WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral momentum theory

  1. Large transverse momentum behavior of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquereaux, Robert; De Rafael, Eduardo.

    1977-05-01

    The large transverse momentum behavior of Compton scattering and Moeller scattering in Quantum Electrodynamics; and of elastic quark-quark scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics are examined in perturbation theory. The results strongly suggest that the large transverse momentum regime in gauge theories is governed by a differential equation of the Callan-Symanzik type with a suitable momentum dependent anomalous dimension term. An explicit solution for the quark-quark elastic scattering amplitude at large transverse momentum is given

  2. Behavioral momentum theory: equations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral momentum theory provides a quantitative account of how reinforcers experienced within a discriminative stimulus context govern the persistence of behavior that occurs in that context. The theory suggests that all reinforcers obtained in the presence of a discriminative stimulus increase resistance to change, regardless of whether those reinforcers are contingent on the target behavior, are noncontingent, or are even contingent on an alternative behavior. In this paper, we describe the equations that constitute the theory and address their application to issues of particular importance in applied settings. The theory provides a framework within which to consider the effects of interventions such as extinction, noncontingent reinforcement, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, and other phenomena (e.g., resurgence). Finally, the theory predicts some counterintuitive and potentially counterproductive effects of alternative reinforcement, and can serve as an integrative guide for intervention when its terms are identified with the relevant conditions of applied settings.

  3. Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K

    2017-08-01

    The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Axiomatic field theory and quantum electrodynamics: the massive case. [Gauge invariance, Maxwell equations, high momentum behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmann, O [Bielefeld Univ. (F.R. Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    1975-01-01

    Massive quantum electrodynamics of the electron is formulated as an LSZ theory of the electromagnetic field F(..mu nu..) and the electron-positron fields PSI. The interaction is introduced with the help of mathematically well defined subsidiary conditions. These are: 1) gauge invariance of the first kind, assumed to be generated by a conserved current j(..mu..); 2) the homogeneous Maxwell equations and a massive version of the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations; 3) a minimality condition concerning the high momentum behaviour of the theory. The inhomogeneous Maxwell equation is a linear differential equation connecting Fsub(..mu nu..) with the current Jsub(..mu..). No Lagrangian, no non-linear field equations, and no explicit expression of Jsub(..mu..) in terms of PSI, anti-PSI are needed. It is shown in perturbation theory that the proposed conditions fix the physically relevant (i.e. observable) quantities of the theory uniquely.

  5. Blade-element/momentum theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    Although there exists a large variety of methods for predicting performance and loadings of wind turbines, the only approach used today by wind turbine manufacturers is based on the blade-element/momentum (BEM) theory by Glauert (Aerodynamic theory. Springer, Berlin, pp. 169-360, 1935). A basic...... assumption in the BEM theory is that the flow takes place in independent stream tubes and that the loading is determined from two-dimensional sectional airfoil characteristics....

  6. Toward a general theory of momentum-like effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    The future actions, behaviors, and outcomes of objects, individuals, and processes can often be anticipated, and some of these anticipations have been hypothesized to result from momentum-like effects. Five types of momentum-like effects (representational momentum, operational momentum, attentional momentum, behavioral momentum, psychological momentum) are briefly described. Potential similarities involving properties of momentum-like effects (continuation, coherence, role of chance or guessing, role of sensory processing, imperviousness to practice or error feedback, shifts in memory for position, effects of changes in velocity, rapid occurrence, effects of retention interval, attachment to an object rather than an abstract frame of reference, nonrigid transformation) are described, and potential constraints on a future theory of momentum-like effects (dynamic representation, nature of extrapolation, sensitivity to environmental contingencies, bridging gaps between stimulus and response, increasing adaptiveness to the environment, serving as a heuristic for perception and action, insensitivity to stimulus format, importance of subjective consequences, role of knowledge and belief, automaticity of occurrence, properties of functional architecture) are discussed. The similarity and ubiquity of momentum-like effects suggests such effects might result from a single or small number of mechanisms that operate over different dimensions, modalities, and time-scales and provide a fundamental adaptation for perception and action. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Behavioral momentum in the treatment of noncompliance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, F C; Hock, M L; Lalli, J S; West, B J; Belfiore, P; Pinter, E; Brown, D K

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral momentum refers to the tendency for behavior to persist following a change in environmental conditions. The greater the rate of reinforcement, the greater the behavioral momentum. The intervention for noncompliance consisted of issuing a sequence of commands with which the subject was very likely to comply (i.e., high-probability commands) immediately prior to issuing a low-probability command. In each of five experiments, the high-probability command sequence resulted in a "moment...

  8. ''Turbulent Equipartition'' Theory of Toroidal Momentum Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Gurcan, O.D.; Rewaldt, G.

    2008-01-01

    The mode-independent part of magnetic curvature driven turbulent convective (TuroCo) pinch of the angular momentum density (Hahm et al., Phys. Plasmas 14,072302 (2007)) which was originally derived from the gyrokinetic equation, can be interpreted in terms of the turbulent equipartition (TEP) theory. It is shown that the previous results can be obtained from the local conservation of 'magnetically weighted angular momentum density', nm i U # parallel# R/B 2 , and its homogenization due to turbulent flows. It is also demonstrated that the magnetic curvature modification of the parallel acceleration in the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in the laboratory frame, which was shown to be responsible for the TEP part of the TurCo pinch of angular momentum density in the previous work, is closely related to the Coriolis drift coupling to the perturbed electric field. In addition, the origin of the diffusive flux in the rotating frame is highlighted. Finally, it is illustrated that there should be a difference in scalings between the momentum pinch originated from inherently toroidal effects and that coming from other mechanisms which exist in a simpler geometry.

  9. Momentum and hamiltonian in complex action theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Frits Bech

    2012-01-01

    $-parametrized wave function, which is a solution to an eigenvalue problem of a momentum operator $\\hat{p}$, in FPI with a starting Lagrangian. Solving the eigenvalue problem, we derive the momentum and Hamiltonian. Oppositely, starting from the Hamiltonian we derive the Lagrangian in FPI, and we are led...

  10. Energy momentum tensor in local causal perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange, D.

    2001-01-01

    We study the energy momentum tensor in the Bogolyubov-Epstein-Glaser approach to perturbation theory. It is found to be locally conserved for a class of theories containing to derivated fields in the interaction. For the massless φ 4 -theory we derive the trace anomaly of the improved tensor. (orig.)

  11. Quantum scattering theory on the momentum lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubtsova, O. A.; Pomerantsev, V. N.; Kukulin, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    A new approach based on the wave-packet continuum discretization method recently developed by the present authors for solving quantum-mechanical scattering problems for atomic and nuclear scattering processes and few-body physics is described. The formalism uses the complete continuum discretization scheme in terms of the momentum stationary wave-packet basis, which leads to formulation of the scattering problem on a lattice in the momentum space. The solution of the few-body scattering problem can be found in the approach from linear matrix equations with nonsingular matrix elements, averaged on energy over lattice cells. The developed approach is illustrated by the solution of numerous two- and three-body scattering problems with local and nonlocal potentials below and well above the three-body breakup threshold.

  12. Energy-momentum tensor in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, K.

    1981-01-01

    The definition of the energy-momentum tensor as a source current coupled to the background gravitational field receives an important modification in quantum theory. In the path-integral approach, the manifest covariance of the integral measure under general coordinate transformations dictates that field variables with weight 1/2 should be used as independent integration variables. An improved energy-momentum tensor is then generated by the variational derivative, and it gives rise to well-defined gravitational conformal (Weyl) anomalies. In the flat--space-time limit, all the Ward-Takahashi identities associated with space-time transformations including the global dilatation become free from anomalies in terms of this energy-momentum tensor, reflecting the general covariance of the integral measure; the trace of this tensor is thus finite at zero momentum transfer for renormalizable theories. The Jacobian for the local conformal transformation, however, becomes nontrivial, and it gives rise to an anomaly for the conformal identity. All the familiar anomalies are thus reduced to either chiral or conformal anomalies. The consistency of the dilatation and conformal identities at vanishing momentum transfer determines the trace anomaly of this energy-momentum tensor in terms of the renormalization-group b function and other parameters. In contrast, the trace of the conventional energy-momentum tensor generally diverges even at vanishing momentum transfer depending on the regularization scheme, and it is subtractively renormalized. We also explain how the apparently different renormalization properties of the chiral and trace anomalies arise

  13. Renormalization in Large Momentum Effective Theory of Parton Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiangdong; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Zhao, Yong

    2018-03-16

    In the large-momentum effective field theory approach to parton physics, the matrix elements of nonlocal operators of quark and gluon fields, linked by straight Wilson lines in a spatial direction, are calculated in lattice quantum chromodynamics as a function of hadron momentum. Using the heavy-quark effective theory formalism, we show a multiplicative renormalization of these operators at all orders in perturbation theory, both in dimensional and lattice regularizations. The result provides a theoretical basis for extracting parton properties through properly renormalized observables in Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Problem of energy-momentum and theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Folomeshkin, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    General properties of geometrised theories of gravitation are considered. Covariant formulation of conservation laws in arbitrary riemannian space-time is given. In the Einstein theory the symmetric as well as canonical energy-momentum tensor of the system ''matter plus gravitational field'' and in particular, the energy-momentum of free gravitational waves, turns out to be equal to zero. To understand the origin of the problems and difficulties concerning the energy-momentum in the Einstein theory, the gravitational filed is considered in the usual framework of the Lorentz invariant field theory, just like any other physical field. Combination of the approach proposed with the Einstein's idea of geometrization makes it possible to formulate the geometrised gravitation theory, in which there are no inner contradictions, the energy-momentum of gravitational field is defined precisely and all the known experimental facts are described successfully. For strong gravitational fields the predictions of the quasilinear geometrised theory under consideration are different from those of the gravitational theory in the Einstein formulation. Black holes are absent in the theory. Evaluation of the energy-flux of gravitational waves leads to unambiguous results and shows that the gravitational waves transfer the positive-definite energy

  15. Energy-momentum tensor in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo.

    1980-12-01

    The definition of the energy-momentum tensor as a source current coupled to the background gravitational field receives an important modification in quantum theory. In the path integral approach, the manifest covariance of the integral measure under general coordinate transformations dictates that field variables with weight 1/2 should be used as independent integration variables. An improved energy-momentum tensor is then generated by the variational derivative, and it gives rise to well-defined gravitational conformal (Weyl) anomalies. In the flat space-time limit, all the Ward-Takahashi identities associate with space-time transformations including the global dilatation become free from anomalies, reflecting the general covariance of the integral measure; the trace of this energy-momentum tensor is thus finite at the zero momentum transfer. The Jacobian for the local conformal transformation however becomes non-trivial, and it gives rise to an anomaly for the conformal identity. All the familiar anomalies are thus reduced to either chiral or conformal anomalies. The consistency of the dilatation and conformal identities at the vanishing momentum transfer determines the trace anomaly of this energy-momentum tensor in terms of the renormalization group β-function and other parameters. In contrast, the trace of the conventional energy-momentum tensor generally diverges even at the vanishing momentum transfer depending on the regularization scheme, and it is subtractively renormalized. We also explain how the apparently different renormalization properties of the chiral and trace anomalies arise. (author)

  16. Energy-momentum tensor in the quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakov, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    An energy-momentum tensor in the scalar field theory is built. The tensor must satisfy the finiteness requirement of the Green function. The Green functions can always be made finite by renormalizations in the S-matrix by introducing counter terms into the Hamiltonian (or Lagrangian) of the interaction. Such a renormalization leads to divergencies in the Green functions. Elimination of these divergencies requires the introduction of new counter terms, which must be taken into account in the energy-momentum tensor

  17. Energy-momentum complex in Moeller's tetrad theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, F.I.; Lashin, E.I.

    1991-08-01

    Moeller's tetrad theory of gravitation is examined with regard to the energy-momentum complex. The energy-momentum complex as well as the superpotential associated with Moeller's theory are derived. Moeller's field equations are solved in the case of ''general'' spherical symmetry. Two different solutions, giving rise to the same metric, are obtained. The energy associated with one solution is found to be twice the energy associated with the other. An avenue out of this inconsistency is suggested. (author). 20 refs, 1 tab

  18. The energy-momentum problem and gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Folomeshkin, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    General properties of geometrized gravitation theories are considered. A covariant formulation of conservation laws in an arbitrary Riemann space-time is presented. In the Einstein theory both symmetric and canonical energy-momentum tensors of the matter and gravitational field system and, in particular, energy-momentum of free gravitational waves prove to be equal to zero. Since gravitational waves carry the curvature and, consequently, affect the detector, this bears witness to an intrinsic contradiction of the Einstein theory. To realize the sources of difficulties concerning energy-momentum in the Einstein theory the gravitational field is treated in the same way as all the other physical fields, i.e. in terms of usual Lorentz-invariant field theory. Unification of this approach with the Einstein idea of geometrization enables to construct the geometrized theory, which is free from contradictions, has clearly defined the notions of gravitation field energy-momentum and satisfactorily describes all known experimental facts. To construct a logically consistent theory one should geometrize only the density of the matter Lagrangian. The gravitation field equations are formulated in terms of the Euclidean space-time with a metric tensor γsub(ik), while the matter motion may be completely described in terms of the non-Euclidean space-time with a metric tensor gsub(ik). For strong gravitational fields the predictions of the quasi-linear theory under consideration appriciably differ from those of the Einstein formulation of the gravitation theory. No black holes are present in the theory. The results of the calculation for the energy flow of gravitational waves are rigorously unambiguous and show that gravitational waves carry positively definite energy

  19. Energy momentum tensor in theories with scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The renormalization of energy momentum tensor in theories with scalar fields and two coupling constants is considered. The need for addition of an improvement term is shown. Two possible forms for the improvement term are: (i) One in which the improvement coefficient is a finite function of bare parameters of the theory (so that the energy-momentum tensor can be derived from an action that is a finite function of bare quantities), (ii) One in which the improvement coefficient is a finite quantity, i.e. finite function of the renormalized quantities are considered. Four possible model of such theories are (i) Scalar Q.E.D. (ii) Non-Abelian theory with scalars, (iii) Yukawa theory, (iv) A model with two scalars. In all these theories a negative conclusion is established: neither forms for the improvement terms lead to a finite energy momentum tensor. Physically this means that when interaction with external gravity is incorporated in such a model, additional experimental input in the form of root mean square mass radius must be given to specify the theory completely, and the flat space parameters are insufficient. (author). 12 refs

  20. Behavior of nuclei at high angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.S.

    1982-07-01

    The present report begins with a brief overview of nuclear shapes and level structures at high-spin values. The new spectroscopy associated with angular-momentum alignments is described, and some of the exciting possibilities of this spectroscopy are explored. Nuclear moments of inertia are discussed and a somewhat different one is defined, together with a method for measuring it and some early results. Finally a few comments on the future prospects for high-spin physics are offered

  1. On the complex angular momentum theory of scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thylwe, K.-E.

    1983-01-01

    A contribution to the theory of complex angular momentum techniques in the field of atomic and molecular collisions is given. A new, flexible representation of the scattering amplitude on the basis of realistic assumptions for the behaviour of the S matrix in the complex angular momentum plane is derived. The representation has the form of a sum of steepest-descent integrals, S-matrix residue terms and a symmetry-type background integral. The flexibility is due to the presence of two integer parameters which may be chosen conveniently so as to make the residue sums sufficiently convergent and to minimise the total number of important terms. (author)

  2. Notes on the quantum theory of angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Feenberg, Eugene

    1999-01-01

    This classic, concise text has served a generation of physicists as an exceptionally useful guide to the mysteries of angular momenta and Clebsch-Gordon Coefficients. Derived from notes originally prepared to assist graduate students in reading research papers on atomic, molecular, and nuclear structure, the text first reviews the basic elements of quantum theory. It then examines the development of the fundamental commutation relations for angular momentum components and vector operators, and the ways in which matrix elements and eigenvalues of the angular momentum operators are worked out f

  3. Momentum conserving defects in affine Toda field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristow, Rebecca; Bowcock, Peter [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-30

    Type II integrable defects with more than one degree of freedom at the defect are investigated. A condition on the form of the Lagrangian for such defects is found which ensures the existence of a conserved momentum in the presence of the defect. In addition it is shown that for any Lagrangian satisfying this condition, the defect equations of motion, when taken to hold everywhere, can be extended to give a Bäcklund transformation between the bulk theories on either side of the defect. This strongly suggests that such systems are integrable. Momentum conserving defects and Bäcklund transformations for affine Toda field theories based on the A{sub n}, B{sub n}, C{sub n} and D{sub n} series of Lie algebras are found. The defect associated with the D{sub 4} affine Toda field theory is examined in more detail. In particular classical time delays for solitons passing through the defect are calculated.

  4. An equivalence between momentum and charge in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, J.H.; Horowitz, G.T.; Steif, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that for a translationally invariant solution to string theory, spacetime duality interchanges the momentum in the symmetry direction and the axion charge per unit length. As one application, we show explicitly that charged black strings are equivalent to boosted (uncharged) black strings. The extremal black strings (which correspond to the field outside of a fundamental macroscopic string) are equivalent to plane-fronted waves describing strings moving at the speed of light

  5. Improved blade element momentum theory for wind turbine aerodynamic computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhenye; Chen, Jin; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Blade element momentum (BEM) theory is widely used in aerodynamic performance predictions and design applications for wind turbines. However, the classic BEM method is not quite accurate which often tends to under-predict the aerodynamic forces near root and over-predict its performance near tip....... for the MEXICO rotor. Results show that the improved BEM theory gives a better prediction than the classic BEM method, especially in the blade tip region, when comparing to the MEXICO measurements. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in SU(2) gauge theory at finite temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huebner, K.; Karsch, F.; Pica, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    We calculate correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition of (3+1)-dimensional SU(2) gauge theory and discuss their critical behavior in the vicinity of the second order deconfinement transition. We show that correlation functions...... of the trace of the energy momentum tensor diverge uniformly at the critical point in proportion to the specific heat singularity. Correlation functions of the pressure, on the other hand, stay finite at the critical point. We discuss the consequences of these findings for the analysis of transport...... coefficients, in particular the bulk viscosity, in the vicinity of a second order phase transition point....

  7. Low momentum penguin contributions in a chiral theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.

    1985-11-01

    It has been shown that penguin diagram contributions corresponding to u-quark loop momenta below a scale Λsub(x) approximately= 1 GeV are enhanced and could at least partly explain the ΔI=1/2 rule. Thus a previous calculation within the bag model is confirmed. The present caluculation is performed wihtin an effective chiral theory with pions and kaons coupled to quarks. It has been found that low momentum left-left loop contributions are important, while left-right contributions can be neglected

  8. Green's functions for theories with massless particles (in perturbation theory). [Growth properties, momentum space, mass renormalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, P [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Seneor, R [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique, 75 - Paris (France). Centre de Physique Theorique)

    1975-01-01

    With the method of perturbative renormalization developed by Epstein and Glaser it is shown that Green's functions exist for theories with massless particles such as Q.E.D. and lambda:PHI/sup 2n/ theories. Growth properties are given in momentum space. In the case of Q.E.D., it is also shown that one can perform the physical mass renormalization.

  9. Twistor theory and the energy-momentum and angular momentum of the gravitational field at spatial infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Penrose's 'quasi-local mass and angular momentum' is investigated for 2-surfaces near spatial infinity in both linearized theory on Minkowski space and full general relativity. It is shown that for space-times that are radially smooth of order one in the sense of Beig and Schmidt with asymptotically electric Weyl curvature, there exists a global concept of a twistor space at spatial infinity. Global conservation laws for the energy-momentum and angular momentum are obtained, and the ten conserved quantities are shown to be invariant under asymptotic coordinate transformations. The relation to other definitions is discussed briefly. (author)

  10. A complex angular momentum theory of modified Coulomb scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thylwe, K.E.; Connor, J.N.L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper develops an exact complex angular momentum (CAM) theory of elastic scattering for a complex optical potential with a Coulombic tail. The present CAM theory avoids complications due to the long range nature of the Coulombic potential in a straightforward way. The Sommerfeld-Watson transformation together with a travelling wave (near-side far-side) decomposition, is used to obtain an exact representation for the scattering amplitude f(theta) in terms of a background integral fsub(B)(theta) and a series of subamplitudes fsup((+-))sub(n)(theta). New exact representations are derived for fsub(B)(theta) when the scattering matrix element S(lambda) possesses local symmetries of the type S(-lambda)=S(lambda)exp(+-2iπlambda) and S(-lambda)=S(lambda). The exact results obtained in this paper unify the CAM theory of scattering for Coulombic and short range potentials and are especially suitable for the introduction of semiclassical approximations. (author)

  11. Bianchi identities and the automatic conservation of energy-momentum and angular momentum in general-relativistic field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehl, F.W.; McCrea, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Automatic conservation of energy-momentum and angular momentum is guaranteed in a gravitational theory if, via the field equations, the conservation laws for the material currents are reduced to the contracted Bianchi identities. We first execute an irreducible decomposition of the Bianchi identities in a Riemann-Cartan space-time. Then, starting from a Riemannian space-time with or without torsion, we determine those gravitational theories which have automatic conservation: general relativity and the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory, both with cosmological constant, and the nonviable pseudoscalar model. The Poincare gauge theory of gravity, like gauge theories of internal groups, has no automatic conservation in the sense defined above. This does not lead to any difficulties in principle. Analogies to 3-dimensional continuum mechanics are stressed throughout the article

  12. Bianchi identities and the automatic conservation of energy-momentum and angular momentum in general-relativistic field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehl, Friedrich W.; McCrea, J. Dermott

    1986-03-01

    Automatic conservation of energy-momentum and angular momentum is guaranteed in a gravitational theory if, via the field equations, the conservation laws for the material currents are reduced to the contracted Bianchi identities. We first execute an irreducible decomposition of the Bianchi identities in a Riemann-Cartan space-time. Then, starting from a Riemannian space-time with or without torsion, we determine those gravitational theories which have automatic conservation: general relativity and the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory, both with cosmological constant, and the nonviable pseudoscalar model. The Poincaré gauge theory of gravity, like gauge theories of internal groups, has no automatic conservation in the sense defined above. This does not lead to any difficulties in principle. Analogies to 3-dimensional continuum mechanics are stressed throughout the article.

  13. Diffraction and angular momentum effects in semiclassical atomic scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russek, A.

    1979-01-01

    The semiclassical scattering theory of Mott and Massey and Ford and Wheeler is here extended to multichannel scattering as occurs at a crossing or pseudocrossing of the transient molecule formed by the colliding atoms. The generalized theory incorporates both interference and diffraction phenomena, but the emphasis in this work is on diffraction. For small-angle scattering, diffraction effects become broader, not narrower, as the collision energy increases: ΔbΔtau > or = h[E/sub inc//(2m)]/sup 1/2/ relates the uncertainties in impact parameter b and reduced scattering angle tau = E/sub inc/theta, and determines the range in b required to resolve a structure in the deflection function of height Δtau. In the kilovolt range of collision energies, the effects of local maxima and minima in the deflection function are washed out, and the Airy-function approximation of Ford and Wheeler is inappropriate to describe the differential cross section. More generally, it is shown that at keV collision energies the stationary-phase approximation, heretofore essential in the reduction to the semiclassical limit, breaks down in the vicinity of a level crossing. An approximate theorem is proposed which remains valid in this region and elsewhere reduces to the standard stationary-phase approximation. Several illustrative examples are considered. A separate development treats the effect on the differential scattering cross section of a change in electronic angular momentum when electronic excitation occurs

  14. Theories of information behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelez, Sandra; McKechnie, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This unique book presents authoritative overviews of more than 70 conceptual frameworks for understanding how people seek, manage, share, and use information in different contexts. A practical and readable reference to both well-established and newly proposed theories of information behavior, the book includes contributions from 85 scholars from 10 countries. Each theory description covers origins, propositions, methodological implications, usage, links to related conceptual frameworks, and listings of authoritative primary and secondary references. The introductory chapters explain key concepts, theory–method connections, and the process of theory development.

  15. On the theory of behavioral mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzendolet, E

    1999-12-01

    The Theory of Behavioral Mechanics is the behavioral analogue of Newton's laws of motion, with the rate of responding in operant conditioning corresponding to physical velocity. In an earlier work, the basic relation between rate of responding and sessions under two FI schedules and over a range of commonly used session values had been shown to be a power function. Using that basic relation, functions for behavioral acceleration, mass, and momentum are derived here. Data from other laboratories also support the applicability of a power function to VI schedules. A particular numerical value is introduced here to be the standard reference value for the behavioral force under the VI-60-s schedule. This reference allows numerical values to be calculated for the behavioral mass and momentum of individual animals. A comparison of the numerical values of the momenta of two animals can be used to evaluate their relative resistances to change, e.g., to extinction, which is itself viewed as a continuously changing behavioral force being imposed on the animal. This overall numerical approach allows behavioral force-values to be assigned to various experimental conditions such as the evaluation of the behavioral force of a medication dosage.

  16. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2014-01-01

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current study we aimed to provide these insights by introducing an experimental dynamical research design. Rowing pairs had to compete against a virtual opponent on rowing ergometers, while a screen in front of the team broadcasted the ongoing race. The race was manipulated so that the team's rowing avatar gradually progressed (positive momentum) or regressed (negative momentum) in relation to the victory. The participants responded verbally to collective efficacy and task cohesion items appearing on the screen each minute. In addition, effort exertion and interpersonal coordination were continuously measured. Our results showed negative psychological changes (perceptions of collective efficacy and task cohesion) during negative team momentum, which were stronger than the positive changes during positive team momentum. Moreover, teams' exerted efforts rapidly decreased during negative momentum, whereas positive momentum accompanied a more variable and adaptive sequence of effort exertion. Finally, the interpersonal coordination was worse during negative momentum than during positive momentum. These results provide the first empirical insights into actual team momentum dynamics, and demonstrate how a dynamical research approach significantly contributes to current knowledge on psychological and behavioral processes.

  17. Angular momentum conservation law in light-front quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Kelly Yu-Ju; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Stanford U.

    2017-03-01

    We prove the Lorentz invariance of the angular momentum conservation law and the helicity sum rule for relativistic composite systems in the light-front formulation. We explicitly show that j 3 , the z -component of the angular momentum remains unchanged under Lorentz transformations generated by the light-front kinematical boost operators. The invariance of j 3 under Lorentz transformations is a feature unique to the front form. Applying the Lorentz invariance of the angular quantum number in the front form, we obtain a selection rule for the orbital angular momentum which can be used to eliminate certain interaction vertices in QED and QCD. We also generalize the selection rule to any renormalizable theory and show that there exists an upper bound on the change of orbital angular momentum in scattering processes at any fixed order in perturbation theory.

  18. Energy and angular-momentum non-conservation in four-dimensional gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, A.

    1985-01-01

    We study energy and angular-momentum non-conservation on four-dimensional chiral gauge theories using Landau levels. These effects are physical manifestations of the usual gauge anomaly, and enable us to understand in a semi-classical approximation why anomaly cancellation is required for a consistent field theory. (orig.)

  19. The energy-momentum tensor for the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov and kinetic guiding center theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Morrison, P.J.; Texas Univ., Austin

    1990-02-01

    A modified Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is introduced as a tool to obtain the energy-momentum and angular-momentum tensors for any kind of nonlinear or linearized Maxwell-collisionless kinetic theories. The emphasis is on linearized theories, for which these tensors are derived for the first time. The kinetic theories treated - which need not be the same for all particle species in a plasma - are the Vlasov and kinetic guiding center theories. The Hamiltonian for the guiding center motion is taken in the form resulting from Dirac's constraint theory for non-standard Lagrangian systems. As an example of the Maxwell-kinetic guiding center theory, the second-order energy for a perturbed homogeneous magnetized plasma is calculated with initially vanishing field perturbations. The expression obtained is compared with the corresponding one of Maxwell-Vlasov theory. (orig.)

  20. The energy-momentum tensor for the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov and kinetic guiding center theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1990-02-01

    A modified Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is introduced as a tool to obtain the energy-momentum and angular-momentum tensors for any king of nonlinear or linearized Maxwell-collisionless kinetic theories. The emphasis is on linearized theories, for which these tensors are derived for the first time. The kinetic theories treated --- which need not be the same for all particle species in a plasma --- are the Vlasov and kinetic guiding center theories. The Hamiltonian for the guiding center motion is taken in the form resulting from Dirac's constraint theory for non-standard Lagrangian systems. As an example of the Maxwell-kinetic guiding center theory, the second-order energy for a perturbed homogeneous magnetized plasma is calculated with initially vanishing field perturbations. The expression obtained is compared with the corresponding one of Maxwell-Vlasov theory. 11 refs

  1. The energy–momentum tensor(s in classical gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Blaschke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an introduction to, and review of, the energy–momentum tensors in classical gauge field theories in Minkowski space, and to some extent also in curved space–time. For the canonical energy–momentum tensor of non-Abelian gauge fields and of matter fields coupled to such fields, we present a new and simple improvement procedure based on gauge invariance for constructing a gauge invariant, symmetric energy–momentum tensor. The relationship with the Einstein–Hilbert tensor following from the coupling to a gravitational field is also discussed.

  2. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current

  3. High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in φ3 theory. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osland, P.; Wu, T.T.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1987-01-01

    Relativistic quantum field theories may give us useful guidance to understanding high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, we study the ladder diagrams in φ 3 theory. In this paper, some of the necessary techniques are developed and applied to the simplest cases of the fourth- and sixth-order ladder diagrams. (orig.)

  4. Alpha Momentum and Price Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lea Hühn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a novel alpha momentum strategy that invests in stocks based on three-factor alphas which we estimate using daily returns. The empirical analysis for the U.S. and for Europe shows that (i past alpha has power in predicting the cross-section of stock returns; (ii alpha momentum exhibits less dynamic factor exposures than price momentum and (iii alpha momentum dominates price momentum only in the U.S. Connecting both strategies to behavioral explanations, alpha momentum is more related to an underreaction to firm-specific news while price momentum is primarily driven by price overshooting due to momentum trading.

  5. Modified weak energy condition for the energy momentum tensor in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, J.

    1998-01-01

    The weak energy condition is known to fail in general when applied to expectation values of the energy momentum tensor in flat space quantum field theory. It is shown how the usual counter arguments against its validity are no longer applicable if the states vertical stroke ψ right angle for which the expectation value is considered are restricted to a suitably defined subspace. A possible natural restriction on vertical stroke ψ right angle is suggested and illustrated by two quantum mechanical examples based on a simple perturbed harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian. The proposed alternative quantum weak energy condition is applied to states formed by the action of the scalar, vector and the energy momentum tensor operators on the vacuum. We assume conformal invariance in order to determine almost uniquely three-point functions involving the energy momentum tensor in terms of a few parameters. The positivity conditions lead to non-trivial inequalities for these parameters. They are satisfied in free field theories, except in one case for dimensions close to two. Further restrictions on vertical stroke ψ right angle are suggested which remove this problem. The inequalities which follow from considering the state formed by applying the energy momentum tensor to the vacuum are shown to imply that the coefficient of the topological term in the expectation value of the trace of the energy momentum tensor in an arbitrary curved space background is positive, in accord with calculations in free field theories. (orig.)

  6. Actuator disc edge singularity. The key to a revised actuator disc concept and momentum theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuik, G.A.M. van (The Wind Energy Group of the Technical University Eindhoven (NL))

    1989-01-01

    Since the beginning of rotor aerodynamics the actuator disc momentum theory occupies a prominant place in almost any textbook on this subject. Specially in axial flow the theory provides an easy and rather accurate performance prediction. The results first obtained by Lanchester for the induced power of a hovering rotor and the maximum power of a wind turbine are still used as guidelines for complicated calculations. On the other hand, experimental results for propellers are known to deviate systematically (some 10%) from the momentum theory results. This is commonly attributed to the differences between a real rotor and an actuator disc. However, some actuator disc- and actuator strip (the 2-dimensional version) experiments are described in literature, showing the same deviations from momentum theory results. Therefore, apart from the question how representative an actuator disc is for a real rotor, the actuator disc concept itself may be inadequate. This problem is the subject of the work describe here. It will be shown that the classical actuator disc concept ignores discrete forces resulting from a flow singularity at the edge of the disc. The (extended) momentum theory, applied to this actuator strip model, shows a shift of the results towards the experimental data, and for the static case (hover) even a quantitative agreement is obtained. (author) 12 refs.

  7. Brane world black holes in teleparallel theory equivalent to general relativity and their Killing vectors, energy, momentum and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2010-01-01

    The energy–momentum tensor, which is coordinate-independent, is used to calculate energy, momentum and angular momentum of two different tetrad fields. Although, the two tetrad fields reproduce the same space-time their energies are different. Therefore, a regularized expression of the gravitational energy–momentum tensor of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR), is used to make the energies of the two tetrad fields equal. The definition of the gravitational energy–momentum is used to investigate the energy within the external event horizon. The components of angular momentum associated with these space–times are calculated. In spite of using a static space–time, we get a non-zero component of angular momentum! Therefore, we derive the Killing vectors associated with these space–times using the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the framework of the TEGR to make the picture more clear. (general)

  8. Is blade element momentum theory (BEM) enough for smart rotor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, W.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; van Kuik, G.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Smart rotor emerges as an innovation technique to reduce the impact of dynamic loading on wind turbines. Local movements of distributed aerodynamic devices will enhance the non-uniformity and dynamic effects of loading, which will challenge the applicability of the blade element momentum theory

  9. M-momentum transfer between gravitons, membranes, and fivebranes as perturbative gauge theory processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Vakkuri, E.; Kraus, P.

    1998-01-01

    Polchinski and Pouliot have shown that M-momentum transfer between membranes in supergravity can be understood as a non-perturbative instanton effect in gauge theory. Here we consider a dual process: electric flux transmission between D-branes. We show that this process can be described in perturbation theory as virtual string pair creation, and is closely related to Schwinger's treatment of the pair creation of charged particles in a uniform electric field. Through the application of dualities, our perturbative calculation gives results for various non-perturbative amplitudes, including M-momentum transfer between gravitons, membranes and longitudinal fivebranes. Thus perturbation theory plus dualities are sufficient to demonstrate agreement between supergravity and gauge theory for a number of M-momentum transferring processes. A variety of other processes where branes are transmitted between branes, e.g. (p,q)-string transmission in IIB theory, can also be studied. We discuss the implications of our results for proving the eleven-dimensional Lorentz invariance of matrix theory. (orig.)

  10. General momentum theory for wind turbines at low tip speed ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; van Kuik, Gijs A. M.

    2011-01-01

    General momentum theory is used to study the behaviour of the ‘classical’ free vortex wake model of Joukowsky. This model has recently attained considerable attention as it shows the possibility of achieving a power performance that greatly exceeds the Lanchester‐Betz limit for rotors running...... at low tip speed ratios. This behaviour is confirmed even when including the effect of a centre vortex, allowing azimuthal velocities and the associated radial pressure gradient to be taken into account in the axial momentum balance without any simplifying assumptions. It is shown that the most likely...

  11. Energy momentum tensor and marginal deformations in open string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2004-01-01

    Marginal boundary deformations in a two dimensional conformal field theory correspond to a family of classical solutions of the equations of motion of open string field theory. In this paper we develop a systematic method for relating the parameter labelling the marginal boundary deformation in the conformal field theory to the parameter labelling the classical solution in open string field theory. This is done by first constructing the energy-momentum tensor associated with the classical solution in open string field theory using Noether method, and then comparing this to the answer obtained in the conformal field theory by analysing the boundary state. We also use this method to demonstrate that in open string field theory the tachyon lump solution on a circle of radius larger than one has vanishing pressure along the circle direction, as is expected for a co-dimension one D-brane. (author)

  12. Educational Theory and Classroom Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Ronald G.; Smith, William S.

    1979-01-01

    Described are two instruments used in a workshop designed to help teachers clarify their own beliefs about education and to shape their classroom behavior accordingly. The Student-Content Inventory concerns styles of student-teacher interaction and the Educational Theory Inventory correlates the respondent's beliefs to major educational theories.…

  13. Energy momentum tensor and operator product expansion in local causal perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange, D.

    2000-09-01

    We derive new examples for algebraic relations of interacting fields in local perturbative quantum field theory. The fundamental building blocks in this approach are time ordered products of free (composed) fields. We give explicit formulas for the construction of Poincare covariant ones, which were already known to exist through cohomological arguments. For a large class of theories the canonical energy momentum tensor is shown to be conserved. Classical theories without dimensionful couplings admit an improved tensor that is additionally traceless. On the example of φ 4 -theory we discuss the improved tensor in the quantum theory. Its trace receives an anomalous contribution due to its conservation. Moreover, we define an interacting bilocal normal product for scalar theories. This leads to an operator product expansion of two time ordered fields. (orig.) [de

  14. Noether symmetries, energy-momentum tensors, and conformal invariance in classical field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of classical field theory, we first review the Noether theory of symmetries, with simple rederivations of its essential results, with special emphasis given to the Noether identities for gauge theories. With this baggage on board, we next discuss in detail, for Poincare invariant theories in flat spacetime, the differences between the Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and a family of Hilbert energy-momentum tensors. All these tensors coincide on shell but they split their duties in the following sense: Belinfante's tensor is the one to use in order to obtain the generators of Poincare symmetries and it is a basic ingredient of the generators of other eventual spacetime symmetries which may happen to exist. Instead, Hilbert tensors are the means to test whether a theory contains other spacetime symmetries beyond Poincare. We discuss at length the case of scale and conformal symmetry, of which we give some examples. We show, for Poincare invariant Lagrangians, that the realization of scale invariance selects a unique Hilbert tensor which allows for an easy test as to whether conformal invariance is also realized. Finally we make some basic remarks on metric generally covariant theories and classical field theory in a fixed curved background.

