WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavioral health concerns

  1. The relationship between radon knowledge, concern and behavior, and health values, health locus of control and preventive health behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.J.; Probart, C.K.; Dorman, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Understanding similarities between health-related and radon-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors may suggest application of effective strategies of radon-related education in targeted populations. A mail survey was returned by 300 randomly selected homeowners in a community at risk for high home radon concentrations (50% response). While 64% were concerned, only 7% tested their homes. The expected association between radon knowledge, radon concern, and information-seeking was identified. In addition, those who tested their homes had greater knowledge and did more information seeking. Health values and radon concern were only weakly related. Environmental concern explained the greatest variance in radon concern (10%). Internal health locus of controls were more likely to have high radon concern. Of the preventive health behaviors, not smoking and seat belt use were the best predictors of variance in radon concern (5%). Segmenting the population is suggested for best educational outcome. Relating information to environmental issues may be helpful. Health-conscious people may need awareness of risks. Issues of self-control and radon testing and reduction may be helpful for some. Synergy between smoke and radon, compounded by smokers lack of concern suggests targeting smokers for education efforts

  2. An exploration of health concerns & health-promotion behaviors in pregnant women over age 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, Paula A; Padula, Cynthia A; Eddy, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    To explore the specific health concerns and health-promotion behaviors of childbearing women 35 years of age or older. Semistructured interviews with women ( = 50) ages > or =35 in their third trimester of pregnancy. Interviews lasted approximately 1 hour, were conducted by two nursing faculty, and were scheduled to accommodate participant needs. Process recording was used to document participant responses. Verbatim statements were recorded, and subjects were redirected to clarify responses when necessary. Content analysis and coding were completed by an independent researcher, based upon techniques derived from Miles and Huberman (1994). Data reduction was accomplished by the identification of categories of responses that described the participants' meaning. Study participants reported concerns reflecting both fetal well-being and maternal health-related issues. The majority of childbearing women (86%) reported engaging in multiple health-promotion behaviors focusing on daily nutritional intake, lifestyle activities, and rest patterns. Participants reported conscientious decisions to eliminate substances recognized as harmful, and to alter exercise, employment, or daily responsibilities to accommodate physical changes during pregnancy. Participants were "proactive healthcare seekers," accessing information from a variety of sources and seeking services to meet their individualized needs. The multitude and frequency of health-promotion behaviors adopted by those > or =35 years of age during pregnancy is indicative of this group's ability to independently initiate change, and exceeds the percentages previously reported. The nurse can be influential in supporting lifestyle modifications adopted during the childbearing period as permanent health-promotion behaviors.

  3. Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Parental Concern and Concordance Between Parent and Adolescent Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Elon; Richardson, Laura P; Katzman, Katherine; Spielvogle, Heather; Arghira, Adriana Cristina; Zhou, Chuan; McCarty, Carolyn A

    We investigated which adolescent health risk behaviors are of concern to parents generally, according to adolescent age, gender, and in the context of perceived risk. We compared adolescent and parent reports of the presence of health-risk behaviors and factors predicting agreement. Three hundred adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (mean, 14.5 years; 52% female) who presenting for well care completed an electronic screening tool used to assess health-risk behaviors. Parents completed parallel measures of their child's behavior and parental concern. Adolescent and parent reports were compared using McNemar test. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine predictors of agreement. High parental concern was most commonly reported for screen time and diet. When parents identified their adolescent as at-risk, high parental concern was near universal for mental health but less commonly reported for substance use. There were no differences in parental concern according to adolescent gender. Parents of older adolescents expressed more concern regarding physical activity and alcohol. Compared with adolescents, parents were more likely to report risk regarding anxiety, fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical activity, and less likely to report risk regarding screen time, sleep, and marijuana use. Younger adolescent age and higher family relationship quality were predictive of stronger parent-adolescent agreement. Parents in well-care visits commonly have concerns about adolescent lifestyle behaviors. Although parents are more likely to report concern when they know about a behavior, parental concern is not always aligned with parental awareness of risk, particularly for substance use. Parent report of higher prevalence of some risk behaviors suggests their input might assist in risk identification. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages among college students. A health-concerns and behavioral-economics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-06-01

