteiner; D. Ojima; Y. Pan; J.-D. Paris; S. L. Piao; B. Poulter; S. Plummer; S. Quegan; P. Raymond; M. Reichstein; L. Rivier; C. Sabine; D. Schimel; O. Tarasova; R. Valentini; R. Wang; G. van der Werf; D. Wickland; M. Williams; C. Zehner

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires...

  1. Observation of human embryonic behavior in vitro by high-resolution time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kyoko; Mio, Yasuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has yielded vast amounts of information and knowledge on human embryonic development in vitro; however, still images provide limited data on dynamic changes in the developing embryos. Using our high-resolution time-lapse cinematography (hR-TLC) system, we were able to describe normal human embryonic development continuously from the fertilization process to the hatched blastocyst stage in detail. Our hR-TLC observation also showed the embryonic abnormality of a third polar body (PB)-like substance likely containing a small pronucleus being extruded and resulting in single-pronucleus (1PN) formation, while our molecular biological investigations suggested the possibility that some 1PN embryos could be diploid, carrying both maternal and paternal genomes. Furthermore, in some embryos the extruded third PB-like substance was eventually re-absorbed into the ooplasm resulting in the formation of an uneven-sized, two-PN zygote. In addition, other hR-TLC observations showed that cytokinetic failure was correlated with equal-sized, multi-nucleated blastomeres that were also observed in the embryo showing early initiation of compaction. Assessment combining our hR-TLC with molecular biological techniques enables a better understanding of embryonic development and potential improvements in ART outcomes.

  2. Observing System Simulations for ASCENDS: Synthesizing Science Measurement Requirements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Hammerling, D.; Michalak, A. M.; Wang, J. S.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Ott, L.; Zaccheo, T.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Moore, B.; Crisp, D.

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of atmospheric CO2 from space using active (lidar) sensing techniques has several potentially significant advantages in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments. Application of this new technology aims to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle science into the next decade. The NASA Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission has been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey for the next generation of space-based CO2 observing systems. ASCENDS is currently planned for launch in 2022. Several possible lidar instrument approaches have been demonstrated in airborne campaigns and the results indicate that such sensors are quite feasible. Studies are now underway to evaluate performance requirements for space mission implementation. Satellite CO2 observations must be highly precise and unbiased in order to accurately infer global carbon source/sink fluxes. Measurement demands are likely to further increase in the wake of GOSAT, OCO-2, and enhanced ground-based in situ and remote sensing CO2 data. The objective of our work is to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for ASCENDS in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. Considerations include requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we attempt to synthesize the results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, into a coherent set of mission performance guidelines. A variety of forward and inverse model frameworks are employed to reduce the potential dependence of the results on model

  3. Unexpected Regularity in Swimming Behavior of Clausocalanus furcatus Revealed by a Telecentric 3D Computer Vision System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bianco

    Full Text Available Planktonic copepods display a large repertoire of motion behaviors in a three-dimensional environment. Two-dimensional video observations demonstrated that the small copepod Clausocalanus furcatus, one the most widely distributed calanoids at low to medium latitudes, presented a unique swimming behavior that was continuous and fast and followed notably convoluted trajectories. Furthermore, previous observations indicated that the motion of C. furcatus resembled a random process. We characterized the swimming behavior of this species in three-dimensional space using a video system equipped with telecentric lenses, which allow tracking of zooplankton without the distortion errors inherent in common lenses. Our observations revealed unexpected regularities in the behavior of C. furcatus that appear primarily in the horizontal plane and could not have been identified in previous observations based on lateral views. Our results indicate that the swimming behavior of C. furcatus is based on a limited repertoire of basic kinematic modules but exhibits greater plasticity than previously thought.

  4. An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned from Fifty Years of Observing Hardware and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned in Human and Hardware Behavior" on August 16, 2011. With more than 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. This presentation focused on lessons learned in human and hardware behavior. During his many years in the industry, McMann observed that the hardware development process was intertwined with human influences, which impacted the outcome of the product.

  5. Critical behavior of spin systems with quenched disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtazaev, Akai K.; Kamilov, Ibragimkhan K.; Babaev, Albert B.

    2006-01-01

    A static critical behavior of three-dimensional diluted quenched Ising model on a cubic lattice is studied by Monte-Carlo methods. The static critical exponents of a specific heat α, susceptibility γ, magnetization β and exponent of correlation radius ν in a wide interval of change the values of spin concentrations p are calculated on the basis of the finite-size scaling theory using the common technique. The problem about universality classes of critical behavior for three-dimensional diluted systems is considered

  6. Correlation function behavior in quantum systems which are classically chaotic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G.P.; Kolovsky, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    The time behavior of a phase correlation function for dynamical quantum systems which are classically chaotic is considered. It is shown that under certain conditions there are three time regions of the quantum correlations behavior; the region of classical stochasticity (exponential decay of quantum correlations); the region of the correlations decay with a power law; the region of the constant level of the quantum correlations. The boundaries of these time regions are presented. The estimation of a remaining level of the quantum correlations is given. (orig.)

  7. Observation of Compressive Deformation Behavior of Nuclear Graphite by Digital Image Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunju; Kim, Eungseon; Kim, Minhwan; Kim, Yongwan

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline nuclear graphite has been proposed as a fuel element, moderator and reflector blocks, and core support structures in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor. During reactor operation, graphite core components and core support structures are subjected to various stresses. It is therefore important to understand the mechanism of deformation and fracture of nuclear graphites, and their significance to structural integrity assessment methods. Digital image correlation (DIC) is a powerful tool to measure the full field displacement distribution on the surface of the specimens. In this study, to gain an understanding of compressive deformation characteristic, the formation of strain field during a compression test was examined using a commercial DIC system. An examination was made to characterize the compressive deformation behavior of nuclear graphite by a digital image correlation. The non-linear load-displacement characteristic prior to the peak load was shown to be mainly dominated by the presence of localized strains, which resulted in a permanent displacement. Young's modulus was properly calculated from the measured strain

  8. IRTF/SPEX OBSERVATIONS OF THE UNUSUAL KEPLER LIGHT CURVE SYSTEM KIC 8462852

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Sitko, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Marengo, M., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, 12 Physics Hall, Ames, IA 50010 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    We have utilized the NASA/IRTF 3 m SpeX instrument’s high-resolution spectral mode to observe and characterize the near-infrared flux emanating from the unusual Kepler light curve system KIC 8462852. By comparing the resulting 0.8–4.2 μm spectrum to a mesh of model photospheric spectra, the 6 emission line analyses of the Rayner et al. catalog, and the 25 system collections of debris disks we have observed to date using SpeX under the Near InfraRed Debris disk Survey, we have been able to additionally characterize the system. Within the errors of our measurements, this star looks like a normal solar abundance main-sequence F1V to F3V dwarf star without any obvious traces of significant circumstellar dust or gas. Using Connelley and Greene’s emission measures, we also see no evidence of significant ongoing accretion onto the star nor any stellar outflow away from it. Our results are inconsistent with large amounts of static close-in obscuring material or the unusual behavior of a YSO system, but are consistent with the favored episodic giant comet models of a Gyr old stellar system favored by Boyajian et al. We speculate that KIC 8462852, like the ∼1.4 Gyr old F2V system η Corvi, is undergoing a late heavy bombardment, but is only in its very early stages.

  9. An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoglu, Mustafa K.; Sarac, Didar B.; Alparslan, Derya; Karakas, Ayse A.; Altintas, Levent

    2014-01-01

    Background Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2) with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6) and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4) with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL) sessions (~7 hours) with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM)’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48). Results Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (κ=0.87) and 80.6% (κ=0.71), respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689). Conclusions This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types. PMID:25308966

  10. Video surveillance captures student hand hygiene behavior, reactivity to observation, and peer influence in Kenyan primary schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Pickering

    Full Text Available In-person structured observation is considered the best approach for measuring hand hygiene behavior, yet is expensive, time consuming, and may alter behavior. Video surveillance could be a useful tool for objectively monitoring hand hygiene behavior if validated against current methods.Student hand cleaning behavior was monitored with video surveillance and in-person structured observation, both simultaneously and separately, at four primary schools in urban Kenya over a study period of 8 weeks.Video surveillance and in-person observation captured similar rates of hand cleaning (absolute difference <5%, p = 0.74. Video surveillance documented higher hand cleaning rates (71% when at least one other person was present at the hand cleaning station, compared to when a student was alone (48%; rate ratio  = 1.14 [95% CI 1.01-1.28]. Students increased hand cleaning rates during simultaneous video and in-person monitoring as compared to single-method monitoring, suggesting reactivity to each method of monitoring. This trend was documented at schools receiving a handwashing with soap intervention, but not at schools receiving a sanitizer intervention.Video surveillance of hand hygiene behavior yields results comparable to in-person observation among schools in a resource-constrained setting. Video surveillance also has certain advantages over in-person observation, including rapid data processing and the capability to capture new behavioral insights. Peer influence can significantly improve student hand cleaning behavior and, when possible, should be exploited in the design and implementation of school hand hygiene programs.

  11. Hysteretic behavior of spin-crossover noise driven system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudyma, Iurii [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Maksymov, Artur, E-mail: maxyartur@gmail.com [Department of General Physics, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi 58012 (Ukraine); Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Dimian, Mihai [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Howard University, Washington DC, 20059 (United States); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stefan cel Mare University, Suceava 720229 (Romania)

    2016-04-01

    The influence of white Gaussian noise on hysteretic behavior of spin-crossover system is analyzed in the framework of stochastic Langevin dynamics. Various stochastic simulations are performed and several important properties of spin-transition in spin-crossover system driven by noise are reproduced. The numerical results are tested against the stationary probability function and the associated dynamic potential obtained from Fokker–Planck equation corresponding to spin-crossover Langevin dynamics. The dependence of light-induced optical hysteresis width and non-hysteretic transition curve slope on the noise intensity is illustrated. The role of low-spin and high-spin phase stabilities in the hysteretic behavior of noise-driven spin-crossover system is discussed.