  15. High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in var-phi 3 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Relativistic quantum field theories may help one to understand high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, the author studies ladder diagrams in var-phi 3 theory. He shows that in the limit s much-gt |t| much-gt m 2 , the scattering amplitude for the N-rung ladder diagram takes the form s -1 |t| -N+1 times a homogeneous polynomial of degree 2N - 2 and ln s and ln |t|. This polynomial takes different forms depending on the relation of ln |t| to ln s. More precisely, the asymptotic formula for the N-rung ladder diagram has points of non-analytically when ln |t| = γ ln s for γ = 1/2, 1/3, hor-ellipsis, 1/N-2

  16. Operator theory of angular momentum nad orientational auto-correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The rigorous relation between the orientational auto-correlation function and the angular momentum autocorrelation function is described in two cases of interest. First when description of the complete zero THz- spectrum is required from the Mori continued fraction expansion for the angular momentum autocorrelation function and second when rotation/translation effects are important. The Mori-Evans theory of 1976, relying on the simple Shimizu relation is found to be essentially unaffected by the higher order corrections recently worked out by Ford and co-workers in the Markov limit. The mutual interaction of rotation and translation is important in determining the details of both the orientational and angular momentum auto-correlation function's (a.c.f.'s) in the presence of sample anisotropy or a symmetry breaking field. In this case it is essential to regard the angular momentum a.c.f. as non-Markovian and methods are developed to relate this to the orientational a.c.f. in the presence of rotation/translation coupling. (author)

  17. Cutoff effects on energy-momentum tensor correlators in lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Harvey B.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the discretization errors affecting correlators of the energy-momentum tensor T μν at finite temperature in SU(N c ) gauge theory with the Wilson action and two different discretizations of T μν . We do so by using lattice perturbation theory and non-perturbative Monte-Carlo simulations. These correlators, which are functions of Euclidean time x 0 and spatial momentum p, are the starting point for a lattice study of the transport properties of the gluon plasma. We find that the correlator of the energy ∫d 3 x T 00 has much larger discretization errors than the correlator of momentum ∫d 3 x T 0k . Secondly, the shear and diagonal stress correlators (T 12 and T kk ) require N τ ≥ 8 for the Tx 0 = 1/2 point to be in the scaling region and the cutoff effect to be less than 10%. We then show that their discretization errors on an anisotropic lattice with a σ /a τ = 2 are comparable to those on the isotropic lattice with the same temporal lattice spacing. Finally, we also study finite p correlators.

  18. Statistical mechanical foundation of the peridynamic nonlocal continuum theory: energy and momentum conservation laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoucq, R B; Sears, Mark P

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive the energy and momentum conservation laws of the peridynamic nonlocal continuum theory using the principles of classical statistical mechanics. The peridynamic laws allow the consideration of discontinuous motion, or deformation, by relying on integral operators. These operators sum forces and power expenditures separated by a finite distance and so represent nonlocal interaction. The integral operators replace the differential divergence operators conventionally used, thereby obviating special treatment at points of discontinuity. The derivation presented employs a general multibody interatomic potential, avoiding the standard assumption of a pairwise decomposition. The integral operators are also expressed in terms of a stress tensor and heat flux vector under the assumption that these fields are differentiable, demonstrating that the classical continuum energy and momentum conservation laws are consequences of the more general peridynamic laws. An important conclusion is that nonlocal interaction is intrinsic to continuum conservation laws when derived using the principles of statistical mechanics.

  19. Symmetry broken and restored coupled-cluster theory: I. Rotational symmetry and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguet, T

    2015-01-01

    We extend coupled-cluster (CC) theory performed on top of a Slater determinant breaking rotational symmetry to allow for the exact restoration of the angular momentum at any truncation order. The main objective relates to the description of near-degenerate finite quantum systems with an open-shell character. As such, the newly developed many-body formalism offers a wealth of potential applications and further extensions dedicated to the ab initio description of, e.g., doubly open-shell atomic nuclei and molecule dissociation. The formalism, which encompasses both single-reference CC theory and projected Hartree–Fock theory as particular cases, permits the computation of usual sets of connected diagrams while consistently incorporating static correlations through the highly non-perturbative restoration of rotational symmetry. Interestingly, the yrast spectroscopy of the system, i.e. the lowest energy associated with each angular momentum, is accessed within a single calculation. A key difficulty presently overcome relates to the necessity to handle generalized energy and norm kernels for which naturally terminating CC expansions could be eventually obtained. The present work focuses on SU(2) but can be extended to any (locally) compact Lie group and to discrete groups, such as most point groups. In particular, the formalism will be soon generalized to U(1) symmetry associated with particle number conservation. This is relevant to Bogoliubov CC theory that was recently applied to singly open-shell nuclei. (paper)

  20. Learning Theory and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhan, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Although theories of learning which stress the role of reinforcement can help us understand altruistic behaviors, it seems clear that a more complete comprehension calls for an expansion of our notions of learning, such that they incorporate affect and cognition. (Author/JM)

  1. Momentum transfer theory of non-conservative charged particle transport in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovac, S.B.; Petrovic, Z.Lj.

    1995-01-01

    Momentum - transfer approximation is applied to momentum and energy balance equations describing reacting particle swarms in gases in crossed electric and magnetic fields. Transport coefficients of charged particles undergoing both inelastic and reactive, non-particle-conserving collisions with a gas of neutral molecules are calculated. Momentum - transfer theory (MTT) has been developed mainly by Robson and collaborators. It has been applied to a single reactive gas and mixtures of reactive gases in electric field only. MTT has also been applied in crossed electric and magnetic fields recently and independently of our work but the reactive collisions were not considered. Consider a swarm of electrons of charge e and mass m moving with velocity rvec v through a neutral gas under the influence of an applied electric rvec E and magnetic rvec B field. The collision processes which we shall investigate are limited to elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions of electrons with gas molecules. Here we interpret reactive collisions as collisions which produce change in number of the swarm particles. Reactive collisions involve creation (ionization by electron impact) or loss (electron attachment) of swarm particles. We consider only single ionization in approximation of the mass ratio m/m 0 0 are masses of electrons and neutral particles, respectively. We assume that the stage of evolution of the swarm is the hydrodynamic limit (HDL). In HDL, the space - time dependence of all properties is carried by the number density n of swarm particles

  2. High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in φ3 theory. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osland, P.; Wu, T.T.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1987-01-01

    The scattering amplitude for the four-rung ladder diagram in φ 3 theory is evaluated at high energies and for large momentum transfers. The result takes the form of s -1 vertical stroketvertical stroke -3 multiplied by a homogeneous sixth-order polynomial in ln s and 1nvertical stroketvertical stroke. The novel and unexpected feature is that this polynomial is different depending on whether 1n vertical stroketvertical stroke is larger or less than 1/2 1n s. Thus the asymptotic formula is not analytic at 1n vertical stroketvertical stroke=1/2 1n s, although the first five derivatives are continuous. (orig.)

  3. Calibrated Blade-Element/Momentum Theory Aerodynamic Model of the MARIN Stock Wind Turbine: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goupee, A.; Kimball, R.; de Ridder, E. J.; Helder, J.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.

    2015-04-02

    In this paper, a calibrated blade-element/momentum theory aerodynamic model of the MARIN stock wind turbine is developed and documented. The model is created using open-source software and calibrated to closely emulate experimental data obtained by the DeepCwind Consortium using a genetic algorithm optimization routine. The provided model will be useful for those interested in validating interested in validating floating wind turbine numerical simulators that rely on experiments utilizing the MARIN stock wind turbine—for example, the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30’s Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continued, with Correlation project.

  4. Solitons and the energy-momentum tensor for affine Toda theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, D. I.; Turok, N.; Underwood, J. W. R.

    1993-07-01

    Following Leznov and Saveliev, we present the general solution to Toda field theories of conformal, affine or conformal affine type, associated with a simple Lie algebra g. These depend on a free massless field and on a group element. By putting the former to zero, soliton solutions to the affine Toda theories with imaginary coupling constant result with the soliton data encoded in the group element. As this requires a reformulation of the affine Kac-Moody algebra closely related to that already used to formulate the physical properties of the particle excitations, including their scattering matrices, a unified treatment of particles and solitons emerges. The physical energy—momentum tensor for a general solution is broken into a total derivative plus a part dependent only on the derivatives of the free field. Despite the non-linearity of the field equations and their complex nature the energy and momentum of the N-soliton solution is shown to be real, equalling the sum of contributions from the individual solitons. There are rank-g species of soliton, with masses given by a generalisation of a formula due to Hollowood, being proportional to the components of the left Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of the Cartan matrix of g.

  5. Solitons and the energy-momentum tensor for affine Toda theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, D.I.; Turok, N.; Underwood, J.W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Following Leznov and Saveliev, we present the general solution to Toda field theories of conformal, affine or conformal affine type, associated with a simple Lie algebra g. These depend on a free massless field and on a group element. By putting the former to zero, soliton solutions to the affine Toda theories with imaginary coupling constant result with the soliton data encoded in the group element. As this requires a reformulation of the affine Kac-Moodyy algebra closely related to that already used to formulate the physical properties of the particle excitations, including their scattering matrices, a unified treatment of particles and solitons emerges. The physical energy-momentum tensor for a general solution is broken into a total derivative plus a part dependent only on the derivatives of the free field. Despite the non-linearity of the field equations and their complex nature the energy and momentum of the N-soliton solution is shown to be real, equalling the sum of contributions from the individual solitons. There are rank-g species of soliton, with masses given by a generalisation of a formula due to Hollowood, being proportional to the components of the left Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of the Cartan matrix of g. (orig.)

  6. Momentum effect in stocks’ returns between the rational and the behavioural financial theories: Proposition of the progressive rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Zoghlami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available     The puzzling momentum strategies’ payoffs defied the rational financial theory asserting the stocks returns’ unpredictability. Moreover, the momentum effect persist the main stocks returns’ anomaly escaping any risk-based explanation. The resilience of this phenomenon had favoured the development of behavioural financial field, which breaks with the investor’ full rationality hypothesis. This paper attempts to reconcile between the rational and behavioural financial theories, through the introduction of the progressive rationality concept. Especially, we argue that recognizing the temporary inappropriate investors’ reactions; can resolve the puzzling momentum anomaly. To fulfil our objective, we identify the appropriate autoregressive level that captures the significant autocorrelations involved by the investors’ over and under reactions. Then, we explore the profitability of the 6/6 momentum strategy implemented on the adjusted stocks’ returns. The adjusted momentum strategy is still profitable but no longer puzzling, since the related excess return is henceforth fully captured by a β and a size effect.Key words: Tunisian momentum effect, the rational finance theory, the behavioural finance theory, the three-factorial model and the autoregressive process.

  7. Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teague, Bruce T.; Gartner, Bill

    2017-01-01

    The chapter reviews several of the most prominent entrepreneurship frameworks to demonstrate that the entrepreneurship field lacks a theory of entrepreneurial behavior. However, each of these existing frameworks would benefit from, and be complemented by, an entrepreneurial behavioral theory. Dra...

  8. Energy-momentum tensor in theories with scalar fields and two coupling constants. I. Non-Abelian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, S.D.; Misra, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize our earlier discussion of renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor in scalar QED to that in non-Abelian gauge theories involving scalar fields. We show the need for adding an improvement term to the conventional energy-momentum tensor. We consider two possible forms for the improvement term: (i) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite function of bare parameters of the theory (so that the energy-momentum tensor can be derived from an action that is a finite function of bare quantities); (ii) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite quantity, i.e., a finite function of renormalized parameters. We establish a negative result; viz., neither form leads to a finite energy-momentum tensor to O(e 2 λ/sup n/)

  9. Symmetric energy-momentum tensor in Maxwell, Yang-Mills, and Proca theories obtained using only Noether's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, M.; Flores, E.

    2006-01-01

    The symmetric and gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensors for source-free Maxwell and Yang-Mills theories are obtained by means of translations in spacetime via a systematic implementation of Noether's theorem. For the source-free neutral Proca field, the same procedure yields also the symmetric energy-momentum tensor. In all cases, the key point to get the right expressions for the energy-momentum tensors is the appropriate handling of their equations of motion and the Bianchi identities. It must be stressed that these results are obtained without using Belinfante's symmetrization techniques which are usually employed to this end. (Author)

  10. Quantum field theory with a momentum space of constant curvature (perturbation theory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir-Kasimov, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the framework of the field-theoretical approach in which the off-the-mass shell extension proceeds in the p-space of constant curvature, the perburbation theory is developed. The configurational representation of the de Sitter space is introduced with the help of the Fourier transformation of the group of motions. On the basis of a natural generalization of the Bogolyubov causality condition to the case of the new configurational representation a perturbation theory is constructed with the local in xi space Lagrangian density fucntion. The obtained S matrix obeys the reguirement of translation invariance. The S matrix elements are given by convergent expressions

  11. A CFD analysis of the actuator disc flow compared with momentum theory results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard Madsen, H. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    The blade element momentum (BEM) model is still used in many aerodynamic and aeroelastic models for design and load calculations. This is due to its simplicity, robustness, computational speed and good accuracy for a wide range of applications. The question about accuracy is however closely connected to the airfoil section data and therefore correlation/lack of correlation with experimental results can both be due to the specific input data used and due to the induced velocity field predicted by the BEM method. It is also well-known that the BEM method for some applications is used under operational conditions that violates the assumptions made for the development of the model, e.g. operation in yaw and operation at high loading. The main objective with the present study is to investigate this part of the BEM method (the momentum strip theory MST) on which the determination of the induced velocities is based. This is done by comparing the results of the MST model with velocities predicted on basis of the Navier Stokes equations for the flow through an actuator disc. (au)

  12. Mimesis: Linking Postmodern Theory to Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article elaborates mimesis as a theory of causality used to explain human behavior. Drawing parallels to social constructionism's critique of positivism and naturalism, mimesis is offered as a theory of causality explaining human behavior that contests the current dominance of Newton's theory of causality as cause and effect. The contestation…

  13. Value and Momentum Everywhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes themselves. However, value and momentum are negatively correlated both within and across asset classes. Our results indicate the presence of common global risks that we characterize with a three factor model. Global funding liquidity risk...... is a partial source of these patterns, which are identifiable only when examining value and momentum simultaneously across markets. Our findings present a challenge to existing behavioral, institutional, and rational asset pricing theories that largely focus on U.S. equities....

  14. Excessive sensitivity of momentum densities to crystal potentials as a reason for difficulties in verifying positron enhancement theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sormann, H.

    2001-01-01

    The excessive sensitivity of the momentum densities of electron-positron annihilation pairs (MDAP) to crystal potentials found in this study severely deteriorates a possibility to use a comparison between theoretical and experimental MDAP results as a criterion for the legitimacy of electron-positron interaction theories. Illustrative examples are given. (orig.)

  15. Yang-Mills theory on a momentum lattice: Gauge invariance, chiral invariance, and no fermion doubling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berube, D.; Kroeger, H.; Lafrance, R.; Marleau, L.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss properties of a noncompact formulation of gauge theories with fermions on a momentum (k) lattice. (a) This formulation is suitable to build in Fourier acceleration in a direct way. (b) The numerical effort to compute the action (by fast Fourier transform) goes essentially like logV with the lattice volume V. (c) For the Yang-Mills theory we find that the action conserves gauge symmetry and chiral symmetry in a weak sense: On a finite lattice the action is invariant under infinitesimal transformations with compact support. Under finite transformations these symmetries are approximately conserved and they are restored on an infinite lattice and in the continuum limit. Moreover, these symmetries also hold on a finite lattice under finite transformations, if the classical fields, instead of being c-number valued, take values from a finite Galois field. (d) There is no fermion doubling. (e) For the φ 4 model we investigate the transition towards the continuum limit in lattice perturbation theory up to second order. We compute the two- and four-point functions and find local and Lorentz-invariant results. (f) In QED we compute a one-loop vacuum polarization and find in the continuum limit the standard result. (g) As a numerical application, we compute the propagator left-angle φ(k)φ(k')right-angle in the φ 4 model, investigate Euclidean invariance, and extract m R as well as Z R . Moreover we compute left-angle F μν (k)F μν (k')right-angle in the SU(2) model

  16. Pengembangan tes kemampuan literasi sains pada materi momentum dan impuls dengan Analisis Item Response Theory (IRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Apriyani Kusuma Putri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kemampuan literasi sains adalah suatu kemampuan yang memungkinkan seseorang untuk membuat suatu keputusan dengan pengetahuan konsep dan proses sains yang dimilikinya. Berbagai macam permasalahan yang terjadi di era globalisasi ini menuntut siswa untuk tidak hanya cakap dalam aspek kognitif tapi juga mampu memberi keputusan untuk memecahkan permasalahan, sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa kemampuan literasi sains adalah kemampuan yang penting dan harus dimiliki siswa. Oleh karena itu, dibutuhkan instrumen untuk mengukur kemampuan literasi sains. hal inilah yang mendasari peneliti mengembangkan instrumen kemampuan literasi sains. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengembangkan dan mengetahui karakteristik tes kemampuan literasi sains fisika siswa SMA pada materi momentum dan impuls berdasarkan aspek literasi sains yang dikemukakan oleh Gormally. Metode penelitian yang diterapkan adalah penelitian dan pengembangan (Research and Development yaitu metode penelitian yang digunakan untuk menghasilkan produk tertentu, dan menguji keefektifan produk tersebut. Sebelum diuji coba tes telah divalidasi oleh tiga orang validator dan menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa tes cukup baik dan dapat diuji coba. Hasil analisis menggunakan Item Response Theory menunjukkan bahwa model 3PL adalah model yang sesuai dengan karakteristik tes. Sedangkan karakteristik tes yang meliputi daya pembeda, tingkat kesukaran, dan faktor tebakan termasuk dalam kategori baik. Science literacy skills is an ability that allows one to make a decision with the knowledge of the concepts and processes of science has. A wide variety of problems that occur in a globalized world requires students to not only proficient in cognitive but also able to make a decision to solve the problem, so it can be said that the ability of science literacy is an important capability and must be owned by the students. Therefore, the instrument is required to measure the ability of science literacy. This problem is

  17. Numerical Simulations of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Turbines Using the Blade Element Momentum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Thulin, Oskar; Aliseda, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Energy extraction from the available kinetic energy in tidal currents via Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines has recently attracted scientists' attention as a highly predictable source of renewable energy. The strongest tidal resources have a concentrated nature that require close turbine spacing in a farm of MHK turbines. This tight spacing, however, will lead to interaction of the downstream turbines with the turbulent wake generated by upstream turbines. This interaction can significantly reduce the power generated and possibly result in structural failure before the expected service life is completed. Development of a numerical methodology to study the turbine-wake interaction can provide a tool for optimization of turbine spacing to maximize the power generated in turbine arrays. In this work, we will present numerical simulations of the flow field in a farm of horizontal axis MHK turbines using the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEMT). We compare the value of integral variables (i.e. efficiency, power, torque and etc.) calculated for each turbine in the farm for different arrangements with varying streamwise and lateral offsets between turbines. We find that BEMT provides accurate estimates of turbine efficiency under uniform flow conditions, but overpredicts the efficiency of downstream turbines when they are strongly affected by the wakes. Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center.

  18. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory: correlations in molecular fluids with intrinsic angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J S; Daivis, Peter J; Dyre, Jeppe C; Todd, B D; Bruus, Henrik

    2013-01-21

    The extended Navier-Stokes theory accounts for the coupling between the translational and rotational molecular degrees of freedom. In this paper, we generalize this theory to non-zero frequencies and wavevectors, which enables a new study of spatio-temporal correlation phenomena present in molecular fluids. To discuss these phenomena in detail, molecular dynamics simulations of molecular chlorine are performed for three different state points. In general, the theory captures the behavior for small wavevector and frequencies as expected. For example, in the hydrodynamic regime and for molecular fluids with small moment of inertia like chlorine, the theory predicts that the longitudinal and transverse intrinsic angular velocity correlation functions are almost identical, which is also seen in the molecular dynamics simulations. However, the theory fails at large wavevector and frequencies. To account for the correlations at these scales, we derive a phenomenological expression for the frequency dependent rotational viscosity and wavevector and frequency dependent longitudinal spin viscosity. From this we observe a significant coupling enhancement between the molecular angular velocity and translational velocity for large frequencies in the gas phase; this is not observed for the supercritical fluid and liquid state points.

  19. Renormalized energy-momentum tensor of λΦ4 theory in curved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Divergenceless expression for the energy-momentum tensor of scalar field is obtained using the momentum cut-off regularization technique. We consider a scalar field with quartic self-coupling in a spatially flat (3+1)-dimensional Robertson–Walker space-time, having arbitrary mass and coupled to gravity. As special cases ...

  20. Nonlinear aeroelastic modelling for wind turbine blades based on blade element momentum theory and geometrically exact beam theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Xiongwei; Renevier, Nathalie; Stables, Matthew; Hall, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing size and flexibility of large wind turbine blades, accurate and reliable aeroelastic modelling is playing an important role for the design of large wind turbines. Most existing aeroelastic models are linear models based on assumption of small blade deflections. This assumption is not valid anymore for very flexible blade design because such blades often experience large deflections. In this paper, a novel nonlinear aeroelastic model for large wind turbine blades has been developed by combining BEM (blade element momentum) theory and mixed-form formulation of GEBT (geometrically exact beam theory). The nonlinear aeroelastic model takes account of large blade deflections and thus greatly improves the accuracy of aeroelastic analysis of wind turbine blades. The nonlinear aeroelastic model is implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics and validated with a series of benchmark calculation tests. The results show that good agreement is achieved when compared with experimental data, and its capability of handling large deflections is demonstrated. Finally the nonlinear aeroelastic model is applied to aeroelastic modelling of the parked WindPACT 1.5 MW baseline wind turbine, and reduced flapwise deflection from the nonlinear aeroelastic model is observed compared to the linear aeroelastic code FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence). - Highlights: • A novel nonlinear aeroelastic model for wind turbine blades is developed. • The model takes account of large blade deflections and geometric nonlinearities. • The model is reliable and efficient for aeroelastic modelling of wind turbine blades. • The accuracy of the model is verified by a series of benchmark calculation tests. • The model provides more realistic aeroelastic modelling than FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence)

  1. Analysis of Health Behavior Theories for Clustering of Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Duffy, Sonia A

    The objective of this article was to review the utility of established behavior theories, including the Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Transtheoretical Model, and Health Promotion Model, for addressing multiple health behaviors among people who smoke. It is critical to design future interventions for multiple health behavior changes tailored to individuals who currently smoke, yet it has not been addressed. Five health behavior theories/models were analyzed and critically evaluated. A review of the literature included a search of PubMed and Google Scholar from 2010 to 2016. Two hundred sixty-seven articles (252 studies from the initial search and 15 studies from the references of initially identified studies) were included in the analysis. Most of the health behavior theories/models emphasize psychological and cognitive constructs that can be applied only to one specific behavior at a time, thus making them not suitable to address multiple health behaviors. However, the Health Promotion Model incorporates "related behavior factors" that can explain multiple health behaviors among persons who smoke. Future multiple behavior interventions guided by the Health Promotion Model are necessary to show the utility and applicability of the model to address multiple health behaviors.

  2. On the energy-momentum tensors for field theories in spaces with affine connection and metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.

    1991-01-01

    Generalized covariant Bianchi type identities are obtained and investigated for Lagrangian densities, depending on co- and contravariant tensor fields and their first and second covariant derivatives in spaces with affine connection and metric (L n -space). The notions of canonical, generalized canonical, symmetric and variational energy-momentum tensor are introduced and necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the symmetric energy-momentum tensor as a local conserved quantity are obtained. 19 refs.; 1 tab

  3. Statistical test theory for the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    de Gruijter, Dato N M

    2007-01-01

    Since the development of the first intelligence test in the early 20th century, educational and psychological tests have become important measurement techniques to quantify human behavior. Focusing on this ubiquitous yet fruitful area of research, Statistical Test Theory for the Behavioral Sciences provides both a broad overview and a critical survey of assorted testing theories and models used in psychology, education, and other behavioral science fields. Following a logical progression from basic concepts to more advanced topics, the book first explains classical test theory, covering true score, measurement error, and reliability. It then presents generalizability theory, which provides a framework to deal with various aspects of test scores. In addition, the authors discuss the concept of validity in testing, offering a strategy for evidence-based validity. In the two chapters devoted to item response theory (IRT), the book explores item response models, such as the Rasch model, and applications, incl...

  4. A parametric study of the behavior of the angular momentum vector during spin rate changes of rigid body spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuski, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    During a spin-up or spin-down maneuver of a spinning spacecraft, it is usual to have not only a constant body-fixed torque about the desired spin axis, but also small undesired constant torques about the transverse axes. This causes the orientation of the angular momentum vector to change in inertial space. Since an analytic solution is available for the angular momentum vector as a function of time, this behavior can be studied for large variations of the dynamic parameters, such as the initial spin rate, the inertial properties and the torques. As an example, the spin-up and spin-down maneuvers of the Galileo spacecraft was studied and as a result, very simple heuristic solutions were discovered which provide very good approximations to the parametric behavior of the angular momentum vector orientation.

  5. Use of Theory in Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluethmann, Shirley M; Bartholomew, L Kay; Murphy, Caitlin C; Vernon, Sally W

    2017-04-01

    Theory use may enhance effectiveness of behavioral interventions, yet critics question whether theory-based interventions have been sufficiently scrutinized. This study applied a framework to evaluate theory use in physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors. The aims were to (1) evaluate theory application intensity and (2) assess the association between extensiveness of theory use and intervention effectiveness. Studies were previously identified through a systematic search, including only randomized controlled trials published from 2005 to 2013, that addressed physical activity behavior change and studied survivors who were theory items from Michie and Prestwich's coding framework were selected to calculate theory intensity scores. Studies were classified into three subgroups based on extensiveness of theory use (Level 1 = sparse; Level 2 = moderate; and Level 3 = extensive). Fourteen randomized controlled trials met search criteria. Most trials used the transtheoretical model ( n = 5) or social cognitive theory ( n = 3). For extensiveness of theory use, 5 studies were classified as Level 1, 4 as Level 2, and 5 as Level 3. Studies in the extensive group (Level 3) had the largest overall effect size ( g = 0.76). Effects were more modest in Level 1 and 2 groups with overall effect sizes of g = 0.28 and g = 0.36, respectively. Theory use is often viewed as essential to behavior change, but theory application varies widely. In this study, there was some evidence to suggest that extensiveness of theory use enhanced intervention effectiveness. However, there is more to learn about how theory can improve interventions for breast cancer survivors.

  6. Validation and modification of the Blade Element Momentum theory based on comparisons with actuator disc simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian; Døssing, Mads

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model using detailed numerical simulations with an axis symmetric actuator disc (AD) model has been carried out. The present implementation of the BEM model is in a version where exactly the same input in the form of non-dimensiona......A comprehensive investigation of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model using detailed numerical simulations with an axis symmetric actuator disc (AD) model has been carried out. The present implementation of the BEM model is in a version where exactly the same input in the form of non...

  7. Infrared behaviors of SU(2 gauge theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuominen Kimmo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will discuss some recent results in the determination of the location of the conformal window in SU(2 gauge theory with Nf fermions in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. In particular, we will demonstrate that the long distance behavior of the continuum theory with Nf = 6 is governed by an infrared stable fixed point.

  8. Currents and the energy-momentum tensor in classical field theory: a fresh look at an old problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forger, Michael; Roemer, Hartmann

    2004-01-01

    We give a comprehensive review of various methods to define currents and the energy-momentum tensor in classical field theory, with emphasis on a geometric point of view. The necessity of 'improving' the expressions provided by the canonical Noether procedure is addressed and given an adequate geometric framework. The main new ingredient is the explicit formulation of a principle of 'ultralocality' with respect to the symmetry generators, which is shown to fix the ambiguity inherent in the procedure of improvement and guide it towards a unique answer: when combined with the appropriate splitting of the fields into sectors, it leads to the well-known expressions for the current as the variational derivative of the matter field Lagrangian with respect to the gauge field and for the energy-momentum tensor as the variational derivative of the matter field Lagrangian with respect to the metric tensor. In the second case, the procedure is shown to work even when the matter field Lagrangian depends explicitly on the curvature, thus establishing the correct relation between scale invariance, in the form of local Weyl invariance 'on shell', and tracelessness of the energy-momentum tensor, required for a consistent definition of the concept of a conformal field theory

  9. Non-perturbative analysis of some simple field theories on a momentum space lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, E.D. III.

    1984-01-01

    In this work, a new technique is developed for the numerical study of quantum field theory. The procedure, borrowed from nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, is that of finding the eigenvalues of a finite Hamiltonian matrix. The matrix is created by evaluating the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian operator on a finite basis of states. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the finite dimensional matrix become an accurate approximation to those of the physical system as the finite basis of states is extended to become more complete. A model of scalars coupled to fermions in 0 + 1 dimensions as a simple field theory is studied to consider in the course of developing the technique. Having developed the numerical and analytical techniques, a Fermi field coupled to a Bose field in 1 + 1 dimensions with the Yukawa coupling lambda anti-psi phi psi is considered. The large coupling limit basis of the 0 + 1 dimensional model is extended to this case using a Bogoliubov transformation on the fermions. It provides a handle on the behavior of the system in the large coupling limit. The effects of renormalization and the generation of bound states are considered

  10. On the principle of gauge invariance in the field theory with curved momentum space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir-Kasimov, R.M.

    1990-11-01

    The gauge transformations consistent with the hypothesis of the curved momentum space are considered. In this case the components of the electromagnetic field are not commuting. The finite-difference analogue of the D'Alambert equation is derived. (author). 5 refs

  11. The energy-momentum spectrum in local field theories with broken Lorentz-symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, H.J.; Buchholz, D.

    1984-05-01

    Assuming locality of the observables and positivity of the energy it is shown that the joint spectrum of the energy-momentum operators has a Lorentz-invariant lower boundary in all superselection sectors. This result is of interest if the Lorentz-symmetry is (spontaneously) broken, such as in the charged sectors of quantum electrodynamics. (orig.)

  12. Theory of generation of angular momentum of phonons by heat current and its conversion to spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Masato; Murakami, Shuichi

    Spin-rotation coupling in crystals will enable us to convert between spin current and mechanical rotations, as has been studied in surface acoustic waves, in liquid metals, and in carbon nanotubes. In this presentation we focus on angular momentum of phonons. In nonmagnetic crystals without inversion symmetry, we theoretically demonstrate that phonon modes generally have angular momenta depending on their wave vectors. In equilibrium the sum of the angular momenta is zero. On the other hand, if a heat current flows in the crystal, nonequilibrium phonon distribution leads to nonzero total angular momentum of phonons. It can be observed as a rotation of crystal itself, and as a spin current induced by these phonons via the spin-rotation coupling.

  13. Structure of the generalized momentum of a test charged particle and the inverse problem in general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A.V.; Singatullin, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The inverse problem is solved in general relativity theory (GRT) consisting in determining the metric and potentials of an electromagnetic field by their values in the nonsingular point of the V 4 space and present functions, being the generalized momenta of a test charged particle. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for a test charged particle in GRT is used. The general form of the generalized momentum dependence on the initial values is determined. It is noted that the inverse problem solution of dynamics in GRT contains arbitrariness which depends on the choice of the metric and potential values of the electromagnetic field in the nonsingular point [ru

  14. A Behavioral Theory of Human Capital Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper

    design in fostering the integration and use of human capital is bounded by individual cognitive limitations that may lead employees to deviate from expected behavior, both individually and in collaboration. The thesis consists of three research papers relying on comprehensive longitudinal project data...... with one another. The overarching contribution of the thesis is to demonstrate, through the combination of psychological and organizational theory, how the ability of firms to properly activate and apply the knowledge held by their employees is fundamentally contingent on the interplay of cognitive...... of a behavioral theory of human capital integration....

  15. Optimal search behavior and classic foraging theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartumeus, F; Catalan, J

    2009-01-01

    Random walk methods and diffusion theory pervaded ecological sciences as methods to analyze and describe animal movement. Consequently, statistical physics was mostly seen as a toolbox rather than as a conceptual framework that could contribute to theory on evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the existence of mechanistic relationships and feedbacks between behavioral processes and statistical patterns of movement suggests that, beyond movement quantification, statistical physics may prove to be an adequate framework to understand animal behavior across scales from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Recently developed random search theory has served to critically re-evaluate classic ecological questions on animal foraging. For instance, during the last few years, there has been a growing debate on whether search behavior can include traits that improve success by optimizing random (stochastic) searches. Here, we stress the need to bring together the general encounter problem within foraging theory, as a mean for making progress in the biological understanding of random searching. By sketching the assumptions of optimal foraging theory (OFT) and by summarizing recent results on random search strategies, we pinpoint ways to extend classic OFT, and integrate the study of search strategies and its main results into the more general theory of optimal foraging.

  16. Wigner functions for the pair angle and orbital angular momentum. Possible applications in quantum information theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastrup, H.A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2017-10-17

    The framework of Wigner functions for the canonical pair angle and orbital angular momentum, derived and analyzed in 2 recent papers [H. A. Kastrup, Phys. Rev. A 94, 062113(2016) and Phys. Rev. A 95, 052111(2017)], is applied to elementary concepts of quantum information like qubits and 2-qubits, e.g., entangled EPR/Bell states etc. Properties of the associated Wigner functions are discussed and illustrated. The results may be useful for quantum information experiments with orbital angular momenta of light beams or electron beams.

  17. Wigner functions for the pair angle and orbital angular momentum. Possible applications in quantum information theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastrup, H.A.

    2017-01-01

    The framework of Wigner functions for the canonical pair angle and orbital angular momentum, derived and analyzed in 2 recent papers [H. A. Kastrup, Phys. Rev. A 94, 062113(2016) and Phys. Rev. A 95, 052111(2017)], is applied to elementary concepts of quantum information like qubits and 2-qubits, e.g., entangled EPR/Bell states etc. Properties of the associated Wigner functions are discussed and illustrated. The results may be useful for quantum information experiments with orbital angular momenta of light beams or electron beams.

  18. On the quantum field theory in the momentum space with the constant curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhiev, S.A.; Petrosyan, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Model of polarization operator in the approximation of ''opalescent'' diagrams in the momentum space of constant curvature is investigated. Integral equation for an absorptive part of the hadron polarization operator has been obtained in stereographic parametrization of the de Sitter space. Integral equation for the case of zero mass of an exchange particle has been solved, cross section and mean multiplicity of hadron production in the e + e - annihilation have been calculated. Infrared divergences arising during exact summation of the considered diagram class are separated to a multiplicative constant of renormalization [ru

  19. Quantum field theory treatment of magnetic effects on the spin and orbital angular momentum of a free electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurian, P.; Verzegnassi, C.

    2016-01-01

    We consider in a quantum field theory framework the effects of a classical magnetic field on the spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a free electron. We derive formulae for the changes in the spin and OAM due to the introduction of a general classical background field. We consider then a constant magnetic field, in which case the relevant expressions of the effects become much simpler and conversions between spin and OAM become readily apparent. An estimate of the expectation values for a realistic electron state is also given. Our findings may be of interest to researchers in spintronics and the field of quantum biology, where electron spin has been implicated on macroscopic time and energy scales. - Highlights: • We present the first field theory treatment of magnetic changes in electron spin. • Changes in spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) are correlated and calculated. • Expectation values of spin–OAM changes for a realistic electron state are computed. • Earth's magnetic field produces non-negligible changes in spin of a few percent. • Results apply to spin–OAM conversion in electron vortex beams and quantum biology.

  20. Quantum field theory treatment of magnetic effects on the spin and orbital angular momentum of a free electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurian, P., E-mail: pkurian@gmx.com [National Human Genome Center, Howard University, College of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); Verzegnassi, C. [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Physics, University of Udine, Udine (Italy); Association for Medicine and Complexity (AMeC), Trieste (Italy)

    2016-01-28

    We consider in a quantum field theory framework the effects of a classical magnetic field on the spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a free electron. We derive formulae for the changes in the spin and OAM due to the introduction of a general classical background field. We consider then a constant magnetic field, in which case the relevant expressions of the effects become much simpler and conversions between spin and OAM become readily apparent. An estimate of the expectation values for a realistic electron state is also given. Our findings may be of interest to researchers in spintronics and the field of quantum biology, where electron spin has been implicated on macroscopic time and energy scales. - Highlights: • We present the first field theory treatment of magnetic changes in electron spin. • Changes in spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM) are correlated and calculated. • Expectation values of spin–OAM changes for a realistic electron state are computed. • Earth's magnetic field produces non-negligible changes in spin of a few percent. • Results apply to spin–OAM conversion in electron vortex beams and quantum biology.

  1. On the theory of electroproduction of small relative momentum nucleon pairs on atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagornyj, S.I.; Inopin, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Problems concerning knocking-out of nucleon pairs from atomic nuclei by high-energy electrons are studied. Dependences of cross sections of different processes of the knocking-out on the nucleon relative momentum in a pair are considered. Probabilities of different processes of the knocking-out are compared. A comparison of probabilities of total and three-particle splittings of a 4 He nucleus is performed. On total splitting in the formation of the cross section energy dependence the levels of observable and non-observable subsystems shown to take place. It has been stated that the cross section cannot be increased at the expense of levels of both subsystems simultaneously

  2. Symmetric energy-momentum tensor in Maxwell, Yang-Mills, and Proca theories obtained using only Noether's theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesinos, M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Flores, E. [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: merced@fis.cinvestav.mx

    2006-07-01

    The symmetric and gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensors for source-free Maxwell and Yang-Mills theories are obtained by means of translations in spacetime via a systematic implementation of Noether's theorem. For the source-free neutral Proca field, the same procedure yields also the symmetric energy-momentum tensor. In all cases, the key point to get the right expressions for the energy-momentum tensors is the appropriate handling of their equations of motion and the Bianchi identities. It must be stressed that these results are obtained without using Belinfante's symmetrization techniques which are usually employed to this end. (Author)

  3. Membranes from monopole operators in ABJM theory: Large angular momentum and M-theoretic AdS4/CFT3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Stefano; Sato, Yuki; Shimada, Hidehiko

    2014-01-01

    We study the duality between M-theory in AdS 4 ×S 7 /ℤ k and the ABJM N=6 Chern–Simons-matter theory with gauge group U(N)×U(N) and level k, taking N large and k of order 1. In this M-theoretic regime the lack of an explicit formulation of M-theory in AdS 4 ×S 7 /ℤ k makes the gravity side difficult, while the CFT is strongly coupled and the planar approximation is not applicable. We focus on states on the gravity side with large angular momentum J≫1 associated with a single plane of rotation in S 7 and identify their dual operators in the CFT. We show that natural approximation schemes arise on both sides thanks to the presence of the small parameter 1/J. On the AdS side, we use the matrix model of M-theory on the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave background with matrices of size J/k. A perturbative treatment of this matrix model provides a good approximation to M-theory in AdS 4 ×S 7 /ℤ k when N 1/3 ≪J≪N 1/2 . On the CFT side, we study the theory on S 2 ×ℝ with magnetic flux J/k. A Born–Oppenheimer-type expansion arises naturally for large J in spite of the theory being strongly coupled. The energy spectra on the two sides agree at leading order. This provides a non-trivial test of the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence including near-BPS observables associated with membrane degrees of freedom, thus verifying the duality beyond the previously studied sectors corresponding to either BPS observables or the type IIA string regime

  4. Enhancing "theory of mind" through behavioral synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimel, Adam; Severson, Rachel L; Baron, Andrew S; Birch, Susan A J

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind refers to the abilities underlying the capacity to reason about one's own and others' mental states. This ability is critical for predicting and making sense of the actions of others, is essential for efficient communication, fosters social learning, and provides the foundation for empathic concern. Clearly, there is incredible value in fostering theory of mind. Unfortunately, despite being the focus of a wealth of research over the last 40 years relatively little is known about specific strategies for fostering social perspective taking abilities. We provide a discussion of the rationale for applying one specific strategy for fostering efficient theory of mind-that of engaging in "behavioral synchrony" (i.e., the act of keeping together in time with others). Culturally evolved collective rituals involving synchronous actions have long been held to act as social glue. Specifically, here we present how behavioral synchrony tunes our minds for reasoning about other minds in the process of fostering social coordination and cooperation, and propose that we can apply behavioral synchrony as a tool for enhancing theory of mind.