    Excessive intake of sugar-sweetened beverages by undergraduates is closely related to the increasing prevalence of obesity, making investigations of the substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages imperative. According to the concept of price elasticity in behavioral economics, the choice of healthy over unhealthy behaviors is facilitated by increasing the cost of less-healthy alternatives or reducing the cost of healthier alternatives. Furthermore, evoking health concerns by using health claims may induce substitution of healthy for unhealthy beverages. A total of 108 18-22-year-old undergraduates participated in a laboratory experiment and were given a certain amount of money and allowed to purchase a healthy beverage and a less-healthy beverage with or without receiving health claims. Increasing the price of a type of beverage was shown to reduce purchases of that beverage type and lead to substitution with the alternative type. Moreover, the effect of price elasticity on healthy beverage substitution was more pronounced when participants' health concerns were evoked. The results suggest that lowering the cost of alternative commodities and evoking health concerns by health-related claims would foster the substitution of healthier for unhealthy beverages among college students. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of behavioral concerns and early childhood expulsions on the development of early childhood mental health consultation in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Sarah D; Kubicek, Lorraine F; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Zundel, Claudia; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2012-05-01

    This article examines how the Colorado study Children With Social, Emotional and Behavioral Concerns and the Providers Who Support Them (S.D. Hoover, 2006) was used to advance a statewide agenda for early childhood mental health consultation in Colorado. The study involved a survey of licensed childcare providers throughout the state asking about the behavior of children in their care and their responses to that behavior. Exclusion of children from early care and education settings due to challenging behavior was found to be a significant problem taking a toll on families, children, and early care and education providers. Importantly, results from the survey indicated that the rate of exclusion of children from care due to challenging behavior was lower for family childcare providers who had access to mental health consultation. Recommendations are offered regarding the infrastructure needed to sustain mental health consultation capacity in early care and education settings, and related policies and practices. Copyright © 2012 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Under consumers' scrutiny - an investigation into consumers' attitudes and concerns about nudging in the realm of health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Astrid F; Cheung, Tracy T L; De Ridder, Denise D T

    2015-04-09

    Nudging strategies have recently attracted attention from scholars and policy makers for their potential in influencing people's behaviors on large scales. But is the fact that nudges do not forbid any choice-options or significantly alter people's economic incentives sufficient to conclude that nudges should be implemented? While this is discussed amongst scholars from various disciplines the voices of consumers, the target-group of nudges, remain unheard. Since understanding their knowledge about nudging and their opinions on being nudged are crucial for the evaluation of the moral appropriateness of nudging, the current study examines consumers' knowledge of and attitudes toward nudging in general and the realm of health behavior. In this qualitative investigation in-depth semi-structured interviews with UK consumers were conducted to examine consumers' attitudes to four domains of inquiry around which the scholarly discussions about nudging have revolved: consumers' approval of nudging, consumers' views on the origin of nudges, consumers' perceived effectiveness of nudging, and consumers' concerns about manipulative aspects of nudging. Interviews revealed that consumers are largely unfamiliar with the concept of nudging altogether. Once defined and explained to them most consumers approve of the concept, especially in the realm of health behavior, given particular conditions: 1. Nudges should be designed for benefiting individuals and society; 2. consumers comprehend the decision-making context and the reasoning behind the promotion of the targeted behavior. Interviews revealed very limited concerns with manipulative aspects of nudges. These findings call for better information-management to ensure consumers knowledge of nudges and awareness of their current implementation. Under that condition the findings encourage the implementation of nudges benefitting individuals and society in domains that consumers comprehend, such as health behaviors. Further research

