WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral observation system

  1. Development of solution behavior observation system under criticality accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution behavior observation system was developed for observing the behavior of fissile solution and radiolytic voids under criticality accident conditions in TRACY. The system consisted of a radiation-resistive optical fiberscope and a CCD color video camera. The system functioned properly in the mixed high radiation fields of gamma rays and neutrons under criticality accident conditions, and it succeeded in taking the images of their behavior. They provide an important information to understand phenomena of fuel solution at criticality accidents and to construct computational kinetic models. The images can also be used as teaching materials for plant workers and students in universities. (author)

  2. Naturalistic Observation of Behavior: A Model System Using Mice in a Colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Harold A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes exercises designed to give students experience in using methods of naturalistic observation to quantify behavior. Students construct a coding system of the behaviors observed in a small mouse colony, gather data by instantaneous and focal animal sampling, and use the data to calculate interrater reliability and sequence analysis. (GEA)

  3. Differentiating Bulimic-Anorexic from Normal Families Using Interpersonal and Behavioral Observational Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Compared interpersonal and behavioral observational systems in their ability to differentiate families with a bulimic-anorexic daughter using the modified Marital Interaction Coding System (MICS) and the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB). Results showed both measures successfully discriminated between groups, accounting for…

  4. Direct Observation of Formation Behavior of Metal Emulsion in Sn/Salt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hironori; Liu, Jiang; Kim, Sun-Joong; Gao, Xu; Ueda, Shigeru; Maruoka, Nobuhiro; Ono, Shinpei; Kitamura, Shin-ya

    2016-08-01

    Using two systems with different interfacial tensions, the behavior of metal emulsions during bottom blowing was observed directly with a high-speed camera. The interfacial tension between molten salt (KCl-LiCl-NaCl) and molten Sn was measured by a pendant drop method, and it decreased to about 100 mN/m when the Te content in Sn increased from 0 to 0.5 pct. In both systems, two types of metal emulsion behaviors were observed. In Mode A, fine metal droplets were formed after the metal film ruptured at the interface. In Mode B, the formation of coarse droplets was observed after the disintegration of the column generated by the rising bubble, and the number of droplets increased with the gas flow rate compared to that in Mode A. The generating frequency of each mode revealed that Mode B became dominant with increasing gas flow rate. In the pure Sn/salt system, the numbers of droplets of Mode B showed a local maximum at high gas flow rates, but the numbers of droplets in Sn-0.5 pctTe/salt increased continuously even in the same flow range. Regarding the size distribution, the percentage of coarse metal droplets in the Sn-0.5 pctTe alloy/salt was larger than that in the pure Sn/salt. Furthermore, the effect of interfacial tension on the variation in surface area and volume of the droplets showed a similar tendency for the column height. Therefore, a decrement of the interfacial tension led to an increment of the column height when Mode B occurred and finally resulted in a higher interfacial area.

  5. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…

  6. Design and implementation of a behavior recognition and cloning system based on learning from observation

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Sobremazas, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different planned strategies. Behavior Recognition aims to identify which of the available strategies are carried out by the agent by simply observing the agent's actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The objective of Behavior Cloning is a bit more ambitious, since the learner must be able to act-alike the agent. In both problems, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set...

  7. Comparison of solidification behavior between in situ observation and simulation of Fe–C–Si system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In situ time resolved X-ray imaging was obtained for solidification of Fe–C–Si alloy. • The techniques provided quantitative data of evolution and proportion of phases. • Thermo-Calc. and DICTRA was used to simulate the alloy solidification process. • Real-time observations were compared with the results of the simulation. • Further evaluation of DICTRA kinetic databases will be required. - Abstract: Over the last few years, important advances have been made in the understanding and modelling of phase transformations of metallic alloys including (a) the coupling of phase equilibria and kinetics for computerised simulation of multicomponent alloys and (b) in situ time resolved X-ray imaging of phase transformations in real time. Both techniques can be complementary. However the quality of the simulation relies to a large extent on the accuracy of phase equilibria and diffusion data obtained from existing experimental studies. In situ X-ray techniques provide quantitative information on the evolution and proportion of phases, and can validate the thermodynamic/kinetic packages. This validation in-turn improves the computational models and databases. In the present work, the phase transformation in the Fe–C–Si system from liquid to γ-Fe and the reaction liquid ↔ γ-Fe + Cementite was observed by using X-ray imaging at SPring-8 synchrotron. The relationship between fraction solid and temperature was obtained from the generated SPring-8 images. The results are compared with computer simulation using Thermo-Calc. and DICTRA. A critical analysis compares the results of the simulation with the real-time observations of the phase transformation

  8. Experimental Observations of Multiscale Dynamics of Viscous Fluid Behavior: Implications in Volcanic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Spina, L.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of Newtonian fluids with viscosities (10-1000 Pa s; corresponding to mafic to intermediate silicate melts) during slow decompression, in a Plexiglas shock tube. As an analogue fluid we used silicon oil saturated with Argon gas for 72 hours. Slow decompression, dropping from 10 MPa to ambient pressure, acts as the excitation mechanism, initiating several processes with their own distinct timescales. The evolution of this multi-timescale phenomenon generates complex non-stationary microseismic signals, which have been recorded with 7 high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors located along the conduit. Correlation analysis of these time series with the associated high-speed imaging enables characterization of distinct phases of the dynamics of these viscous fluids and the extraction of the time and the frequency characteristics of the individual processes. We have identified fluid-solid elastic interaction, degassing, fluid mass expansion and flow, bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, foam building and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are sequentially coupled in time, occur within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution in space. Their coexistence and interactions constitute the stress field and driving forces that determine the dynamics of the system. Our observations point to the great potential of this experimental approach in the understanding of volcanic processes and volcanic seismicity.

  9. Quantitative study on experimentally observed poroelastic behavior of Berea sandstone in two-phase fluid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hiroki; Aichi, Masaatsu; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Yamamoto, Hajime; Ogawa, Toyokazu; Aoki, Tomoyuki

    2014-08-01

    Coupled two-phase fluid flow and poroelastic deformation of Berea sandstone is studied through laboratory experiment and numerical simulation. In the experiment, compressed air was infiltrated from the bottom of a water-saturated cylindrical Berea sandstone sample under hydrostatic external stress condition. Both axial and circumferential strains at half the height of the sample showed sudden extension and monotonic and gradual extension afterward. Numerical simulation based on thermodynamically consistent constitutive equations was conducted in order to quantitatively analyze the experimental results. In a simulation assuming isotropy of material properties, the volumetric discharge rate of water at the outlet and one of the axial, circumferential, and volumetric strains at half the height of the sample were reproduced well by each parameter set, while the other two strains were not. When introducing transverse isotropy, all the experimental data were reproduced well. In addition, the effect of saturation dependency of Bishop's effective stress coefficient on the deformation behavior of porous media was discussed, and it was found that strains, both axial and circumferential, are sensitive to the coefficient.

  10. Analysis of the Optimal Duration of Behavioral Observations Based on an Automated Continuous Monitoring System in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor: Is One Hour Good Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Z Lendvai

    Full Text Available Studies of animal behavior often rely on human observation, which introduces a number of limitations on sampling. Recent developments in automated logging of behaviors make it possible to circumvent some of these problems. Once verified for efficacy and accuracy, these automated systems can be used to determine optimal sampling regimes for behavioral studies. Here, we used a radio-frequency identification (RFID system to quantify parental effort in a bi-parental songbird species: the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor. We found that the accuracy of the RFID monitoring system was similar to that of video-recorded behavioral observations for quantifying parental visits. Using RFID monitoring, we also quantified the optimum duration of sampling periods for male and female parental effort by looking at the relationship between nest visit rates estimated from sampling periods with different durations and the total visit numbers for the day. The optimum sampling duration (the shortest observation time that explained the most variation in total daily visits per unit time was 1h for both sexes. These results show that RFID and other automated technologies can be used to quantify behavior when human observation is constrained, and the information from these monitoring technologies can be useful for evaluating the efficacy of human observation methods.

  11. Aerosol Observation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — The aerosol observation system (AOS) is the primary Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) platform for in situ aerosol measurements at the surface. The principal...

  12. Jupiter System Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senske, Dave; Kwok, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed mission for the Jupiter System Observer. The presentation also includes overviews of the mission timeline, science goals, and spacecraftspecifications for the satellite.

  13. Preliminary Psychometric Properties of an Observation System to Assess Teachers' Use of Effective Behavior Support Strategies in Preschool Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; Greiner, Andrew; Gera, Shradha; Linke, Stuart; Gormley, Matt; Buck, Melina

    2014-01-01

    Challenging behaviors are one of the most common concerns of early educators, and preschool teachers continue to report feeling unprepared to meet the needs of children displaying challenging behaviors. Overall, traditional standardized classroom assessments have evaluated global classroom quality, but they may not capture the reciprocal and…

  14. Observing System Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prive, Nikki

    2015-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). The components of an OSSE are described, along with discussion of the process for validating, calibrating, and performing experiments. a.

  15. Longline Observer Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LODS, the Hawaii Longline Observer Data System, is a complete suite of tools designed to collect, process, and manage quality fisheries data and information. Guided...

  16. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Feigel, Alexander; Engel, Assaf

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spiders, to predator inspection by sticklebacks and to territorial defense by lions, demonstrating animal behavior as a new type of game theoretical equilibrium. Games animals play may be derived unequivocally from their observable behavior, the reconstruction, however, can be subjected to fundamental limitations due to our inability to observe all information exchange mechanisms (communication).

  17. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Feigel, Alexander; Englander, Avraham; Engel, Assaf

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spi...

  18. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...... of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  19. Resident behaviors during observed pelvic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, F

    1990-01-01

    The pelvic exam is a procedure frequently complicated by difficult communication, sexual tension, and iatrogenic pain. Observations of family practice residents performing pelvic exams were done to identify ways in which they deal with these issues. Among the majority of residents, there was a failure to identify and deal with patients' discomfort. Several episodes of behavior felt to be dysfunctional to the doctor-patient relationship were observed. Implications of these findings for medical education are discussed. PMID:2323497

  20. The Singular Behavior of Jet Substructure Observables

    CERN Document Server

    Larkoski, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Jet substructure observables play a central role at the Large Hadron Collider for identifying the boosted hadronic decay products of electroweak scale resonances. The complete description of these observables requires understanding both the limit in which hard substructure is resolved, as well as the limit of a jet with a single hard core. In this paper we study in detail the perturbative structure of two prominent jet substructure observables, $N$-subjettiness and the energy correlation functions, as measured on background QCD jets. In particular, we focus on the distinction between the limits in which two-prong structure is resolved or unresolved. Depending on the choice of subjet axes, we demonstrate that at fixed order, $N$-subjettiness can manifest myriad behaviors in the unresolved region: smooth tails, end-point singularities, or singularities in the physical region. The energy correlation functions, by contrast, only have non-singular perturbative tails extending to the end point. We discuss the effec...

  1. OBSCAN Observer Scanning System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program deployed on commercial fishing vessels. After the data...

  2. Observation Scheduling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Software has been designed to schedule remote sensing with the Earth Observing One spacecraft. The software attempts to satisfy as many observation requests as possible considering each against spacecraft operation constraints such as data volume, thermal, pointing maneuvers, and others. More complex constraints such as temperature are approximated to enable efficient reasoning while keeping the spacecraft within safe limits. Other constraints are checked using an external software library. For example, an attitude control library is used to determine the feasibility of maneuvering between pairs of observations. This innovation can deal with a wide range of spacecraft constraints and solve large scale scheduling problems like hundreds of observations and thousands of combinations of observation sequences.

  3. Emergent behaviors of classifier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, S.; Miller, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some examples of emergent behavior in classifier systems, describes some recently developed methods for studying them based on dynamical systems theory, and presents some initial results produced by the methodology. The goal of this work is to find techniques for noticing when interesting emergent behaviors of classifier systems emerge, to study how such behaviors might emerge over time, and make suggestions for designing classifier systems that exhibit preferred behaviors. 20 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Observability of Inertial Navigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To improve the observability of strapdown inertial navigation system and the effectiveness of Kalman filter in the navigation system, the method of estimating the observability is analyzed based on eigenvalues and eigenvectors which are proved to be availabe, on this basis two-position alignment technigue is applied. The simulation shows that two-position alignment really makes the system's observability change from being incomplete to being complete, and the test method based on eigenvalues and eigenvectors is available to determine the observability of every state vector.

  5. Investigating Crickets: Observing Animal Exploratory Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    For curriculum content-related reasons, inquiry activities can be difficult in classrooms unless the activities are approached in a manner that makes variations among student group findings understandable in the context of the study. Studies of individual animals and plant reactions to stimuli, such as insect exploratory behavior, allow the…

  6. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  7. Observing Behavior and Atypically Restricted Stimulus Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, William V.; Dickson, Chata A.; Balsamo, Lyn M.; O'Donnell, Kristin Lombard; Tomanari, Gerson Y.; Farren, Kevin M.; Wheeler, Emily E.; McIlvane, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Restricted stimulus control refers to discrimination learning with atypical limitations in the range of controlling stimuli or stimulus features. In the study reported here, 4 normally capable individuals and 10 individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) performed two-sample delayed matching to sample. Sample-stimulus observing was recorded…

  8. Observing Animal Behavior at the Zoo: A Learning Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Debra B.

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate students in a learning laboratory course initially chose a species to study; researched that species' physical and behavioral characteristics; then learned skills necessary to select, operationalize, observe, and record animal behavior accurately. After their classroom preparation, students went to a local zoo to observe the behavior…

  9. Crayfish Behavior: Observing Arthropods to Learn about Science & Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    This is a set of animal behavior investigations in which students will practice scientific inquiry as they observe crayfish, ask questions, and discuss territoriality, social interactions, and other behaviors. In doing this, they hone their skills of observation, learn to record and analyze data, control for variables, write hypotheses, make…

  10. Classification systems for stalking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Christopher; Billick, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Stalking is a complex behavioral phenomenon that is unique in that it necessarily involves a prolonged dyadic relationship between both a perpetrator and a victim. Since criminalization of stalking behavior in the 1990s, different conceptual typologies have attempted to classify this behavior to assess risk and aid in management decisions. The authors reviewed the current literature regarding the most recent and accepted stalking classification systems. The three predominant stalker typologies currently in use include Zona's stalker-victim types, Mullen's stalker typology, and the RECON stalker typology. Of these, the RECON classification system alone was developed in an attempt to separate stalkers into groups based on previously known risk factors for behaviorally based phenomenon such as propensity for violence. Understanding and simplifying these classification systems may enhance the potential that new research will lead to evidence-based management and treatment strategies in the stalking situation. PMID:23980606

  11. The Global Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Dana

    1992-01-01

    A Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) should be established now with international coordination (1) to address issues of global change, (2) to implement operational ENSO forecasts, (3) to provide the data required to apply global ocean circulation models, and (4) to extract the greatest value from the one billion dollar investment over the next ten years in ocean remote sensing by the world's space agencies. The objectives of GOOS will focus on climatic and oceanic predictions, on assessing coastal pollution, and in determining the sustainability of living marine resources and ecosystems. GOOS will be a complete system including satellite observations, in situ observations, numerical modeling of ocean processes, and data exchange and management. A series of practical and economic benefits will be derived from the information generated by GOOS. In addition to the marine science community, these benefits will be realized by the energy industries of the world, and by the world's fisheries. The basic oceanic variables that are required to meet the oceanic and predictability objectives of GOOS include wind velocity over the ocean, sea surface temperature and salinity, oceanic profiles of temperature and salinity, surface current, sea level, the extent and thickness of sea ice, the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters, and the chlorophyll concentration of surface waters. Ocean circulation models and coupled ocean-atmosphere models can be used to evaluate observing system design, to assimilate diverse data sets from in situ and remotely sensed observations, and ultimately to predict future states of the system. The volume of ocean data will increase enormously over the next decade as new satellite systems are launched and as complementary in situ measuring systems are deployed. These data must be transmitted, quality controlled, exchanged, analyzed, and archived with the best state-of-the-art computational methods.

  12. Observations of the Middle School Environment: The Context for Student Behavior beyond the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusby, Julie C.; Crowley, Ryann; Sprague, Jeffrey; Biglan, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an observation system to measure middle school staff practices, environment characteristics, and student behavior in the school common areas. Data were collected at baseline from 18 middle schools participating in a randomized controlled trial of school-wide Positive Behavior Support. The observations were…

  13. Helping Behaviors: An Observational Study of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Dahlia F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined the stability and circumstances of helping behaviors of 51 children of 41-69 months in a preschool classroom. Frequency of helping behaviors was not correlated with age or sex and was not stable over four 10-minute observation periods. Most helping acts were performed during nonimaginary play. (RJC)

  14. Developing a Carbon Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B., III

    2015-12-01

    There is a clear need to better understand and predict future climate change, so that science can more confidently inform climate policy, including adaptation planning and future mitigation strategies. Understanding carbon cycle feedbacks, and the relationship between emissions (fossil and land use) and the resulting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations in a changing climate has been recognized as an important goal by the IPCC. The existing surface greenhouse gas observing networks provide accurate and precise measurements of background values, but they are not configured to target the extended, complex and dynamic regions of the carbon budget. Space Agencies around the globe are committed to CO2 and CH4 observations: GOSAT-1/2, OCO-2/3, MERLin, TanSat, and CarbonSat. In addition to these Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions, a new mission in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), geoCARB, which would provide mapping-like measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide concentrations over major land areas, has been recently proposed to the NASA Venture Program. These pioneering missions do not provide the spatial/temporal coverage to answer the key carbon-climate questions at process relevant scales nor do they address the distribution and quantification of anthropogenic sources at urban scales. They do demonstrate, however, that a well-planned future system of system integrating space-based LEO and GEO missions with extensive in situ observations could provide the accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage needed to address critical open issues in the carbon-climate system. Dr. Diana Wickland devoted enormous energy in developing a comprehensive apprioach to understand the global carbon cycle; she understood well that an integrated, coordinated, international approach is needed. This shines through in her recent contribution in co-chairing the team that produced the "CEOS Strategy for Carbon Observations from Space." A NASA-funded community

  15. Climate Observing Systems: Data System Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, T. R.

    2001-12-01

    Existing observing and data systems have provided considerable information about past climate variations and changes. The recent reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the National Research Council, and the USGCRP National Assessment of Climate Variability and Change are testaments to a vast array of knowledge. These reports also expose some serious deficiencies in our ability to discern past climate variations and change which lead to substantial uncertainties in key climate state, climate feedback, and climate forcing variables. How significant are these uncertainties? For climate trends that have our highest confidence, like the change in mean global surface temperature, the 95 percent confidence intervals amount to about two-thirds of the calculated change. With such large uncertainties it is exceedingly difficult to discern accelerated changes. For other variables, especially variables related to climate feedbacks and forcings (with exceptions for long-lived and well-mixed greenhouse gases like CO2 or CH4) or climate and weather extremes, we often have little or no information to discern trends or cannot objectively assess confidence intervals. Do we know how to reduce existing uncertainties? First and foremost, a climate observation oversight and monitoring capability is needed that tracks the gathering of the data, the processing system, and the performance of the observations, especially time-dependent biases. An organized capability does not now exist, but could be developed at a new and/or existing centers. This center(s) should then have the means and influence to fix problems and be able to establish requirements for new in-situ and satellite observing including related data systems. Such a capability should complement the following: (1) Climate observations from both space-based and in-situ platforms that are taken in ways that address climate needs and adhere to the ten principles outlined by the NRC (1999 Adequacy of Climate

  16. System design for distributed adaptive observation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ditzel, M.; Kester, L.J.H.M.; Broek, S.P. van den

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is no clear-cut approach or design methodology available for designing distributed adaptive observation systems, partly due to the necessity to combine elements and approaches from several technological and scientific communities. Recently, an effort was made addressing this issue i

  17. NOAO observing proposal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David J.; Gasson, David; Hartman, Mia

    2002-12-01

    Since going electronic in 1994, NOAO has continued to refine and enhance its observing proposal handling system. Virtually all related processes are now handled electronically. Members of the astronomical community can submit proposals through email, web form or via Gemini's downloadable Phase-I Tool. NOAO staff can use online interfaces for administrative tasks, technical reviews, telescope scheduling, and compilation of various statistics. In addition, all information relevant to the TAC process is made available online. The system, now known as ANDES, is designed as a thin-client architecture (web pages are now used for almost all database functions) built using open source tools (FreeBSD, Apache, MySQL, Perl, PHP) to process descriptively-marked (LaTeX, XML) proposal documents.

  18. Motor resonance evoked by observation of subtle nonverbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ulzen, Niek R; Fiorio, Mirta; Cesari, Paola

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to combine two, otherwise separated, fields of research regarding motor resonance and mimicry by adopting a naturalistic mimicry paradigm while probing motor resonance with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). At stake was whether the motor system resonates instantaneously with unobtrusive nonverbal behavior of another person. We measured excitability in the left and right hand while participants viewed sequences of video clips and static images. In the video clips an actor performed several clerical tasks, while either inconspicuously touching his face (face-touching (FT) condition) or not (no face-touching (NFT) condition). We found that excitability was higher in the FT condition than in the NFT and baseline conditions. Furthermore, our data showed a general heightened excitability in the left motor cortex relative to the right. Taken together, the results suggest that observed hand-face gestures--even though outside the primary focus of attention and occurring inconspicuously throughout an ongoing action setting--can cause instantaneous resonant activity in the observer's motor system. It thus supports the idea of motor resonance involvement in mimicry and demonstrates that this can be studied using a naturalistic mimicry paradigm. PMID:23758553

  19. The Limiting Behavior for Observations That Change with Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuyun WANG; Zhengyan LIN

    2007-01-01

    Consider a system where units have random magnitude entering according to a homogeneous or nonhomogeneous Poisson process, while in the system, a unit's magnitude may change with time. In this paper, the authors obtain some results for the limiting behavior of the sum process of all unit magnitudes present in the system at time t.

  20. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  1. Evaluation of a Computer-Based Recruitment System for Enrolling Men Who Have Sex With Men Into an Observational HIV Behavioral Risk Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropour, Christine M; Dombrowksi, Julia C; Hughes, James P; Manhart, Lisa E; Golden, Matthew R

    2016-09-15

    Enrolling large numbers of high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies is necessary for research with an HIV outcome, but the resources required for in-person recruitment can be prohibitive. New methods with which to efficiently recruit large samples of MSM are needed. At a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Seattle, Washington, in 2013-2014, we used an existing clinical computer-assisted self-interview that collects patients' medical and sexual history data to recruit, screen, and enroll MSM into an HIV behavioral risk study and compared enrollees with men who declined to enroll. After completing the clinical computer-assisted self-interview, men aged ≥18 years who reported having had sex with men in the prior year were presented with an electronic study description and consent statement. We enrolled men at 2,661 (54%) of 4,944 visits, including 1,748 unique individuals. Enrolled men were younger (mean age = 34 years vs. 37 years; P ideal population for an HIV prevention study. PMID:27608663

  2. OBPRELIM Observer Preliminary Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program and Industry Funded Scallop Program deployed on...

  3. Providers' response to child eating behaviors: A direct observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Vaughn, Amber E; Fallon, Megan; Hennessy, Erin; Burney, Regan; Østbye, Truls; Ward, Dianne S

    2016-10-01

    Child care providers play an important role in feeding young children, yet little is known about children's influence on providers' feeding practices. This qualitative study examines provider and child (18 months -4 years) feeding interactions. Trained data collectors observed 200 eating occasions in 48 family child care homes and recorded providers' responses to children's meal and snack time behaviors. Child behaviors initiating provider feeding practices were identified and practices were coded according to higher order constructs identified in a recent feeding practices content map. Analysis examined the most common feeding practices providers used to respond to each child behavior. Providers were predominately female (100%), African-American (75%), and obese (77%) and a third of children were overweight/obese (33%). Commonly observed child behaviors were: verbal and non-verbal refusals, verbal and non-verbal acceptance, being "all done", attempts for praise/attention, and asking for seconds. Children's acceptance of food elicited more autonomy supportive practices vs. coercive controlling. Requests for seconds was the most common behavior, resulting in coercive controlling practices (e.g., insisting child eat certain food or clean plate). Future interventions should train providers on responding to children's behaviors and helping children become more aware of internal satiety and hunger cues. PMID:27328098

  4. First testing of an AUV mission planning and guidance system for water quality monitoring and fish behavior observation in net cage fish farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Karimanzira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, underwater vehicles have become low cost, reliable and affordable platforms for performing various underwater tasks. While many aquaculture systems are closed with no harmful output, open net cage fish farms and land-based fish farms can discharge significant amounts of wastewater containing nutrients, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals that impact on the surrounding environment. Although aquaculture development has often occurred outside a regulatory framework, government oversight is increasingly common at both the seafood quality control level, and at baseline initiatives addressing the basic problem of pollution generated by culture operations, e.g. the European marine and maritime directives. This requires regular, sustainable and cost-effective monitoring of the water quality. Such monitoring needs devices to detect the water quality in a large sea area at different depths in real time. This paper presents a concept for a guidance system for a carrier (an autonomous underwater vehicle of such devices for the automated detection and analysis of water quality parameters.

  5. Job Demands, Productivity, and Type A Behavior: An Observational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmeyer, Sandra L.

    Previous research has shown that Type As appraise their jobs as more demanding than do Type Bs, yet few studies have measured actual job demands. This prospective, observational study of police radio dispatchers (N=72) examined Type A behavior as a predictor of source of work demands, volume of work activity, whether work begun was finished, and…

  6. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  7. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NGOs Protective Factors Parent Engagement School Connectedness Positive Parenting Practices Sexual Risk Behaviors Program Evaluation Evaluations of ... including— Behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence Sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually ...

  8. Size-dependent redox behavior of iron observed by in-situ single nanoparticle spectro-microscopy on well-defined model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Waiz; Kleibert, Armin; Hartfelder, Urs; Balan, Ana; Gobrecht, Jens; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the chemistry of nanoparticles is crucial in many applications. Their synthesis in a controlled manner and their characterization at the single particle level is essential to gain deeper insight into chemical mechanisms. In this work, single nanoparticle spectro-microscopy with top-down nanofabrication is demonstrated to study individual iron nanoparticles of nine different lateral dimensions from 80 nm down to 6 nm. The particles are probed simultaneously, under same conditions, during in-situ redox reaction using X-ray photoemission electron microscopy elucidating the size effect during the early stage of oxidation, yielding time-dependent evolution of iron oxides and the mechanism for the inter-conversion of oxides in nanoparticles. Fabrication of well-defined system followed by visualization and investigation of singled-out particles eliminates the ambiguities emerging from dispersed nanoparticles and reveals a significant increase in the initial rate of oxidation with decreasing size, but the reactivity per active site basis and the intrinsic chemical properties in the particles remain the same in the scale of interest. This advance of nanopatterning together with spatially-resolved single nanoparticle X-ray absorption spectroscopy will guide future discourse in understanding the impact of confinement of metal nanoparticles and pave way to solve fundamental questions in material science, chemical physics, magnetism, nanomedicine and nanocatalysis.

  9. Validation of a behavioral observation tool to assess pig welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, D; Verbeke, G; Mormède, P; Geers, R

    2006-10-30

    Accurately measuring and monitoring of animal behavior is an important factor when assessing on-farm animal welfare. First we developed a feasible and simple method aiming at consistently on-farm measuring of pig's behavior. This test should cover a broad range of welfare-related pig behavior. The reaction towards a novel object, startling, tail and ear biting, play and aggressive behavior, stereotypies, coughing, sneezing, skin lesions, defecation, urination and cleanliness of body and pen are included. The development of accurate measures of on-farm behavior first requires the reliability assessment of the procedure. Therefore, the methodology was tested in a first part by three observers scoring simultaneously and independently pre-defined behavioral characteristics of 108 group-housed fattening pigs. The inter-observer repeatability of the measures was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients, which ranged from 0.7 to 1. In a second part, the objective was to validate the behavioral characteristics against salivary cortisol, urinary epinephrine and norepinephrine and production traits. Salivary cortisol concentrations significantly increased in ear-bitten pigs and in pigs with tail lesions. Growth rate significantly dropped when cortisol levels rose. An age effect was also found. The percentage of animals approaching the novel object is positively correlated with the urinary epinephrine concentration. Pigs defecating during the test showed significantly higher epinephrine levels. Urinary norepinephrine concentration decreased significantly with age. Faster growing animals and animals with tail lesions showed significantly higher levels of norepinephrine. Pen dirtiness and number of animals per pen were associated with higher norepinephrine concentrations. Finally, barrows had higher norepinephrine concentrations than sows. PMID:16904137

  10. System Identification with Quantized Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Le Yi; Zhang, Jifeng; Zhao, Yanlong

    2010-01-01

    This book presents recently developed methodologies that utilize quantized information in system identification and explores their potential in extending control capabilities for systems with limited sensor information or networked systems. The results of these methodologies can be applied to signal processing and control design of communication and computer networks, sensor networks, mobile agents, coordinated data fusion, remote sensing, telemedicine, and other fields in which noise-corrupted quantized data need to be processed. Providing a comprehensive coverage of quantized identification,

  11. Exponential Observers for Lotka-Volterra Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. V. Sundarapandian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper solves the exponential observer design problem for Lotka-Volterra systems. Explicitly, Sundarapandian’s theorem (2002 for observer design for exponential observer design is used to solve the nonlinear observer design problem for 2-species, 3-species and 4-species Lotka-Volterra systems. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed exponential observer design for the Lotka-Volterra systems.

  12. Observers for a Class of Chaotic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ping

    2006-01-01

    The design of observers for a class of practical physical chaotic systems is discussed.By using only one state variable and its time derivatives,a control law is constructed to achieve the synchronization between the investigated chaotic systems and their observers,and the results are proved theoretically.Several observers of chaotic systems are designed by using this method.

  13. A behavior- and observation-based monitoring process for safety management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Cesar F; Frutuoso E Melo, Paulo Fernando F

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a combination of a behavior-based monitoring process--using an at-risk behavior and unsafe condition observation system--and an observation-based safety adherence monitoring process that can indicate the compliance level with well-defined and agreed safety critical aspects and operational practices and procedures will be an effective safety management tool. This tool herein described represents a particular case, developed by a Praxair Inc. subsidiary in Brazil. Other safety surveillance systems usually adopted in industrial environments can rarely be used on construction sites. They also do not share information, knowledge and skills among the safety staff and other professionals invited to observe, usually covering specific tasks or specific professionals only, not a complete working area, which causes functional observing and monitoring limitations in terms of capturing behaviors and environmental safety issues. This tool also offers a wide range of learning opportunities and continuous improvement.

  14. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  15. Functional observers for motion control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, Eray Abdurrahman; Golubovic, Edin; Şabanoviç, Asif; Sabanovic, Asif

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel functional observer for motion control systems to provide higher accuracy and less noise in comparison to existing observers. The observer uses the input current and position information along with the nominal parameters of the plant and can observe the velocity, acceleration and disturbance information of the system. The novelty of the observer is based on its functional structure that can intrinsically estimate and compensate the un-measured inputs (like disturba...

  16. Behavioral and TMS Markers of Action Observation Might Reflect Distinct Neuronal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hétu, Sébastien; Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Jackson, Philip L.; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, 14 healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus–response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus–response compatibility task. Contrary to a widespread assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings. PMID:27683548

  17. Behavioral and TMS Markers of Action Observation Might Reflect Distinct Neuronal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hétu, Sébastien; Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Jackson, Philip L; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, 14 healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus-response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus-response compatibility task. Contrary to a widespread assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings.

  18. Microstructure observation and mechanical behavior modeling for limnetic nacre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuchun Zuo; Yueguang Wei

    2008-01-01

    In the present research,microstructure of a kind of limnetic shell(Hyriopsis cumingii)is observed and measured by using the scanning electron microscopy,and mechanical behavior experiments of the shell nacre are carried out by using bending and tensile tests.The dependence of mechanical properties of the shell nacre on its microstructure is analyzed by using a modified shear-lag model,and the overall stress-strain relation is obtained.The experimental results reveal that the mechanical properties of shell nacre strongly depend on the water contents of the limnetic shell.Dry nacre shows a brittle behavior,whereas wetting nacre displays a strong ductility.Compared to the tensile test,the bending test overestimates the strength and underestimates the Young's modulus.The modified shear-lag model can characterize the deformation features of nacre effectively.

  19. Chaotic Behavior in a Switched Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassane Bouzahir

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study of an example of piecewise linear systems that constitute a class of hybrid systems. Precisely, we study the chaotic dynamics of the voltage-mode controlled buck converter circuit in an open loop. By considering the voltage input as a bifurcation parameter, we observe that the obtained simulations show that the buck converter is prone to have subharmonic behavior and chaos. We also present the corresponding bifurcation diagram. Our modeling techniques are based on the new French native modeler and simulator for hybrid systems called Scicos (Scilab connected object simulator which is a Scilab (scientific laboratory package. The followed approach takes into account the hybrid nature of the circuit.

  20. Observability conditions of switched linear singular systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin MENG; Jifeng ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    The observability problem of switched linear singular(SLS) systems is studied in this paper. Based on the observability definition, the unobservable subspaces of given switching laws are investigated under the condition that all subsystems are regular. A necessary condition and a sufficient condition for observability of SLS systems are given. It is shown that the observability and controllability are dual for some special SLS systems with circulatory switching laws. The method developed here is applicable to the observability analysis of normal switched linear systems.

  1. Designing a System for Observation of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on observation of teaching in a Higher Education (HE) context with a view to proposing some guidelines for the design and practice of institutional systems to observe teaching. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review and a proposed model for a system of observation of teaching…

  2. A behavioral approach to singular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lomadze, V.; Ravi, M.S.; Rosenthal, J.; Schumacher, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The notion of behaviors introduced by Willems gives a good description of dynamical systems without reference to any particular representation of the system in terms of equations. In this note, we introduce a notion of behaviors that allows us to describe singular systems in a very natural way. The

  3. Observation of sine modulated Bessel behavior in microwave biased SQUIDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amplitudes of the signal lobes (Bessel Maxima) observed in several types of thin film SQUIDs excited at 9.2 GHz exhibit pronounced periodic intensity modulation. This behavior is consistent with the simplified flux entry model proposed by Mercereau in the limit of tau approximately T, where T is the shortest time between successive flux entry into loop and tau is the flux passage time. From the results, tau was deduced to be approximately 1012 seconds for both proximity effect and narrow constriction devices

  4. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  5. Observing System Simulation Experiments for Fun and Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prive, Nikki C.

    2015-01-01

    Observing System Simulation Experiments can be powerful tools for evaluating and exploring both the behavior of data assimilation systems and the potential impacts of future observing systems. With great power comes great responsibility - given a pure modeling framework, how can we be sure our results are meaningful? The challenges and pitfalls of OSSE calibration and validation will be addressed, as well as issues of incestuousness, selection of appropriate metrics, and experiment design. The use of idealized observational networks to investigate theoretical ideas in a fully complex modeling framework will also be discussed

  6. Input-output equations and observability for polynomial delay systems

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, K; Habets, LCGJM Luc

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses and strengthens a result by Fliess (1988) about input-output equations for polynomial systems with time delays. The proof given is more detailed and it opens the way for constructive methods for determining the input-output behavior. A method based on Grobner's approach is described in detail. Furthermore, some connections with observability are exploited.

  7. Response-Specific Effects of Pain Observation on Motor Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, India; Poliakoff, Ellen; Gordon, Lucy; Downing, Paul

    2007-01-01

    How does seeing a painful event happening to someone else influence the observer's own motor system? To address this question, we measured simple reaction times following videos showing noxious or innocuous implements contacting corporeal or noncorporeal objects. Key releases in a go/nogo task were speeded, and key presses slowed, after subjects…

  8. Observing System Simulation Experiments: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prive, Nikki C.; Errico, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    An overview of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) will be given, with focus on calibration and validation of OSSE frameworks. Pitfalls and practice will be discussed, including observation error characteristics, incestuousness, and experimental design. The potential use of OSSEs for investigation of the behaviour of data assimilation systems will be explored, including some results from experiments using the NASAGMAO OSSE.

  9. Building a global observing system for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholes, R.J.; Walters, M.; Turak, E.; Saarenmaa, H.; Heip, C.H.R.; Tuama, E.Ó.; Faith, D.P.; Mooney, H.A.; Ferrier, S.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Harrison, I.J.; Yahara, T.; Pereira, H.M.; Larigauderie, A.; Geller, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) has been in formal existence for three years, following several years of design and discussion. It is the realisation of the biodiversity societal benefit area envisaged in the GEO System of Systems (GEOSS). GEO BON links tog

  10. Jefferson Teamwork Observation Guide (JTOG): An Instrument to Observe Teamwork Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kevin J; Giordano, Carolyn; Speakman, Elizabeth; Smith, Kellie; Horowitz, June A

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming an integral part of the education of health professions students. However, teaching students to become successful members of interprofessional teams is complex, and it is important for students to learn the combinations of skills necessary for teams to function effectively. There are many instruments available to measure many features related to IPE. However, these instruments are often too cumbersome to use in an observational situation since they tend to be lengthy and contain many abstract characteristics that are difficult to identify. The Jefferson Teamwork Observation Guide (JTOG) is a short tool that was created for students early in their educational program to observe teams in action with a set of guidelines to help them focus their observation on behaviors indicative of good teamwork. The JTOG was developed over a 2-year period based on student and clinician feedback and the input of experts in IPE. While initially developed as a purely educational tool for prelicensure students, it is becoming clear that it is an easy-to-use instrument that assesses the behavior of clinicians in practice.

  11. Phoenix Mars Scout Parachute Flight Behavior and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Douglas S.; Witkowski, Allen; Kandis, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The data returned from the successful Phoenix Mars Scout mission are analyzed in order to determine characteristics and behaviors of the supersonic parachute that was used to slow the entry body during its descent to the surface. At least one significant drag reduction event was observed when the vehicle was traveling at Mach 1.6; this is consistent with previously reported terrestrial high altitude testing and is likely associated with an area oscillation of the parachute. The parachute is shown to possess some lateral instability relative to the anti-velocity vector that is also at a level that is consistent with the same historic data. Ramifications of the lateral instability and, in particular, the unsteadiness in the parachute drag are discussed as energizing elements of the entry body wrist mode. The apparent coefficient of drag for the parachute is calculated and shown to have relatively small variations on an average basis over the supersonic portion of flight.

  12. The Allen Telescope Array Commensal Observing System

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Peter K G

    2012-01-01

    This memo describes the system used to conduct commensal correlator and beamformer observations at the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). This system was deployed for ~2 years until the ATA hibernation in 2011 and was responsible for collecting >5 TB of data during thousands of hours of observations. The general system design is presented and the implementation is discussed in detail. I emphasize the rationale for various design decisions and attempt to document a few aspects of ATA operations that might not be obvious to non-insiders. I close with some recommendations from my experience developing the software infrastructure and managing the correlator observations. These include: reuse existing systems; solve, don't avoid, tensions between projects, and share infrastructure; plan to make standalone observations to complement the commensal ones; and be considerate of observatory staff when deploying new and unusual observing modes. The structure of the software codebase is documented.

  13. A Big-Data-based platform of workers' behavior: Observations from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S Y; Ding, L Y; Luo, H B; Jiang, X Y

    2016-08-01

    Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) has been used in construction to observe, analyze and modify workers' behavior. However, studies have identified that BBS has several limitations, which have hindered its effective implementation. To mitigate the negative impact of BBS, this paper uses a case study approach to develop a Big-Data-based platform to classify, collect and store data about workers' unsafe behavior that is derived from a metro construction project. In developing the platform, three processes were undertaken: (1) a behavioral risk knowledge base was established; (2) images reflecting workers' unsafe behavior were collected from intelligent video surveillance and mobile application; and (3) images with semantic information were stored via a Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). The platform was implemented during the construction of the metro-system and it is demonstrated that it can effectively analyze semantic information contained in images, automatically extract workers' unsafe behavior and quickly retrieve on HDFS as well. The research presented in this paper can enable construction organizations with the ability to visualize unsafe acts in real-time and further identify patterns of behavior that can jeopardize safety outcomes. PMID:26614050

  14. Probabilistic System Summaries for Behavior Architecting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borth, M.

    2015-01-01

    Smart system of systems adapt to their context, current situation, and configuration. To engineer such systems’ behavior, we need to design and eval-uate system-level control strategies and the intelligent management of key scenarios. We propose a model-based approach called probabilistic system sum

  15. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  16. Evidence for phase transitional behavior of even-even nuclei from differential observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following recent discussions of critical phase transitional behavior of nuclei, additional data are collected and used to test if there is further evidence supporting such phenomena. Data from nuclear masses, radii, and E2 transition rates are used to construct differential observables. Inspection of these for the rare earth region shows that they exhibit the characteristic phase transitional behavior found in condensed matter and thermodynamic systems, namely, nearly constant values before the critical point, and a sharp change in the critical region, followed by a different set of values after the critical point

  17. Food Abstention, Religious Observance and Prosocial Behavior: Evidence from Ramadan

    OpenAIRE

    Haruvy, Ernan; Ioannou, Christos A.; Golshirazi, Farnoush

    2015-01-01

    Does food intake affect prosocial behavior? Extant knowledge suggests that food intake increases prosocial behavior. But this may not be universally true, especially when religious fasting holidays are concerned. We investigate experimentally the impact of religious fasting in the Islamic holy month of Ramadan on prosocial behavior. Our sample consists of male factory workers in a manufacturing facility in Iran. Each worker is asked to allocate an amount of money between himself and a strange...

  18. Controllability and Observability Criteria for Linear Piecewise Constant Impulsive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive differential systems are an important class of mathematical models for many practical systems in physics, chemistry, biology, engineering, and information science that exhibit impulsive dynamical behaviors due to abrupt changes at certain instants during the dynamical processes. This paper studies the controllability and observability of linear piecewise constant impulsive systems. Necessary and sufficient criteria for reachability and controllability are established, respectively. It is proved that the reachability is equivalent to the controllability under some mild conditions. Then, necessary and sufficient criteria for observability and determinability of such systems are established, respectively. It is also proved that the observability is equivalent to the determinability under some mild conditions. Our criteria are of the geometric type, and they can be transformed into algebraic type conveniently. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the utility of our criteria.

  19. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systemssystems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  20. Multiscale Behavior of Viscous Fluids Dynamics: Experimental Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Spina, Laura; Scheu, Bettina; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of Newtonian fluids with viscosities of mafic to intermediate silicate melts (10-1000 Pa s) during slow decompression present multi-time scale processes. To observe these processes we have performed several experiments on silicon oil saturated with Argon gas for 72 hours, in a Plexiglas autoclave. The slow decompression, dropping from 10 MPa to ambient pressure, acting as the excitation mechanism, triggered several processes with their own distinct timescales. These processes generate complex non-stationary microseismic signals, which have been recorded with 7 high-dynamic piezoelectric sensors located along the conduit flanked by high-speed video recordings. The analysis in time and frequency of these time series and their correlation with the associated high-speed imaging enables the characterization of distinct phases and the extraction of the individual processes during the evolution of decompression of these viscous fluids. We have observed fluid-solid elastic interaction, degassing, fluid mass expansion and flow, bubble nucleation, growth, coalescence and collapse, foam building and vertical wagging. All these processes (in fine and coarse scales) are sequentially coupled in time, occur within specific pressure intervals, and exhibit a localized distribution along the conduit. Their coexistence and interactions constitute the stress field and driving forces that determine the dynamics of the conduit system. Our observations point to the great potential of this experimental approach in the understanding of volcanic conduit dynamics and volcanic seismicity.

  1. Earth Observation Missions at OHB System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobehn, C.; Penné, B.; Kassebom, M.; Ziegler, B.; Mahal, S.; Greinacher, R.; Holsten, S.; Borowy, C.

    2008-08-01

    This paper covers the current OHB-System AG activities in the field of Earth Observation with small satellites ranging from science and research towards commercial and security missions. Very highresolution, multi-spectral, hyperspectral, as well as very high resolution SAR mission concepts are presented including the following projects: The SAR-Lupe constellation generates very high resolution SAR images for military reconnaissance purposes. It is developed by OHB-System and reaches full in-orbit deployment in 2008. EnMAP - featuring an innovative hyperspectral sensor systems for the detailed and global analysis of eco-system parameters. Very high resolution SAR and Optical Constellations of 1m resolution are currently investigated for emergency response and disaster management, which require a fast system response-time. Data Relay from GEO relaxes the typical EO bottle-neck in downloading data. Therefore it enables an increase of LEO observation time and reduces image ageing as well as system response time by direct EO satellite tasking. Ocean-Colour from GEO shall be a sustainable source for intra-daily observations of coastal zones for environment monitoring, fishery management and coastal water pollution. Next Generation very high resolution missions below 1m resolution are proposed for reconnaissance and dual-use applications for commercial customers. New services and products are under development for a range of applications, including hyperspectral data exploitation, data fusion with in-situ systems for maritime environment, security as well as for air quality services. The realisation of an end-user oriented infrastructure - including space and ground segment - for commercial Earth observation is a key element of OHB-System's Earth observation activities.

  2. Observed benefits from product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Mortensen, Niels Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... processes, on-time delivery of the specifica-tions, and resource consumption for making specifications, quality of specifications, optimization of products and services, and other observations. The purpose of the study is partly to identify specific impacts observed from implementing product configuration...... systems in industry companies and partly to assess if the objectives suggested are appropriate for describing the impact of product configuration systems and identifying other possible objectives. The empirical study of the com-panies also gives an indication of more overall performance indicators being...

  3. Behaviorally Mediated Larval Transport in Upwelling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Highly advective upwelling systems along the western margins of continents are widely believed to transport larvae far offshore in surface currents resulting in larval wastage, limited recruitment, and increased population connectivity. However, suites of larval behaviors effectively mediate interspecific differences in the extent of cross-shelf migrations between nearshore adult habitats and offshore larval habitats. Interspecific differences in behavior determining whether larvae complete d...

  4. Smoking Behaviors Among Cancer Survivors: An Observational Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Lola; Miller, Lesley-Ann; Saad, Ayman; Abraham, Jame

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that smoking can adversely affect the outcomes of different modalities of cancer treatment. This study looks at smoking behaviors among cancer survivors to collect necessary information to create successful smoking cessation interventions.

  5. Introduction to Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prive, Nikki C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation gives a brief overview of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs), including what OSSEs are, and how and why they are performed. The intent is to educate the audience in light of the OSSE-related sections of the Forecast Improvement Act (H.R. 2413).

  6. ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVING SYSTEM OVER THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. BHATTACHARYA,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The astronomical instruments over the electromagnetic spectrum that had been brought towards perfection owing to sudden arrival of radio astronomy are outlined. Improved techniques of observations from space,in situ exploration of the solar system as well as the advent of computer technologies have directed lines of new possibilities, which have been critically examined.

  7. Development of China Digital Seismological Observational Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑞丰; 吴忠良; 阴朝民; 陈运泰; 庄灿涛

    2003-01-01

    Development of China Digital Seismological Observational Systems during 1996~2000 and the Capital Circle Area Seismograph Network during 1999~2001 are introduced, and the station distributions, instruments used, main tasks of National Digital Seismograph Network, Regional Digital Seismograph Network and Portable Digital Seismograph Network are introduced chiefly.