  5. Scattering in quantum field theory: the M.P.S.A. approach in complex momentum space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, J.

    1981-02-01

    In this course, we intend to show how 'Many-Particle Structure Analysis' (M.P.S.A.) can be worked out in the standard field-theoretical framework, by using integral relations in complex momentum space involving 'l-particle irreducible kernels'. The ultimate purpose of this approach is to obtain the best possible knowledge of the singularities (location, nature, type of ramification) and of the ambient holomorphy (or meromorphy) domains of the n-point Green functions and scattering amplitudes, and at the same time to derive analytic structural equations for them which display the global organization of these singularities. The generation of Landau singularities for integrals and Fredholm resolvents, taken on cycles in complex space, will be explained on the basis of the Picard-Lefschetz formula (presented and used in simple situations). Among various results described, we present and analyse a structural equation for the six-point function (and for the 3 → 3 particle scattering function), valid in a domain containing the three-particle normal threshold

  6. Consistent momentum space regularization/renormalization of supersymmetric quantum field theories: the three-loop β-function for the Wess-Zumino model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, David; Sampaio, Marcos; Nemes, Maria Carolina; Scarpelli, Antonio Paulo Baeta

    2003-01-01

    We compute the three loop β function of the Wess-Zumino model to motivate implicit regularization (IR) as a consistent and practical momentum-space framework to study supersymmetric quantum field theories. In this framework which works essentially in the physical dimension of the theory we show that ultraviolet are clearly disentangled from infrared divergences. We obtain consistent results which motivate the method as a good choice to study supersymmetry anomalies in quantum field theories. (author)

  7. Legislator voting and behavioral science theory: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Gregory J; Vernick, Jon S; Reiney, Erin V; Gielen, Andrea C

    2012-11-01

    To examine the application of behavioral science theories to explain the voting behavior of legislators for public health policies. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that examined factors associated with legislator support, intention to vote, or actual votes on public health policies, emphasizing those grounded in behavior science theory. Twenty-one papers met our inclusion criteria, and 6 were explicitly grounded in a behavioral science theory. Behavioral science theories, and the theory of planned behavior in particular, provide a framework for understanding legislator voting behavior and can be used by advocates to advance pro-health policies.

  8. Symmetry behavior of the effective gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, S.

    1981-01-01

    The restoration of spontaneously broken CP invariance is investigated by using the effective QED lagrangian obtained from the standard SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory with two Higgs doublets. It is shown that the large electromagnetic field may restore CP invariance by changing the relative phase angle of Higgs vacuum expectation values even before one of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets disappears. Further large magnetic field may lead to the fine structure constant with discontinuous behavior. (orig.)

  9. Perceived enjoyment, concentration, intention, and speed violation behavior: Using flow theory and theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atombo, Charles; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhang, Hui; Wemegah, Tina D

    2017-10-03

    Road accidents are an important public health concern, and speeding is a major contributor. Although flow theory (FLT) is a valid model for understanding behavior, currently the nature of the roles and interplay of FLT constructs within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework when attempting to explain the determinants of motivations for intention to speed and speeding behavior of car drivers is not yet known. The study aims to synthesize TPB and FLT in explaining drivers of advanced vehicles intentions to speed and speed violation behaviors and evaluate factors that are critical for explaining intention and behavior. The hypothesized model was validated using a sample collected from 354 fully licensed drivers of advanced vehicles, involving 278 males and 76 females on 2 occasions separated by a 3-month interval. During the first of the 2 occasions, participants completed questionnaire measures of TPB and FLT variables. Three months later, participants' speed violation behaviors were assessed. The study observed a significant positive relationship between the constructs. The proposed model accounted for 51 and 45% of the variance in intention to speed and speed violation behavior, respectively. The independent predictors of intention were enjoyment, attitude, and subjective norm. The independent predictors of speed violation behavior were enjoyment, concentration, intention, and perceived behavioral control. The findings suggest that safety interventions for preventing speed violation behaviors should be aimed at underlying beliefs influencing the speeding behaviors of drivers of advanced vehicles. Furthermore, perceived enjoyment is of equal importance to driver's intention, influencing speed violation behavior.

  10. Inertial rotation measurement with atomic spins: From angular momentum conservation to quantum phase theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Yuan, H.; Tang, Z.; Quan, W.; Fang, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Rotation measurement in an inertial frame is an important technology for modern advanced navigation systems and fundamental physics research. Inertial rotation measurement with atomic spin has demonstrated potential in both high-precision applications and small-volume low-cost devices. After rapid development in the last few decades, atomic spin gyroscopes are considered a promising competitor to current conventional gyroscopes—from rate-grade to strategic-grade applications. Although it has been more than a century since the discovery of the relationship between atomic spin and mechanical rotation by Einstein [Naturwissenschaften, 3(19) (1915)], research on the coupling between spin and rotation is still a focus point. The semi-classical Larmor precession model is usually adopted to describe atomic spin gyroscope measurement principles. More recently, the geometric phase theory has provided a different view of the rotation measurement mechanism via atomic spin. The theory has been used to describe a gyroscope based on the nuclear spin ensembles in diamond. A comprehensive understanding of inertial rotation measurement principles based on atomic spin would be helpful for future applications. This work reviews different atomic spin gyroscopes and their rotation measurement principles with a historical overlook. In addition, the spin-rotation coupling mechanism in the context of the quantum phase theory is presented. The geometric phase is assumed to be the origin of the measurable rotation signal from atomic spins. In conclusion, with a complete understanding of inertial rotation measurements using atomic spin and advances in techniques, wide application of high-performance atomic spin gyroscopes is expected in the near future.

  11. Effective holographic theories of momentum relaxation and violation of conductivity bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutéraux, Blaise [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205,Paris Cedex 13, France (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Kiritsis, Elias [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205,Paris Cedex 13, France (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Crete Center for Theoretical Physics and I.P.P.,Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Li, Wei-Jia [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics and I.P.P.,Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece)

    2016-04-19

    We generalize current holographic models with homogeneous breaking of translation symmetry by incorporating higher derivative couplings, in the spirit of effective field theories. Focusing on charge transport, we specialize to two simple couplings between the charge and translation symmetry breaking sectors. We obtain analytical charged black brane solutions and compute their DC conductivity in terms of horizon data. We constrain the allowed values of the couplings and note that the DC conductivity can vanish at zero temperature for strong translation symmetry breaking, thus showing that in general there is no lower bound on the conductivity.

  12. Effective holographic theories of momentum relaxation and violation of conductivity bound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutéraux, Blaise; Kiritsis, Elias; Li, Wei-Jia

    2016-01-01

    We generalize current holographic models with homogeneous breaking of translation symmetry by incorporating higher derivative couplings, in the spirit of effective field theories. Focusing on charge transport, we specialize to two simple couplings between the charge and translation symmetry breaking sectors. We obtain analytical charged black brane solutions and compute their DC conductivity in terms of horizon data. We constrain the allowed values of the couplings and note that the DC conductivity can vanish at zero temperature for strong translation symmetry breaking, thus showing that in general there is no lower bound on the conductivity.

  13. Perilaku Pembelian Konsumen: sebuah Tinjauan Literatur Theory Of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Meitiana, Meitiana

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the differences between several empirical articles on the theory of planned behavior. Theory of planned behavior provides a framework for studying attitudes toward behaviors that postulate three determinants of conceptual intent. Specifically, the intention is based on the variables of attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Although this theory has been used frequently, there are still differences in outcomes in explaining atti...

  14. Infrared behavior of massless field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapirstein, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Typical infrared effects in several gauge field theories with massless particles are investigated in perturbation theory. It is first shown that divergences occurring in individual Feynman graphs arising from integrations over the long-wavelength modes of the fields cancel when the graphs are grouped together in a particular way, in a generalization of the Bloch-Nordsieck treatment of QED. As one of the requirements of finiteness is renormalization of the vector propagator off shell, the charge in these theories is not directly related to classical experiment. In an effort to find the meaning of charge the low-energy theorem is considered. Although in lowest order the graphs reproduce the Thompson limit, it is found that loop corrections are singular in the low-energy limit; a simple definition of the charge is thus precluded. Finally, the behavior of the quark color magnetic moment is treated. An apparent infrared singularity of this moment is shown to be due to an improper use of perturbation theory, and is removed and replaced with a finite, field-dependent moment, by use of Furry picture propagators

  15. Quantum theory with an energy operator defined as a quartic form of the momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezák, Viktor, E-mail: bezak@fmph.uniba.sk

    2016-09-15

    Quantum theory of the non-harmonic oscillator defined by the energy operator proposed by Yurke and Buks (2006) is presented. Although these authors considered a specific problem related to a model of transmission lines in a Kerr medium, our ambition is not to discuss the physical substantiation of their model. Instead, we consider the problem from an abstract, logically deductive, viewpoint. Using the Yurke–Buks energy operator, we focus attention on the imaginary-time propagator. We derive it as a functional of the Mehler kernel and, alternatively, as an exact series involving Hermite polynomials. For a statistical ensemble of identical oscillators defined by the Yurke–Buks energy operator, we calculate the partition function, average energy, free energy and entropy. Using the diagonal element of the canonical density matrix of this ensemble in the coordinate representation, we define a probability density, which appears to be a deformed Gaussian distribution. A peculiarity of this probability density is that it may reveal, when plotted as a function of the position variable, a shape with two peaks located symmetrically with respect to the central point.

  16. The interplay between affect and theory of planned behavior variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keer, M.; van den Putte, B.; Neijens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether affective evaluations of health behaviors moderate or mediate the influence of theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables on intention. Methods: For each of 20 health behaviors, respondents (N=300) completed questionnaire measures of affective evaluation, attitude,

  17. Perilaku Pembelian Konsumen: Sebuah Tinjauan Literatur Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meitiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the differences between several empirical articles on the theory of planned behavior. Theory of planned behavior provides a framework for studying attitudes toward behaviors that postulate three determinants of conceptual intent. Specifically, the intention is based on the variables of attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Although this theory has been used frequently, there are still differences in outcomes in explaining attitudes toward behavior. The results show that there is still a different view of the theory of planned behavior so it is necessary to identify the gaps that occur in this theory. For further research is expected to expand and enrich the discussion of the theory of planned behavior

  18. Large momentum transfer phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.

    1978-01-01

    The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)

  19. Using a High Probability Command Sequence to Increase Classroom Compliance: The Role of Behavioral Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfiore, Phillip J.; Basile, Sarah Pulley; Lee, David L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most problematic behaviors in children with developmental disabilities is noncompliance. Although behavioral research has provided strategies to impact noncompliance, oftentimes the methodologies are consequent techniques, which may not be conducive to implementation by the classroom teacher. In this teacher-designed and implemented…

  20. A Lesson on Social Role Theory: An Example of Human Behavior in the Social Environment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes M. Dulin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the social role theory, a theory of Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE). Relevance of this topic is briefly discussed, as well as a definition of the theory and its historical background. Empirical research that employs this theory will be discussed.Recommendations will be made for future theory development and implications for social work education will conclude the discussion.

  1. An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Health Behavior Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…

  2. Applying organizational behavior theory to primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullangi, Samyukta; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-03-01

    Addressing the mounting primary care shortage in the United States has been a focus of educators and policy makers, especially with the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 and the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in 2015, placing increased pressure on the system. The Association of American Medical Colleges recently projected a shortage of as many as 65,000 primary care physicians by 2025, in part because fewer than 20% of medical students are picking primary care for a career. We examined the issue of attracting medical students to primary care through the lens of organizational behavior theory. Assuming there are reasons other than lower income potential for why students are inclined against primary care, we applied various principles of the Herzberg 2-factor theory to reimagine the operational flow and design of primary care. We conclude by proposing several solutions to enrich the job, such as decreasing documentation requirements, reducing the emphasis on specialty consultations, and elevating physicians to a supervisory role.

  3. Theories of suicidal behavior applied to Sylvia Plath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1998-01-01

    The suicide of Sylvia Plath is examined from the perspective of 15 theories of suicidal behavior and is found to fit best with psychoanalytic and cognitive theories of suicide, in particular those of Aaron Beck, Henry Murray, and Edwin Shneidman.

  4. On the evils of group averaging: commentary on Nevin's "Resistance to extinction and behavioral momentum".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2012-05-01

    Except under unusually favorable circumstances, one can infer from functions obtained by averaging across the subjects neither the form of the function that describes the behavior of the individual subject nor the central tendencies of descriptive parameter values. We should restore the cumulative record to the place of honor as our means of visualizing behavioral change, and we should base our conclusions on analyses that measure where the change occurs in these response-by-response records of the behavior of individual subjects. When that is done, we may find that the extinction of responding to a continuously reinforced stimulus is faster than the extinction of responding to a partially reinforced stimulus in a within-subject design because the latter is signaled extinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting consistent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    disease. Objective: To examine the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting consistent condom use intention of HIV .... (24-25), making subjective norms as better predictors of intention ..... Organizational Behavior and Human Decision.

  6. Crisis behavior: An exploration of theories in concert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jason B; Crudo, Christine

    2015-01-01

    How might prominent existing communication theory better explain behavior in a crisis context, when considered in concert with one another? This theoretical work highlights the insight to be gained using Situational Crisis Communication Theory and Bandura's notions of self-efficacy to heighten the explanatory power of the Theory of Planned Behavior as applied to communication during times of crisis. Situational Crisis Communication Theory better explains how past experience with crisis influences the attitudes and social norms of crisis behavior, while Bandura's notion of self-efficacy speaks more directly to the availability of resources as contributing factors to perceived behavioral control in a crisis situation. As such, the incorporation of these well-developed notions into the broader framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior affords greater understanding of the relationship between communication and behavior during a crisis. Further exploration of this theoretical relationship is warranted.

  7. Behavioral Theory and Culture Special Issue: Authors' Response to Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to commentaries that focus on the "Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening" (3Cs) study. The 3Cs study had an unremarkable beginning, with two colleagues discussing their frustration over the narrow range of behavioral theories and the limited guidance the theories offered for a study…

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Second Edition. Theories of Psychotherapy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G.

    2017-01-01

    In this revised edition of "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy," Michelle G. Craske discusses the history, theory, and practice of this commonly practiced therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) originated in the science and theory of classical and instrumental conditioning when cognitive principles were adopted following dissatisfaction…

  9. High-energy behavior of non-Abelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieh, H.T.; Yao, Y.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a detailed account of a study in perturbation theory of the high-energy behavior of non-Abelian gauge theories. The fermion-fermion scattering amplitude is calculated up to sixth order in the coupling constant in the high-energy limit s → infinity with fixed t, in the approximation of keeping only the leading logarithmic terms. Results indicate that the high-energy behavior of non-Abelian gauge theories are complicated, and quite different from the known behaviors of other field theories studied so far

  10. Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion: The Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conatser, Phillip; Block, Martin; Gansneder, Bruce

    2002-04-01

    The purpose was to (a) examine aquatic instructors' beliefs (female, n = 82; male, n = 29) about teaching swimming to individuals with disabilities in inclusive settings and (b) test the theory of planned behavior model (Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 2001). Aquatic instructors from 25 states representing 122 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. The instrument, named Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion (AIBTI), was an extended version of the Physical Educators' Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities- Swim (Conatser, Block, & Lepore, 2000). A correlated t test showed aquatic instructors' beliefs (attitudes toward the behavior, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intention, behavior) were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to individuals with mild disabilities than individuals with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression showed perceived behavioral control and attitude significantly predicted intention, and intention predicted instructors' inclusive behavior for both disability groups. Further, results indicated the theory of planned behavior predicts aquatic instructors' behavior better than the theory of reasoned action.

  11. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: Background and Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    RYAN, POLLY

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In ...

  12. Comment on Gallistel: behavior theory and information theory: some parallels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A

    2012-05-01

    In this article, Gallistel proposes information theory as an approach to some enduring problems in the study of operant and classical conditioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analyzing Test-Taking Behavior: Decision Theory Meets Psychometric Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budescu, David V; Bo, Yuanchao

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the implications of penalizing incorrect answers to multiple-choice tests, from the perspective of both test-takers and test-makers. To do so, we use a model that combines a well-known item response theory model with prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky, Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk, Econometrica 47:263-91, 1979). Our results reveal that when test-takers are fully informed of the scoring rule, the use of any penalty has detrimental effects for both test-takers (they are always penalized in excess, particularly those who are risk averse and loss averse) and test-makers (the bias of the estimated scores, as well as the variance and skewness of their distribution, increase as a function of the severity of the penalty).

  14. The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) Program: Underlying Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulden, Walter T.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…

  15. Cultural Context and Modification of Behavior Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

    2009-01-01

    Although social and cultural contexts act on each level of the multilevel ecologic model to affect cancer risk, health behavior, and cancer screening and promotion in health behavior research, people have yet to develop theories that sufficiently integrate the social and environmental context with group and individual behavior. The "Behavioral…

  16. Momentum fractionation on superstrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bena, Iosif; Martinec, Emil; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.

    2016-01-01

    Superstrata are bound states in string theory that carry D1, D5, and momentum charges, and whose supergravity descriptions are parameterized by arbitrary functions of (at least) two variables. In the D1-D5 CFT, typical three-charge states reside in high-degree twisted sectors, and their momentum charge is carried by modes that individually have fractional momentum. Understanding this momentum fractionation holographically is crucial for understanding typical black-hole microstates in this system. We use solution-generating techniques to add momentum to a multi-wound supertube and thereby construct the first examples of asymptotically-flat superstrata. The resulting supergravity solutions are horizonless and smooth up to well-understood orbifold singularities. Upon taking the AdS_3 decoupling limit, our solutions are dual to CFT states with momentum fractionation. We give a precise proposal for these dual CFT states. Our construction establishes the very nontrivial fact that large classes of CFT states with momentum fractionation can be realized in the bulk as smooth horizonless supergravity solutions.

  17. Physical Activity Participation: Social Cognitive Theory versus the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzewaltowski, David A; Noble, John M; Shaw, Jeff M

    1990-12-01

    Social cognitive theory and the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were examined in the prediction of 4 weeks of physical activity participation. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported. Attitude and perceived control predicted intention, and intention predicted physical activity participation. The social cognitive theory variables significantly predicted physical activity participation, with self-efficacy and self-evaluation of the behavior significantly contributing to the prediction. The greater the confidence in participating in physical activity and the greater the satisfaction with present physical activity, the more physical activity performed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived control and intentions did not account for any unique variation in physical activity participation over self-efficacy. Therefore the social cognitive theory constructs were better predictors of physical activity than those from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

  18. A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2013-10-01

    The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Fast-forward scaling theory for phase imprinting on a BEC: creation of a wave packet with uniform momentum density and loading to Bloch states without disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shumpei; Nakamura, Katsuhiro; Nakahara, Mikio

    2018-02-01

    We study phase imprinting on Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with the fast-forward scaling theory revealing a nontrivial scaling property in quantum dynamics. We introduce a wave packet with uniform momentum density (WPUM) which has peculiar properties but is short-lived. The fast-forward scaling theory is applied to derive the driving potential for creation of the WPUMs in a predetermined time. Fast manipulation is essential for the creation of WPUMs because of the instability of the state. We also study loading of a BEC into a predetermined Bloch state in the lowest band from the ground state of a periodic potential. Controlled linear potential is not sufficient for creation of the Bloch state with large wavenumber because the change in the amplitude of the order parameter is not negligible. We derive the exact driving potential for creation of predetermined Bloch states using the obtained theory.

  20. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR VIEW FROM THREE DIFFERENT THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Salvador Romero A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the subject is discussed from neoclassical concepts that explain consumer behavior by a utility function, taking into account budgetary constraints that determine it, as consumer behavior as revealed preferences are based on the transitivity also addresses variables to explain consumer final choice. It also integrates the innovative neuroeconomics approach, which explains the issue beyond budgetary constraints, delegating special interest in the study of cognitive aspects or brain impulses, as finally determined by consumer behavior.

  1. Entropy generation and momentum transfer in the superconductor-normal and normal-superconductor phase transformations and the consistency of the conventional theory of superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J. E.

    2018-05-01

    Since the discovery of the Meissner effect, the superconductor to normal (S-N) phase transition in the presence of a magnetic field is understood to be a first-order phase transformation that is reversible under ideal conditions and obeys the laws of thermodynamics. The reverse (N-S) transition is the Meissner effect. This implies in particular that the kinetic energy of the supercurrent is not dissipated as Joule heat in the process where the superconductor becomes normal and the supercurrent stops. In this paper, we analyze the entropy generation and the momentum transfer between the supercurrent and the body in the S-N transition and the N-S transition as described by the conventional theory of superconductivity. We find that it is not possible to explain the transition in a way that is consistent with the laws of thermodynamics unless the momentum transfer between the supercurrent and the body occurs with zero entropy generation, for which the conventional theory of superconductivity provides no mechanism. Instead, we point out that the alternative theory of hole superconductivity does not encounter such difficulties.

  2. Experimental game theory and behavior genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarini, David; Dawes, Christopher T; Johannesson, Magnus; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wallace, Björn

    2009-06-01

    We summarize the findings from a research program studying the heritability of behavior in a number of widely used economic games, including trust, dictator, and ultimatum games. Results from the standard behavior genetic variance decomposition suggest that strategies and fundamental economic preference parameters are moderately heritable, with estimates ranging from 18 to 42%. In addition, we also report new evidence on so-called "hyperfair" preferences in the ultimatum game. We discuss the implications of our findings with special reference to current efforts that seek to understand the molecular genetic architecture of complex social behaviors.

  3. On the short distance behavior of string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, R.; Konishi, K.; Provero, P.

    1991-01-01

    Short distance behavior of string theories is investigated by the use of the discretized path-integral formulation. In particular, the minimum physical length and the generalized uncertainty relation are re-derived from a set of Ward-Takahashi identities. In this paper several issues related to the form of the generalized uncertainty relation and to its implications are discussed. A consistent qualitative picture of short distance behavior of string theory seems to emerge from such a study

  4. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Mahendra P.; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control th...

  5. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: background and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care.

  6. Eating Behaviors of Older African Americans: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neal, Catherine Walker

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study applies the theory of planned behavior to explain the fruit and vegetable eating behaviors, a broad construct consisting of preparing, self-monitoring, and consuming fruits and vegetables, of older African Americans. Design and Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the applicability of the theory of planned behavior with data from 211 older African American women and men (73% women, 26% men; median age range of 57–63 years) participating in a larger intervention study. Results: Attitudes about eating fruit and vegetables, subjective social norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to older African Americans’ intentions to consume fruits and vegetables. Social norms and behavioral intentions were associated with fruit and vegetable eating behaviors. Perceived control did not moderate the influence of behavioral intentions on actual behavior. Implications: Results indicated that the theory of planned behavior can be used to explain variation in older African Americans’ eating behavior. This study also emphasizes the value of considering broader behavioral domains when employing the theory of planned behavior rather than focusing on specific behaviors. Furthermore, social service programs aimed at reducing the incidence of diseases commonly associated with poor eating behaviors among older African Americans must consider promoting not only fruit and vegetable consumption but also related behaviors including preparing and self-monitoring by eliminating structural, cognitive, and normative constraints. PMID:23241919

  7. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahendra P; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-10-01

    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control therapy, sleep restriction therapy, sleep hygiene, paradoxical intention therapy, cognitive restructuring, and other approaches. These are briefly explained. Research indicates that behavioral interventions are efficacious, effective, and likely cost-effective treatments for insomnia that yield reliable, robust, and long-term benefits in adults of all ages. Detailed guidance is provided for the practical management of patients with insomnia.

  8. Contributions of Socialization Theory to Consumer Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Scott

    1978-01-01

    Socialization theory can contribute to consumer research because it focuses on (1) youth and development, (2) interaction of factors affecting consumer behavior, and (3) linkages between mental processes and overt behavior. Various approaches to socialization research and consumer research are described, including cognitive development and…

  9. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  10. Hypnosis, behavioral theory, and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, N A; Bottari, M

    2001-04-01

    Although nicotine replacement and other pharmacological treatments head the list of popular interventions for smoking cessation, approaches based on psychology can also assist smokers. Hypnosis, suggestion, and behavior therapies have been offered to patients and studied experimentally for several decades. Although no single psychological approach has been found to be superior to others, psychological interventions contribute significantly to successful treatment outcome in smoking cessation. This article describes common hypnotic and behavioral approaches to smoking cessation and critically reviews some of the findings from clinical and experimental research studies. The authors also offer suggestions regarding treatment and future research.

  11. Longitudinal driving behavior : Theory and empirics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossen, S.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Congestion is a serious problem in many countries around the world. Consequently a lot of effort is put in inventing smart methods for reducing congestion. Whether these measures lead to the desired effect appears to be largely dependent on the driving behavior of individual road users. It is

  12. Non-associativity in non-geometric string and M-theory backgrounds, the algebra of octonions, and missing momentum modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günaydin, Murat [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Physics Department,Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Lüst, Dieter [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Malek, Emanuel [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany)

    2016-11-07

    We propose a non-associative phase space algebra for M-theory backgrounds with locally non-geometric fluxes based on the non-associative algebra of octonions. Our proposal is based on the observation that the non-associative algebra of the non-geometric R-flux background in string theory can be obtained by a proper contraction of the simple Malcev algebra generated by imaginary octonions. Furthermore, by studying a toy model of a four-dimensional locally non-geometric M-theory background which is dual to a twisted torus, we show that the non-geometric background is “missing” a momentum mode. The resulting seven-dimensional phase space can thus be naturally identified with the imaginary octonions. This allows us to interpret the full uncontracted algebra of imaginary octonions as the uplift of the string theory R-flux algebra to M-theory, with the contraction parameter playing the role of the string coupling constant g{sub s}.

  13. Angular Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…

  14. Optical Angular Momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimondo, Ennio

    2004-01-01

    For many years the Institute of Physics has published books on hot topics based on a collection of reprints from different journals, including some remarks by the editors of each volume. The book on Optical Angular Momentum, edited by L Allen, S M Barnett and M J Padgett, is a recent addition to the series. It reproduces forty four papers originally published in different journals and in a few cases it provides direct access to works not easily accessible to a web navigator. The collection covers nearly a hundred years of progress in physics, starting from an historic 1909 paper by Poynting, and ending with a 2002 paper by Padgett, Barnett and coworkers on the measurement of the orbital angular momentum of a single photon. The field of optical angular momentum has expanded greatly, creating an interdisciplinary attraction for researchers operating in quantum optics, atomic physics, solid state physics, biophysics and quantum information theory. The development of laser optics, especially the control of single mode sources, has made possible the specific design of optical radiation modes with a high degree of control on the light angular momentum. The editors of this book are important figures in the field of angular momentum, having contributed to key progress in the area. L Allen published an historical paper in 1999, he and M J Padgett (together with M Babiker) produced few years ago a long review article which is today still the most complete basic introduction to the angular momentum of light, while S M Barnett has contributed several high quality papers to the progress of this area of physics. The editors' choice provides an excellent overview to all readers, with papers classified into eight different topics, covering the basic principles of the light and spin and orbital angular momentum, the laboratory tools for creating laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum, the optical forces and torques created by laser beams carrying angular momentum on

  15. Behaviorism Makes Its Debut: A Review of Lattal and Chase's Behavior Theory and Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Zuriff, G.E

    2005-01-01

    Behavior Theory and Philosophy, masterfully edited by Lattal and Chase, is a collection of 21 papers by major behaviorists, presented and discussed at a conference on the intersection of philosophy and behavior analysis held at West Virginia University in 2000. The chapters in Part I are devoted to philosophy of science (causality, constructs, theory, explanation, reductionism) and the relations among behavior analysis and several contemporary philosophical movements (humanism, empiricism, pr...

  16. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  17. The proposition of a general version of the theory of planned behavior: Predicting ecological behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, F.G.; Gutscher, H.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper explores whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) must abandon the notion that perceived behavioral control (PBC) has a direct influence on behavior. In a cross-sectional survey of 895 Swiss residents, our hypothesis was tested by means of structural equation models. Applied

  18. Determinants of oral hygiene behavior : a study based on the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Y.A.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Schans, C.P.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an index for oral hygiene behavior (OHB) and to examine potential predictors of this actual behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Measures of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected effect of having healthy teeth on social

  19. Finite-temperature behavior of mass hierarchies in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsparg, P.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's mechanism for producing a large gauge hierarchy in supersymmetric theories leads to a novel symmetry behavior at finite temperature. The exponentially large expectation value in such models develops at a critical temperature of order of the small (supersymmetry-breaking) scale. The phase transition can proceed without need of vacuum tunnelling. Models based on Witten's mechanism thus require a reexamination of the standard cosmological treatment of grand unified theories. (orig.)

  20. Infrared behavior of the Reggeon field theory for the pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.; Dash, J.W.; Pinsky, S.S.; Rabl, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infrared structure of Reggeon field theory is investigated using renormalization group methods. The infrared fixed point where only the phi 3 interaction is nontrivial is shown to be stable with respect to all higher order interactions within the context of perturbation theory both at D = 2 and in the epsilon-expansion. This may imply that the asymptotic behavior of the total cross section is model independent

  1. Energy-momentum tensor of the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horndeski, G.W.; Wainwright, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the energy-momentum tensor of the most general second-order vector-tensor theory of gravitation and electromagnetism which has field equations which are (i) derivable from a variational principle, (ii) consistent with the notion of conservation of charge, and (iii) compatible with Maxwell's equations in a flat space. This energy-momentum tensor turns out to be quadratic in the first partial derivatives of the electromagnetic field tensor and depends upon the curvature tensor. The asymptotic behavior of this energy-momentum tensor is examined for solutions to Maxwell's equations in Minkowski space, and it is demonstrated that this energy-momentum tensor predicts regions of negative energy density in the vicinity of point sources

  2. Modelling for reactor-style aerobic composting based on coupling theory of mass-heat-momentum transport and Contois equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xueqin; Han, Lujia; Ge, Jinyi; Huang, Guangqun

    2018-04-01

    This study establishes an optimal mathematical modelling to rationally describe the dynamic changes and spatial distribution of temperature and oxygen concentration in the aerobic composting process using coupling mass-heat-momentum transfer based on the microbial mechanism. Two different conditional composting experiments, namely continuous aeration and intermittent aeration, were performed to verify the proposed model. The results show that the model accurately predicted the dynamic changes in temperature (case I: R 2  = 0.93, RMSE = 1.95 K; case II: R 2  = 0.86, RMSE = 4.69 K) and oxygen concentration (case I: R 2  = 0.90, RMSE = 1.26%; case II: R 2  = 0.75, RMSE = 2.93%) in the central point of compost substrates. It also systematically simulated fluctuations in oxygen concentration caused by boundary conditions and the spatial distribution of the actual temperature and oxygen concentration. The proposed model exhibits good applicability in simulating the actual working conditions of aerobic composting process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bureaucratic Minimal Squawk Behavior: Theory and Evidence from Regulatory Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Clare Leaver

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that bureaucrats are susceptible to `minimal squawk` behavior. I develop a simple model in which a desire to avoid criticism can prompt, otherwise public-spirited, bureaucrats to behave inefficiently. Decisions are taken to keep interest groups quiet and mistakes out of the public eye. The policy implications of this behavior are at odds with the received view that agencies should be structured to minimise the threat of `capture`. I test between theories of bureaucratic beha...

  4. Mathematical Systems Theory : from Behaviors to Nonlinear Control

    CERN Document Server

    Julius, A; Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Rapisarda, Paolo; Scherpen, Jacquelien

    2015-01-01

    This treatment of modern topics related to mathematical systems theory forms the proceedings of a workshop, Mathematical Systems Theory: From Behaviors to Nonlinear Control, held at the University of Groningen in July 2015. The workshop celebrated the work of Professors Arjan van der Schaft and Harry Trentelman, honouring their 60th Birthdays. The first volume of this two-volume work covers a variety of topics related to nonlinear and hybrid control systems. After giving a detailed account of the state of the art in the related topic, each chapter presents new results and discusses new directions. As such, this volume provides a broad picture of the theory of nonlinear and hybrid control systems for scientists and engineers with an interest in the interdisciplinary field of systems and control theory. The reader will benefit from the expert participants’ ideas on exciting new approaches to control and system theory and their predictions of future directions for the subject that were discussed at the worksho...

  5. PENGUJIAN PERSONAL FINANCIAL BEHAVIOR, PLANNED BEHAVIOR TERHADAP SELF CONTROL BEHAVIOR DENGAN THEORY PLANNED OF BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Adrie

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran dan bukti tentang pentingnya perilakupengelolaan keuangan. Pengelolaan keuangan yang baik pada dasarnya sangat dibutuhkan karena dengan pengelolaan keuangan yang baik akan meningkatkan kesejahteraan. Berdasarkan data dari Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) peningkatan kesejahteraan baik barang maupun konsumsi pangan meningkat dari 47,71% menjadi 50,66%, hal ini menjadi cermin pentingnya pengelolaan keuangan. Didasarkan pada Theory Planned of Behavio...

  6. Unexpected Climatological Behavior of MLT Gravity Wave Momentum Flux in the Lee of the Southern Andes Hot Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWit, R. J.; Janches, D.; Fritts, D. C.; Stockwell, R. G.; Coy, L.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile MEteor Radar (SAAMER), located at Tierra del Fuego (53.7degS, 67.7degW), has been providing near-continuous high-resolution measurements of winds and high-frequency gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes of the mesopause region since May 2008. As SAAMER is located in the lee of the largest seasonal GW hot spot on Earth, this is a key location to study GWs and their interaction with large-scale motions. GW momentum flux climatologies are shown for the first time for this location and discussed in light of these unique dynamics. Particularly, the large eastward GW momentum fluxes during local winter are surprising, as these observations cannot be explained by the direct upward propagation of expected large-amplitude mountain waves (MWs) through the eastward stratospheric jet. Instead, these results are interpreted as secondary GWs propagating away from stratospheric sources over the Andes accompanying MW breaking over the Southern Andes.

  7. Behaviorism Makes Its Debut: A Review of Lattal and Chase's Behavior Theory and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriff, G.E

    2005-01-01

    Behavior Theory and Philosophy, masterfully edited by Lattal and Chase, is a collection of 21 papers by major behaviorists, presented and discussed at a conference on the intersection of philosophy and behavior analysis held at West Virginia University in 2000. The chapters in Part I are devoted to philosophy of science (causality, constructs, theory, explanation, reductionism) and the relations among behavior analysis and several contemporary philosophical movements (humanism, empiricism, pragmatism, selectionism, analytic philosophy). Part II examines behavior-analytic interpretations of mentalistic concepts (intention, imagination, ethics, cognition). Part III presents extensions and applications of basic research in behavior analysis (verbal behavior, creativity, development, education, disability, and corporate culture). The publication of this book signals that behaviorism has developed mature philosophical foundations.

  8. Parental Involvement and the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Deborah; Corts, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The "Theory of Planned Behavior" provided a specific theoretical framework to evaluate the impact of attitudes, norms, and controls on parental involvement in a local school district. The "new knowledge" that resulted from the measurement of these constructs affirmed that regardless of the perceived level of parental involvement, virtually all…

  9. Portfolio selection between rational and behavioral theories emergent markets case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouri Abdelfatteh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the determinants of Portfolio Choice under the investors, professionals and academics’ perception. We introduce an approach based on cognitive mapping technique with a series of semi-directive interviews. Among a sample of 30 Tunisian individuals, we propose tow different frameworks: a mean-variance framework and a behavioral framework. Each framework is oriented to capture the effect of some concepts as proposed by the mean-variance portfolio theory and the behavioral portfolio theory on the portfolio choice decision. The originality of this research paper is guaranteed since it traits the behavioral portfolio choice in emergent markets. In the best of our knowledge this is the first study in the Tunisian context that explores such area of research. Ours results show that the Tunisian investors behave as it prescribed by the behavioral portfolio theory. They use some concepts proposed by the rational mean-variance theory of portfolio choice but they are affected by their emotions and some others cognitive bias when constructing and managing they portfolio of assets.

  10. Toward a Behavioral Theory of Boards and Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ees, Hans; Gabrielsson, Jonas; Huse, Morten; Gabrielson, J.

    Review A coherent alternative to an economic approach of corporate governance is missing. In this paper we take steps towards developing a behavioral theory of boards and corporate governance. Building upon concepts such as political bargaining, routinization of decision making, satisficing, and

  11. Darwinism and the Behavioral Theory of Sociocultural Evolution: An Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, John

    1979-01-01

    Challenges the view that the social sciences are theoretically impoverished disciplines when compared with the natural sciences. Demonstrates that the synthesis of an abstract Darwinian model of systemic adaptation and the behavioral principles of social learning produces a logical theory of sociocultural evolution. (DB)

  12. Transverse Momentum Distributions for Heavy Quark Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Edmond L.; Meng, Ruibin

    1993-01-01

    We study the transverse momentum distribution for a $pair$ of heavy quarks produced in hadron-hadron interactions. Predictions for the large transverse momentum region are based on exact order $\\alpha_s^3$ QCD perturbation theory. For the small transverse momentum region, we use techniques for all orders resummation of leading logarithmic contributions associated with initial state soft gluon radiation. The combination provides the transverse momentum distribution of heavy quark pairs for all...

  13. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual's processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE), rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction) with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2-4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory) showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  14. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwen Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Implicit theories drastically affect an individual’s processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is fixed (entity theorists and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is malleable (incremental theorists make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE, rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2–4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  15. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain and Predict Behavior Intentions in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to use the theory of planned behavior to verify undergraduates' behavioral intentions regarding their participation in aquatic sports. Undergraduates in Taiwan serve as the research subjects and a survey method employs questionnaires. A total of 200 valid questionnaires were received out of 230, thus giving a valid response rate of…

  16. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  17. Comparison of the lifting-line free vortex wake method and the blade-element-momentum theory regarding the simulated loads of multi-MW wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmann, S; Bülk, M; Cheng, P W; Schön, L; Erbslöh, S; Boorsma, K; Grasso, F; Kühn, M

    2014-01-01

    Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK

  18. Comparison of the lifting-line free vortex wake method and the blade-element-momentum theory regarding the simulated loads of multi-MW wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, S.; Bülk, M.; Schön, L.; Erbslöh, S.; Boorsma, K.; Grasso, F.; Kühn, M.; Cheng, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Design load simulations for wind turbines are traditionally based on the blade- element-momentum theory (BEM). The BEM approach is derived from a simplified representation of the rotor aerodynamics and several semi-empirical correction models. A more sophisticated approach to account for the complex flow phenomena on wind turbine rotors can be found in the lifting-line free vortex wake method. This approach is based on a more physics based representation, especially for global flow effects. This theory relies on empirical correction models only for the local flow effects, which are associated with the boundary layer of the rotor blades. In this paper the lifting-line free vortex wake method is compared to a state- of-the-art BEM formulation with regard to aerodynamic and aeroelastic load simulations of the 5MW UpWind reference wind turbine. Different aerodynamic load situations as well as standardised design load cases that are sensitive to the aeroelastic modelling are evaluated in detail. This benchmark makes use of the AeroModule developed by ECN, which has been coupled to the multibody simulation code SIMPACK.