  12. Behavior of Photovoltaic System during Solar Eclipse in Prague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Libra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PV power plants have been recently installed in very large scale. So the effects of the solar eclipse are of big importance especially for grid connected photovoltaic (PV systems. There was a partial solar eclipse in Prague on 20th March 2015. We have evaluated the data from our facility in order to monitor the impact of this natural phenomenon on the behavior of PV system, and these results are presented in the paper. The behavior of PV system corresponds with the theoretical assumption. The power decrease of the PV array corresponds with the relative size of the solar eclipse. I-V characteristics of the PV panel correspond to the theoretical model presented in our previous work.

  13. Direct observation of mother-child communication in pediatric cancer: assessment of verbal and non-verbal behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Madeleine J; Rodriguez, Erin M; Miller, Kimberly S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Saylor, Megan; Scheule, C Melanie; Compas, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To examine the acceptability and feasibility of coding observed verbal and nonverbal behavioral and emotional components of mother-child communication among families of children with cancer. Mother-child dyads (N=33, children ages 5-17 years) were asked to engage in a videotaped 15-min conversation about the child's cancer. Coding was done using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS). Acceptability and feasibility of direct observation in this population were partially supported: 58% consented and 81% of those (47% of all eligible dyads) completed the task; trained raters achieved 78% agreement in ratings across codes. The construct validity of the IFIRS was demonstrated by expected associations within and between positive and negative behavioral/emotional code ratings and between mothers' and children's corresponding code ratings. Direct observation of mother-child communication about childhood cancer has the potential to be an acceptable and feasible method of assessing verbal and nonverbal behavior and emotion in this population.

  14. The Effectiveness of Picture Exchange Communication System on Behavioral Problems of Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mamaghanieh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is one the most disturbing neurodevelopmental disorders associated with variety behavioral problems including communication deficits. The present study is aimed to examine the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS on behavioral problems of autistic children. Materials & Methods: This study follows a quasi- experimental single subject A-B design. Four boys with autism (aged between 3-7 years were selected from the Center for the Treatment of Autistic Disorders, Tehran. They were received PECS training for duration of four months (42 session, three sessions per week. Direct observation assessment and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist were applied 6 times during the course of the study. Results: Separate set of analysis of the data reveled a positive effects of PECS on reduction of behavioral problems in three children, although, some differences were identified between them. Conclusion: Enhanced ability to communicate by PECS, would effectively reduce behavioral problems of children with Autism

  15. Observational Coding Systems of Parent-Child Interactions During Painful Procedures: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinbing; Swanson, Kristen M; Santacroce, Sheila J

    2018-01-01

    Parent interactions with their child can influence the child's pain and distress during painful procedures. Reliable and valid interaction analysis systems (IASs) are valuable tools for capturing these interactions. The extent to which IASs are used in observational research of parent-child interactions is unknown in pediatric populations. To identify and evaluate studies that focus on assessing psychometric properties of initial iterations/publications of observational coding systems of parent-child interactions during painful procedures. To identify and evaluate studies that focus on assessing psychometric properties of initial iterations/publications of observational coding systems of parent-child interactions during painful procedures. Computerized databases searched included PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, and Scopus. Timeframes covered from inception of the database to January 2017. Studies were included if they reported use or psychometrics of parent-child IASs. First assessment was whether the parent-child IASs were theory-based; next, using the Society of Pediatric Psychology Assessment Task Force criteria IASs were assigned to one of three categories: well-established, approaching well-established, or promising. A total of 795 studies were identified through computerized searches. Eighteen studies were ultimately determined to be eligible for inclusion in the review and 17 parent-child IASs were identified from these 18 studies. Among the 17 coding systems, 14 were suitable for use in children age 3 years or more; two were theory-based; and 11 included verbal and nonverbal parent behaviors that promoted either child coping or child distress. Four IASs were assessed as well-established; seven approached well-established; and six were promising. Findings indicate a need for the development of theory-based parent-child IASs that consider both verbal and nonverbal parent behaviors during painful procedures. Findings also

  16. Technical note: Instantaneous sampling intervals validated from continuous video observation for behavioral recording of feedlot lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, A N; Pairis-Garcia, M D; Campbell, B J; Campler, M R; Proudfoot, K L

    2017-11-01

    When considering methodologies for collecting behavioral data, continuous sampling provides the most complete and accurate data set whereas instantaneous sampling can provide similar results and also increase the efficiency of data collection. However, instantaneous time intervals require validation to ensure accurate estimation of the data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to validate scan sampling intervals for lambs housed in a feedlot environment. Feeding, lying, standing, drinking, locomotion, and oral manipulation were measured on 18 crossbred lambs housed in an indoor feedlot facility for 14 h (0600-2000 h). Data from continuous sampling were compared with data from instantaneous scan sampling intervals of 5, 10, 15, and 20 min using a linear regression analysis. Three criteria determined if a time interval accurately estimated behaviors: 1) ≥ 0.90, 2) slope not statistically different from 1 ( > 0.05), and 3) intercept not statistically different from 0 ( > 0.05). Estimations for lying behavior were accurate up to 20-min intervals, whereas feeding and standing behaviors were accurate only at 5-min intervals (i.e., met all 3 regression criteria). Drinking, locomotion, and oral manipulation demonstrated poor associations () for all tested intervals. The results from this study suggest that a 5-min instantaneous sampling interval will accurately estimate lying, feeding, and standing behaviors for lambs housed in a feedlot, whereas continuous sampling is recommended for the remaining behaviors. This methodology will contribute toward the efficiency, accuracy, and transparency of future behavioral data collection in lamb behavior research.

  17. Direct Measures in Environmental Education Evaluation: Behavioral Intentions versus Observable Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Camilo; Shavelson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The objective of many environmental education programs is to promote pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors in students. However, evaluation of these programs has focused on asking participants what they think (attitudes) and what they do (behaviors) regarding the environment problems through self-report questionnaires and interviews. These…

  18. Observation of Resonant Behavior in the Energy Velocity of Diffused Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapienza, R.; Garcia, P. D.; Blanco, A.; Lopez, C.; Bertolotti, J.; Wiersma, D. S.; Martin, M. D.; Vina, L.

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter we demonstrate Mie resonances mediated transport of light in randomly arranged, monodisperse dielectric spheres packed at high filling fractions. By means of both static and dynamic optical experiments we show resonant behavior in the key transport parameters and, in particular, we find that the energy transport velocity, which is lower than the group velocity, also displays a resonant behavior

  19. Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…

  20. Driver Behavioral Changes through Interactions with an Automatic Brake System for Collision Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    This paper discusses driver's behavioral changes as a result of driver's use of an automatic brake system for preventing a rear-end collision from occurring. Three types of automatic brake systems are investigated in this study. Type 1 brake system applies a strong automatic brake when a collision is very imminent. Type 2 brake system initiates brake operation softly when a rear-end crash may be anticipated. Types 1 and 2 are for avoidance of a collision. Type 3 brake system, on the other hand, applies a strong automatic brake to reduce the damage when a collision can not be avoided. An experiment was conducted with a driving simulator in order to analyze the driver's possible behavioral changes. The results showed that the time headway (THW) during car following phase was reduced by use of an automatic brake system of any type. The inverse of time to collision (TTC), which is an index of the driver's brake timing, increased by use of Type 1 brake system when the deceleration rate of the lead vehicle was relatively low. However, the brake timing did not change when the drivers used Type 2 or 3 brake system. As a whole, dangerous behavioral changes, such as overreliance on a brake system, were not observed for either type of brake system.

  1. A Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Global Mercury Observation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS Project includes a specific Work Package aimed at developing tools (i.e. databases, catalogs, services to collect GMOS datasets, harvest mercury databases, and offer services like search, view, and download spatial datasets from the GMOS portal (www.gmos.eu. The system will be developed under the framework of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE Directive and the Directive 2003/4/EC on public access to environmental information, which both aim to make relevant, harmonized, high-quality geographic information available to support the formulation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies and activities that have a direct or indirect impact on the environment. Three databases have been proposed (on emissions, field data and model results, and each will be equipped with state-of-the-art, open-source software to allow for the highest performance possible. Web-based user-interfaces and prototype applications will be developed to demonstrate the potential of blending different datasets from different servers for environmental assessment studies. Several services (i.e. catalog browsers, WMS and WCS services, web GIS services will be developed to facilitate data integration, data re-use, and data exchange within and beyond the GMOS project. Different types of measurement and model datasets provided by project partners and other sources will be integrated into PostgreSQL-PostGIS, harmonized by creating INSPIRE-compliant metadata and made available to a larger community of stakeholders, policy makers, scientists, and NGOs (as well as to other public and private institutions, as dictated by the Directive 2003/4/EC. Since interoperability is a central concept for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS, the Global Monitoring for Environmental and Security (GMES and the INSPIRE Directive, guidelines developed in these three frameworks will be