  8. TRICLOBS portable triband color lowlight observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    We present the design and first test results of the TRICLOBS (TRI-band Color Low-light OBServation) system The TRICLOBS is an all-day all-weather surveillance and navigation tool. Its sensor suite consists of two digital image intensifiers (Photonis ICU's) and an uncooled longwave infrared microbolo

  9. Corticospinal Excitability during the Observation of Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchioni, Giulia; Cavallo, Andrea; Ippolito, Davide; Marton, Gianluca; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the observation of an action induces in the observers an enhancement of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded by the observer's muscles corresponding to those involved in the observed action. Although this is a well-studied phenomenon, it remains still unclear how the viewer's motor facilitation is influenced by the social…

  10. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  11. GENERAL EARTHQUAKE-OBSERVATION SYSTEM (GEOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Fletcher, Joe B.; Jensen, E.G.; Maxwell, G.L.; VanSchaack, J.R.; Warrick, R.E.; Cranswick, E.; Johnston, M.J.S.; McClearn, R.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor technology has permitted the development of a General Earthquake-Observation System (GEOS) useful for most seismic applications. Central-processing-unit control via robust software of system functions that are isolated on hardware modules permits field adaptability of the system to a wide variety of active and passive seismic experiments and straightforward modification for incorporation of improvements in technology. Various laboratory tests and numerous deployments of a set of the systems in the field have confirmed design goals, including: wide linear dynamic range (16 bit/96 dB); broad bandwidth (36 hr to 600 Hz; greater than 36 hr available); selectable sensor-type (accelerometer, seismometer, dilatometer); selectable channels (1 to 6); selectable record mode (continuous, preset, trigger); large data capacity (1. 4 to 60 Mbytes); selectable time standard (WWVB, master, manual); automatic self-calibration; simple field operation; full capability to adapt system in the field to a wide variety of experiments; low power; portability; and modest costs. System design goals for a microcomputer-controlled system with modular software and hardware components as implemented on the GEOS are presented. The systems have been deployed for 15 experiments, including: studies of near-source strong motion; high-frequency microearthquakes; crustal structure; down-hole wave propagation; teleseismicity; and earth-tidal strains.

  12. Verifying Embedded Systems using Component-based Runtime Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae; Angelov, Christo K.

    Formal verification methods, such as exhaustive model checking, are often infeasible because of high computational complexity. Runtime observers (monitors) provide an alternative, light-weight verification method, which offers a non-exhaustive yet feasible approach to monitoring system behavior...... against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers, which are configured from instances of prefabricated reusable components---Predicate Evaluator (PE) and Temporal Evaluator (TE). The PE computes atomic propositions for the TE; the latter...... is a reconfigurable component processing a data structure, representing the state transition diagram of a non-deterministic state machine, i.e. a Buchi automaton derived from a system property specified in Linear Temporal Logic (LTL). Observer components have been implemented using design models and design patterns...

  13. Uncontrollable dissipative systems: observability and embeddability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikalan, Selvaraj; Belur, Madhu N.; Athalye, Chirayu D.; Razak, Rihab Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The theory of dissipativity is well developed for controllable systems. A more appropriate definition of dissipativity in the context of uncontrollable systems is in terms of the existence of a storage function, namely a function such that, along every system trajectory, its rate of change at each time instant is at most the power supplied to the system at that time. However, even when the supplied power is expressible in terms of just the external variables, the dissipativity property for uncontrollable systems crucially hinges on whether or not the storage function depends on variables unobservable/hidden from the external variables: this paper investigates the key aspects of both cases, and also proposes another intuitive definition of dissipativity. These three definitions are compared: we show that drawbacks of one definition are addressed by another. Dealing first with observable storage functions, under the conditions that no two uncontrollable poles add to zero and that dissipativity is strict as frequency tends to infinity, we prove that the dissipativities of a system and its controllable part are equivalent. We use the behavioural approach for formalising key notions: a system behaviour is the set of all system trajectories. We prove that storage functions have to be unobservable for 'lossless' uncontrollable systems. It is known, however, that unobservable storage functions result in certain 'fallacious' examples of lossless systems. We propose an intuitive definition of dissipativity: a system/behaviour is called dissipative if it can be embedded in a controllable dissipative superbehaviour. We prove embeddability results and use them to resolve the fallacy in the example termed 'lossless' due to unobservable storage functions. We next show that, quite unreasonably, the embeddability definition admits behaviours that are both strictly dissipative and strictly antidissipative. Drawbacks of the embeddability definition in the context of RLC circuits are

  14. The Future of Southern Ocean Observing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the Southern Ocean's role in global climate from seasonal to millennial timescales is evolving, with rapidly increasing recognition of the centrality of the Southern Ocean to Earth's heat, carbon, nutrient, and freshwater budgets, and of the impact of interactions between the ocean and the major ice shelves and grounded ice sheets of Antarctica, which have been decreasing in mass. Observations in this data-sparse and logistically remote region have never been so important, and many nations are rising to the challenge of supporting both experiments and long-term sustained observations. As illustrated in the figure from Meredith et al. (Current Op. Env. Sustain. 2013), autonomous in situ technologies are at the fore because of the difficulty and expense of sending ships year-round and because the crucial satellite remote sensing must be accompanied by in situ observations, including beneath sea ice and ice shelves. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) has grown out of this recognized need for coordinated observations from the Antarctic coastline northward to the subtropics, from the bottom water production regions in coastal polynyas over the continental shelves, to the regions of interaction of warm ocean waters with Antarctic ice shelves, beneath the vast seasonal sea ice region, and in the hot spots of air-sea fluxes and cross-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) mixing where the ACC interacts with topography and continental boundaries. The future includes international coordination and collaboration and strengthening of new and existing technologies, which include satellite observing, ice-enabled profiling floats, profiling from marine mammals, moored measurements in many strategic locations, glider and other autonomous operations in all regions, and drilling through floating ice shelves to measure the ocean waters below. Improved and consistent weather observations around the Antarctic coastlines will improve forecasting and reanalysis. Ice

  15. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  16. Behavioral observation of xenopus tadpole swimming for neuroscience labs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenchang; Wagner, Monica Anne; Porter, Nicola Jean

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience labs benefit from reliable, easily - monitored neural responses mediated by well - studied neural pathways . Xenopus laevis tadpoles have been used as a simple vertebrate model preparation in motor control studies. Most of the neuronal pathways underlying different aspects of tadpole swimming behavior have been revealed. These include the skin mechanosensory touch and pineal eye light - sensing pathways whose activation can initiate swimming , and the cement gland pressure - sens...

  17. Observed Parenting Behavior with Teens: Measurement Invariance and Predictive Validity Across Race

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, Martie L; MacKenzie, Elizabeth P.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hill, Karl G.; Roberson, Kendra C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports supporting measurement equality between European American and African American families have often focused on self-reported risk factors or observed parent behavior with young children. This study examines equality of measurement of observer ratings of parenting behavior with adolescents during structured tasks; mean levels of observed parenting; and predictive validity of teen self-reports of antisocial behaviors and beliefs using a sample of 163 African American and 168 Eur...

  18. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  19. How Does Observational Learning Affect the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders? A Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, Betty A.; Kauffman, James M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews research on observational learning, including model characteristics and observers' responses, vicarious reinforcement as implicit punishment, vicarious effects on students with problem behavior, observers' other characteristics and vicarious effects, and aggression and vicarious processes. Regular class placement of students…

  20. Neural systems supporting and affecting economically relevant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braeutigam S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system

  1. Self-Regulation of Practice Behavior Among Elite Youth Soccer Players : An Exploratory Observation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toering, Tynke; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Jordet, Geir; Jorna, Casper; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to measure behavioral correlates of self-regulation in elite youth soccer players. Behaviors regarded as indicative of self-regulated learning were identified by interviewing six expert youth soccer coaches. These behaviors were observed during practice of eight elite youth soccer p

  2. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  3. A spacecraft for the Earth observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Raynor L.; Bordi, Francesco

    1995-04-01

    The space segment of NASA's Earth observing system (EOS) includes three series of intermediate-sized spacecraft, plus two smaller spacecraft. The EOS-AM spacecraft is the first of the intermediate-sized spacecraft. EOS-AM accommodates sensors that measure cloud and aerosol radiative properties, and that provide data to study the water and energy cycles. Scheduled for launch in the late 1990s, the EOS-AM spacecraft is designed for a 5-year mission. The spacecraft will be launched from the Western Space and Missile Center (California) into a polar, Sun-synchronous, low-Earth orbit with a 16-day repeat cycle. In its flight configuration, the spacecraft is almost 20 ft long (including instruments mounted at the fore end of the spacecraft) and 6 ft wide (in its widest dimension), has a mass of about 13,000 Ibs and uses about 3000 W of electrical power. The spacecraft is compatible with the Atlas IIAS launch vehicle. EOS-AM has on-board storage for at least two orbits of science data. These data will be transmitted to the ground via the tracking and data relay satellite system (using data structures and protocols in compliance with the recommendations of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems). A direct downlink system to support distributed users will also be available.

  4. Atmospheric Profiling Snthetic observation System(APSOS) - a system for whole atmosphere, purpose and preliminary observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Daren; Pan, Weilin; Wang, Yinan

    2016-07-01

    To understand the vertical coupling processes between the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere with high vertical resolution and temporal resolution, an observation system consisted of multi-lidars, a W-band Doppler radar, and a THz spectrometer has been developing starting from 2012. This system is developed to observer the multiple atmospheric parameters, include high clouds, aerosols, CO2, SO2, NO2, water vapor, ozone, atmospheric temperature and wind, sodium atomic layer, in different height ranges, with vertical resolution of tens to hundreds meters and temporal resolution of several to tens minutes. In addition, the simultaneous observation with high cloud radar will enhance the ability of quantitative retrieval of middle and upper atmospheric observation with combined retrieval of cloud micro-physical characteristics and other atmospheric parameters above the cloud layer. As the cirrus cloud occupied about 50% of earth coverage, this ability will increase the whole atmosphere observation ability obviously. During last 5 years. We have finished each unit of the system and have revealed their targets separately. Temperature profile has been observed from 30 to 110 km, ozone up to 50 km, etc. In spring of 2016, we will have preliminary integrated observation in Eastern China, the Huainan Observatory of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, CAS. In the end of 2016, the system will be implemented at Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Observatory, CAS, near Lasa, Tibetan Plateau. Some preliminary results from Huainan observation will be presented in this presentation. This project is founded by NSFC.

  5. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David

    2016-01-01

    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  6. Ocean Observing System Demonstrated in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, G. Carl; Chao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate the utility of an ocean observing and forecasting system with diverse practical applications—such as search and rescue, oil spill response (perhaps relevent to the current Gulf of Mexico oil spill), fisheries, and risk management—a unique field experiment was conducted in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in July and August 2009. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the performance of numerical models developed for the sound with an array of fixed and mobile observation platforms (Figure 1). Prince William Sound was chosen for the demonstration because of historical efforts to monitor ocean circulation following the 1989 oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker. The sound, a highly crenulated embayment of about 10,000 square kilometers at approximately 60°N latitude along the northern coast of the Gulf of Alaska, includes about 6900 kilometers of shoreline, numerous islands and fjords, and an extensive system of tidewater glaciers descending from the highest coastal mountain range in North America. Hinchinbrook Entrance and Montague Strait are the two main deep water connections with the Gulf of Alaska. The economic base of communities in the region is almost entirely resource-dependent. For example, Cordova's economy is based on commercial fishing and Valdez's economy is supported primarily by the trans-Alaska oil pipeline terminal.

  7. [Observation of animal behavior by revolving activity cage method: A new automatic measuring and recording system of motor activity of a mouse by means of revolving activity cage is presented (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K

    1978-09-01

    With this system, several parameters can be recorded continuously over several months without exterior stimuli. Time per revolution is counted and punched into the paper tape as binary coded numbers, and the number of revolutions and the frequency of "passage" in a given time are printed out on a rolled paper by a digital recorder. "Passage" is defined as one revolving trial without a pause over a fixed time (criterion time) and used as a behavioral unit of "stop and go". The raw data on the paper tape are processed and analyzed with a general-purpose computer. It was confirmed that when a mouse became well accustomed to the revolving activity cage, the time per revolution followed the law of exponential distribution probability, while the length of passage (i.e. the number of revolutions per revolving trial) followed that of geometrical distribution probability. The revolving activity of mice treated with single subcutaneous injection of methamphetamine was examined using these parameters. PMID:711027

  8. Mother-Child Interactions and Childhood OCD: Effects of CBT on Mother and Child Observed Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlup, Barbara; Farrell, Lara; Barrett, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This waitlist-controlled study investigates the impact of a group-based cognitive-behavioral therapy with family involvement (CBT-F) on observed mother and child behaviors in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Forty-four children and adolescents with OCD and their mothers were observed during family discussions before and after…

  9. Observation of Climacteric-Like Behavior of Citrus Leaves Using Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio B. Wetterich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation of climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves depends on the detection of ethylene. However, such detection requires a gas chromatographer and complex sample preparation procedures. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy was investigated as a diagnostic technique for climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves. Our results indicate that the chlorophyll fluorescence presents a time evolution consistent with the ethylene evolution. Therefore, fluorescence spectroscopy may be used to observe the climacteric-like behavior in citrus leaves.

  10. The Integrated Carbon Observation System in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo

    2013-04-01

    Due to the strong anthropogenic disturbance of the global carbon cycle, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases increase in the atmosphere and contribute to climatic change. Currently, the ocean and the land biosphere still sequester parts of this anthropogenically emitted carbon dioxide. However, the sustainability of these sinks is not guaranteed. Measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases are depending on our ability to monitor atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and changes in the environment with high precision. Understanding the complex interactions between the climate system and biosphere, hydrosphere as well as atmosphere must, therefore, be based on long-term precise and internationally comparable measurements. An infrastructure that provides these observations is the best investment for reducing uncertainties and for avoiding future surprises. In order to develop a long-term perspective for a European monitoring system for greenhouse gases the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) has been approved by the European Council of Research Ministries as an important research infrastructure and will be established officially as a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC) in 2013. ICOS will be organized as a decentralized research infrastructure with the observational networks run by national programs. The German component, ICOS-D, consists currently of a consortium of 13 research institutions, contributes to all monitoring networks and will provide the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL), consisting of a Flask and Calibration Laboratory (FCL) and a Central Radiocarbon Laboratory (CRL) in Jena and Heidelberg, respectively, as central facilities for the entire ICOS Research Infrastructure (ICOS RI). In the Atmospheric Program continuous and grab sample measurements of trace gas concentrations as well as their isotopic composition will be conducted at tall-tower stations. In combination with transport models, these measurements

  11. Conference on Earth Observation and Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    The NATO Science Committee and its subsidiary Programme Panels provide support for Advanced Research Institutes (ARI) in various fields. The idea is to bring together scientists of a chosen field with the hope that they will achieve a consensus on research direc­ tions for the future, and make recommendations for the benefit of a wider scientific community. Attendance is therefore limited to those whose experience and expertise make the conclusions significant and acceptable to the wider community. Participants are selected on the basis of substantial track records in research or in the synthesis of research results to serve mankind. The proposal for a one-week ARIon Earth Observation and In­ formation Systems was initiated by the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science (SPPOSS). In approving the ARI, the senior NATO Science Committee identified the subject as one of universal impor­ tance, requiring a broad perspective on the development of opera­ tional systems based on successful experimental s...

  12. Safety control program for complex system based on behavior science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Mei-jian; YANG Guang; CHEN Da-wei

    2008-01-01

    To control complex system's safety effectively, safety control program was supported based on the principles of behavioral science that shapes organizational be-havior, and organizational behavior produced individual behavior. The program can be structured into a model that consists of three modules including individual behavior rectifi-cation, organization behavior diagnosis and model of safety culture. The research result not only reveals the deep cause of complex system accidents but also provides structural descriptions with the accidents cause.

  13. Safety control program for complex system based on behavior science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Mei-jian; YANG Guang; CHEN Da-wei

    2008-01-01

    To control complex system's safety effectively,safety control program was supported based on the principles of behavioral science that shapes organizational behavior,and organizational behavior produced individual behavior.The program can be structured into a model that consists of three modules including individual behavior rectification,organization behavior diagnosis and model of safety culture.The research result not only reveals the deep cause of complex system accidents but also provides structural descriptions with the accidents cause.

  14. Earth Observing Data System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klene, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) acquires and distributes an abundance of Earth science data on a daily basis to a diverse user community worldwide. The NASA Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) is an effort to make the acquired science data more discoverable, accessible, and usable. This presentation will provide a brief introduction to the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project and the nature of advances that have been made by BEDI to other Federal Users.

  15. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David

    2016-01-01

    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  16. A Bayesian approach to extracting meaning from system behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dress, W.B.

    1998-08-01

    The modeling relation and its reformulation to include the semiotic hierarchy is essential for the understanding, control, and successful re-creation of natural systems. This presentation will argue for a careful application of Rosen`s modeling relationship to the problems of intelligence and autonomy in natural and artificial systems. To this end, the authors discuss the essential need for a correct theory of induction, learning, and probability; and suggest that modern Bayesian probability theory, developed by Cox, Jaynes, and others, can adequately meet such demands, especially on the operational level of extracting meaning from observations. The methods of Bayesian and maximum Entropy parameter estimation have been applied to measurements of system observables to directly infer the underlying differential equations generating system behavior. This approach by-passes the usual method of parameter estimation based on assuming a functional form for the observable and then estimating the parameters that would lead to the particular observed behavior. The computational savings is great since only location parameters enter into the maximum-entropy calculations; this innovation finesses the need for nonlinear parameters altogether. Such an approach more directly extracts the semantics inherent in a given system by going to the root of system meaning as expressed by abstract form or shape, rather than in syntactic particulars, such as signal amplitude and phase. Examples will be shown how the form of a system can be followed while ignoring unnecessary details. In this sense, the authors are observing the meaning of the words rather than being concerned with their particular expression or language. For the present discussion, empirical models are embodied by the differential equations underlying, producing, or describing the behavior of a process as measured or tracked by a particular variable set--the observables. The a priori models are probability structures that

  17. Chaotic Behavior in a Flexible Assembly Line of a Manufacturing System

    OpenAIRE

    Sajid, M; F. Almufadi; Jahanzaib, M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the chaotic behavior in a flexible assembly line of a manufacturing system. A flexible assembly line can accommodate a variety of product types. Result analysis is performed to obtain time persistent data. The behavior of the system is observed for Work-In-Process, as assembling systems are sensitive during processing. It is found that the average Lyapunov exponent is positive in the considered case, and thus chaotic behavior may be present in flexi...

  18. Well limit behaviors of term rewriting systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shilong; SUI Yuefei; XU Ke

    2007-01-01

    The limit behaviors of computations have not been fully explored.It is necessary to consider such limit behaviors when we consider the properties of infinite objects in computer science,such as infinite logic programs,the symbolic solutions of infinite polynomial equations.Usually,we can use finite objects to approximate infinite objects,and we should know what kinds of infinite objects are approximable and how to approximate them effectively.A sequence {Rκ:κω}of term rewriting systems has the well limit behavior if under the condition that the sequence has the Set-theoretic limit or the distance-based limit,the sequence {Th(Rκ):κ∈ω} of corresponding theoretic closures of Rκ has the set-theoretic or distance-based limit,and limκ→∞ Th(Rκ) is equal to the theoretic closure of the limit of {Rκ:κ∈ω).Two kinds of limits of term rewriting systems are considered:one is based on the set-theoretic limit,the other is on the distance-based limit.It is proved thatgiven a sequence {Rκ:κ∈ω) of term rewriting systems Rκ,if there is a well-founded ordering (-<) on terms such that every Rκ is (-<)-well-founded,and the set-theoretic limit of {Rκ:κ∈ω).exists,then {Rκ:κ∈ω).has the well limit behavior;and if (1) there is a well-founded ordering(-<)on terms such that every Rκ is(-<-well-founded,(2) there is a distance d on terms which is closed under substitutions and contexts and (3) {Rκ:κ∈ω).is Cauchy under d then {Rκ:κ∈ω).has the well limit behavior.The results are used to approximate the least Herbrand models of infinite Horn logic programs and real Horn logic programs,and the solutions and Cr(o)bner bases of (infinite) sets of real polynomials by sequences of (finite) sets of rational polynomials.

  19. The Zwicky transient facility observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger M.; Dekany, Richard G.; Bebek, Christopher; Bellm, Eric; Bui, Khanh; Cromer, John; Gardner, Paul; Hoff, Matthew; Kaye, Stephen; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Lambert, Andrew; Levi, Michael; Reiley, Dan

    2014-07-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) is a synoptic optical survey for high-cadence time-domain astronomy. Building upon the experience and infrastructure of the highly successful Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) team, ZTF will survey more than an order of magnitude faster than PTF in sky area and volume in order to identify rare, rapidly varying optical sources. These sources will include a trove of supernovae, exotic explosive transients, unusual stellar variables, compact binaries, active galactic nuclei, and asteroids. The single-visit depth of 20.4 mag is well matched to spectroscopic follow-up observations, while the co-added images will provide wide sky coverage 1.5 - 2 mag deeper than SDSS. The ZTF survey will cover the entire Northern Sky and revisit fields on timescales of a few hours, providing hundreds of visits per field each year, an unprecedented cadence, as required to detect fast transients and variability. This high-cadence survey is enabled by an observing system based on a new camera having 47 deg2 field of view - a factor of 6.5 greater than the existing PTF camera - equipped with fast readout electronics, a large, fast exposure shutter, faster telescope and dome drives, and various measures to optimize delivered image quality. Our project has already received an initial procurement of e2v wafer-scale CCDs and we are currently fabricating the camera cryostat. International partners and the NSF committed funds in June 2014 so construction can proceed as planned to commence engineering commissioning in 2016 and begin operations in 2017. Public release will allow broad utilization of these data by the US astronomical community. ZTF will also promote the development of transient and variable science methods in preparation for the seminal first light of LSST.

  20. Human behavior in online social systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, A.

    2009-06-01

    We present and study data concerning human behavior in four online social systems: (i) an Internet community of friends of over 107 people, (ii) a music community website with over 106 users, (iii) a gamers’ community server with over 5 × 106 users and (iv) a booklovers’ website with over 2.5 × 105 users. The purpose of those systems is different; however, their properties are very similar. We have found that the distribution of human activity (e.g., the sum of books read or songs played) has the form of a power law. Moreover, the relationship between human activity and time has a power-law form, too. We present a simple interest-driven model of the evolution of such systems which explains the emergence of two scaling regimes.

  1. Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred;

    2012-01-01

    to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using......Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate...... the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model....

  2. Criticality in conserved dynamical systems: Experimental observation vs. exact properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gros, Claudius; Schuelein, André

    2013-03-01

    Conserved dynamical systems are generally considered to be critical. We study a class of critical routing models, equivalent to random maps, which can be solved rigorously in the thermodynamic limit. The information flow is conserved for these routing models and governed by cyclic attractors. We consider two classes of information flow, Markovian routing without memory and vertex routing involving a one-step routing memory. Investigating the respective cycle length distributions for complete graphs, we find log corrections to power-law scaling for the mean cycle length, as a function of the number of vertices, and a sub-polynomial growth for the overall number of cycles. When observing experimentally a real-world dynamical system one normally samples stochastically its phase space. The number and the length of the attractors are then weighted by the size of their respective basins of attraction. This situation is equivalent, for theory studies, to "on the fly" generation of the dynamical transition probabilities. For the case of vertex routing models, we find in this case power law scaling for the weighted average length of attractors, for both conserved routing models. These results show that the critical dynamical systems are generically not scale-invariant but may show power-law scaling when sampled stochastically. It is hence important to distinguish between intrinsic properties of a critical dynamical system and its behavior that one would observe when randomly probing its phase space.

  3. Observer's Interface for Solar System Target Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Anthony; Link, Miranda; Moriarty, Christopher; Stansberry, John A.

    2016-10-01

    When observing an asteroid or comet with HST, it has been necessary for the observer to manually enter the target's orbital elements into the Astronomer's Proposal Tool (APT). This allowed possible copy/paste transcription errors from the observer's source of orbital elements data. In order to address this issue, APT has now been improved with the capability to identify targets in and then download orbital elements from JPL Horizons. The observer will first use a target name resolver to choose the intended target from the Horizons database, and then download the orbital elements from Horizons directly into APT. A manual entry option is also still retained if the observer does not wish to use elements from Horizons. This new capability is available for HST observing, and it will also be supported for JWST observing. The poster shows examples of this new interface.

  4. Behavioral characterization of system xc- mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Elizabeth A; Featherstone, David E

    2014-05-15

    The slc7a11 gene encodes xCT, an essential component of 'system xc-', a plasma membrane exchanger that imports cystine and exports glutamate. Slc7a11 is expressed primarily in the brain, but its role there is not clear. We performed behavioral tests on two different strains of homozygous slc7a11 mutant mice ('sut' and 'xCT'), as well as heteroallelic offspring of these two strains ('xCT/sut') and their associated genetic backgrounds. Homozygous sut mutant males showed reduced spontaneous alternation in spontaneous alternation tasks as well as reduced movement in an open field maze, but xCT and xCT/sut strains did not show significant changes in these tasks compared to appropriate controls. Neither xCT nor sut mutants showed differences from controls in rotarod tests. Female behavioral phenotypes were independent of estrus cycle stage. To ensure that homozygous xCT, sut, and xCT/sut strains all represent protein null alleles, we measured whole brain xCT protein levels using immunoblots. xCT, sut and xCT/sut strains showed no detectable xCT protein expression, confirming them as null alleles. Previously published microdialysis experiments showed reduced striatal glutamate in xCT mutants. Using the same methods, we measured reduced interstitial glutamate levels in the striatum but not cerebellum of sut mutants. However, we detected no glutamate change in the striatum or cerebellum of sut/xCT mice. We detected no changes in whole brain EAAT-1, -2, or -3 expression. We conclude that the behavioral and chemical differences exist between slc7a11 mutant strains, but we were unable to definitively attribute any of these differences to loss of system xc-.

  5. Emergent behavior in strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, David

    2016-09-01

    I describe early work on strongly correlated electron systems (SCES) from the perspective of a theoretical physicist who, while a participant in their reductionist top-down beginnings, is now part of the paradigm change to a bottom-up ‘emergent’ approach with its focus on using phenomenology to find the organizing principles responsible for their emergent behavior disclosed by experiment—and only then constructing microscopic models that incorporate these. After considering the organizing principles responsible for the emergence of plasmons, quasiparticles, and conventional superconductivity in SCES, I consider their application to three of SCES’s sister systems, the helium liquids, nuclei, and the nuclear matter found in neutron stars. I note some recent applications of the random phase approximation and examine briefly the role that paradigm change is playing in two central problems in our field: understanding the emergence and subsequent behavior of heavy electrons in Kondo lattice materials; and finding the mechanism for the unconventional superconductivity found in heavy electron, organic, cuprate, and iron-based materials.

  6. Alternating Renewal Process Models for Behavioral Observation: Simulation Methods, Software, and Validity Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustejovsky, James E.; Runyon, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Direct observation recording procedures produce reductive summary measurements of an underlying stream of behavior. Previous methodological studies of these recording procedures have employed simulation methods for generating random behavior streams, many of which amount to special cases of a statistical model known as the alternating renewal…

  7. Behavioral profiling in CCTV cameras by combining multiple subtle suspicious observations of different surveillance operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Vogels, J.; Aarts, O.A.J.; Kruszynski, K.J.; Wijn, R.; Burghouts, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Camera surveillance and recognition of deviant behavior is important for the prevention of criminal incidents. A single observation of subtle deviant behavior of an individual may sometimes be insufficient to merit a follow-up action. Therefore, we propose a method that can combine multiple weak obs

  8. An Observational Analysis of Behavior in Depressed Preschoolers: Further Validation of Early-Onset Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Sullivan, Jill; Belden, Andy; Stalets, Melissa; Blankenship, Samantha; Spitznagel, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether higher levels of negative and lower levels of positive behaviors could be observed in a sample of depressed preschoolers. Support for the validity of preschool depression is now available; however, objective evidence of negative behaviors among depressed preschoolers is needed. Method: A structured observational…

  9. A scoping review of observational studies examining relationships between environmental behaviors and health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne Hutchinson; Prady, Stephanie L; Smith, Michaela A.; White, Piran C.L; Hilary M. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavio...

  10. Thermodynamic behavior of D-sphingosine/cholesterol monolayers and the topography observed by AFM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts are of a dynamic microdomain structure found in recent years,enriched in sphingolipids,cholesterol and particular proteins.The change of structure and function of lipid rafts could result in many diseases.In this work,the monolayer behavior of mixed systems of D-sphingosine with choles-terol was investigated in terms of the mean surface area per molecule(Am),excess molecular area(Aex),surface excess Gibbs energy(Gex),interaction parameter(ω),activity coefficients(1 and 2) as well as elasticity(Cs1) of formed films.The deposited Langmuir-Blodgett(LB) monolayers were inves-tigated with atomic force microscopy(AFM).Thermodynamic analysis indicates Aex and Gex in the binary systems with negative deviations from the ideal behavior,suggesting attractive interaction be-tween molecules.The stability,elasticity and activity coefficients show a marked dependence on the mole faction of D-sphingosine.The results of observation by AFM show that the single D-sphingosine molecular film took on small granule structure.When mixing the D-sphingosine and cholesterol at dif-ferent ratios,the mixed films transform from the chains structure to larger slice and net coexisting structure with the increasing of the cholesterol content.In the end,pure cholesterol forms more ag-gregated structure.AFM experiments effectively support the above findings and interpretation.

  11. Thermodynamic behavior of D-sphingosine/cholesterol monolayers and the topography observed by AFM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO ChangChun; SUN RunGuang; ZHANG Jing; CHANG YiGuang; NIU ChunLing

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts are of a dynamic microdomain structure found in recent years, enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and particular proteins. The change of structure and function of lipid rafts could result in many diseases. In this work, the monolayer behavior of mixed systems of D-sphingosine with choles-terol was investigated in terms of the mean surface area per molecule (Am), excess molecular area (△Aex), surface excess Gibbs energy (△Gex), interaction parameter (ω) activity coefficients (f1 and f2) as well as elasticity (Cs-1) of formed films. The deposited Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers were inves-tigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Thermodynamic analysis indicates △Aex and △Gex in the binary systems with negative deviations from the ideal behavior, suggesting attractive interaction be-tween molecules. The stability, elasticity and activity coefficients show a marked dependence on the mole faction of D-sphingosine. The results of observation by AFM show that the single D-sphingosine molecular film took on small granule structure. When mixing the D-sphingosine and cholesterol at dif-ferent ratios, the mixed films transform from the chains structure to larger slice and net coexisting structure with the increasing of the cholesterol content. In the end, pure cholesterol forms more ag-gregated structure. AFM experiments effectively support the above findings and interpretation.

  12. Observations on sex ratio and behavior of males in Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Scolytinae, Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Biedermann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Strongly female-biased sex ratios are typical for the fungal feeding haplodiploid Xyleborini (Scolytinae, Coleoptera, and are a result of inbreeding and local mate competition (LMC. These ambrosia beetles are hardly ever found outside of trees, and thus male frequency and behavior have not been addressed in any empirical studies to date. In fact, for most species the males remain undescribed. Data on sex ratios and male behavior could, however, provide important insights into the Xyleborini’s mating system and the evolution of inbreeding and LMC in general. In this study, I used in vitro rearing methods to obtain the first observational data on sex ratio, male production, male and female dispersal, and mating behavior in a xyleborine ambrosia beetle. Females of Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg produced between 0 and 3 sons per brood, and the absence of males was relatively independent of the number of daughters to be fertilized and the maternal brood sex ratio. Both conformed to a strict LMC strategy with a relatively precise and constant number of males. If males were present they eclosed just before the first females dispersed, and stayed in the gallery until all female offspring had matured. They constantly wandered through the gallery system, presumably in search of unfertilized females, and attempted to mate with larvae, other males, and females of all ages. Copulations, however, only occurred with immature females. From galleries with males, nearly all females dispersed fertilized. Only a few left the natal gallery without being fertilized, and subsequently went on to produce large and solely male broods. If broods were male-less, dispersing females always failed to found new galleries.

  13. The Jupiter System Observer: Exploring the Origins of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockter, Louise; Senske, D.; Collins, G. C.; Cooper, J. F.; Hendrix, A.; Hibbitts, C.; Kivelson, M.; Schubert, G.; Showman, A.; Turtle, E.; Williams, D.

    2007-10-01

    The Jupiter System Observer (JSO) is one of four studies commissioned by NASA's Science Mission Directorate to examine the potential science return from a flagship-class mission to the outer solar system. JSO is a long-duration mission that will study the entire Jupiter system, focusing on both its individual components, including Jupiter's atmosphere, rocky and icy moons, rings, and magnetospheric phenomena, and the interactions between them. The wealth of data to be returned by JSO will enable a fuller understanding of a variety of magnetospheric, atmospheric, and geological processes, and will illuminate the question of how planetary systems form and evolve. The science team has outlined a number of significant science goals that can be accomplished by a spacecraft that tours the Jovian system for several years before ultimately ending up in Ganymede orbit. Ganymede was selected as the final destination for JSO because of its unique place in the Jovian system and the solar system - it is only the third body known to have its own dynamo-generated magnetic field. Ganymede is thought to contain a subsurface ocean and exhibits a surface with a variety of older and younger terrains, making it an excellent target for understanding the formation and evolution of icy satellites. Long-term monitoring of Jupiter's atmosphere and rings, Io's volcanism and torus, and high-resolution flyby imaging of Europa, Callisto and Io will enable an unprecedented study of the Jovian system as a solar system analog, and enables cross-cutting scientific objectives in the fields of atmospheres, geology, magnetospheres, and geophysics.

  14. Phase behavior of semiflexible polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonay, David Jordan

    Phase behavior of semiflexible poly(n-hexyl isocyanate) (PHIC) and flexible coil poly(cyclohexyl methacrylate) (PCHMA) were investigated. Room-temperature solubility screenings showed that PCHMA behavior in various solvents agreed with that predicted by Flory-Huggins theory: solvents had interaction parameter values chi1 1, well within the thermodynamically-poor solvency region. PHIC, on the other hand, had interactions which were not in accord with the simple enthalpic theory. A high-boiling solvent, 1-chloronaphthalene, was chosen as suitable for binary and ternary phase behavior work, as a result of the screenings. PCHMA was found to be soluble at all concentrations at room temperature. However, PHIC crystallized at about 5 wt.% a result not previously reported in the literature. The crystallinity, and degradation, interfered with liquid crystalline expression up to the PHIC melting point in binary solution. The novel room-temperature ternary phase diagram, PHIC/PCHMA/CLN, was developed. Particularly striking is its 5 wt.% total polymer solubility limit, which extended to 90:1 (w/w) ratios of PCHMA:PI-HC in CLN, as verified by serial dilution experiments. Novel gels were prepared with PHIC longer-pendant-group homologs poly(n-nonylisocyanate) and poly(n-undecylisocyanate), to investigate their heightened solubility relative to PHIC, in high-boiling alkylaromatic solvents. Apparently homogeneous isotropic gels in two structurally similar solvents, were found. Lengthening pendant groups in the alkyl isocyanate polymers increases solubility in high-boiling solvents, although gelation occurs when the solutions are cooled to room temperature. Elongational flow apparati were constructed. Trumpet-shaped tube experiments indicated no flow-induced crystallinity of isotropic PHIC/CLN solutions. A planar-elongational flow system was constructed and tested, and its central stagnation point verified. A phase characterization apparatus was refined, providing sensitive

  15. A Flexible Behavioral Learning System with Modular Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Johane; Shouno, Osamu; Tsujino, Hiroshi

    Future robots/agents will perform situated behaviors for each user. Flexible behavioral learning is required for coping with diverse and unexpected users' situations. Unexpected situations are usually not tractable for machine learning systems that are designed for pre-defined problems. In order to realize such a flexible learning system, we were trying to create a learning model that can function in several different kinds of state transitions without specific adjustments for each transition as a first step. We constructed a modular neural network model based on reinforcement learning. We expected that combining a modular architecture with neural networks could accelerate the learning speed of neural networks. The inputs of our neural network model always include not only observed states but also memory information for any transition. In pure Markov decision processes, memory information is not necessary, rather it can lead to lower performance. On the other hand, partially observable conditions require memory information to select proper actions. We demonstrated that the new learning model could actually learn those multiple kinds of state transitions with the same architectures and parameters, and without pre-designed models of environments. This paper describes the performances of constructed models using probabilistically fluctuated Markov decision processes including partially observable conditions. In the test transitions, the observed state probabilistically fluctuated. The new learning model could function in those complex transitions. In addition, the learning speeds of our model are comparable to a reinforcement learning algorithm implemented with a pre-defined and optimized table-representation of states.

  16. RXTE Observations of 1A 1744-361: Correlated Spectral and Timing Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, S; Swank, J H; Markwardt, C B; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Swank, Jean H.; Markwardt, Craig B.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) data of the transient low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) system 1A 1744-361. We explore the X-ray intensity and spectral evolution of the source, perform timing analysis, and find that 1A 1744-361 shows `atoll' behavior during the outbursts. The color-color diagram indicates that this LMXB was observed in a low intensity spectrally hard (low-hard) state and in a high intensity `banana' state. The low-hard state shows a horizontal pattern in the color-color diagram, and the previously reported `dipper QPO' appears only during this state. We also perform energy spectral analyses, and report the first detection of broad iron emission line and iron absorption edge from 1A 1744-361.

  17. Observation of the exchange spring behavior in hard-soft-ferrite nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocomposite of hard (BaFe12O19) and soft ferrite (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4) are prepared by the mixing of the individual ferrite components at appropriate ratio and subsequent heat treatment. Initially the microstructure of the individual phases is controlled by suitable processing. We have observed the exchange spring behavior in the soft-hard ferrite composite for the first time by tailoring the particle size of the individual phases and by suitable thermal treatment of the composite. It is found that the exchange interaction dominates over the dipolar interaction for smaller particle sizes of the soft ferrite. The magnetization of the composite showed hysteresis loop that is characteristic of the exchange spring system. This gives experimental proof for some theoretical modeling as well as paves way for developing magnet with higher (BH)max product based on ferrites

  18. Dust-bathing behavior of laying hens in enriched colony housing systems and an aviary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louton, H; Bergmann, S; Reese, S; Erhard, M H; Rauch, E

    2016-07-01

    The dust-bathing behavior of Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens was compared in 4 enriched colony housing systems and in an aviary system. The enriched colony housing systems differed especially in the alignment and division of the functional areas dust bath, nest, and perches. Forty-eight-hour video recordings were performed at 3 time-points during the laying period, and focal animal sampling and behavior sampling methods were used to analyze the dust-bathing behavior. Focal animal data included the relative fractions of dust-bathing hens overall, of hens bathing in the dust-bath area, and of those bathing on the wire floor throughout the day. Behavior data included the number of dust-bathing bouts within a predefined time range, the duration of 1 bout, the number of and reasons for interruptions, and the number of and reasons for the termination of dust-bathing bouts. Results showed that the average duration of dust bathing varied between the 4 enriched colony housing systems compared with the aviary system. The duration of dust-bathing bouts was shorter than reported under natural conditions. A positive correlation between dust-bathing activity and size of the dust-bath area was observed. Frequently, dust baths were interrupted and terminated by disturbing influences such as pecking by other hens. This was especially observed in the enriched colony housing systems. In none of the observed systems, neither in the enriched colony housing nor in the aviary system, were all of the observed dust baths terminated "normally." Dust bathing behavior on the wire mesh rather than in the provided dust-bath area generally was observed at different frequencies in all enriched colony housing systems during all observation periods, but never in the aviary system. The size and design of the dust-bath area influenced the prevalence of dust-bathing behavior in that small and subdivided dust-bath areas reduced the number of dust-bathing bouts but increased the incidence of sham dust

  19. Observed parenting behavior with teens: measurement invariance and predictive validity across race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Martie L; Mackenzie, Elizabeth P; Haggerty, Kevin P; Hill, Karl G; Roberson, Kendra C

    2011-07-01

    Previous reports supporting measurement equality between European American and African American families have often focused on self-reported risk factors or observed parent behavior with young children. This study examines equality of measurement of observer ratings of parenting behavior with adolescents during structured tasks; mean levels of observed parenting; and predictive validity of teen self-reports of antisocial behaviors and beliefs using a sample of 163 African American and 168 European American families. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses supported measurement invariance across ethnic groups for four measures of observed parenting behavior: prosocial rewards, psychological costs, antisocial rewards, and problem solving. Some mean-level differences were found: African American parents exhibited lower levels of prosocial rewards, higher levels of psychological costs, and lower problem solving when compared to European Americans. No significant mean difference was found in rewards for antisocial behavior. Multigroup structural equation models suggested comparable relationships across race (predictive validity) between parenting constructs and youth antisocial constructs (i.e., drug initiation, positive drug attitudes, antisocial attitudes, problem behaviors) in all but one of the tested relationships. This study adds to existing evidence that family-based interventions targeting parenting behaviors can be generalized to African American families. PMID:21787057

  20. Observed Parenting Behavior with Teens: Measurement Invariance and Predictive Validity Across Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Martie L.; MacKenzie, Elizabeth P.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hill, Karl G.; Roberson, Kendra C.

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports supporting measurement equality between European American and African American families have often focused on self-reported risk factors or observed parent behavior with young children. This study examines equality of measurement of observer ratings of parenting behavior with adolescents during structured tasks; mean levels of observed parenting; and predictive validity of teen self-reports of antisocial behaviors and beliefs using a sample of 163 African American and 168 European American families. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses supported measurement invariance across ethnic groups for 4 measures of observed parenting behavior: prosocial rewards, psychological costs, antisocial rewards, and problem solving. Some mean-level differences were found: African American parents exhibited lower levels of prosocial rewards, higher levels of psychological costs, and lower problem solving when compared to European Americans. No significant mean difference was found in rewards for antisocial behavior. Multigroup structural equation models suggested comparable relationships across race (predictive validity) between parenting constructs and youth antisocial constructs (i.e., drug initiation, positive drug attitudes, antisocial attitudes, problem behaviors) in all but one of the tested relationships. This study adds to existing evidence that family-based interventions targeting parenting behaviors can be generalized to African American families. PMID:21787057

  1. AFSC/FMA/Observer Logistics System (OLS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alaska groundfish fisheries observers have been monitoring domestic groundfish fishing activities in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off Alaska for over...

  2. Probabilistic verification of partially observable dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gyori, Benjamin M.; Paulin, Daniel; Palaniappan, Sucheendra K.

    2014-01-01

    The construction and formal verification of dynamical models is important in engineering, biology and other disciplines. We focus on non-linear models containing a set of parameters governing their dynamics. The value of these parameters is often unknown and not directly observable through measurements, which are themselves noisy. When treating parameters as random variables, one can constrain their distribution by conditioning on observations and thereby constructing a posterior probability ...

  3. Parent Behavior and Adolescents' Self-System Processes: Predictors of Behavior to Siblings and Friends Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repinski, Daniel J.; Shonk, Susan M.

    This study examined the degree to which adolescent self-system processes (self-efficacy, emotional reactivity) and reports of mothers' and fathers' behavior (warmth/support, hostility) predict adolescents' behavior toward siblings and their friends' problem behavior. Subjects were 76 seventh-grade adolescents who provided self-reports of parent…

  4. Verifying timestamps of occultation observation systems

    CERN Document Server

    A., M; Gault, Dave; Bolt, Greg; McEwan, Alistair; Filipovic, Miroslav D; White, Graeme L

    2015-01-01

    We describe an image timestamp verification system to determine the exposure timing characteristics and continuity of images made by an imaging camera and recorder, with reference to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The original use was to verify the timestamps of stellar occultation recording systems, but the system is applicable to lunar flashes, planetary transits, sprite recording, or any area where reliable timestamps are required. The system offers good temporal resolution (down to 2 msec, referred to UTC) and provides exposure duration and interframe dead time information. The system uses inexpensive, off-the- shelf components, requires minimal assembly and requires no high-voltage components or connections. We also describe an application to load FITS (and other format) image files, which can decode the verification image timestamp. Source code, wiring diagrams and built applications are provided to aid the construction and use of the device.

  5. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  6. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): Middle School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  7. Observability of Parabolic Systems under Scanning Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Khapalov, A. Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper continues the investigations in SDS on observability issues motivated by environmental monitoring and related problems. Here the author introduces a specific class of scanning sensors that ensure solvability of the problem and can further lead to numerically robust techniques.

  8. ICOS, Integrated Carbon Observing System, a Research Infrastructure to Integrate Greenhouse Gas observations in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciais, P.; Paris, J.; Rivier, L.; Ceulemans, R.; Dolman, A. J.; Flaud, J.; Garrec, C.; Gerbig, C.; Grace, J.; Huertas, E.; Johannessen, T.; Jordan, A.; Levin, I.; Lindroth, A.; Loustau, D.; Papale, D.; Ramonet, M.; Valentini, R.; Vesala, T.; Kaukolehto, M.; Watson, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a European Research infrastructure. ICOS's mission is to collect data for monitoring greenhouse gas fluxes over Europe and adjacent regions, and to provide the long-term observations required to quantify and to predict the behavior of the carbon cycle. ICOS builds upon the measurement networks and expertise developed under many European and national projects by a research community of more that 2000 researchers and students. ICOS received initial funding for the period 2008-2013 for the preparation of a Research Infrastructure hat will be operational in 2014 and run during the next 20 years a data collection for essential GHG variables including The presentation of ICOS will focus 1) on the mechanisms that have enabled the agencies / networks / governments to produce work products (data products, modeling products, and sensor acquired or human acquired measurements), and 2) on strategies to enable all identified user families, to take those products into assessments and analyses of European time varying maps GHG fluxes, including information on the attribution of these fluxes to underlying human and natural drivers and policy relevant information to improve GHG inventories at regional to national scale. These mechanisms take the form of adherence to technical standards (data, measurements, calibration/validation, modelling protocols), data policies, and governance mechanisms, which may prove complex when many different research councils and ministries are involved, as in the case of the ICOS preparation.

  9. Mooring System of Ocean Turbulence Observation Based on Submerged Buoy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Da-lei; SUN Jing-jing; XUE Bing; JIANG Qian-li; WU Bing-wei

    2013-01-01

    A comparison experiment has been taken in the Kiaochow Bay between a newly designed mooring turbulence observation instrument (MTOI) and microstructure profiler MSS60 made by Sea & Sun.The whole observing system is based on a submerged buoy,in which the turbulence observation instrument is embedded,with a streamline-shape floating body,which is made of buoyancy material of glass microsphere.For the movement of seawater and the cable shaking strongly anytime influence the behaviors of the floating body,the accelerate sensors are used for the vibration measurement in the instrument together with the shear probe sensor.Both the vibration data and the shear data are acquired by the instrument at the same time.During data processing,the vibration signals can be removed and leave the shear data which we really need.In order to prove the reliability of the new turbulence instrument MTOI,a comparison experiment was designed.The measuring conditions are the same both in time and space.By this way,the two groups of data are comparable.In this paper,the conclusion gives a good similarity of 0.93 for the two groups of shear data in dissipation rate.The processing of the data acquired by MTOI is based on the cross-spectrum analysis,and the dissipation rate of it matches the Nasmyth spectrum well.

  10. Pacific Islands Region Observer Program System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This system integrates the longline debriefing steps and procedures for Hawaii and American Samoa into one tool to standardize and streamline the debriefing...