  19. Advancing Models and Theories for Digital Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Michie, Susan; Pavel, Misha; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Jimison, Holly B; Garnett, Claire; Parral, Skye; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2016-11-01

    To be suitable for informing digital behavior change interventions, theories and models of behavior change need to capture individual variation and changes over time. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations for development of models and theories that are informed by, and can inform, digital behavior change interventions based on discussions by international experts, including behavioral, computer, and health scientists and engineers. The proposed framework stipulates the use of a state-space representation to define when, where, for whom, and in what state for that person, an intervention will produce a targeted effect. The "state" is that of the individual based on multiple variables that define the "space" when a mechanism of action may produce the effect. A state-space representation can be used to help guide theorizing and identify crossdisciplinary methodologic strategies for improving measurement, experimental design, and analysis that can feasibly match the complexity of real-world behavior change via digital behavior change interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Grounded Theory on Helping Behavior and Its Shaping Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Grounded Theory on Helping Behavior and Its Shaping Factors

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In social psychology, the attribution model of helping behavior suggests that beliefs of the helping target’s responsibility for the need for help evoke affective motivators such as feelings of pity, sympathy, or anger. The affective motivation leads to helping or not helping the target. The current emergent theory is an enhancement of this theory by incorporating other personal and situational variables.Through the use of classic grounded theory, I interviewed 80 participants from different De La Salle Schools in the Philippines. This yielded over 1300 individual incidents that were compared and contrasted to form codes, categories and subcategories. A theory on the decision making process of helping emerged that incorporates the helper’s personal conviction, and rational deliberations of the situation. The desire to help is based on the helper’s rationalemotive beliefs (philosophical ideals and values that nurture helping and the knowledge of the nature of risk/problem and relational-emotive ties (with the one who needs help and with a social group that nurtures helping. The desire to help undergoes a process of rationalpragmatic-deliberations on the appropriateness of the recipients need of help, the cost of helping, the helper’s capability of helping, and the logistics of helping before the actual helping occurs. The theory has implications for current social psychological theories of helping, and the use of classic grounded theory research.

  1. Extending Theory-Based Quantitative Predictions to New Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Leslie Ann D; Velicer, Wayne F; Redding, Colleen A; Rossi, Joseph S; Prochaska, James O

    2016-04-01

    Traditional null hypothesis significance testing suffers many limitations and is poorly adapted to theory testing. A proposed alternative approach, called Testing Theory-based Quantitative Predictions, uses effect size estimates and confidence intervals to directly test predictions based on theory. This paper replicates findings from previous smoking studies and extends the approach to diet and sun protection behaviors using baseline data from a Transtheoretical Model behavioral intervention (N = 5407). Effect size predictions were developed using two methods: (1) applying refined effect size estimates from previous smoking research or (2) using predictions developed by an expert panel. Thirteen of 15 predictions were confirmed for smoking. For diet, 7 of 14 predictions were confirmed using smoking predictions and 6 of 16 using expert panel predictions. For sun protection, 3 of 11 predictions were confirmed using smoking predictions and 5 of 19 using expert panel predictions. Expert panel predictions and smoking-based predictions poorly predicted effect sizes for diet and sun protection constructs. Future studies should aim to use previous empirical data to generate predictions whenever possible. The best results occur when there have been several iterations of predictions for a behavior, such as with smoking, demonstrating that expected values begin to converge on the population effect size. Overall, the study supports necessity in strengthening and revising theory with empirical data.

  2. Theory-driven intervention for changing personality: expectancy value theory, behavioral activation, and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Jessica F; Roberts, Brent W; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C W

    2014-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that, over time, become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this article proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of expectancy value theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance-dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. [Relational frame theory - a theoretical framework for contextual behavioral science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-05-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms. © Georg Thieme

  4. The interpersonal theory of suicide and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, S; Feldman, D; Snir, A; Apter, A; Carli, V; Hoven, C W; Wasserman, C; Sarchiapone, M; Wasserman, D

    2015-09-01

    Joiner's interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS) proposes that suicide results from the combination of a perception of burdening others, social alienation, and the capability for self-harm. The theory gained some empirical support, however the overall model has yet to be tested. This study aimed to test the main predictions of IPTS in a large community sample of Israeli adolescents. 1196 Israeli Jewish and Arab high-school pupils participating in the SEYLE project completed a self-report questionnaire measuring perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, health risk behaviors, and non-suicidal self-injury (risk variables), and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (outcome measures). The data were tested in cross-sectional regression models. Consistent with IPTS, perceived burdensomeness was found to interact with thwarted belongingness, predicting suicidal ideation. Depression mediated most of the effect of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness on suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for self-harm, as measured by health risk behaviors and direct non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors, predicted suicide attempt. However, this mechanism operated independently from ideation rather than in interaction with it, at variance with IPTS-based predictions. The cross-sectional design precludes conclusions about causality and directionality. Proxy measures were used to test the interpersonal theory constructs. The findings support some of the IPTS predictions but not all, and imply two separate pathways for suicidal behavior in adolescents: one related to internalizing psychopathology and the other to self-harm behaviors. This conceptualization has clinical implications for the differential identification of adolescents at risk for suicidal behavior and for the development of prevention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. From behavior to neural dynamics: An integrated theory of attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschman, Timothy J.; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The brain has a limited capacity and therefore needs mechanisms to selectively enhance the information most relevant to one’s current behavior. We refer to these mechanisms as ‘attention’. Attention acts by increasing the strength of selected neural representations and preferentially routing them through the brain’s large-scale network. This is a critical component of cognition and therefore has been a central topic in cognitive neuroscience. Here we review a diverse literature that has studied attention at the level of behavior, networks, circuits and neurons. We then integrate these disparate results into a unified theory of attention. PMID:26447577

  6. The theory of planned behavior, materialism, and aggressive driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Kalanit; Shoham, Aviv

    2013-10-01

    Aggressive driving is a growing problem worldwide. Previous research has provided us with some insights into the characteristics of drivers prone to aggressiveness on the road and into the external conditions triggering such behavior. Little is known, however, about the personality traits of aggressive drivers. The present study proposes planned behavior and materialism as predictors of aggressive driving behavior. Data was gathered using a questionnaire-based survey of 220 individuals from twelve large industrial organizations in Israel. Our hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Our results indicate that while planned behavior is a good predictor of the intention to behave aggressively, it has no impact on the tendency to behave aggressively. Materialism, however, was found to be a significant indicator of aggressive driving behavior. Our study is based on a self-reported survey, therefore might suffer from several issues concerning the willingness to answer truthfully. Furthermore, the sampling group might be seen as somewhat biased due to the relatively high income/education levels of the respondents. While both issues, aggressive driving and the theory of planned behavior, have been studied previously, the linkage between the two as well as the ability of materialism to predict aggressive behavior received little attention previously. The present study encompasses these constructs providing new insights into the linkage between them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR : STUDI KASUS SOFTLIFTING DI SURABAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Junaedi, C. Marliana

    2010-01-01

    Computer became popular among business community or education causing ethicproblem in its usage. One of the ethic problems is software piracy on individuallevel or popularly called as softlifting. This research tries to analyze softlifting instudent community that based on Theory of Planned Behavior.The respondents are 280 students in Surabaya. The result shows that not all externalfactors motive internal factors. It also shows that not all internal factors motivestudents to do softlifting. T...

  8. Theory Of Planned Behavior : Studi Kasus Softlifting di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Junaedi, Marliana

    2010-01-01

    Computer became popular among business community or education causing ethicproblem in its usage. One of the ethic problems is software piracy on individuallevel or popularly called as softlifting. This research tries to analyze softlifting instudent community that based on Theory of Planned Behavior.The respondents are 280 students in Surabaya. The result shows that not all externalfactors motive internal factors. It also shows that not all internal factors motivestudents to do softlifting. T...

  9. Nonlocal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partovi, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    From a generalization of the covariant derivative, nonlocal gauge theories are developed. These theories enjoy local gauge invariance and associated Ward identities, a corresponding locally conserved current, and a locally conserved energy-momentum tensor, with the Ward identities implying the masslessness of the gauge field as in local theories. Their ultraviolet behavior allows the presence as well as the absence of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, the latter in analogy with lattice theories

  10. 1D momentum-conserving systems: the conundrum of anomalous versus normal heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yunyun; Li, Nianbei; Hänggi, Peter; Li, Baowen; Liu, Sha

    2015-01-01

    Transport and the spread of heat in Hamiltonian one dimensional momentum conserving nonlinear systems is commonly thought to proceed anomalously. Notable exceptions, however, do exist of which the coupled rotator model is a prominent case. Therefore, the quest arises to identify the origin of manifest anomalous energy and momentum transport in those low dimensional systems. We develop the theory for both, the statistical densities for momentum- and energy-spread and particularly its momentum-/heat-diffusion behavior, as well as its corresponding momentum/heat transport features. We demonstrate that the second temporal derivative of the mean squared deviation of the momentum spread is proportional to the equilibrium correlation of the total momentum flux. Subtracting the part which corresponds to a ballistic momentum spread relates (via this integrated, subleading momentum flux correlation) to an effective viscosity, or equivalently, to the underlying momentum diffusivity. We next put forward the intriguing hypothesis: normal spread of this so adjusted excess momentum density causes normal energy spread and alike normal heat transport (Fourier Law). Its corollary being that an anomalous, superdiffusive broadening of this adjusted excess momentum density in turn implies an anomalous energy spread and correspondingly anomalous, superdiffusive heat transport. This hypothesis is successfully corroborated within extensive molecular dynamics simulations over large extended time scales. Our numerical validation of the hypothesis involves four distinct archetype classes of nonlinear pair-interaction potentials: (i) a globally bounded pair interaction (the noted coupled rotator model), (ii) unbounded interactions acting at large distances (the coupled rotator model amended with harmonic pair interactions), (iii) the case of a hard point gas with unbounded square-well interactions and (iv) a pair interaction potential being unbounded at short distances while displaying an

  11. 1D momentum-conserving systems: the conundrum of anomalous versus normal heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Liu, Sha; Li, Nianbei; Hänggi, Peter; Li, Baowen

    2015-04-01

    Transport and the spread of heat in Hamiltonian one dimensional momentum conserving nonlinear systems is commonly thought to proceed anomalously. Notable exceptions, however, do exist of which the coupled rotator model is a prominent case. Therefore, the quest arises to identify the origin of manifest anomalous energy and momentum transport in those low dimensional systems. We develop the theory for both, the statistical densities for momentum- and energy-spread and particularly its momentum-/heat-diffusion behavior, as well as its corresponding momentum/heat transport features. We demonstrate that the second temporal derivative of the mean squared deviation of the momentum spread is proportional to the equilibrium correlation of the total momentum flux. Subtracting the part which corresponds to a ballistic momentum spread relates (via this integrated, subleading momentum flux correlation) to an effective viscosity, or equivalently, to the underlying momentum diffusivity. We next put forward the intriguing hypothesis: normal spread of this so adjusted excess momentum density causes normal energy spread and alike normal heat transport (Fourier Law). Its corollary being that an anomalous, superdiffusive broadening of this adjusted excess momentum density in turn implies an anomalous energy spread and correspondingly anomalous, superdiffusive heat transport. This hypothesis is successfully corroborated within extensive molecular dynamics simulations over large extended time scales. Our numerical validation of the hypothesis involves four distinct archetype classes of nonlinear pair-interaction potentials: (i) a globally bounded pair interaction (the noted coupled rotator model), (ii) unbounded interactions acting at large distances (the coupled rotator model amended with harmonic pair interactions), (iii) the case of a hard point gas with unbounded square-well interactions and (iv) a pair interaction potential being unbounded at short distances while displaying an

  12. Fission fragment angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenne, D. De

    1991-01-01

    Most of the energy released in fission is converted into translational kinetic energy of the fragments. The remaining excitation energy will be distributed among neutrons and gammas. An important parameter characterizing the scission configuration is the primary angular momentum of the nascent fragments. Neutron emission is not expected to decrease the spin of the fragments by more than one unit of angular momentum and is as such of less importance in the determination of the initial fragment spins. Gamma emission is a suitable tool in studying initial fragment spins because the emission time, number, energy, and multipolarity of the gammas strongly depend on the value of the primary angular momentum. The main conclusions of experiments on gamma emission were that the initial angular momentum of the fragments is large compared to the ground state spin and oriented perpendicular to the fission axis. Most of the recent information concerning initial fragment spin distributions comes from the measurement of isomeric ratios for isomeric pairs produced in fission. Although in nearly every mass chain isomers are known, only a small number are suitable for initial fission fragment spin studies. Yield and half-life considerations strongly limit the number of candidates. This has the advantage that the behavior of a specific isomeric pair can be investigated for a number of fissioning systems at different excitation energies of the fragments and fissioning nuclei. Because most of the recent information on primary angular momenta comes from measurements of isomeric ratios, the global deexcitation process of the fragments and the calculation of the initial fragment spin distribution from measured isomeric ratios are discussed here. The most important results on primary angular momentum determinations are reviewed and some theoretical approaches are given. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. On the Classical and Quantum Momentum Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, Chiara

    In this thesis we study the classical and quantum momentum maps and the theory of reduction. We focus on the notion of momentum map in Poisson geometry and we discuss the classification of the momentum map in this framework. Furthermore, we describe the so-called Poisson Reduction, a technique...... that allows us to reduce the dimension of a manifold in presence of symmetries implemented by Poisson actions. Using techniques of deformation quantization and quantum groups, we introduce the quantum momentum map as a deformation of the classical momentum map, constructed in such a way that it factorizes...

  14. Predictors of Prosthodontic Treatment-Related Behavior Using the Theory of Planned Behavior Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Antonio Helio; Castro e Silva, Donizete; Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to assess subjects' intentions and behavior to predict willingness to undergo prosthodontic care. A questionnaire was administered to 225 adults with history of teeth loss who currently were not under prosthodontic treatment. The questionnaire comprised TPB components (attitude toward behaviour [ATB], subjective norm [SN], and perceived behavioral control [PBC]) containing items with potential influence on the intentions and behavior of individuals toward prosthodontic care. Clinical and socioeconomic data were also assessed. A path regression model was constructed explaining two dependent variables simultaneously: one explained the influence of PBC on intention (R2=0.04) and another explained the influence of dental arch, position of lost teeth, socioeconomic status, and PBC on behavior (R2=0.31). It was concluded that PBC was a relevant TPB component that encompasses perception of costs, opportunity cost, perceived need, and access to dental care. Clinical and socioeconomic factors were also major determinants of behavior toward prosthodontic treatment.

  15. Application of the Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior in Intercity Travel Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jing; Zhi-cai, Juan; Lin-jie, Gao

    2014-01-01

    Congestion in intercity corridors of metropolitan area has been increasing steadily. To alleviate congestion, many major investment projects, such as the high speed railway projects, were proposed by agency. To evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of these projects, the intercity travel behavior should be analyzed in metropolitan area. The paper constructed a Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model according to an expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB) to study the travel beh...

  16. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    OpenAIRE

    Brug, Hans; Oenema, Anke; Ferreira, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the the...

  17. The role of descriptive norm within the theory of planned behavior in predicting Korean Americans' exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo

    2011-08-01

    There are few studies investigating psychosocial mechanisms in Korean Americans' exercise behavior. The present study tested the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting Korean American's exercise behavior and whether the descriptive norm (i.e., perceptions of what others do) improved the predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior. Using a retrospective design and self-report measures, web-survey responses from 198 Korean-American adults were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. The theory of planned behavior constructs accounted for 31% of exercise behavior and 43% of exercise intention. Intention and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of exercise behavior. Although the descriptive norm did not augment the theory of planned behavior, all original constructs--attitude, injunctive norm (a narrow definition of subjective norm), and perceived behavioral control--statistically significantly predicted leisure-time physical activity intention. Future studies should consider random sampling, prospective design, and objective measures of physical activity.

  18. Time Series Momentum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Ooi, Yao Hua; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    We document significant “time series momentum” in equity index, currency, commodity, and bond futures for each of the 58 liquid instruments we consider. We find persistence in returns for one to 12 months that partially reverses over longer horizons, consistent with sentiment theories of initial...... under-reaction and delayed over-reaction. A diversified portfolio of time series momentum strategies across all asset classes delivers substantial abnormal returns with little exposure to standard asset pricing factors and performs best during extreme markets. Examining the trading activities...

  19. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. DISCUSSION: Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is

  20. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Isabel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the theories we use lack a strong empirical foundation, and the available theories are not always used in the most effective way. Furthermore, many of the commonly-used theories provide at best information on what needs to be changed to promote healthy behavior, but not on how changes can be induced. Finally, many theories explain behavioral intentions or motivation rather well, but are less well-suited to explaining or predicting actual behavior or behavior change. For more effective interventions, behavior change theory needs to be further developed in stronger research designs and such change-theory should especially focus on how to promote action rather than mere motivation. Since voluntary behavior change requires motivation, ability as well as the opportunity to change, further development of behavior change theory should incorporate environmental change strategies. Conclusion Intervention Mapping may help to further improve the application of theories in nutrition and physical activity behavior change.

  1. Establishing a Relationship between Behavior Change Theory and Social Marketing: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes relationships between behavior change theory and social marketing practice, noting challenges in making behavior change theory an important component of social marketing and proposing that social marketing is the framework to which theory can be applied, creating theory-driven, consumer-focused, more effective health education programs.…

  2. Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

  3. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and externa...

  4. Applying Psychological Theories to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Daniel, Casey L.; Thind, Herpreet; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dori

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral health theory provides a framework for researchers to design, implement, and evaluate the effects of health promotion programs. However, limited research has examined theories used in interventions to promote long-term maintenance of health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature and identify prominent behavioral health theories used in intervention research to promote maintenance of health behaviors. We reviewed theories used in intervention research assessing long-term maintenance (≥ 6 months post-intervention) of physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation. Five prominent behavioral theories were referenced by the 34 studies included in the review: Self-Determination Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Ecological Model. Descriptions and examples of applications of these theories are provided. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28217036

  5. Regge behavior saves string theory from causality violations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Vecchia, Paolo; Giuseppe, D'Appollonio; Russo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Higher-derivative corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action are present in bosonic string theory leading to the potential causality violations recently pointed out by Camanho et al. [1]. We analyze in detail this question by considering high-energy string-brane collisions at impact parameters b....... Such violations are instead neatly avoided when the full structure of string theory — and in particular its Regge behavior — is taken into account....... ≤ l s (the string-length parameter) with l s ≫ R p (the characteristic scale of the Dp-brane geometry). If we keep only the contribution of the massless states causality is violated for a set of initial states whose polarization is suitably chosen with respect to the impact parameter vector...

  6. Modern theories of suicidal behavior in adolescents and young people

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Pavlova; G.S. Bannikov

    2014-01-01

    We propose three current models, formulated over the last decade and not yet published in Russian, focused on teenage suicide: the development model of suicidal behavior in adolescents (J.A. Bridge, T.R. Goldstein, D.A. Brent); interpersonal model of (T.E. Joiner); some recent developments in the cognitive theory (A. Spirito, J.D. Matthews, A. Wenzel, A.T. Beck). Four groups of psychological aid targets for adolescents with suicidal tendencies are revealed: 1) targets of the current emotional...

  7. Modern theories of suicidal behavior in adolescents and young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Pavlova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose three current models, formulated over the last decade and not yet published in Russian, focused on teenage suicide: the development model of suicidal behavior in adolescents (J.A. Bridge, T.R. Goldstein, D.A. Brent; interpersonal model of (T.E. Joiner; some recent developments in the cognitive theory (A. Spirito, J.D. Matthews, A. Wenzel, A.T. Beck. Four groups of psychological aid targets for adolescents with suicidal tendencies are revealed: 1 targets of the current emotional state of a teenager (feelings of abandonment, self-perception as a burden to the loved ones, anxiety, hopelessness, heartache; 2 targets affecting personal predispositions (primitive defense mechanisms, impulsivity, aggression; 3 targets associated with cognitive functioning (cognitive rigidity, black-and-white thinking, thinking errors; and 4 targets reflecting a need to work with behavioral manifestations (narrow range of coping strategies used.

  8. Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this…

  9. The bounds of reason game theory and the unification of the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gintis, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Game theory is central to understanding human behavior and relevant to all of the behavioral sciences-from biology and economics, to anthropology and political science. However, as The Bounds of Reason demonstrates, game theory alone cannot fully explain human behavior and should instead complement other key concepts championed by the behavioral disciplines. Herbert Gintis shows that just as game theory without broader social theory is merely technical bravado, so social theory without game theory is a handicapped enterprise. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated. Reinvigorati

  10. Falsification of matching theory and confirmation of an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics in a critical experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Olivia L; Hackett, Ryan; Klapes, Bryan

    2017-07-01

    Two competing predictions of matching theory and an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics, and one additional prediction of the evolutionary theory, were tested in a critical experiment in which human participants worked on concurrent schedules for money (Dallery et al., 2005). The three predictions concerned the descriptive adequacy of matching theory equations, and of equations describing emergent equilibria of the evolutionary theory. Tests of the predictions falsified matching theory and supported the evolutionary theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the performance of various airfoil sections on power generation from a wind turbine using the blade element momentum theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaomin; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    It is well established that the power generated by a Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) is a function of the number of blades, the tip speed ratio (blade tip speed/wind free stream velocity) and the lift to drag ratio (CL /CD) of the airfoil sections of the blade. The airfoil sections used in HAWT are generally thick airfoils such as the S, DU, FX, Flat-back and NACA 6-series of airfoils. These airfoils vary in (CL /CD) for a given blade and ratio and therefore the power generated by HAWT for different blade airfoil sections will vary. The goal of this paper is to evaluate the effect of different airfoil sections on HAWT performance using the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. In this study, we employ DU 91-W2-250, FX 66-S196-V1, NACA 64421, and Flat-back series of airfoils (FB-3500-0050, FB-3500-0875, and FB-3500-1750) and compare their performance with S809 airfoil used in NREL Phase II and III wind turbines; the lift and drag coefficient data for these airfoils sections are available. The output power of the turbine is calculated using these airfoil section blades for a given blade and ratio and is compared with the original NREL Phase II and Phase III turbines using S809 airfoil section. It is shown that by a suitable choice of airfoil section of HAWT blade, the power generated by the turbine can be significantly increased. Parametric studies are also conducted by varying the turbine diameter.

  12. The effect of education based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Barfi

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: According to the results, Education based on the theory of planned behavior has a positive impact on smoking behavior, Therefore, it is recommended that the above educational model is used to modify the behavior of smokers.

  13. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K

    2005-06-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.

  14. Dual electromagnetism: helicity, spin, momentum and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco; Bekshaev, Aleksandr Y

    2013-01-01

    The dual symmetry between electric and magnetic fields is an important intrinsic property of Maxwell equations in free space. This symmetry underlies the conservation of optical helicity and, as we show here, is closely related to the separation of spin and orbital degrees of freedom of light (the helicity flux coincides with the spin angular momentum). However, in the standard field-theory formulation of electromagnetism, the field Lagrangian is not dual symmetric. This leads to problematic dual-asymmetric forms of the canonical energy–momentum, spin and orbital angular-momentum tensors. Moreover, we show that the components of these tensors conflict with the helicity and energy conservation laws. To resolve this discrepancy between the symmetries of the Lagrangian and Maxwell equations, we put forward a dual-symmetric Lagrangian formulation of classical electromagnetism. This dual electromagnetism preserves the form of Maxwell equations, yields meaningful canonical energy–momentum and angular-momentum tensors, and ensures a self-consistent separation of the spin and orbital degrees of freedom. This provides a rigorous derivation of the results suggested in other recent approaches. We make the Noether analysis of the dual symmetry and all the Poincaré symmetries, examine both local and integral conserved quantities and show that only the dual electromagnetism naturally produces a complete self-consistent set of conservation laws. We also discuss the observability of physical quantities distinguishing the standard and dual theories, as well as relations to quantum weak measurements and various optical experiments. (paper)

  15. Gender perspective on the factors predicting recycling behavior: Implications from the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ceren; Teksöz, Gaye; Pamuk, Savas; Sahin, Elvan; Kilic, Dilek Sultan

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of some socio-psychological attributes in explaining recycling behavior of Turkish university community from a gender perspective within the context of the theory of planned behavior with an additional variable (past experience). The recycling behavior of whole sample, females and males, has been examined in 3 sessions -depending on the arguments that explain gendered pattern of private and public environmental behavior and sticking to the fact why females' stronger environmental values, beliefs, and attitudes do not translate consistently into greater engagement in public behavior. As a result of model runs, different variables shaping intention for behavior have been found, namely perceived behavior control for females and past behavior for males. Due to the low percent of the variance in explaining recycling behavior of females, they have been identified as the ones who do not carry out intentions (non-recyclers). Since intentions alone are capable of identifying recyclers accurately but not non-recyclers, there may be other factors to be considered to understand the reason for females not carrying out the intentions. The results of descriptive statistics supported the identification by attitudes toward recycling. Female attitudes were innate (recycling is good, necessary, useful and sensitive), whereas those of males were learnt (recycling is healthy, valuable and correct). Thus, it has been concluded that males' intention for recycling is shaped by their past behavior and the conclusion is supported by males having learnt attitude toward recycling whereas females' lack of intention for recycling is shaped by their perceived behavior control and is supported by their innate attitude for recycling. All in all, the results of the present study provide further support for the utility of the TPB as a model of behavioral prediction and concur with other studies examining the utility of the TPB in the context of recycling

  16. Orbital angular momentum in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L.L.; Klimov, A.B.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We propose a comprehensive Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum. → We present a simple and useful toolkit for the practitioner. → We derive simple evolution equations in terms of a star product in the semiclassical limit. - Abstract: A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular-momentum discreteness.

  17. View from Behavioral Economics Theory: Case of Latvian Rural Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igo Cals

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory of classical economics treats entrepreneurs as subjects who make rational economic decisions. Empirical surveys prove the fact that daily economic decisions made by a separate economic entity can be explained by concepts of behavioral economics rather than classical economics. The economic behavior of entrepreneurs happens to be based on bounded rationality instead of financial justification. The objective of an economic activity presented as economically efficient can turn out to be socially important to a specific entrepreneur and not to national economy as a whole. In the EU countries, agriculture is a subsidised industry of national economy. In this light, status consumption and purchase of positional goods should create a special interest among economists. The objective of this article is to present true reasons of economic decisions made by rural entrepreneurs and to analyse the value hierarchy of Latvian rural entrepreneurs through carrying out a field work and with the help of set of instruments developed by modern economics theory.

  18. Dryson equations, Ward identities, and the infrared behavior of Yang-Mills theories. [Schwinger-Dyson equations, Slavnov-Taylor identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, M.

    1979-01-01

    It was shown using the Schwinger-Dyson equations and the Slavnov-Taylor identities of Yang-Mills theory that no inconsistency arises if the gluon propagator behaves like (1/p/sup 2/)/sup 2/ for small p/sup 2/. To see whether the theory actually contains such singular long range behavior, a nonperturbative closed set of equations was formulated by neglecting the transverse parts of GAMMA and GAMMA/sub 4/ in the Schwinger-Dyson equations. This simplification preserves all the symmetries of the theory and allows the possibility for a singular low-momentum behavior of the gluon propagator. The justification for neglecting GAMMA/sup (T)/ and GAMMA/sub 4//sup (T)/ is not evident but it is expected that the present study of the resulting equations will elucidate this simplification, which leads to a closed set of equations.

  19. Integrating Health Behavior Theory and Design Elements in Serious Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Colleen; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs Fg; Bridgman, Heather; Stasiak, Karolina; Shepherd, Matthew; Orpin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Internet interventions for improving health and well-being have the potential to reach many people and fill gaps in service provision. Serious gaming interfaces provide opportunities to optimize user adherence and impact. Health interventions based in theory and evidence and tailored to psychological constructs have been found to be more effective to promote behavior change. Defining the design elements which engage users and help them to meet their goals can contribute to better informed serious games. To elucidate design elements important in SPARX, a serious game for adolescents with depression, from a user-centered perspective. We proposed a model based on an established theory of health behavior change and practical features of serious game design to organize ideas and rationale. We analyzed data from 5 studies comprising a total of 22 focus groups and 66 semistructured interviews conducted with youth and families in New Zealand and Australia who had viewed or used SPARX. User perceptions of the game were applied to this framework. A coherent framework was established using the three constructs of self-determination theory (SDT), autonomy, competence, and relatedness, to organize user perceptions and design elements within four areas important in design: computer game, accessibility, working alliance, and learning in immersion. User perceptions mapped well to the framework, which may assist developers in understanding the context of user needs. By mapping these elements against the constructs of SDT, we were able to propose a sound theoretical base for the model. This study's method allowed for the articulation of design elements in a serious game from a user-centered perspective within a coherent overarching framework. The framework can be used to deliberately incorporate serious game design elements that support a user's sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, key constructs which have been found to mediate motivation at all stages of the change

  20. Reward and Cognition: Integrating Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Drinking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope; Boyes, Mark; Mullan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Both Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory have been applied to understanding drinking behavior. We propose that theoretical relationships between these models support an integrated approach to understanding alcohol use and misuse. We aimed to test an integrated model in which the relationships between reward sensitivity and drinking behavior (alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and symptoms of dependence) were mediated by alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy. Online questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest were completed by 443 Australian adults (M age = 26.40, sd = 1.83) in 2013 and 2014. Path analysis revealed both direct and indirect effects and implicated two pathways to drinking behavior with differential outcomes. Drinking refusal self-efficacy both in social situations and for emotional relief was related to alcohol consumption. Sensitivity to reward was associated with alcohol-related problems, but operated through expectations of increased confidence and personal belief in the ability to limit drinking in social situations. Conversely, sensitivity to punishment operated through negative expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy for emotional relief to predict symptoms of dependence. Two pathways relating reward sensitivity, alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy may underlie social and dependent drinking, which has implications for development of intervention to limit harmful drinking.

  1. Asymmetric Extreme Tails and Prospective Utility of Momentum Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stork, P.A.; Gregory-Allen, R.; Lu, H.

    2012-01-01

    We use extreme value theory to analyse the tails of a momentum strategy's return distribution. The asymmetry between the fat left tail and thin right tail strongly reduces a momentum strategy's prospective utility levels. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Application of the Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior in Intercity Travel Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congestion in intercity corridors of metropolitan area has been increasing steadily. To alleviate congestion, many major investment projects, such as the high speed railway projects, were proposed by agency. To evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of these projects, the intercity travel behavior should be analyzed in metropolitan area. The paper constructed a Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC model according to an expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB to study the travel behavior of choosing from the choice set of the traditional train, the high speed railway and the coach by demographic and psychological factors. Through empirical data collection and analysis, we found that demographic factors of travelers indeed positively engender the latent variables in MIMIC, and descriptive norm and habit had direct or indirect significant effect on travel behavior and intention. On the basis of the effect of psychological constructors of the expanded TPB on the intercity travel behavior and differentiation of traveler's demographic characteristics, the agency can make reasonable policies and proper information for the intercity transportation. The results will support the basic theory of optimizing the transportation system in metropolitan area. Implications for researchers and suggestions for future research are also addressed in this study.

  3. Theory of planned behavior interventions for reducing heterosexual risk behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Mandy; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S

    2014-12-01

    The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews, keyword search through search engines, examination of key journals, and contacting key experts. Forty-seven intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects models revealed that pooled effect sizes for TPB-based interventions had small but significant effects on behavior and other secondary outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). Significant heterogeneity found between effect sizes was explored using metaregression. Larger effects were found for interventions that provided opportunities for social comparison. The TPB provides a valuable framework for designing interventions to change heterosexual risk behaviors. However, effect sizes varied quite substantially between studies, and further research is needed to explore the reasons why.

  4. Comparing three attitude-behavior theories for predicting science teachers' intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zint, Michaela

    2002-11-01

    Social psychologists' attitude-behavior theories can contribute to understanding science teachers' behaviors. Such understanding can, in turn, be used to improve professional development. This article describes leading attitude-behavior theories and summarizes results from past tests of these theories. A study predicting science teachers' intention to incorporate environmental risk education based on these theories is also reported. Data for that study were collected through a mail questionnaire (n = 1336, radjusted = 80%) and analyzed using confirmatory factor and multiple regression analysis. All determinants of intention to act in the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior and some determinants in the Theory of Trying predicted science teachers' environmental risk education intentions. Given the consistency of results across studies, the Theory of Planned Behavior augmented with past behavior is concluded to provide the best attitude-behavior model for predicting science teachers' intention to act. Thus, science teachers' attitude toward the behavior, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm need to be enhanced to modify their behavior. Based on the Theory of Trying, improving their attitude toward the process and toward success, and expectations of success may also result in changes. Future research should focus on identifying determinants that can further enhance the ability of these theories to predict and explain science teachers' behaviors.

  5. Experimental Study on Momentum Transfer of Surface Texture in Taylor-Couette Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yabo; Yao, Zhenqiang; Cheng, De

    2017-05-01

    The behavior of Taylor-Couette (TC) flow has been extensively studied. However, no suitable torque prediction models exist for high-capacity fluid machinery. The Eckhardt-Grossmann-Lohse (EGL) theory, derived based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is proposed to model torque behavior. This theory suggests that surfaces are the significant energy transfer interfaces between cylinders and annular flow. This study mainly focuses on the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer behavior through global torque measurement. First, a power-law torque behavior model is built to reveal the relationship between dimensionless torque and the Taylor number based on the EGL theory. Second, TC flow apparatus is designed and built based on the CNC machine tool to verify the torque behavior model. Third, four surface texture films are tested to check the effects of surface texture on momentum transfer. A stereo microscope and three-dimensional topography instrument are employed to analyze surface morphology. Global torque behavior is measured by rotating a multi component dynamometer, and the effects of surface texture on the annular flow behavior are observed via images obtained using a high-speed camera. Finally, torque behaviors under four different surface conditions are fitted and compared. The experimental results indicate that surface textures have a remarkable influence on torque behavior, and that the peak roughness of surface texture enhances the momentum transfer by strengthening the fluctuation in the TC flow.

  6. Dropout Rates, Student Momentum, and Course Walls: A New Tool for Distance Education Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Steven S.; Spackman, Jonathan S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores a new tool for instructional designers. By calculating and graphing the Student Momentum Indicator (M) for 196 university-level online courses and by employing the constant comparative method within the grounded theory framework, eight distinct graph shapes emerged as meaningful categories of dropout behavior. Several of the…

  7. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Akulume

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation. Results. For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers’ segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant (r=0.524, P<0.001. The theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers’ segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion. Generally, health workers’ health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers’ health care waste segregation behaviors.

  8. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2016-01-01

    Objective . The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology . One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation). Results . For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers' segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant ( r = 0.524, P theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers' segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion . Generally, health workers' health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers' health care waste segregation behaviors.

  9. The importance of theory in cognitive behavior therapy: a perspective of contextual behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, James D; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Forman, Evan M

    2013-12-01

    For the past 30 years, generations of scholars of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have expressed concern that clinical practice has abandoned the close links with theory that characterized the earliest days of the field. There is also a widespread assumption that a greater working knowledge of theory will lead to better clinical outcomes, although there is currently very little hard evidence to support this claim. We suggest that the rise of so-called "third generation" models of CBT over the past decade, along with the dissemination of statistical innovations among psychotherapy researchers, have given new life to this old issue. We argue that theory likely does matter to clinical outcomes, and we outline the future research that would be needed to address this conjecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Theory of planned behavior and adherence in chronic illness: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rich, A.; Brandes, K.; Mullan, B.; Hagger, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive models such as the theory of planned behavior have demonstrated efficacy in predicting behavior, but few studies have examined the theory as a predictor of treatment adherence in chronic illness. We tested the efficacy of the theory for predicting adherence to treatment in chronic

  11. Predicting organic food consumption: A meta-analytic structural equation model based on the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalco, Andrea; Noventa, Stefano; Sartori, Riccardo; Ceschi, Andrea

    2017-05-01

    During the last decade, the purchase of organic food within a sustainable consumption context has gained momentum. Consequently, the amount of research in the field has increased, leading in some cases to discrepancies regarding both methods and results. The present review examines those works that applied the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework in order to understand and predict consumers' motivation to buy organic food. A meta-analysis has been conducted to assess the strength of the relationships between attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention, as well as between intention and behavior. Results confirm the major role played by individual attitude in shaping buying intention, followed by subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Intention-behavior shows a large effect size, few studies however explicitly reported such an association. Furthermore, starting from a pooled correlation matrix, a meta-analytic structural equation model has been applied to jointly evaluate the strength of the relationships among the factors of the original model. Results suggest the robustness of the TPB model. In addition, mediation analysis indicates a potential direct effect from subjective norms to individual attitude in the present context. Finally, some issues regarding methodological aspects of the application of the TPB within the context of organic food are discussed for further research developments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Overview of toroidal momentum transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, A.G.; Hornsby, W.A.; Angioni, C.; Hein, T.; Kluy, N.; Strintzi, D.; Tardini, G.; Bortolon, A.; Camenen, Y.; Casson, F.J.; Snodin, A.P.; Szepesi, G.; Duval, B.; Fiederspiel, L.; Idomura, Y.; Mantica, P.; Parra, F.I.; Tala, T.; De Vries, P.; Weiland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Toroidal momentum transport mechanisms are reviewed and put in a broader perspective. The generation of a finite momentum flux is closely related to the breaking of symmetry (parity) along the field. The symmetry argument allows for the systematic identification of possible transport mechanisms. Those that appear to lowest order in the normalized Larmor radius (the diagonal part, Coriolis pinch, E x B shearing, particle flux, and up-down asymmetric equilibria) are reasonably well understood. At higher order, expected to be of importance in the plasma edge, the theory is still under development.

  13. Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses’ Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun M. Aldiabat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking.

  14. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive corre...