  2. Calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, B.F.

    1986-10-01

    An introduction to the calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems is given by studying two examples in the trinucleon system: (1) the elastic electron scattering charge form factor in configuration space and momentum space and (2) the two-body photodisintegration of 3 H leading to a neutron-deuteron final state in a separable potential formalism. In the discussion of charge form factor calculations, a number of related topics are touched upon: the relation of structure in Psi to the properties of simple NN forces, the Faddeev and Schroedinger solution to the harmonic oscillator problem, the Rosenbluth formula for electron scattering from a spin-1/2 nuclear target (e.g., the proton or 3 H), and the charge density operator. Formulae for 3 He and 3 H charge form factors in a central force approximation are given in configuration and momentum space. The physics of these form factors is discussed in light of results from realistic nucleon-nucleon potential model calculations, including the effects of two-pion-exchange three-body force models. Topics covered are the rms charge densities, and the Coulomb energy of 3 He. In the discussion of the 3 H photodisintegration, the Siegert form of the electric dipole operator (in the long wave length limit) is derived as are the separable potential equations which describe the off-shell transition amplitudes which connect nucleon-plus-corrected-pair states. Expressions for the Born amplitudes required to complete the two-body photodisintegration amplitude calculation are given. Numerical results for a model central force problem are discussed and compared with an approximate calculation. Comparisons with 3 H(γ,n)d and 3 He(γ,p)d data are made, and the significant features of the exact theoretical calculation are outlined. 61 refs., 26 figs

  3. Diagnosing battery behavior with an expert system in Prolog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkwood, N.; Weeks, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Power for the Hubble Space Telescope comes from a system of 20 solar panel assemblies (SPAs) and six nickel-cadmium batteries. The HST battery system is simulated by the HST Electrical Power System (EPS) testbed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System (NICBES) is being used to diagnose faults of the testbed system, evaluate battery status and provide decision support for the engineer. Extensive telemetry of system operating conditions is relayed through a DEC LSI-11, and sent on to an IBM PC-AT. A BASIC program running on the PC monitors the flow of data, figures cell divergence and recharge ratio and stores these values, along with other selected data, for use by the expert system. The expert system is implemented in the logic programming language Prolog. It has three modes of operation: fault diagnosis, status and advice, and decision support. An alert or failure of the system will trigger a diagnosis by the system to assist the operator. The operator can also request battery status information as well as a number of plots and histograms of recent battery behavior. Trends in EOC and EOD voltage, recharge ratio and divergence are used by the expert system in its analysis of battery status. A future enhancement to the system includes the statistical prediction of battery life. Incorporating learning into the expert system is another possible enhancement; This is a difficult task, but one which could promise great rewards in improved battery performance

  4. In vivo observation of gold nanoparticles in the central nervous system of Blaberus discoidalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Jorge M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoparticles (NPs are widely studied for biomedical applications. Understanding interactions between NPs and biomolecules or cells has yet to be achieved. Here we present a novel in vivo method to study interactions between NPs and the nervous system of the discoid or false dead-head roach, Blaberus discoidalis. The aims of this study were to present a new and effective method to observe NPs in vivo that opens the door to new methods of study to observe the interactions between NPs and biological systems and to present an inexpensive and easy-to-handle biological system. Results Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (nAuNPs of 50 nm in diameter were injected into the central nervous system (CNS of the insect. By using such a cost effective method, we were able to characterize nAuNPs and to analyze their interactions with a biological system. It showed that the charged particles affected the insect's locomotion. The nAuNPs affected the insect's behavior but had no major impacts on the life expectancy of the cockroach after two months of observation. This was apparently due to the encapsulation of nAuNPs inside the insect's brain. Based on cockroach's daily activity, we believed that the encapsulation occurred in the first 17 days. Conclusions The method proposed here is an inexpensive and reliable way of observing the response of biological systems to nanoparticles in-vivo. It opens new windows to further understand how nanoparticles affect neural communication by monitoring insect activity and locomotion.

  5. Stabilization of Electromagnetic Suspension System Behavior by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Najar Khoda Bakhsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic suspension system with a nonlinear and unstable behavior, is used in maglev trains. In this paper a linear mathematical model of system is achieved and the state feedback method is used to improve the system stability. The control coefficients are tuned by two different methods, Riccati and a new method based on Genetic algorithm. In this new proposed method, we use Genetic algorithm to achieve the optimum values of control coefficients. The results of the system simulation by Matlab indicate the effectiveness of new proposed system. When a new reference of air gap is needed or a new external force is added, the proposed system could omit the vibration and shake of the train coupe and so, passengers feel more comfortable.

  6. Mathematical Systems Theory : from Behaviors to Nonlinear Control

    CERN Document Server

    Julius, A; Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Rapisarda, Paolo; Scherpen, Jacquelien

    2015-01-01

    This treatment of modern topics related to mathematical systems theory forms the proceedings of a workshop, Mathematical Systems Theory: From Behaviors to Nonlinear Control, held at the University of Groningen in July 2015. The workshop celebrated the work of Professors Arjan van der Schaft and Harry Trentelman, honouring their 60th Birthdays. The first volume of this two-volume work covers a variety of topics related to nonlinear and hybrid control systems. After giving a detailed account of the state of the art in the related topic, each chapter presents new results and discusses new directions. As such, this volume provides a broad picture of the theory of nonlinear and hybrid control systems for scientists and engineers with an interest in the interdisciplinary field of systems and control theory. The reader will benefit from the expert participants’ ideas on exciting new approaches to control and system theory and their predictions of future directions for the subject that were discussed at the worksho...

  7. The dominance behavioral system and manic temperament: Motivation for dominance, self-perceptions of power, and socially dominant behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Carver, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system has been conceptualized as a biologically based system comprising motivation to achieve social power and self-perceptions of power. Biological, behavioral, and social correlates of dominance motivation and self-perceived power have been related to a range of psychopathological tendencies. Preliminary evidence suggests that mania and risk for mania (manic temperament) relate to the dominance system.

  8. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly-developed cosmic-ray method for measuring area-average soil moisture at the hectometer horizontal scale is being implemented in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or the COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil and other materials, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. The COSMOS has already deployed more than 50 of the eventual 500 cosmic-ray probes, distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in the COSMOS project, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  9. Mesoscale climate hydrology: Earth Observation System - definition phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The use of airborne and space observations to map surface heat fluxes and soil water content at heterogeneous land surfaces was studied. Algorithms to estimate evaporation fluxes with satellite observations were evaluated against measurements. Spatialcorrelation lengths were studied with estimated

  10. Mesoscale climate hydrology: Earth Observation System - definition phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of airborne and space observations to map surface heat fluxes and soil water content at heterogeneous land surfaces was studied. Algorithms to estimate evaporation fluxes with satellite observations were evaluated against measurements. Spatialcorrelation lengths were studied with estimated

  11. A sustainable building promotes pro-environmental behavior: an observational study on food disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, David W-L; DiGiacomo, Alessandra; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a more sustainable society, the wider public will need to increase engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Psychological research on pro-environmental behaviors has thus far focused on identifying individual factors that promote such behavior, designing interventions based on these factors, and evaluating these interventions. Contextual factors that may also influence behavior at an aggregate level have been largely ignored. In the current study, we test a novel hypothesis--whether simply being in a sustainable building can elicit environmentally sustainable behavior. We find support for our hypothesis: people are significantly more likely to correctly choose the proper disposal bin (garbage, compost, recycling) in a building designed with sustainability in mind compared to a building that was not. Questionnaires reveal that these results are not due to self-selection biases. Our study provides empirical support that one's surroundings can have a profound and positive impact on behavior. It also suggests the opportunity for a new line of research that bridges psychology, design, and policy-making in an attempt to understand how the human environment can be designed and used as a subtle yet powerful tool to encourage and achieve aggregate pro-environmental behavior.

  12. Behavioral activation and inhibition system's role in predicting addictive behaviors of patients with bipolar disorder of Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary.

  13. Big Data in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Baynes, Katie; McInerney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Approaches that are being pursued for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data system to address the challenges of Big Data were presented to the NASA Big Data Task Force. Cloud prototypes are underway to tackle the volume challenge of Big Data. However, advances in computer hardware or cloud won't help (much) with variety. Rather, interoperability standards, conventions, and community engagement are the key to addressing variety.

  14. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, BrittonâRobinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl ...

  15. Voltammetric behavior of sedative drug midazolam at glassy carbon electrode in solubilized systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rajeev; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Redox behavior of midazolam was studied at a glassy carbon electrode in various buffer systems, supporting electrolytes and pH using differential pulse, square-wave and cyclic voltammetry. Based on its reduction behavior, a direct differential pulse voltammetric method has been developed and validated for the determination of midazolam in parenteral dosage. Three well-defined peaks were observed in 0.1% SLS, Britton–Robinson (BR) buffer of pH 2.5. The effect of surfactants like sodium lauryl ...

  16. Physical activity, sedentary behavior time and lipid levels in the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2015-08-11

    Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. While many studies have investigated general physical activity (PA) in relation to blood lipid levels, the current study aimed to examine the intensity of activity, including sedentary behavior time, and time spent engaging in moderate and intense PA, with concentrations of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Participants comprised 1331 individuals, aged 18 to 70 years, from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors (screen time on a workday and a day off, and total sitting time on a work day), and moderate and intense PA, were related to levels of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample, and then with stratification according to BMI (normal weight versus overweight/obese). Both lower screen time during days off and higher intense PA time were significantly associated with higher HDL-cholesterol after full adjustment for socio-demographic factors, dietary factors and smoking (both p sedentary behavior time variables were observed (all p sedentary behavior time variable and lipid levels in those overweight or obese. Spending less time in sedentary behaviors, and engaging in medium levels of intense physical activity may be associated with a more favorable blood lipid profile, particularly with regard to levels of HDL and triglycerides.