  7. Health Data Concerning Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-27

    from Machala to Piedras. A less-than-adequate road connects Piedras to Loja . The age of the automobile has not fully arrived in Ecuador and, although...virus from the arthropod and simian reservoirs is not known. 16. Plague. Plague occurs in two provinces of Ecuador : Lojas and Chim- borazo. The disease is...27-01-1960 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Health Data Concerning Ecuador 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  8. Effect of Planned Follow-up on Married Women's Health Beliefs and Behaviors Concerning Breast and Cervical Cancer Screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolutek, Rahsan; Avci, Ilknur Aydin; Sevig, Umit

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of planned follow-up visits on married women's health beliefs and behaviors concerning breast and cervical cancer screenings. The study was conducted using the single-group pre-test/post-test and quasi-experimental study designs. The sample of the study included 153 women. Data were collected using a Personal Information Form, the Health Belief Model (HBM) Scale for Breast Cancer Screening, the HBM Scale for Cervical Cancer Screening, and a Pap smear test. Data were collected using the aforementioned tools from September 2012 to March 2013. Four follow-up visits were conducted, nurses were educated, and telephone reminders were utilized. Friedman's test, McNemar's test, and descriptive statistics were used for data analyzing. The frequency of performing breast self-examination (BSE) at the last visit increased to 84.3 % compared to the pre-training. A statistically significant difference was observed between the pre- and post-training median values in four subscales except for the subscale of perceived seriousness of cervical cancer under "the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and the Pap Smear Test" (p < 0.001). The rate of performing BSE significantly increased after the training and follow-up visits. Also, the rate of having a Pap smear significantly increased after the follow-up visits.

  9. Rural Health Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    People in rural areas face some different health issues than people who live in towns and cities. Getting health care can ... long distances to get routine checkups and screenings. Rural areas often have fewer doctors and dentists, and ...

  10. Homeless Health Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make it worse. That's why the health of homeless people in the United States is worse than that of the general population. Common health problems include Mental health problems Substance abuse ... and skin infections Many homeless women are victims of domestic or sexual abuse. ...

  11. Mental Health Literacy and Eating-Disordered Behavior: Beliefs of Adolescent Girls Concerning the Treatment of and Treatment-Seeking for Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mond, J. M.; Marks, P.; Hay, P. J.; Rodgers, B.; Kelly, C.; Owen, C.; Paxton, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the "mental health literacy" of adolescents concerning eating-disordered behavior. A vignette describing a fictional 16-year old female meeting diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa was presented to 522 female high school students, followed by a series of questions concerning treatment of and treatment-seeking…

  12. Oral health-related concerns, behavior, and communication with health care providers of patients with breast cancer: impact of different treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichman, L Susan; Van Poznak, Catherine H; Inglehart, Marita R

    2018-01-01

    The objectives are to compare responses of breast cancer (BCa) treatment groups (chemotherapy, tamoxifen, and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) to each other and a control regarding (a) subjective oral health, (b) oral health-related behaviors, (c) oral health-related concerns, and (d) communication with health care providers. Survey data were collected from 140 postmenopausal BCa patients and 41 healthy postmenopausal control respondents. BCa patients reported on average more frequent mouth sores/mucositis (5-point scale with 1 = never: 1.63 vs. 1.14; p oral health than patients on tamoxifen/AI (93% vs. 55%/56%; p oral health-related effects of cancer treatment than by dentists. Oncologists/nurses were more likely to communicate about oral health-related treatment effects with patients undergoing chemotherapy than patients on tamoxifen or AIs. Few BCa patients perceived dentists as knowledgeable about cancer treatment-related oral concerns and trusted them less than oncologists. BCa treatments impact oral health. Low percentages of BCa patients had received specific information about impacts of BCa treatments on oral health from their dentists. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Behavior Analytic Consultation for Academic Referral Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…

  14. Mental Health Concerns: Veterans & Active Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dialing 1-800-273-8255 and pressing 1. Mental Health Concerns There are three primary mental health concerns ... care or call 911. How Will Asking for Mental Health Treatment Affect My Career? Military personnel have always ...