  15. Galaxy angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.A.

    1974-01-01

    In order to test the theories which purport to explain the origin of galaxy angular momentum, this study presents new data for about 1000 individual galaxies in eight rich clusters. The clusters which are studied include Virgo, A 119, A 400, A 1656 (Coma), A 2147, A 2151 (Hercules), A 2197, and A 2199. Selected samples of these data are used to investigate systematic alignment effects in clusters of galaxies and to investigate the intrinsic ellipticities of E, SO, and spiral galaxies. The following new results are reported: Galaxies in the cluster A 2197 show a significant alignment effect (chi 2 probability less than 0.0002), and the preferential direction of alignment corresponds approximately to the major axis of the overall cluster elongation. None of the other seven clusters show any significant alignment trends. The spiral galaxy samples in four clusters (Virgo, A 1656, A 2151, and A 2197) were large enough to analyze the number distributions of forward and reverse winding spirals. Large and small spiral galaxies have identical ellipticity distributions. Large E and SO galaxies tend to be more spherical, and small E and SO galaxies more flattened. The intrinsic ellipticities of E, SO, and spiral galaxies are the same for galaxies in the ''field'' and for galaxies in rich clusters. Six models of galaxy formation are reviewed, and the major []mphasis is placed on how each model explains the origin of galaxy angular momentum. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  16. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O.; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed...

  17. Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    in these developments. Although he cooperated with other famous aerodynamicists like Prandtl, his contribution is not well recognized as most of his publications are in Russian. The paper discusses the role of the English, Russian and German research schools in the beginning of the Twentieth Century...... is the basis of current rotor design codes. He applied some assumptions limiting the validity to moderate and high tip speed ratios. Sorensen and van Kuik published a solution for wind turbines with very low tip speed ratios, which is now expanded to propellers as well, with one remaining assumption...

  18. Predicting Facebook users' online privacy protection: risk, trust, norm focus theory, and the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeri, Alexander K; Ogilvie, Claudette; La Macchia, Stephen T; Smith, Joanne R; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-01-01

    The present research adopts an extended theory of the planned behavior model that included descriptive norms, risk, and trust to investigate online privacy protection in Facebook users. Facebook users (N = 119) completed a questionnaire assessing their attitude, subjective injunctive norm, subjective descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, implicit perceived risk, trust of other Facebook users, and intentions toward protecting their privacy online. Behavior was measured indirectly 2 weeks after the study. The data show partial support for the theory of planned behavior and strong support for the independence of subjective injunctive and descriptive norms. Risk also uniquely predicted intentions over and above the theory of planned behavior, but there were no unique effects of trust on intentions, nor of risk or trust on behavior. Implications are discussed.

  19. Qualitative application of the theory of planned behavior to understand beverage consumption behaviors among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Krzeski, Erin; Harden, Samantha; Cook, Emily; Allen, Kacie; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    Despite strong scientific data indicating associations among sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and numerous adverse health outcomes, little is known about culturally specific beliefs and potential individual-level behavioral strategies to reduce SSB intake. The primary objective of this formative study targeting adults residing in rural southwest Virginia was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate culturally specific attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control constructs related to the consumption of SSB, water, and artificially sweetened beverages. Using a homogenous sampling strategy, eight focus groups were conducted with 54 adult participants who exceeded recommendations of Theory of Planned Behavior, to execute the focus group. All focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently coded meaning units to the major themes and subsequently met to gain consensus in coding. Important beverage-specific themes emerged for attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions. Across all beverages, the most notable themes included taste (n=161 meaning units), availability/convenience (n=95 meaning units), habit/addiction (n=57 meaning units), and cost (n=28 meaning units). Health consequences associated with beverages and water-quality issues also surfaced, as well as normative beliefs, including the influence of doctors and peers. The identified themes and subthemes provide critical insight into understanding culturally relevant context and beliefs associated with beverage consumption behaviors and helps inform the development and evaluation of future intervention efforts targeting SSB consumption in the health disparate region of southwest Virginia. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Utility of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior for predicting physician behavior: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, S G

    1996-09-01

    The utility of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for prospectively predicting physicians' delivery of preventive services was compared. Primary care physicians (N = 765) completed 2 mail surveys at periods 6 months apart. The addition of perceived behavioral control to the TRA model significantly increased the variance accounted for in behavioral intention and subsequent behavior (p behavioral control had direct effects on behavior and interacted with social norms and behavioral intentions. Applications of models such as the TRA or TPB have focused primarily on predicting the behavioral intentions and behaviors of patients. Results suggest that these models have relevance for studying the behavior of health care providers as well.

  1. Predicting problem behaviors with multiple expectancies: expanding expectancy-value theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this study, we expanded expectancy-value theory to evaluate the contributions of two competing expectancies to adolescent behavior problems. One hundred twenty-one high school students completed measures of behavior problems, expectancies for both acting out and academic effort, and perceived academic competence. Students' self-reported behavior problems covaried mostly with perceived competence and academic expectancies and only nominally with problem behavior expectancies. We suggest that behavior problems may result from students perceiving a lack of valued or feasible alternative behaviors, such as studying. We discuss implications for interventions and suggest that future research continue to investigate the contribution of alternative expectancies to behavioral decisions.

  2. Energy-momentum tensor in the fermion-pairing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawati, S.; Miyata, H.

    1980-01-01

    The symmetric energy-momentum tensor for the self-interacting fermion theory (psi-barpsi) 2 is expressed in terms of the collective mode within the Hartree approximation. The divergent part of the energy-momentum tensor for the fermion theory induces an effective energy-momentum tensor for the collective mode, and this effective energy-momentum tensor automatically has the Callan-Coleman-Jackiw improved form. The renormalized energy-momentum tensor is structurally equivalent to the Callan-Coleman-Jackiw improved tensor for the Yukawa theory

  3. Predicting Factors of Worker Behavior for Proper Working Posture Based on Planed Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadi Zeydi

    2008-12-01

    Introduction & Objective: Injuries resulting from ignoring proper working posture especially in employees who sitting at workplace for more than of working hours are costly, and create significant pain and discomfort. Decreasing of these injuries is most effectively accomplished through the application of ergonomic design principles. Sometimes, however, barriers (technical and economic preclude ergonomic improvement and, consequently, some organizations rely on the use of proper sitting techniques and maintaining proper working posture as a major control strategy during workday. The problem, however, is that these process performing is inconsistent and managers have a difficult time motivating use of these techniques. The main aim of this study was to understand the factors driving proper working posture among employees. Materials & Methods: This study used the theory of planned behavior to predict upright working posture maintenance among 222 of assembling, machinery and printing line’s employees at a Qazvin Alborz industrial town manufacturing organization. Structural equation modeling, explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis were employed to analyze relationships among constructs. Results: Results revealed that attitude (p< 0.05, β= 0.53 and intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.46 were the strongest predictors of proper working posture maintenance behavior. Perceived behavior control, to a lesser degree, were also important influences on intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.34 and behavior (p< 0.05, β= 0.28. Subjective norms did not surface as effective direct predictors of upright working posture maintenance, but did affect behavior and intent via mediating factors (attitudes subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Finally, the TPB was supported as an effective model explaining upright working posture maintenance, and had potential application for many other safety-related behaviors. Conclusion: results of this study emphasis on considering factors such as

  4. Parental factors and adolescents' smoking behavior: an extension of The theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; Vermulst, Ad A; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2004-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether general parenting factors (i.e., quality parent-child relationship, psychological control, strict control, parental knowledge) and parental smoking add to The theory of planned behaviour [Organ Behav. Hum. Dec. 50 (1991) 179] in predicting the onset of smoking. A mediation model is applied in which parental factors affect smoking behavior indirectly by affecting smoking cognitions (i.e., attitude, self-efficacy, and social norm). The model was tested in a longitudinal study on 1,070 adolescents, aged 10-14 years old. Structural equation models (SEM) on current and on future smoking behavior were tested. The findings showed that the quality of the parent-child relationship and parental knowledge affected adolescents' smoking behavior indirectly, while parental smoking behavior had a direct effect. Strict control and psychological control were found to be unrelated to adolescents' smoking onset. In prevention campaigns, parents should be informed of the extent to which they exert influence on their child's smoking behavior and should be given advice and information on how they can prevent their children from starting to smoke.

  5. Using the theory of planned behavior to determine factors influencing processed foods consumption behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Og Yeon; Shim, Soonmi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to identify how level of information affected intention, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted survey in diverse community centers and shopping malls in Seoul, which yielded N = 209 datasets. To compare processed foods consumption behavior, we divided samples into two groups based on level of information about food additives (whether respondents felt that information on food additives was sufficient or not). We analyzed differences in attitudes toward food additives and toward purchasing processed foods, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions to processed foods between sufficient information group and lack information group. RESULTS The results confirmed that more than 78% of respondents thought information on food additives was insufficient. However, the group who felt information was sufficient had more positive attitudes about consuming processed foods and behavioral intentions than the group who thought information was inadequate. This study found people who consider that they have sufficient information on food additives tend to have more positive attitudes toward processed foods and intention to consume processed foods. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests increasing needs for nutrition education on the appropriate use of processed foods. Designing useful nutrition education requires a good understanding of factors which influence on processed foods consumption. PMID:24944779

  6. Using the theory of planned behavior to determine factors influencing processed foods consumption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sunhee; Kim, Og Yeon; Shim, Soonmi

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify how level of information affected intention, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The study was conducted survey in diverse community centers and shopping malls in Seoul, which yielded N = 209 datasets. To compare processed foods consumption behavior, we divided samples into two groups based on level of information about food additives (whether respondents felt that information on food additives was sufficient or not). We analyzed differences in attitudes toward food additives and toward purchasing processed foods, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions to processed foods between sufficient information group and lack information group. The results confirmed that more than 78% of respondents thought information on food additives was insufficient. However, the group who felt information was sufficient had more positive attitudes about consuming processed foods and behavioral intentions than the group who thought information was inadequate. This study found people who consider that they have sufficient information on food additives tend to have more positive attitudes toward processed foods and intention to consume processed foods. This study suggests increasing needs for nutrition education on the appropriate use of processed foods. Designing useful nutrition education requires a good understanding of factors which influence on processed foods consumption.

  7. The Effect of Training on Adopting Behaviors Preventing from Knee Osteoarthritis Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the arthritis is believed to be among common diseases which prevail in the developed and developing countries, including Iran. In demographic studies, the prevalence of knee arthritis which stands at %15/3 in the population above 15-years old was shown. Owing to the fact that societies are about to be aged than before, the issue has become a growing significance in the subject matter of public health. The present study is conducted with an aim to investigate into the effect of training based on the planned behavior model on preventing the teachers of preliminary schools from getting knee arthritis. Methods: the study as an intervention research is of quasi-experimental kind. The population in question included 114 individuals among female teachers of preliminary schools who were brought to the study randomly and divided into two groups intervention and non-intervention. Based on the primary results, the educational contents were designed and submitted in the intervention group. After two months of executing the training program, the post test was carried out. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 18. Due to the loss of normality in data distribution, non- parametric tests were used. Results: the study demonstrated that the components of the planned behavior theory (i.e. the attitudes, subjective norms and the control of perceived behavior could altogether estimate %37 of intention and %43 of behavior. Meanwhile, the role of subjective norms (β =56/0 in predicting intention was overriding, In this study,after the educational program, control of perceived behavior scores increased of 32/50 ± 4/05 to 34/82 ± 5/66. indicating that the major obstacles in adopting behaviors preventing from knee arthritis are the lack of regular physical activity (%72/4 and failure to use western-style toilet (%57. Conclusion: In this Study the effect theory of planned behavior support in predicting exercise intentions and behavior in the prevention of

  8. Rational decision perspectives on alcohol consumption by youth. Revising the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuther, Tara L

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive and developmental approaches have made great strides in describing and predicting alcohol consumption by youth. The present review examines several theories of decision making with regard to alcohol consumption, including subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory. In addition, the developmental literature on the contribution of parents and peers to adolescent alcohol consumption is reviewed. A model is proposed, which integrates the theory of planned behavior and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory with modifications based on findings from the developmental literature. Implications for further research are discussed.

  9. A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities

  10. A learning-style theory for understanding autistic behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low and high dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook. However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response. The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm, restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity, impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn

  11. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  12. Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, L Kay; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing wisdom in the field of health-related behavior change is that well-designed and effective interventions are guided by theory. Using the framework of intervention mapping, we describe and provide examples of how investigators can effectively select and use theory to design, test, and report interventions. We propose five roles for theory and evidence about theories: a) identification of behavior and determinants of behavior related to a specified health problem (i.e., the logic model of the problem); b) explication of a causal model that includes theoretical constructs for producing change in the behavior of interest (i.e., the logic model of change); c) selection of intervention methods and delivery of practical applications to achieve changes in health behavior; d) evaluation of the resulting intervention including theoretical mediating variables; and e) reporting of the active ingredients of the intervention together with the evaluation results. In problem-driven applied behavioral or social science, researchers use one or multiple theories, empiric evidence, and new research, both to assess a problem and to solve or prevent a problem. Furthermore, the theories for description of the problem may differ from the theories for its solution. In an applied approach, the main focus is on solving problems regarding health behavior change and improvement of health outcomes, and the criteria for success are formulated in terms of the problem rather than the theory. Resulting contributions to theory development may be quite useful, but they are peripheral to the problem-solving process.

  13. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior and Cheating Justifications to Predict Academic Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thomas H.; Jawahar, I. M.; Kisamore, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show that academic misconduct appears to be on the rise; some research has linked academic misconduct to unethical workplace behaviors. Unlike previous empirically-driven research, this theory-based study seeks to examine the usefulness of a modification of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior to predict…

  14. How Settings Change People: Applying Behavior Setting Theory to Consumer-Run Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louis D.; Shepherd, Matthew D.; Wituk, Scott A.; Meissen, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Self-help initiatives stand as a classic context for organizational studies in community psychology. Behavior setting theory stands as a classic conception of organizations and the environment. This study explores both, applying behavior setting theory to consumer-run organizations (CROs). Analysis of multiple data sets from all CROs in Kansas…

  15. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  16. Ethical Decision Making in Academic Dishonesty with Application of Modified Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chan Ling; Othman, Jamilah; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Omar, Zoharah

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual paper studies the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) in academic dishonesty with the mediating variable of ethical ideologies. The study reviews literature on the Theory of Planned Behavior and past studies pertaining to academic dishonesty. The paper analyses the relationship of the variables of TPB on academic…

  17. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  18. Theory of mind in schizophrenia: correlation with clinical symptomatology, emotional recognition and ward behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong; Kim, Yong Kyu

    2013-09-01

    Several studies have suggested the presence of a theory of mind (ToM) deficit in schizophrenic disorders. This study examined the relationship of emotion recognition, theory of mind, and ward behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Fifty-five patients with chronic schizophrenia completed measures of emotion recognition, ToM, intelligence, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE). Theory of mind sum score correlated significantly with IQ, emotion recognition, and ward behavior. Ward behavior was linked to the duration of the illness, and even more so to theory of mind deficits. Theory of mind contributed a significant proportion of the amount of variance to explain social behavior on the ward. Considering our study results, impaired theory of mind contributes significantly to the understanding of social competence in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. An Attempt to Extend Taylor-Spence Drive Theory to Vocational Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Richard S.

    1972-01-01

    Predictions were made from Taylor-Spence drive theory about vocational choice behavior. Although the results did not specifically support the predictions made from Taylor-Spence theory, they indicated the potential usefulness of certain concepts in this theory and suggested several lines of inquiry for further research. (Author)

  20. Extending the Theory of Normative Social Behavior to Predict Hand-Washing among Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Minwoong; Lapinski, Maria Knight

    2018-04-10

    The current study tests the predictions of the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB) in a hand-washing context in a Korean sample and extends the theory to examine the role of perceived publicness, a variable believed to activate face concerns, as a moderator of the norm-behavior relationship. The findings show substantial main effects for all of the study variables on behavior. In addition, the descriptive norm-behavior relationship is moderated by perceived publicness and outcome expectations, but the nature of the interactions is not consistent with that evidenced in previous literature on US samples. Implications for normative theory and communication campaigns are discussed.

  1. Applying theory-driven approaches to understanding and modifying clinicians' behavior: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew B; Jensen, Peter S; Jaccard, James; Gollwitzer, Peter; Oettingen, Gabriele; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2007-03-01

    Despite major recent research advances, large gaps exist between accepted mental health knowledge and clinicians' real-world practices. Although hundreds of studies have successfully utilized basic behavioral science theories to understand, predict, and change patients' health behaviors, the extent to which these theories-most notably the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and its extension, the theory of planned behavior (TPB)-have been applied to understand and change clinician behavior is unclear. This article reviews the application of theory-driven approaches to understanding and changing clinician behaviors. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched, along with bibliographies, textbooks on health behavior or public health, and references from experts, to find article titles that describe theory-driven approaches (TRA or TPB) to understanding and modifying health professionals' behavior. A total of 19 articles that detailed 20 studies described the use of TRA or TPB and clinicians' behavior. Eight articles describe the use of TRA or TPB with physicians, four relate to nurses, three relate to pharmacists, and two relate to health workers. Only two articles applied TRA or TPB to mental health clinicians. The body of work shows that different constructs of TRA or TPB predict intentions and behavior among different groups of clinicians and for different behaviors and guidelines. The number of studies on this topic is extremely limited, but they offer a rationale and a direction for future research as well as a theoretical basis for increasing the specificity and efficiency of clinician-targeted interventions.

  2. A STUDY ON THE SHAREHOLDERS’ BEHAVIOR OF LISTED COMPANIES BASED ON SYMBIOSIS THEORY: A RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Songling; LIU Tingli; CHEN Fang

    2014-01-01

    Research on shareholder’s behavior is a hot topic in recent years. Most researches are based on the theory of agency, which proposal that equity decentralization is the major way to solve the conflict problem between large shareholders and minority stockholders. Actually, major shareholder will never be eliminated. This paper introduces the symbiosis theory-ecology theory-to explain the motives and consequences of the behavior of different type shareholders in China’s from a new perspective. ...

  3. Population momentum across vertebrate life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Momentum of the Pure Radiation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The local momentum equation of the pure radiation field is considered in terms of an earlier elaborated and revised electromagnetic theory. In this equation the contribution from the volume force is found to vanish in rectangular geometry, and to become nonzero but negligible in cylindrical geometry. Consequently the radiated momentum is due to the Poynting vector only, as in conventional electrodynamics. It results in physically relevant properties of a photon model having an angular momentum (spin. The Poynting vector concept is further compared to the quantized momentum concept for a free particle, as represented by a spatial gradient operator acting on the wave function. However, this latter otherwise successful concept leads to difficulties in the physical interpretation of known and expected photon properties such as the spin, the negligible loss of transverse momentum across a bounding surface, and the Lorentz invariance.

  5. The extended Theory of Planned Behavior in explaining exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengku Ismail, Tengku Alina; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Bakar, Mohd Isa

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to utilize an extended Theory of Planned Behavior in identifying predictors of exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia. A prospective cohort study was conducted, recruiting pregnant womenthrough two-stage cluster sampling. Their exclusive breastfeeding intention, attitude, perceived norm, perceived behavioral control and past behavior were obtained at baseline through interviewer-guided questionnaire. At one month after delivery, another interview was conducted to determine the two additional variables in the extended theory, which were their postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty. The behavior, which was the actual duration of exclusive breastfeeding, was obtained from the second follow-up at six months. Pearson correlation and two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. A total of 200 women completed the study follow-up. Their median intended exclusive breastfeeding duration was 4.0 (IQR 5) months, and the median actual duration was 1.0 (IQR 4) month. The Theory of Planned Behavior explained 51.0% of the variance in intention, with perceived behavioral control and attitude were the significant predictors. It also explained 10.0% of the variance in behavior, but the addition of postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty increased the amount of explained variance in behavior by 6.0%. The significant predictors of exclusive breastfeeding behavior were intention, postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty. The extended Theory of Planned Behaviorhad a good predictive ability in explaining exclusive breastfeedingintention and behavior. The women's intention to practice exclusive breastfeeding may be improved by improving their perceived behavioral control and attitude. Providing correct postpartum support and skills to handle breastfeeding difficulties after delivery will improve their exclusive breastfeeding behavior.

  6. Theory X/Y in the Health Care Setting: Employee Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottas, David J; Nummelin, Mary Rogers

    Douglas McGregor's conceptualization of Theory X and Theory Y has influenced management practices for almost six decades, despite the relative paucity of empirical support. This empirical study examined the relationships between health care employees' perceptions of (1) manager Theory Y and Theory X orientations; (2) work unit psychological safety, organizational citizenship behavior, and service quality; and (3) the employing entity. The study used survey data from more than 3500 employees of a large US health care system and analyzed them using confirmatory factor and hierarchical regression analyses. Results indicate that McGregor's conceptualization is best considered as two separate constructs-Theory Y and Theory X-rather than as one-dimensional X/Y construct. This study's three dependent variables were positively related to Theory Y and negatively related to Theory X, with larger Theory Y effect sizes. Psychological safety partially mediated the relationship between Theory Y and the dependent variables Y. Practical implications are presented.

  7. Teacher Attitudes and Behavior toward the Inclusion of Children with Social, Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Mainstream Schools: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Kate; Woolfson, Lisa Marks

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior toward children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principals' expectations (subjective norm) predicted…

  8. A Theory of Planned Behavior Research Model for Predicting the Sleep Intentions and Behaviors of Undergraduate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Sharma, Manoj; Bernard, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to operationalize the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict the sleep intentions and behaviors of undergraduate college students attending a Midwestern University. Data collection spanned three phases. The first phase included a semi-structured qualitative interview (n = 11), readability by…

  9. Contrasting the theory of planned behavior with the value-belief-norm model in explaning conservation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, F.G.; Hübner, G.; Bogner, F.X.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we contrast the value-belief-norm (VBN) model and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for the first time regarding their ability to explain conservation behavior. The participants represent a convenience sample of 468 university students. Using survey data and adopting previously

  10. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  11. Understanding Knowledge Sharing Behavior: An Examination of the Extended Model of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Knowledge is recognized as one valuable asset for many organizations. Thus, knowledge-sharing is one of important activities in many organizations, including university. Knowledge sharing is defined as activities of transferring or disseminating organizationally relevant information, ideas, suggestions, and expertise with one another. This research applied Christian values as a moderating variable in the framework of theory of planned behavior. The aims of this research to assess applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict knowledge sharing and to examine the effects of Christian values in the relationship between attitude and intention to share knowledge. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data for this study. The data was then analyzed using structural equation modeling. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  12. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  13. Predicting Participation in Dual Language Immersion Using Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Andrea; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M.; Vázquez, Alejandro L.; Corralejo, Samantha M.

    2018-01-01

    Dual language immersion programs are increasing in popularity. Yet little is known about what motivates parents to enroll their children in dual language immersion. The theory of planned behavior posits that behavior is based on attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The current study was an exploratory evaluation of the…

  14. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  15. Representational momentum in memory for pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyd, J J; Kelly, M H; DeKay, M L

    1990-11-01

    When a visual pattern is displayed at successively different orientations such that a rotation or translation is implied, an observer's memory for the final position is displaced forward. This phenomenon of representational momentum shares some similarities with physical momentum. For instance, the amount of memory shift is proportional to the implied velocity of the inducing display; representational momentum is specifically proportional to the final, not the average, velocity; representational momentum follows a continuous stopping function for the first 250 ms or so of the retention interval. In a previous paper (Kelly & Freyd, 1987) we demonstrated a forward memory asymmetry using implied changes in pitch, for subjects without formal musical training. In the current paper we replicate our earlier finding and show that the forward memory asymmetry occurs for subjects with formal musical training as well (Experiment 1). We then show the structural similarity between representational momentum in memory for pitch with previous reports of parametric effects using visual stimuli. We report a velocity effect for auditory momentum (Experiment 2), we demonstrate specifically that the velocity effect depends on the implied acceleration (Experiment 3), and we show that the stopping function for auditory momentum is qualitatively the same as that for visual momentum (Experiment 4). We consider the implications of these results for theories of mental representation.

  16. The electromagnetic impulse pendulum and momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graneau, P.; Graneau, P.N.

    1986-01-01

    Largely quantitative experiments by Pappas have indicated that the momentum imparted to an electrodynamic impulse pendulum was not balanced by an equal and opposite momentum change of field energy as required by the special theory of relativity. The authors repeated Pappas' experiment using discharge currents from a capacitor bank which contained a known amount of stored energy. It turned out that, for momentum conservation, the magnetic-field energy required would have been 1000 to 2000 times as large as the energy that was actually stored in the capacitors. In the second part of the paper the pendulum experiments are interpreted in terms of Ampere's force law

  17. The Contributions of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Theory to Innovative Research and Practice Cultures in Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; Sharkey, Caroline; Briggs, Adam Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors tie the emergence of an empirical practice research culture, which enabled the rise in evidence-based practice in social work to the introduction of applied behavior analysis and behavioral theory to social work practice and research. The authors chronicle the: (1) scientific foundations of social work, (2) influence and push by corporatized university cultures for higher scholarship productivity among faculty, (3) significance of theory in general, (4) importance of behavioral theory in particular as a major trigger of the growth in research on effective social work practice approaches, and (5) commonalities between applied behavior analysis and evidence-based practice. The authors conclude with implications for addressing the dual challenges of building an enhanced research culture in schools of social work and the scholarship of transferring practice research to adoption in real world practice settings.

  18. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, D; Johnson, B T; Fishbein, M; Muellerleile, P A

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models' key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action's predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior's predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  19. Applying the theory of planned behavior: nursing students' intention to seek clinical experiences using the essential clinical behavior database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda

    2002-03-01

    This study examined the antecedents and determinants predictive of whether nursing students (N = 92) intend to ask for assignments to perform nursing behaviors after using a database to record essential clinical behaviors. The results of applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to behavioral intention using multivariant path analysis suggested that the endogenous variables, attitude and subjective norms, had a significant effect on the intention to ask for assignments to perform nursing behaviors. In addition, it was primarily through attitudes and subjective norms that the respective antecedents or exogenous variables, behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs, affected the intention to ask for assignments to perform nursing behaviors. The lack of direct influence of perceived behavioral control on intention and the direct negative impact of control belief on intention were contrary to expectations, given the tenets of the TPB.

  20. Integration of Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model on Student Behavior Model Using Cars for Traveling to Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are clear environmental, economic, and social drawbacks in using private vehicles, students still choose cars to get to campus. This study reports an investigation of psychological factors influencing this behavior from the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model. Students from three different university campuses in Surabaya, Indonesia, (n = 312 completed a survey on their car commuting behavior. Results indicated that perceived behavioral control and personal norm were the strongest factors that influence behavioral intention. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm explain 62.7% variance of the behavioral intention. In turn, behavioral intention explains 42.5% of the variance of the actual car use. Implications of these findings are that in order to alter the use of car, university should implement both structural and psychological interventions. Effective interventions should be designed to raise the awareness of negative aspects of car use.

  1. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  2. Health belief model and reasoned action theory in predicting water saving behaviors in yazd, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter¬mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha¬viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta¬tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  3. Explaining Consumer Safe Food Handling Through Behavior-Change Theories: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Reimer, Danielle; Greig, Judy; Meldrum, Richard; Turgeon, Patricia; Waddell, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    Consumers often engage in unsafe food handling behaviors at home. Previous studies have investigated the ability of behavior-change theories to explain and predict these behaviors. The purpose of this review was to determine which theories are most consistently associated with consumers' safe food handling behaviors across the published literature. A standardized systematic review methodology was used, consisting of the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of identified references; confirmation of relevance and characterization of relevant articles; risk-of-bias assessment; data extraction; and descriptive analysis of study results. A total of 20 relevant studies were identified; they were mostly conducted in Australia (40%) and the United States (35%) and used a cross-sectional design (65%). Most studies targeted young adults (65%), and none focused on high-risk consumer groups. The outcomes of 70% of studies received high overall risk-of-bias ratings, largely due to a lack of control for confounding variables. The most commonly applied theory was the Theory of Planned Behavior (45% of studies), which, along with other investigated theories of behavior change, was frequently associated with consumer safe food handling behavioral intentions and behaviors. However, overall, there was wide variation in the specific constructs found to be significantly associated and in the percentage of variance explained in each outcome across studies. The results suggest that multiple theories of behavior change can help to explain consumer safe food handling behaviors and could be adopted to guide the development of future behavior-change interventions. In these contexts, theories should be appropriately selected and adapted to meet the needs of the specific target population and context of interest.

  4. Non-linear variation of the beta function with momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1983-07-01

    A theory is presented for computing the non-linear dependence of the β-functions on momentum. Results are found for the quadratic term. The results of the theory are compared with computed results. A procedure is proposed for computing the strengths of the sextupole correctors to correct the dependence of the β-function on momentum

  5. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  6. Attention and Representational Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Amy; Freyd, Jennifer J

    1995-01-01

    Representational momentum, the tendency for memory to be distorted in the direction of an implied transformation, suggests that dynamics are an intrinsic part of perceptual representations. We examined the effect of attention on dynamic representation by testing for representational momentum under conditions of distraction. Forward memory shifts increase when attention is divided. Attention may be involved in halting but not in maintaining dynamic representations.

  7. On momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1990-01-01

    The relativistic law of momentum transformation shows that the sum of momenta of even isolated particles is not invariable in all inertial reference systems. This is connected with the relativistic change of kinetic energy and mass of a system of particles in result of internal interactions. The paper proposes a short and simple proof on the necessity of potential momentum. The momentum conservation law (for all interactions in the Minkowski world) is expressed in a generalized form. The constancy of the sum of kinetic and potential momentum of closed system of particles is shown. The energy conservation is a necessary condition. The potential momentum is defined as usual (e.g. as in the Berkeley Physics Course). (author). 13 refs

  8. Understanding driver behavior at grade crossings through signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report uses signal detection theory (SDT) to model motorists decisionmaking strategies at grade crossings in order to understand the factors that influence such decisions and to establish a framework for evaluating the impact of proposed coun...

  9. Understanding driver behavior at grade crossings through signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    This report uses signal detection theory (SDT) to model motorists decisionmaking strategies at grade crossings in order to understand the factors that influence such decisions and to establish a framework for evaluating the impact of proposed coun...

  10. Essays in behavioral economics : Applied game theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mermer, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral Economics aims at understanding the decision of economic agents who are not necessarily monetary utility maximizers and accounts for the fact that agents may have other concerns next to economic gain. This thesis contributes to the literature by studying the behavior of economic agents

  11. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Identify Predictors of Oral Hygiene: A Collection of Unique Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brein, Daniel J; Fleenor, Thomas J; Kim, Soo-Woo; Krupat, Edward

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to identify predictors of performed oral hygiene behaviors (OHBs) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), oral health knowledge, and demographic factors. Using a questionnaire, 381 participants in three general dental offices and one hospital dental department in York, Pennsylvania, were surveyed regarding performed OHB, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, oral health knowledge, income, age, and sex. Three unique elements of OHB were identified for analysis: brushing, interdental cleaning, and tongue cleaning. Regression analysis revealed that attitude was the strongest predictor of brushing behavior, followed by oral health knowledge, perceived behavior control, subjective norms, and income. Perceived behavior control was the strongest predictor of interdental cleaning, followed by increased age and attitude. Female sex was the strongest predictor of tongue cleaning, followed by subjective norms, decreased age, and perceived behavior control. Respectively, these three groups of predictive variables explained 22.5% of brushing behavior, 22.7% of interdental cleaning behavior, and 9.5% of tongue cleaning behavior. The present findings highlight the utility of viewing OHB as a set of unique behaviors with unique predictive variables and provide additional support for use of TPB in predicting OHB. Periodontal practitioners should consider the strong associations of attitude and perceived behavioral control with brushing and interdental cleaning behaviors when designing interventional efforts to improve patient home care.

  13. Residents’ Waste Separation Behaviors at the Source: Using SEM with the Theory of Planned Behavior in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongliang; Huang, Guangqing; Yin, Xiaoling; Gong, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect residents’ waste separation behaviors helps in constructing effective environmental campaigns for a community. Using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examines factors associated with waste separation behaviors by analyzing responses to questionnaires distributed in Guangzhou, China. Data drawn from 208 of 1000-field questionnaires were used to assess socio-demographic factors and the TPB constructs (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and situational factors). The questionnaire data revealed that attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and situational factors significantly predicted household waste behaviors in Guangzhou, China. Through a structural equation modeling analysis, we concluded that campaigns targeting moral obligations may be particularly effective for increasing the participation rate in waste separation behaviors. PMID:26274969

  14. Applications of operant learning theory to the management of challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rodger Ll; Alderman, Nick

    2011-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, interventions derived from learning theory have been delivered within a neurobehavioral framework to manage challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury with the aim of promoting engagement in the rehabilitation process and ameliorating social handicap. Learning theory provides a conceptual structure that facilitates our ability to understand the relationship between challenging behavior and environmental contingencies, while accommodating the constraints upon learning imposed by impaired cognition. Interventions derived from operant learning theory have most frequently been described in the literature because this method of associational learning provides good evidence for the effectiveness of differential reinforcement methods. This article therefore examines the efficacy of applying operant learning theory to manage challenging behavior after TBI as well as some of the limitations of this approach. Future developments in the application of learning theory are also considered.

  15. Chapter 2: Theoretical Models for Understanding Physical Activity Behavior among Children and Adolescents--Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The study of physical activity behavior in youth generally lacks a sufficient theoretical foundation for examining variables that influence that behavior. This is a major limitation because theory guides the search for determinants of behavior and the subsequent interplay between research findings and application. Theory offers a systematically…

  16. Critical behavior and duality in extended Sine-Gordon theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Holman, R.

    1991-01-01

    We study the critical properties of vectorial sine-Gordon theories based on the root system of simply-laced Lie algebras. We introduce the dual operators and study the renormalization aspects of these theories. These models are identified with vectorial Coulomb gas models of electric and magnetic charges and generalized Toda field theories. We prove that these theories are consistently renormalizable for simply-laced Lie algebras, but non-renormalizable in general in the non-simply-laced case. These models provide a description for the statistical mechanics of melting in the SU(3) case. They also provide a simplified model for strings compactified on root lattices. We compute the RG beta functions to quadratic order for general simply-laced algebras and find that in general there is a Weyl singlet, self-dual fixed point. This fixed point describes a critical theory with condensates of electric and magnetic charges corresponding to tachyonic and winding modes in string language. The different phases are related by Weyl and duality symmetry. The phase structure is conjectured in the general case, and analyzed in detail for SU(3) and SO(6). We compute Zamolodchikov's c-function to cubic order in the couplings in the general case and the conformal anomaly at the self-dual fixed point for SU(N). (orig.)

  17. User-Generated Content and travel planning: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Machado Mendes Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available User-Generated Content (UGC such as online travel reviews written by travelers and posted to virtual communities are being used more frequently to communicate travel-related information. UGC is therefore helping travelers to make decisions about their travel. Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, which is one of the most comprehensive models explaining behavioral intention, this study contributes to the further development of theories of online consumer behavior by determining which factors are most important in relation to the use of UGC in the travel industry. The TPB has three independent determinants of behavioral intention: attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control. Therefore the aim of this paper is to examine the roles of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control in respect of travelers’ intention to use UGC when making travel plans.

  18. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  19. Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior as Models of Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Albarracín, Dolores; Johnson, Blair T.; Fishbein, Martin; Muellerleile, Paige A.

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models’ key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action’s predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were ...

  20. Health Behavior Theory in Popular Calorie Counting Apps: A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Siena F; Ellsworth, Marisa A; Payne, Hannah E; Hall, Shelby M; West, Joshua H; Nordhagen, Amber L

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store features hundreds of calorie counting apps, the extent to which popular calorie counting apps include health behavior theory is unknown. Objective This study evaluates the presence of health behavior theory in calorie counting apps. Methods Data for this study came from an extensive content analysis of the 10 most popular calorie counting apps in the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store. Results Each app was ...

  1. Evaluation of physical activity web sites for use of behavior change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Amol; Patrick, Kevin; Sallis, James F; Calfas, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) Web sites were assessed for their use of behavior change theories, including constructs of the health belief model, Transtheoretical Model, social cognitive theory, and the theory of reasoned action and planned behavior. An evaluation template for assessing PA Web sites was developed, and content validity and interrater reliability were demonstrated. Two independent raters evaluated 24 PA Web sites. Web sites varied widely in application of theory-based constructs, ranging from 5 to 48 on a 100-point scale. The most common intervention strategies were general information, social support, and realistic goal areas. Coverage of theory-based strategies was low, varying from 26% for social cognitive theory to 39% for health belief model. Overall, PA Web sites provided little assessment, feedback, or individually tailored assistance for users. They were unable to substantially tailor the on-line experience for users at different stages of change or different demographic characteristics.

  2. A behavior-analytic critique of Bandura's self-efficacy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Anthony

    1987-01-01

    A behavior-analytic critique of self-efficacy theory is presented. Self-efficacy theory asserts that efficacy expectations determine approach behavior and physiological arousal of phobics as well as numerous other clinically important behaviors. Evidence which is purported to support this assertion is reviewed. The evidence consists of correlations between self-efficacy ratings and other behaviors. Such response-response relationships do not unequivocally establish that one response causes another. A behavior-analytic alternative to self-efficacy theory explains these relationships in terms of environmental events. Correlations between self-efficacy rating behavior and other behavior may be due to the contingencies of reinforcement that establish a correspondence between such verbal predictions and the behavior to which they refer. Such a behavior-analytic account does not deny any of the empirical relationships presented in support of self-efficacy theory, but it points to environmental variables that could account for those relationships and that could be manipulated in the interest of developing more effective treatment procedures. PMID:22477956

  3. Models of alcohol use by young adults: an examination of various attitude-behavior theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, F V; Chang, D C; Callan, V J; Baglioni, A

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of various attitude-behavior theories in explaining alcohol use among young adults. The theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior and an extension of the TRA that incorporates past behavior were compared by the method of maximum-likelihood estimation, as implemented in LISREL for Windows 8.12. Respondents consisted of 122 university students (82 female) who were questioned about their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, past behavior and intentions relating to drinking behavior. Students received course credit for their participation in the research. Overall, the results suggest that the extension of the theory of reasoned action which incorporates past behavior provides the best fit to the data. For these young adults, their intentions to drink alcohol were predicted by their past behavior as well as their perceptions of what important others think they should do (subjective norm). The main conclusions drawn from the research concern the importance of focusing on normative influences and past behavior in explaining young adult alcohol use. Issues regarding the relative merit of various alternative models and the need for greater clarity in the measure of attitudes are also discussed.

  4. Improving measurement of injection drug risk behavior using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulis, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Recent research highlights the multiple steps to preparing and injecting drugs and the resultant viral threats faced by drug users. This research suggests that more sensitive measurement of injection drug HIV risk behavior is required. In addition, growing evidence suggests there are gender differences in injection risk behavior. However, the potential for differential item functioning between genders has not been explored. To explore item response theory as an improved measurement modeling technique that provides empirically justified scaling of injection risk behavior and to examine for potential gender-based differential item functioning. Data is used from three studies in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. A two-parameter item response theory model was used to scale injection risk behavior and logistic regression was used to examine for differential item functioning. Item fit statistics suggest that item response theory can be used to scale injection risk behavior and these models can provide more sensitive estimates of risk behavior. Additionally, gender-based differential item functioning is present in the current data. Improved measurement of injection risk behavior using item response theory should be encouraged as these models provide increased congruence between construct measurement and the complexity of injection-related HIV risk. Suggestions are made to further improve injection risk behavior measurement. Furthermore, results suggest direct comparisons of composite scores between males and females may be misleading and future work should account for differential item functioning before comparing levels of injection risk behavior.