  17. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  18. Deconstructing thermodynamic parameters of a coupled system from site-specific observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sandipan; Chanda, Baron

    2010-11-02

    Cooperative interactions mediate information transfer between structural domains of a protein molecule and are major determinants of protein function and modulation. The prevalent theories to understand the thermodynamic origins of cooperativity have been developed to reproduce the complex behavior of a global thermodynamic observable such as ligand binding or enzyme activity. However, in most cases the measurement of a single global observable cannot uniquely define all the terms that fully describe the energetics of the system. Here we establish a theoretical groundwork for analyzing protein thermodynamics using site-specific information. Our treatment involves extracting a site-specific parameter (defined as χ value) associated with a structural unit. We demonstrate that, under limiting conditions, the χ value is related to the direct interaction terms associated with the structural unit under observation and its intrinsic activation energy. We also introduce a site-specific interaction energy term (χ(diff)) that is a function of the direct interaction energy of that site with every other site in the system. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis and other molecular level perturbations, analyses of χ values of site-specific observables may provide valuable insights into protein thermodynamics and structure.

  19. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  20. Observing the observers - uncovering the role of values in research assessments of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hermansen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the overall effects of organic food systems is important, but also a challenge because organic food systems cannot be fully assessed from one single research perspective. The aim of our research was to determine the role of values in assessments of organic food systems as a basis...... for discussing the implications of combining multiple perspectives in overall sustainability assessments of the food system. We explored how values were embedded in five research perspectives: (1) food science, (2) discourse analysis, (3) phenomenology, (4) neoclassical welfare economics, and (5) actor......-network theory. Value has various meanings according to different scientific perspectives. A strategy for including and balancing different forms of knowledge in overall assessments of the effects of food systems is needed. Based on the analysis, we recommend four courses of action: (1) elucidate values...

  1. Long time behavior and attractors for energetically insulated fluid systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2010), s. 1587-1609 ISSN 1078-0947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Navier-Stokes-Fourier system * attractor * long time behavior Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2010 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/displayArticles.jsp?paperID=5040

  2. Dynamic behavior of district heating systems. 1. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this study a comprehensive model simulating the dynamic behavior of an entire district heating system has been developed. The model consists of four partial models, namely a model of the hydraulic behavior of a heat distribution network, another model of the thermal behavior of this network, a model of the heat generation plants and one of the heat consumers connected to the system. For the hydraulic simulation of the distribution network, a classical steady state approach has proved to be sufficient. The evolution of the temperatures in the network is given by the equation of transport. A numerical resolution scheme, which is adapted to the special case of a heat distribution network was developed for this equation. The model developed for the heating plant is simple but it is sufficiently detailed to determine the operation of its elements. A more complex model would take much more calculation time, but with such a simple model, it is possible to include it in the global model of the entire system. Each heat consumer is represented by a simple one cell model. The difficulty in such an approach is to determine the characteristics of each building in a simple manner. A classification, which allows to find the essential parameters from few and easily available data, has been defined. This model is not sufficiently accurate to calculate the thermal behavior of one specific building but it allows to determine the average dynamic evolution of the heat demand for a set of buildings with a good precision.The developed models have been programmed on a personal computer and the entire district heating network of the city of Lausanne has been simulated with this calculation code. Measurements have been taken on this network and the comparison with calculated results has allowed to calibrate the model. The comparison of measurements and calculations shows, that each part of the system is simulated realistically by the proposed model. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  3. Food safety behaviors observed in celebrity chefs across a variety of programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria

    2017-03-01

    Consumers obtain information about foodborne illness prevention from many sources, including television media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a variety of cooking shows with celebrity chefs to understand their modeling of food safety behaviors. Cooking shows (100 episodes) were watched from 24 celebrity chefs preparing meat dishes. A tabulation of food safety behaviors was made for each show using a checklist. Proper modeling of food safety behaviors was limited, with many incidences of errors. For example, although all chefs washed their hands at the beginning of cooking at least one dish, 88% did not wash (or were not shown washing) their hands after handling uncooked meat. This was compounded with many chefs who added food with their hands (79%) or ate while cooking (50%). Other poor behaviors included not using a thermometer (75%), using the same cutting board to prepare ready-to-eat items and uncooked meat (25%), and other hygiene issues such as touching hair (21%) or licking fingers (21%). This study suggests that there is a need for improvement in demonstrated and communicated food safety behaviors among professional chefs. It also suggests that public health professionals must work to mitigate the impact of poorly modeled behaviors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  5. Vegetation Earth System Data Record from DSCOVR EPIC Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Y.; Song, W.; Yang, B.; Mottus, M.; Rautiainen, M.; Stenberg, P.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission was launched on February 11, 2015 to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L1 point where it began to collect radiance data of the entire sunlit Earth every 65 to 110 min in June 2015. It provides imageries in near backscattering directions with the scattering angle between 168° and 176° at ten ultraviolet to near infrared (NIR) narrow spectral bands centered at 317.5 (band width 1.0) nm, 325.0 (2.0) nm, 340.0 (3.0) nm, 388.0 (3.0) nm, 433.0 (3.0) nm, 551.0 (3.0) nm, 680.0 (3.0) nm, 687.8 (0.8) nm, 764.0 (1.0) nm and 779.5 (2.0) nm. This poster presents current status of the Vegetation Earth System Data Record of global Leaf Area Index (LAI), solar zenith angle dependent Sunlit Leaf Area Index (SLAI), Fraction vegetation absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the DSCOVR EPIC observations. Whereas LAI is a standard product of many satellite missions, the SLAI is a new satellite-derived parameter. Sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different radiative response to incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (400-700 nm), which in turn triggers various physiological and physical processes required for the functioning of plants. FPAR, LAI and SLAI are key state parameters in most ecosystem productivity models and carbon/nitrogen cycle. The product at 10 km sinusoidal grid and 65 to 110 min temporal frequency as well as accompanying Quality Assessment (QA) variables will be publicly available from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis (ATBD) and product validation strategy are also discussed in this poster.

  6. The Demonstrator for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F.; Ulbricht, D.; Lauterjung, J.; Bailo, D.; Jeffery, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    An important outcome of the 4-year Preparatory Phase of the ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was the development and first implementation of the EPOS Demonstrator by the project's ICT Working Group 7. The Demonstrator implements the vertical integration of the three-layer architectural scheme for EPOS, connecting the Integrated Core Services (ICS), Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the National Research Infrastructures (NRI). The demonstrator provides a single GUI with central key discovery and query functionalities, based on already existing services by the seismic, geologic and geodetic communities. More specifically the seismic services of the Demonstrator utilize webservices and APIs for data and discovery of raw seismic data (FDSN webservices by the EIDA Network), events (Geoportal by EMSC) and analytical data products (e.g., hazard maps by EFEHR via OGC WMS). For geologic services, the EPOS Demonstrator accesses OneGeology Europe which serves the community with geologic maps and point information via OGC webservices. The Demonstrator also provides access to raw geodetic data via a newly developed universal tool called GSAC. The Demonstrator itself resembles the future Integrated Core Service (ICS) and provides direct access to the end user. Its core functionality lies in a metadata catalogue, which serves as the central information hub and stores information about all RIs, related persons, projects, financial background and technical access information. The database schema of the catalogue is based on CERIF, which has been slightly adapted. Currently, the portal provides basic query functions as well as cross domain search. [www.epos.cineca.it

  7. Observing System Simulations for Small Satellite Formations Estimating Bidirectional Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; de Weck, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: Use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  8. Observing system simulations for small satellite formations estimating bidirectional reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; Weck, Olivier de

    2015-12-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  9. A problem of optimal control and observation for distributed homogeneous multi-agent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglikov, Sergey V.

    2017-12-01

    The paper considers the implementation of a algorithm for controlling a distributed complex of several mobile multi-robots. The concept of a unified information space of the controlling system is applied. The presented information and mathematical models of participants and obstacles, as real agents, and goals and scenarios, as virtual agents, create the base forming the algorithmic and software background for computer decision support system. The controlling scheme assumes the indirect management of the robotic team on the basis of optimal control and observation problem predicting intellectual behavior in a dynamic, hostile environment. A basic content problem is a compound cargo transportation by a group of participants in the case of a distributed control scheme in the terrain with multiple obstacles.

  10. Accessing Suicide-Related Information on the Internet: A Retrospective Observational Study of Search Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet’s potential impact on suicide is of major public health interest as easy online access to pro-suicide information or specific suicide methods may increase suicide risk among vulnerable Internet users. Little is known, however, about users’ actual searching and browsing behaviors of online suicide-related information. Objective To investigate what webpages people actually clicked on after searching with suicide-related queries on a search engine and to examine what queries people used to get access to pro-suicide websites. Methods A retrospective observational study was done. We used a web search dataset released by America Online (AOL). The dataset was randomly sampled from all AOL subscribers’ web queries between March and May 2006 and generated by 657,000 service subscribers. Results We found 5526 search queries (0.026%, 5526/21,000,000) that included the keyword "suicide". The 5526 search queries included 1586 different search terms and were generated by 1625 unique subscribers (0.25%, 1625/657,000). Of these queries, 61.38% (3392/5526) were followed by users clicking on a search result. Of these 3392 queries, 1344 (39.62%) webpages were clicked on by 930 unique users but only 1314 of those webpages were accessible during the study period. Each clicked-through webpage was classified into 11 categories. The categories of the most visited webpages were: entertainment (30.13%; 396/1314), scientific information (18.31%; 240/1314), and community resources (14.53%; 191/1314). Among the 1314 accessed webpages, we could identify only two pro-suicide websites. We found that the search terms used to access these sites included “commiting suicide with a gas oven”, “hairless goat”, “pictures of murder by strangulation”, and “photo of a severe burn”. A limitation of our study is that the database may be dated and confined to mainly English webpages. Conclusions Searching or browsing suicide-related or pro-suicide webpages was