  11. Teacher Perceptions of Level System Effectiveness on the Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Daniel T.; Smith, Stephen W.; Brownell, Mary T.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 172 teachers of students with emotional/behavioral disorders found that 71% reported they currently use level systems for behavioral management. Analysis notes similarities and differences between level system users and nonusers, characteristics common to level systems, and inconsistencies in perceptions of effectiveness and…

  12. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ASH BEHAVIOR IN POWER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZYGARLICKE, CHRISTOPHER J; MCCOLLOR, DONALD P; KAY, JOHN P; SWANSON, MICHAEL L

    1998-09-01

    The overall goal of this initiative is to develop fundamental knowledge of ash behavior in power systems for the purpose of increasing power production efficiency, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The specific objectives of this initiative focus primarily on ash behavior related to advanced power systems and include the following: Determine the current status of the fundamental ash interactions and deposition formation mechanisms as already reported through previous or ongoing projects at the EERC or in the literature. Determine sintering mechanisms for temperatures and particle compositions that are less well known and remain for the most part undetermined. Identify the relationship between the temperature of critical viscosity (Tcv ) as measured in a viscometer and the crystallization occurring in the melt. Perform a literature search on the use of heated-stage microscopy (HSM) for examining in situ ash-sintering phenomena and then validate the use of HSM in the determination of viscosity in spherical ash particles. Ascertain the formation and stability of specific mineral or amorphous phases in deposits typical of advanced power systems. Evaluate corrosion for alloys being used in supercritical combustion systems.

  13. Solar system plasma Turbulence: Observations, inteRmittency and Multifractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echim, Marius M.

    2016-04-01

    The FP7 project STORM is funded by the European Commission to "add value to existing data bases through a more comprehensive interpretation". STORM targets plasma and magnetic field databases collected in the solar wind (Ulysses and also some planetary missions), planetary magnetospheres (Venus Express, Cluster, a few orbits from Cassini), cometary magnetosheaths (e.g. Haley from Giotto observations). The project applies the same package of analysis methods on geomagnetic field observations from ground and on derived indices (e.g. AE, AL, AU, SYM-H). The analysis strategy adopted in STORM is built on the principle of increasing complexity, from lower (like, e.g., the Power Spectral Density - PSD) to higher order analyses (the Probability Distribution Functions - PDFs, Structure Functions - SFs, Fractals and Multifractals - MFs). Therefore STORM targets not only the spectral behavior of turbulent fluctuations but also their topology and scale behavior inferred from advanced mathematical algorithms and geometrical-like analogs. STORM started in January 2013 and ended in December 2015. We will report on a selection of scientific and technical achievements and will highlight: (1) the radial evolution of solar wind turbulence and intermittency based on Ulysses data with some contributions from Venus Express and Cluster; (2) comparative study of fast and slow wind turbulence and intermittency at solar minimum; (3) comparative study of the planetary response (Venus and Earth magnetosheaths) to turbulent solar wind; (4) the critical behavior of geomagnetic fluctuations and indices; (5) an integrated library for non-linear analysis of time series that includes all the approaches adopted in STORM to investigate solar system plasma turbulence. STORM delivers an unprecedented volume of analysed data for turbulence. The project made indeed a systematic survey, orbit by orbit, of data available from ESA repositories and Principal Investigators and provides results ordered as a

  14. A Multimethod Study of Problem Behavior among Thai and American Children in School: Teacher Reports versus Direct Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Trained observers conducted direct observations of Thai and American children's school behavior and obtained teacher reports on the same children. Observers reported twice as much problem behavior and off-task behavior in American children as in their Thai age-mates, contradicting some earlier studies. Findings support the value of direct behavior…

  15. A Vision For A Land Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, P.; Gomez-Dans, J.; Disney, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we argue that the exploitation of EO land surface data for modelling and monitoring would be greatly facilitated by the routine generation of inter- operable low-level surface bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) products. We consider evidence from a range of ESA, NASA and other products and studies as well as underlying research to outline the features such a processing system might have, and to define initial research priorities.

  16. Sensor technology for future atmospheric observation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, U. R.; Keafer, L. S., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The remote sensing instruments that will be needed for research in atmospheric environmental quality in the future are considered. The needs are determined on the basis of a model that incorporates scientific knowledge objectives, measurement needs, and potential space missions, spacecraft and instruments in order to discern the technology requirements. While emphasis is placed on global surveys that make full use of the synoptic observation capabilities of spaceborne sensors, the importance of airborne and ground-based sensors in this research is also recognized. Several of the instruments that are identified to fulfill the knowledge objectives are spectrometers and radiometers using such passive measurement techniques as interferometer correlation absorption radiometry, and heterodyne spectrometry. Lidar instruments are also seen as important future developments.

  17. Observed and self-reported pesticide protective behaviors of Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, AnnMarie Lee; LePrevost, Catherine; Wong, Bob; Linnan, Laura; Sanchez-Birkhead, Ana; Mooney, Kathi

    2016-05-01

    Agricultural pesticide exposure has potential adverse health effects for farmworkers that may be reduced by pesticide protective behaviors (PPBs). The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Worker Protection Standard (WPS) requires PPBs be taught to farmworkers prior to field work. Studies to date have not utilized observational methods to evaluate the degree to which PPBs are practiced by Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the United States. The purpose of this study was to describe, compare, and contrast observed and self-reported PPBs used by Latino farmworkers; both PPBs that the WPS requires be taught and other PPBs were included. Observed and self-reported data were collected from 71 Latino farmworkers during the 2014 tobacco growing season in North Carolina. Participants were consistent in reporting and using long pants and closed shoes in the field most of the time. In addition, gloves, hats/bandanas, and water-resistant outerwear were frequently observed, although they are not required to be taught by the WPS. Farmworkers reported more long-sleeve (p=.028) and glove use (p=.000) than what was observed. It was uncommon to observe washing behavior before eating or drinking, even when washing supplies were available. Washing behaviors were significantly overreported for hand (p=.000; p=.000) and face (p=.000; p=.058) washing before eating and drinking in the field. This study documents that protective clothing behaviors that the WPS requires be taught, plus a few others are commonly practiced by Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers, but washing behaviors in the field are not. Targeted strategies to improve washing behaviors in the field are needed.

  18. ALMA 1.3 mm observations of the Fomalhaut System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jacob; Boley, Aaron C.; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matthew John; Dent, William; Corder, Stuartt

    2016-10-01

    We present ALMA Band 6 (1.3 mm) observations of Fomalhaut and its debris disk. Since the system is relatively close at 7.7 pc, it has been the target of numerous studies at multiple wavelengths, and can serve as a testbed for debris disk evolution models and planet-disk interactions. Outstanding issues that need to be resolved to properly characterize the debris include tightening constraints on the spectral index in the submm/mm regime and determining whether there is indeed excess over the stellar emission, indicating the presence of an inner debris disk or ring.These ALMA 1.3 mm observations provide the highest resolution observations to date of the mm grains the outer ring. Tight constraints are placed on the geometry of the disk and on the mm-wavelength spectral index. We explore fitting the debris disk model in the image plane in addition to the standard method of fitting the visibilities. The results are compared and potential advantages/disadvantages of each approach are discussed.The central emission detected is indistinguishable from a point source, with 0.89 mJy being the best fit flux of the host star for Fomalhaut itself. This implies that any inner debris component must contribute little to the total central emission. Moreover, the stellar flux is less than 70% of that predicted by extrapolating a blackbody from the constrained photosphere temperature and just over 70% of the flux if extrapolating from the far infrared. This behavior is similar to that seen in the Sun for submm/mm wavelengths, but even more pronounced. Currently, insufficient data exists to properly constrain the degree to which stellar atmospheres affect the observed flux in the submm/mm regime. This result is part of an ongoing larger project focused on measuring the emission from stellar atmospheres at submm/mm wavelengths, which directly impacts inferred excesses for debris disk studies.

  19. Observing the carbon-climate system

    CERN Document Server

    Schimel, David; Moore, Berrien; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Baker, David; Berry, Joe; Bowman, Kevin; Crisp, Phillipe Ciais David; Crowell, Sean; Denning, Scott; Duren, Riley; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gierach, Michelle; Gurney, Kevin; Hibbard, Kathy; Houghton, Richard A; Huntzinger, Deborah; Hurtt, George; Jucks, Ken; Kawa, Randy; Koster, Randy; Koven, Charles; Luo, Yiqi; Masek, Jeff; McKinley, Galen; Miller, Charles; Miller, John; Moorcroft, Paul; Nassar, Ray; ODell, Chris; Ott, Leslie; Pawson, Steven; Puma, Michael; Quaife, Tristan; Riris, Haris; Romanou, Anastasia; Rousseaux, Cecile; Schuh, Andrew; Shevliakova, Elena; Tucker, Compton; Wang, Ying Ping; Williams, Christopher; Xiao, Xiangming; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Increases in atmospheric CO2 and CH4 result from a combination of forcing from anthropogenic emissions and Earth System feedbacks that reduce or amplify the effects of those emissions on atmospheric concentrations. Despite decades of research carbon-climate feedbacks remain poorly quantified. The impact of these uncertainties on future climate are of increasing concern, especially in the wake of recent climate negotiations. Emissions, long concentrated in the developed world, are now shifting to developing countries, where the emissions inventories have larger uncertainties. The fraction of anthropogenic CO2 remaining in the atmosphere has remained remarkably constant over the last 50 years. Will this change in the future as the climate evolves? Concentrations of CH4, the 2nd most important greenhouse gas, which had apparently stabilized, have recently resumed their increase, but the exact cause for this is unknown. While greenhouse gases affect the global atmosphere, their sources and sinks are remarkably he...

  20. Assessment of Shopping Behavior: Automatic System for Behavioral Cues Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of public places (e.g. cities, schools, transit districts, and public buildings) are deploying CCTV surveillance systems to monitor and protect the people in those areas. Since events like the terrorist attack in Madrid and London, there has been a further increasing demand for

  1. Observation of Strong Resonant Behavior in the Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Ce Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Chung, B W; Waddill, G D; Damian, E; Duda, L; Nordgren, J

    2009-12-15

    X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and Resonant Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy (RIPES) have been used to investigate the photon emission associated with the Ce3d5/2 and Ce3d3/2 thresholds. Strong resonant behavior has been observed in the RIPES of Ce Oxide near the 5/2 and 3/2 edges. Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy (IPES) and its high energy variant, Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS), are powerful techniques that permit a direct interrogation of the low-lying unoccupied electronic structure of a variety of materials. Despite being handicapped by counting rates that are approximately four orders of magnitude less that the corresponding electron spectroscopies (Photoelectron Spectroscopy, PES, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, XPS) both IPES and BIS have a long history of important contributions. Over time, an additional variant of this technique has appeared, where the kinetic energy (KE) of the incoming electron and photon energy (hv) of the emitted electron are roughly the same magnitude as the binding energy of a core level of the material in question. Under these circumstances and in analogy to Resonant Photoelectron Spectroscopy, a cross section resonance can occur, giving rise to Resonant Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy or RIPES. Here, we report the observation of RIPES in an f electron system, specifically the at the 3d{sub 5/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} thresholds of Ce Oxide. The resonant behavior of the Ce4f structure at the 3d thresholds has been addressed before, including studies of the utilization of the technique as a probe of electron correlation in a variety of Ce compounds. Interestingly, the first RIPES work on rare earths dates back to 1974, although under conditions which left the state of the surface and near surface regions undefined. Although they did not use the more modern terminology of 'RIPES,' it is clear that RIPES was actually first performed in 1974 by Liefeld, Burr and Chamberlain on both La and Ce based

  2. A Miniaturized Video System for Monitoring Drosophila Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Inan, Omer; Kovacs, Gregory; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Sanchez, Max; Marcu, Oana

    2011-01-01

    Long-term spaceflight may induce a variety of harmful effects in astronauts, resulting in altered motor and cognitive behavior. The stresses experienced by humans in space - most significantly weightlessness (microgravity) and cosmic radiation - are difficult to accurately simulate on Earth. In fact, prolonged and concomitant exposure to microgravity and cosmic radiation can only be studied in space. Behavioral studies in space have focused on model organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila is often used due to its short life span and generational cycle, small size, and ease of maintenance. Additionally, the well-characterized genetics of Drosophila behavior on Earth can be applied to the analysis of results from spaceflights, provided that the behavior in space is accurately recorded. In 2001, the BioExplorer project introduced a low-cost option for researchers: the small satellite. While this approach enabled multiple inexpensive launches of biological experiments, it also imposed stringent restrictions on the monitoring systems in terms of size, mass, data bandwidth, and power consumption. Suggested parameters for size are on the order of 100 mm3 and 1 kg mass for the entire payload. For Drosophila behavioral studies, these engineering requirements are not met by commercially available systems. One system that does meet many requirements for behavioral studies in space is the actimeter. Actimeters use infrared light gates to track the number of times a fly crosses a boundary within a small container (3x3x40 mm). Unfortunately, the apparatus needed to monitor several flies at once would be larger than the capacity of the small satellite. A system is presented, which expands on the actimeter approach to achieve a highly compact, low-power, ultra-low bandwidth solution for simultaneous monitoring of the behavior of multiple flies in space. This also provides a simple, inexpensive alternative to the current systems for monitoring Drosophila

  3. Object affordances tune observers' prior expectations about tool-use behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Pierre O; Chambon, Valérian; Borghi, Anna M; Tessari, Alessia

    2012-01-01

    Learning about the function and use of tools through observation requires the ability to exploit one's own knowledge derived from past experience. It also depends on the detection of low-level local cues that are rooted in the tool's perceptual properties. Best known as 'affordances', these cues generate biomechanical priors that constrain the number of possible motor acts that are likely to be performed on tools. The contribution of these biomechanical priors to the learning of tool-use behaviors is well supported. However, it is not yet clear if, and how, affordances interact with higher-order expectations that are generated from past experience--i.e. probabilistic exposure--to enable observational learning of tool use. To address this question we designed an action observation task in which participants were required to infer, under various conditions of visual uncertainty, the intentions of a demonstrator performing tool-use behaviors. Both the probability of observing the demonstrator achieving a particular tool function and the biomechanical optimality of the observed movement were varied. We demonstrate that biomechanical priors modulate the extent to which participants' predictions are influenced by probabilistically-induced prior expectations. Biomechanical and probabilistic priors have a cumulative effect when they 'converge' (in the case of a probabilistic bias assigned to optimal behaviors), or a mutually inhibitory effect when they actively 'diverge' (in the case of probabilistic bias assigned to suboptimal behaviors).

  4. Object affordances tune observers' prior expectations about tool-use behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre O Jacquet

    Full Text Available Learning about the function and use of tools through observation requires the ability to exploit one's own knowledge derived from past experience. It also depends on the detection of low-level local cues that are rooted in the tool's perceptual properties. Best known as 'affordances', these cues generate biomechanical priors that constrain the number of possible motor acts that are likely to be performed on tools. The contribution of these biomechanical priors to the learning of tool-use behaviors is well supported. However, it is not yet clear if, and how, affordances interact with higher-order expectations that are generated from past experience--i.e. probabilistic exposure--to enable observational learning of tool use. To address this question we designed an action observation task in which participants were required to infer, under various conditions of visual uncertainty, the intentions of a demonstrator performing tool-use behaviors. Both the probability of observing the demonstrator achieving a particular tool function and the biomechanical optimality of the observed movement were varied. We demonstrate that biomechanical priors modulate the extent to which participants' predictions are influenced by probabilistically-induced prior expectations. Biomechanical and probabilistic priors have a cumulative effect when they 'converge' (in the case of a probabilistic bias assigned to optimal behaviors, or a mutually inhibitory effect when they actively 'diverge' (in the case of probabilistic bias assigned to suboptimal behaviors.

  5. SPECIAL DYNAMIC BEHAVIORS OF A TEMPORAL CHAOTIC SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingxuan Zhang; Jinjiang Yu; Wangqiang Han

    2008-01-01

    When dynamic behaviors of temporal chaotic system are analyzed,we find that a temporal chaotic system has not only genetic dynamic behaviors of chaotic reflection,but also has phenomena influencing two chaotic attractors by original values.Along with the system parameters changing to certain value,the system will appear a break in chaotic region,and jump to another orbit of attractors.When it is opposite that the system parameters change direction,the temporal chaotic system appears complicated chaotic behaviors.

  6. Behavior of Charmonium Systems after Deconfinement

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, S; Petreczky, P; Wetzorke, I; Datta, Saumen; Karsch, Frithjof; Petreczky, Peter; Wetzorke, Ines

    2003-01-01

    We present a study of charmonia in hot gluonic plasma, for temperatures upto three times the deconfinement transition temperature Tc. q \\bar{q} systems with quark masses close to the charm mass and different spin-parity quantum numbers were studied on very fine isotropic lattices. The analysis of temporal correlators, and spectral functions constructed from them, shows that the J/psi and eta_c survive up to quite high temperatures, with little observable change up to 1.5 Tc, and then gradually weakening and disappearing by 3 Tc. For the scalar and axial vector channels, serious modifications are induced by the hot medium already close to Tc, possibly dissociating the mesons by 1.1 Tc.

  7. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  8. Behavioral Observation Scales for Measuring Children's Distress: The Effects of Increased Methodological Rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of increased methodological rigor on the validity of the Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress and on findings concerning whether children habituate to painful procedures. Data were scored with and without refinements. Results indicated that children do habituate but that refinements had little effect on validity. (BH)

  9. 网络的行为观测%Observation of Network Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚俭; 吴桦

    2000-01-01

    The basic concepts and correlating contents concerning the observation of network behaviors are introduced in this paper,some important contents are discussed,including basic metrics, measurement contents ,measurement methods ,storage of measurement data,the dealing and display of observiation data. This paper provides background information to researches in this filed.

  10. Classwide Efficacy of INSIGHTS: Observed Teacher Practices and Student Behaviors in Kindergarten and First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E.; McCormick, Meghan P.; Turbeville, Ashley R.; Collins, Ashleigh J.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the classwide efficacy of INSIGHTS, a universal social-emotional learning intervention for early elementary grades, on observed teacher practices and student behaviors. Twenty-two elementary schools (87% free/reduced lunch) were randomly assigned to INSIGHTS or an attention-control condition. Kindergarten and first-grade classrooms…

  11. Observed Family Interactions among Subtypes of Eating Disorders Using Structural Analysis of Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn

    1989-01-01

    Compared observations of family interactions among anorexic, bulimic-anorexic, bulimic, and normal families (N=74 families) consisting of father, mother, and teenage daughter. Benjamin's structural analysis of social behavior methodology differentiated clinical from normal families. Found unique patterns among subtypes of eating disorders which…

  12. A Design of Observers for a Discrete Chaotic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is very easy to design an observer for a discrete chaotic system which possesses one non-linear scalar quantity, and one can realize the synchronization between the investigated chaotic system and its observer easily. This method is applied to two chaotic systems.

  13. Impulse Observability and Impulse Controllability of Regular Degenerate Evolution Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Zhaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Impulse observability and impulse controllability of regular degenerate evolution systems are discussed by using functional analysis and operator theory in Banach space.Necessary and sufficient conditions for the impulse observability and impulse controllability of the system are obtained.This research is theoretically important for studying the design of the degenerate evolution system.

  14. Drinking behavior in nursery pigs: determining the accuracy between an automatic water meter versus human observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiszberg, A M; Johnson, A K; Sadler, L J; Carroll, J A; Dailey, J W; Krebs, N

    2009-12-01

    Assimilating accurate behavioral events over a long period can be labor-intensive and relatively expensive. If an automatic device could accurately record the duration and frequency for a given behavioral event, it would be a valuable alternative to the traditional use of human observers for behavioral studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the accuracy in the time spent at the waterer and the number of visits to the waterer by individually housed nursery pigs between human observers scoring video files using Observer software (OBS) and an automatic water meter Hobo (WM, control) affixed onto the waterline. Eleven PIC USA genotype gilts (22 +/- 2 d of age; 6.5 +/- 1.4 kg of BW) were housed individually in pens with ad libitum access to a corn-based starter ration and one nipple waterer. Behavior was collected on d 0 (day of weaning), 7, and 14 of the trial using 1 color camera positioned over 4 attached pens and a RECO-204 DVR at 1 frame per second. For the OBS method, 2 experienced observers recorded drinking behavior from the video files, which was defined as when the gilt placed her mouth over the nipple waterer. Data were analyzed using nonparametric methods and the general linear model and regression procedures in SAS. The experimental unit was the individual pen housing 1 gilt. The GLM model included the method of observation (WM vs. OBS) and time (24 h) as variables, and the gilt nested within method was used as the error term. Gilts consumed more water (P = 0.04) on d 14 than on d 0. The time of day affected (P < 0.001) the number of visits and the time spent at the waterer regardless of the method. However, the OBS method underestimated (P < 0.001) the number of visits to the waterer (3.48 +/- 0.33 visits/h for OBS vs. 4.94 +/- 0.33 for WM) and overestimated (P < 0.001) the time spent at the waterer (22.6 +/- 1.46 s/h for OBS vs. 13.9 +/- 1.43 for WM) compared with WM. The relationship between the 2 methods for prediction of time

  15. Planning Smalltalk Behavior with Cultural Influences for Multiagent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endrass, Birgit; Rehm, Matthias; André, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    There are several factors that influence communicative behavior, such as gender, personality or culture. As virtual agents interact in a more and more human-like manner, their behavior should be dependent on social factors as well. Culture is a phenomenon that affects one’s behavior without one...... realizing it. Behavior is thus sometimes perceived as inappropriate because there is no awareness of the cultural gap. Thus, we think cultural background should also influence the communication behavior of virtual agents. Behavioral differences are sometimes easy to recognize by humans but still hard...... to describe formally, to enable integration into a system that automatically generates culture-specific behavior. In our work, we focus on culture-related differences in the domain of casual Small Talk. Our model of culture-related differences in Small Talk behavior is based on findings described...

  16. Observer Design for (max,plus) Linear System

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, L.; Maia, C. A.; Cottenceau, B.; Lhommeau, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the state estimation for max-plus linear systems. This estimation is carried out following the ideas of the observer method for classical linear systems. The system matrices are assumed to be known, and the observation of the input and of the output is used to compute the estimated state. The observer design is based on the residuation theory which is suitable to deal with linear mapping inversion in idempotent semiring.

  17. OBSERVATIONS ON DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR OF HIGH PERFORMANCE FIBERS BY POLARIZING OPTICAL MICROSCOPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-fa Xiao; Yu-feng Zhang

    2000-01-01

    By means of polarizing optical microscopy (POM), deformation behavior of four kinds of fibers, i.e. ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) fiber, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber,and wholly aromatic (p-hydroxybenzoic acid/2-hydroxy-6-naphthoic acid) copolyester [P(HBA/HNA)]/PET (ACPET blend) fiber, in axial compression, axial impacting, and bending was observed. In compression, kink bands formed at an angle of 55~60° to the fiber axis in 10-times-drawn UHMW-PE fiber, 75~80° in 40-times-drawn sample, 80° in PVA fiber, and 90°in the ACPET blend fiber. In impacting and bending, band angles of UHMW-PE, PVA and PET fibers are nearly the same as those formed in compression, indicating that slip systems do not change. For any of the four kinds of fiber, band spacing exhibits great differences in compression, in impacting, and in bending, which may be attributed to the differences in the degrees of strain or stress concentration.

  18. Interpolating sliding mode observer for a ball and beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luai Hammadih, Mohammad; Hosani, Khalifa Al; Boiko, Igor

    2016-09-01

    A principle of interpolating sliding mode observer is introduced in this paper. The observer incorporates multiple linear observers through interpolation of multiple estimates, which is treated as a type of adaptation. The principle is then applied to the ball and beam system for observation of the slope of the beam from the measurement of the ball position. The linearised model of the ball and beam system using multiple linearisation points is developed. The observer dynamics implemented in Matlab/Simulink Real Time Workshop environment. Experiments conducted on the ball and beam experimental setup demonstrate excellent performance of the designed novel interpolating (adaptive) observer.

  19. Chaotic Behavior in a Flexible Assembly Line of a Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sajid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to study the chaotic behavior in a flexible assembly line of a manufacturing system. A flexible assembly line can accommodate a variety of product types. Result analysis is performed to obtain time persistent data. The behavior of the system is observed for Work-In-Process, as assembling systems are sensitive during processing. It is found that the average Lyapunov exponent is positive in the considered case, and thus chaotic behavior may be present in flexible assembly lines.

  20. Observation of Varroa destructor behavior in capped worker brood of Africanized honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Rafael A; Chaves, Guisella; Sánchez, Luis A; Calderón, Rolando

    2012-11-01

    The behavioral activity of Varroa destructor was observed using transparent cells. Mite oviposition started at 45.0 ± 25.0 h post capping, followed by the next eggs laid at regular 27.3 ± 2.0 h intervals. On the prepupa, mites were found to feed often and there was no preference for a specific segment as a feeding site. During the pupal stage the mite fed less often and almost always at the same point. Varroa showed a preference for defecation in the posterior part of the cell. A significant association was observed between the position of the feeding point in the pupa and the defecation site on the cell wall. Displacement behavior was observed in 71 % of the infested bee larvae and a major change in the free space available for varroa in the cell occurred when the prepupa molted into a pupa.

  1. Designing virtual audiences for fear of public speaking training - an observation study on realistic nonverbal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeschl, Sandra; Doering, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Reality technology offers great possibilities for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of fear of public speaking: Clients can be exposed to virtual fear-triggering stimuli (exposure) and are able to role-play in virtual environments, training social skills to overcome their fear. Usually, prototypical audience behavior (neutral, social and anti-social) serves as stimulus in virtual training sessions, although there is significant lack of theoretical basis on typical audience behavior. The study presented deals with the design of a realistic virtual presentation scenario. An audience (consisting of n=18 men and women) in an undergraduate seminar was observed during three frontal lecture sessions. Behavior frequency of four nonverbal dimensions (eye contact, facial expression, gesture, and posture) was rated by means of a quantitative content analysis. Results show audience behavior patterns which seem to be typical in frontal lecture contexts, like friendly and neutral face expressions. Additionally, combined and even synchronized behavioral patterns between participants who sit next to each other (like turning to the neighbor and start talking) were registered. The gathered data serve as empirical design basis for a virtual audience to be used in virtual training applications that stimulate the experiences of the participants in a realistic manner, thereby improving the experienced presence in the training application. PMID:22954859

  2. The cognitive-behavioral system of leadership: Cognitive antecedents of active and passive leadership behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina eDóci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we propose a cognitive-behavioral understanding of active and passive leadership. Building on core evaluations theory, we offer a model that explains the emergence of leaders’ active and passive behaviors, thereby predicting stable, inter-individual, as well as variable, intra-individual differences in both types of leadership behavior. We explain leaders’ stable behavioral tendencies by their fundamental beliefs about themselves, others, and the world (core evaluations, while their variable, momentary behaviors are explained by the leaders’ momentary appraisals of themselves, others, and the world (specific evaluations. By introducing interactions between the situation the leader enters, the leader’s beliefs, appraisals, and behavior, we propose a comprehensive system of cognitive mechanisms that underlie active and passive leadership behavior.

  3. IPS observation system for the Miyun 50 m radio telescope and its commissioning observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground-based observation of Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) is an important approach for monitoring solar wind. A ground-based IPS observation system has been newly implemented on a 50 m radio telescope at Miyun station, managed by the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This observation system has been constructed for the purpose of observing solar wind speed and the associated scintillation index by using the normalized cross-spectrum of a simultaneous dual-frequency IPS measurement. The system consists of a universal dual-frequency front-end and a dual-channel multi-function back-end specially designed for IPS. After careful calibration and testing, IPS observations on source 3C 273B and 3C 279 have been successfully carried out. The preliminary observation results show that this newly-developed observation system is capable of performing IPS observation. The system's sensitivity for IPS observation can reach over 0.3 Jy in terms of an IPS polarization correlator with 4 MHz bandwidth and 2 s integration time. (research papers)

  4. Data Observations on Double Shell Tank (DST) Flammable Gas Watch List Tank Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-09-28

    This report provides the data from the retained gas sampler, void fraction instrument, ball rheometer, standard hydrogen monitoring system, and other tank data pertinent to gas retention and release behavior in the waste stored in double-shelled Flammable Gas Watch List tanks at Hanford. These include tanks 241-AN-103,241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AW-101, 241-SY-101, and 241-SY-103. The tanks and the waste they contain are described in terms of fill history and chemistry. The results of mixer pump operation and recent waste transfers and back-dilution in SY-101 are also described. In-situ measurement and monitoring systems are described and the data are summarized under the categories of thermal behavior, waste configuration and properties, gas generation and composition, gas retention and historical gas release behavior.

  5. Estimability and stochastic observability of quantised linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Shen, Ying

    2016-04-01

    The estimability and stochastic observability of quantised discrete-time linear dynamic systems are discussed from information theoretic viewpoint. Algebraic conditions of estimability and stochastic observability for quantised linear Gaussian systems, i.e., certain Gramians having full rank, are proposed based on the measure of mutual information. The obtained conditions of estimability and observability are consistent with the intuition and provide us with valuable hints on quantiser design. It is shown analytically that the Gramians of quantised systems converge to that of unquantised systems when the quantisation intervals turn to zero, and a well-designed quantiser can preserve the estimability and stochastic observability of the original system even if it is as coarse as one bit. Furthermore, the relation between estimability and stochastic observability is established for quantised stochastically autonomous systems. The analytical results are verified by illustrative simulations.

  6. Observability of Airborne Passive Location System with Phase Difference Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Xinpu; Wang Qiang; Zhong Danxing

    2008-01-01

    With a pair of antennas spaced apart, an airborne passive location system measures phase differences of emitting signals. Regarded as cyclic ambiguities, the moduli of the measurements traditionally are resolved by adding more antenna elements. This paper models the cyclic ambiguity as a component of the system state, of which the observability is analyzed and compared to that of the bear- ings-only passive location system. It is shown that the necessary and sufficient observability condition for the bearings-only passive location system is only the necessary observability condition for the passive location system with phase difference measurements, and that when the system state is observable, the cyclic ambiguities can be estimated by accumulating the phase difference measurements, thereby making the observer able to locate the emitter with high-precision.

  7. A framework and model system to investigate linear system behavior in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The ability to compose biological systems from smaller elements that act independently of the other upon assembly may help make the forward engineering of biological systems practical. Engineering biology in this manner is made difficult by the inherent nonlinear response of organisms to genetic devices. Devices are inevitably coupled to one another in the cell because they share the same transcriptional machinery for expression. Thus, new properties can emerge when devices that had been characterized in isolation are expressed concurrently. We show in this report that, similar to physical systems, the Escherichia coli (E. coli) transcriptional system can exhibit linear behavior under "small" perturbation conditions. This, in turn, allows devices to be treated as independent modules. Results We developed a framework and model system consisting of three devices to investigate linear system behavior in E. coli. Our framework employed the transfer curve concept to determine the amount of nonlinearity elicited by the E. coli transcriptional system in response to the devices. To this effect, the model system was quantitatively characterized using real-time quantitative PCR to produce device transfer curves (DTCs). Two of the devices encoded the bacterial neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat), while the third encoded the jellyfish-originating green fluorescent protein (gfp). The gfp device was the most nonlinear in our system, with nptII and cat devices eliciting linear responses. Superposition experiments verified these findings, with independence among the three devices having been lost when gfp was present at copy numbers above the lowest one used. Conclusions We show that linear system behavior is possible in E. coli. Elucidation of the mechanism underlying the nonlinearity observed in gfp may lead to design rules that ensure linear system behavior, enabling the accurate prediction of the quantitative behavior

  8. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  9. Neurophysiological observation of the nociceptive system using electrocutaneous stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der Esther Marjan

    2009-01-01

    Adequate observation techniques are required to explore changes in the nociceptive system in pain patients. In this thesis neurophysiological observation methods of nociceptive system are explored. The focus is to explore the merits of electrocutaneous single pulse (SP) and pulse train (PT) stimulat

  10. Augur: Mining Human Behaviors from Fiction to Power Interactive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fast, Ethan; McGrath, William; Rajpurkar, Pranav; Bernstein, Michael

    2016-01-01

    From smart homes that prepare coffee when we wake, to phones that know not to interrupt us during important conversations, our collective visions of HCI imagine a future in which computers understand a broad range of human behaviors. Today our systems fall short of these visions, however, because this range of behaviors is too large for designers or programmers to capture manually. In this paper, we instead demonstrate it is possible to mine a broad knowledge base of human behavior by analyzi...

  11. Behavioral System Feedback Measurement Failure: Sweeping Quality under the Rug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalic, Maria T.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral Systems rely on valid measurement systems to manage processes and feedback and to deliver contingencies. An examination of measurement system components designed to track customer service quality of furniture delivery drivers revealed the measurement system failed to capture information it was designed to measure. A reason for this…

  12. Dynamical systems theory and complicated economic behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Day, R H

    1985-01-01

    Recent developments in mathematics show that more-or-less random behavior and spontaneously evolving structures can be given analytical and deterministic representations. Empirical simulation and theoretical models have been developed in economics that have similar capacities. This suggests that we are entering a new period when structural change and inherently unpredictable events can be explained or understood in terms of endogenous economic forces. In this paper several important related d...

  13. Observation of fine particle aggregating behavior induced by high intensity conditioning using high speed CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aggregating behavior between bubbles and particles induced by high intensity conditioning (HIC) was studied using high speed CCD technique. Bubble size measurement was conducted, and the attachment behavior between bubbles and particles in HIC cell and flotation cell were observed. The results show that in HIC cell, high intensity conditioning creates an advantage environment for the formation of small size bubble due to hydrodynamic cavitations, and these fine bubbles have high probability of bubble-particle collision,which will enhance fine particle flotation. The bubble-particle attachment experiments indicate that in high intensity conditioning cell, a lot of fine bubbles are produced in situ on the surface of fine particles, and most of fine particles are aggregated under the bridging action of fine bubbles. The observation of bubble-particle interaction in flotation cell illustrates that aggregates created by HIC can be loaded more easily by big air bubble in flotation cell than those created by normal conditioning.

  14. In situ crack growth observation and fracture behavior of short carbon fiber reinforced geopolymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crack initiation and propagation of short carbon fiber reinforced geopolymer matrix composites (Cf/geopolymer composites) during bending test were observed in situ by environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Lots of micro cracks initiate, and then propagate on the side of the beam sample with the increase of the bending load. A nearly elastic response of load-displacement curve and significant deformation of the composites are observed at the initial stages. The propagation of the micro cracks ceases, and these cracks tend to close to some extent while the main crack forms. The fiber bridging effect in the micro and main cracks effectively keeps the composites integrity and makes the composites exhibit a non-catastrophic fracture behavior. A simple mode for the damage behavior of the composites during the bending test is discussed.

  15. Global Exponential Angular Velocity Observer for Rigid Body Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Berkane, Soulaimane; Abdessameud, Abdelkader; Tayebi, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    We present a uniformly globally exponentially stable hybrid angular velocity observer for rigid body systems designed directly on $SO(3)\\times\\mathbb{R}^3$. The global exponential stability result makes this observer a good candidate for a controller-observer combination with a guaranteed separation property. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid observer as a part of an attitude stabilization scheme.

  16. Role of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitters in behavioral alterations observed in rodent model of hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanda, Saurabh; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in behavioral alterations observed in rat model of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) following bile duct ligation (BDL). Male Wistar rats subjected to BDL developed biliary fibrosis after four weeks which was supported by altered liver function tests, increased ammonia levels and histological staining (Sirius red). Animals were assessed for their behavioral performance in terms of cognitive, anxiety and motor functions. The levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) were estimated in different regions of brain viz. cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum using HPLC along with activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Cognitive assessment of BDL rats revealed a progressive decline in learning, memory formation, retrieval, exploration of novel environment and spontaneous locomotor activity along with decrease in 5-HT and NE levels. This was accompanied by an increase in MAO activity. Motor functions of BDL rats were also altered which were evident from decrease in the time spent on the rotating rod and higher foot faults assessed using narrow beam walk task. A global decrease was observed in the DA content along with an increase in MAO activity. Histopathological studies using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and cresyl violet exhibited marked neuronal degeneration, wherein neurons appeared more pyknotic, condensed and damaged. The results reveal that dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways are disturbed in chronic liver failure post-BDL which may be responsible for behavioral impairments observed in HE. PMID:25639545

  17. Adsorption behavior of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to mica substrates as observed by atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Feng; DU Yukou; YANG Ping; LI Xingchang; TANG Ji'an

    2005-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy is employed to study the adsorption behavior of CTAB to mica surfaces. Results show that conformational transitions from globular micelles→cylindrical micelles→flat films are observed in the process of the adsorption of CTAB to mica at twice the bulk critical concentration. However, in 0.5 cmc CTAB solution, the adsorbed CTAB molecules to mica form the layered film structures, and apparent conformational transitions do not appear. Meanwhile, the phenomena of the adsorption of CTAB to mica and the dissociation of mica surfaces are periodically observed.

  18. Role of Communication Networks in Behavioral Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmanfar, Ramona; Rodrigues, Nischal Joseph; Smith, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of communication networks and the role of verbal behavior in behavioral systems analysis. Our discussion highlights styles of leadership in the design and implementation of effective organizational contingencies that affect ways by which coordinated work practices are managed. We draw upon literature pertaining to…

  19. Finite-time behavior of inner systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludlage, Jobert H.A.; Weiland, Siep; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Backx, Ton A.C.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how nonminimum phase characteristics of a dynamical system affect its controllability and tracking properties. For the class of linear time-invariant dynamical systems, these characteristics are determined by transmission zeros of the inner factor of the system transfer

  20. Comments on Current Space Systems Observing the Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, L. A.

    2016-07-01

    The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS), which was established in 1992, has been effective in specifying the observations needed for climate studies, and advocating that these observations be made. As a result, there are essential climate variables being observed, particularly from space, and these have formed the basis for our ever-improving models of how the Earth system functions and the human impact on it. We cannot conclude, however, that the current observing system in space is adequate. Climate change is accelerating, and we need to ensure that our observations capture, with completeness and with proper resolution and cadence, the most important changes. Perhaps of most significance, we need to use observations from space to guide the mitigation and adaptation strategies on which at last our civilization seems prepared to embark. And we need to use our observations to educate particularly policy makers on the reality of climate change, so that none deny the need to act. COSPAR is determined to play its part in highlighting the need to strengthen the climate observing system and notably its research component. This is being accomplished through events like the present roundtable, through the work of its Scientific Commission A, its Task Group on GEO (where COSPAR is serving as a member of its Program Board), and by promoting among space agencies and policy-makers the recently released scientific roadmap on Integrated Earth System Science for the period 2016-2025.

  1. Evaluation of the Earth Systems Research Laboratory's global Observing System Simulation Experiment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki C. Privé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE system has been implemented at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Earth Systems Research Laboratory in the US as part of an international Joint OSSE effort. The setup of the OSSE consists of a Nature Run from a 13-month free run of the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts operational model, synthetic observations developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modelling and Assimilation Office, and an operational version of the NCEP Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation data assimilation and Global Forecast System numerical weather prediction model. Synthetic observations included both conventional observations and the following radiance observations: AIRS, AMSU-A, AMSU-B, HIRS2, HIRS3, MSU, GOES radiance and OSBUV. Calibration was performed by modifying the error added to the conventional synthetic observations to achieve a match between data denial impacts on the analysis state in the OSSE system and in the real data system. Following calibration, the performance of the OSSE system was evaluated in terms of forecast skill scores and impact of observations on forecast fields.

  2. A Graph Approach to Observability in Physical Sparse Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Vazquez-Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A sparse linear system constitutes a valid model for a broad range of physical systems, such as electric power networks, industrial processes, control systems or traffic models. The physical magnitudes in those systems may be directly measured by means of sensor networks that, in conjunction with data obtained from contextual and boundary constraints, allow the estimation of the state of the systems. The term observability refers to the capability of estimating the state variables of a system based on the available information. In the case of linear systems, diffierent graphical approaches were developed to address this issue. In this paper a new unified graph based technique is proposed in order to determine the observability of a sparse linear physical system or, at least, a system that can be linearized after a first order derivative, using a given sensor set. A network associated to a linear equation system is introduced, which allows addressing and solving three related problems: the characterization of those cases for which algebraic and topological observability analysis return contradictory results; the characterization of a necessary and sufficient condition for topological observability; the determination of the maximum observable subsystem in case of unobservability. Two examples illustrate the developed techniques.

  3. Is Structured Observation a Valid Technique to Measure Handwashing Behavior? Use of Acceleration Sensors Embedded in Soap to Assess Reactivity to Structured Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Pavani K.; Halder, Amal K.; Stewart P Granger; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M. Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3–10.6). During the structured observation, the median...

  4. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed. PMID:23036395

  5. The red-light running behavior of electric bike riders and cyclists at urban intersections in China: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changxu; Yao, Lin; Zhang, Kan

    2012-11-01

    Electric bikes and regular bicycles play an important role in the urban transportation system of China. Red-light running is a type of highly dangerous behavior of two-wheeled riders. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the rate, associated factors, and behavior characteristics of two-wheelers' red-light running in China. A field observational study was conducted using two synchronized video cameras at three signalized intersections in Beijing. A total of 451 two-wheelers facing a red light (222 e-bike riders and 229 cyclists) were observed and analyzed. The results showed that 56% of the two-wheelers crossed the intersection against a red light. Age was found to be a significant variable for predicting red-light runners, with the young and middle-aged riders being more likely than the old ones to run against a red light. The logistic regression analysis also indicated that the probability of a rider running a red light was higher when she or he was alone, when there were fewer riders waiting, and when there were riders already crossing on red. Further analysis of crossing behavior revealed that the majority of red-light running occurred in the early and late stages of a red-light cycle. Two-wheelers' crossing behavior was categorized into three distinct types: law-obeying (44%), risk-taking (31%) and opportunistic (25%). Males were more likely to act in a risk-taking manner than females, and so were the young and middle-aged riders than the old ones. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding two-wheelers' red-light running behaviors, and their implications in improving road safety were discussed.

  6. BEHAVE : Fire Behavior Prediction and Fuel Modeling System -- FUEL Subsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Burgan, Robert E; Rothermel, Richard C

    1984-01-01

    This manual documents the fuel modeling procedures of BEHAVE - a state-of-the-art wildland fire behavior prediction system. Described are procedures for collecting fuel data, using the data with the program, and testing and adjusting the fuel model.

  7. Inference systems for observation equivalences in the π-calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林惠民

    1999-01-01

    Inference systems for observation equivalences in the pi-calculus with recursion are proposed, and their completeness over the finite-control fragment with guarded recursions are proven. The inference systems consist of inference rules and equational axioms. The judgments are conditional equations which characterise symbolic bisimulations between process terms. This result on the one hand generalises Milner’s complete axiomatisation of observation equivalence for regular CCS to the pi-calculus, and on the other hand extends the proof systems of strong bisimulations for guarded regular pi-calculus to observation equivalences.

  8. The effects of observer presence on the behavior of Cebus capucinus in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Katharine M; Lenz, Bryan B; Healan, Erin; Rudman, Sara; Schoof, Valérie A M; Fedigan, Linda

    2008-05-01

    We report on the responses of Cebus capucinus in the Santa Rosa Sector of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, to the presence of observers over a 4-week period. Study groups were habituated to different degrees: (1) Cerco de Piedra (CP): continuous observations began in 1984; (2) Exclosure (EX): focus of an 18-month study on males from 1998 to 1999; and (3) NBH: never studied/followed but the group frequently encounters researchers. We collected three types of data: group scans (group state was coded as calm or agitated at observer presence), focal animal data (observer-directed behaviors were recorded), and fecal cortisol levels. The two less-habituated groups (NBH and EX) differed significantly from the habituated group (CP) in their behavioral and cortisol responses, and they showed an increase in habituation over the study period (agitation and cortisol levels both dropped). Individuals in NBH also decreased their responses to observers during focal follows; however, at the end of the study the responses of the two less-habituated groups (NBH and EX) remained elevated in comparison to the habituated group (CP), suggesting the need for further habituation. Unlike capuchin groups that rarely encounter humans, NBH and EX never fled from observers and they rarely emitted observer-directed alarm calls. We suggest that the permanence of habituation and the ability to habituate animals passively through a neutral human presence are both important considerations for researchers conducting studies in areas where animal safety from poachers, etc. cannot be guaranteed. PMID:18076061

  9. Organizational Behavior Analysis Focusing on the University of Texas System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Bobby K.

    2011-01-01

    This project analyzes the organizational behavior of the University of Texas System. The University of Texas System is comprised of nine academic and six health institutions. The University of Texas System has over 85,000 employees; the student enrollment is 202,240 with a budget of $2.25 billion dollars. This project has a total of four parts and…

  10. Observational studies of X-ray binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of Chapter 1 is theoretical. The other chapters, Ch. 2 to 6, contain original observational data and efforts towards their interpretation. Of these, Ch. 3, 4 and 5 deal with massive X-ray binaries, Ch. 6 with low-mass systems and Ch. 2 with Cygnus X-3, which we have not yet been able to assign to any of these two classes. The X-ray observations described were made with the COS-B satellite. Work based on UV and optical observations is described in Ch. 5. The UV observations were made with the IUE satellite, the optical observations at several ground-based observatories. (Auth.)

  11. The benefits of simply observing: mindful attention modulates the link between motivation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papies, Esther K; Pronk, Tila M; Keesman, Mike; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2015-01-01

    Mindful attention, a central component of mindfulness meditation, can be conceived as becoming aware of one's thoughts and experiences and being able to observe them as transient mental events. Here, we present a series of studies demonstrating the effects of applying this metacognitive perspective to one's spontaneous reward responses when encountering attractive stimuli. Taking a grounded cognition perspective, we argue that reward simulations in response to attractive stimuli contribute to appetitive behavior and that motivational states and traits enhance these simulations. Directing mindful attention at these thoughts and seeing them as mere mental events should break this link, such that motivational states and traits no longer affect reward simulations and appetitive behavior. To test this account, we trained participants to observe their thoughts in reaction to appetitive stimuli as mental events, using a brief procedure designed for nonmeditators. Across 3 experiments, we found that adopting the mindful attention perspective reduced the effects of motivational states and traits on appetitive behavior in 2 domains, in both the laboratory and the field. Specifically, after applying mindful attention, participants' sexual motivation no longer made opposite-sex others seem more attractive and thus desirable as partners. Similarly, participants' levels of hunger no longer boosted the attractiveness of unhealthy foods, resulting in healthier eating choices. We discuss these results in the context of mechanisms and applications of mindful attention and explore how mindfulness and mindful attention can be conceptualized in psychological research more generally. PMID:25347126

  12. Earth observation data systems in the 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements for future data systems for earth resource observation data are examined. Estimates are made for both expected data volumes and data delivery requirements. Research and development activities presently underway are described, including (1) high-speed processors such as the massively parallel processor; (2) data storage systems, including optical disk configurations and (3) distributed data systems such as high-speed local networks and the applications data service system.

  13. Virtual Estimator for Piecewise Linear Systems Based on Observability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Morales, Cornelio; Adam-Medina, Manuel; Cervantes, Ilse; Vela-Valdés and, Luis G.; García Beltrán, Carlos Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a virtual sensor for piecewise linear systems based on observability analysis that is in function of a commutation law related with the system's outpu. This virtual sensor is also known as a state estimator. Besides, it presents a detector of active mode when the commutation sequences of each linear subsystem are arbitrary and unknown. For the previous, this article proposes a set of virtual estimators that discern the commutation paths of the system and allow estimating their output. In this work a methodology in order to test the observability for piecewise linear systems with discrete time is proposed. An academic example is presented to show the obtained results. PMID:23447007

  14. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Currents Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  15. Northeast Fisheries Observer Program Internal Management System (NEFOP_IMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Fisheries Observer Program Internal Management System contains data and information that are used internally by FSB staff to administer and manage...