  5. Neutronics equations: Positiveness; compactness; spectral theory; time asymptotic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar-Kharroubi, M.

    1987-12-01

    Neutronics equations are studied: the continuous model (with and without delayed neutrons) and the multigroup model. Asymptotic descriptions of these equations (t→+∞) are obtained, either by the Dunford method or by using semigroup perturbation techniques, after deriving the spectral theory for the equations. Compactness problems are reviewed, and a general theory of compact injection in neutronic functional space is derived. The effects of positiveness in neutronics are analyzed: the irreducibility of the transport semigroup, and the properties of the main eigenvalue (existence, nonexistence, frame, strict dominance, strict monotony in relation to all the parameters). A class of transport operators whose real spectrum can be completely described is shown [fr

  6. An extended theory of planned behavior to predict consumers' willingness to buy mobile slaughter unit meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, Djura L.; Gerritzen, Marien A.; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Poortvliet, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the determinants of consumers' intention to purchase meat from mobile slaughter units (MSU). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the value belief norm theory (VBN) were used as conceptual lenses to guide this investigation. We conducted a survey among 329

  7. The Efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action to Explain Gambling Behavior in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Robert G.; Andrew, Damon P. S.; Mahony, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    Shaffer and Hall (1997) have estimated college student gambling to be three times as high as their adult counterparts. Despite a considerable amount of research on gambling, researchers have struggled to develop a universal theory that explains gambling behavior. This study explored the potential of Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980) Theory of Reasoned…

  8. Predicting entrepreneurial career intentions: Values and the theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); U. Stephan (Ute); M. Laguna (Mariola); J.A. Moriano (Juan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntegrating predictions from the theory of human values with the theory of planned behavior (TPB), our primary goal is to investigate mechanisms through which individual values are related to entrepreneurial career intentions using a sample of 823 students from four European countries.

  9. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  10. Behavioral Intention to Use Public Transport Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambak Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in population generates increasing in travel demand. In Malaysia, public transport become an important modes of transport that connection people. This paper presents behavioural intention to use public transport especially public bus based on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify factors that contribute and influence users to use public bus and to determine factor that most dominant using TPB model. A total of 282 questionnaires were distributed in selected area of Batu Pahat and Kluang. Correlation and regression analysis were used for this study. Results show that the Attitude toward public transport is the most dominant factor compared with Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavior Control that influencing users to use public bus. Majority respondents were agreed that they prefer to use public bus because it is cheap to travel and no other choices of other transfer modes. As for the recommendation, this study can be extended in future as part of strategic sustainable transportation system in Batu Pahat and Kluang areas.

  11. Learning Theories Applied to Teaching Technology: Constructivism versus Behavioral Theory for Instructing Multimedia Software Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cajah S.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to find evidence for a beneficial learning theory to teach computer software programs. Additionally, software was analyzed for each learning theory's applicability to resolve whether certain software requires a specific method of education. The results are meant to give educators more effective teaching tools, so students…

  12. Attachment Theory and Theory of Planned Behavior: An Integrative Model Predicting Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D.; Berger, Dale E.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that peer and maternal bonds play important but sometimes contrasting roles in the outcomes of children. Less is known about attachment bonds to these 2 reference groups in young adults. Using a sample of 351 participants (18 to 20 years of age), the research integrated two theoretical traditions: attachment theory and theory of…

  13. Traditional finance : behavioral finance distinction in the context of expected utility and prospect theories

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Bilgehan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional finance has developed based on two fundamental assumptions, including the expected utility theory and rational choice or decision. However, this hypothesis has been criticized heavily by put forward that are not realistic enough. The basis of behavioral finance theory is based on the “prospect theory”. According to this theory individuals cannot act fully rational, they install more sense to loses than at the same amount of profit and they exhibit risk and loss aversion behaviour....

  14. Toward an understanding of late life suicidal behavior: the role of lifespan developmental theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Amy; O'Riley, Alisa A

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior in late life differs in important ways from suicidal behavior that occurs earlier in the lifespan, suggesting the possibility of developmental differences in the etiology of suicidal behavior. This paper examines late life suicidal behavior within the context of lifespan developmental theory. This paper presents a conceptual framework for using lifespan developmental theory to better understand late life suicidal behavior. We argue that the motivational theory of lifespan development, which focuses on control, is particularly relevant to late life suicide. This theory posits that opportunities to exert control over important aspects of one's life diminish in late life as a result of declines in physical functioning and other factors, and that successful aging is associated with adaptive regulation of this developmental change. Although continued striving to meet goals is normative throughout the lifespan, most individuals also increase the use of compensatory strategies in old age or when faced with a decline in functioning. We propose that individuals who do not adapt to developmental changes by altering their strategies for exerting control will be at risk for suicidal behavior in late life. This paper reviews evidence that supports the importance of control with respect to suicidal outcomes in older adults, as well as findings regarding specific types of control strategies that may be related to suicide risk in older adults with health-related limitations. Although suicidal behavior is not a normal part of aging, the application of lifespan developmental theory may be useful in understanding and potentially preventing suicide among older adults.

  15. Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    1977-01-01

    This research presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of "self-efficacy". (Editor/RK)

  16. COGNITIONS AND BEHAVIOR IN A HIERARCHY - MULDERS POWER THEORY REVISITED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILKE, HAM

    1992-01-01

    In this study, Mulder's power theory consisting of the power distance reduction tendency (PDR) of less powerful group members towards more powerful others, and the power distance enlargement tendency (PDE) of more powerful group members towards less powerful others, is investigated. In particular,

  17. Energy-momentum tensor in scalar QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, S.D.; Misra, A.

    1988-01-01

    We consider the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor in scalar quantum electrodynamics. We show the need for adding an improvement term to the conventional energy-momentum tensor. We consider two possible forms for the improvement term: (i) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite function of bare parameters of the theory (so that the energy-momentum tensor can be obtained from an action that is a finite function of bare quantities); (ii) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite quantity, i.e., a finite function of renormalized parameters. We establish a negative result; viz., neither form leads to a finite energy-momentum tensor to O(e 2 λ/sup n/). .AE

  18. Fast Food Consumption Behaviors in High-School Students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Mirkarimi; Morteza Mansourian; Mohammad Javad Kabir; Rahman Berdi Ozouni- Davaji; Maryam Eri; Seyed Ghadir Hosseini; Mostafa Qorbani; Omid Safari; Babak Rastgari Mehr; Mehdi Noroozi; Abdurrahman Charkazi; Hossein Shahnazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies report inappropriate snack and junk food consumption patterns in children and young adults in Iran. The current survey was aimed to explore fast food consumption behaviors in high-school students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 500 high-school students. Samples were selected based on cluster sampling method at first and simple random at second. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. ...

  19. The effect of (negative) emotion on pro-environmental behavior : an application of the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    With climate change becoming ever-present as a huge environmental issue for the modern era to address, pro-environmental behavior (PEB) is becoming an increasingly relevant area. There seems to be a divergence between how different actors try and encourage PEB when using emotion as the motivational tool. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore this effect of (negative) emotion on decision making. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as the theoretical framework, with the primar...

  20. Effect of Theory of Planned Behavior-based Educational Intervention on Breastfeeding Behavior in Pregnant Women in Fasa City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Marjan Arshad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Breastfeeding is a matter of significant importance. Given the role of such factors as attitude and subjective norms on the behavior of mothers and the low level of exclusive breastfeeding, the present study aimed to determine the effect of educational program based on the theory of planned behavior on breastfeeding behavior among the pregnant women in Fasa, Iran. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 pregnant women with the gestational age of 30-35 weeks who referred to the health care centers of Fasa, Iran, in 2017. The study population was selected using random sampling technique, and then assigned into two groups of control (n=50 and intervention (n=50. The data were collected using a demographic form, components of the theory of planned behavior questionnaire, and a breastfeeding checklist. The intervention group received three 55-to-60-minute training sessions. The mothers' breastfeeding behavior was evaluated before the training sessions and 40 days post-delivery in both groups. The data were analyzed in SPSS software, version 22, using Chi-square test, independent t-test, and paired sample t-test. Results: According to the results, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the components of the theory of planned behavior before the educational intervention (P=0.208. However, after the training sessions, the intervention group showed a significant improvement in all components of the theory of planned behavior, including intention and breastfeeding behavior, compared to the control group (P=0.001. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, appropriate training programs, social network support, and suitable conditions for breastfeeding in the community are among the effective factors that can change the mothers’ attitudes towards lactation and result in successful breastfeeding in the first three months after childbirth.

  1. Momentum, March 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Momentum is the quarterly magazine of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Tech. In this issue: Lead-free piezoelectric material in development; Harnessing the energy of ocean waves; Meet the Hyperloop team; Maleshia Jones - Graduate student with focus.

  2. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-04-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R(2) around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P fast food consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control.

  3. Adult active transportation: adding habit strength to the Theory of Planned Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Singh, A.; van den Putte, B.; van Mechelen, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many health behaviors have a history of repetition and, as a result, may become habitual. Because including a measure of habit strength may add depth to current theoretical models on health behavior, the present study explored the issue of habit strength within the context of the theory

  4. Drivers for liquidation and transfer in small firms : Theory of Planned Behavior and firm conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Leory; Lex van Teeffelen

    2009-01-01

    Recently Leroy et al. (2008) tested if the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predicts exit behavior of entrepreneurs: liquidation or transfer. He added the purchasers view to the TPB: firm viability and intangible assets. We retested Leroy et al. hypotheses on a more refined dataset of 136 firms in

  5. An Interpretation of Part of Gilbert Gottlieb's Legacy: Developmental Systems Theory Contra Developmental Behavior Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main theme of this paper concerns the persistent critique of Gilbert Gottlieb on developmental behavior genetics and my reactions to this critique, the latter changing from rejection to complete acceptation. Concise characterizations of developmental behavior genetics, developmental systems theory (to which Gottlieb made essential…

  6. Pathway to Efficacy: Recognizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Underlying Theory for Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…

  7. Crowd-Designed Motivation: Motivational Messages for Exercise Adherence Based on Behavior Change Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.A.J.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Kwint, Sigrid; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Evers, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Developing motivational technology to support long-term behavior change is a challenge. A solution is to incorporate insights from behavior change theory and design technology to tailor to individual users. We carried out two studies to investigate whether the processes of change, from the

  8. Improving hand hygiene compliance in healthcare settings using behavior change theories: reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Pittet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Although hand hygiene is the most effective method for preventing healthcare-associated infections, hand hygiene practice falls short in many healthcare facilities. The compliance rate is mostly linked to system design and easily accessible hand hygiene products. System change, healthcare worker motivation, and complex behavioral considerations seem to play a significant role. This article discusses the application of behavioral theories in hand hygiene promotion in a theoretical manner. The program relies on the transtheoretical model (TTM) of health behavior change, John Keller's (ARCS) Model of Motivational Design, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Thus, the program links attitudes and behavior to hand hygiene promotion. The TTM of health behavior change helps to tailor interventions to predict and motivate individual movement across the pathway to change. A program could be based on this theory with multiple intercalations with John Keller's ARCS and the TPB. Such a program could be strengthened by linking attitudes and behavior to promote hand hygiene. The program could utilize different strategies such as organization cultural change that may increase the attention as well as fostering the movement in the ARCS stages. In addition, modeling TPB by creating peer pressure, ability to overcome obstacles, and increasing knowledge of the role of hand hygiene may lead to the desired outcome. The understanding and application of behavior change theories may result in an effective program to improve awareness and raise intention and thus may increase the potential for success of hand hygiene promotion programs.

  9. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict HPV Vaccination Intentions of College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Hannah Priest; Knowlden, Adam P.; Birch, David A.; Leeper, James D.; Paschal, Angelia M.; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs in predicting human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination behavioral intentions of vaccine-eligible college men. Participants: Participants were unvaccinated college men aged 18-26 years attending a large public university in the southeastern United States…

  10. Theory of Planned Behavior in the Classroom: An Examination of the Instructor Confirmation-Interaction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael E.; Houser, Marian L.; Farris, Kristen LeBlanc

    2018-01-01

    The current study utilizes the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen "Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes," 50, 179-211 Ajzen 1991) to examine an instructor confirmation-interaction model in the instructional communication context to discover a means by which instructors might cultivate positive student attitudes and…

  11. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  13. Predicting Study Abroad Intentions Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnusenberg, Oliver; de Jong, Pieter; Goel, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    The emphasis on study abroad programs is growing in the academic context as U.S. based universities seek to incorporate a global perspective in education. Using a model that has underpinnings in the theory of planned behavior (TPB), we predict students' intention to participate in short-term study abroad program. We use TPB to identify behavioral,…

  14. Why Do College Students Cheat? A Structural Equation Modeling Validation of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Dossary, Saeed Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Cheating on tests is a serious problem in education. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a modified form of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict cheating behavior among a sample of Saudi university students. This study also sought to test the influence of cheating in high school on cheating in college within the…

  15. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  16. Robustness of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting entrepreneurial intentions and actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kautonen, T.; van Gelderen, M.W.; Fink, M.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis demonstrates the relevance and robustness of the theory of planned behavior in the prediction of business start-up intentions and subsequent behavior based on longitudinal survey data (2011 and 2012; n=969) from the adult population in Austria and Finland. By doing so, the study

  17. Testing Theories of Dietary Behavior Change in Youth Using the Mediating Variable Model with Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Baranowski, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and critique current experimentally-based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Methods: Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) were identified via electronic database searches…

  18. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  19. Hagedorn Behavior of Little String Theories from string corrections to NS5-branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the Hagedorn behavior of little string theory using its conjectured duality with near-horizon NS5-branes. In particular, by studying the string-corrected NS5-brane supergravity solution, it is shown that tree-level corrections to the temperature vanish, while the leading one-loop string...... correction generates the correct temperature dependence of the entropy near the Hagedorn temperature. Finally, the Hagedorn behavior of ODp-brane theories, which are deformed versions of little string theory, is considered via their supergravity duals....

  20. Strategic behavior and marriage payments: theory and evidence from Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspart, Frederic; Platteau, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes an original theory of marriage payments based on insights gained from firsthand information collected in the Senegal River valley. This theory postulates that decisions about the bride-price, which are made by the bride's father, take into account the likely effects of the amount set on the risk of ill-treatment of the wife and the risk of marriage failure. Based on a sequential game with three players (the bride's father, the husband, and the wife) and a matching process, it leads to a number of important predictions that are tested against Senegalese data relating to bride-prices and various characteristics of women. The empirical results confirm that parents behave strategically by keeping bride-prices down so as to reduce the risk of marriage failure for their daughters. Other interesting effects on marriage payments and the probability of separation are also highlighted, stressing the role of the bride's bargaining power in her own family.

  1. [Theories of behavior change through preventive and health promotion interventions in occupational therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, Johanne; Richard, Lucie

    2005-02-01

    Community occupational therapy practice challenges therapists in their health educator role and incites them to implement preventive strategies with their clients. Working in the community also provides an interesting context for the implementation of strategies targeting health promotion at the community level. This article describes some of the theories that are used in the public health and health promotion fields to explain health-related behaviour change. It also highlights their potential for community practice in occupational therapy. The theories presented in this paper are the health belief model, social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior. They are among the most widely used for health-related behaviour analysis and intervention. Since these theories emphasize a set of factors that influence health behaviours, reviewing these theories could contribute to enhance the effectiveness of educational interventions with regards to clients'adherence to their prevention and health promotion recommendations.

  2. Treatment of avoidance behavior as an adjunct to exposure therapy: Insights from modern learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, Michael; Barry, Tom J

    2017-09-01

    Pathological avoidance of benign stimuli is a hallmark of anxiety and related disorders, and exposure-based treatments have often encouraged the removal of avoidance, or safety behaviors, due to their negative effects on extinction learning. Unfortunately, empirical evidence suggests that avoidance behaviors can persist following treatment, and the mere availability of avoidance behavior can be sufficient to renew fear following successful extinction learning. The present paper critically examines the function of avoidance behavior through the lens of modern learning theory, and speculates on novel behavioral and pharmacological strategies for targeting avoidance as an adjunct to current evidence-based treatments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual’s processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution err...

  4. Theories of Industrial Organization as Explanations of Experimental Market Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Plott, Charles R.

    1981-01-01

    The current professional interest in experimental economics seems to stem in part from a recently acquired ability of economists to explore subtle implications of institutional details for market performance. Advances in understanding the role of information in market models suggest the possibility that the contribution of institutions in affecting information patterns and resource allocation can be identified and assessed. Game theory has increasingly focused upon the structure of strategy s...

  5. The psychological behaviorism theory of pain and the placebo: its principles and results of research application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Peter S; Hekmat, Hamid; Staats, Arthur W

    2004-01-01

    The psychological behaviorism theory of pain unifies biological, behavioral, and cognitive-behavioral theories of pain and facilitates development of a common vocabulary for pain research across disciplines. Pain investigation proceeds in seven interacting realms: basic biology, conditioned learning, language cognition, personality differences, pain behavior, the social environment, and emotions. Because pain is an emotional response, examining the bidirectional impact of emotion is pivotal to understanding pain. Emotion influences each of the other areas of interest and causes the impact of each factor to amplify or diminish in an additive fashion. Research based on this theory of pain has revealed the ameliorating impact on pain of (1) improving mood by engaging in pleasant sexual fantasies, (2) reducing anxiety, and (3) reducing anger through various techniques. Application of the theory to therapy improved the results of treatment of osteoarthritic pain. The psychological behaviorism theory of the placebo considers the placebo a stimulus conditioned to elicit a positive emotional response. This response is most powerful if it is elicited by conditioned language. Research based on this theory of the placebo that pain is ameliorated by a placebo suggestion and augmented by a nocebo suggestion and that pain sensitivity and pain anxiety increase susceptibility to a placebo.

  6. Apps seeking theories: results of a study on the use of health behavior change theories in cancer survivorship mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer Dahlke, Deborah; Fair, Kayla; Hong, Y Alicia; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Pulczinski, Jairus; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-03-27

    Thousands of mobile health apps are now available for use on mobile phones for a variety of uses and conditions, including cancer survivorship. Many of these apps appear to deliver health behavior interventions but may fail to consider design considerations based in human computer interface and health behavior change theories. This study is designed to assess the presence of and manner in which health behavior change and health communication theories are applied in mobile phone cancer survivorship apps. The research team selected a set of criteria-based health apps for mobile phones and assessed each app using qualitative coding methods to assess the application of health behavior change and communication theories. Each app was assessed using a coding derived from the taxonomy of 26 health behavior change techniques by Abraham and Michie with a few important changes based on the characteristics of mHealth apps that are specific to information processing and human computer interaction such as control theory and feedback systems. A total of 68 mobile phone apps and games built on the iOS and Android platforms were coded, with 65 being unique. Using a Cohen's kappa analysis statistic, the inter-rater reliability for the iOS apps was 86.1 (Papps, 77.4 (Papps were consistently higher than those of the Android platform apps. For personalization and tailoring, 67% of the iOS apps (24/36) had these elements as compared to 38% of the Android apps (12/32). In the area of prompting for intention formation, 67% of the iOS apps (34/36) indicated these elements as compared to 16% (5/32) of the Android apps. Mobile apps are rapidly emerging as a way to deliver health behavior change interventions that can be tailored or personalized for individuals. As these apps and games continue to evolve and include interactive and adaptive sensors and other forms of dynamic feedback, their content and interventional elements need to be grounded in human computer interface design and health

  7. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  8. Failure behavior of single sand grains: theory versus experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brzesowsky, R.H.; Spiers, C.J.; Peach, C.J.; Hangx, S.J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Grain‐scale brittle fracture and grain rearrangement play an important role in controlling the compaction behavior of reservoir rocks during the early stages of burial. Therefore, the understanding of single‐grain failure is important. We performed constant displacement rate crushing tests

  9. Introduction to Mathematical Systems Theory: A Behavioral Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan W.; Willems, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This is a book about modelling, analysis, and control of linear time-invariant systems. The book uses what is called the behavioral approach towards mathematical modelling. Thus a system is viewed as a dynamical relation between manifest and latent variables. The emphasis is on dynamical systems

  10. Behavioral data requirements for translating cognitive theories into computer software algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of cognitive theories and their links to behavioral science and advanced intelligent systems. Cognitive theories model human cognition, perception, and communication. They suggest the human functions the system should have, serve as a philosophical basis for system development, and provide abstract design guidelines. The underlying assumption behind this paper is that if the cognitive theories are to have any value at all, they must be translated into usable systems. A process for testing a cognitive theory in terms of conceptual criteria, behavioral predictions and tests, and software development and tests, is suggested. Criteria for measuring the problem solving success of the advanced system are described. A theory of the system as an intelligent problem solver is presented. (author)

  11. Health education and multimedia learning: educational psychology and health behavior theory (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Francisco G Soto; Plass, Jan; Kane, William M; Papenfuss, Richard L

    2003-07-01

    When health education researchers began to investigate how individuals make decisions related to health and the factors that influence health behaviors, they referred to frameworks shared by educational and learning research. Health education adopted the basic principles of the cognitive revolution, which were instrumental in advancing the field. There is currently a new challenge to confront: the widespread use of new technologies for health education. To better overcome this challenge, educational psychology and instructional technology theory should be considered. Unfortunately, the passion to incorporate new technologies too often overshadows how people learn or, in particular, how people learn through computer technologies. This two-part article explains how educational theory contributed to the early development of health behavior theory, describes the most relevant multimedia learning theories and constructs, and provides recommendations for developing multimedia health education programs and connecting theory and practice.

  12. Theoretical domains: a heuristic for teaching behavioral theory in HIV/STD prevention courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolcini, M Margaret; Canin, Lisa; Gandelman, Alice; Skolnik, Heidi

    2004-10-01

    The HIV/STD epidemics have broadened the need for better behavioral intervention programs and highlighted the importance of providing training in behavioral theory to frontline program practitioners. However, there is a lack of effective methods for teaching theoretical concepts to people who may not have a background in behavioral science. This article presents a solution to this challenge by introducing a new heuristic for teaching theory and for placing individual theories/models in a broader context. Using a broad framework, we identify five domains that influence behavior: risk appraisal, self-perceptions, emotions and arousal, relationships and social influence, and environmental and structural factors. Each domain is described, and a brief overview of supporting literature is provided. Following the presentation of domains, we discuss course structure and activities.

  13. Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…

  14. Gender Differences in College Leisure Time Physical Activity: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Integrated Behavioral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beville, Jill M.; Umstattd Meyer, M. Renée; Usdan, Stuart L.; Turner, Lori W.; Jackson, John C.; Lian, Brad E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: National data consistently report that males participate in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) at higher rates than females. This study expanded previous research to examine gender differences in LTPA of college students using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by including 2 additional constructs, descriptive norm and…

  15. Relationships between self-determination theory and theory of planned behavior applied to physical activity and exercise behavior in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jessica M; Iwanaga, Kanako; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Cotton, Brandi Parker; Deiches, Jon; Morrison, Blaise; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between self-determination theory (SDT) and theory of planned behavior (TpB) applied to physical activity and exercise behavior (PA&E) in people with chronic pain. Two hundred and eleven adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain (28 males and 183 females, age range 18 to 82 years, mean age 43 years) were recruited from online support groups and clinic networks in the United States. Participants completed SDT measures relevant to PA&E on perceived autonomy support, autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as well as TpB measures relevant to PA&E on intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Correlational techniques and canonical correlation analysis were performed to examine the relationships and variance within and between theoretical dimensions. Overall, the SDT set accounted for 37% of the TpB variance and the TpB set accounted for 32% of the SDT set variance. The results indicate there are statistical similarities and differences between concepts in SDT and TpB models for PA&E. Using both empirical guidance and clinical expertise, researchers and practitioners should attempt to select and integrate non-redundant and complementary components from SDT, TpB, and other related health behavior theories.

  16. The Theory of Reasoned Action as Parallel Constraint Satisfaction: Towards a Dynamic Computational Model of Health Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Orr, Mark G.; Thrush, Roxanne; Plaut, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The reasoned action approach, although ubiquitous in health behavior theory (e.g., Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behavior), does not adequately address two key dynamical aspects of health behavior: learning and the effect of immediate social context (i.e., social influence). To remedy this, we put forth a computational implementation of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) using artificial-neural networks. Our model re-conceptualized behavioral intention as arising from a dynamic constrain...

  17. Increasing organizational energy conservation behaviors: Comparing the theory of planned behavior and reasons theory for identifying specific motivational factors to target for change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlinson, Scott Michael

    Social scientists frequently assess factors thought to underlie behavior for the purpose of designing behavioral change interventions. Researchers commonly identify these factors by examining relationships between specific variables and the focal behaviors being investigated. Variables with the strongest relationships to the focal behavior are then assumed to be the most influential determinants of that behavior, and therefore often become the targets for change in a behavioral change intervention. In the current proposal, multiple methods are used to compare the effectiveness of two theoretical frameworks for identifying influential motivational factors. Assessing the relative influence of all factors and sets of factors for driving behavior should clarify which framework and methodology is the most promising for identifying effective change targets. Results indicated each methodology adequately predicted the three focal behaviors examined. However, the reasons theory approach was superior for predicting factor influence ratings compared to the TpB approach. While common method variance contamination had minimal impact on the results or conclusions derived from the present study's findings, there were substantial differences in conclusions depending on the questionnaire design used to collect the data. Examples of applied uses of the present study are discussed.

  18. Applying Ecodevelopmental Theory and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understand HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Johis; Huang, Shi; Prado, Guillermo

    2012-01-03

    HIV/AIDS is listed as one of the top 10 reasons for the death of Hispanics between the ages of 15 and 54 in the United States. This cross sectional, descriptive secondary study proposed that using both the systemic (ecodevelopmental) and the individually focused (theory of reasoned action) theories together would lead to an increased understanding of the risk and protective factors that influence HIV risk behaviors in this population. The sample consisted of 493 Hispanic adolescent 7th and 8th graders and their immigrant parents living in Miami, Florida. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used for the data analysis. Family functioning emerged as the heart of the model, embedded within a web of direct and mediated relationships. The data support the idea that family can play a central role in the prevention of Hispanic adolescents' risk behaviors.

  19. Using meta-analytic path analysis to test theoretical predictions in health behavior: An illustration based on meta-analyses of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Chan, Derwin K C; Protogerou, Cleo; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2016-08-01

    Synthesizing research on social cognitive theories applied to health behavior is an important step in the development of an evidence base of psychological factors as targets for effective behavioral interventions. However, few meta-analyses of research on social cognitive theories in health contexts have conducted simultaneous tests of theoretically-stipulated pattern effects using path analysis. We argue that conducting path analyses of meta-analytic effects among constructs from social cognitive theories is important to test nomological validity, account for mediation effects, and evaluate unique effects of theory constructs independent of past behavior. We illustrate our points by conducting new analyses of two meta-analyses of a popular theory applied to health behaviors, the theory of planned behavior. We conducted meta-analytic path analyses of the theory in two behavioral contexts (alcohol and dietary behaviors) using data from the primary studies included in the original meta-analyses augmented to include intercorrelations among constructs and relations with past behavior missing from the original analysis. Findings supported the nomological validity of the theory and its hypotheses for both behaviors, confirmed important model processes through mediation analysis, demonstrated the attenuating effect of past behavior on theory relations, and provided estimates of the unique effects of theory constructs independent of past behavior. Our analysis illustrates the importance of conducting a simultaneous test of theory-stipulated effects in meta-analyses of social cognitive theories applied to health behavior. We recommend researchers adopt this analytic procedure when synthesizing evidence across primary tests of social cognitive theories in health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NIAT UNTUK MENGAMBIL CHARTERED ACCOUNTANT DENGAN THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guhti Ayu Sri Wardani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze and provide empirical evidence about the influence of perceptions and attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control on the intention of students to take a chartered accountant. The sample in this study is undergraduate’s students in Faculty of Economics Department of Accounting 2015 and PPAk’s students class of 2014 and 2015 at Diponegoro University were 107 respondents. The method of collecting data is a survey method by distributing questionnaire to respondents either directly or electronically. The data was analyzed using logistics regression analysis. The results showed subjective norm has a significant influence on the intention of student to take a Chartered Accountant. While factors perceptions and attitudes and perceived behavioral control have no a significant influence on the intention of students to take Charetered Accountant.

  1. Speculative Behavior and Heterogeneous Expectations: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cheolbeom Park

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the optimal willingness to pay for a stock is the payoff from holding the stock for one period when investors have different expectations, and that the willingness to pay can be represented as the sum of the expected present value of future dividends and the expected present value of the gap between the future equilibrium price and willingness to pay. This speculative behavior based on the awareness of heterogeneity in expectations is supported by the volatility t...

  2. Critical behavior in continuous dimension, ε∞ theory and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfain, Ervin

    2008-01-01

    Bringing closure to the host of open questions posed by the current standard model for particle physics (SM) continues to be a major challenge for the theoretical physics community. Despite years of multiple research efforts, a consistent and comprehensive understanding of standard model parameters is missing. Our work suggests that critical dynamics of the renormalization group flow provides valuable insights into most of the unresolved issues surrounding SM. We report that the dynamics of the renormalization group flow and the topological approach of El Naschie's ε ∞ theory are viewpoints that share a common foundation. The paper concludes with a brief overview of future developments and integration efforts

  3. Dirac states for unit position and momentum: Phase consistency of their angular momentum representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the position and momentum directional representations of angular momentum states must satisfy Σ/sub lambdas/ = Σ/sub lambdas/(i)/sup lambda/Y/sub lambdas/(r)Y/sub lambdas/ (p)*. This imposes phase constraints on the relation between , , Y/sub lambdas/ (r), and Y/sub lambdas/(p). In the accompanying paper, it is shown that this resolves a problem in the centrifugal sudden approximation of molecular collision theory

  4. Intention to Enact and Enactment of Gatekeeper Behaviors for Suicide Prevention: an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Shane T W; Walch, Susan E; Bauer, Kristina N; Glenn, April D

    2017-08-01

    Gatekeeper training for suicide prevention was evaluated on a college campus to examine the impact of training on gatekeeper enactment of behaviors in support of suicide prevention and identify predictors of enactment of gatekeeper behaviors. Trained gatekeepers (N = 216) displayed greater perceived knowledge and self-efficacy for suicide prevention and reported higher rates of self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors, including inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring for mental health treatment when they encountered someone in distress, compared to their untrained counterparts (N = 169). Consistent with the Theory of Planned Behavior, SEM results indicated that attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived knowledge explained intentions to engage in gatekeeper behaviors, accounting for 59% of the variance in intentions to inquire about suicidal ideation and supporting the role of attitudes and perceived behavioral control in intentions to act. These intentions explained self-reported actual gatekeeper behaviors among participants who encountered someone in distress, with each one-point increase in intention associated with nearly twice the likelihood of both inquiring about suicidal ideation and referring someone for mental health care. On the other hand, self-reported situational barriers were associated with a decreased likelihood of referral behavior, indicating the role of actual behavioral control over volitional actions. Findings support the value of gatekeeper training for promoting factors that influence the likelihood of action on behalf of suicide prevention.

  5. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  6. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  7. THEORY OF REASONED ACTION FOR CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT CAPABILITIES: A BEHAVIORAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Siegler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of interaction between Operations Management (OM and Human Behavior has been recently re-addressed. This paper introduced the Reasoned Action Theory suggested by Froehle and Roth (2004 to analyze Operational Capabilities exploring the suitability of this model in the context of OM. It also seeks to discuss the behavioral aspects of operational capabilities from the perspective of organizational routines. This theory was operationalized using Fishbein and Ajzen (F/A behavioral model and a multi-case strategy was employed to analyze the Continuous Improvement (CI capability. The results posit that the model explains partially the CI behavior in an operational context and some contingency variables might influence the general relationsamong the variables involved in the F/A model. Thus intention might not be the determinant variable of behavior in this context.

  8. Cosmological models in energy-momentum-squared gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Charles V. R.; Barrow, John D.

    2017-12-01

    We study the cosmological effects of adding terms of higher order in the usual energy-momentum tensor to the matter Lagrangian of general relativity. This is in contrast to most studies of higher-order gravity which focus on generalizing the Einstein-Hilbert curvature contribution to the Lagrangian. The resulting cosmological theories give rise to field equations of similar form to several particular theories with different fundamental bases, including bulk viscous cosmology, loop quantum gravity, k -essence, and brane-world cosmologies. We find a range of exact solutions for isotropic universes, discuss their behaviors with reference to the early- and late-time evolution, accelerated expansion, and the occurrence or avoidance of singularities. We briefly discuss extensions to anisotropic cosmologies and delineate the situations where the higher-order matter terms will dominate over anisotropies on approach to cosmological singularities.

  9. An approach to children's smoking behavior using social cognitive learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Murat; Ozturk, Candan; Armstrong, Merry

    2010-01-01

    This review article discusses the theoretical principles of social cognitive learning theory and children's risk-taking behavior of cigarette smoking, along with preventive initiatives. Social cognitive learning theorists examine the behavior of initiating and sustained smoking using a social systems approach. The authors discuss the reciprocal determinism aspect of the theory as applied to the importance of individual factors, and environment and behavioral interactions that influence smoking behavior. Included is the concept of vicarious capability that suggests that smoking behavior is determined in response to and interaction with feedback provided by the environment. The principle of self-regulatory capability asserts that people have control over their own behavior and thus that behavior change is possible. The principle of self-efficacy proposes that high level of self-efficacy of an individual may decrease the behavior of attempting to or continuing to smoke. Examples of initiatives to be undertaken in order to prevent smoking in accordance with social cognitive learning theory are presented at the end of each principle.

  10. [Health promotion. Instrument development for the application of the theory of planned behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y O

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe operationalization of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The quest to understand determinants of health behaviors has intensified as evidence accumulates concerning the impact of personal behavior on health. The majority of theory-based research has used the Health Belief Model(HBM). The HBM components have had limited success in explaining health-related behaviors. There are several advantages of the TPB over the HBM. TPB is an expansion of the Theory of Reasoned Action(TRA) with the addition of the construct, perceived behavioral control. The revised model has been shown to yield greater explanatory power than the original TRA for goal-directed behaviors. The process of TPB instrument development was described, using example form the study of smoking cessation behavior in military smokers. It was followed by a discussion of reliability and validity issues in operationalizing the TPB. The TPB is a useful model for understanding and predicting health-related behaviors when carefully operationalized. The model holds promise in the development of prescriptive nursing approaches.

  11. The role of oxytocin in mothers' theory of mind and interactive behavior during the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Anna L; Gold, Ian; Feeley, Nancy; Hayton, Barbara; Carter, C Sue; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

    2014-10-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the relations between plasma oxytocin, theory of mind, and maternal interactive behavior during the perinatal period. A community sample of women was assessed at 12-14 weeks gestation, 32-34 weeks gestation, and 7-9 weeks postpartum. Oxytocin during late pregnancy was significantly positively correlated with a measure of theory of mind, and predicted theory of mind ability after controlling for parity, maternal education, prenatal psychosocial risk, and general anxiety, measured during the first trimester. Theory of mind was associated with less remote and less depressive maternal interactive behavior. Oxytocin, across all time points, was not directly related to maternal interactive behavior. However, there was a significant indirect effect of oxytocin during late pregnancy on depressive maternal behavior via theory of mind ability. These preliminary findings suggest that changes in the oxytocinergic system during the perinatal period may contribute to the awareness of social cues, which in turn plays a role in maternal interactive behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Das-Popowicz Moyal momentum algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulahoual, A.; Sedra, M.B.

    2002-08-01

    We introduce in this short note some aspects of the Moyal momentum algebra that we call the Das-Popowicz Mm algebra. Our interest on this algebra is motivated by the central role that it can play in the formulation of integrable models and in higher conformal spin theories. (author)

  13. Momentum transfer in a Brillouin surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of acoustic excitation scattering in the surface of Brilloiun of opaque materials, is related to the question of momentum transfexed from radiation fields to the material when the incident eight is scattered in a measurable spectrum. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  14. Magnetic behavior study of samarium nitride using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Narayan N.; Mankad, Venu H.; Dabhi, Shweta D.; Patel, Anjali; Jha, Prafulla K.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, the state-of-art density functional theory is employed to study the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of samarium nitride (SmN). We have performed calculation for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic states in rock-salt phase. The calculated results of optimized lattice parameter and magnetic moment agree well with the available experimental and theoretical values. From energy band diagram and electronic density of states, we observe a half-metallic behaviour in FM phase of rock salt SmN in while metallicity in AFM I and AFM III phases. We present and discuss our current understanding of the possible half-metallicity together with the magnetic ordering in SmN. The calculated phonon dispersion curves shows dynamical stability of the considered structures. The phonon density of states and Eliashberg functional have also been analysed to understand the superconductivity in SmN.

  15. Information theory applied to econophysics: stock market behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Eugenio E.; Saravia, Gonzalo

    2014-08-01

    The use of data compressor techniques has allowed to recognize magnetic transitions and their associated critical temperatures [E.E. Vogel, G. Saravia, V. Cortez, Physica A 391, 1591 (2012)]. In the present paper we introduce some new concepts associated to data recognition and extend the use of these techniques to econophysics to explore the variations of stock market indicators showing that information theory can help to recognize different regimes. Modifications and further developments to previously introduced data compressor wlzip are introduced yielding two measurements. Additionally, we introduce an algorithm that allows to tune the number of significant digits over which the data compression is due to act complementing, this with an appropriate method to round off the truncation. The application is done to IPSA, the main indicator of the Chilean Stock Market during the year 2010 due to availability of quality data and also to consider a rare effect: the earthquake of the 27th of February on that year which is as of now the sixth strongest earthquake ever recorded by instruments (8.8 Richter scale) according to United States Geological Survey. Along the year 2010 different regimes are recognized. Calm days show larger compression than agitated days allowing for classification and recognition. Then the focus turns onto selected days showing that it is possible to recognize different regimes with the data of the last hour (60 entries) allowing to determine actions in a safer way. The "day of the week" effect is weakly present but "the hour of the day" effect is clearly present; its causes and implications are discussed. This effect also establishes the influence of Asian, European and American stock markets over the smaller Chilean Stock Market. Then dynamical studies are conducted intended to search a system that can help to realize in real time about sudden variations of the market; it is found that information theory can be really helpful in this respect.