  11. Accessing suicide-related information on the internet: a retrospective observational study of search behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul Wai-Ching; Fu, King-Wa; Yau, Rickey Sai-Pong; Ma, Helen Hei-Man; Law, Yik-Wa; Chang, Shu-Sen; Yip, Paul Siu-Fai

    2013-01-11

    The Internet's potential impact on suicide is of major public health interest as easy online access to pro-suicide information or specific suicide methods may increase suicide risk among vulnerable Internet users. Little is known, however, about users' actual searching and browsing behaviors of online suicide-related information. To investigate what webpages people actually clicked on after searching with suicide-related queries on a search engine and to examine what queries people used to get access to pro-suicide websites. A retrospective observational study was done. We used a web search dataset released by America Online (AOL). The dataset was randomly sampled from all AOL subscribers' web queries between March and May 2006 and generated by 657,000 service subscribers. We found 5526 search queries (0.026%, 5526/21,000,000) that included the keyword "suicide". The 5526 search queries included 1586 different search terms and were generated by 1625 unique subscribers (0.25%, 1625/657,000). Of these queries, 61.38% (3392/5526) were followed by users clicking on a search result. Of these 3392 queries, 1344 (39.62%) webpages were clicked on by 930 unique users but only 1314 of those webpages were accessible during the study period. Each clicked-through webpage was classified into 11 categories. The categories of the most visited webpages were: entertainment (30.13%; 396/1314), scientific information (18.31%; 240/1314), and community resources (14.53%; 191/1314). Among the 1314 accessed webpages, we could identify only two pro-suicide websites. We found that the search terms used to access these sites included "commiting suicide with a gas oven", "hairless goat", "pictures of murder by strangulation", and "photo of a severe burn". A limitation of our study is that the database may be dated and confined to mainly English webpages. Searching or browsing suicide-related or pro-suicide webpages was uncommon, although a small group of users did access websites that contain

  12. The Action Observation System when Observing Hand Actions in Autism and Typical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Jennifer J; Hatt, Naomi V; Colombi, Costanza; Vivanti, Giacomo; Rogers, Sally J; Rivera, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    Social impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be in part due to difficulty perceiving and recognizing the actions of others. Evidence from imitation studies, which involves both observation and execution of an action, suggests differences, in individuals with ASD, between the ability to imitate goal-directed actions involving objects (transitive actions) and the ability to imitate actions that do not involve objects (intransitive actions). In the present study, we examined whether there were differences in how ASD adolescents encoded transitive and intransitive actions compared to typically developing (TD) adolescents, by having participants view videos of a hand reaching across a screen toward an object or to where an object would be while functional magnetic resonance images were collected. Analyses focused on areas within the action observation network (AON), which is activated during the observation of actions performed by others. We hypothesized that the AON would differentiate transitive from intransitive actions only in the ASD group. However, results revealed that object presence modulated activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus of the TD group, a differentiation that was not seen in the ASD group. Furthermore, there were no significant group differences between the TD and ASD groups in any of the conditions. This suggests that there is not a global deficit of the AON in individuals with ASD while observing transitive and intransitive actions. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Behavioral activation and inhibition system's role in predicting addictive behaviors of patients with bipolar disorder of Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hasan; Pirani, Zabih; Vatandoust, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, prevalence of addictive behaviors among bipolar patients is considered to be a serious health threat by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of behavioral activation and inhibition systems in predicting addictive behaviors of male patients with bipolar disorder at the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. Materials and Methods: The research method used in this study is correlation. The study population consisted of 80 male patients with bipolar disorder referring to the psychiatrics clinics of Tehran city in 2014 who were referred to the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. To collect data, the international and comprehensive inventory diagnostic interview, behavioral activation and inhibition systems scale, and addictive behaviors scale were used. Results: The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between behavioral activation systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, television addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction, etc.). In addition, correlation between behavioral inhibition systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, TV addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction) is significantly negative. Finally, regression analysis showed that behavioral activation and inhibition systems could significantly predict 47% of addictive behaviors in patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusions: It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary. PMID:28194203

  14. Coordinated Regional Benefit Studies of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L; Colgan, Charles S; Luger, Michael; Wieand, Ken; Pulsipher, Allan; Pendleton, Linwood; Wellman, Katherine; Pelsoci, Tom

    2003-01-01

    .... The authors will first produce regional "inventories" of ocean observation user sectors, including information about the physical and economic scale of their activities, how products from improved...

  15. Examining the Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender on Social and Behavioral Ratings within the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ashley J.; Long, Kristin A.; Tommet, Douglas C.; Jones, Richard N.

    2017-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) is widely used to assess symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given well-documented differences in social behaviors across cultures, this study examined whether item-level biases exist in ADOS scores across sociodemographic groups (race, ethnicity, and gender). We examined a subset of ten…

  16. Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Observed Autism Symptom Severity during School Recess: A Preliminary Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT…

  17. Analyses of the Behavior of Spokes in Saturn's B Ring as Observed in Cassini ISS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Colin; Porco, C.; Dones, L.; Spitale, J.

    2008-09-01

    We report on analyses of the spokes in Saturn's B ring as observed by the Cassini spacecraft, from the first sighting in September 2005 to the present. Following Porco and Danielson (1982), we calculate as a function of time the spoke activity level, defined as the area-integrated optical depth of the spokes. We convert the spoke I/F into optical depth, using a radiative transfer "doubling code" and assuming that the presence of microscopic particles in the spokes is the only change in the optical properties of the ring region within a spoke. We search for periodicities in the variation of spoke activity and also correlations with magnetic longitude using a magnetic longitude system derived from the emission of the Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR), the rotation of which varies slightly from a constant rate (Kurth et al. 2008). Additionally, we track the activity over a period of years in order to characterize the seasonal nature of this phenomenon. We also report on the photometric profiles of spokes during different phases of their evolution. We present an analysis of spoke kinematics, measuring the motion on timescales of tens of minutes of the leading and trailing edges of spokes that appear in multiple consecutive images. Assuming that the small ice particles which comprise the spokes are in circular orbits, the azimuthal motion is a measure of their charge-to-mass ratio. While most spoke edges have exhibited normal Keplerian orbital motion and shear, some spokes were observed during their active phase in which the spoke's optical depth increases and its edges move at different rates, broadening the spoke. We acknowledge the financial support of the Cassini Project.

  18. Predicting the behavior of techno-social systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespignani, Alessandro

    2009-07-24

    We live in an increasingly interconnected world of techno-social systems, in which infrastructures composed of different technological layers are interoperating within the social component that drives their use and development. Examples are provided by the Internet, the World Wide Web, WiFi communication technologies, and transportation and mobility infrastructures. The multiscale nature and complexity of these networks are crucial features in understanding and managing the networks. The accessibility of new data and the advances in the theory and modeling of complex networks are providing an integrated framework that brings us closer to achieving true predictive power of the behavior of techno-social systems.

  19. Conducting Classroom Observations : Stallings 'Classroom Snapshot' Observation System for an Electronic Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    The “Stallings Classroom Snapshot” instrument, technically called the “Stanford Research Institute Classroom Observation System”, was developed by Professor Jane Stallings for research on the efficiency and quality of basic education teachers in the United States in the 1970s. (Stallings, 1977; Stallings and Mohlman, 1988). The Stallings instrument generates robust quantitative data on the interaction of teachers and students in the classroom, with a high degree of inter-rater rel...

  20. Self-reported and observed risky driving behaviors among frequent and infrequent cell phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2013-12-01

    The apparently higher crash risk among individuals who use cell phones while driving may be due both to the direct interference of cell phone use with the driving task and tendencies to engage in risky driving behaviors independent of cell phone use. Measurements of actual highway driving performance, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors as measured by the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and attitudes toward speeding, passing behaviors and relative concern about being involved in a crash were assessed. Individuals who reported frequently using cell phones while driving were found to drive faster, change lanes more frequently, spend more time in the left lane, and engage in more instances of hard braking and high acceleration events. They also scored higher in self-reported driving violations on the DBQ and reported more positive attitudes toward speeding and passing than drivers who did not report using a cell phone regularly while driving. These results indicate that a greater reported frequency of cell phone use while driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  2. JAKE® Multimodal Data Capture System: Insights from an Observational Study of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Seth L; Manyakov, Nikolay V; Bangerter, Abigail; Lewin, David; Jagannatha, Shyla; Boice, Matthew; Skalkin, Andrew; Dawson, Geraldine; Janvier, Yvette M; Goodwin, Matthew S; Hendren, Robert; Leventhal, Bennett; Shic, Frederick; Cioccia, Walter; Pandina, Gahan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test usability and optimize the Janssen Autism Knowledge Engine (JAKE®) system's components, biosensors, and procedures used for objective measurement of core and associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinical trials. Methods: A prospective, observational study of 29 children and adolescents with ASD using the JAKE system was conducted at three sites in the United States. This study was designed to establish the feasibility of the JAKE system and to learn practical aspects of its implementation. In addition to information collected by web and mobile components, wearable biosensor data were collected both continuously in natural settings and periodically during a battery of experimental tasks administered in laboratory settings. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02299700. Results: Feedback collected throughout the study allowed future refinements to be planned for all components of the system. The Autism Behavior Inventory (ABI), a parent-reported measure of ASD core and associated symptoms, performed well. Among biosensors studied, the eye-tracker, sleep monitor, and electrocardiogram were shown to capture high quality data, whereas wireless electroencephalography was difficult to use due to its form factor. On an exit survey, the majority of parents rated their overall reaction to JAKE as positive/very positive. No significant device-related events were reported in the study. Conclusion: The results of this study, with the described changes, demonstrate that the JAKE system is a viable, useful, and safe platform for use in clinical trials of ASD, justifying larger validation and deployment studies of the optimized system.