  16. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  17. The GBT Dynamic Scheduling System: The Observers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatz, J.; Balser, D. A.; Bignell, C.; Clark, M.; Harnett, J.; McCarty, M.; Marganian, P.; O'Neil, K.; Shelton, A.

    2009-09-01

    To make the most efficient use of telescope time, the NRAO is implementing a Dynamic Scheduling System (DSS) for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The DSS aims to match observing projects to the weather and other observing conditions, without sacrificing observers' interactive control of their experiments. To meet this goal, the DSS schedules people, not observing scripts. Each observer can then attend to the observation, control the telescope, and modify the observing program, if necessary, in real time. Observing under the DSS is often done remotely, by necessity. Every day, the DSS generates a new schedule for the 24-hour period beginning one day hence. Observers therefore must be prepared to run observations with 24 to 48 hours notice. Being available and ready to observe on short notice requires that observers adopt a new mindset, unlike their experiences with other telescopes. While it may be an inconvenience for some, the benefits of the DSS are substantial, the primary one being that astronomers are almost assured of observing in appropriate weather and getting high quality data. The DSS gives observers the opportunity to black out time ranges to avoid for scheduling, so the telescope schedule can fit around other demands. In addition to the scheduling algorithms, the DSS team has developed a set of software tools to help observers manage their projects, to notify observers of scheduling news, and to help observers anticipate when their projects will get scheduled. In this contribution we will report observers' experiences from the first tests of the GBT DSS, which took place from June 1 to September 30, 2008.

  18. Current systematic carbon cycle observations and needs for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciais, P.; Dolman, A. J.; Bombelli, A.; Duren, R.; Peregon, A.; Rayner, P. J.; Miller, C.; Gobron, N.; Kinderman, G.; Marland, G.; Gruber, N.; Chevallier, F.; Andres, R. J.; Balsamo, G.; Bopp, L.; Bréon, F.-M.; Broquet, G.; Dargaville, R.; Battin, T. J.; Borges, A.; Bovensmann, H.; Buchwitz, M.; Butler, J.; Canadell, J. G.; Cook, R. B.; DeFries, R.; Engelen, R.; Gurney, K. R.; Heinze, C.; Heimann, M.; Held, A.; Henry, M.; Law, B.; Luyssaert, S.; Miller, J.; Moriyama, T.; Moulin, C.; Myneni, R. B.; Nussli, C.; Obersteiner, M.; Ojima, D.; Pan, Y.; Paris, J.-D.; Piao, S. L.; Poulter, B.; Plummer, S.; Quegan, S.; Raymond, P.; Reichstein, M.; Rivier, L.; Sabine, C.; Schimel, D.; Tarasova, O.; Valentini, R.; van der Werf, G.; Wickland, D.; Williams, M.; Zehner, C.

    2013-07-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The goal of this study is to identify the current state of carbon observations and needs for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion (by several orders of magnitude) of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO2 and CH4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over remote areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground-based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in-situ and remotely sensed data at much higher resolution and density than currently achieved for natural fluxes, although over a small land area (cities, industrial sites, power plants

  19. Current systematic carbon cycle observations and needs for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciais

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The goal of this study is to identify the current state of carbon observations and needs for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion (by several orders of magnitude of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO2 and CH4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over remote areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground-based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in-situ and remotely sensed data at much higher resolution and density than currently achieved for natural fluxes, although over a small land area (cities, industrial

  20. The wireless networking system of Earthquake precursor mobile field observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Teng, Y.; Wang, X.; Fan, X.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    The mobile field observation network could be real-time, reliably record and transmit large amounts of data, strengthen the physical signal observations in specific regions and specific period, it can improve the monitoring capacity and abnormal tracking capability. According to the features of scatter everywhere, a large number of current earthquake precursor observation measuring points, networking technology is based on wireless broadband accessing McWILL system, the communication system of earthquake precursor mobile field observation would real-time, reliably transmit large amounts of data to the monitoring center from measuring points through the connection about equipment and wireless accessing system, broadband wireless access system and precursor mobile observation management center system, thereby implementing remote instrument monitoring and data transmition. At present, the earthquake precursor field mobile observation network technology has been applied to fluxgate magnetometer array geomagnetic observations of Tianzhu, Xichang,and Xinjiang, it can be real-time monitoring the working status of the observational instruments of large area laid after the last two or three years, large scale field operation. Therefore, it can get geomagnetic field data of the local refinement regions and provide high-quality observational data for impending earthquake tracking forecast. Although, wireless networking technology is very suitable for mobile field observation with the features of simple, flexible networking etc, it also has the phenomenon of packet loss etc when transmitting a large number of observational data due to the wireless relatively weak signal and narrow bandwidth. In view of high sampling rate instruments, this project uses data compression and effectively solves the problem of data transmission packet loss; Control commands, status data and observational data transmission use different priorities and means, which control the packet loss rate within

  1. A digital video system for observing and recording occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, M A; Pavlov, Hristo; Hanna, William; McEwan, Alistair; Filipovic, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Stellar occultations by asteroids and outer solar system bodies can offer ground based observers with modest telescopes and camera equipment the opportunity to probe the shape, size, atmosphere and attendant moons or rings of these distant objects. The essential requirements of the camera and recording equipment are: good quantum efficiency and low noise, minimal dead time between images, good horological faithfulness of the image time stamps, robustness of the recording to unexpected failure, and low cost. We describe the Astronomical Digital Video occultation observing and recording System (ADVS) which attempts to fulfil these requirements and compare the system with other reported camera and recorder systems. Five systems have been built, deployed and tested over the past three years, and we report on three representative occultation observations: one being a 9 +/-1.5 second occultation of the trans-Neptunian object 28978 Ixion (mv=15.2) at 3 seconds per frame, one being a 1.51 +/-0.017 second occultation ...

  2. An empirical movement model for sixgill sharks in Puget Sound: Combining observed and unobserved behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phillip S. LEVIN; Peter HORNE; Kelly S. ANDREWS; Greg WILLIAMS

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the movement of animals is fundamental to population and community ecology.Historically,it has been difficult to quantify movement patterns of most fishes,but technological advances in acoustic telemetry have increased our abilities to monitor their movement.In this study,we combined small-scale active acoustic tracking with large-scale passive acoustic monitoring to develop an empirical movement model for sixgill sharks in Puget Sound,WA,USA.We began by testing whether a correlated random walk model described the daily movement of sixgills; however,the model failed to capture home-ranging behavior.We added this behavior and used the resultant model (a biased random walk model) to determine whether daily movement patterns are able to explain large-scale seasonal movement.The daily model did not explain the larger-scale patterns of movement observed in the passive monitoring data.In order to create the large-scale patterns,sixgills must have performed behaviors (large,fast directed movements) that were unobserved during small-scale active tracking.In addition,seasonal shifts in location were not captured by the daily model.We added these ‘unobserved' behaviors to the model and were able to capture large-scale seasonal movement of sixgill sharks over 150 days.The development of empirical models of movement allows researchers to develop hypotheses and test mechanisms responsible for a species movement behavior and spatial distribution.This knowledge will increase our ability to successfully manage species of concern [Current Zoology 58 (1):103-115,2012].

  3. Global behavior of gear system using mixed cell mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN; Yunwen; LIU; Mengjun; DONG; Haijun

    2004-01-01

    In some mechanical nonlinear systems, the transient motion will be undergoing a very long process and the attractor-basin boundaries are so complicated that some difficulties occur in analyzing the system global behavior. To solve this problem a mixed cell mapping method based on the point mapping and the principle of simple cell mapping is developed. The algorithm of the mixed cell mapping is studied. A dynamic model of a gear pair is established with the backlash, damping, transmission error and the time-varying stiffness taken into consideration. The global behaviors of this system are analyzed. The coexistence of the system attractors and the respective attractor-basin of each attractor with different parameters are obtained, thus laying a theoretical basis for improvement of the dynamic behaviors of gear system.

  4. THE TAX SYSTEM AND TAXPAYERS BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Brindusa Tudose

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to examine the behavioural coordinates of tax subjects and the intensity of the interaction between taxpayers and authorities. Research on the behaviour of subjects of the tax system is justified given the tension existing between taxpayers, on the one hand, and the tax system, on the other. The tax systems of the world have been classified into two models: antagonistic and synergistic. As long as in Romania the tax elements have been and continue to be an overwhelming burden on taxpayers, their behaviour has evolved and adjusted to a negative outlook. This type of behaviour, associated with the behaviour of tax authorities built on lack of trust and virulent anti-tax avoidance strategies, has generated a tense and antagonistic tax environment.

  5. The co-occurrence of self-observed norm-conforming behavior, reduction of zero observations and remaining measurement quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsheer, Johannes A

    2014-01-01

    Norm-violating behavior is characterized by clear social norms which prescribe the non-occurrence of that behavior. From the theoretical framework of Allport it is derived that specifically norm-conformation is consistent, while violating norms is expected to be inconsistent and more circumstantial.

  6. Fault Diagnosis in Dynamic Systems Using Fuzzy Interacting Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kolesov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of fault diagnosis in dynamic systems based on a fuzzy approach is proposed. The new method possesses two basic specific features which distinguish it from the other known fuzzy methods based on the application of fuzzy logic and a bank of state observers. First, this method uses a bank of interacting observers instead of traditional independent observers. The second specific feature of the proposed method is the assumption that there is no strict boundary between the serviceable and disabled technical states of the system, which makes it possible to specify a decision making rule for fault diagnosis.

  7. Genetic dissection of pheromone processing reveals main olfactory system-mediated social behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tomohiko; Hattori, Tatsuya; Asaba, Akari; Inoue, Naokazu; Kanomata, Nobuhiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kobayakawa, Reiko; Kobayakawa, Ko

    2015-01-20

    Most mammals have two major olfactory subsystems: the main olfactory system (MOS) and vomeronasal system (VNS). It is now widely accepted that the range of pheromones that control social behaviors are processed by both the VNS and the MOS. However, the functional contributions of each subsystem in social behavior remain unclear. To genetically dissociate the MOS and VNS functions, we established two conditional knockout mouse lines that led to either loss-of-function in the entire MOS or in the dorsal MOS. Mice with whole-MOS loss-of-function displayed severe defects in active sniffing and poor survival through the neonatal period. In contrast, when loss-of-function was confined to the dorsal MOB, sniffing behavior, pheromone recognition, and VNS activity were maintained. However, defects in a wide spectrum of social behaviors were observed: attraction to female urine and the accompanying ultrasonic vocalizations, chemoinvestigatory preference, aggression, maternal behaviors, and risk-assessment behaviors in response to an alarm pheromone. Functional dissociation of pheromone detection and pheromonal induction of behaviors showed the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON)-regulated social behaviors downstream from the MOS. Lesion analysis and neural activation mapping showed pheromonal activation in multiple amygdaloid and hypothalamic nuclei, important regions for the expression of social behavior, was dependent on MOS and AON functions. Identification of the MOS-AON-mediated pheromone pathway may provide insights into pheromone signaling in animals that do not possess a functional VNS, including humans.

  8. Complex evolutionary systems in behavioral finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes; F. Wagener

    2008-01-01

    Traditional finance is built on the rationality paradigm. This chapter discusses simple models from an alternative approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex evolutionary systems. Agents are boundedly rational and base their investment decisions upon market forecasting heuristics. Pri

  9. A Behavior-Based Employee Performance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, William B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses human performance technology models for describing and understanding factors involved in day-to-day functioning of employees and then to develop specific remedial interventions as needed, and contrasts it to an organizational performance system perspective used to design an organization before employees are even hired to prevent bad…

  10. On the behavior of certain turing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H-S. Huang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We extend the generalized maximum principle of Lou and Ni [1] of elliptic equations to parabolic equations. By this result, we show that the solution of a Turing system has a global attractor provide the diffusion coefficient D≠0 otherwise the solution blow-up in finite time.

  11. A systems analysis of psychobiology and behavior therapy. Implications for behavioral medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, G E

    1981-01-01

    This article examines some basic principles of systems theory and applies them to the integration of psychobiology and behavior therapy in the evolution of behavioral medicine. Using the concepts of whole/part relationships, level and emergent property, and self-regulation and disregulation, it is proposed that all behavioral therapies involve psychobiological processes, and therefore, indirectly impinge on physical health. It is argued that the distinction between behavior and biology is one of level, and, therefore, behavioral therapies are ultimately biobehavioral therapies having biobehavioral consequences. It is proposed that contrary to traditional reductionistic logic, modern advances in biology are providing strong justification for the importance of including psychological methods in treating diseases manifested at the biological level. Various clinical examples are used to demonstrate how systems theory can be applied to differential diagnosis and treatment, computing cost/benefit ratios of different treatments, and conducting comprehensive clinical research and evaluation. Assessing the interaction of biological, psychological, and social treatment modalities becomes the hallmark of responsible patient care. Implications of the systems conception of behavioral medicine for collaboration among health care providers, the training of future clinicians in different disciplines, and policy decisions regarding the larger social consequences of health care are considered.

  12. Maintenance Effectiveness and Target Observation System and its ERP Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance effectiveness and target observation system (MENTOS) is a maintenance rule (MR) implementation software for plant personnel to collect, edit, store, and analyze all information required for the MR implementation. Potential users and the developers of MENTOS have decided that MENTOS is implemented in the ERP system of KHNP. This article describes MENTOS briefly and introduces the ERP interface of MENTOS

  13. A cooperative control algorithm for camera based observational systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last several years, there has been considerable growth in camera based observation systems for a variety of safety, scientific, and recreational applications. In order to improve the effectiveness of these systems, we frequently desire the ability to increase the number of observed objects, but solving this problem is not as simple as adding more cameras. Quite often, there are economic or physical restrictions that prevent us from adding additional cameras to the system. As a result, we require methods that coordinate the tracking of objects between multiple cameras in an optimal way. In order to accomplish this goal, we present a new cooperative control algorithm for a camera based observational system. Specifically, we present a receding horizon control where we model the underlying optimal control problem as a mixed integer linear program. The benefit of this design is that we can coordinate the actions between each camera while simultaneously respecting its kinematics. In addition, we further improve the quality of our solution by coupling our algorithm with a Kalman filter. Through this integration, we not only add a predictive component to our control, but we use the uncertainty estimates provided by the filter to encourage the system to periodically observe any outliers in the observed area. This combined approach allows us to intelligently observe the entire region of interest in an effective and thorough manner.

  14. Adaptive Observer-Based Fault Estimate for Nonlinear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Qun; LIU Wenjing; LIU Li

    2006-01-01

    An approach for adaptive observer-based fault estimate for nonlinear system is proposed.H-infinity theory is applied to analyzing the design method and stable conditions of the adaptive observer,from which both system state and fault can be estimated.It is proved that the fault estimate error is related to the given H-infinity track performance indexes,as well as to the changing rate of the fault and the Lipschitz constant of the nonlinear item.The design steps of the adaptive observer are proposed.The simulation results show that the observer has good performance for fault estimate even when the system includes nonlinear terms,which confirms the effectiveness of the method.

  15. Team Formation in Partially Observable Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agogino, Adrian K.; Tumer, Kagan

    2004-01-01

    Sets of multi-agent teams often need to maximize a global utility rating the performance of the entire system where a team cannot fully observe other teams agents. Such limited observability hinders team-members trying to pursue their team utilities to take actions that also help maximize the global utility. In this article, we show how team utilities can be used in partially observable systems. Furthermore, we show how team sizes can be manipulated to provide the best compromise between having easy to learn team utilities and having them aligned with the global utility, The results show that optimally sized teams in a partially observable environments outperform one team in a fully observable environment, by up to 30%.

  16. A network communication and recording system for digital seismic observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-ti; ZHUANG Can-tao; XUE Bing; LI Jiang; CHEN Yang; ZHU Xiao-yi; LOU Wen-yu; LIU Ming-hui

    2006-01-01

    A network communication and recording system based on China-made ARCA SOC and embedded Linux operating system is introduced in this paper. It supports TCP/IP network communication protocol and mass storage medium. It has strong points of self-monitor, low power consumption, high timing accuracy, high reliability of operation, etc. It can serve up to 20 centers real-time waveform data at the same time. It meets not only the requirements of physical networking observation, but also virtual networking observation based on Intemet in which real-time data transmission is required. Its ability of field recording also meets the requirements of portable seismic observation, strong motion observation and seismic exploration observation, etc.

  17. Associations of group level popularity with observed behavior and influence in a dyadic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between popularity in the peer group and adolescents' behavior in a dyadic context. After collecting peer nominations for popularity, 218 early adolescents (M(age) = 11.0 years) in 109 randomly composed same-sex dyads participated in a discussion task where they planned a party for their classroom. From digital recordings of the sessions, each participant's influence, involvement, skillful leadership, coercive resource control, submissiveness, positivity, and negativity were observed. Analyses with the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) demonstrated that for girls high group level popularity was associated with a socially sensitive interaction style and influence in the dyadic context. For both boys and girls, the interaction partner's group level popularity negatively predicted their use of coercive resource control strategies and negative behavior in the dyad. For girls, in addition, the interaction partner's group level popularity also positively predicted their submissiveness and negatively predicted their task influence. These results indicate that, in particular for girls, adolescents' group level popularity plays an important role in the behavior of both peers in a cooperative dyadic context. PMID:26232593

  18. The Integrated Ocean Observing System Data Assembly Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, R. H.; Henderson, D.; Burnett, W.; Hervey, R. V.; Crout, R.

    2008-05-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) is the U.S. contribution to the Global Ocean Observing System and the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). As the Integrated Ocean Observing System Data Assembly Center (IOOS DAC), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s (NOAA) National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) collects data from ocean observing systems and performs quality control on the data. Once the IOOS DAC performs the quality control, it distributes them in real-time: (1) in World Meteorological Organization alphanumeric data formats via the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) that provides instant availability to national and international users (2) in text files via its website (http://www.ndbc.noaa.gov) that provide easy access and use, and (3) in netCDF format via its OPeNDAP/DODS Server (http://dods.ndbc.noaa.gov) that provides higher resolution data than available in WMO alphanumeric or text file formats. The IOOS DAC routinely checks and distributes data from about 200 NDBC stations that include meteorological and oceanographic observations from buoys and coastal stations, water-level estimations from tsunameters (DART), and climate monitoring from buoys (Tropical Atmosphere Ocean array (TAO)). The IOOS DAC operates continuously - 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. In addition to data from NDBC`s platforms, the IOOS DAC applies its scientific expertise and data management and communications capabilities to facilitate partnerships for the exchange and application of data and to coordinate and leverage regional assets and resources from about 350 IOOS Partner stations. The IOOS DAC through its quality control process provides feedback to its partners on the quality of their observation that can lead to improved quality of the observations. The NDBC-IOOS Data Partnerships span the Western Hemisphere with data collection from the Beaufort Sea to the Peru Current, from the International Date Line to the central Atlantic Ocean, and

  19. Asymptotic Behavior of Solutions to a Linear Volterra Integrodifferential System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Wen Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the asymptotic behavior of solutions to a linear Volterra integrodifferential system , We show that under some suitable conditions, there exists a solution for the above integrodifferential system, which is asymptotically equivalent to some given functions. Two examples are given to illustrate our theorem.

  20. Optimal Angle Reduction - A Behavioral Approach to Linear System Approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, B.; Weiland, S.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the problem of optimal state reduction under minimization of the angle between system behaviors. The angle is defined in a worst-case sense, as the largest angle that can occur between a system trajectory and its optimal approximation in the reduced order model. This problem is analys

  1. Complex behavior from a simple physical system: A numerical investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Murawski, Robert K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the familiar problems of free-fall motion and simple harmonic motion (SHM) are combined. The novel composite system passes from regular to chaotic behavior for increasing values of energy $E$. This system is a suitable example to introduce undergraduates to some of the concepts of dynamical chaos theory.

  2. Mathematical Control Theory II : Behavioral Systems and Robust Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belur, M.; Camlibel, M.K.; Rapisarda, P.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This treatment of modern topics related to mathematical systems theory forms the proceedings of a workshop, Mathematical Systems Theory: From Behaviors to Nonlinear Control, held at the University of Groningen in July 2015. The workshop celebrated the work of Professors Arjan van der Schaft and Harr

  3. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Takezawa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  4. The nuts and bolts of behavioral observation of marital and family interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, G; Oliver, P H; Gordis, E B; O'Hearn, H G; Medina, A M; Ghosh, C M; Morland, L

    1998-12-01

    Despite considerable discussion in the literature about the advantages of observational research and the relative benefits of different coding systems and strategies, little is written about the actual implementation of this assessment strategy. This paper presents an overall framework as well as the essential components involved in collecting (selection of task, setting, unit of analysis, and coding system) and coding (transcribing, selecting and training coders, transforming data, and analyzing reliability) of observational data. To achieve success with observational methods, we emphasize several issues, including (a) the research question as the motivator for all decisions, (b) the interrelatedness of tasks, and (c) the implications of decisions early in the process for later stages of analysis and interpretation. Investigators are encouraged to communicate the details of their observational and coding procedures so that these methods are readily accessible for purposes of replication and comparison.

  5. The Immune System and Developmental Programming of Brain and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bilbo, Staci D; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The brain, endocrine, and immune systems are inextricably linked. Immune molecules have a powerful impact on neuroendocrine function, including hormone-behavior interactions, during health as well as sickness. Similarly, alterations in hormones, such as during stress, can powerfully impact immune function or reactivity. These functional shifts are evolved, adaptive responses that organize changes in behavior and mobilize immune resources, but can also lead to pathology or exacerbate disease i...

  6. A Driving Behavior Retrieval Application for Vehicle Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Xianping; Men Yugang; Yuan Guoliang

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle surveillance system provides a large range of informational services for the driver and administrator such as multiview road and driver surveillance videos from multiple cameras mounted on the vehicle, video shots monitoring driving behavior and highlighting the traffic conditions on the roads. How to retrieval driver’s specific behavior, such as ignoring pedestrian, operating infotainment, near collision or running the red light, is difficult in large scale driving data. Annotation a...

  7. Behavior-aware decision support systems : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Gary B.; Homer, Jack (Homer Consulting); Chenoweth, Brooke N.; Backus, George A.; Strip, David R.

    2007-11-01

    As Sandia National Laboratories serves its mission to provide support for the security-related interests of the United States, it is faced with considering the behavioral responses that drive problems, mitigate interventions, or lead to unintended consequences. The effort described here expands earlier works in using healthcare simulation to develop behavior-aware decision support systems. This report focuses on using qualitative choice techniques and enhancing two analysis models developed in a sister project.

  8. Observed diurnal and seasonal behavior of the micrometeor flux using the Arecibo and Jicamarca radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janches, D.; Chau, J. L.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we present results from meteor head-echo observations using the 430 MHz dual beam Arecibo radar in Puerto Rico and the 50 MHz Jicamarca radar in Peru. We show that the seasonal behavior reflected in the fast component of the micrometeor velocity distributions measured at Arecibo can be well explained by a micrometeor radiant distribution centered at the Earth's apex as measured by Jicamarca Radio Observatory (JRO). We conclude that these radars, as probably every other high power and large aperture radar, detect this micrometeor population that show good agreement with the so-called South and North Apex sources reported by Jones and Brown [1993. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society]. However, these radars do not seem to detect particles from any other source reported by those authors. We also showed that in order to explain the diurnal and seasonal behavior of the meteor rate detected at Arecibo, based on the results determined by the Jicamarca radar, a strong atmospheric filtering effect must exist. This effect is produced by the early and higher ablation of micrometeors, which enter the atmosphere a low elevation angles, probably reaching high temperature at higher altitudes and depositing some or all their material before they penetrate deep into the Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere region. These results explain at some level the missing mass inconsistency raised by the comparison of meteor fluxes derived from satellite and traditional meteor radar observations. They also may be the source of the observed high altitude ions and metallic layers observed by radars and lidars, respectively.

  9. Status of the NASA GMAO Observing System Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prive, Nikki C.; Errico, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is a pure modeling study used when actual observations are too expensive or difficult to obtain. OSSEs are valuable tools for determining the potential impact of new observing systems on numerical weather forecasts and for evaluation of data assimilation systems (DAS). An OSSE has been developed at the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO, Errico et al 2013). The GMAO OSSE uses a 13-month integration of the European Centre for Medium- Range Weather Forecasts 2005 operational model at T511/L91 resolution for the Nature Run (NR). Synthetic observations have been updated so that they are based on real observations during the summer of 2013. The emulated observation types include AMSU-A, MHS, IASI, AIRS, and HIRS4 radiance data, GPS-RO, and conventional types including aircraft, rawinsonde, profiler, surface, and satellite winds. The synthetic satellite wind observations are colocated with the NR cloud fields, and the rawinsondes are advected during ascent using the NR wind fields. Data counts for the synthetic observations are matched as closely as possible to real data counts, as shown in Figure 2. Errors are added to the synthetic observations to emulate representativeness and instrument errors. The synthetic errors are calibrated so that the statistics of observation innovation and analysis increments in the OSSE are similar to the same statistics for assimilation of real observations, in an iterative method described by Errico et al (2013). The standard deviations of observation minus forecast (xo-H(xb)) are compared for the OSSE and real data in Figure 3. The synthetic errors include both random, uncorrelated errors, and an additional correlated error component for some observational types. Vertically correlated errors are included for conventional sounding data and GPS-RO, and channel correlated errors are introduced to AIRS and IASI (Figure 4). HIRS, AMSU-A, and MHS have a component of horizontally

  10. Multimodal Analysis of Estimated and Observed Social Competence in Preschoolers With/Without Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Pereira Dias

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social skills compete with behavior problems, and the combination of these aspects may cause differences in social competence. This study was aimed at assessing the differences and similarities in the social competence of 26 preschoolers resulting from: (1 groups which they belonged to, being one with social skills and three with behavior problems (internalizing, externalizing and mixed; (2 types of assessment, considering the estimates of mothers and teachers, as well as direct observation in a structured situation; (3 structured situations as demands for five categories of social skills. Children’s performance in each situation was assessed by judges and estimated by mothers and teachers. There was a similarity in the social competence estimated by mothers, teachers and in the performance observed. Only the teachers distinguished the groups (higher social competence in the group with social skills and lower in the internalizing and mixed groups. Assertiveness demands differentiated the groups. The methodological aspects were discussed, as well as the clinical and educational potential of the structured situations to promote social skills.

  11. Observations of Hierarchical Solar-Type Multiple Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts,, Lewis C; Mason, Brian D; Hartkopf, William I; Riddle, Reed L

    2015-01-01

    Twenty multiple stellar systems with solar-type primaries were observed at high angular resolution using the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system at the 5 m Hale telescope. The goal was to complement the knowledge of hierarchical multiplicity in the solar neighborhood by confirming recent discoveries by the visible Robo-AO system with new near-infrared observations with PALM-3000. The physical status of most, but not all, of the new pairs is confirmed by photometry in the Ks band and new positional measurements. In addition, we resolved for the first time five close sub-systems: the known astrometric binary in HIP 17129AB, companions to the primaries of HIP 33555, and HIP 118213, and the companions to the secondaries in HIP 25300 and HIP 101430. We place the components on a color-magnitude diagram and discuss each multiple system individually.

  12. OBSERVATIONS OF HIERARCHICAL SOLAR-TYPE MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Lewis C. Jr. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109 (United States); Tokovinin, Andrei [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States); Riddle, Reed L., E-mail: lewis.c.roberts@jpl.nasa.gov [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Twenty multiple stellar systems with solar-type primaries were observed at high angular resolution using the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system at the 5 m Hale telescope. The goal was to complement the knowledge of hierarchical multiplicity in the solar neighborhood by confirming recent discoveries by the visible Robo-AO system with new near-infrared observations with PALM-3000. The physical status of most, but not all, of the new pairs is confirmed by photometry in the Ks band and new positional measurements. In addition, we resolved for the first time five close sub-systems: the known astrometric binary in HIP 17129AB, companions to the primaries of HIP 33555, and HIP 118213, and the companions to the secondaries in HIP 25300 and HIP 101430. We place the components on a color–magnitude diagram and discuss each multiple system individually.

  13. Swarming behavior of multi-agent systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong SHI; Long WANG; Tianguang CHU

    2004-01-01

    We consider an anisotropic swarm model with an attraction/repulsion function and study its aggregation properties.It is shown that the swarm members will aggregate and eventually form a cohesive cluster of finite size around the swarm center in a finite time.Moreover,we extend our results to more general attraction/repulsion functions.Numerical simulations demonstrate that all agents will eventually enter into and remain in a bounded region around the swarm center which may exhibit complex spiral motion due to asymmetry of the coupling structure.The model in this paper is more general than isotropic swarms and our results provide further insight into the effect of the interaction pattern on individual motion in a swarm system.

  14. Understanding the behavior of floodplains as human-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.

    2012-12-01

    Floodplains are among the most valuable ecosystems for supporting biodiversity and providing services to the environment. Moreover, they are home of approximately one-sixth of the world population as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. As a result, flood disasters currently affect more than 100 million people a year. Sadly, flood losses and fatalities are expected to increase further in many countries because of population growth as well as changes in land use and climate. Given the relevance of floodplain systems, a number of social scientists have examined how the frequency and severity of flooding often determine whether human development in floodplains is desirable or not. Meanwhile, many earth scientists have investigated the impact of human activities (e.g. land-use changes, urbanization, river training) on the frequency and magnitude of floods. In fact, as human activities change the frequency of flooding, the frequency of flooding affects human developments in floodplain areas. Yet, these dynamic interactions between floods and societies and the associated feedback mechanisms remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. As a result, we typically consider humans as external forcing (or boundary condition) without representing the feedback loops and our prediction of future trajectories are therefore extremely limited. This presentation shows a first attempt to understand the behavior of floodplains as coupled human-water systems. In particular, we analyzed a number of long time series of hydrological and population data in the Po River Basin (Italy) to explore the feedback mechanisms, reciprocal effects, surprises, and threshold mechanisms, taking place in floodplain systems. The outcomes of the study enable a better understanding of how the occurrences of floods shape human developments while, at the same time, human activities shape the magnitude and frequency of floods. The presentation also discusses the opportunities offered by

  15. Predicting the future completing models of observed complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abarbanel, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Predicting the Future: Completing Models of Observed Complex Systems provides a general framework for the discussion of model building and validation across a broad spectrum of disciplines. This is accomplished through the development of an exact path integral for use in transferring information from observations to a model of the observed system. Through many illustrative examples drawn from models in neuroscience, fluid dynamics, geosciences, and nonlinear electrical circuits, the concepts are exemplified in detail. Practical numerical methods for approximate evaluations of the path integral are explored, and their use in designing experiments and determining a model's consistency with observations is investigated. Using highly instructive examples, the problems of data assimilation and the means to treat them are clearly illustrated. This book will be useful for students and practitioners of physics, neuroscience, regulatory networks, meteorology and climate science, network dynamics, fluid dynamics, and o...

  16. Observation of ferromagnetic semiconductor behavior in manganese-oxide doped graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Soo Park; Yu Zhao; Yoon Shon; Chong S. Yoon; Haigun Lee; Cheol Jin Lee

    2014-01-01

    We have doped manganese-oxide onto graphene by an electrochemical method. Graphene showed a clear ferromagnetic semiconductor behavior after doping of manganese-oxide. The manganese-oxide doped graphene has a coercive field (Hc) of 232 Oe at 10 K, and has the Curie temperature of 270 K from the temperature-dependent resistivity using transport measurement system. The ferromagnetism of manganese-oxide doped graphene attributes to the double-exchange from the coexistence of Mn3+ and Mn4+ on the...

  17. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  18. Development of KIAPS Observation Processing Package for Data Assimilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeon-Ho; Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Sihye; Han, Hyun-Jun; Ha, Su-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) was founded in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) to develop Korea's own global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system as nine year (2011-2019) project. Data assimilation team at KIAPS has been developing the observation processing system (KIAPS Package for Observation Processing: KPOP) to provide optimal observations to the data assimilation system for the KIAPS Global Model (KIAPS Integrated Model - Spectral Element method based on HOMME: KIM-SH). Currently, the KPOP is capable of processing the satellite radiance data (AMSU-A, IASI), GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO), AIRCRAFT (AMDAR, AIREP, and etc…), and synoptic observation (SONDE and SURFACE). KPOP adopted Radiative Transfer for TOVS version 10 (RTTOV_v10) to get brightness temperature (TB) for each channel at top of the atmosphere (TOA), and Radio Occultation Processing Package (ROPP) 1-dimensional forward module to get bending angle (BA) at each tangent point. The observation data are obtained from the KMA which has been composited with BUFR format to be converted with ODB that are used for operational data assimilation and monitoring at the KMA. The Unified Model (UM), Community Atmosphere - Spectral Element (CAM-SE) and KIM-SH model outputs are used for the bias correction (BC) and quality control (QC) of the observations, respectively. KPOP provides radiance and RO data for Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) and also provides SONDE, SURFACE and AIRCRAFT data for Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation (3DVAR). We are expecting all of the observation type which processed in KPOP could be combined with both of the data assimilation method as soon as possible. The preliminary results from each observation type will be introduced with the current development status of the KPOP.

  19. LMI Approach to Observer-based FD Systems Designing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟麦英; 汤兵勇; 丁·史蒂芬·先春

    2001-01-01

    Increasing the robustness to the unknown uncertainty and simultaneously enhancing the sensibility to the faults is one of the important issues considered in the fault detection development. Considering the L2-gain of residual system, this paper deals the observer-based fault detection problem. By using of H∞ control theory,an LMI approach to design fault detection observer is given. A numerical example is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System--2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura; Shanklin, Shari; Kinchen, Steve; Eaton, Danice K; Hawkins, Joseph; Flint, Katherine H

    2013-03-01

    Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as schoolbased state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance.This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire

  1. Remote controlled bio-stimulator and animal behavior analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weiguo; Yuan, Kui; Han, Taizhen; Chai, Jie

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a surveillance and stimulation system to study the animal locomotion behavior under electrical micro-stimulations in the brain nerve, which provides a new platform and methodology for behavior experiment in neural science. The system consists of two parts: 1) micro-control based multi-channel stimulator backed by animal; 2) Computer vision based animal behavior tracking system; The performance of the micro-stimulator is validated for sciatic nerve of frog and the results show that it is reliable, stabile, compact (25×35×10 mm), light (20g with cell). The tracking speed and accuracy is improved with our new hybrid tracking algorithm based on color table looking and moving predication, and compared with the manual recording. The preliminary results of rat tracking show that it works accurately and robustly in real-time even under interference condition.

  2. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law interarrival time distribution with an exponent α =2.5 and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  3. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Hidetaka

    2015-01-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed inter-event time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law inter-arrival time distribution with an exponent $\\alpha=2.5$ and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  4. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs.

  5. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs. PMID:27296601

  6. Land-cover observations as part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): progress, activities, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, M.; Woodcock, C.E.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Townshend, J.; Brady, M.; Steenmans, C.; Schmullius, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    The international land-cover community has been working with GEO since 2005 to build the foundations for land-cover observations as an integral part of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) has provided the platform to elevate the societal relevance of land cover monitoring and helped to link a diverse set of global, regional, and national activities. A dedicated 2007-2009 GEO work plan task has resulted in achievements on the strategic and implementation levels. Integrated Global Observations of the Land (IGOL), the land theme of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy (IGOS), has been approved and is now in the process of transition into GEO implementation. New global land-cover maps at moderate spatial resolutions (i.e., GLOBCOVER) are being produced using guidelines and standards of the international community. The Middecadal Global Landsat Survey for 2005-2006 is extending previous 1990 and 2000 efforts for global, high-quality Landsat data. Despite this progress, essential challenges for building a sustained global land-cover-observing system remain, including: international cooperation on the continuity of global observations; ensuring consistency in land monitoring approaches; community engagement and country participation in mapping activities; commitment to ongoing quality assurance and validation; and regional networking and capacity building.

  7. EXTREME AO OBSERVATIONS OF TWO TRIPLE ASTEROID SYSTEMS WITH SPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Beauvalet, L. [National Observatory, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marchis, F.; Nielsen, E. L. [Carl Sagan Center at the SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States); Vachier, F., E-mail: byang@eso.org [Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides, Paris (France)

    2016-04-01

    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured.

  8. Controllable and Observable Polynomial Description for 2D Noncausal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Boudellioua

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional state-space systems arise in applications such as image processing, iterative circuits, seismic data processing, or more generally systems described by partial differential equations. In this paper, a new direct method is presented for the polynomial realization of a class of noncausal 2D transfer functions. It is shown that the resulting realization is both controllable and observable.

  9. Gadanki Ionospheric Radar Interferometer (GIRI): System Description, Capabilities and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga rao, Meka; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Patra, Amit; Kamaraj, Pandian; Jayaraj, Katta; Raghavendra, J.; Yasodha, Polisetti

    2016-07-01

    A 30-MHz radar has been developed at National Atmospheric Research Laboratory for dedicated probing of ionosphere and to study the low latitude ionospheric plasma irregularities. The radar has the beam steering capability to scan a larger part of the sky up to ±45o in East-West direction, which will overcome the limitation of slit camera picture obtained by the fixed beam of the Gadanki MST radar on the ionospheric plasma irregularity/structures. The system is also configured for pulse-to-pulse beam steering, employs multi-channel receiving system to carryout Interferometry/Imaging experiments. The radar system employs 20x8 phased antenna array, Direct Digital Synthesizers to generate pulse coded excitation signals, high power solid-state Transmit-Receive modules to generate a peak power of 150 kW, low loss coaxial beam forming and feeder network and multi-channel direct IF digital receiver. Round-the-clock observations are being made with uninterrupted operations and high quality E-and F-Region Range-Time-Intensity and conical maps are obtained with the system. In this paper we present, the system design philosophy, realization, initial observations and also the capability of the system to augment for Meteor observations.

  10. Development of the Observation Scale for Aggressive Behavior (OSAB) for Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients with an antisocial personality disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Hollin, C.R.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Observation Scale for Aggressive Behavior (OSAB) has been developed to evaluate inpatient treatment programs designed to reduce aggressive behavior in Dutch forensic psychiatric patients with an antisocial personality disorder, who are "placed at the disposal of the government". The scale should

  11. Direct observation of markovian behavior of the mechanical unfolding of individual proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Kuske, Rachel; Li, Hongbin

    2008-07-01

    Single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy is a valuable tool to analyze unfolding kinetics of proteins. Previous force-clamp spectroscopy experiments have demonstrated that the mechanical unfolding of ubiquitin deviates from the generally assumed Markovian behavior and involves the features of glassy dynamics. Here we use single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to study the unfolding kinetics of a computationally designed fast-folding mutant of the small protein GB1, which shares a similar beta-grasp fold as ubiquitin. By treating the mechanical unfolding of polyproteins as the superposition of multiple identical Poisson processes, we developed a simple stochastic analysis approach to analyze the dwell time distribution of individual unfolding events in polyprotein unfolding trajectories. Our results unambiguously demonstrate that the mechanical unfolding of NuG2 fulfills all criteria of a memoryless Markovian process. This result, in contrast with the complex mechanical unfolding behaviors observed for ubiquitin, serves as a direct experimental demonstration of the Markovian behavior for the mechanical unfolding of a protein and reveals the complexity of the unfolding dynamics among structurally similar proteins. Furthermore, we extended our method into a robust and efficient pseudo-dwell-time analysis method, which allows one to make full use of all the unfolding events obtained in force-clamp experiments without categorizing the unfolding events. This method enabled us to measure the key parameters characterizing the mechanical unfolding energy landscape of NuG2 with improved precision. We anticipate that the methods demonstrated here will find broad applications in single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy studies for a wide range of proteins.

  12. Seismic behavior and design of wall-EDD-frame systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren eLavan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Walls and frames have different deflection lines and, depending on the seismic mass they support, may often poses different natural periods. In many cases, wall-frame structures present an advantageous behavior. In these structures the walls and the frames are rigidly connected. Nevertheless, if the walls and the frames were not rigidly connected, an opportunity for an efficient passive control strategy would arise: Connecting the two systems by energy dissipation devices (EDDs to result in wall-EDD-frame systems. This, depending on the parameters of the system, is expected to lead to an efficient energy dissipation mechanism.This paper studies the seismic behavior of wall-EDD-frame systems in the context of retrofitting existing frame structures. The controlling non-dimensional parameters of such systems are first identified. This is followed by a rigorous and extensive parametric study that reveals the pros and cons of the new system versus wall-frame systems. The effect of the controlling parameters on the behavior of the new system are analyzed and discussed. Finally, tools are given for initial design of such retrofitting schemes. These enable both choosing the most appropriate retrofitting alternative and selecting initial values for its parameters.

  13. Ocean Observing using SMART subsea telecommunications cable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Planning is underway to integrate ocean sensors into SMART subsea cable systems providing basin and ultimately global array coverage within the next decades (SMART: Scientific Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunications). SMART cables will: contribute to the understanding of ocean dynamics and climate; improve knowledge of earthquakes and forecasting of tsunamis; and complement and enhance existing satellite and in-situ observing systems. SMART cables will be a first order addition to the ocean observing system, with unique contributions, strengthening and complementing satellite and in situ systems. Cables spanning the ocean basins with repeaters every ~50 km will host sensors/mini-observatories, providing power and real-time communications. The current global infrastructure of commercial submarine telecommunications cable systems consists of 1 Gm of cable with ~20,000 repeaters (to boost optical signals); the overall system is refreshed and expanded on time scales of 10 - 20 years and individual systems have lifetimes in excess of 25 years. Initial instrumentation of the cables with bottom temperature, pressure and acceleration sensors will provide unique information for monitoring and studying climate change and for improved tsunami and earthquake warning. These systems will be a new highly reliable, long-lived component of the ocean observing system, complementing satellite, float and other in situ platforms and measurements. Several UN agencies, the International Telecommunication Union, the World Meteorological Organization, and the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission have formed a Joint Task Force to move this concept to fruition (ITU/WMO/IOC JTF; http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/climatechange/task-force-sc). A review of the overall planning effort and two NASA-funded workshops focusing on the ocean circulation and climate is presented. [Funding provided by NASA.

  14. Free-ranging macaque mothers exaggerate tool-using behavior when observed by offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Masataka

    Full Text Available The population-level use of tools has been reported in various animals. Nonetheless, how tool use might spread throughout a population is still an open question. In order to answer that, we observed the behavior of inserting human hair or human-hair-like material between their teeth as if they were using dental floss in a group of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis in Thailand. The observation was undertaken by video-recording the tool-use of 7 adult females who were rearing 1-year-old infants, using the focal-animal-sampling method. When the data recorded were analyzed separately according to the presence/absence of the infant of the target animal in the target animal's proximity, the pattern of the tool-using action of long-tailed adult female macaques under our observation changed in the presence of the infant as compared with that in the absence of the infant so that the stream of tool-using action was punctuated by more pauses, repeated more often, and performed for a longer period during each bout in the presence of the infant. We interpret this as evidence for the possibility that they exaggerate their action in tool-using so as to facilitate the learning of the action by their own infants.

  15. INVIS : Integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite cons

  16. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barre, de la Suzanne; Maher, Patrick; Dawson, Jackie; Hillmer-Pegram, Kevin; Huijbens, Edward; Lamers, M.A.J.; Liggett, D.; Müller, D.; Pashkevich, A.; Stewart, Emma

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing th

  17. The Importance of Softcomputing Methods for Military Observation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, A.J. van der

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the difficulties that are encountered in designing observation systems for the military as compared to e.g. setting up scientific experiments or solving a pattern recognition problem in industrial automation. There are several reasons for this. Firstly it is extremely diffic

  18. Suzaku Observations of Charge Exchange Emission from Solar System Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Oishi, S.; Miyoshi, Y; Terada, N.; Futaana, Y.; Porter, F. S.; Brown, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent results of charge exchange emission from solar system objects observed with the Japanese Suzaku satellite are reviewed. Suzaku is of great importance to investigate diffuse X-ray emission like the charge exchange from planetary exospheres and comets. The Suzaku studies of Earth's exosphere, Martian exosphere, Jupiter's aurorae, and comets are overviewed.

  19. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS): New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOOS will provide information about the present and future states of seas and oceans and their living resources, and on the role of the oceans in climate change. Among other things, it will include monitoring the extent to which the sea is polluted, and applying models enabling the behaviour of polluted environments to be forecast given a variety of forcing conditions including anthropogenic and natural changes. Implementation has begun through integration of previously separate existing observing systems into a GOOS Initial Observing System, and through the development of Pilot Projects, most notably in the coastal seas of Europe and North-east Asia. Although the present emphasis is on the measurement of physical properties, plans are underway for increasing the observation of chemical and biological parameters. The main biological thrust at present comes through the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN). Consideration needs to be given to incorporation into the GOOS Initial Observing System of present national, international and global chemical and biological monitoring systems, and the development and implementation of new chemical and biological monitoring subsystems, especially in coastal seas for monitoring the health of those environments. GOOS will offer marine scientists and other users a scheme of continuing measurements on a scale larger in time and space than can be accomplished by individuals for their own applications, and a vastly improved store of basic marine environmental data for a multitude of purposes. For GOOS news see the GOOS Homepage at http://ioc.unesco.org/GOOS/. (author)

  20. Is structured observation a valid technique to measure handwashing behavior? Use of acceleration sensors embedded in soap to assess reactivity to structured observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Pavani K; Halder, Amal K; Granger, Stewart P; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-11-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3-10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0-18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior.

  1. Exporting analogue behavioral observation from research to clinical practice: useful or cost-defective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, E J; Foster, S L

    2001-03-01

    The special section on analogue behavioral observation (ABO) provided an in-depth review of various ABO assessment procedures. Despite their availability, however, these procedures are rarely used in clinical practice. This may result in part from the traditions on which most ABO assessments are based, from distinctions between clinical and research assessment environments, and from the need for more information about the cost-effectiveness of ABO strategies for meeting specific needs of clinicians in applied settings. Suggestions for bridging the research-clinical gap involve investigating more thoroughly when ABO does and does not provide useful information for various purposes in applied settings and increasing accessibility and cost-effectiveness of ABO procedures for practitioners. PMID:11281042

  2. Risk factors for suicide behaviors in the observational schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (SOHO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify risk factors for suicide using data from a large, 3-year, multinational follow-up study of schizophrenia (SOHO study. Methods Baseline characteristics of 8,871 adult patients with schizophrenia were included in a logistic regression post-hoc analysis comparing patients who attempted and/or committed suicide during the study with those who did not. Results 384 (4.3% patients attempted or committed suicide. Completed suicides were 27 (0.3%. The significant risk factors for suicide behaviors were previous suicidality, depressive symptoms, prolactin-related adverse events, male gender and history of hospitalization for schizophrenia. Conclusions In view of the observational design of the study and the post-hoc nature of the analysis, the identified risk factors should be confirmed by ad-hoc specifically designed studies.