  15. Mobile phones and health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaikuntam, Shreenivas; Pushparaja

    2003-01-01

    As Mobile Cellular phone ownership grows throughout the developed as well as the developing world, concerns about the health risks due to radio frequency emissions from the mobile phone base stations and due to usage of mobile handsets are slowly growing. This article has a look at the concepts used in the mobile phone technology, the power outputs from base stations and mobile handsets, the quantities Specific Energy Absorption Rate (SAR) and power density as a means to assess the effects on biological tissue. The precautionary approach to manage the health risks from mobile phones by specifying exposure guidelines is explored. Having surveyed the relevant epidemiological surveys and finding them inconclusive, NRPB, United Kingdom's national regulatory body has issued exposure guidelines based on the potential of RF radiation to cause illness or injury through heating of body tissues. USA's Federal Communications Commission (FCC) limits are also listed for comparison. ICNIRP has issued two-tier guidelines, differentiating between occupational and public exposure. The public exposure limits are kept at one-fifth of the occupational exposure limits. The evidence till date, suggests that exposure to RF radiation below NRPB and ICNIRP limits do not cause adverse effects to the general population. However, the gaps in our knowledge warrant a precautionary approach. (author)

  16. Under consumers' scrutiny - an investigation into consumers' attitudes and concerns about nudging in the realm of health behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junghans, Astrid F; Cheung, Tracy T L; De Ridder, Denise D T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nudging strategies have recently attracted attention from scholars and policy makers for their potential in influencing people's behaviors on large scales. But is the fact that nudges do not forbid any choice-options or significantly alter people's economic incentives sufficient to

  17. The effects of dancehall genre on adolescent sexual and violent behavior in Jamaica: A public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alexay D

    2010-03-01

    Research has shown that there is a direct correlation between the loud 'hard-core' music played on public transportation and the proliferation of sexual activities on these said transportations. To determine the extent to which dancehall music/genre impacts adolescent behavior. The study is informed by quantitative and qualitative data, which were collected during the period February-May 2008. Convenience and judgmental sampling were used to target 100 subjects. Of the 100 adolescent cases (50 male, 50 female), females (40%) were more likely to gravitate to sexually explicit lyrical content than their male counterparts (26%). Females (74%) were also more likely to act upon lyrical contents than males (46%). There was no significant difference where males (100%) and females (98%) subconsciously sings the dancehall lyrics even without hearing it; as well as inspire their dreams 64% and 62% respectively. However, more females (74%) than males (46%) acted on lyrical contents of the dancehall genre. There is a correlation between hard-core dancehall genre and the sexual and violent behavior of adolescents.

  18. Cardiovascular health knowledge and behavior in patient attendants at four tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan – a cause for concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Atif

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about coronary heart disease (CHD and its risk factors is an important pre-requisite for an individual to implement behavioral changes leading towards CHD prevention. There is scant data on the status of knowledge about CHD in the general population of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge of CHD in a broad Pakistani population and identify the factors associated with knowledge. Methods Cross sectional study was carried out at four tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan using convenience sampling. Standard questionnaire was used to interview 792 patient attendants (persons accompanying patients. Knowledge was computed as a continuous variable based on correct answers to fifteen questions. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to determine the factors independently associated with knowledge. Results The mean age was 38.1 (±13 years. 27.1% had received no formal education. The median knowledge score was 3.0 out of a possible maximum of 15. Only 14% were able to correctly describe CHD as a condition involving limitation in blood flow to the heart. Majority of respondents could identify only up to two risk factors for CHD. Most commonly identified risk factors were stress (43.4%, dietary fat (39.1%, smoking (31.9% and lack of exercise (17.4%. About 20% were not able to identify even a single risk factor for CHD. Factors significantly associated with knowledge included age (p = 0.023, income (p Conclusion This is the first study assessing the state of CHD knowledge in a relatively diverse non-patient population in Pakistan. There are striking gaps in knowledge about CHD, its risk factors and symptoms. These translate to inadequate preventive behavior patterns. Educational programs are urgently required to improve the level of understanding of CHD in the Pakistani population.