  3. Seismic behavior of steel storage pallet racking systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castiglioni, Carlo Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the main outcomes of the first European research project on the seismic behavior of adjustable steel storage pallet racking systems. In particular, it describes a comprehensive and unique set of full-scale tests designed to assess such behavior. The tests performed include cyclic tests of full-scale rack components, namely beam-to-upright connections and column base connections; static and dynamic tests to assess the friction factor between pallets and rack beams; full-scale pushover and pseudodynamic tests of storage racks in down-aisle and cross-aisle directions; and full-scale dynamic tests on two-bay, three-level rack models. The implications of the findings of this extensive testing regime on the seismic behavior of racking systems are discussed in detail, highlighting e.g. the confirmation that under severe dynamic conditions “sliding” is the main factor influencing rack response. This work was conceived during the development of the SEISRACKS project. Its outcomes will contribute...

  4. Intelligent Architecture for Enhanced Observability for Active Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid increase of renewable energy resources (RE) and demand response resources (DRR) in the distribution networks. This is challenging for the reliable and stable operation of the grid. So, to ensure secure, optimized and economical operation in such active distribution grids they need...... for active distribution network which satisfies the need for higher observability reach with less field observation. Improved state estimation with composite load forecasting model is aimed for enhanced observability. This paper also summarizes the application of intelligent architecture in the operation...

  5. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Huser

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  6. Children's physical activity behavior during school recess: A case study using GPS, accelerometer, participant observation, and go-along interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated sys- tematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups...... quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children...

  7. Phase behavior and phase inversion for dispersant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solheim, A.; Brandvik, P.J.

    1991-06-01

    This report describes some preliminary phase behavior studies and phase inversion temperature measurements in seawater, bunker oil and dispersant. The objectives have been to find new ways of characterizing dispersants for dispersing oil spill at sea and, perhaps, to throw new lights on the mechanism of dispersion formation (oil-in-water emulsification). The work has been focussed on the relation to phase behavior and the existence of microemulsion in equilibrium with excess oil and water phases. The dispersing process is also compared to the recommended conditions for emulsion formation. When forming an oil-in-water emulsion in an industrial process, it is recommended to choose an emulsifier which gives a phase inversion temperature (PIT) which is 20 - 60 o C higher than the actual temperature for use. The emulsification process must take place close to the PIT which is the temperature at which the emulsion change from oil-in-water emulsion to water-in-oil emulsion when the system is stirred. This condition corresponds to the temperature where the phase behavior change character. The purpose has been to find out if the composition of the dispersants corresponds to the recommendations for oil-in-water emulsification. The amount of experimental work has been limited. Two kinds of experiments have been carried out. Phase behavior studies have been done for seawater, bunker oil and four different dispersants where one had an optimal composition. The phase behavior was hard to interpret and is not recommended for standard dispersants test. The other experimental technique was PIT-measurements by conductivity measurements versus temperature. 4 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs

  8. Modeling of Pressure Dependence of Interfacial Tension Behaviors of Supercritical CO2 + Crude Oil Systems Using a Basic Parachor Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayanand, S.

    2017-01-01

    Parachor based expressions (basic and mechanistic) are often used to model the experimentally observed pressure dependence of interfacial tension behaviors of complex supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO 2 ) and crude oil mixtures at elevated temperatures. However, such modeling requires various input data (e.g. compositions and densities of the equilibrium liquid and vapor phases, and molecular weights and diffusion coefficients for various components present in the system). In the absence of measured data, often phase behavior packages are used for obtaining these input data for performing calculations. Very few researchers have used experimentally measured input data for performing parachor based modeling of the experimental interfacial tension behaviors of sc-CO 2 and crude oil systems that are of particular interest to CO 2 injection in porous media based enhanced oil recovery operations. This study presents the results of parachor based modeling performed to predict pressure dependence of interfacial tension behaviors of a complex sc-CO 2 and crude oil system for which experimentally measured data is available in public domain. Though parachor model based on calculated interfacial tension behaviors shows significant deviation from the measured behaviors in high interfacial tension region, difference between the calculated and the experimental behaviors appears to vanish in low interfacial tension region. These observations suggest that basic parachor expression based calculated interfacial tension behaviors in low interfacial tension region follow the experimental interfacial tension behaviors more closely. An analysis of published studies (basic and mechanistic parachor expressions based on modeling of pressure dependence of interfacial tension behaviors of both standard and complex sc-CO 2 and crude oil systems) and the results of this study reinforce the need of better description of gas-oil interactions for robust modeling of pressure dependence of

  9. Endocrine Disruption of Vasopressin Systems and Related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B. Patisaul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are chemicals that interfere with the organizational or activational effects of hormones. Although the vast majority of the EDC literature focuses on steroid hormone signaling related impacts, growing evidence from a myriad of species reveals that the nonapeptide hormones vasopressin (AVP and oxytocin (OT may also be EDC targets. EDCs shown to alter pathways and behaviors coordinated by AVP and/or OT include the plastics component bisphenol A (BPA, the soy phytoestrogen genistein (GEN, and various flame retardants. Many effects are sex specific and likely involve action at nuclear estrogen receptors. Effects include the elimination or reversal of well-characterized sexually dimorphic aspects of the AVP system, including innervation of the lateral septum and other brain regions critical for social and other non-reproductive behaviors. Disruption of magnocellular AVP function has also been reported in rats, suggesting possible effects on hemodynamics and cardiovascular function.

  10. Deep-water feeding and behavioral plasticity in Manta birostris revealed by archival tags and submersible observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joshua D; Hoyos-Padilla, Edgar Mauricio; Kumli, Katherine R; Rubin, Robert D

    2016-10-01

    Foraging drives many fundamental aspects of ecology, and an understanding of foraging behavior aids in the conservation of threatened species by identifying critical habitats and spatial patterns relevant to management. The world's largest ray, the oceanic manta (Manta birostris) is poorly studied and threatened globally by targeted fisheries and incidental capture. Very little information is available on the natural history, ecology and behavior of the species, complicating management efforts. This study provides the first data on the diving behavior of the species based on data returned from six tagged individuals, and an opportunistic observation from a submersible of a manta foraging at depth. Pop-off archival satellite tags deployed on mantas at the Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico recorded seasonal shifts in diving behavior, likely related to changes in the location and availability of zooplankton prey. Across seasons, mantas spent a large proportion of their time centered around the upper limit of the thermocline, where zooplankton often aggregate. Tag data reveal a gradual activity shift from surface waters to 100-150m across the tagging period, possibly indicating a change in foraging behavior from targeting surface-associated zooplankton to vertical migrators. The depth ranges accessed by mantas in this study carry variable bycatch risks from different fishing gear types. Consequently, region-specific data on diving behavior can help inform local management strategies that reduce or mitigate bycatch of this vulnerable species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavioral testing of minipigs transgenic for the Huntington gene-A three-year observational study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schuldenzucker, V.; Schubert, R.; Muratori, L. M.; Freisfeld, F.; Rieke, L.; Matheis, T.; Schramke, S.; Motlík, Jan; Kemper, N.; Radespiel, U.; Reilmann, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2017), č. článku e0185970. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * minipigs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Behavioral sciences biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  12. Individualized Sampling Parameters for Behavioral Observations: Enhancing the Predictive Validity of Competing Stimulus Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Toole, Lisa M.; Gutshall, Katharine A.; Bowman, Lynn G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have used pretreatment analyses, termed competing stimulus assessments, to identify items that most effectively displace the aberrant behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities. In most studies, there appeared to have been no systematic basis for selecting the sampling period (ranging from 30 s to 10 min) in which items…

  13. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  14. Nonverbal behavior observation : collaborative gaming method for prediction of conflicts during long-term missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voynarovskaya, N.; Gorbunov, R.D.; Barakova, E.I.; Ahn, R.M.C.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Yang, H.S.; et al., xx

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for monitoring mental state of small isolated crews during long-term missions (such as space mission, polar expeditions, submarine crews, meteorological stations, and etc). It combines the records of negotiation game with monitoring of the nonverbal behavior of the

  15. Associations of group level popularity with observed behavior and influence in a dyadic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between popularity in the peer group and adolescents' behavior in a dyadic context. After collecting peer nominations for popularity, 218 early adolescents (Mage=11.0years) in 109 randomly composed same-sex dyads participated in a discussion task where they

  16. Behavioral coping and physical functioning: The effect of adjusting the level of activity on observed dexterity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Näring, G.W.B.; Pad Bosch, P. van 't; Putte, L.B.A. van de

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To assess the relationship between behavioral coping and dexterity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after controlling for disease activity, impairment of the hands, and pain. Methods. A random sample of 109 patients with RA was assessed twice within one year. Dexterity, disease activity, and

  17. Analysis of behavioral intention on ABC system adoption: Model of information systems technology and success acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Nensi Veni Indipenrian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the effect of individual behavioral change on the adoption of activity- based costing (ABC system and its usage, using Unified Theory of Accep-tance and Use of Technology (UTAUT and Information System Success Model. The sample involves 78 respondents who have positions as financial manager, controller manager, accounting manager, and production manager in mid-sized manufacturing companies in East java. The data were collected by survey method. This study used a Partial Least Square (PLS as the data analysis method. It was found that not all of the main UTAUT models were supported, because performance expectancy and effort expectancy have no effect on behavioral intention and use behavior to adopt ABC system. Whereas, social factors, information quality and facilitating conditions had a positive effect on behavioral intention and use behavior to adopt ABC system. The different results of this study with several previous studies are probably caused by the differences in the context of system, culture and characteristics of the sample. The implication of this study is not only to propose a theoretical framework for researches in future, but also useful for companies to optimize the use of ABC system that should be supported by top level and mid-level management and the readiness of the individu-als to accept the adoption of the ABC system.