  3. Architecture of scalability file system for meteorological observation data storing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botygin, I. A.; Popov, V. N.; Tartakovsky, V. A.; Sherstnev, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    The approach allows to organize distributed storage of large amounts of diverse data in order to further their parallel processing in high performance cluster systems for problems of climatic processes analysis and forecasting. For different classes of data was used the practice of using meta descriptions - like formalism associated with certain categories of resources. Development of a metadata component was made based on an analysis of data of surface meteorological observations, atmosphere vertical sounding, atmosphere wind sounding, weather radar observing, observations from satellites and others. A common set of metadata components was formed for their general description. The structure and content of the main components of a generalized meta descriptions are presented in detail on the example of reporting meteorological observations from land and sea stations.

  4. Virtual Estimator for Piecewise Linear Systems Based on Observability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Cervantes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a virtual sensor for piecewise linear systems based on observability analysis that is in function of a commutation law related with the system’s outpu. This virtual sensor is also known as a state estimator. Besides, it presents a detector of active mode when the commutation sequences of each linear subsystem are arbitrary and unknown. For the previous, this article proposes a set of virtual estimators that discern the commutation paths of the system and allow estimating their output. In this work a methodology in order to test the observability for piecewise linear systems with discrete time is proposed. An academic example is presented to show the obtained results.

  5. Carbon Observations from Geostationary Earth Orbit as Part of an Integrated Observing System for Atmospheric Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from the CHRONOS mission. The primary goal of this experiment is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from geostationary orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. CHRONOS observations would provide measurements not currently available or planned as part of a surface, suborbital and satellite integrated observing system for atmospheric composition over North America. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution, and CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth

  6. Characterization of Performance, Robustness, and Behavior Relationships in a Directly Connected Material Handling System

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Roger J.

    2006-01-01

    In the design of material handling systems with complex and unpredictable dynamics, conventional search and optimization approaches that are based only on performance measures offer little guarantee of robustness. Using evidence from research into complex systems, the use of behavior-based optimization is proposed, which takes advantage of observed relationships between complexity and optimality with respect to both performance and robustness. Based on theoretical complexity measures, parti...

  7. In-Laboratory Experiments to Investigate Driver Behavior under Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS)

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Jeffrey L.; McNally, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    In-laboratory experimentation with interactive microcomputer simulation is a useful tool for studying the dynamics of driver behavior in response to advanced traveler information systems. Limited real-world implementation of these information systems has made it difficult to observe and study how drivers seek, acquire, process, and respond to real-time information. This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of an interactive microcomputer-based animated simulator, developed at th...

  8. ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR OF SOLUTION FOR NONLOCAL REACTION-DIFFUSION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗付才; 陈有朋; 谢春红

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with reaction-diffusion system with nonlocal source. It isproved that there exists a unique classical solution and the solution either exists globallyor blows up in finite time. Furthermore, its blow-up set and asymptotic behavior areobtained provided that the solution blows up in finite time.

  9. Large time behavior of Euler-Poisson system for semiconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this note,we present a framework for the large time behavior of general uniformly bounded weak entropy solutions to the Cauchy problem of Euler-Poisson system of semiconductor devices.It is shown that the solutions converges to the stationary solutions exponentially in time.No smallness and regularity conditions are assumed.

  10. A Selectionist Perspective on Systemic and Behavioral Change in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandaker, Ingunn

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a discussion of how different dynamics in production processes and communication structures in the organization serve as different environmental contingencies favoring different behavioral patterns and variability of performance in organizations. Finally, an elaboration on a systems perspective on the selection of corporate…

  11. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of ball bearing rotor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-qin; CUI Li; ZHENG De-zhi; GU Le

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear forces and moments caused by ball bearing were calculated based on relationship of displacement and deflection and quasi-dynamic model of bearing. Five-DOF dynamic equations of rotor supported by ball bearings were estimated. The Newmark-β method and Newton-Laphson method were used to solve the equations. The dynamic characteristics of rotor system were studied through the time response, the phase portrait, the Poincar? maps and the bifurcation diagrams. The results show that the system goes through the quasiperiodic bifurcation route to chaos as rotate speed increases and there are several quasi-periodic regions and chaos regions. The amplitude decreases and the dynamic behaviors change as the axial load of ball bearing increases; the initial contact angle of ball bearing affects dynamic behaviors of the system obviously. The system can avoid non-periodic vibration by choosing structural parameters and operating parameters reasonably.

  12. An earthquake data acquisition system for mobile ob-servation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Besides the same performance as the earthquake observation system possess used on the fixed earthquake station, such as wide dynamic range, high resolution, following special features are necessary for the earthquake data acquisition system (EDAS) applied for mobile observing in order to suit for running in the field: a) Reliability. The EDAS must work stably long time without being cared. b) Adaptability to the field environments. Earthquake observing in the field often encounters awful environments, such as dampness, dust, and abnormal climate, so how to make the instrument run well in the field circumstance must be considered. c) Ability of anti-vibration. The instrument for outdoor application must keep free from being destroyed during being transported long distance to the destination. d) Storage capacity. Because seismological data is large, how to store and collect the large amount data conveniently from the field is always a difficult point in the mobile observing system design. e) Automation. Timing and positioning automatically is necessary in the field. f) Power consumption. To reduce the power con-sumption as low as possible is very important to the mobile instrument which are powered with battery. g) Ability of testing itself. Testing itself automatically make it convenient in the fieldwork. h) Portability. The instrument must be portable and simply operated.

  13. Apparent Power-Law Behavior of Conductance in Disordered Quasi-One-Dimensional Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Aleksandr; Fogler, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Observation of power-law dependence of conductance on temperature and voltage has been reported for a wide variety of low-dimensional systems(nano-wires, nano-tubes, and conducting polymers). This behavior has been attributed to the Luttinger liquid effects expected in a pure one-dimensional wire. However, the systems studied were neither one-dimensional nor defect-free. Using numerical simulations we show that the power-law behavior can arise from variable-range hopping in an ensemble of non-interacting disordered wires connected in parallel. This power-law behavior holds in restricted ranges of voltage and temperature, typical of experimental situations. Physically, it comes from rare, but highly conducting hopping paths that appear by chance in some members of the ensemble. The power-law exponents and their dependence on system parameters are consistent with the great majority of available empirical data. Supported by Grant NSF DMR-0706654.

  14. SCHeMA web-based observation data information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Antonio; Benedetti, Giacomo; D'Angelo, Paolo; Confalonieri, Fabio; Massa, Francesco; Povero, Paolo; Tercier-Waeber, Marie-Louise

    2016-04-01

    It is well recognized that the need of sharing ocean data among non-specialized users is constantly increasing. Initiatives that are built upon international standards will contribute to simplify data processing and dissemination, improve user-accessibility also through web browsers, facilitate the sharing of information across the integrated network of ocean observing systems; and ultimately provide a better understanding of the ocean functioning. The SCHeMA (Integrated in Situ Chemical MApping probe) Project is developing an open and modular sensing solution for autonomous in situ high resolution mapping of a wide range of anthropogenic and natural chemical compounds coupled to master bio-physicochemical parameters (www.schema-ocean.eu). The SCHeMA web system is designed to ensure user-friendly data discovery, access and download as well as interoperability with other projects through a dedicated interface that implements the Global Earth Observation System of Systems - Common Infrastructure (GCI) recommendations and the international Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE) standards. This approach will insure data accessibility in compliance with major European Directives and recommendations. Being modular, the system allows the plug-and-play of commercially available probes as well as new sensor probess under development within the project. The access to the network of monitoring probes is provided via a web-based system interface that, being implemented as a SOS (Sensor Observation Service), is providing standard interoperability and access tosensor observations systems through O&M standard - as well as sensor descriptions - encoded in Sensor Model Language (SensorML). The use of common vocabularies in all metadatabases and data formats, to describe data in an already harmonized and common standard is a prerequisite towards consistency and interoperability. Therefore, the SCHeMA SOS has adopted the SeaVox common vocabularies populated by

  15. A Driving Behavior Retrieval Application for Vehicle Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Xianping

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle surveillance system provides a large range of informational services for the driver and administrator such as multiview road and driver surveillance videos from multiple cameras mounted on the vehicle, video shots monitoring driving behavior and highlighting the traffic conditions on the roads. How to retrieval driver’s specific behavior, such as ignoring pedestrian, operating infotainment, near collision or running the red light, is difficult in large scale driving data. Annotation and retrieving of these video streams has an important role on visual aids for safety and driving behavior assessment. In a vehicle surveillance system, video as a primary data source requires effective ways of retrieving the desired clip data from a database. And data from naturalistic studies allow for an unparalleled breadth and depth of driver behavior analysis that goes beyond the quantification and description of driver distraction into a deeper understanding of how drivers interact with their vehicles. To do so, a model that classifies vehicle video data on the basis of traffic information and its semantic properties which were described by driver’s eye gaze orientation was developed in this paper. The vehicle data from OBD and sensors is also used to annotate the video. Then the annotated video data based on the model is organized and streamed by retrieval platform and adaptive streaming method. The experimental results show that this model is a good example for evidence-based traffic instruction programs and driving behavior assessment.

  16. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  17. Electrochemical behavior of dental implant system before andafter clinical use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chae-Heon CHUNG; Hee-Jung KIM; Yong-Tae JEONG; Mee-Kyoung SON; Yong-Hoon JEONG; Han-Cheol CHOE

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of dental implant system before and after clinical use (in vivo and in vitro) was researched by using abutment and titanium fixture. To simulate an oral environment, the samples of clinically used and non-used implant systems as a working electrode were exposed to artificial saliva at (36.5±1) ℃. Electrochemical tests were carried out using a potentiostat. After electrochemical test, the corrosion morphology of each sample was investigated by FE-SEM and EDS. The corrosion potential and pitting potential of clinically used implant system are lower than those of non-used implant system, and clinically used implant system exhibits a lower range of passivation, indicating a less degree of inherent resistance against chloride ion. The polarization resistance decreases in the case of clinically used implant system, whereas, Rp for clinically non-used implant system increases compared with clinically used implant system.

  18. Observation of Vortex Patterns in a Magnetized Dusty Plasma System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Feng; YE Maofu; WANG Long; LIU Yanhong

    2007-01-01

    Vortex patterns of dust particles have been observed in a magnetized dusty plasma system. The formation mechanism of two-dimensional (2D) vortex patterns has been investigated by analysing the forces acting on dust particles and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in a 2D confined magnetized dusty plasma. It has been found that with a weak confining electric field and a strong magnetic field, the particles' trajectories will form a vortex shape. The simulation results agree with our experimental observations. In our experiments, vortex patterns can be induced via circular rotation of particles by changing the rf (radio-frequency) power in a magnetized dusty plasma.

  19. Approximating macroscopic observables in quantum spin systems with commuting matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2011-01-01

    Macroscopic observables in a quantum spin system are given by sequences of spatial means of local elements $\\frac{1}{2n+1}\\sum_{j=-n}^n\\gamma_j(A_{i}), \\; n\\in{\\mathbb N},\\; i=1,...,m$ in a UHF algebra. One of their properties is that they commute asymptotically, as $n$ goes to infinity. It is not true that any given set of asymptotically commuting matrices can be approximated by commuting ones in the norm topology. In this paper, we show that for macroscopic observables, this is true.

  20. Observation of adsorption behavior of biomolecules on ferroelectric crystal surfaces with polarization domain patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomoaki; Isobe, Akiko; Ogino, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) is one of the ferroelectric crystals that exhibit spontaneous polarization domain patterns on its surface. We observed the polarization-dependent adsorption of avidin molecules, which are positively charged in a buffer solution at pH 7.0, on LiTaO3 surfaces caused by electrostatic interaction at an electrostatic double layer using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Avidin adsorption in the buffer solution was confirmed by scratching the substrate surfaces using the AFM cantilever, and the adsorption patterns were found to depend on the avidin concentration. When KCl was added to the buffer solution to weaken the electrostatic double layer interaction between avidin molecules and LiTaO3 surfaces, adsorption domain patterns disappeared. From the comparison between the adsorption and chemically etched domain patterns, it was found that avidin molecule adsorption is enhanced on negatively polarized domains, indicating that surface polarization should be taken into account in observing biomolecule behaviors on ferroelectric crystals.

  1. Unexpected Regularity in Swimming Behavior of Clausocalanus furcatus Revealed by a Telecentric 3D Computer Vision System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bianco

    Full Text Available Planktonic copepods display a large repertoire of motion behaviors in a three-dimensional environment. Two-dimensional video observations demonstrated that the small copepod Clausocalanus furcatus, one the most widely distributed calanoids at low to medium latitudes, presented a unique swimming behavior that was continuous and fast and followed notably convoluted trajectories. Furthermore, previous observations indicated that the motion of C. furcatus resembled a random process. We characterized the swimming behavior of this species in three-dimensional space using a video system equipped with telecentric lenses, which allow tracking of zooplankton without the distortion errors inherent in common lenses. Our observations revealed unexpected regularities in the behavior of C. furcatus that appear primarily in the horizontal plane and could not have been identified in previous observations based on lateral views. Our results indicate that the swimming behavior of C. furcatus is based on a limited repertoire of basic kinematic modules but exhibits greater plasticity than previously thought.

  2. Behavioral and brain pattern differences between acting and observing in an auditory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventouras Errikos M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has shown that errors seem to influence the patterns of brain activity. Additionally current notions support the idea that similar brain mechanisms are activated during acting and observing. The aim of the present study was to examine the patterns of brain activity of actors and observers elicited upon receiving feedback information of the actor's response. Methods The task used in the present research was an auditory identification task that included both acting and observing settings, ensuring concurrent ERP measurements of both participants. The performance of the participants was investigated in conditions of varying complexity. ERP data were analyzed with regards to the conditions of acting and observing in conjunction to correct and erroneous responses. Results The obtained results showed that the complexity induced by cue dissimilarity between trials was a demodulating factor leading to poorer performance. The electrophysiological results suggest that feedback information results in different intensities of the ERP patterns of observers and actors depending on whether the actor had made an error or not. The LORETA source localization method yielded significantly larger electrical activity in the supplementary motor area (Brodmann area 6, the posterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann area 31/23 and the parietal lobe (Precuneus/Brodmann area 7/5. Conclusion These findings suggest that feedback information has a different effect on the intensities of the ERP patterns of actors and observers depending on whether the actor committed an error. Certain neural systems, including medial frontal area, posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus may mediate these modulating effects. Further research is needed to elucidate in more detail the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological substrates of these systems.

  3. Chaos behavior in the discrete Fitzhugh nerve system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The discrete Fitzhugh nerve systems obtained by the Euler method is investigated and it is proved that there exist chaotic phenomena in the sense of Marotto's definition of chaos. And numerical simulations not only show the consistence with the theoretical analysis but also exhibit the complex dynamical behaviors, including the ten-periodic orbit, a cascade of period-doubling bifurcation, quasiperiodic orbits and the chaotic orbits and intermittent chaos. The computations of Lyapunov exponents confirm the chaos behaviors. Moreover we also find a strange attractor having the self-similar orbit structure as that of Henon attractor.

  4. Collaborative process control: Observation of tracks generated by PLM system

    CERN Document Server

    Elkadiri, Soumaya; Delattre, Miguel; Bouras, Abdelaziz

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the problems related to collaborative work using a PLM system. This research is mainly focused on the organisational aspects of SMEs involved in networks composed of large companies, subcontractors and other industrial partners. From this analysis, we propose the deployment of an approach based on an observation process of tracks generated by PLM system. The specific contributions are of two fold. First is to identify the brake points of collaborative work. The second, thanks to the exploitation of generated tracks, it allows reducing risks by reacting in real time to the incidents or dysfunctions that may occur. The overall system architecture based on services technology and supporting the proposed approach is described, as well as associated prototype developed using an industrial PLM system.

  5. Economic Value of an Advanced Climate Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific missions increasingly need to show the monetary value of knowledge advances in budget-constrained environments. For example, suppose a climate science mission promises to yield decisive information on the rate of human caused global warming within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) creates a standard yardstick for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, setting uncertainty in climate sensitivity to a truncated Roe and Baker (2007) distribution, setting discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate mitigation response DICE Optimal, and a strong response scenario (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we are on the BAU emissions scenario, and that we would switch to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on the uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain that it happens depends, in addition, on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can shorten the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. Our results (Cooke et al. 2013

  6. Formation of double neutron star systems as implied by observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniamini, Paz; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-03-01

    Double Neutron Stars (DNS) have to survive two supernovae (SNe) and still remain bound. This sets strong limits on the nature of the second collapse in these systems. We consider the masses and orbital parameters of the DNS population and constrain the two distributions of mass ejection and kick velocities directly from observations with no a priori assumptions regarding evolutionary models and/or the types of the SNe involved. We show that there is strong evidence for two distinct types of SNe in these systems, where the second collapse in the majority of the observed systems involved small mass ejection (ΔM ≲ 0.5 M⊙) and a corresponding low-kick velocity (vk ≲ 30 km s-1). This formation scenario is compatible, for example, with an electron-capture SN. Only a minority of the systems have formed via the standard SN scenario involving larger mass ejection of ˜2.2 M⊙ and kick velocities of up to 400 km s-1. Due to the typically small kicks in most DNS (which are reflected by rather low proper motion), we predict that most of these systems reside close to the Galactic disc. In particular, this implies that more NS-NS mergers occur close to the Galactic plane. This may have non-trivial implications to the estimated merger rates of DNS and to the rate of LIGO/VIRGO detections.

  7. NOISY OBSERVATION BASED STABILIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION FOR UNKNOWN SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hanfu(Han-Fu Chen)

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses optimization of a performance function which either is optimized via stabilizing and controlling the underlying unknown system or is directly optimized on the basis of its noise-corrupted observations. For the first case the unknown system is identified and then the indirect adaptive control approach is applied to optimize the performance function. For the second case the stochastic approximation method is used to optimize the objective function, and it appears that a number of problems arising from applications may be reduced to the one solvable by this approach. The paper demonstrates some basic results in the area, but with no intention to give a complete survey.

  8. Dynamic Stochastic Superresolution of sparsely observed turbulent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time capture of the relevant features of the unresolved turbulent dynamics of complex natural systems from sparse noisy observations and imperfect models is a notoriously difficult problem. The resulting lack of observational resolution and statistical accuracy in estimating the important turbulent processes, which intermittently send significant energy to the large-scale fluctuations, hinders efficient parameterization and real-time prediction using discretized PDE models. This issue is particularly subtle and important when dealing with turbulent geophysical systems with an vast range of interacting spatio-temporal scales and rough energy spectra near the mesh scale of numerical models. Here, we introduce and study a suite of general Dynamic Stochastic Superresolution (DSS) algorithms and show that, by appropriately filtering sparse regular observations with the help of cheap stochastic exactly solvable models, one can derive stochastically ‘superresolved’ velocity fields and gain insight into the important characteristics of the unresolved dynamics, including the detection of the so-called black swans. The DSS algorithms operate in Fourier domain and exploit the fact that the coarse observation network aliases high-wavenumber information into the resolved waveband. It is shown that these cheap algorithms are robust and have significant skill on a test bed of turbulent solutions from realistic nonlinear turbulent spatially extended systems in the presence of a significant model error. In particular, the DSS algorithms are capable of successfully capturing time-localized extreme events in the unresolved modes, and they provide good and robust skill for recovery of the unresolved processes in terms of pattern correlation. Moreover, we show that DSS improves the skill for recovering the primary modes associated with the sparse observation mesh which is equally important in applications. The skill of the various DSS algorithms depends on the energy spectrum

  9. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions.

  10. Fathers' challenging parenting behavior prevents social anxiety development in their 4-year-old children: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdandžić, Mirjana; Möller, Eline L; de Vente, Wieke; Bögels, Susan M; van den Boom, Dymphna C

    2014-02-01

    Recent models on parenting propose different roles for fathers and mothers in the development of child anxiety. Specifically, it is suggested that fathers' challenging parenting behavior, in which the child is playfully encouraged to push her limits, buffers against child anxiety. In this longitudinal study, we explored whether the effect of challenging parenting on children's social anxiety differed between fathers and mothers. Fathers and mothers from 94 families were separately observed with their two children (44 % girls), aged 2 and 4 years at Time 1, in three structured situations involving one puzzle task and two games. Overinvolved and challenging parenting behavior were coded. Child social anxiety was measured by observing the child's response to a stranger at Time 1, and half a year later at Time 2, and by parental ratings. In line with predictions, father's challenging parenting behavior predicted less subsequent observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. Mothers' challenging behavior, however, predicted more observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old. Parents' overinvolvement at Time 1 did not predict change in observed social anxiety of the 4-year-old child. For the 2-year-old child, maternal and paternal parenting behavior did not predict subsequent social anxiety, but early social anxiety marginally did. Parent-rated social anxiety was predicted by previous parental ratings of social anxiety, and not by parenting behavior. Challenging parenting behavior appears to have favorable effects on observed 4-year-old's social anxiety when displayed by the father. Challenging parenting behavior emerges as an important focus for future research and interventions. PMID:23812638

  11. Behavior of Photovoltaic System during Solar Eclipse in Prague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Libra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PV power plants have been recently installed in very large scale. So the effects of the solar eclipse are of big importance especially for grid connected photovoltaic (PV systems. There was a partial solar eclipse in Prague on 20th March 2015. We have evaluated the data from our facility in order to monitor the impact of this natural phenomenon on the behavior of PV system, and these results are presented in the paper. The behavior of PV system corresponds with the theoretical assumption. The power decrease of the PV array corresponds with the relative size of the solar eclipse. I-V characteristics of the PV panel correspond to the theoretical model presented in our previous work.

  12. A Regional CO2 Observing System Simulation Experiment Using ASCENDS Observations and WRF-STILT Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Collatz, G. J.; Mountain, Marikate; Henderson, John; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Aschbrenner, Ryan; Zaccheo, T. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatiotemporal variations in emissions and uptake of CO2 is hampered by sparse measurements. The recent advent of satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations is increasing the density of measurements, and the future mission ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons) will provide even greater coverage and precision. Lagrangian atmospheric transport models run backward in time can quantify surface influences ("footprints") of diverse measurement platforms and are particularly well suited for inverse estimation of regional surface CO2 fluxes at high resolution based on satellite observations. We utilize the STILT Lagrangian particle dispersion model, driven by WRF meteorological fields at 40-km resolution, in a Bayesian synthesis inversion approach to quantify the ability of ASCENDS column CO2 observations to constrain fluxes at high resolution. This study focuses on land-based biospheric fluxes, whose uncertainties are especially large, in a domain encompassing North America. We present results based on realistic input fields for 2007. Pseudo-observation random errors are estimated from backscatter and optical depth measured by the CALIPSO satellite. We estimate a priori flux uncertainties based on output from the CASA-GFED (v.3) biosphere model and make simple assumptions about spatial and temporal error correlations. WRF-STILT footprints are convolved with candidate vertical weighting functions for ASCENDS. We find that at a horizontal flux resolution of 1 degree x 1 degree, ASCENDS observations are potentially able to reduce average weekly flux uncertainties by 0-8% in July, and 0-0.5% in January (assuming an error of 0.5 ppm at the Railroad Valley reference site). Aggregated to coarser resolutions, e.g. 5 degrees x 5 degrees, the uncertainty reductions are larger and more similar to those estimated in previous satellite data observing system simulation experiments.

  13. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: The Gulf Component of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, L. J.; Moersdorf, P. F.

    2005-05-01

    The United States is developing an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) as the U.S. component of the international Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). IOOS consists of: (1) a coastal observing system for the U.S. EEZ, estuaries, and Great Lakes; and (2) a contribution to the global component of GOOS focused on climate and maritime services. The coastal component will consist of: (1) a National Backbone of observations and products from our coastal ocean supported by federal agencies; and (2) contributions of Regional Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (RCOOS). The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) is one of eleven RCOOS. This paper describes how GCOOS is progressing as a system of systems to carry out data collection, analysis, product generation, dissemination of information, and data archival. These elements are provided by federal, state, and local government agencies, academic institutions, non-government organization, and the private sector. This end-to-end system supports the seven societal goals of the IOOS, as provided by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy: detect and forecast oceanic components of climate variability, facilitate safe and efficient marine operations, ensure national security, manage marine resources, preserve and restore healthy marine ecosystems, mitigate natural hazards, and ensure public health. The initial building blocks for GCOOS include continuing in situ observations, satellite products, models, and other information supported by federal and state government, private industry, and academia. GCOOS has compiled an inventory of such activities, together with descriptions, costs, sources of support, and possible out-year budgets. These activities provide information that will have broader use as they are integrated and enhanced. GCOOS has begun that process by several approaches. First, GCOOS has established a web site (www.gcoos.org) which is a portal to such activities and contains pertinent information

  14. IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography (OO. Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The IEO standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the IEO Observing System (IEOOS includes 6 permanent moorings equipped with currentmeters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and an SST satellital image reception station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the ARGO international program with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and ADCP onboard the IEO research vessels. The system is completed with the IEO contribution to the RAIA and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, etc, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programs Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits following spatio-temporal description of some events, as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.

  15. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zreda; Shuttleworth, W. J.; Zeng, X; Zweck, C.; Desilets, D.; Franz, T; R. Rosolem

    2012-01-01

    The newly-developed cosmic-ray method for measuring area-average soil moisture at the hectometer horizontal scale is being implemented in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or the COSMOS). The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil and other materials, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a s...

  16. IEOOS: the Spanish Institute of Oceanography Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, Elena; Balbin, Rosa; Cabanas, Jose-Manuel; Garcia, Maria-Jesus; Garcia-Martinez, M. Carmen; Gonzalez-Pola, Cesar; Lavin, Alicia; Lopez-Jurado, Jose-Luis; Rodriguez, Carmen; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; Sánchez-Leal, Ricardo F.; Vargas-Yáñez, Manuel; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography. Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the Observing System includes six permanent moorings equipped with current meters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and a sea-surface temperature satellite image station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the Argo international programme with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers on the research vessel fleet. The system is completed with the contribution to the Northwest Iberian peninsula and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands such as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programmes of Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits a spatio-temporal description of some events, such as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.

  17. Characteristics of anthropogenic magnetic materials in roadside dusts in Seoul, Korea using thermo-magnetic behaviors and electron microscope observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Park, Y.

    2006-12-01

    It has been previously reported that magnetic concentration parameter (e.g., magnetic susceptibility) has a close affinity with heavy metal concentration in roadside dust of the Seoul metropolitan area. Magnetic concentration and magnetic particle size show systematic seasonal fluctuations (high and large during winter; low and small in summer) because of seasonal influx variation of anthropogenic magnetic materials. These observations suggest that magnetic parameters could be utilized as a proxy method of assessing heavy metal pollution in urban areas. In order to characterize anthropogenic magnetic materials and to find their potential sources, magnetic extracts from roadside dusts of Seoul metropolitan area were subject to SEM observation, elemental analysis (EDS), and thermo-magnetic experiments. Magnetic materials from vehicle emission and abraded brake lining were also observed for the comparison. The magnetic particles can be classified based on the morphology and elemental composition of the particles. Magnetic spherules are the most frequently observed type of particle throughout the study area. These particles are often associated with the elemental C and Al-Ca-Na-Si materials, and are believed to be the product of fossil fuel combustions in power plants, industries, and domestic heating systems. Aggregates of iron-oxides and Fe-C-S materials are probably originated from vehicle emission, while aggregates of pure Fe and Al-Ca-Fe-K-Mg-Si materials appear to be derived from abrasion of motor vehicle brake system. These aggregates are frequently observed in industrial sections of the city as well as areas of heavy traffic. Angular magnetic particles accompanied by silicates are only observed in park area and probably formed by natural process such as pedogenesis or weathering. Thermo-magnetic experiments indicate that the major magnetic phase in the studied samples is magnetite. Two distinctive behaviors observed are the presence of low Curie temperature

  18. Observer-based Fault Detection and Isolation for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lootsma, T.F.

    With the rise in automation the increase in fault detectionand isolation & reconfiguration is inevitable. Interest in fault detection and isolation (FDI) for nonlinear systems has grown significantly in recent years. The design of FDI is motivated by the need for knowledge about occurring faults......-tolerance can be applied to ordinary industrial processes that are not categorized as high risk applications, but where high availability is desirable. The quality of fault-tolerant control is totally dependent on the quality of the underlying algorithms. They detect possible faults, and later reconfigure...... control software to handle the effects of the particular fault event. In the past mainly linear FDI methods were developed, but as most industrial plants show nonlinear behavior, nonlinear methods for fault diagnosis could probably perform better. This thesis considers the design of FDI for nonlinear...

  19. Climate Outreach Using Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Hernandez, D. L.; Wakely, A.; Bochenek, R. J.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal oceans are dynamic, changing environments affected by processes ranging from seconds to millennia. On the east and west coast of the U.S., regional observing systems have deployed and sustained a remarkable diverse array of observing tools and sensors. Data portals visualize and provide access to real-time sensor networks. Portals have emerged as an interactive tool for educators to help students explore and understand climate. Bringing data portals to outreach events, into classrooms, and onto tablets and smartphones enables educators to address topics and phenomena happening right now. For example at the 2015 Charleston Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Festival, visitors navigated the SECOORA (Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing regional Association) data portal to view the real-time marine meteorological conditions off South Carolina. Map-based entry points provide an intuitive interface for most students, an array of time series and other visualizations depict many of the essential principles of climate science manifest in the coastal zone, and data down-load/ extract options provide access to the data and documentation for further inquiry by advanced users. Beyond the exposition of climate principles, the portal experience reveals remarkable technologies in action and shows how the observing system is enabled by the activity of many different partners.

  20. WIDGET: System Performance and GRB Prompt Optical Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Urata, Yuji; Tamagawa, Toru; Usui, Fumihiko; Kuwahara, Makoto; Lin, Hungmiao; Kageyama, Shoichi; Iwakiri, Wataru; Sugasahara, Takako; Takahara, Kazuki; Kodaka, Natsuki; Abe, Keiichi; Masuno, Keisuke; Onda, Kaori

    2010-01-01

    The WIDeField telescope for Gamma-ray burst Early Timing (WIDGET) is used for a fully automated, ultra-wide-field survey aimed at detecting the prompt optical emission associated with Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs). WIDGET surveys the HETE-2 and Swift/BAT pointing directions covering a total field of view of 62 degree x 62 degree every 10 secounds using an unfiltered system. This monitoring survey allows exploration of the optical emission before the gamma-ray trigger. The unfiltered magnitude is well converted to the SDSS r' system at a 0.1 mag level. Since 2004, WIDGET has made a total of ten simultaneous and one pre-trigger GRB observations. The efficiency of synchronized observation with HETE-2 is four times better than that of Swift. There has been no bright optical emission similar to that from GRB 080319B. The statistical analysis implies that GRB080319B is a rare event. This paper summarizes the design and operation of the WIDGET system and the simultaneous GRB observations obtained with this instrument.

  1. Does Observed Controlling Teaching Behavior Relate to Students' Motivation in Physical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Jotie; Tallir, Isabel B.; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Aelterman, Nathalie; Van den Berghe, Lynn; Speleers, Lise; Haerens, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Self-determination theory (SDT) has served as a theoretical framework for considerable research on teaching behavior and student motivation. The majority of studies have focused on need-supportive teaching behavior at the expense of need-thwarting teaching behavior (i.e., the "dark side" of teaching). The goal of the present study was to…

  2. Tests of gravitation with Gaia observations of Solar System Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Hees, A; Poncin-Lafitte, C Le; David, P

    2015-01-01

    In this communication, we show how asteroids observations from the Gaia mission can be used to perform local tests of General Relativity (GR). This ESA mission, launched in December 2013, will observe --in addition to the stars-- a large number of small Solar System Objects (SSOs) with unprecedented astrometric precision. Indeed, it is expected that about 360,000 asteroids will be observed with a nominal sub-mas precision. Here, we show how these observations can be used to constrain some extensions to General Relativity. We present results of SSOs simulations that take into account the time sequences over 5 years and geometry of the observations that are particular to Gaia. We present a sensitivity study on various GR extensions and dynamical parameters including: the Sun quadrupolar moment $J_2$, the parametrized post-Newtonian parameter $\\beta$, the Nordtvedt parameter $\\eta$, the fifth force formalism, the Lense-Thirring effect, a temporal variation of the gravitational parameter $GM_\\textrm{sun}$ (a line...

  3. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent…

  4. A STUDY OF THE LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS REPORTED BY PRINCIPALS AND OBSERVED BY TEACHERS AND ITS RELATION WITH PRINCIPALS’ MANAGEMENT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Sardarzahi, Zaid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to study the leadership behaviors reported by principals and observed by teachers and its relationship with management experience of principals. A quantitative method used in this study. Target population included all principals and teachers of guidance schools and high schools in Dashtiari District, Iran. A sample consisted of 46 principals and 129 teachers were selected by stratified sampling and simple random sampling methods. Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ developed by Kozes and Posner (2001 was used for data collection. The obtained data were analyzed using one sample and independent t-test, correlation coefficient and pearson chi-square test. The results showed that teachers describe the leadership behaviors of their principals relatively good. However, the principals themselves evaluated their leadership behaviors as very good. In comparison between leadership behaviors self-reported by principals and those observed by teachers, it was found that there is a significant difference between the views and evaluations of teachers and principals on all components of leadership behaviors of principals, except empowerment. In fact, principals have described their leadership behaviors at a better and more appropriate level than what teachers have done. From the perspective of both teachers and principals, there is no significant relationship between none of the components of leadership behaviors and management experience of principals.

  5. Hinode and IRIS Observations of a Prominence-Cavity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibben, Patricia R.; Reeves, Kathy; Su, Yingna

    2016-05-01

    Long-lived solar prominences often have a coronal cavity enclosing the prominence. Within the cavity, hot X-ray emission can persist above the prominence and in the central regions of the cavity. We present the results of an Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and Hinode coordinated Observation Program (IHOP 264) study of a prominence-cavity system. The X-ray Telescope (XRT) observes an inflow of bright X-ray emission that strikes and envelops the prominence-cavity system causing an eruption of chromospheric plasma near the base of the prominence. During and after the eruption, an increase in X-ray emission forms within the cavity and above the prominence. IRIS and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observe strong blue shifts in both chromosphere and coronal lines during the eruption. The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) Ca II H-line data show bright emission along the eruption path with complex turbulent plasma motions. The IRIS Si IV 1394 Angstrom spectra along the on-disk portion of the prominence show a region of decreased emission near the base of the prominence, suggesting a magnetic field bald-patch topology along the Polarity Inversion Line (PIL). Combined, these observations imply a cylindrical flux rope best represents the prominence-cavity system. A model of the magnetic structure of the prominence-cavity system comprised of a weakly twisted flux rope can explain the observed loops in the X-ray and EUV data. Observations from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) are compared to predicted models and are inconclusive. We find that more sensitive measurements of the magnetic field strength along the line-of-sight are needed to verify this configuration.Patricia Jibben and Kathy Reeves are supported by under contract 80111112705 from Lockheed-Martin to SAO, contract NNM07AB07C from NASA to SAO, grant number NNX12AI30G from NASA to SAO, and contract Z15-12504 from HAO to SAO under a grant from AFOSR. Yingna Su is supported by the Youth Fund of

  6. Asymptotic Behavior for Solution of Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yahi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic behavior of the solution of a balanced two-component reaction-diffusion system have been investigated. It was shown that a global and unique solution existed and its second component can be estimated using the Lyapunov Functional. It was, also, demonstrated that each component of the solution converged, at infinity, to a constant which can be found in terms of the reacting function and the initial data. The results of the current research can be used in several areas of applied mathematics, especially when the system equations originate from mathematical models of real systems such as in Biology, Chemistry, Population Dynamics, and other disciplines.

  7. Formation of Double Neutron Star systems as implied by observations

    CERN Document Server

    Beniamini, Paz

    2015-01-01

    Double Neutron Stars (DNS) have to survive two supernovae and still remain bound. This sets strong limits on the nature of the second collapse in these systems. We consider the masses and orbital parameters of the DNS population and constrain the two distributions of mass ejection and kick velocities directly from observations with no a-priori assumptions regarding evolutionary models and/or the types of the supernovae involved. We show that there is strong evidence for two distinct types of supernovae in these systems, where the second collapse in the majority of the observed systems involved small mass ejection ($\\Delta M\\lesssim 0.5M_{\\odot}$) and a corresponding low-kick velocity ($v_{k}\\lesssim 30 km/sec$). This formation scenario is compatible, for example, with an electron capture supernova. Only a minority of the systems have formed via the standard SN scenario involving larger mass ejection of $\\sim 2.2 M_{\\odot}$ and kick velocities of up to $400$km/sec. Due to the typically small kicks in most DNS ...

  8. Mathematical Systems Theory : from Behaviors to Nonlinear Control

    CERN Document Server

    Julius, A; Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Rapisarda, Paolo; Scherpen, Jacquelien

    2015-01-01

    This treatment of modern topics related to mathematical systems theory forms the proceedings of a workshop, Mathematical Systems Theory: From Behaviors to Nonlinear Control, held at the University of Groningen in July 2015. The workshop celebrated the work of Professors Arjan van der Schaft and Harry Trentelman, honouring their 60th Birthdays. The first volume of this two-volume work covers a variety of topics related to nonlinear and hybrid control systems. After giving a detailed account of the state of the art in the related topic, each chapter presents new results and discusses new directions. As such, this volume provides a broad picture of the theory of nonlinear and hybrid control systems for scientists and engineers with an interest in the interdisciplinary field of systems and control theory. The reader will benefit from the expert participants’ ideas on exciting new approaches to control and system theory and their predictions of future directions for the subject that were discussed at the worksho...

  9. Stabilization of Electromagnetic Suspension System Behavior by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Najar Khoda Bakhsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic suspension system with a nonlinear and unstable behavior, is used in maglev trains. In this paper a linear mathematical model of system is achieved and the state feedback method is used to improve the system stability. The control coefficients are tuned by two different methods, Riccati and a new method based on Genetic algorithm. In this new proposed method, we use Genetic algorithm to achieve the optimum values of control coefficients. The results of the system simulation by Matlab indicate the effectiveness of new proposed system. When a new reference of air gap is needed or a new external force is added, the proposed system could omit the vibration and shake of the train coupe and so, passengers feel more comfortable.

  10. X-ray binary systems - Ariel V SSI observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis of our current theoretical understanding of galactic x-ray sources is reviewed. Models are outlined involving close binary systems containing a compact object accreting mass which has been lost from the nondegenerate star by a variety of mechanisms. The present status of galactic x-ray astronomy is discussed, with emphasis on the links between established observational categories and the characteristics of the proposed models. Observational results, consisting primarily of extended x-ray light curves derived from analysis of Ariel V SSI data are presented for two main classes of galactic x-ray source: (i) high-mass x-ray binaries containing an early-type giant or supergiant star; (ii) low-mass x-ray binaries in which the nondegenerate star is a late-type dwarf. For the high-mass binaries emphasis is placed on the determination and improvement of the orbital parameters; for the low-mass binaries, where a less complete picture is available, the discussion centres on the type of system involved, taking into account the optical observations of the source. Finally, the properties of two further categories - the sources in the galactic bulge and those associated with dwarf novae - are discussed as examples of rather different types of galactic x-ray emitter. In the case of the galactic bulge sources current observations have not led so far to a clear picture of the nature of the systems involved, indeed their binary membership is not established. X-ray emission from dwarf novae and related objects is a relatively recent discovery and represents the opening up of a new field of galactic x-ray astronomy. (author)

  11. 鬣羚的行为观察%Serow Behavior Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王才益; 胡新波

    2012-01-01

    在人工饲养条件下,采用了目标动物取样法和随机取样法,对鬣羚的冲撞、攻击、领域、择偶、繁殖、母仔等行为进行了观察研究。结果表明,鬣羚初入新环境中,有高度的敏感性,由此产生强烈的应激行为。其中,猛烈地冲击笼舍和不停地向上跳跃是其严重的应激行为之一;有较强的领域行为;在繁殖期间鬣羚对配偶具有选择性;发情高峰期1—2d,怀孕4个月后,腹部明显向两侧膨大,怀孕期220~226d;仔羚在产后需2h以上才能站立;在15日龄内母羚平均每天要哺乳6~8次;2月龄时,能较好地吃食人工饲料,断奶月龄在2~3个月,断奶时宜将母羚隔至邻笼而将仔羚留在原笼舍。鬣羚笼舍围栏的高度宜在2.5~3m,应为新进的甏羚提供较暗的小内室,保持安静的环境。%We studied behaviors of captive serow ( Capricornis sumatraensis) , including bumping, aggression, reproduction, mating, territorial defense, feeding and lactation. Our methods were focal animal sampling and random sampling. Serow often maintained a high degree of vigilance leading to stress behaviors, of which bumping the cage fiercely and continuously jumping were most frequently observed. Serow showed strongly developed territorial behavior. Serow displayed mate choice behavior during the breeding period. The peak of estrus lasted 1 - 2 days. The belly of female serow showed obvious enlargement to both sides after 4 months of pregnancy and the gestation period ranged from 220 to 226 days. Neonatal serow could stand alone 2 hours after birth. The adult female serow fed 6 -8 times per day for 15 days after birth. Young serow fed on man -made food when 2 months old and were weaned at 2 - 3 months. After weaning, the young serow should remain in the birthing cage and its mother be moved into the adjacent cage. The proper height of a cage for serow is 2. 5 - 3.0 meters and the surroundings

  12. El Nino and the Global Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David

    1999-01-01

    Until a decade ago, an often-quoted expression in oceanography is that very few observations are recorded throughout the ocean. Now, the sentiment is no longer valid in the uppermost 10% of the tropical Pacific Ocean nor at the surface of the global ocean. One of the remarkable legacies of the 1985-1994 Tropical Oceans Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program is an in situ marine meteorological and upper oceanographic measurement array throughout the equatorial Pacific to monitor the development and maintenance of El Nino episodes. The TOGA Observing System, which initially consisted of moored- and drifting-buoy arrays, a network of commercial ships, and coastal and island stations, now includes a constellation of satellites and data-assimilating models to simulate subsurface oceanographic conditions. The El Nino and La Nina tropical Pacific Ocean observing system represents the initial phase of an integrated global ocean observing system. Remarkable improvements have been made in ocean model simulation of subsurface currents, but some problems persist. For example, the simulation of the South Equatorial Current (SEC) remains an important challenge in the 2S-2N Pacific equatorial wave guide. During El Nino the SEC at the equator is reduced and sometimes the direction is reversed, becoming eastward. Both conditions allow warm water stored in the western Pacific to invade the eastern region, creating an El Nino episode. Assimilation of data is a tenet of faith to correct simulation errors caused by deficiencies in surface fluxes (especially wind stress) and parameterizations of subgrid-scale physical processes. In the first of two numerical experiments, the Pacific SEC was simulated with and without assimilation of subsurface temperature data. Along the equator, a very weak SEC occurred throughout the eastern Pacific, independent of assimilation of data. However, as displayed in the diagram, in the western Pacific there was no satisfactory agreement between the two

  13. Toward an integrated Volcanic Ash Observing System in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deborah; Lisk, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic ash from the Icelandic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in April and May of 2010 resulted in the decision by many northern European countries to impose significant restrictions on the use of their airspace. The eruption, extent and persistence of the ash revealed how reliant society now is on a safe and efficient air transport system and the fragility of that system when affected by the impact of complex natural hazards. As part of an EC framework programme, the 2011-2013 WEZARD (WEather HaZARD for aeronautics) consortium conducted a cross-industry volcanic ash capability and gap analyses, with the EUMETNET (network of 29 National Meteorological Services) led Work Package 3 focussing on a review of observational and monitoring capabilities, atmospheric dispersion modelling and data exchange. The review has revealed a patchwork of independent observing capabilities for volcanic ash, with some countries investing and others not at all, and most existing networks focus on space-based products. Existing capabilities do not provide the necessary detail on the geographical and vertical extent of volcanic ash and associated levels of contamination, which decision makers in the aviation industry require in order to decide where it is safe to fly. A resultant high priority was identified by WEZARD Work Package 3 for an enhanced observational network of complementary monitoring systems needed to initialise, validate and verify volcanic ash dispersion model output and forecasts. Thus a key recommendation is to invest in a major pre-operational demonstrator "European volcanic ash observing network", focussing on distal monitoring, and aiming to a) fill R&D gaps identified in instrumentation and algorithms and b) integrate data, where possible in near-real-time, from a range of ground-based, airborne and space-based techniques. Here we present a key WEZARD recommendation toward an integrated volcanic ash observing system in Europe, in context with other related projects

  14. Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Among Older U.S. Adults With and Without Disabilities, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Indu B. Ahluwalia, MPH, PhD; Catherine A. Okoro, MS; Tara W. Strine, MPH; Lisa C. McGuire, PhD; Earl S. Ford, MD, MPH

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the relationship between healthy behaviors and the prevalence of chronic diseases in older adults with disabilities. This study examines the prevalence of selected healthy lifestyle behaviors related to chronic diseases among adults aged 65 years and older with and without disabilities. Methods Data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) were used to assess having a healthy weight and six behaviors: current cigarette smoking status,...

  15. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne de la Barre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

  16. Observation of spin glass behavior in monoclinic Li0.33MnO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The structure of Li0.33MnO2 has been refined with monoclinic phase (space group C2/m). ► Spin glass has been confirmed by analyzing dc, ac, and time-dependence remanence. ► Geometrical frustration combined random competition was suggested to be the main cause for spin glass formation. ► In order to distinguish the spin glass from the superparamagnetism, ac susceptibility under different frequencies is studied. - Abstract: The structure and magnetic properties of Li0.33MnO2 were studied by X-ray diffraction, dc and ac susceptibilities. Li0.33MnO2 belongs to the monoclinic structure with two different Mn sites. The irreversibility and spin freezing behaviors are observed in the dc magnetization curves. The peaks of ac susceptibility display the dependences on the frequency. Both the magnetic relaxation effect and the corresponding analysis confirm a spin glass (SG) transition at low temperature. By evaluating the geometrical frustration parameter, we suggest the spin glass in Li0.33MnO2 originate from the frustration effect combined with the competition among the Mn3+/4+–O2−–Mn3+/4+ exchange interaction.