  16. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer B; Lee, Liming; Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Sun, Ping; Gallaher, Peggy; Pentz, MaryAnn

    2007-05-01

    One third of smokers worldwide live in China. Identifying predictors of smoking is important for prevention program development. This study explored whether the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predict adolescent smoking in China. Data were obtained from 14,434 middle and high school students (48.6% boys, 51.4% girls) in seven geographically varied cities in China. TRA and TPB were tested by multilevel mediation modeling, and compared by multilevel analyses and likelihood ratio tests. Perceived behavioral control was tested as a main effect in TPB and a moderation effect in TRA. The mediation effects of smoking intention were supported in both models (p<0.001). TPB accounted for significantly more variance than TRA (p<0.001). Perceived behavioral control significantly interacted with attitudes and social norms in TRA (p<0.001). Therefore, TRA and TPB are applicable to China to predict adolescent smoking. TPB is superior to TRA for the prediction and TRA can better predict smoking among students with lower than higher perceived behavioral control.

  17. Angular momentum in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresswell, A.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that the correct expressions for the angular momentum flux carried by gravitational radiation should follow directly from the momentum currents. Following this approach, the authors compute the angular momentum associated with several different choices of energy-momentum prescriptions. (author)

  18. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  19. An extension of the theory of planned behavior to predict pedestrians' violating crossing behavior using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongmei; Romero, Stephanie Ballon; Qin, Xiao

    2016-10-01

    This paper aimed to examine pedestrians' self-reported violating crossing behavior intentions by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We studied the behavior intentions regarding instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, the three basic components of TPB, and extended the theory by adding new factors including descriptive norm, perceived risk and conformity tendency to evaluate their respective impacts on pedestrians' behavior intentions. A questionnaire presented with a scenario that pedestrians crossed the road violating the pedestrian lights at an intersection was designed, and the survey was conducted in Dalian, China. Based on the 260 complete and valid responses, reliability and validity of the data for each question was evaluated. The data were then analyzed by using the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that people had a negative attitude toward the behavior of violating road-crossing rules; they perceived social influences from their family and friends; and they believed that this kind of risky behavior would potentially harm them in a traffic accident. The results also showed that instrumental attitude and subjective norm were significant in the basic TPB model. After adding descriptive norm, subjective norm was no more significant. Other models showed that conformity tendency was a strong predictor, indicating that the presence of other pedestrians would influence behavioral intention. The findings could help to design more effective interventions and safety campaigns, such as changing people's attitude toward this violation behavior, correcting the social norms, increasing their safety awareness, etc. in order to reduce pedestrians' road crossing violations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Causality and superluminal behavior in classical field theories: Applications to k-essence theories and modified-Newtonian-dynamics-like theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Field theories with Lorentz (or diffeomorphism invariant) action can exhibit superluminal behavior through the breaking of local Lorentz invariance. Quantum induced superluminal velocities are well-known examples of this effect. The issue of the causal behavior of such propagation is somewhat controversial in the literature and we intend to clarify it. We provide a careful analysis of the meaning of causality in classical relativistic field theories and stress the role played by the Cauchy problem and the notion of chronology. We show that, in general, superluminal behavior threatens causality only if one assumes that a prior chronology in spacetime exists. In the case where superluminal propagation occurs, however, there are at least two nonconformally related metrics in spacetime and thus two available notions of chronology. These two chronologies are on equal footing, and it would thus be misleading to choose ab initio one of them to define causality. Rather, we provide a formulation of causality in which no prior chronology is assumed. We argue that this is the only way to deal with the issue of causality in the case where some degrees of freedom propagate faster than others. In that framework, then, it is shown that superluminal propagation is not necessarily noncausal, the final answer depending on the existence of an initial data formulation. This also depends on global properties of spacetime that we discuss in detail. As an illustration of these conceptual issues, we consider two field theories, namely, k-essence scalar fields and bimetric theories of gravity, and we derive the conditions imposed by causality. We discuss various applications such as the dark energy problem, modified-Newtonian-dynamics-like theories of gravity, and varying speed of light theories

  1. Electron momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-03-01

    For electron energies greater than a few hundred eV and recoil momenta less than a few atomic units, the differential cross section for the non-coplanar symmetric (e,2e) reaction on an atom or molecule depends on the target and ion structure only through the target-ion overlap. Experimental criteria for the energy and momentum are that the apparent structure information does not change when the energy and momentum are varied. The plane-wave impulse approximation is a sufficient description of the reaction mechanism for determining spherically-averaged squares of momentum-space orbitals for atoms and molecules and for coefficients describing initial and final state correlations

  2. Momentum considerations on the New MEXICO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, E. A.; Boorsma, K.; Schepers, J. G.; Snel, H.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper regards axial and angular momentum considerations combining detailed loads from pressure sensors and the flow field mapped with particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. For this end, the study implements important results leaning on experimental data from wind tunnel measurements of the New MEXICO project. The measurements, taken on a fully instrumented rotor, were carried out in the German Dutch Wind tunnel Organisation (DNW) testing the MEXICO rotor in the open section. The work revisits the so-called momentum theory, showing that the integral thrust and torque measured on the rotor correspond with an extent of 0.7 and 2.4% respectively to the momentum balance of the global flow field using the general momentum equations. Likewise, the sectional forces combined with the local induced velocities are found to plausibly obey the annular streamtube theory, albeit some limitations in the axial momentum become more apparent at high inductions after a=0.3. Finally, azimuth induced velocities are measured and compared to predictions from models of Glauert and Burton et al., showing close-matching forecasts for blade spans above 25%.

  3. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuwei; Sheng, Hong; Mundorf, Norbert; Redding, Colleen; Ye, Yinjiao

    2017-12-18

    With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals' intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China's three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  4. Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals’ intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China’s three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management.

  5. Prediction of Exercise in Patients across Various Stages of Bariatric Surgery: A Comparison of the Merits of the Theory of Reasoned Action versus the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Hillary R.; Gross, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide health concern approaching epidemic proportions. Successful long-term treatment involves a combination of bariatric surgery, diet, and exercise. Social cognitive models, such as the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), are among the most commonly tested theories utilized in the…

  6. Extending unified-theory-of-reinforcement neural networks to steady-state operant behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, Olivia L; McDowell, J J

    2016-06-01

    The unified theory of reinforcement has been used to develop models of behavior over the last 20 years (Donahoe et al., 1993). Previous research has focused on the theory's concordance with the respondent behavior of humans and animals. In this experiment, neural networks were developed from the theory to extend the unified theory of reinforcement to operant behavior on single-alternative variable-interval schedules. This area of operant research was selected because previously developed neural networks could be applied to it without significant alteration. Previous research with humans and animals indicates that the pattern of their steady-state behavior is hyperbolic when plotted against the obtained rate of reinforcement (Herrnstein, 1970). A genetic algorithm was used in the first part of the experiment to determine parameter values for the neural networks, because values that were used in previous research did not result in a hyperbolic pattern of behavior. After finding these parameters, hyperbolic and other similar functions were fitted to the behavior produced by the neural networks. The form of the neural network's behavior was best described by an exponentiated hyperbola (McDowell, 1986; McLean and White, 1983; Wearden, 1981), which was derived from the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974). In post-hoc analyses the addition of a baseline rate of behavior significantly improved the fit of the exponentiated hyperbola and removed systematic residuals. The form of this function was consistent with human and animal behavior, but the estimated parameter values were not. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Theory of Planned Behavior, Past Behavior, Situational Factors, and Self-Identity Factors Drive Indonesian Enterpreneurs to Be Indebtedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shine Pintor S. Patiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the factors affecting borrowing intention among young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. About 100 questionnaires were accepted and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM in determining the relationships. The results show that borrowing intention amongst young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community is influenced by attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, self identity, situational temptation, and past behavior. The young entrepreneur of Indonesia TDA community believe that they have complete control of their behavior in borrowing as they perceived to be equipped with the knowledge about the personal financing. In addition, because of their experience in students’ loans since undergraduates’ level, the result explains why situational temptation were found to be a significant predictor. The findings offer implications for researchers and government.

  8. Theory-Driven Intervention for Changing Personality: Expectancy Value Theory, Behavioral Activation, and Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Roberts, Brent W.; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by…

  9. Promotion of sun protective behaviors in high school students in Ahwaz: a theory-based intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Heydar Rahmati Asl; Kambiz Ahmadi Angali; Marzieh Araban

    2017-01-01

    The most important environmental factor affecting human health is the long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory in promoting sun-protective behaviors. In this quasi-experimental prepost test study, a sample of 215 high school students in Ahwaz. Using a reliable and valid questionnaire, and based on the theory of protection motivation, the data were collected before and four mo...

  10. Theory building, replication, and behavioral priming: where do we need to go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Edwin A

    2015-05-01

    This article suggests that the field of behavioral priming, which is basically a technique, is in need of theory building. Guidelines from successful theory building by induction in the realm of conscious motivation (namely, goal setting and self-efficacy) are suggested. The process would include replication with variation, identifying the logical relation between a given prime and the action in question, discovering moderators and mediators, and clarifying the relationship between the conscious mind and the subconscious. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. [Analysis of momentum and impurity confinment in TFTR (1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Work during the present grant period has been concentrated in two areas and are discussed in this report: (1) a review of momentum confinement experiments in tokamaks, of momentum confinement theories and of previous comparisons of the two; and (2) analysis and documentation of the dedicated power-scan rotation experiment performed on TFTR in September 1988

  12. Use of Theory in Behavior Change Interventions: An Analysis of Programs to Increase Physical Activity in Posttreatment Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluethmann, Shirley M.; Bartholomew, L. Kay; Murphy, Caitlin C.; Vernon, Sally W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Theory use may enhance effectiveness of behavioral interventions, yet critics question whether theory-based interventions have been sufficiently scrutinized. This study applied a framework to evaluate theory use in physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors. The aims were to (1) evaluate theory application intensity and…

  13. Nonlinear behavior of capacitive micro-beams based on strain gradient theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathalilou, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Morteza; Rezazadeh, Ghader

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the size dependent behavior of materials in MEMS structures. This behavior becomes noticeable for a structure when the characteristic size such as thickness or diameter is close to its internal length-scale parameter and is insignificant for the high ratio of the characteristic size to the length-scale parameter, which is the case of the silicon base micro-beams. However, in some types of micro-beams like gold or nickel bases, the size dependent effect cannot be overlooked. In such cases, ignoring this behavior in modeling will lead to incorrect results. Some previous researchers have applied classic beam theory on their models and imposed a considerable hypothetical value of residual stress to match their theoretical results with the experimental ones. The equilibrium positions or fixed points of the gold and nickel micro-beams are obtained and shown that for a given DC voltage, there is a considerable difference between the obtained fixed points using classic beam theory, modified couple stress theory, and modified strain gradient theory. In addition, it is shown that the calculated static and dynamic pull-in voltages using higher order theories are much closer to the experimental results and are higher several times than those obtained by classic beam theory.

  14. On the Development of a Theory of Traveler Attitude-Behavior Interrelationships : Volume 2. Theoretical and Empirical Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The second volume of this final report presents conceptual and empirical findings which support the development of a theory of traveler attitude-behavior interrelationships. Such a theory will be useful in the design of transport systems and operatin...

  15. Economic theory and evidence on smoking behavior of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Wang, Yang

    2008-11-01

    To describe: (i) three alternative conceptual frameworks used by economists to study addictive behaviors: rational, imperfectly rational and irrational addiction; (ii) empirical economic evidence on each framework and specific channels to explain adult smoking matched to the frameworks; and (iii) policy implications for each framework. A systematic review and appraisal of important theoretical and empirical economic studies on smoking. There is some empirical support for each framework. For rational and imperfectly rational addiction there is some evidence that anticipated future cigarette prices influence current cigarette consumption, and quitting costs are high for smokers. Smokers are more risk-tolerant in the financial domain than are others and tend to attach a lower value to being in good health. Findings on differences in rates of time preference by smoking status are mixed; however, short-term rates are higher than long-term rates for both smokers and non-smokers, a stylized fact consistent with hyperbolic discounting. The economic literature lends no empirical support to the view that mature adults smoke because they underestimate the probability of harm to health from smoking. In support of the irrationality framework, smokers tend to be more impulsive than others in domains not related directly to smoking, implying that they may be sensitive to cues that trigger smoking. Much promising economic research uses the imperfectly rational addiction framework, but empirical research based on this framework is still in its infancy.

  16. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hackman CL; Knowlden AP

    2014-01-01

    Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the theory of reasoned action (TRA) have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interven...

  17. [Survey on individual occupational health protection behaviors of welding workers using theory of reasoned action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ming-luan; Zhou, Xu-dong; Yuan, Wei-ming; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Mei-bian; Zou, Hua; Zhao, Hai-ying

    2012-03-01

    To apply theory of reasoned action at survey on welding workers occupational health protection behaviors and explore related influencing factors. nine companies were randomly selected from areas with many welding works in Zhejiang Province. All welding workers were surveyed using a questionnaire based on theory of reasoned action. 10.06%, 26.80% and 37.50% of the respondents never or seldom used eyeshade, mask and earplug, respectively. After controlling the socio-demographic factors, welding workers' behavioral belief was correlated with the behaviors of eyeshade-mask and earplug use (χ(2) = 31.88, 18.77 and 37.77, P reasoned action is suitable for welding worker occupational health related behaviors. It is useful to improve occupational health education, to effectively select health education objective and to tailor health education contents.

  18. Rotations and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg, P.; Froyland, J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of rotational invariance and the properties of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. In particular, the problem of addition of angular momenta is treated in detail, and tables of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are included

  19. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  20. Momentum, Fall 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Momentum is the quarterly magazine of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Tech. In this issue: Nano engineering - Scaling up; Coating 3D objects quickly Energy Harvesting - from soldier's backpacks to nuclear monitoring Hyperloop - team readies pod, university to build test track.

  1. Density Functional Theory Modeling of Ferrihydrite Nanoparticle Adsorption Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, J.

    2016-12-01

    Ferrihydrite is a critical substrate for adsorption of oxyanion species in the environment1. The nanoparticulate nature of ferrihydrite is inherent to its formation, and hence it has been called a "nano-mineral"2. The nano-scale size and unusual composition of ferrihydrite has made structural determination of this phase problematic. Michel et al.3 have proposed an atomic structure for ferrihydrite, but this model has been controversial4,5. Recent work has shown that the Michel et al.3 model structure may be reasonably accurate despite some deficiencies6-8. An alternative model has been proposed by Manceau9. This work utilizes density functional theory (DFT) calculations to model both the structure of ferrihydrite nanoparticles based on the Michel et al. 3 model as refined in Hiemstra8 and the modified akdalaite model of Manceau9. Adsorption energies of carbonate, phosphate, sulfate, chromate, arsenite and arsenate are calculated. Periodic projector-augmented planewave calculations were performed with the Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP10) on an approximately 1.7 nm diameter Michel nanoparticle (Fe38O112H110) and on a 2 nm Manceau nanoparticle (Fe38O95H76). After energy minimization of the surface H and O atoms. The model will be used to assess the possible configurations of adsorbed oxyanions on the model nanoparticles. Brown G.E. Jr. and Calas G. (2012) Geochemical Perspectives, 1, 483-742. Hochella M.F. and Madden A.S. (2005) Elements, 1, 199-203. Michel, F.M., Ehm, L., Antao, S.M., Lee, P.L., Chupas, P.J., Liu, G., Strongin, D.R., Schoonen, M.A.A., Phillips, B.L., and Parise, J.B., 2007, Science, 316, 1726-1729. Rancourt, D.G., and Meunier, J.F., 2008, American Mineralogist, 93, 1412-1417. Manceau, A., 2011, American Mineralogist, 96, 521-533. Maillot, F., Morin, G., Wang, Y., Bonnin, D., Ildefonse, P., Chaneac, C., Calas, G., 2011, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75, 2708-2720. Pinney, N., Kubicki, J.D., Middlemiss, D.S., Grey, C.P., and Morgan, D

  2. Pengaruh Pendidikan Gizi Berbasis Theory of Planned Behavior untuk Mempromosikan Pembatasan Konsumsi Fast Food pada Siswi

    OpenAIRE

    Handarbeny, Wuri Rizki; Mahmudiono, Trias

    2017-01-01

     Background: The incessant promotion of fast food make a perception that fast food is a trend among teenager.  Fast food consumption habits that have high calorie but low nutrients will causes nutritional problems in adolescents. Objectives: The purpose of this study aimed to determine effect of nutritional education based on theory of planned behavior to change knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention, and limited fast food consumption among female stude...

  3. Contextualization and standardization of the supportive leadership behavior questionnaire based on socio- cognitive theory in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shirazi, Mandana; Emami, Amir Hosein; Mirmoosavi, ,Seyed Jamal; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Hadi; Fathollahbeigi, Faezeh; Masiello, Italo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Effective leadership is of prime importance in any organization and it goes through changes based on accepted health promotion and behavior change theory. Although there are many leadership styles, transformational leadership, which emphasizes supportive leadership behaviors, seems to be an appropriate style in many settings particularly in the health care and educational sectors which are pressured by high turnover and safety demands. Iran has been moving rapidly forward and its ...

  4. Integrating simultaneous prosocial and antisocial behavior into theories of collective action

    OpenAIRE

    Basurto, Xavier; Blanco, Esther; Nenadovic, Mateja; Vollan, Bj?rn

    2016-01-01

    Trust and cooperation constitute cornerstones of common-pool resource theory, showing that ?prosocial? strategies among resource users can overcome collective action problems and lead to sustainable resource governance. Yet, antisocial behavior and especially the coexistence of prosocial and antisocial behaviors have received less attention. We broaden the analysis to include the effects of both ?prosocial? and ?antisocial? interactions. We do so in the context of marine protected areas (MPAs...

  5. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including at...

  6. Momentum accounting for trends : Relevance, explanatory and predictive power of the framework of triple-entry bookkeeping and momentum accounting of Yuji Ijiri

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of momentum accounting is to improve strategic management accounting practices, enumeration and corporate disclosure for governance purposes. This accounting theory introduces new measurement units: momentum and force. The key development is to see momentum as a rate or the speed of

  7. Theory of melt polyelectrolyte blends and block copolymers: Phase behavior, surface tension, and microphase periodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing, Charles E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-01-21

    Polymer mixtures such as blends or block copolymers are of great interest in energy applications and functional materials, and often, one or more of these species contain charges. The traditional fashion in which such materials are studied uses Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) methods that incorporate electrostatics using Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory. We adapt a new and rigorous approach that does not rely on the mean-field assumptions inherent in the PB theory and instead uses Liquid State (LS) integral equation theory to articulate charge correlations that are completely neglected in PB. We use this theory to calculate phase diagrams for both blends and block copolyelectrolytes using SCFT-LS and demonstrate how their phase behavior is highly dependent on chain length, charge fraction, charge size, and the strength of Coulombic interactions. Beyond providing phase behavior of blends and block copolyelectrolytes, we can use this theory to investigate the interfacial properties such as surface tension and block copolyelectrolyte lamellar spacing. Lamellar spacing provides a way to directly compare the SCFT-LS theory to the results of experiments. SCFT-LS will provide conceptual and mathematical clarification of the role of charge correlations in these systems and aid in the design of materials based on charge polymers.

  8. Theory of melt polyelectrolyte blends and block copolymers: Phase behavior, surface tension, and microphase periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sing, Charles E.; Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Polymer mixtures such as blends or block copolymers are of great interest in energy applications and functional materials, and often, one or more of these species contain charges. The traditional fashion in which such materials are studied uses Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) methods that incorporate electrostatics using Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory. We adapt a new and rigorous approach that does not rely on the mean-field assumptions inherent in the PB theory and instead uses Liquid State (LS) integral equation theory to articulate charge correlations that are completely neglected in PB. We use this theory to calculate phase diagrams for both blends and block copolyelectrolytes using SCFT-LS and demonstrate how their phase behavior is highly dependent on chain length, charge fraction, charge size, and the strength of Coulombic interactions. Beyond providing phase behavior of blends and block copolyelectrolytes, we can use this theory to investigate the interfacial properties such as surface tension and block copolyelectrolyte lamellar spacing. Lamellar spacing provides a way to directly compare the SCFT-LS theory to the results of experiments. SCFT-LS will provide conceptual and mathematical clarification of the role of charge correlations in these systems and aid in the design of materials based on charge polymers

  9. Implicit Theories, Expectancies, and Values Predict Mathematics Motivation and Behavior across High School and College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priess-Groben, Heather A; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2017-06-01

    Mathematics motivation declines for many adolescents, which limits future educational and career options. The present study sought to identify predictors of this decline by examining whether implicit theories assessed in ninth grade (incremental/entity) predicted course-taking behaviors and utility value in college. The study integrated implicit theory with variables from expectancy-value theory to examine potential moderators and mediators of the association of implicit theories with college mathematics outcomes. Implicit theories and expectancy-value variables were assessed in 165 American high school students (47 % female; 92 % White), who were then followed into their college years, at which time mathematics courses taken, course-taking intentions, and utility value were assessed. Implicit theories predicted course-taking intentions and utility value, but only self-concept of ability predicted courses taken, course-taking intentions, and utility value after controlling for prior mathematics achievement and baseline values. Expectancy for success in mathematics mediated associations between self-concept of ability and college outcomes. This research identifies self-concept of ability as a stronger predictor than implicit theories of mathematics motivation and behavior across several years: math self-concept is critical to sustained engagement in mathematics.

  10. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns.

  11. Predictors of Tobacco Smoking in Male Adolescents in Hamadan Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The cognitive determinants of social behaviors play an important role in adolescents' decision-making for starting smoking. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the predictors of tobacco smoking in male adolescents in Hamadan, Iran, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 810 male high school students in Hamadan selected through the multistage sampling method. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire with a section on participants' demographic information and another section based on the TPB constructs. Data were then analyzed in SPSS-18 and AMOS-18 using the Pearson correlation test and the indices of model fit. Results: Overall, 17.2% of the male adolescents reported to have smoked cigarettes in the past. Perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and attitude were the best predictors of behavioral intention for tobacco smoking, in the order of importance (P<0.001. Perceived behavioral control (&beta=-0.59 P<0.001 was a better predictor of the studied behavior than behavioral intention (&beta=0.11 P<0.001. In the structural equation model, TPB constructs accounted for 32% of behavioral intention variances and 50% of behavior variances. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the poor role of behavioral intention in reporting smoking behaviors in male adolescents. Other psychological factors that affect adolescents' decision-making regarding tobacco smoking should also be scrutinized.

  12. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyun-sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-01-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast fo...

  13. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-07

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  14. Integrating Social Capital Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore a Behavioral Model of Telehealth Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hung Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory, technological factors (TAM, and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively, which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  15. The relationship between the theory of planned behavior and medication adherence in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Updegraff, John A; Pakpour, Amir H

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the theory of planned behavior (TPB) with two other factors (action planning and coping planning) to the medication adherence of adults with epilepsy. We measured the elements of the theory of planned behavior (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention), action planning, and coping planning at baseline among adults with epilepsy (n=567, mean±SD age=38.37±6.71years, male=48.5%). Medication adherence was measured using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) and antiepileptic serum level at the 24-month follow-up. Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined three models relating TPB elements to medication adherence. Three SEM models all had satisfactory fit indices. Moreover, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention together explained more than 50% of the variance for medication adherence measured using MARS. The explained variance increased to 61.8% when coping planning and action planning were included in the model, with coping planning having greater association than action planning. In addition, MARS explained 3 to 5% of the objective serum level. The theory of planned behavior is useful in understanding medication adherence in adults with epilepsy, and future interventions may benefit by improving such beliefs as well as beliefs about coping planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The theoretical basis for practice-relevant medication use research: patient-centered/behavioral theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blalock, Susan J

    2011-12-01

    There is an urgent need for research to improve the quality of medication use among those who require pharmacotherapy. To describe how behavioral science theories can help to achieve this goal. We begin by describing what a theory is and the functions that theories serve. We then provide 8 guiding principles that are crucial for investigators to understand if they are to use theory appropriately. We conclude by discussing the need for a new model of patient medication self-management that incorporates information concerning factors operating at all levels of the ecological framework, ranging from patient-level to societal-level factors. The 8 guiding principles discussed are the following: (1) There is no single theory that is appropriate for guiding all medication use research; (2) Behavioral science theories are probabilistic, not deterministic; (3) When trying to influence a health behavior, the health behavior of interest must be defined precisely; (4) Many factors outside of patient control influence patient medication use; (5) Every patient is unique; (6) Patient motivation is a fundamental ingredient required to optimize medication use, especially when maintenance of long term behavior is the goal; (7) Health care providers can have a profound effect on patient medication use, and this effect can operate through several possible causal pathways; and (8) When planning an intervention to optimize medication use, it is important to develop a conceptual model that links intervention inputs to the ultimate outcomes that are desired. Medication use can be influenced by a wide variety of factors acting at different levels of the ecological model. The quality of research on medication use could be improved by development of an ecological model specific to medication self-management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Examination of environmentally friendly "green" logistics behavior of managers in the pharmaceutical sector using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Miray; Şar, Sevgi

    2017-12-11

    Logistics activities play a prominent role in enabling manufacturers, distribution channels, and pharmacies to work in harmony. Nowadays these activities have become increasingly striking in the pharmaceutical industry and seen as a development area for this sector. Additionally, green practices are beginning to be more attracting particularly in decreasing costs and increasing image of pharmaceutical companies. The main objective of this study was modeling green logistics (GL) behavior of the managers in the pharmaceutical sector in the theory of planned behavior (TPB) frame via structural equation modeling (SEM). A measurement tool was developed according to TPB. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine subfactors of GL behavior. In the second step, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for confirming whether there is a relationship between the observed variables and their underlying latent constructs. Finally, structural equation model was conducted to specify the relationships between latent variables. In the proposed green logistics behavior (GLB) model, the positive effect of environmental attitude towards GL, perceived behavioral control related GL, and subjective norm about GL on intention towards GL were found statistically significant. Nevertheless, the effect of attitude towards costs of GL on intention towards GL was not found statistically significant. Intention towards GL has been found to have a positive statistically significant effect on the GL behavior. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to say that TPB is an appropriate theory for modeling green logistics behavior of managers. This model can be seen as a guide to the companies in the pharmaceutical sector to participate in green logistics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hadronic currents in the infinite momentum frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of the transformation properties of hadronic currents in the infinite momentum frame (IMF) is investigated. A general method is proposed to deal with the problem which is based upon the concept of group contraction. The two-dimensional aspects of the IMF description are studied in detail, and the current matrix elements of a three-dimensional Poincare covariant theory are reduced to those of a two-dimensional one. It is explicitlyshown that the covariance group of the two-dimensional theory may either be a 'non-relativistic' (Galilei) group, or a 'relativistic' (Poincare) one depending on the value of a parameter reminiscent of the light velocity in the three-dimensional theory. The value of this parameter cannot be determined by kinematical argument. These results offer a natural generalization of models which assume Galilean symmetry in the infinite momentum frame

  19. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  20. Predicting children's sunscreen use: application of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S C; Jacobsen, P B; Lucas, D J; Branch, K A; Ferron, J M

    1999-07-01

    Skin cancer remains the most common form of cancer in the United States despite the fact that most cases can be prevented by limiting sun exposure. Childhood and adolescence are periods of life during which prolonged sun exposure is particularly common. Accordingly, promoting sun-protective behaviors during these formative years can be of critical importance in preventing skin cancer. The present study applied the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior to the understanding of children's sunscreen use. Based on these theories, it was hypothesized that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control would be related to intentions to use sunscreen, which, in turn, would be related to actual sunscreen use. Questionnaires measuring sun-related attitudes, beliefs, perceived control, and intentions were administered to 199 fourth graders (ages 9 to 13, mean = 10.3) attending public schools in Florida. Self-report measures of sun-related behavior were administered to the same subjects 1 month later. Results of correlational analyses were consistent with study hypotheses. Higher rates of sunscreen use at follow-up were predicted by stronger intentions to use sunscreen assessed 1 month previously. In addition, stronger intentions to use sunscreen were found to be related to more favorable attitudes toward sunscreen use, stronger beliefs that peers and parents favored sunscreen use, and greater perceptions of personal control in using sunscreen. Path and multiple regression analyses identified direct and indirect relationships among study variables that partially confirmed those predicted by the theories and provided support for the use of an expanded model that included perceived behavioral control. The present study confirmed hypotheses derived from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior regarding the relation of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control to sunscreen use among fourth graders. In addition to their

  1. Thermo-electric transport in gauge/gravity models with momentum dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoretti, Andrea; Braggio, Alessandro; Maggiore, Nicola; Magnoli, Nicodemo; Musso, Daniele

    2014-09-01

    We present a systematic definition and analysis of the thermo-electric linear response in gauge/gravity systems focusing especially on models with massive gravity in the bulk and therefore momentum dissipation in the dual field theory. A precise treatment of finite counter-terms proves to be essential to yield a consistent physical picture whose hydrodynamic and beyond-hydrodynamics behaviors noticeably match with field theoretical expectations. The model furnishes a possible gauge/gravity description of the crossover from the quantum-critical to the disorder-dominated Fermi-liquid behaviors, as expected in graphene.

  2. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  3. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  4. I Can Talk You into It: Theory of Mind and Persuasion Behavior in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Virginia; Peterson, Candida C.; Moore, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We investigated links between persuasive behavior and theory of mind (ToM) understanding using a novel naturalistic peer persuasion task in which children were invited to convince an interactive puppet to eat raw broccoli or brush his teeth. Sixty-three 3- to 8-year-olds (M age = 6 years, 6 months) took part in the persuasion task and were also…

  5. Seriously Mentally Ill Women's Safer Sex Behaviors and the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Mary E.; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Somlai, Anton M.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Gibson, Richard H.; Hackl, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Seriously mentally ill women at risk for HIV infection (n = 96) participated in structured interviews assessing sexual and substance-use behavior over a 3-month period. The majority of the women (63.5%) did not use condoms. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action, attitudes toward condom use and perceived social norms about safer sex were…

  6. Specific surface area behavior of a dissolving population of particles. Augmenting Mercer Dissolution Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Rothenberg, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Specific surface area (Sp) measurements were made on two uranium oxide aerosol materials before and after in vitro dissolution studies were performed on the materials. The results of these Sp measurements were evaluated relative to predictions made from extending Mercer dissolution theory to describe the Sp behavior of a dissolving population of particles

  7. Digital movie piracy: A perspective on downloading behavior through social cognitive theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Ruud; Heuvelman, A.; Tan, Maurice; Peters, O.

    2012-01-01

    This study refined and specified a model based on the application (e.g. LaRose & Kim, 2007) of social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) to analyze and compare the behavior and attitudes exhibited by movie downloaders and to compare the number of movies they consume. The model is tested against data

  8. What determines crime rates? An empirical test of integrated economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Peter Jan; Lander, Michel W.; van Essen, Marc

    Research on crime has by no means reached a definitive conclusion on which factors are related to crime rates. We contribute to the crime literature by providing an integrated empirical model of economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior and by using a very comprehensive set of

  9. A study of driver's route choice behavior based on evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Ji, Yanjie; Du, Muqing; Deng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers' route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver's route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver's route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  10. The string tension and the scaling behavior of SU(2) gauge theory on a random lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qui Zhaoming; Ren Haichang; Academia Sinica, Beijing; Wang Xiaoqun; Yang Zhixing; Zhao Enping

    1987-01-01

    The SU(2) gauge theory on an 8 4 random lattice has been studied by the Monte Carlo method. The string tensions have been evaluated. They display the expected scaling behavior for β = 1.2-1.3. The scale parameter Λ RAN has been determined approximately. (orig.)

  11. The Role of Optimism in the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kathy A.; Wingate, LaRicka R.

    2011-01-01

    A possible relationship between Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior and optimism was investigated by examining the ability of optimism to act as a moderator of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capability to engage in self-injury in the prediction of suicidal ideation. Results…

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Mothers' Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters against HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John B.; Smith, Sandi; Dennis, Leslie K.; Andsager, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed mothers' intentions to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Experience with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), beliefs about the vaccine encouraging sexual activity, and perception of daughters' risk for HPV were also examined for a relationship with…

  13. General beliefs and the theory of planned behavior : The role of environmental concerns in the TPB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith; Steg, Linda

    This study tested whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985) could explain people's intention to use a park-and-ride facility (transferium) in Groningen, The Netherlands. We extended the TPB by including egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric concerns. A questionnaire study was

  14. Using Proactivity, Time Discounting, and the Theory of Planned Behavior to Identify Predictors of Retirement Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Barbara; Loe, David; Hesketh, Beryl

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and tested a model to identify the predictors of retirement planning based on an extension of the theory of planned behavior ([TPB], Ajzen, 1991) that included individual differences in proactivity and time discounting. The results showed that personal attitudes, sense of control, social influence, and stable traits have a…

  15. Predicting Social Support for Grieving Persons: A Theory of Planned Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has consistently reported that social support from family, friends, and colleagues is an important factor in the bereaved person's ability to cope after the loss of a loved one. This study used a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to identify those factors that predict a person's intention to interact with, and support, a grieving…

  16. Application of Planned Behavior Theory to Account for College Students' Occupational Intentions in Contingent Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie-Tsuen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior to examine college students' intentions to engage in contingent employment. Data were collected from 845 students in 8 colleges and universities in Taiwan. The results of structural equation modeling analyses indicated that both attitude and subjective norms were…

  17. The theory of planned behavior without compatibility? : beyond method bias and past trivial associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, F.G.; Schultz, P.W.; Scheuthle, H.

    2007-01-01

    Overreliance on one measurement approach can challenge accurate statements about reality, as findings can represent by-products of the compulsory measurement paradigm. Within the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the compatibility principle represents one such strictly imposed paradigm. Using 2

  18. Instructors' Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in Teaching Undergraduate Physical Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Paulo Jose Barbosa Gutierres; Monteiro, Maria Dolores Alves Ferreira; da Silva, Rudney; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze adapted physical education instructors' views about the application of the theory of planned behavior (TpB) in teaching physical education undergraduate courses. Participants ("n" = 17) were instructors of adapted physical activity courses from twelve randomly selected institutions of higher…

  19. Exploring the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Davy, Brenda M.; Chen, Yi-Chun; You, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and to establish psychometric properties and utility of a Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) instrument for SSB consumption. Methods: This cross-sectional survey included 119 southwest Virginia participants. Most of the respondents were female (66%), white (89%), and had at least a…

  20. Predicting College Students' Intention to Graduate: A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Nate; Paulson, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined whether it is possible to increase college students' intention to earn a four-year degree with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Three research questions were examined: (1) Can the TPB predict traditional undergraduates' graduation intention? (2) Does graduation intention differ by traditional students' year of…

  1. Understanding Reduced-Fat Milk Consumption among Male Adolescents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Nada O.; Lee, Jerry W.

    2005-01-01

    This study identifies factors that influences reduced-fat milk consumption among 560 male students, ages 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. The majority of the participants, 94.8%, reported that they currently drank some…

  2. A Study of Driver’s Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers’ route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver’s route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver’s route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  3. Explaining Helping Behavior in a Cooperative Learning Classroom Setting Using Attribution Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahles, Paula M.; Contento, Jann M.

    2006-01-01

    This recently completed study examined whether attribution theory can explain helping behavior in an interdependent classroom environment that utilized a cooperative-learning model. The study focused on student participants enrolled in 6 community college communication classes taught by the same instructor. Three levels of cooperative-learning…

  4. Introduction to Educational Leadership and Organizational Behavior: Theory into Practice. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Patti L.

    2009-01-01

    Like the bestselling first edition, this introductory textbook succinctly presents concepts and theories of educational leadership and organizational behavior and immediately applies them to problems of practice. It includes practical case studies, real-world scenarios and analyses, reflection questions, and straightforward explanations of…

  5. The theory of planned behavior as applied to preoperative smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Ehlers, Shawna; Warner, David O

    2014-01-01

    Abstinence from smoking on the morning of surgery may improve outcomes. This study examined the explicatory power of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict smoking behavior on the morning of surgery, testing the hypothesis that the constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) will predict intent to abstain from smoking the morning of surgery, and that intent will predict behavior. TPB constructs were assessed in 169 pre-surgical patients. Smoking behavior on the morning of surgery was assessed by self-report and CO monitoring. Correlations and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to determine associations between measures and behavior. All TPB measures, including intent as predicted by the TPB, were correlated with both a lower rate of self-reported smoking on the morning of surgery and lower CO levels. The SEM showed a good fit to the data. In the SEM, attitude and PBC, but not subjective norm, were significantly associated with intent to abstain, explaining 46% of variance. The effect of PBC on CO levels was partially mediated by intent. The amount of variance in behavior explained by these TPB constructs was modest (10% for CO levels). Thus, attitude and perceived behavioral control explain a substantial portion of the intent to maintain preoperative abstinence on the morning of elective surgery, and intent and perceived behavioral control explain a more modest but significant amount of the variance in actual smoking behavior. Clinical Trials.gov registration: NCT01014455.

  6. Density functional theory calculations of energy-loss carbon near-edge spectra of small diameter armchair and zigzag nanotubes: Core-hole, curvature, and momentum-transfer orientation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titantah, J.T.; Lamoen, D.; Jorissen, K.

    2004-01-01

    We perform density functional theory calculations on a series of armchair and zigzag nanotubes of diameters less than 1 nm using the all-electron full-potential(-linearized)-augmented-plane-wave method. Emphasis is laid on the effects of curvature, the electron-beam orientation, and the inclusion of the core hole on the carbon electron-energy-loss K edge. The electron-energy-loss near-edge spectra of all the studied tubes show strong curvature effects compared to that of flat graphene. The curvature-induced π-σ hybridization is shown to have a more drastic effect on the electronic properties of zigzag tubes than on those of armchair tubes. We show that the core-hole effect must be accounted for in order to correctly reproduce electron-energy-loss measurements. We also find that the energy-loss near-edge spectra of these carbon systems are dominantly dipole selected and that they can be expressed simply as a proportionality with the local momentum projected density of states, thus portraying the weak energy dependence of the transition matrix elements. Compared to graphite, we report a reduction in the anisotropy as seen on the energy-loss near-edge spectra of carbon nanotubes

  7. Walking as physical exercise in Fibromyalgia: an elicitation study from the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Ángeles Pastor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first phase of the formative research recommended in the Theory of Planned Behavior for the development of an intervention. Our aims are to identify modal beliefs about the performance of an exercise pattern in people with fibromyalgia, to test the items designed for direct evaluation of the predictive constructs and to explore their relationships with the behavior. We assessed 46 women with fibromyalgia. Content analysis showed more positive than negative consequences related to the performance of exercise guidelines (behavioral beliefs. Families and friends are the important referents (normative beliefs and we identified facilitating and inhibiting factors in the performance of exercise behavior related to aspects of fibromyalgia (control beliefs such as pain, fatigue and emotional state. The subjective norm scale showed the lowest internal consistency (α= .78. The results confirmed the sedentary lifestyle of the participants (previous behavior: Mean=3.67; rank=1-7 although they also suggested that participants intended to perform the behavior (Mean=5.67. The relationships between constructs are coherent with the theory, and support the relevance of applying it to the selected behavior and population.