  19. Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-based health insurance knowledge, concern, preferences, and financial planning for health care among informal sector workers in a health district of Douala, Cameroon. ... This is mainly due to the lack of awareness and limited knowledge on the basic concepts of a CBHI by this target population. Solidarity ...

  20. Health Concerns for Gay and Lesbian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Health Concerns for Gay and Lesbian Teens Page Content Article Body Sexual activity Most teens, whether they are gay, lesbian, bisexual , or straight, are not sexually active. ...

  1. Isolated Systolic Hypertension: A Health Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolated systolic hypertension: A health concern? Is having a high top number (systolic) blood pressure, but a normal bottom number (diastolic) ... mm Hg, you have a common type of high blood pressure called isolated systolic hypertension. Isolated systolic hypertension can ...

  2. Health Concern and Challenges Among School Adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that the majority of the male adolescent students (53.6 %) age lies in the age ... of adolescents behavioral, social and physical health problems should be given high priority ..... in which depression and anxiety can occur.

  3. The RF spectrum: managing community health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation I would like to share with you the way in which the Australian Communications Authority (ACA) goes about 'managing' community issues relating to the RF spectrum. In particular, I would like to refer to community issues associated with concerns about health. I will refer only briefly to the siting of mobile phone base stations as that will be covered elsewhere. Before getting into the community issues, I would like to provide some context about the ACA and the arrangements it has for regulating radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR). Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  4. Caffeinated alcohol beverages: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with caffeinated energy drinks is becoming popular, and the number of pre-mixed caffeinated alcohol products on the worldwide market is increasing. There is public health concern and even occasional legal restriction relating to these drinks, due to associations with increased intoxication and harms. The precise nature and degree of the pharmacological relationship between caffeine and alcohol is not yet elucidated, but it is proposed that caffeine attenuates the sedative effects of alcohol intoxication while leaving motor and cognitive impairment unaffected. This creates a potentially precarious scenario for users who may underestimate their level of intoxication and impairment. While legislation in some countries has restricted production or marketing of pre-mixed products, many individuals mix their own energy drink-alcohol 'cocktails'. Wider dissemination of the risks might help balance marketing strategies that over-emphasize putative positive effects.

  5. Social inequalities in health: a proper concern of epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmot, Michael; Bell, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Social inequalities are a proper concern of epidemiology. Epidemiological thinking and modes of analysis are central, but epidemiological research is one among many areas of study that provide the evidence for understanding the causes of social inequalities in health and what can be done to reduce them. Understanding the causes of health inequalities requires insights from social, behavioral and biological sciences, and a chain of reasoning that examines how the accumulation of positive and negative influences over the life course leads to health inequalities in adult life. Evidence that the social gradient in health can be reduced should make us optimistic that reducing health inequalities is a realistic goal for all societies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Colourism: a global adolescent health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Nadia; Dlova, Ncoza; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2018-05-08

    Colourism, a form of prejudice and discrimination based solely upon skin colour, stands to jeopardize the physical health, wellbeing and life chances of adolescents of colour, globally. Research shows that adolescents can experience colourism at school and college, in the criminal justice system, at work and in the media they consume. It is therefore unsurprising that adolescents of colour often express a desire for lighter skin tones and/or are dissatisfied with their skin tone. Although research is scarce, some studies include older adolescents in their samples of skin-lightening product users. This is significant as the evidence is clear that the unmonitored use of skin-lightening products can be harmful to physical and psychological health, with evidence linking skin-lightening use to skin damage, kidney failure and depression. Although it is evident that colourism is central to the lives of adolescents of colour, more research is needed concerning the use of skin-lightening products among adolescents. Media literacy and critical race theory offer avenues in helping attenuate the harmful impact of colourism for adolescents of colour.