  17. The Stochastic Engine Initiative: Improving Prediction of Behavior in Geologic Environments We Cannot Directly Observe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R; Nitao, J; Newmark, R; Carle, S; Ramirez, A; Harris, D; Johnson, J; Johnson, V; Ermak, D; Sugiyama, G; Hanley, W; Sengupta, S; Daily, W; Glaser, R; Dyer, K; Fogg, G; Zhang, Y; Yu, Z; Levine, R

    2002-05-09

    The stochastic engine uses modern computational capabilities to combine simulations with observations. We integrate the general knowledge represented by models with specific knowledge represented by data, using Bayesian inferencing and a highly efficient staged Metropolis-type search algorithm. From this, we obtain a probability distribution characterizing the likely configurations of the system consistent with existing data. The primary use will be optimizing knowledge about the configuration of a system for which sufficient direct observations cannot be made. Programmatic applications include underground systems ranging from environmental contamination to military bunkers, optimization of complex nonlinear systems, and timely decision-making for complex, hostile environments such as battlefields or the detection of secret facilities. We create a stochastic ''base representation'' of system configurations (states) from which the values of measurable parameters can be calculated using forward simulators. Comparison of these predictions to actual measurements drives embedded Bayesian inferencing, updating the distributions of states in the base representation using the Metropolis method. Unlike inversion methods that generate a single bestcase deterministic solution, this method produces all the likely solutions, weighted by their likelihoods. This flexible method is best applied to highly non-linear, multi-dimensional problems. Staging of the Metropolis searches permits us to run the simplest model systems, such as lithology estimators, at the lower stages. The majority of possible configurations are thus eliminated from further consideration by more complex simulators, such as flow and transport models. Because the method is fully automated, large data sets of a variety of types can be used to refine the system configurations. The most important prerequisites for optimal use of this method are well-characterized forward simulators, realistic

  18. Observations of multiple order parameters in 5f electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis, multiple order parameters originating in the same electronic system are studied. The multi-k magnetic structures, where more than one propagation wavevector, k, is observed in the same volume, are considered as prototypical models. The effect of this structure on the elastic and inelastic response is studied. In cubic 3-k uranium rock-salts, unexpected elastic diffraction events were observed at positions in reciprocal space where the structure factor should have been zero. These diffraction peaks are identified with correlations between the (orthogonal) magnetic order parameters. The 3-k structure also affects the observed dynamics; the spin-wave fluctuations in uranium dioxide as observed by inelastic neutron polarization analysis can only be explained on the basis of a 3-k structure. In the antiferromagnetic superconductor UPd2Al3 the magnetic order and the super-conducting state coexist, and are apparently generated by the same heavy fermions. The effect of an external magnetic field on both the normal and superconducting states is examined. In the normal state, the compound displays Fermi-liquid-like behaviour. The inelastic neutron response is strongly renormalized on entering the superconducting state, and high-precision measurements of the low-energy transfer part of this response confirm that the superconducting energy gap has the same symmetry as the antiferromagnetic lattice. (author)

  19. A classification system for tableting behaviors of binary powder mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Changquan Calvin Sun

    2016-01-01

    The ability to predict tableting properties of a powder mixture from individual components is of both fundamental and practical importance to the efficient formulation development of tablet products. A common tableting classification system (TCS) of binary powder mixtures facilitates the systematic development of new knowledge in this direction. Based on the dependence of tablet tensile strength on weight fraction in a binary mixture, three main types of tableting behavior are identified. Eac...

  20. Further development of the EUMETNET Composite Observing System (EUCOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, S.; Dibbern, J.

    2009-09-01

    EUCOS, which stands for EUMETNET Composite Observing System, is a EUMETNET programme whose main objective is a central management of surface based operational observations on a European-wide scale serving the needs of regional scale NWP. EUMETNET is a consortium of currently 26 national meteorological services in Europe that provides a framework for different operational and developmental co-operative programmes between the services. The work content of the EUCOS Programme includes the management of the operational observing networks, through the E-AMDAR, E-ASAP, E-SURFMAR and E-WINPROF programmes. The coordination of NMSs owned territorial networks (e.g. radiosonde stations and synoptic stations), data quality monitoring, fault reporting and recovery, a studies programme for the evolution of the observing networks and liaison with other organisations like WMO are among the tasks of the programme. The current period of the EUCOS programme has a five year duration (2007-2011) and a two stage approach was proposed in the programme definition. During the transition phase 2007-2008 no new programmatic objectives had been set because amongst others the Space-Terrestrial (S-T) study which investigated the relative contributions of selected space based and ground based observing systems to the forecast skill of global and regional NWP models had to be finalised first. Based on the findings of this study EUCOS currently prepares a redesign of its upper-air network. The original EUCOS upper-air network design was prepared in 2000 in order to define a set of stations serving the common general NWP requirement. Additional considerations were to make it possible to supply a common set of performance standards across the territory of EUMETNET Members and to ensure that the radiosonde network interleaved with AMDAR airports. The EUCOS upper-air network now requires a redesign because of several reasons. There is a need to take into account the significant evolution of the AMDAR

  1. Soil microbial respiration from observations and Earth System Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil microbial respiration (Rh) is a large but uncertain component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Carbon–climate feedbacks associated with changes to Rh are likely, but Rh parameterization in Earth System Models (ESMs) has not been rigorously evaluated largely due to a lack of appropriate measurements. Here we assess, for the first time, Rh estimates from eight ESMs and their environmental drivers across several biomes against a comprehensive soil respiration database (SRDB-V2). Climatic, vegetation, and edaphic factors exert strong controls on annual Rh in ESMs, but these simple controls are not as apparent in the observations. This raises questions regarding the robustness of ESM projections of Rh in response to future climate change. Since there are many more soil respiration (Rs) observations than Rh data, two ‘reality checks’ for ESMs are also created using the Rs data. Guidance is also provided on the Rh improvement in ESMs. (letter)

  2. An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned from Fifty Years of Observing Hardware and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned in Human and Hardware Behavior" on August 16, 2011. With more than 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. This presentation focused on lessons learned in human and hardware behavior. During his many years in the industry, McMann observed that the hardware development process was intertwined with human influences, which impacted the outcome of the product.

  3. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  4. Threshold behavior in hydrological systems and geo-ecosystems: manifestations, controls and implications for predictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zehe

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide evidence that the dynamics of hydrological systems and geo-ecosystems is often influenced by threshold behavior at a variety of space and time scales. Based on well known characteristics of elementary threshold phenomena we suggest criteria for detecting threshold behavior in hydrological systems. The most important one is intermittence of phenomena, i.e. the rapid switching of related state variables/fluxes from zero to finite values, or existence of behavior regimes where the same process/response appears qualitatively differently at the macroscopic level. From the literature we present several examples for intermittent hydrological phenomena, ranging from overland flow generation in different landscapes, including the effects of hydrophobicity, to soil water flow occurring in the matrix continuum or via preferential pathways, including the case of cracking soils, nonlinear subsurface stormflow response of hillslopes during severe rainfall events, and long-term catchment flooding responses. Since threshold phenomena are often associated with environmental hazards such as floods, soil erosion, and contamination of shallow groundwater resources, we discuss common difficulties that complicate predictions of whether or not they might even occur. Predicting the onset of threshold phenomena requires a thorough understanding of the underlying controls. Through examples we illustrate that threshold behavior in hydrological systems can manifest at (a the process level, (b the response level, and (c the functional level, and explain that the complexity of the underlying controls and of the interacting phenomena that determine threshold behavior become increasingly complex at the higher levels. Finally we provide evidence from field observations and model predictions that show that within an "unstable range" of system states "close" to a threshold, it is difficult to predict whether or not the system will switch

  5. An Observational Investigation of Behavioral Contagion in Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Indications for Contagious Scent-Marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massen, Jorg J. M.; Šlipogor, Vedrana; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral contagion is suggested to promote group coordination that may facilitate activity transitions, increased vigilance, and state matching. Apart from contagious yawning, however, very little attention has been given to this phenomenon, and studies on contagious yawning in primates have so far only focused on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we studied behavioral contagion in common marmosets, a species for which group coordination and vigilance are paramount. In particular, we investigated the contagiousness of yawning, stretching, scratching, tongue protrusion, gnawing, and scent-marking. We coded these behaviors from 14 adult marmosets, from two different social groups. During testing sessions, animals were separated into groups of four individuals for 20-min observation periods, across three distinct diurnal time points (morning, midday, and afternoon) to test for circadian patterns. We observed almost no yawning (0.12 yawns/h) and very little stretching behavior. For all other behaviors, which were more common, we found several temporal and inter-individual differences (i.e., sex, age, dominance status) predictive of these responses. Moreover, we found that gnawing and scent-marking, which almost always co-occurred as a fixed-action pattern, were highly temporally clustered within observation sessions. We discuss the relative absence of yawning in marmosets as well as the possible function of contagious scent-marking, and provide suggestions for future research into the proximate and ultimate functions of these behaviors in marmosets. PMID:27563294

  6. An observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to measure in-class learner engagement: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa K. Alimoglu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efforts are made to enhance in-class learner engagement because it stimulates and enhances learning. However, it is not easy to quantify learner engagement. This study aimed to develop and validate an observation tool for instructor and student behaviors to determine and compare in-class learner engagement levels in four different class types delivered by the same instructor. Methods: Observer pairs observed instructor and student behaviors during lectures in large class (LLC, n=2 with third-year medical students, lectures in small class (LSC, n=6 and case-based teaching sessions (CBT, n=4 with fifth-year students, and problem-based learning (PBL sessions (~7 hours with second-year students. The observation tool was a revised form of STROBE, an instrument for recording behaviors of an instructor and four randomly selected students as snapshots for 5-min cycles. Instructor and student behaviors were scored 1–5 on this tool named ‘in-class engagement measure (IEM’. The IEM scores were parallel to the degree of behavior's contribution to active student engagement, so higher scores were associated with more in-class learner engagement. Additionally, the number of questions asked by the instructor and students were recorded. A total of 203 5-min observations were performed (LLC 20, LSC 85, CBT 50, and PBL 48. Results: Interobserver agreement on instructor and student behaviors was 93.7% (κ=0.87 and 80.6% (κ=0.71, respectively. Higher median IEM scores were found in student-centered and problem-oriented methods such as CBT and PBL. A moderate correlation was found between instructor and student behaviors (r=0.689. Conclusions: This study provides some evidence for validity of the IEM scores as a measure of student engagement in different class types.

  7. Video surveillance captures student hand hygiene behavior, reactivity to observation, and peer influence in Kenyan primary schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Pickering

    Full Text Available In-person structured observation is considered the best approach for measuring hand hygiene behavior, yet is expensive, time consuming, and may alter behavior. Video surveillance could be a useful tool for objectively monitoring hand hygiene behavior if validated against current methods.Student hand cleaning behavior was monitored with video surveillance and in-person structured observation, both simultaneously and separately, at four primary schools in urban Kenya over a study period of 8 weeks.Video surveillance and in-person observation captured similar rates of hand cleaning (absolute difference <5%, p = 0.74. Video surveillance documented higher hand cleaning rates (71% when at least one other person was present at the hand cleaning station, compared to when a student was alone (48%; rate ratio  = 1.14 [95% CI 1.01-1.28]. Students increased hand cleaning rates during simultaneous video and in-person monitoring as compared to single-method monitoring, suggesting reactivity to each method of monitoring. This trend was documented at schools receiving a handwashing with soap intervention, but not at schools receiving a sanitizer intervention.Video surveillance of hand hygiene behavior yields results comparable to in-person observation among schools in a resource-constrained setting. Video surveillance also has certain advantages over in-person observation, including rapid data processing and the capability to capture new behavioral insights. Peer influence can significantly improve student hand cleaning behavior and, when possible, should be exploited in the design and implementation of school hand hygiene programs.

  8. Social and behavioral determinants of perceived insufficient sleep: analysis of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Grandner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insufficient sleep is associated with cardiometabolic disease and poor health. However, few studies have assessed its determinants in a nationally-representative sample. Methods: Data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS was used (N=323,047 adults. Insufficient sleep was assessed as insufficient rest/sleep over 30 days. This was evaluated relative to sociodemographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, region, socioeconomics (education, income, employment, insurance, health behaviors (diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, and health/functioning (emotional support, BMI, mental/physical health. Results: Overall, insufficient sleep was associated with being female, White or Black/African-American, unemployed, without health insurance, and not married; decreased age, income, education, physical activity; worse diet and overall health; and increased household size, alcohol, and smoking. Conclusion: These factors should be considered risk factors for insufficient sleep.

  9. Health Behaviors of the Young Adult U.S. Population: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa McCracken, MPH

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHealth-risk behaviors such as eating poorly, being physically inactive, and smoking contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and are often established during adolescence and young adulthood. The objectives of this study were to characterize the health-risk behaviors of young adults (aged 18–24 years using a large population-based survey of Americans and to determine if behaviors of this group differ by weight category, as assessed by body mass index (BMI.MethodsPrevalence estimates for selected health-risk behaviors were calculated for respondents aged 18 to 24 years to the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS. Respondents were categorized by BMI, and comparisons between sex and race and ethnicity were made within the overweight and obese categories.ResultsMore than three quarters (78.4% of respondents consumed fewer than five fruits and vegetables per day, 43.2% reported insufficient or no physical activity, 28.9% were current smokers, 30.1% reported binge drinking, and 11.9% reported frequent mental distress. One quarter (26.1% of respondents were overweight, and 13.6% were obese. Of obese young adults, 67.2% reported that they currently were trying to lose weight; however, only 24.3% reported having received professional advice to lose weight. More obese women (34.2% than obese men (16.7% reported having received professional advice to lose weight. Only 19.1% of obese non-Hispanic white respondents had received professional advice to lose weight compared with 28.0% of obese Hispanic respondents and 30.6% of obese non-Hispanic black respondents.ConclusionMany young adults engage in unhealthy behaviors, and differences exist in health-risk behaviors by BMI category and specifically by sex and race and ethnicity within BMI categories. The transition from adolescence to adulthood may be an opportune time for intervening to prevent future chronic disease.

  10. NASA Earth Observing System Simulator Suite (NEOS3): A Forward Simulation Framework for Observing System Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niamsuwan, N.; Tanelli, S.; Johnson, M. P.; Jacob, J. C.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Oveisgharan, S.; Dao, D.; Simard, M.; Turk, F. J.; Tsang, L.; Liao, T. H.; Chau, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Future Earth observation missions will produce a large volume of interrelated data sets that will help us to cross-calibrate and validate spaceborne sensor measurements. A forward simulator is a crucial tool for examining the quality of individual products as well as resolving discrepancy among related data sets. NASA Earth Observing System Simulator Suite (NEOS3) is a highly customizable forward simulation tool for Earth remote sensing instruments. Its three-stage simulation process converts the 3D geophysical description of the scene being observed to corresponding electromagnetic emission and scattering signatures, and finally to observable parameters as reported by a (passive or active) remote sensing instrument. User-configurable options include selection of models for describing geophysical properties of atmospheric particles and their effects on the signal of interest, selection of wave scattering and propagation models, and activation of simplifying assumptions (trading between computation time and solution accuracy). The next generation of NEOS3, to be released in 2015, will feature additional state-of-the-art electromagnetic scattering models for various types of the Earth's surfaces and ground covers (e.g. layered snowpack, forest, vegetated soil, and sea ice) tailored specifically for missions like GPM and SMAP. To be included in 2015 is dedicated functionalities and interface that facilitate integrating NEOS3 into Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) environments. This new generation of NEOS3 can also utilize high performance computing resources (parallel processing and cloud computing) and can be scaled to handle large or computation intensive problems. This presentation will highlight some notable features of NEOS3. Demonstration of its applications for evaluating new mission concepts, especially in the context of OSSE frameworks will also be presented.

  11. Functional Observational Battery Testing for Nervous System Effects of Drugs and Other Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has become standard practice in preclinical safety pharmacology and toxicology. Behavior represents the integrated sum of activities mediated by the nervous system. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observat...

  12. Upper wind observing systems used for meteorological operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nash

    Full Text Available Methods of upper wind measurements used in operational meteorology have been reviewed to provide guidance to those developing wind profiler radar systems. The main limitations of the various methods of tracking weather balloons are identified using results from the WMO radiosonde comparisons and additional tests in the United Kingdom. Costs associated with operational balloon measurements are reviewed. The sampling and quality of operational aircraft wind observations are illustrated with examples from the ASDAR system. Measurement errors in horizontal winds are quantified wherever possible. When tracking equipment is functioning correctly, random errors in southerly and westerly wind component measurements from aircraft and weather balloons are usually in the range 0.5-2 m s-1.

  13. OBSERVATIONS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION IN A SOLAR CORONAL LOOP PROMINENCE SYSTEM OBSERVED NEAR 6173 Å

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Martínez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Hudson, Hugh S.; Krucker, Säm; Bain, Hazel [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schou, Jesper [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Couvidat, Sébastien, E-mail: shilaire@ssl.berkeley.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    White-light observations by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager of a loop-prominence system occurring in the aftermath of an X-class flare on 2013 May 13 near the eastern solar limb show a linearly polarized component, reaching up to ∼20% at an altitude of ∼33 Mm, about the maximum amount expected if the emission were due solely to Thomson scattering of photospheric light by the coronal material. The mass associated with the polarized component was 8.2 × 10{sup 14} g. At 15 Mm altitude, the brightest part of the loop was 3(±0.5)% linearly polarized, only about 20% of that expected from pure Thomson scattering, indicating the presence of an additional unpolarized component at wavelengths near Fe I (617.33 nm). We estimate the free electron density of the white-light loop system to possibly be as high as 1.8 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}.

  14. Defining critical safety behaviors in a point-of-view video observation study of tree fallers at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Terry R; Rischitelli, Gary; Wimer, Jeff A

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the use of five critical safety behaviors by tree fallers at different skill levels, and to test the feasibility of using a helmet camera to observe work activities directly in a remote environment. Small cameras were mounted on standard hard-hats. Video data were obtained for pairs of fallers at four different skill levels, from beginning students to professional fallers. Critical action steps during tree episodes were coded and compared. Critical action steps for fallers were successfully distinguished during work activities. Notable differences were observed among fallers in different skill categories and between individual fallers. This study found that the helmet camera worked well for observing faller work behavior, and that point-of-view video observation may be used to evaluate student loggers and training programs. We also found that professional fallers may have been exposed to increased hazard; care should be observed with helmet cameras designed for professionals. PMID:22069927

  15. Spatial snowdrift game of a heterogeneous agent system: cooperative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping-Ping; Ke, Jianhong; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Yuan, Xian-Zhang; Lin, Zhenquan

    2013-04-01

    We study the cooperative behavior of an evolutionary snowdrift game in a heterogeneous system with two types of agents, in which the inner-directed agents adopt the memory-based updating rule while the copycat-like ones take the unconditional imitation rule. The equilibrium cooperation frequency in such a heterogeneous system shows plateau structures with discontinuous steplike jumps as a function of the cost-to-benefit ratio, as well in homogeneous systems only with inner-directed agents [W.-X. Wang, J. Ren, G.R. Chen, B.-H. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 74, 056113 (2006)] or copycat-like ones [P.-P. Li, J. Ke, Z. Lin, P.M. Hui, Phys. Rev. E 85, 021111 (2012)]. One nontrivial feature for the heterogenous agent system is that the number of plateaux varies non-monotonically with the composition of the two mixing agents. Moreover, there exists a worst composition of the heterogeneous agents for each plateau, leading to the lowest cooperation level. We then qualitatively interpret these features by invoking the stability of local microscopic patterns. Our results are of some help in understanding the cooperative behaviors of heterogenous agent systems, and the qualitative analysis employed here also provides a useful method for studying in depth the evolutionary dynamics of spatial games.

  16. Effects of endocannabinoid system modulation on cognitive and emotional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eZanettini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain's endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid-system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory and emotion (anxiety and depression. We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than affecting one or another specific behavior.

  17. Habitability of exoplanetary systems with planets observed in transit

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Barrie W

    2010-01-01

    (Shortened) We have used the measured properties of the stars in the 79 exoplanetary systems with one or more planets that have been observed in transit, to estimate each system's present habitability. The measured stellar properties have been used to determine the present location of the classical habitable zone (HZ). To establish habitability we use the estimated distances from the giant planet(s) within which an Earth-like planet would be inside the gravitational reach of the giant. Of the 79 transiting systems known in April 2010, only 2 do not offer safe havens to Earth-like planets in the HZ, and thus could not support life today. We have also estimated whether habitability is possible for 1.7 Gyr into the past i.e. 0.7 Gyr for a heavy bombardment, plus 1.0 Gyr for life to emerge and thus be present today. We find that, for the best estimate of each stellar age, an additional 28 systems do not offer such sustained habitability. If we reduce 1.7 Gyr to 1.0 Gyr this number falls to 22. However, if giant p...

  18. Intelligent Systems Technologies and Utilization of Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; McConaughy, G. R.; Morse, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The addition of raw data and derived geophysical parameters from several Earth observing satellites over the last decade to the data held by NASA data centers has created a data rich environment for the Earth science research and applications communities. The data products are being distributed to a large and diverse community of users. Due to advances in computational hardware, networks and communications, information management and software technologies, significant progress has been made in the last decade in archiving and providing data to users. However, to realize the full potential of the growing data archives, further progress is necessary in the transformation of data into information, and information into knowledge that can be used in particular applications. Sponsored by NASA s Intelligent Systems Project within the Computing, Information and Communication Technology (CICT) Program, a conceptual architecture study has been conducted to examine ideas to improve data utilization through the addition of intelligence into the archives in the context of an overall knowledge building system (KBS). Potential Intelligent Archive concepts include: 1) Mining archived data holdings to improve metadata to facilitate data access and usability; 2) Building intelligence about transformations on data, information, knowledge, and accompanying services; 3) Recognizing the value of results, indexing and formatting them for easy access; 4) Interacting as a cooperative node in a web of distributed systems to perform knowledge building; and 5) Being aware of other nodes in the KBS, participating in open systems interfaces and protocols for virtualization, and achieving collaborative interoperability.

  19. Information System Engineering Supporting Observation, Orientation, Decision, and Compliant Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    The majority of today's software systems and organizational/business structures have been built on the foundation of solving problems via long-term data collection, analysis, and solution design. This traditional approach of solving problems and building corresponding software systems and business processes, falls short in providing the necessary solutions needed to deal with many problems that require agility as the main ingredient of their solution. For example, such agility is needed in responding to an emergency, in military command control, physical security, price-based competition in business, investing in the stock market, video gaming, network monitoring and self-healing, diagnosis in emergency health care, and many other areas that are too numerous to list here. The concept of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA) loops is a guiding principal that captures the fundamental issues and approach for engineering information systems that deal with many of these problem areas. However, there are currently few software systems that are capable of supporting OODA. In this talk, we provide a tour of the research issues and state of the art solutions for supporting OODA. In addition, we provide specific examples of OODA solutions we have developed for the video surveillance and emergency response domains.

  20. Tightly Linked Systems: Reciprocal Relations Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms And Maternal Reports of Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell; Meyer, Jess

    2010-01-01

    The frequently observed link between maternal depressive symptoms and heightened maternal reporting of adolescent externalizing behavior was examined from an integrative, systems perspective using a community sample of 180 adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and close peers, assessed twice over a three-year period. Consistent with this perspective, the maternal depression-adolescent externalizing link was found to reflect not simply maternal reporting biases, but heightened maternal sensitiv...

  1. Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…

  2. Monitoring Classroom Behavior in Early Childhood: Using Group Observation Data to Make Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasch, Delilah; Carter, Deborah Russell

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluating classroom behavior in early childhood for the purpose of improving teaching and learning is critical. There is a clear link between social behavior and academic learning. Classrooms where students are following expectations, engaging academically, and transitioning effectively between activities are classrooms where…

  3. On Observables in a Dark Matter-Clustering Quintessence System

    CERN Document Server

    Fasiello, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    We consider a system where dark matter (DM) dynamics is enriched by the presence of clustering quintessence in the approximation where the system is effectively reduced to one degree of freedom. We focus on the behaviour of the one-loop total density power spectrum in the IR limit and on the so-called consistency conditions (ccs). We find that the power spectrum shows an enhancement in the IR with respect to the pure dark matter case and suggest a parallel with the behaviour of the non-equal time pure (DM) correlator. We then analyze ccs for a more general setup and recover the result that, for $c_s=w$, ccs are conserved outside the horizon but generically not inside. We extend these results. In these and similar scenarios the presence of additional dynamics (e.g. dark energy, modified gravity) implies that one may not "gauge away" the squeezed contribution of observables such as the dark matter bispectrum. We comment on how these effects may propagate all the way to biased tracers observables.

  4. Observation:The Impact of Teachers’Behavior in Teacher-students In-teractions on Pupils’Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琼

    2014-01-01

    To find out in what ways the teacher’s behavior in interactions could motivate students effectively, a two-day observa-tion concerning the relationship between the teacher’s behavior in teacher-students interactions and students’motivations in the classroom was carried out in a primary school in Scotland. The author illustrated the basic content of classrooms observed and the methods of collecting and analyzing the data. Then, it focused on the discussion of the data and related literacy. Finally, it drew the conclusion that the positive feedback, explanations for the reason of doing the task and enthusiastic actions could effectively motivate students to learn.

  5. EKOSAT/DIAMANT - The Earth Observation Programme at OHB- System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penne, B.; Tobehn, C.; Kassebom, M.; Luebberstedt

    This paper covers the EKOSAT / DIAMANT programme heading for superspectral geo-information products. The EKOSAT / DIAMANT programme is based on a commercial strategy just before the realization of the first step - the EKOSAT launch in 2004. Further, we give an overview on OHB-System earth observation prime activities especially for infrared and radar. The EKOSAT/ DIAMANT is based on the MSRS sensor featuring 12 user dedicated spectral bands in the VIS/NIR with 5m spatial resolution and 26 km swath at an orbit of 670 km. The operational demonstrator mission EKOSAT is a Korean-Israelean-German-Russian initiative that aims in utilizing the existing proto-flight model of the KOMPSAT-1 spacecraft for the MSRS sensor, which development is finished. The EKOSAT pointing capability will allow a revisit time of 3 days. DIAMANT stands for the future full operational system based on dedicated small satellites. The basic constellation relying on 2-3 satellites with about one day revisit is extendend on market demand. EKOSAT/ DIAMANT is designed to fill the gap between modern high spatial resolution multispectral (MS) systems and hyperspectral systems with moderate spatial resolution. On European level, there is currently no remote sensing system operational with comparable features and capabilities concerning applications especially in the field of environmental issues, vegetation, agriculture and water bodies. The Space Segment has been designed to satisfy the user requirements based on a balance between commercial aspects and scientific approaches. For example eight spectral bands have been identified to cover almost the entire product range for the current market. Additional four bands have been implemented to be prepared for future applications as for example the improved red edge detection, which give better results regarding environmental conditions. The spacecraft design and its subsystems are still reasonable small in order to keep the mass below 200 kg. This is an

  6. Seismic behavior of steel storage pallet racking systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castiglioni, Carlo Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the main outcomes of the first European research project on the seismic behavior of adjustable steel storage pallet racking systems. In particular, it describes a comprehensive and unique set of full-scale tests designed to assess such behavior. The tests performed include cyclic tests of full-scale rack components, namely beam-to-upright connections and column base connections; static and dynamic tests to assess the friction factor between pallets and rack beams; full-scale pushover and pseudodynamic tests of storage racks in down-aisle and cross-aisle directions; and full-scale dynamic tests on two-bay, three-level rack models. The implications of the findings of this extensive testing regime on the seismic behavior of racking systems are discussed in detail, highlighting e.g. the confirmation that under severe dynamic conditions “sliding” is the main factor influencing rack response. This work was conceived during the development of the SEISRACKS project. Its outcomes will contribute...

  7. 20 CFR 670.535 - Are Job Corps centers required to establish behavior management systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... behavior management systems? 670.535 Section 670.535 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... Activities and Center Operations § 670.535 Are Job Corps centers required to establish behavior management... behavior management system, according to procedures established by the Secretary. The behavior...

  8. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Annina; Rohwedder, Astrid; Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Maiolo, Elena M; Selcho, Mareike; Pauls, Dennis; von Essen, Alina; Gupta, Tripti; Sprecher, Simon G; Birman, Serge; Riemensperger, Thomas; Stocker, Reinhard F; Thum, Andreas S

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  9. The serotonergic central nervous system of the Drosophila larva: anatomy and behavioral function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Huser

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model system for studying the neuronal basis of innate behaviors and higher brain functions. Neuronal networks involved in olfaction, gustation, vision and learning and memory have been described during the last decade, often up to the single-cell level. Thus, most of these sensory networks are substantially defined, from the sensory level up to third-order neurons. This is especially true for the olfactory system of the larva. Given the wealth of genetic tools in Drosophila it is now possible to address the question how modulatory systems interfere with sensory systems and affect learning and memory. Here we focus on the serotonergic system that was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect sensory perception as well as learning and memory. Larval studies suggested that the serotonergic system is involved in the modulation of olfaction, feeding, vision and heart rate regulation. In a dual anatomical and behavioral approach we describe the basic anatomy of the larval serotonergic system, down to the single-cell level. In parallel, by expressing apoptosis-inducing genes during embryonic and larval development, we ablate most of the serotonergic neurons within the larval central nervous system. When testing these animals for naïve odor, sugar, salt and light perception, no profound phenotype was detectable; even appetitive and aversive learning was normal. Our results provide the first comprehensive description of the neuronal network of the larval serotonergic system. Moreover, they suggest that serotonin per se is not necessary for any of the behaviors tested. However, our data do not exclude that this system may modulate or fine-tune a wide set of behaviors, similar to its reported function in other insect species or in mammals. Based on our observations and the availability of a wide variety of genetic tools, this issue can now be addressed.

  10. A sustainable building promotes pro-environmental behavior: an observational study on food disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, David W-L; DiGiacomo, Alessandra; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a more sustainable society, the wider public will need to increase engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Psychological research on pro-environmental behaviors has thus far focused on identifying individual factors that promote such behavior, designing interventions based on these factors, and evaluating these interventions. Contextual factors that may also influence behavior at an aggregate level have been largely ignored. In the current study, we test a novel hypothesis--whether simply being in a sustainable building can elicit environmentally sustainable behavior. We find support for our hypothesis: people are significantly more likely to correctly choose the proper disposal bin (garbage, compost, recycling) in a building designed with sustainability in mind compared to a building that was not. Questionnaires reveal that these results are not due to self-selection biases. Our study provides empirical support that one's surroundings can have a profound and positive impact on behavior. It also suggests the opportunity for a new line of research that bridges psychology, design, and policy-making in an attempt to understand how the human environment can be designed and used as a subtle yet powerful tool to encourage and achieve aggregate pro-environmental behavior.

  11. Theoretical description of nonequilibrium behavior in charge density wave systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen

    The fast development of time resolved photoemission (TRPES) techniques allow us to discover the rich features of nonequilibrium phenomena which may not appear in equilibrium. One of the most explored topics is the nonequilibrium behavior of a charge density wave (CDW) material. Being an ordered phase at low temperature, the CDW state provides a fertile ground to study electron-electron and electron-ion interactions. By driving this material out of equilibrium and taking ultrafast time resolution snapshots of its behavior, TRPES helps us understand these interactions and sheds light on the mechanisms behind these and other complex material properties, such as metal-insulator transitions, high temperature superconductivity, and magnetic phenomena. Recent experiments on TRPES in CDW materials show an ultrafast CDW gap closure in systems such as 1T--TaS2 and TbTe3 and the subsequent separation of time scales for the electron-electron interaction and the electron-lattice interaction. But it is still not clear what happens during the ultrashort period (in first 100 femtosecond). In this dissertation, we solve a two band model describing this ultrafast process in a CDW system. By fixing the lattice distortion effect in the CDW, we studied the nonequilibrium excitations of the electrons under a strong electric field. This research is performed by calculating nonequilibrium Green's functions (NGF) along the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh contour. We solved this nonequilibrium problem exactly. We show non-perturbative results and explore the nonlinear electronic behavior under an ultrashort light pulses. In addition to the TRPES problem, we also examined the behavior of Bloch oscillations under a large DC field, the response to an AC electric field, high harmonic generation from solids, and the crossover between frequency-driven excitation and amplitude-driven excitation.

  12. Photographic monitoring system for observing heavy free-falling objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the consideration of safety it is required that packages containing radioactive wastes when dumped at sea should keep their integrity and retain their contents until they reach the seabed. Packages containing simulated radioactive wastes (non-radioactive) were tested by a free-fall method at depths ca. 4,300 m in an area for dumping industrial waste off Shikoku Island. Since the weight of the largest package was 4,300kg, special attention was paid to the connection of a buoyancy system with mooring rope. Descent and ascent velocities of the free-fall system were calculated prior to the experiment. A free-fall experiment with an extremely heavy object, heavier than ever previously reported, was accomplished without trouble by using the free-fall system. Recovery of a camera, flash-light, and other components was successful in each of the three experiments. Successive photographing of the package during descent was made and its integrity was observed using the photographs taken by the recovered camera. The packages remained intact during descent and at least for a short time after arrival on the seabed. (author)

  13. Observational dynamics of low-mass stellar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Matthias J

    2014-01-01

    The last fifteen years have seen the discovery of new types of low-mass stellar systems that bridge the gap between the once well-separated regimes of galaxies and of star clusters. Whether such objects are considered galaxies depends also on the definition of the term "galaxy", and several possible criteria are based on their internal dynamics (e.g. the common concept that galaxies contain dark matter). Moreover, studying the internal dynamics of low-mass stellar systems may also help understand their origin and evolutionary history. The focus of this paper is on two classes of stellar systems at the interface between star clusters and dwarf galaxies: ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) and diffuse Galactic globular clusters (GCs). A review of our current knowledge on the properties of UCDs is provided and dynamical considerations applying to diffuse GCs are introduced. In the following, recent observational results on the internal dynamics of individual UCDs and diffuse Galactic globular clusters are presen...

  14. Crystallization Behavior of Magnesium Salts:. a Summary of Some Experimental Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dongfeng; Zou, Longjiang; Wang, Lei; Yan, Xiaoxing

    Some efficient methods have been developed to chemically prepare some magnesium salt products with multiscale morphologies such as MgCO3·3H2O and 5Mg(OH)2·MgSO4·2H2O whiskers, Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O microplates and aggregates, and Mg(OH)2 plates and spheres. The crystallization processes of the as-prepared products were studied by designing different reaction routes and corresponding growth morphologies. In these solution chemical systems, Mg2+ cation was found to be easily coordinated by various ligands, and can be easily transformed into various compounds with variable compositions. The current crystallization observations of some magnesium salts can be readily simulated by the chemical bonding theory of single crystal growth. These results can guide the further studies of various magnesium salts with controllable morphologies.

  15. Wired for behavior: from development to function of innate limbic system circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie eSokolowski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The limbic system of the brain regulates a number of behaviors that are essential for the survival of all vertebrate species including humans. The limbic system predominantly controls appropriate responses to stimuli with social, emotional or motivational salience, which includes innate behaviors such as mating, aggression and defense. Activation of circuits regulating these innate behaviors begins in the periphery with sensory stimulation (primarily via the olfactory system in rodents, and is then processed in the brain by a set of delineated structures that primarily includes the amygdala and hypothalamus. While the basic neuroanatomy of these connections is well established, much remains unknown about how information is processed within innate circuits and how genetic hierarchies regulate development and function of these circuits. Utilizing innovative technologies including channel rhodopsin-based circuit manipulation and genetic manipulation in rodents, recent studies have begun to answer these central questions. In this article we review the current understanding of how limbic circuits regulate sexually dimorphism and how these circuits are established and shaped during pre- and post-natal development. We also discuss how understanding developmental processes of innate circuit formation may inform behavioral alterations observed in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, which are characterized by limbic system dysfunction.

  16. Behavioral transition from attack to parenting in male mice: a crucial role of the vomeronasal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Kashiko S; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Kumi O

    2013-03-20

    Sexually naive male mice show robust aggressive behavior toward pups. However, the proportion of male mice exhibiting pup-directed aggression declines after cohabitation with a pregnant female for 2 weeks after mating. Subsequently, on becoming fathers, they show parental behavior toward pups, similar to maternal behavior by mothers. To elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying this behavioral transition, we examined brain regions differentially activated in sexually naive males and fathers after exposure to pups, using c-Fos expression as a neuronal activation marker. We found that, after pup exposure, subsets of neurons along the vomeronasal neural pathway-including the vomeronasal sensory neurons, the accessory olfactory bulb, the posterior medial amygdala, the medioposterior division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and the anterior hypothalamic area-were more strongly activated in sexually naive males than in fathers. Notably, c-Fos induction was not observed in the vomeronasal sensory neurons of fathers after pup exposure. Surgical ablation of the vomeronasal organ in sexually naive males resulted in the abrogation of pup-directed aggression and simultaneous induction of parental behavior. These results suggest that chemical cues evoking pup-directed aggression are received by the vomeronasal sensory neurons and activate the vomeronasal neural pathway in sexually naive male mice but not in fathers. Thus, the downregulation of pup pheromone-induced activation of the vomeronasal system might be important for the behavioral transition from attack to parenting in male mice. PMID:23516278

  17. Behavior-based implicit planning method and its application to robot soccer system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Changhong; Chen Weidong; Xi Yugeng

    2005-01-01

    A behavior-based implicit planning method is proposed through the design of a middle-size autonomous robot soccer system (MARSS). With basic goal-driven behaviors, the MARSS reactively selects suitable basic behavior according to different situation. The reactive executions of basic behavior sequences implicitly plan two primary behavior chains. By the robot's dynamical interactions with the environments, interleaving of basic behaviors spontaneously exhibits effective emergent behaviors to deal with some difficult situations. These emergent behaviors make the system simple, robust and competitive.

  18. Intelligent Systems Technologies and Utilization of Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; McConaughy, G.; Lynnes, C.; Morse, S.; Isaac, D.

    2004-12-01

    The last decade's influx of raw data and derived geophysical parameters from several Earth observing satellites to NASA data centers has created a data-rich environment for Earth science research and applications. For example, the Distributed Active Archive Centers of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System held over 2.8 petabytes of data at the end of 2003, growing at a rate of about 3 terabytes per day. The data products are distributed to a large community of scientific researchers, educators and operational government agencies. With advances in computational hardware, networks, information management and software technologies, much progress has been made over the last decade in data archiving and providing data access for a broad, diverse user community. However, to realize the full potential of the growing archives of valuable scientific data, further progress is necessary in the transformation of data into information, and information into knowledge that can be used in particular applications. The set of providers of data and services pertaining to archiving and distribution of Earth science data is quite heterogeneous and distributed today and is likely to be even more so in the future. This is due to the diversity of Earth Science disciplines and the distribution of expertise needed to provide data and services in those disciplines. Thus, in typical real world applications scenarios, the data and services will be obtained through service chains involving multiple data archive sites or systems. It is in this context that the development of technologies to improve data utilization must occur. Sponsored by NASA's Intelligent Systems Project within the Computing, Information and Communication Technology Program, a conceptual architecture study has been conducted to examine ideas to improve data utilization by adding intelligence into the archives in the context of an overall knowledge building system. Potential Intelligent Archive concepts

  19. SLR system improvement for GIOVE-A satellite observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, You; Fan, Cunbo; Han, Xingwei; Yang, Dingjiang; Chen, Nianjiang; Xue, Feng; Geng, Lin

    2008-03-01

    Galileo system consists of 27 satellites distributed in three uniformly separated planes. At the end of 2005, one satellite, Galileo In-Orbit Validation Element-A (GIOVE-A), was launched as planned into an MEO with an altitude of 23,260 kilometers. Carrying a payload of rubidium clocks, signal-generation units, and a phase-array antenna of individual L-band elements. GIOVE-A started broadcasting on January 28, 2006, securing the frequencies allocated by the ITU for Galileo. Performance of the on-board atomic clocks, antenna infrastructure, and signal properties is evaluated through precise orbit determination, supported by Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), an independent high-precision range measurement technique for orbit determination based on a global network of stations that measure the round-trip flight-time of ultra short laser pulses to satellites equipped with laser retro reflector arrays (LRAs). SLR provides instantaneous range measurements of millimeter-level precision which can be compiled to provide accurate orbits and to measure the on-board clock error. Given the importance of SLR data for the characterization of the GIOVE-A clocks, the Changchun SLR station in northeast China was selected among the Chinese stations contributing to the ILRS because it had demonstrated strong MEO satellite tracking; collocation with an existing International GPS Service station; and good weather conditions. This paper introduces the SLR system improvement for tracking GIOVE-A satellite in Changchun station. During the more than two months improvement, the new servo and encoder systems were installed, primary mirror, second mirror and some other mirrors have been cleaned and recoated, and the laser system was adjusted in order to improve the laser efficiency and output energy. The paper gives out the improvement results, and the GIOVE-A satellite observation results.

  20. Clarifying Observed Relationships Between Protective Behavioral Strategies and Alcohol Outcomes: The Importance of Response Options

    OpenAIRE

    Braitman, Abby L.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Kate B.

    2014-01-01

    Protective behavioral strategies (PBS), or harm-reduction behaviors that can potentially reduce alcohol consumption or associated problems, have been assessed in varied ways throughout the literature. Existing scales vary in focus (i.e., broad vs. narrow), and importantly, in response options (i.e., absolute frequency vs. contingent frequency). Absolute frequency conflates PBS use with number of drinking occasions, resulting in inconsistencies in the relationship between PBS use and alcohol o...

  1. Strengthening the Focus on Business Results: The Need for Systems Approaches in Organizational Behavior Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyten, Cloyd

    2009-01-01

    Current Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) research and practice may be characterized as either behavior focused or results focused. These two approaches stem from different origins and have different characteristics. The behavior-focused approach stems from applied behavior analysis (ABA) methods and emphasizes direct observation of and…

  2. IRTF/SPEX OBSERVATIONS OF THE UNUSUAL KEPLER LIGHT CURVE SYSTEM KIC 8462852

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Sitko, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 (United States); Marengo, M., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, 12 Physics Hall, Ames, IA 50010 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    We have utilized the NASA/IRTF 3 m SpeX instrument’s high-resolution spectral mode to observe and characterize the near-infrared flux emanating from the unusual Kepler light curve system KIC 8462852. By comparing the resulting 0.8–4.2 μm spectrum to a mesh of model photospheric spectra, the 6 emission line analyses of the Rayner et al. catalog, and the 25 system collections of debris disks we have observed to date using SpeX under the Near InfraRed Debris disk Survey, we have been able to additionally characterize the system. Within the errors of our measurements, this star looks like a normal solar abundance main-sequence F1V to F3V dwarf star without any obvious traces of significant circumstellar dust or gas. Using Connelley and Greene’s emission measures, we also see no evidence of significant ongoing accretion onto the star nor any stellar outflow away from it. Our results are inconsistent with large amounts of static close-in obscuring material or the unusual behavior of a YSO system, but are consistent with the favored episodic giant comet models of a Gyr old stellar system favored by Boyajian et al. We speculate that KIC 8462852, like the ∼1.4 Gyr old F2V system η Corvi, is undergoing a late heavy bombardment, but is only in its very early stages.

  3. Measuring progress of the global sea level observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Philip L.; Aarup, Thorkild; Merrifield, Mark; Mitchum, Gary T.; Le Provost, Christian

    Sea level is such a fundamental parameter in the sciences of oceanography geophysics, and climate change, that in the mid-1980s, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) established the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). GLOSS was to improve the quantity and quality of data provided to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), and thereby, data for input to studies of long-term sea level change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It would also provide the key data needed for international programs, such as the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and later, the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR).GLOSS is now one of the main observation components of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) of IOC and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Progress and deficiencies in GLOSS were presented in July to the 22nd IOC Assembly at UNESCO in Paris and are contained in the GLOSS Assessment Report (GAR) [IOC, 2003a].

  4. IRAS observations of the Pluto-Charon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-signal-to-noise-ratio observations of the Pluto-Charon system at 25, 60, and 100 microns using IRAS are combined with visual-magnitude and mutual-eclipse constraints to evaluate thermal models of Pluto and Charon. These models are consistent with eclipse observation by Dunbar and Tedesco (1986) but not with Reinsch and Pakull (1987). The most likely model for Charon is the standard asteroid model, typical for the icy Galilean and Saturnian satellites. Charon models with a significant atmosphere can be ruled out. Based on currently available radius and albedo constraints, no significant numerical distinction is possible between Pluto models ranging from isothermal spheres with surface emissivity between 0.4 and 0.9. Concerns regarding the viability of an emissivity as low as 0.4 favor the higher-emissivity models. The globally uniform surface temperature of Pluto may thus at present be as low as 45 K, with a methane column abundance of 6.7 cm atm. The most likely models are centered on radii of 1180 and 747 km and albedos of 0.47 and 0.26 for Pluto and Charon, respectively. 21 references

  5. Narrow-K-Band Observations of the GJ 1214 System

    CERN Document Server

    Colon, Knicole D

    2013-01-01

    GJ 1214 is a nearby M dwarf star that hosts a transiting super-Earth-size planet, making this system an excellent target for atmospheric studies. Most studies find that the transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b is flat, which favors either a high mean molecular weight or cloudy/hazy hydrogen (H) rich atmosphere model. Photometry at short wavelengths (< 0.7 micron) and in the K-band can discriminate the most between these different atmosphere models for GJ 1214b, but current observations do not have sufficiently high precision. We present photometry of seven transits of GJ 1214b through a narrow K-band (2.141 micron) filter with the Wide Field Camera on the 3.8 m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. Our photometric precision is typically 1.7x10^-3 (for a single transit), comparable with other ground-based observations of GJ 1214b. We measure a planet-star radius ratio of 0.1158+/-0.0013, which, along with other studies, also supports a flat transmission spectrum for GJ 1214b. Since this does not exclude a scenari...

  6. Intelligent Systems: Terrestrial Observation and Prediction Using Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Joseph C.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has made science and technology investments to better utilize its large space-borne remote sensing data holdings of the Earth. With the launch of Terra, NASA created a data-rich environment where the challenge is to fully utilize the data collected from EOS however, despite unprecedented amounts of observed data, there is a need for increasing the frequency, resolution, and diversity of observations. Current terrestrial models that use remote sensing data were constructed in a relatively data and compute limited era and do not take full advantage of on-line learning methods and assimilation techniques that can exploit these data. NASA has invested in visualization, data mining and knowledge discovery methods which have facilitated data exploitation, but these methods are insufficient for improving Earth science models that have extensive background knowledge nor do these methods refine understanding of complex processes. Investing in interdisciplinary teams that include computational scientists can lead to new models and systems for online operation and analysis of data that can autonomously improve in prediction skill over time.

  7. Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Observed Autism Symptom Severity during School Recess: A Preliminary Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Van Dyke, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in terms of effects on observed social communication-related autism symptom severity during unstructured play time at school for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Thirteen children with ASD (7-11 years old) were randomly assigned to 32 sessions of CBT…

  8. Rheological behavior of a bismaleimide resin system for RTM process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yuexin; SHI Feng; LIANG Zhiyong; ZHANG Zuoguang

    2007-01-01

    The curing properties and rheological behavior of a bismaleimide resin system were studied with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis and viscometer mea-surements,respectively.A dual-Arrhenius viscosity model and an engineering viscosity model were established to pre-dict the resin rheological behavior of this resin system.The two viscosity models were compared.The results show that the two models are both suitable for predicting the viscosity in the mold filling stage of resin transfer molding (RTM). However,the engineering model provides a more accurate prediction of the viscosity near the gel point.The effective-ness of the engineering viscosity model is verified both in isothermal and nonisothermal conditions.The limitation of the engineering model is that it cannot be used to predict the viscosity after cross-linking of the curing system.The engineering viscosity models can be used to predict the pro-cessing windows of different processing parameters of the RTM process,which is critical for the simulation and the optimization of composite manufacturing processes.

  9. Digital Object Identifiers for NASA's Earth Observing System Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; James, N.