  18. Observer-based Fault Detection and Isolation for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lootsma, T.F.

    With the rise in automation the increase in fault detectionand isolation & reconfiguration is inevitable. Interest in fault detection and isolation (FDI) for nonlinear systems has grown significantly in recent years. The design of FDI is motivated by the need for knowledge about occurring faults...... in fault-tolerant control systems (FTC systems). The idea of FTC systems is to detect, isolate, and handle faults in such a way that the systems can still perform in a required manner. One prefers reduced performance after occurrence of a fault to the shut down of (sub-) systems. Hence, the idea of fault......-output decoupling is described. It is a new idea based on the solution of the input-output decoupling problem. The idea is to include FDI considerations already during the control design....

  19. Wired for behavior: from development to function of innate limbic system circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie eSokolowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The limbic system of the brain regulates a number of behaviors that are essential for the survival of all vertebrate species including humans. The limbic system predominantly controls appropriate responses to stimuli with social, emotional or motivational salience, which includes innate behaviors such as mating, aggression and defense. Activation of circuits regulating these innate behaviors begins in the periphery with sensory stimulation (primarily via the olfactory system in rodents, and is then processed in the brain by a set of delineated structures that primarily includes the amygdala and hypothalamus. While the basic neuroanatomy of these connections is well established, much remains unknown about how information is processed within innate circuits and how genetic hierarchies regulate development and function of these circuits. Utilizing innovative technologies including channel rhodopsin-based circuit manipulation and genetic manipulation in rodents, recent studies have begun to answer these central questions. In this article we review the current understanding of how limbic circuits regulate sexually dimorphism and how these circuits are established and shaped during pre- and post-natal development. We also discuss how understanding developmental processes of innate circuit formation may inform behavioral alterations observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, which are characterized by limbic system dysfunction.

  20. Study of the behavior of thermal shield support system for the French CPO series plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellet, S.; Roux, P.; Bhandari, D.R.; Schwirian, R.E.; Yu, C.; Matarazzo, J.C.; Singleton, N.R.

    1996-01-01

    Degradation/failure of thermal shield support system in PWRs has been observed in the US as well as in foreign plants. In almost all the cases, remedial actions were put in place at very high economic costs to the utilities only after the failures had occurred. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive study to predict the long term behavior of a thermal shield support system due to flow-induced vibratory loads and thermal transients. Excellent agreement from the system finite model between the measured plant test data on the barrel/thermal shield beam and shell mode frequencies and the flexure strains confirms the basic structural behavior and physics of the flow induced vibrations. Loads and stresses on the support bolts and the flexures were determined to predict the fatigue life of the components

  1. Multi-Planetary Systems: Observations and Models of Dynamical Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2018-01-01

    More than 600 multi-planet systems are known. The vast majority of these systems have been discovered by NASA's Kepler spacecraft, but dozens were found using the Doppler technique, the first multi-exoplanet system was identified through pulsar timing, and the most massive system has been found using imaging. More than one-third of the 4000+ planet candidates found by NASA's Kepler spacecraft are associated with target stars that have more than one planet candidate, and the large number of such Kepler "multis" tells us that flat multiplanet systems like our Solar System are common. Virtually all of Kepler candidate multis are stable, as tested by numerical integrations that assume a physically motivated mass-radius relationship. Statistical studies performed on these candidate systems reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness. The characteristics of several of the most interesting confirmed multi-exoplanet systems will also be discussed.HR 8799's four massive planets orbit tens of AU from their host star and travel on nearly circular orbits. PSR B1257+12 has three much smaller planets orbiting close to a neutron star. Both represent extremes and show that planet formation is a robust process that produces a diversity of outcomes. Although both exomoons and Trojan (triangle Lagrange point) planets have been searched for, neither has yet been found.

  2. Partial Linearization of Mechanical Systems with Application to Observer Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarras, Ioannis; Venkatraman, Aneesh; Ortega, Romeo; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2008-01-01

    We consider general mechanical systems and establish a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a suitable change in the generalized momentum coordinates such that the new dynamics become linear in the transformed momenta. The class of systems which can be (partially) linearized by

  3. A classification system for tableting behaviors of binary powder mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changquan Calvin Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict tableting properties of a powder mixture from individual components is of both fundamental and practical importance to the efficient formulation development of tablet products. A common tableting classification system (TCS of binary powder mixtures facilitates the systematic development of new knowledge in this direction. Based on the dependence of tablet tensile strength on weight fraction in a binary mixture, three main types of tableting behavior are identified. Each type is further divided to arrive at a total of 15 sub-classes. The proposed classification system lays a framework for a better understanding of powder interactions during compaction. Potential applications and limitations of this classification system are discussed.

  4. Parents' attachment histories and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors: exploring family systems models of linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, P A; Cowan, C P; Cohn, D A; Pearson, J L

    1996-02-01

    Twenty-seven mothers and 27 fathers were given the Adult Attachment Interview (M. Main & R. Goldwyn, in press) when their children were 3.5 years old. Continuous ratings of narrative coherence, probable experience quality (parents perceived as loving), and state of mind (current anger at parents) were entered as latent variables in partial least squares structural equation models that included observational measures of marital quality and parenting style. Models that include fathers' attachment histories predicted more variance in kindergarten teachers' descriptions of children's externalizing behavior, whereas models that include mothers' attachment histories predicted more variance in children's internalizing behavior. Marital data added predictive power to the equations. Discussion is focused on the importance of integrating attachment and family systems approaches, and of parents' gender and marital quality, in understanding specific links between parents' attachment histories and their young children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors.

  5. Nervous system disruption and concomitant behavioral abnormality in early hatched pufferfish larvae exposed to heavy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masahumi; Sugahara, Yuki; Watanabe, Tomoe; Irie, Kouta; Ishida, Minoru; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Takata, Hiromi; Handoh, Itsuki C; Nakayama, Kei; Murakami, Yasunori

    2011-08-01

    Spills of heavy oil (HO) over the oceans have been proven to have an adverse effect on marine life. It has been hypothesized that exposure of early larvae of sinking eggs to HO leads largely to normal morphology, whereas abnormal organization of the developing neural scaffold is likely to be found. HO-induced disruption of the nervous system, which controls animal behavior, may in turn cause abnormalities in the swimming behavior of hatched larvae. To clarify the toxicological effects of HO, we performed exposure experiments and morphological and behavioral analyses in pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes) larvae. Fertilized eggs of pufferfish were exposed to 50 mg/L of HO for 8 days and transferred to fresh seawater before hatching. The hatched larvae were observed for their swimming behavior, morphological appearance, and construction of muscles and nervous system. In HO-exposed larvae, we did not detect any anomaly of body morphology. However, they showed an abnormal swimming pattern and disorganized midbrain, a higher center controlling movement. Our results suggest that HO-exposed fishes suffer developmental disorder of the brain that triggers an abnormal swimming behavior and that HO may be selectively toxic to the brain and cause physical disability throughout the life span of these fishes.

  6. Observation-Driven Configuration of Complex Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Aled

    2010-06-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of software systems makes them hard to comprehend, predict and tune due to emergent properties and non-deterministic behaviour. Complexity arises from the size of software systems and the wide variety of possible operating environments: the increasing choice of platforms and communication policies leads to ever more complex performance characteristics. In addition, software systems exhibit different behaviour under different workloads. Many software systems are designed to be configurable so that policies can be chosen to meet the needs of various stakeholders. For complex software systems it can be difficult to accurately predict the effects of a change and to know which configuration is most appropriate. This thesis demonstrates that it is useful to run automated experiments that measure a selection of system configurations. Experiments can find configurations that meet the stakeholders' needs, find interesting behavioural characteristics, and help produce predictive models of the system's behaviour. The design and use of ACT (Automated Configuration Tool) for running such experiments is described, in combination a number of search strategies for deciding on the configurations to measure. Design Of Experiments (DOE) is discussed, with emphasis on Taguchi Methods. These statistical methods have been used extensively in manufacturing, but have not previously been used for configuring software systems. The novel contribution here is an industrial case study, applying the combination of ACT and Taguchi Methods to DC-Directory, a product from Data Connection Ltd (DCL). The case study investigated the applicability of Taguchi Methods for configuring complex software systems. Taguchi Methods were found to be useful for modelling and configuring DC- Directory, making them a valuable addition to the techniques available to system administrators and developers.

  7. System supporting behavioral therapy for children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jȩdrzejewska-Szczerska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a system supporting behavioral therapy for autistic children is presented. The system consists of sensors network, base station and a brooch indicating person's emotional states. The system can be used to measure values of physiological parameters that are associated with changes in the emotional state. In the future, it can be useful to inform the autistic child and the therapist about the emotional state of the interlocutor objectively, on the basis of performed measurements. The selected physiological parameters were chosen during the experiment which was designed and conducted by authors. In this experiment, a group of volunteers under controlled conditions was exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound. For each of the volunteers, a set of physiological parameters, was recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design electronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy for children with autism.