  8. Theory of Mind and Empathy as predictors of antisocial behavior during adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olber Eduardo Arango Tobón

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the characteristics of theory of mind and empathy are important predictors of behavioural disorders during childhood and adolescence. This study compared a group of teenagers with the characteristics of antisocial behavior disorder and a group of teenagers as controls in terms of their performance on tests assessing the theory of mind and empathy, with the further aim of establishing risk and protective factors predictive of the development of antisocial behavior during adolescence. There were significant statistical differences between the two groups on the theory of mind and empathy tests. The dimension of empathy known as as perspective taking as well as the adolescent’s skills in understanding mental and emotional states were established as protective factors according to the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test.

  9. Derivative Trade Optimizing Model Utilizing GP Based on Behavioral Finance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Koki; Kawamoto, Masaru

    This paper proposed a new technique which makes the strategy trees for the derivative (option) trading investment decision based on the behavioral finance theory and optimizes it using evolutionary computation, in order to achieve high profitability. The strategy tree uses a technical analysis based on a statistical, experienced technique for the investment decision. The trading model is represented by various technical indexes, and the strategy tree is optimized by the genetic programming(GP) which is one of the evolutionary computations. Moreover, this paper proposed a method using the prospect theory based on the behavioral finance theory to set psychological bias for profit and deficit and attempted to select the appropriate strike price of option for the higher investment efficiency. As a result, this technique produced a good result and found the effectiveness of this trading model by the optimized dealings strategy.

  10. The Development of a Program Engagement Theory for Group Offending Behavior Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Emma; Bowen, Erica; Brown, Sarah; Howat, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    Offender engagement in group offending behavior programs is poorly understood and under-theorized. In addition, there is no research on facilitators' engagement. This article presents the first ever theory to address this gap. A Program Engagement Theory (PET) was derived from a constructivist grounded theory analysis that accounts for both facilitators' and offenders' engagement in group offending behavior programs (GOBPs). Interviews and session observations were used to collect data from 23 program facilitators and 28 offenders (group members). The analysis revealed that group members' engagement involved shared identities and moving on as a group. In turn, this was dependent on facilitators personalising treatment frameworks and establishing a hook to help group members move on. The PET emphasizes the importance of considering change during treatment as a process rather than simply a program outcome. Solution-focused (SF) programs were more conducive to engagement and the change process than offence-focused programs.

  11. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Aggression and Weapons Carrying in Urban African American Early Adolescent Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Cheng, Tina L.; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the…

  12. The energy-momentum operator in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.R.; Ottewill, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the only meaningful geometrical measure of the energy-momentum of states of matter described by a free quantum field theory in a general curved space-time is that provided by a normal ordered energy-momentum operator. The finite expectation values of this operator are contrasted with the conventional renormalized expectation values and it is further argued that the use of renormalization theory is inappropriate in this context. (author)

  13. Parental factors and adolescents' smoking behavior: an extension of the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harakeh, Z.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Vries, H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to investigate whether general parenting factors (i.e., quality parent-child relationship, psychological control, strict control, parental knowledge) and parental smoking add to The theory of planned behaviour [Organ Behav. Hum. Dec. 50 (1991) 179] in

  14. Loners, Groupies, and Long-term Eccentricity (and Inclination) Behavior: Insights from Secular Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa L.

    2015-05-01

    Considering the secular dynamics of multi-planet systems provides substantial insight into the interactions between planets in those systems. Secular interactions are those that don't involve knowing where a planet is along its orbit, and they dominate when planets are not involved in mean motion resonances. These interactions exchange angular momentum among the planets, evolving their eccentricities and inclinations. To second order in the planets' eccentricities and inclinations, the eccentricity and inclination perturbations are decoupled. Given the right variable choice, the relevant differential equations are linear and thus the eccentricity and inclination behaviors can be described as a sum of eigenmodes. Since the underlying structure of the secular eigenmodes can be calculated using only the planets' masses and semi-major axes, one can elucidate the eccentricity and inclination behavior of planets in exoplanet systems even without knowing the planets' current eccentricities and inclinations. I have calculated both the eccentricity and inclination secular eigenmodes for the population of known multi-planet systems whose planets have well determined masses and periods. Using this catalog of secular character, I will discuss the prevalence of dynamically grouped planets ('groupies') versus dynamically uncoupled planets ('loners') and how this relates to the exoplanets' long-term eccentricity and inclination behavior. I will also touch on the distribution of the secular eigenfreqiencies.

  15. Evaluation of a Person-Centered, Theory-Based Intervention to Promote Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worawong, Chiraporn; Borden, Mary Jo; Cooper, Karen M; Pérez, Oscar A; Lauver, Diane

    Effective promotion of health behaviors requires strong interventions. Applying person-centered approaches and concepts synthesized from two motivational theories could strengthen the effects of such interventions. The aim of the study was to report the effect sizes, fidelity, and acceptability of a person-centered, health behavior intervention based on self-regulation and self-determination theories. Using a pre- and postintervention design, with a 4-week follow-up, advanced practice registered nurses made six weekly contacts with 52 volunteer participants. Most participants were educated White women. Advanced practice registered nurses elicited participant motives and particular goals for either healthy diet or physical activity behaviors. Minutes and type of activity and servings of fat and fruit/vegetables were assessed. Effect sizes for engaging in moderate aerobic activity and in fruit/vegetable and fat intake were 0.53, 0.82, and -0.57, respectively. The fidelity of delivery was 80-97% across contacts, and fidelity of participants' receipt of intervention components was supported. Participant acceptance of the intervention was supported by positive ratings on aspects of relevance and usefulness. To advance the science of health behavior change and improve client health status, person-centered approaches and concepts synthesized from motivational theories can be applied and tested with a randomized, controlled design and diverse samples to replicate and extend this promising behavioral intervention.

  16. Social comparison and prosocial behavior: an applied study of social identity theory in community food drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    Social Identity Theory and the concept of social comparison have inspired research on individuals, addressing effects of personal and environmental factors in directing social attention. The theory's conceptual origins, however, suggest that social comparison may have behavioral implications as well. Such behaviors may include attempts by an individual to enhance the relative status of his ingroup on a salient dimension of comparison. Such behavior is referred to as "social competition." In two studies, the effects of social comparison and social competition were measured in the real-world environment of community food drives. Participants were aggregated by household; 600 households in upper middle-class neighborhoods in Eugene and Salem, Oregon, were contacted. In Study 1 of 300 households, it was hypothesized that inclusion of a social competition cue in requests for donation would significantly increase the likelihood of donation. This hypothesis was supported. Study 2 was done to clarify the possible role in a social comparison of perceived ingroup inferiority in the prior observed increase in donations. The inclusion of a social comparison cue in the donation request significantly increased donations in households of the second study. The findings suggest that researchers should expand study of the theory's behavioral implications, including the role of social comparison in prosocial behavior.

  17. Asthma management simulation for children: translating theory, methods, and strategies to effect behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Bartholomew, L Kay; Gold, Robert S; Pierrel, Elaine; Parcel, Guy S; Sockrider, Marianna M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Fernandez, Maria E; Berlin, Nina J; Abramson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Translating behavioral theories, models, and strategies to guide the development and structure of computer-based health applications is well recognized, although a continued challenge for program developers. A stepped approach to translate behavioral theory in the design of simulations to teach chronic disease management to children is described. This includes the translation steps to: 1) define target behaviors and their determinants, 2) identify theoretical methods to optimize behavioral change, and 3) choose educational strategies to effectively apply these methods and combine these into a cohesive computer-based simulation for health education. Asthma is used to exemplify a chronic health management problem and a computer-based asthma management simulation (Watch, Discover, Think and Act) that has been evaluated and shown to effect asthma self-management in children is used to exemplify the application of theory to practice. Impact and outcome evaluation studies have indicated the effectiveness of these steps in providing increased rigor and accountability, suggesting their utility for educators and developers seeking to apply simulations to enhance self-management behaviors in patients.

  18. The influence of Weismann's germ-plasm theory on the distinction between learned and innate behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, T D

    1995-04-01

    Since the early twentieth century it has been common in both psychology and behavioral biology to draw a sharp distinction between learned and innate behavior, or elements of behavior. The persistence of this dichotomy may be attributed in part to the fundamental importance of the separation of inherited and acquired characters within neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory, one of the essential foundations for the modern study of behavior. A cornerstone of early neo-Darwinian thought was August Weismann's theory of the germ plasm, which proposed a segregation between germinal and somatic cells during development, thus ruling out the possibility that acquired characters could be inherited. This denial of Lamarckian hereditary mechanisms became one of the hallmarks of neo-Darwinism, as opposed to classical Darwinism. Within the neo-Darwinian framework it thus became important, as Weismann himself pointed out, to distinguish sharply between inherited and acquired characters. Although the dichotomy has frequently been criticized it remains tenacious, surfacing in different guises as older versions of it became terminologically unacceptable. The analysis offered here suggests that this tenacity may partly be explained by the implications of Weismann's germ-plasm theory, and its modern incarnation in the central dogma of molecular genetics, and by the central thematic position of those ideas in the neo-Darwinian foundations of modern behavioral biology.

  19. Attachment at (not to) work: applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A; Schat, Aaron C H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of 2 studies that were conducted to investigate whether adult attachment theory explains employee behavior at work. In the first study, we examined the structure of a measure of adult attachment and its relations with measures of trait affectivity and the Big Five. In the second study, we examined the relations between dimensions of attachment and emotion regulation behaviors, turnover intentions, and supervisory reports of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Results showed that anxiety and avoidance represent 2 higher order dimensions of attachment that predicted these criteria (except for counterproductive work behavior) after controlling for individual difference variables and organizational commitment. The implications of these results for the study of attachment at work are discussed.

  20. Testing the theory of reasoned action in explaining sexual behavior among African American young teen girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doswell, Willa M; Braxter, Betty J; Cha, Eunseok; Kim, Kevin H

    2011-12-01

    This study tested the Theory of Reasoned Action to examine the prediction of early sexual behavior among African American young teen girls. Baseline data from a longitudinal randomized clinical trial were used. Between 2001 and 2005, 198 middle-school girls aged 11 to 14 years were recruited. As girls aged, they held more permissive attitudes toward engaging in early sexual behavior and had a higher intention to engage in early sexual behavior. Intention was a significant predictor to explain sexual behavior among the girls. There is a need to develop strategies that promote intention related to delay and prevention of early sexual behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Large transverse momentum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1977-09-01

    It is pointed out that it is particularly significant that the quantum numbers of the leading particles are strongly correlated with the quantum numbers of the incident hadrons indicating that the valence quarks themselves are transferred to large p/sub t/. The crucial question is how they get there. Various hadron reactions are discussed covering the structure of exclusive reactions, inclusive reactions, normalization of inclusive cross sections, charge correlations, and jet production at large transverse momentum. 46 references

  2. Angular momentum projected semiclassics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasse, R.W.

    1986-10-01

    By using angular momentum projected plane waves as wave functions, we derive semiclassical expressions for the single-particle propagator, the partition function, the nonlocal density matrix, the single-particle density and the one particle- one hole level density for fixed angular momentum and fixed z-component or summed over the z-components. Other quantities can be deduced from the propagator. In coordinate space (r, r') the relevant quantities depend on vertical stroker - r 3 vertical stroke instead of vertical stroker - r'vertical stroke and in Wigner space (R, P) they become proportional to the angular momentum constraints δ(vertical strokeRxPvertical stroke/ℎ - l) and δ((RxP) z /ℎ - m). As applications we calculate the single-particle and one particle- one hole level densities for harmonic oscillator and Hill-Wheeler box potentials and the imaginary part of the optical potential and its volume integral with an underlying harmonic oscillator potential and a zero range two-body interaction. (orig.)

  3. Momentum distributions: opening remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigold, E.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of the hydrogen atom has played a central role in the development of quantum mechanics, beginning with Bohr's daring speculations. It was also the first problem tackled by Schroedinger with his new wave mechanics and similarly it was used by Heisenberg in his first papers as a prime example of the success of quantum mechanics. It has always played a central role in the teaching of quantum physics and has served as a most important heuristic tool, shaping our intuition and inspiring many expositions. The Schroedinger equation for the hydrogen atom is usually solved in the position representation, the solution to the equation being the wave functions psi/sub nlm/(r). If Schroedinger's equation is solved in the momentum representation instead of the coordinate representation, the absolute square of the corresponding momentum state wave function phi/sub nlm/(p) would give the momentum probability distribution of the electron in the state defined by the quantum numbers n, l and m. Three different types of collisions which can take place in the (e,2e) reaction on atomic hydrogen, which is a three body problem, are discussed

  4. Optical angular momentum and atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Arnold, Sonja

    2017-02-28

    Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom's angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light's OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. First-principles momentum-dependent local ansatz wavefunction and momentum distribution function bands of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a first-principles local ansatz wavefunction approach with momentum-dependent variational parameters on the basis of the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. The theory goes beyond the first-principles Gutzwiller approach and quantitatively describes correlated electron systems. Using the theory, we find that the momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of paramagnetic bcc Fe along high-symmetry lines show a large deviation from the Fermi–Dirac function for the d electrons with e g symmetry and yield the momentum-dependent mass enhancement factors. The calculated average mass enhancement m*/m = 1.65 is consistent with low-temperature specific heat data as well as recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data. (author)

  6. First-Principles Momentum-Dependent Local Ansatz Wavefunction and Momentum Distribution Function Bands of Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Yoshiro; Chandra, Sumal

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a first-principles local ansatz wavefunction approach with momentum-dependent variational parameters on the basis of the tight-binding LDA+U Hamiltonian. The theory goes beyond the first-principles Gutzwiller approach and quantitatively describes correlated electron systems. Using the theory, we find that the momentum distribution function (MDF) bands of paramagnetic bcc Fe along high-symmetry lines show a large deviation from the Fermi-Dirac function for the d electrons with eg symmetry and yield the momentum-dependent mass enhancement factors. The calculated average mass enhancement m*/m = 1.65 is consistent with low-temperature specific heat data as well as recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) data.

  7. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Yarmohammadi, Parastoo; Azadbakht, Leila; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms) which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB) to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students (n = 521) who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC). Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (β = 0.31, P intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control) were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students. PMID:23936635

  8. Determinants of Fast Food Consumption among Iranian High School Students Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifirad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was conducted to identify some factors (beliefs and norms which are related to fast food consumption among high school students in Isfahan, Iran. We used the framework of the theory planned behavior (TPB to predict this behavior. Subjects & Methods. Cross-sectional data were available from high school students who were recruited by cluster randomized sampling. All of the students completed a questionnaire assessing variables of standard TPB model including attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC, and the additional variables past behavior, actual behavior control (ABC. Results. The TPB variables explained 25.7% of the variance in intentions with positive attitude as the strongest (, and subjective norms as the weakest (, determinant. Concurrently, intentions accounted for 6% of the variance for fast food consumption. Past behavior and ABC accounted for an additional amount of 20.4% of the variance in fast food consumption. Conclusion. Overall, the present study suggests that the TPB model is useful in predicting related beliefs and norms to the fast food consumption among adolescents. Subjective norms in TPB model and past behavior in TPB model with additional variables (past behavior and actual behavior control were the most powerful predictors of fast food consumption. Therefore, TPB model may be a useful framework for planning intervention programs to reduce fast food consumption by students.

  9. Plasma electron hole kinematics. I. Momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Zhou, C. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    We analyse the kinematic properties of a plasma electron hole: a non-linear self-sustained localized positive electric potential perturbation, trapping electrons, which behaves as a coherent entity. When a hole accelerates or grows in depth, ion and electron plasma momentum is changed both within the hole and outside, by an energization process we call jetting. We present a comprehensive analytic calculation of the momentum changes of an isolated general one-dimensional hole. The conservation of the total momentum gives the hole's kinematics, determining its velocity evolution. Our results explain many features of the behavior of hole speed observed in numerical simulations, including self-acceleration at formation, and hole pushing and trapping by ion streams.

  10. Determinants of Cancer Early Detection Behaviors:Application of Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaei, Zohreh; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is account for 13% of all deaths around the world and is the third cause of mortality in Iran. More than one third of these cases are pre-ventable and about 33% are curable with early detection. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of cancer early detection (CED) behaviors applying Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). In this cross-sectional study, cluster sampling method was employed to recruit 260 individuals of above 20 years old in Yazd, Iran and a researcher designed questionnaire was completed through interviews for each of the respondents. PMT theoretical variables and CED behaviors were the basis of data collection procedure. Participants acquired 64.47% of the protection motivation, 30.97% of the passive and 45.64% of the active behaviors‟ possible scores. Theory constructs predicted 19.8%, 15.6% and 9.6% of the variations for protection motivation, passive and active behavior respectively. Protection motivation was responsible for 3.6% of passive and 8% of active behaviors‟ variations. Considering the scarceness of CED behaviors and the applicability of PMT in predicting these behaviors, utilization of the PMT‟s constructs in any interventional programs to accelerate CED behaviors could be an alternate methodological choice in the cancer control initiatives.

  11. Fast Food Consumption Behaviors in High-School Students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mirkarimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies report inappropriate snack and junk food consumption patterns in children and young adults in Iran. The current survey was aimed to explore fast food consumption behaviors in high-school students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 500 high-school students. Samples were selected based on cluster sampling method at first and simple random at second. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. To analyze, SPSS-16 and tests, including t-test, Chi-square, correlation coefficient and multiple regressions were used. Results: The monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.01. The TPB explained fast food use behaviors with R2 of 0.6, effectively. Results also represented that frequency of fast food consumption was meaningfully in line with behavioral intention (β = 0.60, P < 0.05 and subjective norms (β = 0.17, P < 0.05. Conclusion: It seems likely beneficial to consider important subjective norms (especially friends that may strongly effect on high-school student intention to use fast food. Also students perceived behavioral control must be increased.

  12. Theory-Based Predictors of Intention to Engage in Precautionary Sexual Behavior among Puerto Rican High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Andres A.

    2004-01-01

    Predictors of intention to abstain from sexual intercourse or use condoms consistently with both main and other partners were investigated in 431 Puerto Rican high school students. The basis for this study was the theories of reasoned action (TRA) and planned behavior (TPB), and two predictors from the theory of interpersonal behavior (TIB). As…

  13. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  14. In Darwin's Footsteps: An On and Off-Campus Approach to Teaching Evolutionary Theory and Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillie, Lynn; Bizub, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    The study of evolutionary theory and fieldwork in animal behavior is enriched when students leave the classroom so they may test their abilities to think and act like scientists. This article describes a course on evolutionary theory and animal behavior that blended on campus learning with field experience in the United States and in Ecuador and…

  15. Behavioral Finance in Brazil: applying the prospect theory to potential investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Emiko Yoshinaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The premise of unbounded rationality defended by the Efficient Market Hypothesis is challenged by the theoretical framework that involves Behavioral Finance, whose basis, Kahneman and Tversky’s Prospect Theory (1979, questions the Expected Utility Theory, an important element of Neoclassical Economics, as basis for decisionmaking. This research aims to replicate the empirical research of Kahneman and Tversky’s seminal article (1979 to evaluate the decisionmaking process of employees (potential investors from a major national financial institution. The results of this study were compared to those obtained in the original article and to other similar studies. The questionnaire employed was an adaptation of the one originally used, so that we could test, in the studied sample, the applicability of the Prospect Theory, more specifically with regard to Certainty, Reflection and Isolation Effects. We also analyzed differences in the decision-making process considering respondents’ attributes (gender, age and income. The results confirmed that behavioral effects do exist, and proved that a large portion of the sample presented significant inconsistency in their choices according to Expected Utility Theory principles, highlighting that their decisions were not made according to strictly rational behavior. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between violations and investor characteristics by estimating a linear model. Results indicate that both age and level of income were negatively related to total violations.

  16. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  17. Promotion of sun protective behaviors in high school students in Ahwaz: a theory-based intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydar Rahmati Asl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The most important environmental factor affecting human health is the long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation. This study aimed to determine the effect of an educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory in promoting sun-protective behaviors. In this quasi-experimental prepost test study, a sample of 215 high school students in Ahwaz. Using a reliable and valid questionnaire, and based on the theory of protection motivation, the data were collected before and four months after the intervention. In the posttest, there was a significant difference in mean score of the protection motivation theory components between the experimental and control groups. the comparison of the mean score of the components of protection motivation theory in the experimental and control groups before and after the intervention showed a significant difference in all the components except for the response cost, while in the control group the mean score difference not significant. The results of this study showed that the intervention may lead to the sun exposure preventive behaviors, which reflects the effectiveness of the educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory.

  18. Health Behavior Theory in Physical Activity Game Apps: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Victor BA; MacDonald, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity games developed for a mobile phone platform are becoming increasingly popular, yet little is known about their content or inclusion of health behavior theory (HBT). Objective The objective of our study was to quantify elements of HBT in physical activity games developed for mobile phones and to assess the relationship between theoretical constructs and various app features. Methods We conducted an analysis of exercise and physical activity game apps in the Apple App Store in the fall of 2014. A total of 52 apps were identified and rated for inclusion of health behavior theoretical constructs using an established theory-based rubric. Each app was coded for 100 theoretical items, containing 5 questions for 20 different constructs. Possible total theory scores ranged from 0 to 100. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlations were used to describe the HBT score and association with selected app features, respectively. Results The average HBT score in the sample was 14.98 out of 100. One outlier, SuperBetter, scored higher than the other apps with a score of 76. Goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-reward were the most-reported constructs found in the sample. There was no association between either app price and theory score (P=.5074), or number of gamification elements and theory score (P=.5010). However, Superbetter, with the highest HBT score, was also the most expensive app. Conclusions There are few content analyses of serious games for health, but a comparison between these findings and previous content analyses of non-game health apps indicates that physical activity mobile phone games demonstrate higher levels of behavior theory. The most common theoretical constructs found in this sample are known to be efficacious elements in physical activity interventions. It is unclear, however, whether app designers consciously design physical activity mobile phone games with specific constructs in mind; it may be that games lend

  19. Health Behavior Theory in Physical Activity Game Apps: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah E; Moxley, Victor Ba; MacDonald, Elizabeth

    2015-07-13

    Physical activity games developed for a mobile phone platform are becoming increasingly popular, yet little is known about their content or inclusion of health behavior theory (HBT). The objective of our study was to quantify elements of HBT in physical activity games developed for mobile phones and to assess the relationship between theoretical constructs and various app features. We conducted an analysis of exercise and physical activity game apps in the Apple App Store in the fall of 2014. A total of 52 apps were identified and rated for inclusion of health behavior theoretical constructs using an established theory-based rubric. Each app was coded for 100 theoretical items, containing 5 questions for 20 different constructs. Possible total theory scores ranged from 0 to 100. Descriptive statistics and Spearman correlations were used to describe the HBT score and association with selected app features, respectively. The average HBT score in the sample was 14.98 out of 100. One outlier, SuperBetter, scored higher than the other apps with a score of 76. Goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-reward were the most-reported constructs found in the sample. There was no association between either app price and theory score (P=.5074), or number of gamification elements and theory score (P=.5010). However, Superbetter, with the highest HBT score, was also the most expensive app. There are few content analyses of serious games for health, but a comparison between these findings and previous content analyses of non-game health apps indicates that physical activity mobile phone games demonstrate higher levels of behavior theory. The most common theoretical constructs found in this sample are known to be efficacious elements in physical activity interventions. It is unclear, however, whether app designers consciously design physical activity mobile phone games with specific constructs in mind; it may be that games lend themselves well to inclusion of theory and any

  20. A discussion on the resilience of command and control regulation within regulatory behavior theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P.V. O’Sullivan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first insights into the factors that may drive the resilience of command and control regulation in modern policy making. We show how the forces of uncertainty and internal dynamics among customers, producers and regulators are the most dominate factors preventing the adoption of non-CAC regulations. Using case study evidence of internet regulation, we then integrate our analysis into the most prominent regulatory choice behavior theories and illustrate that regardless of the theory, these factors can help explain the dominance of command and control as a choice of regulation.

  1. Cafeteria factors that influence milk-drinking behaviors of elementary school children: grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, P; Bednar, C; Klammer, S

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced milk-drinking behaviors of elementary school children in North Texas. Ten focus groups with a total of 41 children aged 6 to 11 years were conducted using a grounded theory approach. Based on the principles of Social Learning Theory, milk preferences and health beliefs were identified as personal factors that influenced drinking. Cafeteria rules, milk flavor, product packaging, modeling by adults, and shared experiences were environmental factors. The data suggest that school cafeterias can capitalize on their unique position to offer milk-drinking opportunities that children can share to combine nutrition education with sensory experience.

  2. Understanding adolescent peer sexual harassment and abuse: using the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man Yu; Frieze, Irene; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2010-06-01

    This study examines intentions to take protective action against peer sexual harassment and abuse (PSHA). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) proposes that attitudes about protective action, perceptions of what others would think about doing this (subjective norms), and behavioral control would be important predictors. A total of 1,531 Chinese secondary school students (769 boys and 762 girls) from Hong Kong were surveyed to test this model. Results showed that the TPB model was predictive for girls, but only subjective norms and behavioral control significantly predicted boys' intentions to protect themselves. Results supported the influence of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on youths' intentions to reject PSHA. These factors may be useful in guiding the development of an educational program for prevention of PSHA.

  3. A Network Neuroscience of Human Learning: Potential to Inform Quantitative Theories of Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Mattar, Marcelo G

    2017-04-01

    Humans adapt their behavior to their external environment in a process often facilitated by learning. Efforts to describe learning empirically can be complemented by quantitative theories that map changes in neurophysiology to changes in behavior. In this review we highlight recent advances in network science that offer a sets of tools and a general perspective that may be particularly useful in understanding types of learning that are supported by distributed neural circuits. We describe recent applications of these tools to neuroimaging data that provide unique insights into adaptive neural processes, the attainment of knowledge, and the acquisition of new skills, forming a network neuroscience of human learning. While promising, the tools have yet to be linked to the well-formulated models of behavior that are commonly utilized in cognitive psychology. We argue that continued progress will require the explicit marriage of network approaches to neuroimaging data and quantitative models of behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EXTENDED THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR AS MODEL OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROID USE BY INDONESIAN BODYBUILDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shine Pintor Siolemba Patiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This correlational study explored the psychological antecedents of Indonesian bodybuilders’ intentions to use anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. The purpose of this research was to identify factors that influence an Indonesian bodybuilder’s intention to use AAS and offer a better understanding of AAS use behavior based on the extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. The three predictor variables of (1 attitude, (2 subjective norms, and (3 perceived behavioral control accounted for the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to reuse the AAS. Likewise, (1 attitude and (2 intention accounted for of the variation in the outcome measure of the reuse of AAS. This research combined two methods which are qualitative and quantitative. The respondents who were used in this research are professional bodybuilders located in Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, and Yogyakarta. The result of this research shows that the attitude of bodybuilders in using AAS tends to have values that are adopted by themselves. The result of this research differs from Bagozzi et al (1989 who stated that attitude influenced behavior directly as a nonpurposeful reaction or indirectly through intention as an aimed response. The result of this research clearly shows that attitude can influence behavior directly as a purposeful reaction, because the bodybuilders consume AAS to achieve a particular purpose and it is strengthened by achievement value in themselves. This research suggests also that attitude and subjective norms are not causally independent. They appear to reflect similar beliefs and to influence each other. These results differ from Titah and Barki (2009, as suggested by Chang (1998 and Aarts et al. (1998, who stated that a person whose positive subjective norms move them toward overt behavior, it will lead to a positive attitude toward the behavior. Future research directions are suggested regarding several areas

  5. [Relational Frame Theory--A Theoretical Framework for Contextual Behavioral Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-07-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective--regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms. © Georg Thieme

  6. Gender differences in college leisure time physical activity: application of the theory of planned behavior and integrated behavioral model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beville, Jill M; Meyer, M Renée Umstattd; Usdan, Stuart L; Turner, Lori W; Jackson, John C; Lian, Brad E

    2014-01-01

    National data consistently report that males participate in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) at higher rates than females. This study expanded previous research to examine gender differences in LTPA of college students using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by including 2 additional constructs, descriptive norm and self-efficacy, from the integrated behavioral model. Participants were college students (N = 621) from a large public university in the southeastern United States. A self-report, classroom-based assessment with validated and reliable measures of LTPA, TPB constructs, descriptive norm, self-efficacy, and demographics was conducted in fall 2009. Regression analyses revealed attitude (β = .119), intention (β = .438), self-efficacy (β = .166), body mass index (BMI) (β = -.084), and sports participation (β = .081) as significantly associated with LTPA for females (R (2) = .425, p students.

  7. Seamless service: maintaining momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, N; Timoney, R

    1994-01-01

    Describes the process used by the Mater Infirmorum Hospital in Belfast in 1992-1994 to achieve high quality care (Seamless Service), motivate staff to deliver and measure performance. Aims of the project include focusing the organization on the customer, improving teamwork and motivation at all levels. After comprehensive data collection from GPs, patients and staff management forums developed a full TQM strategy to gain support and maintain momentum including innovative staff events (every staff member was given the opportunity to attend) where multilevel, multidisciplinary workshops enabled staff to design customer care standards, develop teams and lead customer-driven change.

  8. Optical angular momentum and atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom’s angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light’s OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light–matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069766

  9. High momentum transfer processes in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.; Radyushkin, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    A unified approach to the investigation of inclusive high momentum transfer processes in the QCD framework is proposed. A modified parton model (with parton distribution functions depending on an additional renormalization parameter) is shown to be valid in all orders of perturbation theory. The approach is also applicable for studying wide-angle elastic scattering processes of colourless bound states of quarks (the hadrons). The asymptotic behaviour of pion electromagnetic form factor is calculated as an example

  10. Leaving an Abusive Dating Relationship: A Prospective Analysis of the Investment Model and Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M; Gidycz, Christine A; Murphy, Megan J

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to build on the existing literature to better understand young women's leaving processes in abusive dating relationships using a prospective design. Two social psychological models-the investment model and theory of planned behavior-were tested. According to the investment model, relationship continuation is predicted by commitment, which is a function of investment, satisfaction, and low quality of alternatives. The theory of planned behavior asserts that a specific behavior is predicted by an individual's intention to use a behavior, which is a function of the individual's attitudes toward the behavior, the subjective norms toward the behavior, and the individual's perceived behavioral control over the behavior. College women (N = 169 young women in abusive relatinships) completed surveys at two time points, approximately 4 months apart, to assess initially for the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a current relationship and investment model and theory of planned behavior variables; the purpose of the 4-month follow-up session was to determine if women had remained in or terminated their abusive relationship. Path analytic results demonstrated that both the theory of planned behavior and investment models were good fits to the data in prospectively predicting abused women's stay/leave decisions. However, the theory of planned behavior was a better fit to the data than the investment model. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Protection motivation theory and stages of change in sun protective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice-Dunn, Steven; McMath, Ben F; Cramer, Robert J

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the usefulness of the stage of change model and protection motivation theory (PMT) in creating brief persuasive appeals to promote healthy sun-behavior. College women (N = 254) read one of four essays that manipulated the level of threat and coping appraisal. The transition from the precontemplation to contemplation stage was promoted by threat appraisal information, but transition from contemplation to the preparation stage occurred only when individuals were provided with both high threat and high coping information. Thus, brief communications based on PMT may create attitudes leading to behavior change when later, more intensive, interventions are introduced.

  12. Emergency Nursing Experiences in Assisting People With Suicidal Behavior: A Grounded Theory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Magrini, Daniel Fernando; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; de Souza, Jacqueline; Borges, Tatiana Longo

    2017-08-01

    To understand emergency nursing experiences in assisting people with suicidal behavior. Grounded theory study with symbolic interactionism conducted in 2015 to 2016 in Brazil with 19 nurses. Assistance for people with suicidal behavior is critical, challenging, evokes different feelings and requires knowledge, skills and emotional control. Nurses did not feel prepared or supported, and identified recurrent gaps and problems. Nurses occupied a limited role, restricted to attending to physical needs. They predominantly manifested opposition, judgments and incomprehension about patients. This study presents key elements to be addressed in interventions and investigations regarding nursing support, training and supervision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Applying Instructional Design Strategies and Behavior Theory to Household Disaster Preparedness Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tracy N; Sobelson, Robyn K; Wigington, Corinne J; Davis, Alyson L; Harp, Victoria H; Leander-Griffith, Michelle; Cioffi, Joan P

    Interventions and media campaigns promoting household disaster preparedness have produced mixed results in affecting behaviors. In large part, this is due to the limited application of instructional design strategies and behavior theory, such as the Transtheoretical Model (TTM). This study describes the development and evaluation of Ready CDC, an intervention designed to increase household disaster preparedness among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) workforce. (1) Describe the instructional design strategies employed in the development of Ready CDC and (2) evaluate the intervention's impact on behavior change and factors influencing stage progression for household disaster preparedness behavior. Ready CDC was adapted from the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Ready campaign. Offered to CDC staff September 2013-November 2015, it consisted of a preassessment of preparedness attitudes and behaviors, an in-person training, behavioral reinforcement communications, and a 3-month follow-up postassessment. Ready CDC employed well-accepted design strategies, including presenting stimulus material and enhancing transfer of desired behavior. Excluding those in the TTM "maintenance" stage at baseline, this study determined 44% of 208 participants progressed at least 1 stage for developing a written disaster plan. Moreover, assessment of progression by stage found among participants in the "precontemplation" (n = 16), "contemplation" (n = 15), and "preparation" (n = 125) stages at baseline for assembling an emergency kit, 25%, 27%, and 43% moved beyond the "preparation" stage, respectively. Factors influencing stage movement included knowledge, attitudes, and community resiliency but varied depending on baseline stage of change. Employing instructional strategies and behavioral theories in preparedness interventions optimizes the potential for individuals to adopt preparedness behaviors. Study findings suggest that stage movement toward

  14. Closing the gap between values and behavior: A means-end theory of lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    Means-end chain theory and lifestyle are reconstructed within a dual-process framework, incorporating bottom-up and top-down information-processing routes. The bottom-up route is defined as a hierarchical categorization process, and the top-down route as goal-directed action. Lifestyle, then...... condition for both information-processing routes to reach their ends, predicting a strict mediation model. The model is tested on survey data gathered in France in 1998, using the list of values as a measure of abstract goal states, the food-related lifestyle instrument as a measure of intervening knowledge...... structures, and a newly constructed behavior list as a measure of behavior. Data were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling. Compared against five alternative model structures, the strict mediation model fitted the data best, thus confirming the predictions derived from the reconstructed theory....

  15. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to predict intention to comply with a food recall message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freberg, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has provided considerable insight into the public's intention to comply with many different health-related messages, but has not been applied previously to intention to comply with food safety recommendations and recalls ( Hallman & Cuite, 2010 ). Because food recalls can differ from other health messages in their urgency, timing, and cessation, the applicability of the TPB in this domain is unknown. The research reported here attempted to address this gap using a nationally representative consumer panel. Results showed that, consistent with the theory's predictions, attitudes and subjective norms were predictive of the intention to comply with a food recall message, with attitudes having a much greater impact on intent to comply than subjective norms. Perceived behavioral control failed to predict intention to comply. Implications of these results for health public relations and crisis communications and recommendations for future research were discussed.

  16. The theory of "truth": how counterindustry campaigns affect smoking behavior among teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, James C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Evans, W Douglas; Nonnemaker, James; Blahut, Steven; Holden, Debra; Messeri, Peter; Haviland, M Lyndon

    2005-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to test a theory-based model of the pathways by which exposure to the "truth" counterindustry media campaign influenced beliefs, attitudes, and smoking behavior in national random-digit-dial telephone surveys of 16,000 12- to 17-year-olds before, 8 months after, and 15 months after campaign launch. Consistent with concepts from the theory of reasoned action, youth in markets with higher levels of campaign exposure had more negative beliefs about tobacco industry practices and more negative attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Models also provided support for a social inoculation effect, because negative industry attitudes were associated with lower receptivity to protobacco advertising and with less progression along a continuum of smoking intentions and behavior.

  17. THE PATH TO JOB SATISFACTION. APPLYING THE THEORY OF PURPOSEFUL BEHAVIOR TO MILITARY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan ÖSTERBERG

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between, on one hand, personality and performance orientation and, on the other, job satisfaction and turnover intentions, using Barrick’s et al. theory of purposeful behavior. Using a questionnaire, data about job satisfaction, performance orientation and turnover intentions were collected from 300 newly recruited Swedish soldiers. A path analysis gave partial, but not full support to the assumptions behind the theory of purposeful behavior model. No relationships were found between the personality traits of emotional stability and conscientiousness, nor to either performance orientation or directly to job satisfaction. On the other hand, performance orientation showed a consistent relationship to perceived levels of the job characteristics, which mediated the path between the person-related variables and the outcome variables. Performance orientation also showed a strong direct relationship to general job satisfaction, which, in turn, was strongly related to turnover intentions.

  18. MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND THEIR RELATION TO THE THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Moreno-Murcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish motivational profiles for doing physical activity according to the variables from the theory of planned action in a sample of 698 students aged 14 to 16. The instruments used were the Questionnaire of Behavioral Regulation in Sport (BRQ-R and the Questionnaire of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TCP. Cluster analysis revealed two motivational profiles: a "self-determined" profile with high scores in intrinsic motivation and low scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation, and a "non self- determined" profile with low scores in intrinsic motivation and high scores in extrinsic motivation and amotivation. Positive significant differences in attitudes, norms, and intent to control were found for the self-determined profile related to "non self-determined" profile

  19. An extended theory of planned behavior to predict consumers' willingness to buy mobile slaughter unit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksma, Djura L; Gerritzen, Marien A; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Poortvliet, P Marijn

    2017-06-01

    The current study investigated the determinants of consumers' intention to purchase meat from mobile slaughter units (MSU). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the value belief norm theory (VBN) were used as conceptual lenses to guide this investigation. We conducted a survey among 329 respondents in the Netherlands who buy meat for themselves and/or for others. The results indicated that (1) TPB and VBN explain a high proportion of the variance in consumers' intention to buy MSU meat, and that (2) an extended TPB that includes peoples' attitude, personal norm, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control turned out to be the best model to predict willingness to buy MSU meat. Further implications for future research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Can prospect theory explain risk-seeking behavior by terminally ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiel, Emma B; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Schulman, Kevin A

    2005-01-01

    Patients with life-threatening conditions sometimes appear to make risky treatment decisions as their condition declines, contradicting the risk-averse behavior predicted by expected utility theory. Prospect theory accommodates such decisions by describing how individuals evaluate outcomes relative to a reference point and how they exhibit risk-seeking behavior over losses relative to that point. The authors show that a patient's reference point for his or her health is a key factor in determining which treatment option the patient selects, and they examine under what circumstances the more risky option is selected. The authors argue that patients' reference points may take time to adjust following a change in diagnosis, with implications for predicting under what circumstances a patient may select experimental or conventional therapies or select no treatment.