    2012-12-01

    The science community has long recognized the importance of citing data in published literature to encourage replication of experiments and verification of results. Authors that try to cite their data often find that publishers will not accept Internet addresses because they are viewed as transient references, frequently changed by the data provider after the paper is published. Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and the DOI® System were created to avoid this problem by providing a unique and persistent identifier scheme and an online resolution service. DOIs and the Internet service provided by the DOI System have emerged as the most acceptable scheme for publishers. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project, in cooperation with several Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument teams and data providers, has developed methods for assigning DOIs to EOS products. By assigning DOIs we are enabling authors and publishers to find it easier and more compelling to cite EOS data products. DOIs are unique alphanumeric strings that consist of a prefix and suffix. The prefix is assigned by a registration agency for the DOI System. The suffix must be unique, but is otherwise free to be constructed by the publisher, in this case NASA ESDIS Project. A strategy was needed for constructing DOI suffix names that corresponds to each EOS product. Since the onset of the DOI System, publishers have developed conventions to suit their own purposes. These range from random generation to complex, formally controlled vocabularies. An overarching ESDIS goal has been for the DOI names to be attractive for researchers to use in publication applications. Keeping them short and simple is paramount. When adding meaning to the string, it is also important that the name only refer to the data and not to the publisher, so that the DOI can be accepted as persistent even if the data is moved to a new publisher. Most users download EOS product files to their local facilities when

  10. Observation of parity-time symmetry breaking transitions in a dissipative Floquet system of ultracold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiaming; Liu, Ji; de Melo, Leonardo; Joglekar, Yogesh N; Luo, Le

    2016-01-01

    Open physical systems with balanced loss and gain exhibit a transition, absent in their solitary counterparts, which engenders modes that exponentially decay or grow with time and thus spontaneously breaks the parity-time PT symmetry. This PT-symmetry breaking is induced by modulating the strength or the temporal profile of the loss and gain, but also occurs in a pure dissipative system without gain. It has been observed that, in classical systems with mechanical, electrical, and electromagnetic setups with static loss and gain, the PT-symmetry breaking transition leads to extraordinary behavior and functionalities. However, its observation in a quantum system is yet to be realized. Here we report on the first quantum simulation of PT-symmetry breaking transitions using ultracold Li-6 atoms. We simulate static and Floquet dissipative Hamiltonians by generating state-dependent atom loss in a noninteracting Fermi gas, and observe the PT-symmetry breaking transitions by tracking the atom number for each state. W...

  11. Adaptive Recurrent Network Network Uncertainty Observer Based Integral Backstepping Control for a PMSM Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hong Lin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM is suitable for high-performance servo applications and has been used widely for the industrial robots, computer-numerically-controlled (CNC machine tools and elevators. The control performance of the actual PMSM drive system depends on many parameters, such as parameter variations, external load disturbance, and friction force. Their relationships are complex and the actual PMSM drive system has the properties of nonlinear uncertainty and time-varying characteristics. It is difficult to establish an accurate model for the nonlinear uncertainty and time-varying characteristics of the actual PMSM drive system Therefore, an adaptive recurrent neural network uncertainty observer (ARNNUO based integral backstepping control system is developed to overcome this problem in this paper. The proposed control strategy is based on integral backstepping control combined with RNN uncertainty observer to estimate the required lumped uncertainty. An adaptive rule of the RNN uncertainty observer is employed to on-line adjust the weights of sigmoidal functions by using the gradient descent method and the backpropagation algorithm in according to Lyapunov function. This ARNNUO has the on-line learning ability to respond to the system’s nonlinear and time-varying behaviors. Experimental results are executed to show the control performance of the proposed control scheme.

  12. Cost Behavior: Mapping and Systemic Analysis of International Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Richartz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has as objective mapping of scientific researches into costs behavior to identify its current scenario. The research on database provided a selection of relevant bibliographic portfolio, which had as a result 29 articles according to the research criteria defined in the study. From those, the articles from Anderson, Banker e Janakiraman (2003 were highlighted. Furthermore, Banker is considered to be the main author about costs behavior, its importance is noticed not only in the portfolio itself, but also, in its references. The most important periodic, either for its impact, or related to its number of articles publicized, is The Accounting Review. Finally, from the relationship between the most important articles about bibliometric analysis, featuring systemic analysis, the conclusion is that an important article about cost behavior has a quantitative approach (with the use of robust regression, recognize the existence of Sticky Costs (no matter which approach is in use, makes use of a variety of explanations (internal & external and add some variable or information for scientific evolution of the subject.

  13. How the behavioral approach system predicts everyday life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadikhah, Zahra; Jackson, Chris J

    2010-01-01

    This study tested crucial components of Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory that have generally been overlooked in the literature. We tested whether the perceived amount of reward moderates the behavioral approach system (BAS) and the importance of reward mediates BAS in the prediction of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Results from 514 participants employed in part-time and full-time jobs provided support for our model, such that the indirect effect of BAS through the importance of reward was strongest when reward was provided. This model advances our understanding of reinforcement sensitivity theory and offers a solid foundation for predicting outcomes in everyday life. PMID:20923087

  14. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for

  15. How the behavioral approach system predicts everyday life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadikhah, Zahra; Jackson, Chris J

    2010-01-01

    This study tested crucial components of Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory that have generally been overlooked in the literature. We tested whether the perceived amount of reward moderates the behavioral approach system (BAS) and the importance of reward mediates BAS in the prediction of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Results from 514 participants employed in part-time and full-time jobs provided support for our model, such that the indirect effect of BAS through the importance of reward was strongest when reward was provided. This model advances our understanding of reinforcement sensitivity theory and offers a solid foundation for predicting outcomes in everyday life.

  16. Chaotic Patterns in Lotka-Volterra Systems with Behavioral Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacitignola, D.; Tebaldi, C.

    2006-03-01

    We study the properties of a n2-dimensional Lotka-Volterra system describing competition among species with behaviorally adaptive abilities, in which one species is made ecologically differentiated with respect to the others by carrying capacity and intrinsic growth rate. The case in which one species has a carrying capacity higher than the others is considered here. Stability of equilibria and time-dependent regimes have been investigated in the case of four species: an interesting example of chaotic window and period-adding sequences is presented and discussed.

  17. Controller Based Observer in Switched System with Norm Bounded Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongi Besbes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study discusses the robust stabilization of norm bounded discrete switched systems. Approach: The proposed method is using the second Lyapunov approach and the poly-quadratic function concept. The stabilization conditions are written through linear matrix inequality relations. The control law is based on a static output feedback with the use of a switched observer. The synthesis conditions of the controller are written in the form of linear matrix inequalities difficult to resolve by current numerical solvers. That’s why relaxations are proposed to mitigate the pessimism of LMI conditions obtained. Results: The poly-quadratic Lyapunov approach provides a constructive way to tackle uncertainty in the switched framework. The feasibility is illustrated by the example of discrete uncertain switched systems. Conclusion: With these results, the study of stability can be achieved for arbitrary switching laws, state-dependent, time dependent or generated by a controller. However, the implementation of the control law is possible only if the switching status is well known in real time.

  18. Observer model optimization of a spectral mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenberg, Erik; Åslund, Magnus; Cederström, Björn; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2010-04-01

    Spectral imaging is a method in medical x-ray imaging to extract information about the object constituents by the material-specific energy dependence of x-ray attenuation. Contrast-enhanced spectral imaging has been thoroughly investigated, but unenhanced imaging may be more useful because it comes as a bonus to the conventional non-energy-resolved absorption image at screening; there is no additional radiation dose and no need for contrast medium. We have used a previously developed theoretical framework and system model that include quantum and anatomical noise to characterize the performance of a photon-counting spectral mammography system with two energy bins for unenhanced imaging. The theoretical framework was validated with synthesized images. Optimal combination of the energy-resolved images for detecting large unenhanced tumors corresponded closely, but not exactly, to minimization of the anatomical noise, which is commonly referred to as energy subtraction. In that case, an ideal-observer detectability index could be improved close to 50% compared to absorption imaging. Optimization with respect to the signal-to-quantum-noise ratio, commonly referred to as energy weighting, deteriorated detectability. For small microcalcifications or tumors on uniform backgrounds, however, energy subtraction was suboptimal whereas energy weighting provided a minute improvement. The performance was largely independent of beam quality, detector energy resolution, and bin count fraction. It is clear that inclusion of anatomical noise and imaging task in spectral optimization may yield completely different results than an analysis based solely on quantum noise.

  19. Network Performance Measurements for NASA's Earth Observation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, Joe; Gormain, Andy; Smith, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS) Project studies all aspects of planet Earth from space, including climate change, and ocean, ice, land, and vegetation characteristics. It consists of about 20 satellite missions over a period of about a decade. Extensive collaboration is used, both with other US. agencies (e.g., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOA), United States Geological Survey (USGS), Department of Defense (DoD), and international agencies (e.g., European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)), to improve cost effectiveness and obtain otherwise unavailable data. Scientific researchers are located at research institutions worldwide, primarily government research facilities and research universities. The EOS project makes extensive use of networks to support data acquisition, data production, and data distribution. Many of these functions impose requirements on the networks, including throughput and availability. In order to verify that these requirements are being met, and be pro-active in recognizing problems, NASA conducts on-going performance measurements. The purpose of this paper is to examine techniques used by NASA to measure the performance of the networks used by EOSDIS (EOS Data and Information System) and to indicate how this performance information is used.

  20. Extending Hydrologic Information Systems to accommodate Arctic marine observations data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Eric S.; Maidment, David R.

    2014-04-01

    The Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) project characterizes the biota and chemistry of the continental shelf ecosystem of a region of the Chukchi Sea to form a baseline survey of environmental conditions before drilling for oil commences. This paper describes the COMIDA CAB project data and processing methods, which provide a novel approach to data tracking and archiving from marine sampling cruises. This approach features an adaptation of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science. Observations Data Model for application with physical, chemical, and biological oceanographic data - a new extension of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System - thus bringing hydroinformatics into the oceanographic realm. Environmental sampling has been carried out by five separate scientific teams who characterize particular classes of physical, chemical and biological variables, and who each have their own methods of processing samples in their laboratories following the two sampling cruises made to the Chukchi Sea in the summers of 2009 and 2010. The results of their observations and analyses are stored in data files, mostly in Excel format, whose structure is defined differently by each scientific team. In all, the 2009 and 2010 COMIDA CAB field efforts yielded a database of 510,405 data values. Of these, 474,129 were derived from continuous in-situ data sonde profiles and 36,276 were derived from non-sonde extracted samples of the sediment, epibenthos, and water column. These data values represent 301 variables measured at 65 sites and originated from 26 different source files. The biological observations represented 519 distinct taxa. The data from these files are transformed and synthesized into a comprehensive project database in which a set of standardized descriptors of each observed data value are specified and each data value is linked to the data file from which it was created to establish a

  1. Impact of duration of structured observations on measurement of handwashing behavior at critical times

    OpenAIRE

    Halder, Amal K.; Molyneaux, John W.; Luby, Stephen P.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Structured observation is frequently used to measure handwashing at critical events, such as after fecal contact and before eating, but it is time-consuming. We aimed to assess the impact of reducing the duration of structured observation on the number and type of critical events observed. Methods The study recruited 100 randomly selected households, 50 for short 90-minute observations and 50 for long 5-hour observations, in six rural Bangladeshi villages. Based on the first 90 min...

  2. Towards Voluntary Interoperable Open Access Licenses for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onsrud, H.; Campbell, J.; Van Loenen, B.

    2010-01-01

    Access to earth observation data has become critically important for the wellbeing of society. A major impediment to achieving widespread sharing of earth observation data is lack of an operational web-wide system that is transparent and consistent in allowing users to legally access and use the ear

  3. Observing System Simulations for ASCENDS: Synthesizing Science Measurement Requirements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Baker, D. F.; Schuh, A. E.; Crowell, S.; Rayner, P. J.; Hammerling, D.; Michalak, A. M.; Wang, J. S.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Ott, L.; Zaccheo, T.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Moore, B.; Crisp, D.

    2013-12-01

    The measurement of atmospheric CO2 from space using active (lidar) sensing techniques has several potentially significant advantages in comparison to current and planned passive CO2 instruments. Application of this new technology aims to advance CO2 measurement capability and carbon cycle science into the next decade. The NASA Active Sensing of Carbon Emissions, Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission has been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey for the next generation of space-based CO2 observing systems. ASCENDS is currently planned for launch in 2022. Several possible lidar instrument approaches have been demonstrated in airborne campaigns and the results indicate that such sensors are quite feasible. Studies are now underway to evaluate performance requirements for space mission implementation. Satellite CO2 observations must be highly precise and unbiased in order to accurately infer global carbon source/sink fluxes. Measurement demands are likely to further increase in the wake of GOSAT, OCO-2, and enhanced ground-based in situ and remote sensing CO2 data. The objective of our work is to quantitatively and consistently evaluate the measurement capabilities and requirements for ASCENDS in the context of advancing our knowledge of carbon flux distributions and their dependence on underlying physical processes. Considerations include requirements for precision, relative accuracy, spatial/temporal coverage and resolution, vertical information content, interferences, and possibly the tradeoffs among these parameters, while at the same time framing a mission that can be implemented within a constrained budget. Here, we attempt to synthesize the results of observing system simulation studies, commissioned by the ASCENDS Science Requirements Definition Team, into a coherent set of mission performance guidelines. A variety of forward and inverse model frameworks are employed to reduce the potential dependence of the results on model

  4. Disturbance observer based control system design for inertially stabilized platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunnan; Lin, Zhe

    2012-09-01

    Inertially stabilized platform (ISP) is indispensable for various imaging systems to segregate the base angular movement and achieve high LOS (Line-Of-Sight) stability. The disturbance rejection ratio and command following performance are of primary concern in designing ISP control systems. In this paper, the redundant gimbals ISP system is considered and it is shown to experience complex disturbance and parameter variation during operation. To meet advanced LOS stabilization requirement, a disturbance observer based (DOB) dual-loop controller design for ISP is proposed of which the DOB is the internal-loop. Using a nominal plant model and a low-pass filter, the disturbance signal is estimated and used as a cancellation input added to the current command of torque motor. If the DOB works well, the disturbance torque and mismatch between nominal plant and actual plant will be compensated and the internal-loop will behave as nominal model parameters. On the other hand, the external-loop will be designed for nominal model parameters to meet stabilization requirements. This paper will mainly focus on the DOB design method. Since the low-pass filter of DOB determines the sensitivity and complementary sensitivity function as will be shown in this paper, designing the filter is the most important consideration. In this paper, an optimal low-pass filter design method is proposed. The method is intuitive, simple to implement and allows on-line tuning. Simulation results show the performance enhancement of our control structure in the presence of disturbance and measurement noise.

  5. Discretization behavior analysis of a switching control system from a unified mathematical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghuo YU; Ling YANG; Guanrong CHEN

    2003-01-01

    A useful unified analysis framework is proposed for exploring the intriguing behaviors of a second-order switching control system. Complex discretization behaviors of the switching control system are explored in detail, and some intrinsic relationships between the system periodic behaviors and their associated symbolic sequences are studied.

  6. Observation of the Starting and Low Speed Behavior of Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the starting behavior of small horizontal axis wind turbines at high angles of attack and low Reynolds number. The unfavorable relative wind direction during the starting time leads to low starting torque and more idling time. Wind turbine models of sizes less than 5 meters were simulated at wind speed range of 2 m/s to 5 m/s. Wind turbines were modeled in Pro/E and based on the optimized designs given by MATLAB codes. Wind turbine models were simulated in ADAMS for improving the starting behavior. The models with high starting torques and less idling times were selected. The starting behavior was successfully improved and the optimized wind turbine models were able to produce more starting torque even at wind speeds less than 5 m/s.

  7. End-directed evolution and the emergence of energy-seeking behavior in a complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondepudi, Dilip; Kay, Bruce; Dixon, James

    2015-05-01

    Self-organization in a voltage-driven nonequilibrium system, consisting of conducting beads immersed in a viscous medium, gives rise to a dynamic tree structure that exhibits wormlike motion. The complex motion of the beads driven by the applied field, the dipole-dipole interaction between the beads and the hydrodynamic flow of the viscous medium, results in a time evolution of the tree structure towards states of lower resistance or higher dissipation and thus higher rates of entropy production. Thus emerges a remarkably organismlike energy-seeking behavior. The dynamic tree structure draws the energy needed to form and maintain its structure, moves to positions at which it receives more energy, and avoids conditions that lower available energy. It also is able to restore its structure when damaged, i.e., it is self-healing. The emergence of energy-seeking behavior in a nonliving complex system that is extremely simple in its construct is unexpected. Along with the property of self-healing, this system, in a rudimentary way, exhibits properties that are analogous to those we observe in living organisms. Thermodynamically, the observed diverse behavior can be characterized as end-directed evolution to states of higher rates of entropy production.

  8. A naturalistic observation study of the links between parental depressive symptoms and preschoolers' behaviors in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatcher, Richard B; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has shown that parental depressive symptoms are linked to a number of negative child outcomes. However, the associations between parental depressive symptoms and actual child behaviors in everyday life remain largely unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the links between parental depressive symptoms and everyday child behaviors and emotional language use using a novel observational methodology, and to explore the potential moderating role of parent-child conflict. We tracked the behaviors and language use of 35 preschool-aged children for two 1-day periods separated by one year using a child version of the Electronically Activated Recorder, a digital voice recorder that records ambient sounds while participants go about their daily lives. Parental depressive symptoms were positively associated with multiple problem behaviors among children (i.e., crying, acting mad, watching TV) when measured both concurrently and prospectively, and with negative emotion word use prospectively. Further, the links between parental depressive symptoms and child crying were moderated by parents' perceptions of parent-child conflict. This study offers the first empirical evidence of direct links between parental depressive symptoms and child behaviors in daily life and presents a promising research tool for the study of everyday child behaviors.

  9. Roles for the endocannabinoid system in ethanol-motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson-Redmond, Angela N; Guindon, Josée; Morgan, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use disorder represents a significant human health problem that leads to substantial loss of human life and financial cost to society. Currently available treatment options do not adequately address this human health problem, and thus, additional therapies are desperately needed. The endocannabinoid system has been shown, using animal models, to modulate ethanol-motivated behavior, and it has also been demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure can have potentially long-lasting effects on the endocannabinoid system. For example, chronic exposure to ethanol, in either cell culture or preclinical rodent models, causes an increase in endocannabinoid levels that results in down-regulation of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and uncoupling of this receptor from downstream G protein signaling pathways. Using positron emission tomography (PET), similar down-regulation of CB1 has been noted in multiple regions of the brain in human alcoholic patients. In rodents, treatment with the CB1 inverse agonist SR141716A (Rimonabant), or genetic deletion of CB1 leads to a reduction in voluntary ethanol drinking, ethanol-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, operant self-administration of ethanol, sensitization to the locomotor effects of ethanol, and reinstatement/relapse of ethanol-motivated behavior. Although the clinical utility of Rimonabant or other antagonists/inverse agonists for CB1 is limited due to negative neuropsychiatric side effects, negative allosteric modulators of CB1 and inhibitors of endocannabinoid catabolism represent therapeutic targets worthy of additional examination.

  10. The role of the serotonergic system in suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadkowski M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Marta Sadkowski,1,* Brittany Dennis,2–4,* Robert C Clayden,2 Wala ElSheikh,5 Sumathy Rangarajan,5 Jane DeJesus,5 Zainab Samaan3–6 1Arts and Sciences Program, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 4Population Genomics Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 5Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 6Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Serotonin is a widely investigated neurotransmitter in several psychopathologies, including suicidal behavior (SB; however, its role extends to several physiological functions involving the nervous system, as well as the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. This review summarizes recent research into ten serotonergic genes related to SB. These genes – TPH1, TPH2, SLC6A4, SLC18A2, HTR1A, HTR1B, HTR2A, DDC, MAOA, and MAOB – encode proteins that are vital to serotonergic function: tryptophan hydroxylase; the serotonin transporter 5-HTT; the vesicular transporter VMAT2; the HTR1A, HTR1B, and HTR2A receptors; the L-amino acid decarboxylase; and the monoamine oxidases. This review employed a systematic search strategy and a narrative research methodology to disseminate the current literature investigating the link between SB and serotonin. Keywords: serotonin, suicide, genetic

  11. Experimental platforms for behavioral experiments on social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Janssen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been an increased interest in using behavioral experiments to study hypotheses on the governance of social-ecological systems. A diversity of software tools are used to implement such experiments. We evaluated various publicly available platforms that could be used in research and education on the governance of social-ecological systems. The aims of the various platforms are distinct, and this is noticeable in the differences in their user-friendliness and their adaptability to novel research questions. The more easily accessible platforms are useful for prototyping experiments and for educational purposes to illustrate theoretical concepts. To advance novel research aims, more elaborate programming experience is required to either implement an experiment from scratch or adjust existing experimental software. There is no ideal platform best suited for all possible use cases, but we have provided a menu of options and their associated trade-offs.

  12. Behavior of HEPA filter systems under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With respect to the behavior of HEPA filters under high humidity conditions, emphasis was placed on the study of the differential pressure increase. Under fog conditions, the differential pressure of dust loaded filters increased within minutes, up to values sufficient to damage normal commercial filters units. The investigation into the failure mechanisms was completed with the development of an equation to calculate filter medium tensile stresses for two of the three most important modes of failure. Initial work was begun toward the development of a computer code to model transient fluiddynamic and thermodynamic conditions in complex air cleaning systems. Further investigation into the transmission of weak shock waves in air-cleaning system ductwork were carried out in branches of ducts with square cross-sections and with variable cross-sections. (orig./DG)

  13. Synchronization of intermittent behavior in ensembles of multistable dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Escoboza, R; Buldú, J M; Pisarchik, A N; Boccaletti, S; Gutiérrez, R

    2015-03-01

    We propose a methodology to analyze synchronization in an ensemble of diffusively coupled multistable systems. First, we study how two bidirectionally coupled multistable oscillators synchronize and demonstrate the high complexity of the basins of attraction of coexisting synchronous states. Then, we propose the use of the master stability function (MSF) for multistable systems to describe synchronizability, even during intermittent behavior, of a network of multistable oscillators, regardless of both the number of coupled oscillators and the interaction structure. In particular, we show that a network of multistable elements is synchronizable for a given range of topology spectra and coupling strengths, irrespective of specific attractor dynamics to which different oscillators are locked, and even in the presence of intermittency. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the MSF approach with a network of multistable electronic circuits.

  14. Reward bias and lateralization in gambling behavior: behavioral activation system and alpha band analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta; Canavesio, Ylenia; Messina, Rossella

    2014-11-30

    The present research explored the main factors that can influence subjects' choices in the case of decisions. In order to elucidate the individual differences that influence the decisional processes, making their strategies more or less advantageous, we tested the effect of a reward sensitivity in the behavioral activation system (BAS-Reward) constructed on the ability to distinguish between high- and low-risk decisions. Secondly, the lateralization effect, related to increased activation of the left (BAS-related) hemisphere, was explored. Thirty-one subjects were tested using the Iowa Gambling Task, and the BAS-Reward measure was applied to distinguish between high-BAS and low-BAS groups. Behavioral responses (gain/loss options) and alpha-band modulation were considered. It was found that high-BAS group increased their tendency to opt in favor of the immediate reward (loss strategy) rather than the long-term option (win strategy). Secondly, high-BAS subjects showed an increased left-hemisphere activation in response to losing (with immediate reward) choices in comparison with low-BAS subjects. A "reward bias" effect was supposed to explain both the bad strategy and the unbalanced hemispheric activation for high-BAS and more risk-taking subjects.

  15. A Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Global Mercury Observation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS Project includes a specific Work Package aimed at developing tools (i.e. databases, catalogs, services to collect GMOS datasets, harvest mercury databases, and offer services like search, view, and download spatial datasets from the GMOS portal (www.gmos.eu. The system will be developed under the framework of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE Directive and the Directive 2003/4/EC on public access to environmental information, which both aim to make relevant, harmonized, high-quality geographic information available to support the formulation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies and activities that have a direct or indirect impact on the environment. Three databases have been proposed (on emissions, field data and model results, and each will be equipped with state-of-the-art, open-source software to allow for the highest performance possible. Web-based user-interfaces and prototype applications will be developed to demonstrate the potential of blending different datasets from different servers for environmental assessment studies. Several services (i.e. catalog browsers, WMS and WCS services, web GIS services will be developed to facilitate data integration, data re-use, and data exchange within and beyond the GMOS project. Different types of measurement and model datasets provided by project partners and other sources will be integrated into PostgreSQL-PostGIS, harmonized by creating INSPIRE-compliant metadata and made available to a larger community of stakeholders, policy makers, scientists, and NGOs (as well as to other public and private institutions, as dictated by the Directive 2003/4/EC. Since interoperability is a central concept for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS, the Global Monitoring for Environmental and Security (GMES and the INSPIRE Directive, guidelines developed in these three frameworks will be

  16. A Multiagent Robotic System for In-Situ Modeling and Observation of Icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogle, R. A.; Howard, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ships that operate in polar regions continue to face the threat of floating ice sheets and icebergs generated from ice ablation processes. Systems have been implemented to track these threats, with varying degrees of success. We propose a definition of this tracking problem that re-casts it within a class of robotic, multiagent target observation problems. The focus in this new definition is on minimization of the time an initial contact for newly generated targets is obtained, as opposed to obtaining target contacts long after a target has been generated from a source. Focusing on the initial contact time provides for the ability to enact early countermeasures. A probabilistic model that can be computed in-situ by the robotic agents is presented for the target sources (e.g, iceberg calving regions), and methods of extracting information from that model are provided. Algorithms for computing costs associated with the model for reallocating robotic agents during an observation task and determining the behavior of the targets within the model are presented. The effectiveness of these solutions is demonstrated by comparison with an existing observation technique using simulation, and an implementation is provided for a real hardware system that models the type of system that would be required.

  17. Calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introduction to the calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems is given by studying two examples in the trinucleon system: (1) the elastic electron scattering charge form factor in configuration space and momentum space and (2) the two-body photodisintegration of 3H leading to a neutron-deuteron final state in a separable potential formalism. In the discussion of charge form factor calculations, a number of related topics are touched upon: the relation of structure in Psi to the properties of simple NN forces, the Faddeev and Schroedinger solution to the harmonic oscillator problem, the Rosenbluth formula for electron scattering from a spin-1/2 nuclear target (e.g., the proton or 3H), and the charge density operator. Formulae for 3He and 3H charge form factors in a central force approximation are given in configuration and momentum space. The physics of these form factors is discussed in light of results from realistic nucleon-nucleon potential model calculations, including the effects of two-pion-exchange three-body force models. Topics covered are the rms charge densities, and the Coulomb energy of 3He. In the discussion of the 3H photodisintegration, the Siegert form of the electric dipole operator (in the long wave length limit) is derived as are the separable potential equations which describe the off-shell transition amplitudes which connect nucleon-plus-corrected-pair states. Expressions for the Born amplitudes required to complete the two-body photodisintegration amplitude calculation are given. Numerical results for a model central force problem are discussed and compared with an approximate calculation. Comparisons with 3H(γ,n)d and 3He(γ,p)d data are made, and the significant features of the exact theoretical calculation are outlined. 61 refs., 26 figs

  18. Citation Behaviors Observed in Japanese EFL Students' Argumentative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko

    2014-01-01

    Effective use of outside source texts is one of the key components of successful academic writing. This study aims at clarifying Japanese university EFL students' citation behaviors in producing argumentative writing. Twenty-six Japanese university EFL students wrote an argumentative essay. Their essays were analyzed quantitatively by six…

  19. Comparison of Nerve Excitability Testing, Nerve Conduction Velocity, and Behavioral Observations for Acrylamide Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve excitability (NE) testing is a sensitive method to test for peripheral neurotoxicity in humans,and may be more sensitive than compound nerve action potential (CNAP) or nerve conduction velocity (NCV).We used acrylamide to compare the NE and CNAP/NCV methods. Behavioral test...

  20. Associations of group level popularity with observed behavior and influence in a dyadic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between popularity in the peer group and adolescents' behavior in a dyadic context. After collecting peer nominations for popularity, 218 early adolescents (Mage=11.0years) in 109 randomly composed same-sex dyads participated in a discussion task where they planne

  1. Electrochemical Behavior, Microstructural Analysis, and Morphological Observations in Reinforced Mortar Subjected to Chloride Ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Van breugel, K.; De Wit, J.H.W.; Van Westing, E.; Boshkov, N.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2007-01-01

    The behavior of steel reinforcement was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization resistance (PR) techniques in conditions of chloride-induced corrosion in ordinary Portland cement-mortar specimens immersed in 7% NaCl for a test period of 120 days and compared to sp

  2. USGEO National Earth Observation Assessment Methods for Evaluating the Relative Contributions of Earth Observing Systems to Societal Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, J.; Stryker, T.

    2015-12-01

    The second National Civil Earth Observation Assessment identifies the inputs and relative contributions of the portfolio of observing systems currently relied upon by Federal agencies to meet key Earth observing objectives. The Assessment employs a hierarchical value-tree framework that traces the pathways through which Earth observing systems contribute value across 13 societal benefit areas, utilizing multiple levels to provide logical traceability. This presentation describes the methods used to construct societal benefit area value-trees that include key objectives and the information products, services, and research derived from Earth observations that help satisfy them. It describes the methods for weighting nodes at multiple levels of each value-tree and the expert elicitation process for assessing the relative contributions of Earth observing systems to the development of information products, services, and research. The methodology employed in the Assessment is especially useful at assessing the interdependence and relative contributions of multiple Earth observing systems on the development of blended information products and tracing information pathways from direct observations through intermediate products, such as models, to end-products used to improve decision-making. This presentation will highlight case study examples from the 13 societal benefit areas (agriculture and forestry, biodiversity, climate, disasters, ecosystems, energy and mineral resources, human health, ocean and costal resources, space weather, transportation, water resources weather, and reference measurements) to demonstrate tractability from Earth observing systems, through information products and research that satisfy key objectives, to societal benefit.

  3. Housing system may affect behavior and growth performance of Jersey heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pempek, J A; Eastridge, M L; Swartzwelder, S S; Daniels, K M; Yohe, T T

    2016-01-01

    Social pressure is increasing to adopt alternative housing and management practices that allow farm animals more opportunity to exercise and demonstrate social behavior. The present study investigated the effect of pair housing on the behavior and growth performance of Jersey heifer calves. Forty female Jersey calves were allocated to individual or pair housing at birth and monitored for 9 wk. Calves were provided with a single hutch, and those allocated to the pair housing treatment were provided a pen enclosure twice the size of individually housed calves and only one hutch was provided per pair. All calves were fed milk replacer via bucket twice per day (1.89 L/feeding first 7 d; 2.27 L/feeding until weaned) and had ad libitum access to grain and water. Gradual weaning commenced on d 49 by reducing the calves' milk allowance to one feeding per day, and weaning occurred on d 56. Grain consumption was monitored daily and calves were weighed weekly. Direct behavioral observations were conducted twice per week. Calves housed in pairs tended to have greater average daily gain compared with calves housed individually (0.63 vs. 0.59 ± 0.02 kg/d, respectively). Pair housing also increased final body weight compared with individual housing (64.9 vs. 61.7 ± 0.59 kg, respectively). During observation periods, calves housed individually spent more time engaging in nonnutritive sucking than calves housed in pairs (21.5 vs. 8.15 ± 0.03% of total observations). Calves housed in pairs were observed cross sucking 13.5% of the time during observational periods. Although housing Jersey calves in pairs may increase measures of growth performance, future research should aim to reduce cross-sucking behavior within the Jersey breed through alternative feeding systems or environmental enrichment. PMID:26585485

  4. A low-cost, computer-controlled robotic flower system for behavioral experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusela, Erno; Lämsä, Juho

    2016-04-01

    Human observations during behavioral studies are expensive, time-consuming, and error prone. For this reason, automatization of experiments is highly desirable, as it reduces the risk of human errors and workload. The robotic system we developed is simple and cheap to build and handles feeding and data collection automatically. The system was built using mostly off-the-shelf components and has a novel feeding mechanism that uses servos to perform refill operations. We used the robotic system in two separate behavioral studies with bumblebees (Bombus terrestris): The system was used both for training of the bees and for the experimental data collection. The robotic system was reliable, with no flight in our studies failing due to a technical malfunction. The data recorded were easy to apply for further analysis. The software and the hardware design are open source. The development of cheap open-source prototyping platforms during the recent years has opened up many possibilities in designing of experiments. Automatization not only reduces workload, but also potentially allows experimental designs never done before, such as dynamic experiments, where the system responds to, for example, learning of the animal. We present a complete system with hardware and software, and it can be used as such in various experiments requiring feeders and collection of visitation data. Use of the system is not limited to any particular experimental setup or even species. PMID:27066245

  5. Big Data in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Baynes, Katie; McInerney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Approaches that are being pursued for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data system to address the challenges of Big Data were presented to the NASA Big Data Task Force. Cloud prototypes are underway to tackle the volume challenge of Big Data. However, advances in computer hardware or cloud won't help (much) with variety. Rather, interoperability standards, conventions, and community engagement are the key to addressing variety.

  6. The Influence of Observation Errors on Analysis Error and Forecast Skill Investigated with an Observing System Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prive, N. C.; Errico, R. M.; Tai, K.-S.

    2013-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework is used to explore the response of analysis error and forecast skill to observation quality. In an OSSE, synthetic observations may be created that have much smaller error than real observations, and precisely quantified error may be applied to these synthetic observations. Three experiments are performed in which synthetic observations with magnitudes of applied observation error that vary from zero to twice the estimated realistic error are ingested into the Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5) with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation for a one-month period representing July. The analysis increment and observation innovation are strongly impacted by observation error, with much larger variances for increased observation error. The analysis quality is degraded by increased observation error, but the change in root-mean-square error of the analysis state is small relative to the total analysis error. Surprisingly, in the 120 hour forecast increased observation error only yields a slight decline in forecast skill in the extratropics, and no discernable degradation of forecast skill in the tropics.

  7. Sensor system for Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2004-11-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is design to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from orbit. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  8. Antenna system characteristic and solar radio burst observation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sha; Chen, Zhijun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Spectral Radio Heliograph (CSRH) is an advanced aperture synthesis solar radio heliograph, developed by National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences independently. It consists of 100 reflector antennas, which are grouped into two antenna arrays (CSRH-I and CSRH-II) for low and high frequency bands respectively. The frequency band of CSRH-I is 0.4-2GHz and for CSRH-II, the frequency band is 2-15GHz. In the antenna and feed system, CSRH uses an Eleven feed to receive signals coming from the Sun, the radiation pattern with lower side lobe and back lobe of the feed is well radiated. The characteristics of gain G and antenna noise temperature T effect the quality of solar radio imaging. For CSRH, measured G is larger than 60 dBi and $ T $ is less than 120K, after CSRH-I was established, we have successfully captured a solar radio burst between 1.2-1.6GHz on November 12, 2010 through this instrument and this event was confirmed through the observation of Solar Broadband Radio Spectromete...

  9. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly-developed cosmic-ray method for measuring area-average soil moisture at the hectometer horizontal scale is being implemented in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or the COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil and other materials, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. The COSMOS has already deployed more than 50 of the eventual 500 cosmic-ray probes, distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in the COSMOS project, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  10. Synchronization transition of a coupled system composed of neurons with coexisting behaviors near a Hopf bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coexistence of a resting condition and period-1 firing near a subcritical Hopf bifurcation point, lying between the monostable resting condition and period-1 firing, is often observed in neurons of the central nervous systems. Near such a bifurcation point in the Morris—Lecar (ML) model, the attraction domain of the resting condition decreases while that of the coexisting period-1 firing increases as the bifurcation parameter value increases. With the increase of the coupling strength, and parameter and initial value dependent synchronization transition processes from non-synchronization to compete synchronization are simulated in two coupled ML neurons with coexisting behaviors: one neuron chosen as the resting condition and the other the coexisting period-1 firing. The complete synchronization is either a resting condition or period-1 firing dependent on the initial values of period-1 firing when the bifurcation parameter value is small or middle and is period-1 firing when the parameter value is large. As the bifurcation parameter value increases, the probability of the initial values of a period-1 firing neuron that lead to complete synchronization of period-1 firing increases, while that leading to complete synchronization of the resting condition decreases. It shows that the attraction domain of a coexisting behavior is larger, the probability of initial values leading to complete synchronization of this behavior is higher. The bifurcations of the coupled system are investigated and discussed. The results reveal the complex dynamics of synchronization behaviors of the coupled system composed of neurons with the coexisting resting condition and period-1 firing, and are helpful to further identify the dynamics of the spatiotemporal behaviors of the central nervous system. (general)

  11. Dynamic behavior of multirobot systems using lattice gas automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantz, Keith M.; Cameron, Stewart M.; Robinett, Rush D., III; Trahan, Michael W.; Wagner, John S.

    1999-07-01

    Recent attention has been given to the deployment of an adaptable sensor array realized by multi-robotic systems (or swarms). Our group has been studying the collective, autonomous behavior of these such systems and their applications in the area of remote-sensing and emerging threats. To accomplish such tasks, an interdisciplinary research effort at Sandia National Laboratories are conducting tests in the fields of sensor technology, robotics, and multi- agents architectures. Our goal is to coordinate a constellation of point sensors using unmanned robotic vehicles (e.g., RATLERs, Robotic All-Terrain Lunar Exploration Rover- class vehicles) that optimizes spatial coverage and multivariate signal analysis. An overall design methodology evolves complex collective behaviors realized through local interaction (kinetic) physics and artificial intelligence. Learning objectives incorporate real-time operational responses to environmental changes. This paper focuses on our recent work understanding the dynamics of many-body systems according to the physics-based hydrodynamic model of lattice gas automata. Three design features are investigated. One, for single-speed robots, a hexagonal nearest-neighbor interaction topology is necessary to preserve standard hydrodynamic flow. Two, adaptability, defined by the swarm's rate of deformation, can be controlled through the hydrodynamic viscosity term, which, in turn, is defined by the local robotic interaction rules. Three, due to the inherent nonlinearity of the dynamical equations describing large ensembles, stability criteria ensuring convergence to equilibrium states is developed by scaling information flow rates relative to a swarm's hydrodynamic flow rate. An initial test case simulates a swarm of twenty-five robots maneuvering past an obstacle while following a moving target. A genetic algorithm optimizes applied nearest-neighbor forces in each of five spatial regions distributed over the simulation domain. Armed with

  12. Eye Gaze Behavior at Turn Transition: How Aphasic Patients Process Speakers' Turns during Video Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisig, Basil C; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Zito, Giuseppe; Vanbellingen, Tim; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Gutbrod, Klemens; Nyffeler, Thomas; Cazzoli, Dario; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Müri, René M

    2016-10-01

    The human turn-taking system regulates the smooth and precise exchange of speaking turns during face-to-face interaction. Recent studies investigated the processing of ongoing turns during conversation by measuring the eye movements of noninvolved observers. The findings suggest that humans shift their gaze in anticipation to the next speaker before the start of the next turn. Moreover, there is evidence that the ability to timely detect turn transitions mainly relies on the lexico-syntactic content provided by the conversation. Consequently, patients with aphasia, who often experience deficits in both semantic and syntactic processing, might encounter difficulties to detect and timely shift their gaze at turn transitions. To test this assumption, we presented video vignettes of natural conversations to aphasic patients and healthy controls, while their eye movements were measured. The frequency and latency of event-related gaze shifts, with respect to the end of the current turn in the videos, were compared between the two groups. Our results suggest that, compared with healthy controls, aphasic patients have a reduced probability to shift their gaze at turn transitions but do not show significantly increased gaze shift latencies. In healthy controls, but not in aphasic patients, the probability to shift the gaze at turn transition was increased when the video content of the current turn had a higher lexico-syntactic complexity. Furthermore, the results from voxel-based lesion symptom mapping indicate that the association between lexico-syntactic complexity and gaze shift latency in aphasic patients is predicted by brain lesions located in the posterior branch of the left arcuate fasciculus. Higher lexico-syntactic processing demands seem to lead to a reduced gaze shift probability in aphasic patients. This finding may represent missed opportunities for patients to place their contributions during everyday conversation. PMID:27243612

  13. Observations of Oxygen Ion Behavior in the Lithium- Based Electrolytic Reduction of Uranium Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, S.D.; Li, S.X.; Serrano-Rodriguez, B.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Development of a lithium-based electrolytic reduction process to convert oxide fuel to metal is being pursued by various researchers to facilitate subsequent pyro-processing of the metalized fuel product. In such pursuits, uranium oxide particles are contacted by an electrically conductive material and immersed in a pool of LiCl-Li{sub 2}O at 650 deg. C. A controlled current is passed between the fuel particles (as the cathode) and a suitable anode to reduce the uranium oxide to metal at the cathode and to oxidize oxygen ions to gas at the anode. In this process, the effective liberation and transport of oxygen ions from the oxide fuel particles within a cathode structure to the anode is paramount to the viability of this process. Parametric studies were performed on a lithium-based electrolytic reduction process at bench-scale in an inert atmosphere glovebox to investigate the behavior of oxygen ions in the reduction of uranium oxide for various electrochemical cell configurations. Specifically, a series of eight electrolytic reduction runs in a common salt bath of LiCl - 1 wt% Li{sub 2}O was performed with varying applied charges (75 - 150% of theoretical) and fuel basket containment materials (stainless steel wire mesh and sintered stainless steel). Samples of the molten salt electrolyte were taken at regular intervals throughout each run and analyzed to produce a time plot of Li{sub 2}O concentrations in the bulk salt over the course of the runs. Following each run, the fuel basket was sectioned and the fuel was removed. Samples of the fuel were analyzed for the extent of uranium oxide reduction to metal and for the concentration of salt constituents, i.e., LiCl and Li{sub 2}O. Extents of uranium oxide reduction ranged from 35 - 70% in stainless steel wire mesh baskets and 8 - 33 % in sintered stainless steel baskets. The concentrations of Li{sub 2}O in the salt phase of the fuel product from the stainless steel wire mesh baskets ranged from 6.2 to 9.3%, while

  14. Study on the chaotic behavior of mining rock seepage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Shiwen; Xu Jinhai; Li Chong

    2011-01-01

    One dimensional non-steady,non-Darcy flow of water in a rock stratum was reduced into a system described by six ordinary differential equations involving five controlling parameters.Through response computations and time series analysis,chaotic behavior in the reduced system was discussed in details.Firstly,the dynamical response of the reduced system under a set of parameters was calculated,and the power spectrum of the attractor was obtained through fast Lagrangian transformation; then the phase space was reconstructed by fixing embedding dimension to be 6 and delay time to range from 1 to 20,and the correlation dimension of the attractor was calculated based on the curves under the coordinates of logarithm of correlation integral vs.logarithm of covering radius; and lastly,the Lyapunov indices of the attractor were calculated by using Gram-Schmit's orthogonalization method.The results show that the power spectrum of the attractor is continuous; the correlation dimension of the attractor is equal to 2.36; among the Lyapunov indices,LE1,LE2,LE3 are positive,LE5,LE6 are negative,and LE4 fluctuates near zero.All the analysis indicates that there may exist chaos in the system of non-steady,non-Darcy flow.

  15. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  16. Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gypsyamber D'Souza

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC. METHODS: This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10 who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69, and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. RESULTS: Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4% and women (83.2% had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001. 60-69 year olds (yo were less likely than 45-59 or 30-44 (yo to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001, although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03, and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96 were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8 and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1. In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. CONCLUSION: There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.

  17. Observing the reconnection region in a transequatorial loop system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Liu; Tong-Jiang Wang; Jeongwoo Lee; Guillermo Stenborg; Chang Liu; Sung-Hong Park; Hai-Min Wang

    2011-01-01

    A vertical current sheet is a crucial element in many flare/coronal mass ejection (CME) models.For the first time,Liu et al.reported a vertical current sheet directly imaged during the flare rising phase with the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO).As a follow-up study,here we present the comprehensive analysis and detailed physical interpretation of the observation.The current sheet formed due to the gradual rise of a transequatorial loop system.As the loop legs approached each other,plasma flew at ~6 km s-1 into a local area where a cusp-shaped flare loop subsequently formed and the current sheet was seen as a bright,collimated structure of global length (≥ 0.25 R(@)) and macroscopic width ((5-10)× 103 km),extending from 50 Mm above the flaring loop to the border of the EIT field of view (FOV).The reconnection rate in terms of the Alfvén Mach number is estimated to be only 0.005-0.009,albeit a halo CME was accelerated from ~ 400 km s- 1 to ~ 1300 km s- 1 within the coronagraph FOV.Drifting pulsating structures at metric frequencies were recorded during the impulsive phase,implying tearing of the current sheet in the high corona.A radio Type Ⅲ burst occurred when the current sheet was clearly seen in EUV,indicative of accelerated electrons beaming upward from the upper tip of the current sheet.A cusp-shaped dimming region was observed to be located above the post-flare arcade during the decay phase in EIT;both the arcade and the dimming expanded with time.With the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) aboard SOHO,a clear signature of chromospheric evaporation was seen during the decay phase,i.e.,the cusp-shaped dimming region was associated with plasma upflows detected with EUV hot emission lines,while the post-flare loop was associated with downflows detected with cold lines.This event provides a comprehensive view of the reconnection geometry and dynamics in the solar corona.

  18. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  19. The Core Services of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F. H.; Lauterjung, J.

    2013-12-01

    The ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was launched in November 2010 and has now completed its year 3 of the four-year preparatory phase. EPOS will create a single sustainable, permanent observation infrastructure, integrating existing geophysical monitoring networks, local observatories and experimental laboratories in Europe and adjacent regions. EPOS' technical Work Package 6 has developed a three layer architectural model for the construction of the EPOS Core Services (CS) during the subsequent implementation phase. The Poster will present and detail on these three layers, consisting of the EPOS Integrated Core Services (ICS), the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the existing National Research Infrastructures & Data Centers. The basic layer of the architecture is established by the National Research Infrastructures (RIs) & Data Centers, which generate data and information and are responsible for the operation of the instrumentation. National RIs will provide their data to the Thematic Cores Services. The Thematic Core Services constitute the community layer of EPOS architecture and they will: 1) consist of existing (e.g. ORFEUS, EMSC), developing (e.g. EUREF/GNSS) or still to be developed Service Providers for specific thematic communities, as represented within EPOS through the technical EPOS Working Groups (e.g., seismology, volcanology, geodesy, geology, analytic labs for rock physics, geomagnetism, geo-resources ... and many others), 2) provide data services to specific communities, 3) link the National Research Infrastructures to the EPOS Integrated Services, 4) include Service Providers (e.g. OneGeology+, Intermagnet) that may be merely linked or partially integrated and 5) consist of Integrated Laboratories and RIs spanning multiple EPOS disciplines and taking advantage of other existing Thematic Services. The EPOS Integrated Services constitute the ICT layer of the EPOS portal and they will: 1) provide access to multidisciplinary data

  20. Development of a Behavior Management Level System: A Comprehensive School-Wide Behavior Management Program for Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Mary E. Beuchert

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the Behavior Management Level System (BMLS), a model program for emotionally disturbed adolescents combining a token economy approach with a hierarchial system of levels which provides an objective standard for graduation from the system. Points are accumulated as immediate reinforcers and traded for tangible or social…

  1. Nonverbal Behavior Observation: Collaborative Gaming Method for Prediction of Conflicts during Long-term Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Voynarovskaya, Natalia; Gorbunov, Roman; Barakova, Emilia; Ahn, Rene; Rauterberg, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper presents a method for monitoring mental state of small isolated crews during long-term missions (such as space mission, polar expeditions, submarine crews, meteorological stations, and etc). It combines the records of negotiation game with monitoring of the nonverbal behavior of the players. We analyze the records of negotiation game that has taken place between the crew members who were placed in isolated environment for 105 days during the Mars-500 exper...