  7. Occupational health concerns in the welding industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczynski, R E

    2000-12-01

    The Workplace Safety and Health Branch initiated a proactive study in the welding industry in Manitoba. Eight welding companies participated in this study. Health concerns raised by welders were welders' flash, sore/red/teary eyes, headaches, nosebleeds, and a black mucous discharge from their nasal membrane. Most welders expressed concern regarding excessive smoke levels in the workplace and inadequate ventilation. Types of welding identified were MIG mild steel, MIG stainless steel, and TIG aluminum. Monitoring involved an assessment of noise levels, fume composition, and carbon monoxide and ozone concentrations. Metal analyses were according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7300. Noise dosimeters used were the Quest model 100 and Micro 14 & 15. Carbon monoxide was monitored using the Gastech Model 4700 and ozone using the AID Portable Ozone Meter Model 560. In Manitoba, a hearing conservation program is required when the equivalent sound exposure level (normalized Lex 8-hr) exceeds 80 dBA-weighted. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' threshold limit value-time weighted average (ACGIH TLV-TWA) for iron is 5.0 mg/m3, manganese is 0.2 mg/m3, carbon monoxide is 25 ppm, and ozone is 0.05 ppm (heavy work), 0.08 ppm (moderate work), and 0.1 ppm (light work). Welders' personal exposures to manganese ranged from 0.01-4.93 mg/m3 (N = 42; AM = 0.5; GM = 0.2; SD +/- 0.9; GSD +/- 3.2) and to iron ranged from 0.04-16.29 mg/m3 (N = 42; AM = 3.0; GM = 1.4; SD +/- 3.5; GSD +/- 2.5). Noise exposures ranged from 79-98 dBA (N = 44; AM = 88.9; GM = 88.8; SD +/- 4.2; GSD +/- 1.0). Carbon monoxide levels were less than 5.0 ppm (at source) and ozone levels varied from 0.4-0.6 ppm (at source). Ventilation upgrades in the workplace were required in most welding shops. Only 7 percent of the welders wore respiratory protection. A hearing conservation program and hearing protection were required at all monitored workplaces.

  8. Helping behavior, dispositional empathic concern, and the principle of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, M.O.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the relative strength of two correlates of helping behavior: dispositional empathic concern and a moral principle to care about others. The empathy–helping and care–helping relationships are investigated using data from the General Social Survey, a nationally

  9. Opinions and behavior of family doctors concerning vaccinating against influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Gutknecht

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Influenza is a severe respiratory disease caused by influenza virus. According to estimates from the World Health Organisation (WHO, 5–15% of the world’s population, or 330–1575 million people, suffer from influenza each year. The vaccination of patients and health professionals plays an important role in the prevention of infections. Objectives. To describe family doctors’ opinions and behavior concerning influenza vaccination. Material and methods. An online survey was filled out by 77 family physicians, of whom women accounted for 53.5%. The age mean of the doctors surveyed was 44.6 ± 11.7 years. The questionnaire contained 14 questions. Results. 63.6% (49 people of the respondents were worried about flu, and 84.4% (65 people were concerned about the possibility of their family members being infected. 77.9% (60 people approve of vaccination. 51.5% (40 people of the doctors received the vaccination in the current (2015/2016 influenza season. 18.2% (14 of the respondents were vaccinated within the last five seasons. The respondents recommended vaccination against influenza to their families sometimes (50.6%, 39 or frequently (41.6%, 32. They recommended the vaccination to their patients frequently (41.6%, 32 or sometimes (53.2%, 41. Only 18.2% (14 of the respondents were covered by the free vaccination program in their workplace. As many as 76.6% (59 of the doctors would recommend the vaccination more often if it were free, and 44.2% (32 would be more willing to recommend the vaccination if they received additional payment for it. When doctors were asked why they thought patients did not have themselves vaccinated, the reasons most frequently given were: patients’ lack of time and awareness of the disease consequences and complications (57.1%, 44, patients’ fear of postvaccination reactions (44.2%, 34, inconvenience associated with vaccination, including the cost of the vaccine (42.9%, 33, patients’ belief that

  10. Consequenses of childhood adversity on health concerns in adulthood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequenses of childhood adversity on health concerns in adulthood. ... childhood adversity have similar levels of depression, acute and chronic health. ... to explain the pathways linking childhood adversity to physical health in adulthood.