  8. Observation on the irradiation behavior of U-Mo alloy dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Gerard L.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Park, Jong-Man

    2000-01-01

    Initial results from the postirradiation examination of high-density dispersion fuel test RERTR-3 are discussed. The U-Mo alloy fuels in this test were irradiated to 40% U-235 burnup at temperature ranging from 140 0 C to 240 0 C. Temperature has a significant effect on overall swelling of the test plates. The magnitude of the swelling appears acceptable and no unstable irradiation behavior is evident. (author)

  9. Exchange rate behavior with negative interest rates: Some early negative observations

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed, Allaudeen S.; Rose, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines exchange rate behavior during the recent period with negative nominal interest rates. We use a daily panel of data on 61 currencies from January 2010 through May 2016, during which five economies - Denmark, the European Economic and Monetary Union, Japan, Sweden, and Switzerland - experienced negative nominal interest rates. We examine both effective exchange rates and bilateral rates; the latter typically measured against the Swiss franc since Switzerland has had the long...

  10. Evaluation of tropical Pacific observing systems using NCEP and GFDL ocean data assimilation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan; Wen, Caihong; Yang, Xiaosong; Behringer, David; Kumar, Arun; Vecchi, Gabriel; Rosati, Anthony; Gudgel, Rich

    2017-08-01

    The TAO/TRITON array is the cornerstone of the tropical Pacific and ENSO observing system. Motivated by the recent rapid decline of the TAO/TRITON array, the potential utility of TAO/TRITON was assessed for ENSO monitoring and prediction. The analysis focused on the period when observations from Argo floats were also available. We coordinated observing system experiments (OSEs) using the global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the ensemble coupled data assimilation (ECDA) from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory for the period 2004-2011. Four OSE simulations were conducted with inclusion of different subsets of in situ profiles: all profiles (XBT, moorings, Argo), all except the moorings, all except the Argo and no profiles. For evaluation of the OSE simulations, we examined the mean bias, standard deviation difference, root-mean-square difference (RMSD) and anomaly correlation against observations and objective analyses. Without assimilation of in situ observations, both GODAS and ECDA had large mean biases and RMSD in all variables. Assimilation of all in situ data significantly reduced mean biases and RMSD in all variables except zonal current at the equator. For GODAS, the mooring data is critical in constraining temperature in the eastern and northwestern tropical Pacific, while for ECDA both the mooring and Argo data is needed in constraining temperature in the western tropical Pacific. The Argo data is critical in constraining temperature in off-equatorial regions for both GODAS and ECDA. For constraining salinity, sea surface height and surface current analysis, the influence of Argo data was more pronounced. In addition, the salinity data from the TRITON buoys played an important role in constraining salinity in the western Pacific. GODAS was more sensitive to withholding Argo data in off-equatorial regions than ECDA because it relied on local observations to correct model biases and

  11. Observed tidal braking in the earth/moon/sun system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    The low degree and order terms in the spherical harmonic model of the tidal potential were observed through the perturbations which are induced on near-earth satellite orbital motions. Evaluations of tracking observations from 17 satellites and a GEM-T1 geopotential model were used in the tidal recovery which was made in the presence of over 600 long-wavelength coefficients from 32 major and minor tides. Wahr's earth tidal model was used as a basis for the recovery of the ocean tidal terms. Using this tidal model, the secular change in the moon's mean motion due to tidal dissipation was found to be -25.27 + or - 0.61 arcsec/century squared. The estimation of lunar acceleration agreed with that observed from lunar laser ranging techniques (-24.9 + or - 1.0 arcsec/century squared), with the corresponding tidal braking of earth's rotation being -5.98 + or - 0.22 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared. If the nontidal braking of the earth due to the observed secular change in the earth's second zonal harmonic is considered, satellite techniques yield a total value of the secular change of the earth's rotation rate of -4.69 + or - 0.36 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared.

  12. Controllers with Minimal Observation Power (Application to Timed Systems)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Petr; Cassez, Franck; David, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of controller synthesis under imper- fect information in a setting where there is a set of available observable predicates equipped with a cost function. The problem that we address is the computation of a subset of predicates sufficient for control and whose cost is minimal...

  13. Observations of ionospheric electric fields above atmospheric weather systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Aggson, T. L.; Rodgers, E. B.; Hanson, W. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the observations of a number of quasi-dc electric field events associated with large-scale atmospheric weather formations. The observations were made by the electric field experiment onboard the San Marco D satellite, operational in an equatorial orbit from May to December 1988. Several theoretical studies suggest that electric fields generated by thunderstorms are present at high altitudes in the ionosphere. In spite of such favorable predictions, weather-related events are not often observed since they are relatively weak. We shall report here on a set of likely E field candidates for atmospheric-ionospheric causality, these being observed over the Indonesian Basin, northern South America, and the west coast of Africa; all known sites of atmospheric activity. As we shall demonstrate, individual events often be traced to specific active weather features. For example, a number of events were associated with spacecraft passages near Hurricane Joan in mid-October 1988. As a statistical set, the events appear to coincide with the most active regions of atmospheric weather.

  14. Serum testosterone levels in males are not associated with entrepreneurial behavior in two independent observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Haring, Robin; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Frank H; Koellinger, Philipp D; Kohlmann, Thomas; Nauck, Matthias A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; van Rooij, Frank J A; Wallaschofski, Henri; Thurik, A Roy

    2013-07-02

    Previous research has suggested a positive association between testosterone (T) and entrepreneurial behavior in males. However, this evidence was found in a study with a small sample size and has not been replicated. In the present study, we aimed to verify this association using two large, independent, population-based samples of males. We tested the association of T with entrepreneurial behavior, operationalized as self-employment, using data from the Rotterdam Study (N=587) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (N=1697). Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the serum. Free testosterone (FT), non-SHBG-bound T (non-SHBG-T), and the TT/SHBG ratio were calculated and used as measures of bioactive serum T, in addition to TT adjusted for SHBG. Using logistic regression models, we found no significant associations between any of the serum T measures and self-employment in either of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study on the relationship between serum T and entrepreneurial behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  16. Strengthening the Focus on Business Results: The Need for Systems Approaches in Organizational Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyten, Cloyd

    2009-01-01

    Current Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) research and practice may be characterized as either behavior focused or results focused. These two approaches stem from different origins and have different characteristics. The behavior-focused approach stems from applied behavior analysis (ABA) methods and emphasizes direct observation of and…

  17. Cost Behavior: Mapping and Systemic Analysis of International Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Richartz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has as objective mapping of scientific researches into costs behavior to identify its current scenario. The research on database provided a selection of relevant bibliographic portfolio, which had as a result 29 articles according to the research criteria defined in the study. From those, the articles from Anderson, Banker e Janakiraman (2003 were highlighted. Furthermore, Banker is considered to be the main author about costs behavior, its importance is noticed not only in the portfolio itself, but also, in its references. The most important periodic, either for its impact, or related to its number of articles publicized, is The Accounting Review. Finally, from the relationship between the most important articles about bibliometric analysis, featuring systemic analysis, the conclusion is that an important article about cost behavior has a quantitative approach (with the use of robust regression, recognize the existence of Sticky Costs (no matter which approach is in use, makes use of a variety of explanations (internal & external and add some variable or information for scientific evolution of the subject.

  18. Tuberculoid leprosy masquerading as systemic lupus erythematosus: an interesting observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay; Kumavat, Shrikant; Pawar, Manoj; Desai, Dipti

    2017-09-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infectious multisystem disease that may present with protean manifestations. It mimics many systemic and dermatological disorders. Here we report a case in which an elderly female presented with malar rash, intermittent fever, and arthralgia. Her diagnosis was significantly delayed due to a close clinical resemblance to systemic lupus erythematosus. It is important to be aware of such manifestations of leprosy and improve awareness of it in clinicians to avoid misdiagnosis and delay in treatment.

  19. Parts of the Whole: Observing the State of the System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This column draws on the approach of statistician J. Edwards Deming to analyze sources and consequences of variation in an education system. Educational systems are not immune from the effects of poor statistical control, which makes it difficult for teachers to teach effectively and for managers such as principals to improve on school performance. It is also argued that the need for statistical control in these areas is in tension, if not outright conflict, with our goals for educating students.

  20. JACOS: AI-based simulation system for man-machine system behavior in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Yokobayashi, Masao; Tanabe, Fumiya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawase, Katsumi [CSK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Komiya, Akitoshi [Computer Associated Laboratory, Inc., Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    A prototype of a computer simulation system named JACOS (JAERI COgnitive Simulation system) has been developed at JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) to simulate the man-machine system behavior in which both the cognitive behavior of a human operator and the plant behavior affect each other. The objectives of this system development is to provide man-machine system analysts with detailed information on the cognitive process of an operator and the plant behavior affected by operator's actions in accidental situations of a nuclear power plant. The simulation system consists of an operator model and a plant model which are coupled dynamically. The operator model simulates an operator's cognitive behavior in accidental situations based on the decision ladder model of Rasmussen, and is implemented using the AI-techniques of the distributed cooperative inference method with the so-called blackboard architecture. Rule-based behavior is simulated using knowledge representation with If-Then type of rules. Knowledge-based behavior is simulated using knowledge representation with MFM (Multilevel Flow Modeling) and qualitative reasoning method. Cognitive characteristics of attentional narrowing, limitation of short-term memory, and knowledge recalling from long-term memory are also taken into account. The plant model of a 3-loop PWR is also developed using a best estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis code RELAP5/MOD2. This report is prepared as User's Manual for JACOS. The first chapter of this report describes both operator and plant models in detail. The second chapter includes instructive descriptions for program installation, building of a knowledge base for operator model, execution of simulation and analysis of simulation results. The examples of simulation with JACOS are shown in the third chapter. (author)