  2. GTOROTO: a simulation system for HTGR core seismic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important design of HTGR core is its aseismic structure. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the forces and motion of the core blocks. To meet the requirement, many efforts to develop analytical methods and computer programs are made. A graphic simulation system GTOROTO with a CRT graphic display and lightpen was developed to analyze the HTGR core behavior in seismic excitation. Feature of the GTOROTO are as follows: (1) Behavior of the block-type HTGR core during earthquake can be shown on the CRT-display. (2) Parameters of the computing scheme can be changed with the lightpen. (3) Routines of the computing scheme can be changed with the lightpen and an alteration switch. (4) Simulation pictures are shown automatically. Hardcopies are available by plotter in stopping the progress of simulation pictures. Graphic representation can be re-start with the predetermined program. (5) Graphic representation informations can be stored in assembly language on a disk for rapid representation. (6) A computer-generated cinema can be made by COM (Computer Output Microfilming) or filming directly the CRT pictures. These features in the GTOROTO are provided in on-line conversational mode. (author)

  3. Distribution behavior of superparamagnetic carbon nanotubes in an aqueous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue; Liu, Yuqi; Yu, Lu; Hua, Zulin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution behavior of superparamagnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SPM-MWCNTs) in an aqueous system containing Lake Tai sediment. Specifically, the effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and sediment on SPM-MWCNTs under various conditions and the interaction forms between them were evaluated through a modified mathematical model and characterization. The results showed that DOM can stabilize SPM-MWCNTs by providing sterically and electrostatically stable surfaces, even under high sodium concentrations. The fitting accuracy of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm is higher than that of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Therefore, the adsorption of SPM-MWCNT on the sediment should proceed through a multiple, complex and heterogeneous adsorption mechanism. Characterization analyses indicated that DOM may serve as a bridge for the inorganic adsorption between SPM-MWCNTs and sediment. This study is the first to investigate the distribution behavior of magnetite coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which simplified the separation and quantification considerably. The findings of this study will serve as a valuable reference for future studies of magnetic CNTs. PMID:27599569

  4. Impact protection behavior of a mordenite zeolite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Hu, R.; Chen, X.; Hu, D.

    2016-05-01

    By combining zeolite with water, a novel nanocomposite may exhibit extraordinary capability of energy absorption and impact mitigation. The multiple size of zeolite may lead to simultaneous yet different infiltration behaviors of water molecules, and thus multi-staged energy mitigation characteristics (which may benefit the scope of application). In this study, we investigate the dynamic infiltration behavior of water into mordenite zeolite (MOR) using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Thanks to its hydrophobicity and multi pore-sized structure, the MOR system has a decent energy mitigation performance upon high impact speed. Parametric studies are carried out to investigate the effects of various parameters, including the impact speed, mass, and water/zeolite ratio, on energy mitigating characteristics. The MOR/water mixture may perform better at a higher impact energy with higher MOR zeolite-water ratio. Upon unloading, the defiltration of water molecules is faster and more complete at higher impact speed. Results may guide the design and application of the energy mitigation nanosystem.

  5. Intrinsic Multi-Scale Dynamic Behaviors of Complex Financial Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yan Ouyang

    Full Text Available The empirical mode decomposition is applied to analyze the intrinsic multi-scale dynamic behaviors of complex financial systems. In this approach, the time series of the price returns of each stock is decomposed into a small number of intrinsic mode functions, which represent the price motion from high frequency to low frequency. These intrinsic mode functions are then grouped into three modes, i.e., the fast mode, medium mode and slow mode. The probability distribution of returns and auto-correlation of volatilities for the fast and medium modes exhibit similar behaviors as those of the full time series, i.e., these characteristics are rather robust in multi time scale. However, the cross-correlation between individual stocks and the return-volatility correlation are time scale dependent. The structure of business sectors is mainly governed by the fast mode when returns are sampled at a couple of days, while by the medium mode when returns are sampled at dozens of days. More importantly, the leverage and anti-leverage effects are dominated by the medium mode.

  6. The Relationship between Behavioral Activation/ Inhibition Systems (BAS/BIS and Bullying/ Victimization Behaviors among Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Basharpoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This research was conducted to investigate the relationship between behavioral activation-inhibition systems and bullyingvictimization behaviors among adolescents.Method:This was a correlational and cross-sectional study. Two hundred and thirty school boys were selected randomly by multistage cluster sampling method, and participated in this research. This sample responded to a demographic questionnaire, the Revised Olweus Bully/ Victim questionnaire and the child version of behavioral inhibition/activation systems Scale in their classrooms and in the presence of the researcher. The collected data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and multiple regressions. Result:The results showed that bullying and victimization were correlated with both behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition systems (p<0.01. The results also showed that 18% of the variance in victimization and 31 % of the variance in bullying were explained by behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation systems respectively .Conclusion:The results of this study implied that BAS and BIS may play a role in the manifestation of bullying in adolescents.

  7. Extending image processing strain measurement system to evaluate fracture behavior of wall-thinned pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → An image processing strain measurement system was proposed. → The system can measure (1) out-of-plane deformation and (2) large strain. → System was applied to wall-thinned pipe (WTP) burst test, which bulging is observed. → System was effective for understanding the unexpected burst location in a WTP. - Abstract: In this paper, an image processing strain measurement system was extended so that fracture behavior of wall-thinned pipes, such as out of plane and large plastic deformation observed in bulging, can be evaluated by the system. Regular grids with nominal size of 10 mm x 10 mm were marked on 100A carbon steel pipes and the images taken with 6 CCD cameras of 15 million pixels were correlated to achieve resolution of 0.3% strain. Strain of the cylinder's outer surface was evaluated by (1) modeling the grids as a cylindrical shell, (2) measuring deformation of the grid on a projected plane, and (3) applying an updated Lagrangian method. The validity of the system was confirmed by applying the proposed system to the burst tests of a wall-thinned cylinder. In addition, the system measured the non-uniform strain distribution that explained the unexpected cracking location.

  8. Observing the observers - uncovering the role of values in research assessments of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hermansen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the overall effects of organic food systems is important, but also a challenge because organic food systems cannot be fully assessed from one single research perspective. The aim of our research was to determine the role of values in assessments of organic food systems as a basis...... for discussing the implications of combining multiple perspectives in overall sustainability assessments of the food system. We explored how values were embedded in five research perspectives: (1) food science, (2) discourse analysis, (3) phenomenology, (4) neoclassical welfare economics, and (5) actor......-network theory. Value has various meanings according to different scientific perspectives. A strategy for including and balancing different forms of knowledge in overall assessments of the effects of food systems is needed. Based on the analysis, we recommend four courses of action: (1) elucidate values...

  9. Observing System Simulations for Small Satellite Formations Estimating Bidirectional Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; de Weck, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: Use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  10. The Demonstrator for the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F.; Ulbricht, D.; Lauterjung, J.; Bailo, D.; Jeffery, K. G.

    2014-12-01

    An important outcome of the 4-year Preparatory Phase of the ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was the development and first implementation of the EPOS Demonstrator by the project's ICT Working Group 7. The Demonstrator implements the vertical integration of the three-layer architectural scheme for EPOS, connecting the Integrated Core Services (ICS), Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the National Research Infrastructures (NRI). The demonstrator provides a single GUI with central key discovery and query functionalities, based on already existing services by the seismic, geologic and geodetic communities. More specifically the seismic services of the Demonstrator utilize webservices and APIs for data and discovery of raw seismic data (FDSN webservices by the EIDA Network), events (Geoportal by EMSC) and analytical data products (e.g., hazard maps by EFEHR via OGC WMS). For geologic services, the EPOS Demonstrator accesses OneGeology Europe which serves the community with geologic maps and point information via OGC webservices. The Demonstrator also provides access to raw geodetic data via a newly developed universal tool called GSAC. The Demonstrator itself resembles the future Integrated Core Service (ICS) and provides direct access to the end user. Its core functionality lies in a metadata catalogue, which serves as the central information hub and stores information about all RIs, related persons, projects, financial background and technical access information. The database schema of the catalogue is based on CERIF, which has been slightly adapted. Currently, the portal provides basic query functions as well as cross domain search. [www.epos.cineca.it

  11. You are so kind – and I am kind and smart: Actor – Observer Differences in the Interpretation of On-going Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abele Andrea E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : The dual perspective model of agency and communion predicts that observers tend to interpret a target’s behavior more in terms of communion than agency, whereas actors interpret their behavior more in terms of agency. The present research for the first time tests this model in real interactions. Previously unacquainted participants had a short conversation and afterwards rated their own behavior (actor perspective and their interaction partner’s behavior (observer perspective in terms of agency(self-confident, assertive and communion(trustworthy, empathic. Supporting the dual perspective model, observers rated the actor’s behavior higher on communion than on agency, and higher on communion than actors themselves did. Findings for actors were more complex: Actors rated their own behavior as more agentic than observers did. However, they also rated their behavior high on communion. We discuss implications for the dual perspective model as well as for (misunderstandings in social interactions.

  12. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent inter-rater and test-retest reliability and shows convergent validity with measures of language and communication skills. The BOSCC Core total demonstrates statistically significant amounts of change over time compared to a no change alternative while the ADOS CSS over the same period of time did not. This work is a first step in the development of a novel outcome measure for social-communication behaviors with applications to clinical trials and longitudinal studies. PMID:27062034

  13. A Conceptual Framework for Assessment of the Benefits of a Global Earth Observation System of Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, S.; Scholes, R. J.; Obersteiner, M.; Bouma, J.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is to contribute to human wellbeing though improving the information available to decision-makers at all levels relating to human health and safety, protection of the global environment, the reduction of losses from natural disasters, and achieving sustainable development. Specifically, GEOSS proposes that better international co-operation in the collection, interpretation and sharing of Earth Observation information is an important and cost-effective mechanism for achieving this aim. While there is a widespread intuition that this proposition is correct, at some point the following question needs to be answered: how much additional investment in Earth Observation (and specifically, in its international integration) is enough? This leads directly to some challenging subsidiary questions, such as how can the benefits of Earth Observation be assessed? What are the incremental costs of GEOSS? Are there societal benefit areas where the return on investment is higher than in others? The Geo-Bene project has developed a `benefit chain' concept as a framework for addressing these questions. The basic idea is that an incremental improvement in the observing system (including its data collection, interpretation and information-sharing aspects) will result in an improvement in the quality of decisions based on that information. This will in turn lead to better societal outcomes, which have a value. This incremental value must be judged against the incremental cost of the improved observation system. Since in many cases there will be large uncertainties in the estimation of both the costs and the benefits, and it may not be possible to express one or both of them in monetary terms, we show how order-of-magnitude approaches and a qualitative understanding of the shape of the cost-benefit curves can help guide rational investment decision in Earth Observation systems.

  14. Behavioral Assessment of the Aging Mouse Vestibular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Victoria W. K.; Burton, Thomas J.; Dababneh, Edward; Quail, Stephanie L.; Camp, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    Age related decline in balance performance is associated with deteriorating muscle strength, motor coordination and vestibular function. While a number of studies show changes in balance phenotype with age in rodents, very few isolate the vestibular contribution to balance under either normal conditions or during senescence. We use two standard behavioral tests to characterize the balance performance of mice at defined age points over the lifespan: the rotarod test and the inclined balance beam test. Importantly though, a custom built rotator is also used to stimulate the vestibular system of mice (without inducing overt signs of motion sickness). These two tests have been used to show that changes in vestibular mediated-balance performance are present over the murine lifespan. Preliminary results show that both the rotarod test and the modified balance beam test can be used to identify changes in balance performance during aging as an alternative to more difficult and invasive techniques such as vestibulo-ocular (VOR) measurements. PMID:25045963

  15. Manifestations of Personality in Online Social Networks: Self-Reported Facebook-Related Behaviors and Observable Profile Information

    OpenAIRE

    Gosling, Samuel D.; Augustine, Adam A; Vazire, Simine; Holtzman, Nicholas; Gaddis, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Despite the enormous popularity of Online Social Networking sites (OSNs; e.g., Facebook and Myspace), little research in psychology has been done on them. Two studies examining how personality is reflected in OSNs revealed several connections between the Big Five personality traits and self-reported Facebook-related behaviors and observable profile information. For example, extraversion predicted not only frequency of Facebook usage (Study 1), but also engagement in the site, with extraverts ...

  16. Observations of Warm Water in Young Solar-System Analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm

    of water vapor in Earth’s atmosphere. Many of the lines that are observable from the ground are masing in star forming regions, making it hard to deduce abundances. The few lines that are observable, and shown not be masing are isotopologues, like HDO and D2O, making the estimates of the main isotopologue...... form of water difficult. A solution to this has been to send up space based observatories, which observe outside of the atmosphere free from disturbances. These observations are, because of the small telescope sizes, of low resolution, making it hard to separate the different source components...

  17. Towards An Oceanographic Component Of A Global Earth Observation System Of Systems: Progress And Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleson, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean observatories (systems of coordinated sensors and platforms providing real-time in situ observations across multiple temporal and spatial scales) have advanced rapidly during the past several decades with the integration of novel hardware, development of advanced cyber-infrastructures and data management software, and the formation of researcher networks employing fixed, drifting, and mobile assets. These advances have provided persistent, real-time, multi-disciplinary observations representing even the most extreme environmental conditions, enabled unique and informative views of complicated ocean processes, and aided in the development of more accurate and higher fidelity ocean models. Combined with traditional ship-based and remotely sensed observations, ocean observatories have yielded new knowledge across a broad spectrum of earth-ocean scales that would likely not exist otherwise. These developments come at a critical time in human history when the demands of global population growth are creating unprecedented societal challenges associated with rapid climatic change and unsustainable consumption of key ocean resources. Successfully meeting and overcoming these challenges and avoiding the ultimate tragedy of the commons will require greater knowledge of environmental processes than currently exists, including interactions between the ocean, the overlying atmosphere, and the adjacent land and synthesizing new knowledge into effective policy and management structures. To achieve this, researchers must have free and ready access to comprehensive data streams (oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial), regardless of location and collection system. While the precedent for the concept of free and open access to environmental data is not new (it traces back to the International Geophysical Year, 1957), implementing procedures and standards on a global scale is proving to be difficult, both logistically and politically. Observatories have been implemented in many

  18. Global dynamical behaviors in a physical shallow water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchakoutio Nguetcho, Aurélien Serge; Li, Jibin; Bilbault, Jean-Marie

    2016-07-01

    The theory of bifurcations of dynamical systems is used to investigate the behavior of travelling wave solutions in an entire family of shallow water wave equations. This family is obtained by a perturbative asymptotic expansion for unidirectional shallow water waves. According to the parameters of the system, this family can lead to different sets of known equations such as Camassa-Holm, Korteweg-de Vries, Degasperis and Procesi and several other dispersive equations of the third order. Looking for possible travelling wave solutions, we show that different phase orbits in some regions of parametric planes are similar to those obtained with the model of the pressure waves studied by Li and Chen. Many other exact explicit travelling waves solutions are derived as well, some of them being in perfect agreement with solutions obtained in previous works by researchers using different methods. When parameters are varied, the conditions under which the above solutions appear are also shown. The dynamics of singular nonlinear travelling system is completely determined for each of the above mentioned equations. Moreover, we define sufficient conditions leading to the existence of propagating wave solutions and demonstrate how and why travelling waves lose their smoothness and develop into solutions with compact support or breaking waves.

  19. InSAR observations and modeling of plate behavior involved in the eastern Anatolia deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalié, Olivier; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2013-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean area is a zone of complex tectonics associated with interactions between three major plates, Eurasia, Africa, and Arabia, as well as the smaller Anatolian plate. The collision of Arabia into Eurasia in eastern Turkey, the Caucasus and the Zagros and a westward movement of the Anatolian plate dominate the deformation in this region. Major right-lateral transform motion along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and a left-lateral transform motion along the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) result from this setting. In this study, we focus on the deformation of the eastern part of Anatolia, around the triple junction where the EAF and the NAF meet. We use InSAR data to obtain higher spatial resolution of the deformation than is currently available by GPS. In particular, we are interested in mapping in details of how the Anatolian plate behaves at the triple junction where it is clamped between Arabia and Eurasia. For this purpose, we used SAR data from three adjacent descending tracks and two ascending tracks of the Envisat archive, which at this location includes about 30 acquisitions for each descending track, but only about 10 images for the ascending tracks. The main limitation of using InSAR in this region is phase decorrelation due to temporal changes of the ground scattering, in particular due to winter snow cover. To reduce the phase coherence loss, we adopt a small baseline approach in limiting both the spatial and temporal baseline of the interferograms, and we also exclude images acquired in winter. Moreover, we correct produced interferograms for the stratified part of the atmospheric delay using the global atmospheric model, ECMWF. Corrected interferograms are then combined together to infer the time series of the ground surface displacement via a least square method. In order to model the Anatolian plate movement, we assume a constant velocity during the observation period. We use an interseismic back-slip model in a homogeneous, elastic

  20. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess: A Pilot Study Using GPS, Accelerometer, Participant Observation, and Go-Along Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups were predominantly staying in three different locations during recess: school building, schoolyard and field, respectively. Mostly girls were in the building remaining in there because of a perceived lack of attractive outdoor play facilities. The children in the schoolyard were predominantly girls who preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children's physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future interventions in the school environment. PMID:26859288

  1. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess: A Pilot Study Using GPS, Accelerometer, Participant Observation, and Go-Along Interview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Skau Pawlowski

    Full Text Available Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt, sixteen children participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups were predominantly staying in three different locations during recess: school building, schoolyard and field, respectively. Mostly girls were in the building remaining in there because of a perceived lack of attractive outdoor play facilities. The children in the schoolyard were predominantly girls who preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children's physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future interventions in the school environment.

  2. Contrasting behavior in octupole structures observed at high spin in 220Ra and 222Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternating-parity states connected by strong E1 transitions, characteristic of a reflection-asymmetric rotor, have been observed to high spins in the isotones 220Ra and 222Th. This level structure is observed up to Jπ=29-(31-) in 220Ra while it cannot be seen beyond J+=24+(25-) in 222Th. These observations are consistent with Woods-Saxon-Bogolyubov cranking calculations which predict that the yrast band of 222Th will undergo a shape transition at J=24ℎ, in contrast to that of 220Ra which maintains its reflection asymmetry to higher spins

  3. Mesoscale climate hydrology: Earth Observation System - definition phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of airborne and space observations to map surface heat fluxes and soil water content at heterogeneous land surfaces was studied. Algorithms to estimate evaporation fluxes with satellite observations were evaluated against measurements. Spatialcorrelation lengths were studied with estimated m

  4. Mesoscale climate hydrology: Earth Observation System - definition phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The use of airborne and space observations to map surface heat fluxes and soil water content at heterogeneous land surfaces was studied. Algorithms to estimate evaporation fluxes with satellite observations were evaluated against measurements. Spatialcorrelation lengths were studied with estimated m

  5. Behavioral factors to include in guidelines for lifelong oral healthiness: an observational study in Japanese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozato Miho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR

  6. 75 FR 4101 - Enterprise Income Verification (EIV) System User Access Authorization Form and Rules of Behavior...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... of Behavior and User Agreement AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice... (EIV) System User Access, Authorization Form and Rules Of Behavior and User Agreement. OMB...

  7. The Montana Behavioral Initiative: Student Results and System Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude, Harvey; Bailey-Anderson, Susan; Dotter, Susan

    The Montana Behavioral Initiative (MBI) was developed in 1995 in response to increased incidents of student behavior problems. The intent of MBI is to improve educational environments to meet the needs of all students, including those with behavioral challenges. Each participating school conducts needs assessments and develops site-specific goals…

  8. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  9. Electron microscopy observations of surface morphologies and particle arrangement behaviors of magnetic fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈辉; 徐雪青; 王伟

    2003-01-01

    The surface morphology of quasi-periodic stripe-shaped patterns of magnetite fluids was observed in applied perpendicular magnetic fields by means of scanning electron microscopy. The nanoparticles of the magnetite fluids are arranged in oriental quasilinear chains in applied perpendicular magnetic fields as observed using transmission electron microscopy. This arrangement results from particle-particle interactions and particle-carrier liquids interactions, which are eventually controlled by the magnetic fields distribution.

  10. Satellite Altimetry for a Global Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng

    2000-01-01

    Space-age technologies have made satellite remote sensing a powerful new tool to study the Earth on a global scale. However, the opacity of the ocean to electromagnetic sensing has limited spaceborne measurements to the properties of the surface layer of the ocean (such as sea surface temperature and color). The radar altimetric measurement of the height of the sea surface relative to the geoid, the dynamic topography of the ocean, is a very useful quantity for studying the circulation of the ocean. The ability of measuring dynamic topography from space makes satellite altimetry a uniquely useful remote sensing technique because dynamic topography reflects oceanic processes not only at the surface but at depths as well. A simple analysis shows that a one centimeter tilt in the dynamic topography is associated with a mass transport of 1-7 Sv (1Sv= 1 million tons per second) in the open ocean depending on the vertical distribution of current velocity. Such a magnitude is an appreciable fraction of the transport of the Florida Current (circa 30 Sv), for instance. TOPEX/POSEIDON has demonstrated the capability of measuring the time variation of sea level with accuracy approaching to 2 cm when the data are averaged over boxes with several hundred kilometers on each side. The data set has been used for studying ocean circulation phenomena with a wide range of scales, ranging from fast-changing barotropic variability to seasonal and interannual variability such as El Nino and La Nina. The long record of precise measurement of global sea level has also showed great promise for monitoring the variation of mean sea level, an effective indicator of global climate change. Continuation of satellite altimetry missions with capability matching or better than that of TOPEX/POSEIDON should be included as a key component of a Global Ocean Observing System. NASA and CNES have committed to continuing the measurement of TOPEX/POSEIDON with a series of follow-on missions called Jason

  11. Observer-based H-infinity output feedback control with feedback gain and observer gain variations for Delta operator system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiquan LIN; Fuwen YANG; Renchong PENG

    2009-01-01

    Considering that the controller feedback gain and the observer gain are of additive norm-bounded variations, a design method of observer-based H-infinity output feedback controller for uncertain Delta operator systems is proposed in this paper. A sufficient condition of such controllers is presented in linear matrix inequality (LMI) forms. A numerical example is then given to illustrate the effectiveness of this method, that is, the obtained controller guarantees the closed-loop system asymptotically stable and the expected H-infinity performance even if the controller feedback gain and the observer gain are varied.

  12. Statistical Treatment of Earth Observing System Pyroshock Separation Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.

    1998-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 spacecraft for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth is scheduled to be launched on an Atlas IIAS vehicle in June of 1998. One concern is that the instruments on the EOS spacecraft are sensitive to the shock-induced vibration produced when the spacecraft separates from the launch vehicle. By employing unique statistical analysis to the available ground test shock data, the NASA Lewis Research Center found that shock-induced vibrations would not be as great as the previously specified levels of Lockheed Martin. The EOS pyroshock separation testing, which was completed in 1997, produced a large quantity of accelerometer data to characterize the shock response levels at the launch vehicle/spacecraft interface. Thirteen pyroshock separation firings of the EOS and payload adapter configuration yielded 78 total measurements at the interface. The multiple firings were necessary to qualify the newly developed Lockheed Martin six-hardpoint separation system. Because of the unusually large amount of data acquired, Lewis developed a statistical methodology to predict the maximum expected shock levels at the interface between the EOS spacecraft and the launch vehicle. Then, this methodology, which is based on six shear plate accelerometer measurements per test firing at the spacecraft/launch vehicle interface, was used to determine the shock endurance specification for EOS. Each pyroshock separation test of the EOS spacecraft simulator produced its own set of interface accelerometer data. Probability distributions, histograms, the median, and higher order moments (skew and kurtosis) were analyzed. The data were found to be lognormally distributed, which is consistent with NASA pyroshock standards. Each set of lognormally transformed test data produced was analyzed to determine if the data should be combined statistically. Statistical testing of the data's standard deviations and means (F and t testing, respectively) determined if data sets were

  13. On the Anelastic Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings: Observations, Characterizations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Gopal

    Plasma sprayed ceramic materials contain an assortment of microstructural defects, including pores, cracks, and interfaces arising from the droplet based assemblage of the spray deposition technique. The defective architecture of the deposits introduces a novel "anelastic" response in the coatings comprising of their non-linear and hysteretic stress-strain relationship under mechanical loading. It has been established that this anelasticity can be attributed to the relative movement of the embedded defects under varying stresses; while the non-linear response of the coatings arises from the opening/closure of defects, hysteresis is produced by the frictional sliding among defect surfaces. Recent studies have indicated that anelastic behavior of coatings can be a unique descriptor of their mechanical behavior and related to the defect configuration. In this dissertation, a multi-variable study employing systematic processing strategies was conducted to augment the understanding on various aspects of the reported anelastic behavior. Enhancements to bi-layer curvature measurement technique allowed for reliable and repeatable quantification of the anelastic response, enabling extraction of three anelastic parameters; elastic modulus, non-linear degree and hysteresis degree. This allowed for further exploration of the process space enabling controlled introduction of anelasticity in thermal sprayed ceramic coatings. This dissertation reports on these findings by first describing the experimental advancements in bilayer curvature measurements via thermal cycling of a coated beam. This experimental development allowed assessment of sensitivity and repeatability of the obtained anelastic parameters to varying microstructures imposed by processing excursions. Subsequently, controlled modification of anelasticity was achieved through material and process parameters as well as through extrinsic modification of the defects within the microstructure. The results suggest that

  14. In vivo behavior of NTBI revealed by automated quantification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Satoshi; Ikuta, Katsuya; Kato, Daisuke; Lynda, Addo; Shibusa, Kotoe; Niizeki, Noriyasu; Toki, Yasumichi; Hatayama, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Masayo; Shindo, Motohiro; Iizuka, Naomi; Kohgo, Yutaka; Fujiya, Mikihiro

    2016-08-01

    Non-Tf-bound iron (NTBI), which appears in serum in iron overload, is thought to contribute to organ damage; the monitoring of serum NTBI levels may therefore be clinically useful in iron-overloaded patients. However, NTBI quantification methods remain complex, limiting their use in clinical practice. To overcome the technical difficulties often encountered, we recently developed a novel automated NTBI quantification system capable of measuring large numbers of samples. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo behavior of NTBI in human and animal serum using this newly established automated system. Average NTBI in healthy volunteers was 0.44 ± 0.076 μM (median 0.45 μM, range 0.28-0.66 μM), with no significant difference between sexes. Additionally, serum NTBI rapidly increased after iron loading, followed by a sudden disappearance. NTBI levels also decreased in inflammation. The results indicate that NTBI is a unique marker of iron metabolism, unlike other markers of iron metabolism, such as serum ferritin. Our new automated NTBI quantification method may help to reveal the clinical significance of NTBI and contribute to our understanding of iron overload. PMID:27086349

  15. Internal Behavioral Modeling of Embedded Systems through State Box Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chandra Prakash

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Clean Room Software Engineering (CRSE methodology is intended for the development of high quality systems. The methodology is centered on three structures which include Black Box (BB, State Box (SB and Clear Box (CB and it assures high quality through implementation of Verification and Validation models at every stage of development. The models, suggested earlier, are built using the Mathematics for implementing the formalism which is needed to assure high quality. The mathematical way of implementing the formalism has been proved to be complex, unwieldy and impracticable. The Verification and Validation methods suggested are classical and do not support formalism which is the key element of CRSE. In this paper, three UML models and the associated algorithms have been proposed that help developing state box structures in more formal way and also to automate the process of generating State Box Structures. The refined CRSE model incorporating the suggested models is also presented. The models are used to develop the internal behavior of a Pilot Project called “Temperature Monitoring and Controlling of Nuclear Reactor System” (TMCNRS which is an embedded system designed in more formal and automated way.

  16. Stability of linear switched systems with quadratic bounds and Observability of bilinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Balde, Moussa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give sufficient conditions for a switched linear system defined by a pair of Hurwitz matrices that share a common but not strict quadratic Lyapunov function to be GUAS. We show that this property is equivalent to the uniform observability of a bilinear system defined on a subspace whose dimension is in most cases much smaller than the dimension of the switched system. Some sufficient conditions of uniform asymptotic stability are then deduced from the equivalence theorem, and illustrated by examples.

  17. PRUB: A Privacy Protection Friend Recommendation System Based on User Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast developing social network is a double-edged sword. It remains a serious problem to provide users with excellent mobile social network services as well as protecting privacy data. Most popular social applications utilize behavior of users to build connection with people having similar behavior, thus improving user experience. However, many users do not want to share their certain behavioral information to the recommendation system. In this paper, we aim to design a secure friend recommendation system based on the user behavior, called PRUB. The system proposed aims at achieving fine-grained recommendation to friends who share some same characteristics without exposing the actual user behavior. We utilized the anonymous data from a Chinese ISP, which records the user browsing behavior, for 3 months to test our system. The experiment result shows that our system can achieve a remarkable recommendation goal and, at the same time, protect the privacy of the user behavior information.

  18. Phase behavior of ternary mannosylerythritol lipid/water/oil systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worakitkanchanakul, Wannasiri; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Chavadej, Sumaeth; Minamikawa, Hiroyuki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-02-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants (BS) abundantly produced from renewable resources by yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. In this study, the ternary phase behaviors of two types of MELs, i.e. MEL-A and MEL-B, mixed with water and oil were investigated at 25 degrees C based on polarized optical microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). When n-decane was used as an oil phase, diacetylated MEL-A formed single-phase water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion in a remarkably large region. MEL-A, with a negative spontaneous curvature, also formed sponge (L(3)), reverse bicontinuous cubic (V(2)), and lamellar (L(alpha)) phases. Meanwhile, monoacetylated MEL-B, with the opposite configuration of the erythritol moiety, gave single-phase bicontinuous microemulsion and showed a triangular phase diagram dominated by the L(alpha) phase, suggesting that MEL-B has an almost zero spontaneous curvature. Moreover, we succeeded in preparation of oil-in-liquid crystal (O/LC) emulsion in the biphasic L(alpha)+O region of the MEL-B/water/n-decane system. The obtained gel-like emulsion was stable for at least 1 month. These results clearly demonstrated that the difference in the number of acetyl group on the headgroup and/or the chirality of the erythritol moiety drastically changed the phase behavior of MELs. Accordingly, these MELs would be quite distinctive from conventional BS hitherto reported, and would have great potential for the preparation of microemulsion and LC-based emulsion. PMID:19070997

  19. Observability-based sampling and estimation of flowfields using multi-sensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Levi D.

    The long-term goal of this research is to optimize estimation of an unknown flowfield using an autonomous multi-vehicle or multi-sensor system. The specific research objective is to provide theoretically justified, nonlinear control, estimation, and optimization techniques enabling a group of sensors to coordinate their motion to target measurements that improve observability of the surrounding environment, even when the environment is unknown. Measures of observability provide an optimization metric for multi-agent control algorithms that avoid spatial regions of the domain prone to degraded or ill-conditioned estimation performance, thereby improving closed-loop control performance when estimated quantities are used in feedback control. The control, estimation, and optimization framework is applied to three applications of multi-agent flowfield sensing including (1) environmental sampling of strong flowfields using multiple autonomous unmanned vehicles, (2) wake sensing and observability-based optimal control for two-aircraft formation flight, and (3) bio-inspired flow sensing and control of an autonomous unmanned underwater vehicle. For environmental sampling, this dissertation presents an adaptive sampling algorithm steering a multi-vehicle system to sampling formations that improve flowfield observability while simultaneously estimating the flow for use in feedback control, even in strong flows where vehicle motion is hindered. The resulting closed-loop trajectories provide more informative measurements, improving estimation performance. For formation flight, this dissertation uses lifting-line theory to represent a two-aircraft formation and derives optimal control strategies steering the follower aircraft to a desired position relative to the leader while simultaneously optimizing the observability of the leader's relative position. The control algorithms guide the follower aircraft to a desired final position along trajectories that maintain adequate

  20. PHASE TRANSFORMATION BEHAVIOR AND MICROSTRUCTURE OBSERVATION OF Nb-Ru HIGH TEMPERATURE SHAPE MEMORY ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. Gao; Y.F. Zheng; W. Cai; L.C. Zhao

    2003-01-01

    The phase transformation behavior and microstructure of Nb-Ru alloys have been studied by DSC, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). Two-step phase transformation of CsCl (β)→face-centered tetragonal (β')→monoclinic (β") occurs during cooling from high temperature to room temperature. The lattice parameters of martensites of Nb-Ru alloys were found to increase with the increase of Nb content. The martensite variants exhibit triangular self-accommodating morphology, with alternating regular bands inside. The twinning relationship between the substructural bands was found to be (101) type I mode, and this kind of twinning interface was straight, well-defined and coherent.

  1. Impurity behaviors in carbon allotropes observed by the time-differential perturbed angular correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) method is a nuclear spectroscopy that can provide information on the electromagnetic moments of probe nuclei and/or local fields in matter through hyperfine interactions between the probe and extranuclear fields. In this report are presented TDPAC studies on the dynamic behaviors and electronic states of the 140Ce probe introduced in carbon allotropes-fullerenes, graphite, and diamond. Apart from these works, we have developed a new probe 19F making use of a short-lived secondary beam of 19O for a wider application of this spectroscopy to materials science. The new online TDPAC method with the 19F (←19O) probe is also presented here. (author)

  2. Estimating Value of Congestion and of Reliability from Observation of Route Choice Behavior of Car Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a consensus has been reached about the relevance of calculating the value of congestion and the value of reliability for better understanding and therefore better prediction of travel behavior. The current study proposed a revealed preference approach that used a large amount...... both congestion and reliability terms. Results illustrated that the value of time and the value of congestion were significantly higher in the peak period because of possible higher penalties for drivers being late and consequently possible higher time pressure. Moreover, results showed...... that the marginal rate of substitution between travel time reliability and total travel time did not vary across periods and traffic conditions, with the obvious caveat that the absolute values were significantly higher for the peak period. Last, results showed the immense potential of exploiting the growing...

  3. Exploring behaviors of stochastic differential equation models of biological systems using change of measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Sumit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE are often used to model the stochastic dynamics of biological systems. Unfortunately, rare but biologically interesting behaviors (e.g., oncogenesis can be difficult to observe in stochastic models. Consequently, the analysis of behaviors of SDE models using numerical simulations can be challenging. We introduce a method for solving the following problem: given a SDE model and a high-level behavioral specification about the dynamics of the model, algorithmically decide whether the model satisfies the specification. While there are a number of techniques for addressing this problem for discrete-state stochastic models, the analysis of SDE and other continuous-state models has received less attention. Our proposed solution uses a combination of Bayesian sequential hypothesis testing, non-identically distributed samples, and Girsanov's theorem for change of measures to examine rare behaviors. We use our algorithm to analyze two SDE models of tumor dynamics. Our use of non-identically distributed samples sampling contributes to the state of the art in statistical verification and model checking of stochastic models by providing an effective means for exposing rare events in SDEs, while retaining the ability to compute bounds on the probability that those events occur.

  4. The relation between child feeding problems as measured by parental report and mealtime behavior observation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Marijn; Bruinsma, Eke; Hauser, M Paulina

    2016-04-01

    Because feeding problems have clear negative consequences for both child and caretakers, early diagnosis and intervention are important. Parent-report questionnaires can contribute to early identification, because they are efficient and typically offer a 'holistic' perspective of the child's eating in different contexts. In this pilot study, we aim to explore the concurrent validity of a short screening instrument (the SEP, which is the Dutch MCH-FS) in one of its target populations (a group of premature children) by comparing the total score with the observed behavior of the child and caretaker during a regular home meal. 28 toddlers (aged 9-18 months) and their caretakers participated in the study. Video-observations of the meals were coded for categories of eating behavior and parent-child interaction. The results show that the total SEP-score correlates with food refusal, feeding efficiency, and self-feeding, but not with negative affect and parental instructions. This confirms that the SEP has a certain degree of concurrent validity in the sense that its total score is associated with specific 'benchmark' feeding behaviors: food refusal, feeding efficiency and autonomy. Future studies with larger samples are needed to generalize the findings from this pilot to a broader context.

  5. Observation and Modeling of Radiation-Induced Solute Segregation Behavior of Grain Boundaries in Stainless Steel 316

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gyeonggeun; Jin, Hyungha; Lee, Yongbok; Kwon, Junhyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    These defect fluxes could induce the flux of the atoms in the crystals, and the enrichment and the depletion of the species could occur because of the preferential interaction between the species and point defect fluxes. These phenomena are known as radiation-induced segregation (RIS). Stainless steel 316 (SS316) is a main material for reactor internals. The neutron irradiation in the reactor core causes RIS of SS316; the depletion of Cr and the enrichment of Ni, Si, and P at grain boundaries. The depletion of Cr may cause an irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC), and can be a potential problem for the integrity of the nuclear power plant. In this work, The RIS behavior of random boundaries and Σ3 twin boundary were observed. Further, we implemented the RIS modeling, and compared the calculation results with the experimental results. The ion-irradiation experiments were carried out to observe the RIS behavior in SS316, the coherency of Σ3 affected the RIS behavior drastically. A theoretical evaluation of RIS in SS316 was implemented, and the estimation was compared to the measured values. These results were sensitive to model parameters; however the calculated amount of depletion/enrichment shows a fair agreement with the measured one with the uncertainties of the parameters. It is essential to develop an elaborate model in the future.

  6. The Benefits of Simply Observing: Mindful Attention Modulates the Link between Motivation and Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papies, E.K.; Pronk, T.M.; Keesman, M.; Barsalou, L.W.

    2015-01-01

    Mindful attention, a central component of mindfulness meditation, can be conceived as becoming aware of one’s thoughts and experiences, and being able to observe them as transient mental events. Here, we present a series of studies demonstrating the effects of applying this meta-cognitive perspectiv

  7. Observing system experiments with an ionospheric electrodynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazo, J.; Kostelich, E.; Mahalov, A.; Tang, W.

    2016-04-01

    We assess the performance of an ensemble Kalman filter for data assimilation and forecasting of ion density in a model of the ionosphere given noisy observations of varying sparsity. The domain of the numerical model is a mid-latitude ionosphere between 80 and 440 km. This domain includes the D-E layers and the peak in the F layer in the ionosphere. The model simulates the time evolution of an ion density field and the coupled electrostatic potential as charge-neutral winds from gravity waves propagate up from the stratosphere. Forecasts are generated for an ensemble of initial conditions, and synthetic observations, which are generated at random locations in the model domain, are assimilated into the ensemble at time intervals corresponding to about a half-period of the gravity wave. The data assimilation scheme, called the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF), incorporates observations within a fixed radius of each grid point to compute a unique linear combination of the forecast ensembles at each grid point. The collection of updated grid points forms the updated initial conditions (analysis ensemble) for the next forecast. Even when the observation density is spatially sparse, accurate analyses of the ion density still can be obtained, but the results depend on the size of the local region used. The LETKF is robust to large levels of Gaussian noise in the observations. Our results suggest that the LETKF merits consideration as a data assimilation scheme for space weather forecasting.

  8. Automatically-focusing microscope system for live tissue observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, M. N.; Chapman, C. P.; Wayland, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    System includes focus-sensing arrangement which controls servo to keep microscope constantly focused on target. Microscope objective is moved along optical axis. System includes two video cameras that are used as transducers for sensing focus. Incoming visual image is split by beam splitter so that one-half of information is fed to each camera.

  9. The Relationship between Behavioral Activation/Inhibition Systems (BAS/BIS) and Bullying/ Victimization Behaviors among Male Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad Basharpoor; Usha Barahmand; Parviz Molavi; Seyed Amin Mousavi

    2013-01-01

    Objective This research was conducted to investigate the relationship between behavioral activation-inhibition systems and bullying-victimization behaviors among adolescents. Method This was a correlational and cross-sectional study. Two hundred and thirty school boys were selected randomly by multistage cluster sampling method, and participated in this research. This sample responded to a demographic questionnaire, the Revised Olweus Bully/ Victim questionnaire and the child version of behav...

  10. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003) in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  11. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003) in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making. PMID:24744719

  12. Science-Grade Observing Systems as Process Observatories: Mapping and Understanding Nonlinearity and Multiscale Memory with Models and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, A. P.; Wilson, A. M.; Miller, D. K.; Tao, J.; Genereux, D. P.; Prat, O.; Petersen, W. A.; Brunsell, N. A.; Petters, M. D.; Duan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Using the planet as a study domain and collecting observations over unprecedented ranges of spatial and temporal scales, NASA's EOS (Earth Observing System) program was an agent of transformational change in Earth Sciences over the last thirty years. The remarkable space-time organization and variability of atmospheric and terrestrial moist processes that emerged from the analysis of comprehensive satellite observations provided much impetus to expand the scope of land-atmosphere interaction studies in Hydrology and Hydrometeorology. Consequently, input and output terms in the mass and energy balance equations evolved from being treated as fluxes that can be used as boundary conditions, or forcing, to being viewed as dynamic processes of a coupled system interacting at multiple scales. Measurements of states or fluxes are most useful if together they map, reveal and/or constrain the underlying physical processes and their interactions. This can only be accomplished through an integrated observing system designed to capture the coupled physics, including nonlinear feedbacks and tipping points. Here, we first review and synthesize lessons learned from hydrometeorology studies in the Southern Appalachians and in the Southern Great Plains using both ground-based and satellite observations, physical models and data-assimilation systems. We will specifically focus on mapping and understanding nonlinearity and multiscale memory of rainfall-runoff processes in mountainous regions. It will be shown that beyond technical rigor, variety, quantity and duration of measurements, the utility of observing systems is determined by their interpretive value in the context of physical models to describe the linkages among different observations. Second, we propose a framework for designing science-grade and science-minded process-oriented integrated observing and modeling platforms for hydrometeorological studies.

  13. Behavior generation strategy of artificial behavioral system by self-learning paradigm for autonomous robot tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağlarli, Evren; Temeltaş, Hakan

    2008-04-01

    In this study, behavior generation and self-learning paradigms are investigated for the real-time applications of multi-goal mobile robot tasks. The method is capable to generate new behaviors and it combines them in order to achieve multi goal tasks. The proposed method is composed from three layers: Behavior Generating Module, Coordination Level and Emotion -Motivation Level. Last two levels use Hidden Markov models to manage dynamical structure of behaviors. The kinematics and dynamic model of the mobile robot with non-holonomic constraints are considered in the behavior based control architecture. The proposed method is tested on a four-wheel driven and four-wheel steered mobile robot with constraints in simulation environment and results are obtained successfully.

  14. Stellar Evolutionary Models: challenges from observations of stellar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cassisi, S

    2007-01-01

    We briefly review some constraints (Owing to the limited number of pages of present review, only a sub-sample of the topics discussed during the talk are briefly summarized. For the interested readers we are pleased to send them upon request the complete presentation file.) for stellar models in various mass regimes and evolutionary stages as provided by observational data from spectroscopy to multi-wavelenghts photometry. The accuracy of present generation of stellar models can be significantly improved only through an extensive comparison between theory and observations.

  15. Participation in introductory biology laboratories: An integrated assessment based on surveys, behavioral observations, and qualitative interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Connie Adelle

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gender, major, and prior knowledge of and attitude toward biology on participation in introductory biology laboratories. Subjects for this study were 3,527 students enrolled in college-level introductory biology courses. During the study, three introductory courses were replaced with one mixed-majors course. The new course adopted a different pedagological approach from the previous courses in that an inquiry-based approach was used in lectures and laboratories. All subjects completed a survey that measured content knowledge using the NABT/NSTA High School Biology Examination Version 1990 and attitude using Russell and Hollander's Biology Attitude Scale. I used and discuss the merits of using ethological methods and data collection software, EthoScribeTM (Tima Scientific) to collect behavioral data from 145 students. I also evaluated participation using qualitative interviews of 30 students. I analyzed content knowledge and attitude data using ANOVA and Pearson correlation, and behavioral data using Contingency Table Analysis. I analyzed interviews following methods outlined by Rubin and Rubin. Findings. Course style and gender were the most useful variables in distinguishing differences among groups of students with regard to attitude, content knowledge, and participation in laboratories. Attitude toward biology and achievement measured by the surveys were found to be positively correlated; however, gender, major, class standing, course style and interactions between these variables also had effects on these variables. I found a positive association among attitude, achievement and participation in hands-on activities in laboratories. Differences in participation also were associated group type. In a traditional introductory biology course, females in single-gender groups, gender-equal, or groups in which females were the majority spent more time performing hands-on science

  16. Scan path entropy and Arrow plots: Capturing scanning behavior of multiple observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignace T C Hooge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Designers of visual communication material want their material to attract and retain attention. In marketing research, heat maps, dwell time, and time to AOI first hit are often used as evaluation parameters. Here we present two additional measures 1 scan path entropy to quantify gaze guidance and 2 the arrow plot to visualize the average scan path. Both are based on string representations of scan paths. The latter also incorporates transition matrices and time required for 50% of the observers to first hit AOIs (T50. The new measures were tested in an eye tracking study (48 observers, 39 advertisements. Scan path entropy is a sensible measure for gaze guidance and the new visualization method reveals aspects of the average scan path and gives a better indication in what order global scanning takes place.

  17. Assessing anger regulation in middle childhood: development and validation of a behavioral observation measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Lara Rohlf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An observational measure of anger regulation in middle childhood was developed that facilitated the in situ assessment of five maladaptive regulation strategies in response to an anger-eliciting task. 599 children aged 6-10 years (M = 8.12, SD = 0.92 participated in the study. Construct validity of the measure was examined through correlations with parent- and self-reports of anger regulation and anger reactivity. Criterion validity was established through links with teacher-rated aggression and social rejection measured by parent-, teacher-, and self-reports. The observational measure correlated significantly with parent- and self-reports of anger reactivity, whereas it was unrelated to parent- and self-reports of anger regulation. It also made a unique contribution to predicting aggression and social rejection.

  18. Assessing anger regulation in middle childhood: development and validation of a behavioral observation measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Helena L; Krahé, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    An observational measure of anger regulation in middle childhood was developed that facilitated the in situ assessment of five maladaptive regulation strategies in response to an anger-eliciting task. 599 children aged 6-10 years (M = 8.12, SD = 0.92) participated in the study. Construct validity of the measure was examined through correlations with parent- and self-reports of anger regulation and anger reactivity. Criterion validity was established through links with teacher-rated aggression and social rejection measured by parent-, teacher-, and self-reports. The observational measure correlated significantly with parent- and self-reports of anger reactivity, whereas it was unrelated to parent- and self-reports of anger regulation. It also made a unique contribution to predicting aggression and social rejection. PMID:25964767

  19. Scan path entropy and arrow plots: capturing scanning behavior of multiple observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooge, Ignace; Camps, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Designers of visual communication material want their material to attract and retain attention. In marketing research, heat maps, dwell time, and time to AOI first hit are often used as evaluation parameters. Here we present two additional measures (1) "scan path entropy" to quantify gaze guidance and (2) the "arrow plot" to visualize the average scan path. Both are based on string representations of scan paths. The latter also incorporates transition matrices and time required for 50% of the observers to first hit AOIs (T50). The new measures were tested in an eye tracking study (48 observers, 39 advertisements). Scan path entropy is a sensible measure for gaze guidance and the new visualization method reveals aspects of the average scan path and gives a better indication in what order global scanning takes place. PMID:24399993

  20. Observed Punishment Spillover Effects: A Laboratory Investigation of Behavior in a Social Dilemma.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, David L.; E. Glenn Dutcher; Cortney S. Rodet

    2013-01-01

    Punishment has been shown to be an effective reinforcement mechanism. Intentional or not, punishment will likely generate spillover effects that extend beyond one’s immediate decision environment, and these spillovers are not as well understood. We seek to understand these secondary spillover effects in a controlled lab setting using a standard social dilemma: the voluntary contributions mechanism. We find that spillovers occur when others observe punishment outside their own social dilemma. ...