  11. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND GREEN PURCHASING BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Kasim Tatic; Merima Cinjarevic

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish the relationship between environmental concern and consumers’ green purchasing behavior. A survey instrument was developed that used scales to measure general environmental beliefs (HEP-NEP general environmental beliefs questions) and consumer’s intention to buy environmental friendly products. Data were collected from a convenient (non-probability sampling method) sample of 150 consumers in the Sarajevo region. The results indicated that significant pos...

  13. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  14. Mental Health Concerns and Insurance Denials Among Transgender Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Leena; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Caltabellotta, Nicole M; Tishelman, Amy C

    2017-06-01

    Transgender youth are at high risk for mental health morbidities. Based on treatment guidelines, puberty blockers and gender-affirming hormone therapy should be considered to alleviate distress due to discordance between an individual's assigned sex and gender identity. The goals of this study were to examine the: (1) prevalence of mental health diagnoses, self-injurious behaviors, and school victimization and (2) rates of insurance coverage for hormone therapy, among a cohort of transgender adolescents at a large pediatric gender program, to understand access to recommended therapy. An IRB-approved retrospective medical record review (2014-2016) was conducted of patients with ICD 9/10 codes for gender dysphoria referred to pediatric endocrinology within a large multidisciplinary gender program. Researchers extracted the following details: demographics, age, assigned sex, identified gender, insurance provider/coverage, mental health diagnoses, self-injurious behavior, and school victimization. Seventy-nine records (51 transgender males, 28 transgender females) met inclusion criteria (median age: 15 years, range: 9-18). Seventy-three subjects (92.4%) were diagnosed with one or more of the following conditions: depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, autism spectrum disorder, and bipolar disorder. Fifty-nine (74.7%) reported suicidal ideation, 44 (55.7%) exhibited self-harm, and 24 (30.4%) had one or more suicide attempts. Forty-six (58.2%) subjects reported school victimization. Of the 27 patients prescribed gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues, only 8 (29.6%) received insurance coverage. Transgender youth face significant barriers in accessing appropriate hormone therapy. Given the high rates of mental health concerns, self-injurious behavior, and school victimization among this vulnerable population, healthcare professionals must work alongside policy makers toward insurance coverage reform.

  15. Public health - threats, concerns and key actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    Public health is discussed departing from priorities related to the precautionary principle with special reference to air pollution from wood burning in individual stoves and the susceptibility of vulnerable groups, i.a. people with genetic predispositions for a lack of detoxifying capacity....

  16. Benefits Innovations in Employee Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Bruce; Block, Lori

    2017-01-01

    More and more employers recognize the business impact of behavioral health concerns in the workplace. This article provides insights into some of the current innovations in behavioral health benefits, along with their rationale for development. Areas of innovation include conceptual and delivery models, technological advance- ments, tools for engaging employees and ways of quantifying the business value of behavioral health benefits. The rapid growth of innovative behavioral health services should provide employers with confidence that they can tailor a program best suited to their priorities, organizational culture and cost limitations.

  17. Health concerns in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Mortality of uranium miners from both lung cancer and other respiratory diseases is strongly dependent on exposure to radon daughters, cigarette smoking and height. Lung cancer among 15 different mining groups (uranium, iron, lead, zinc) was analyzed to determine what factors influence incidence and the induction-latent period. At low exposure or exposure rates, alpha radiation is more efficient in inducing lung cancer, producing an upward convex exposure-response curve. The induction-latent period is shortened by increased age at start of mining, by cigarette smoking and by high exposure rates. Instead of extrapolating downward from high exposures to estimate risk at low levels, it is suggested that it might be more appropriate to use cancer rates associated with background radiation as the lowest point on the exposure-response curve. Although health risks are much greater in uranium mines than mills, there is some health risk in the mills from long-lived radioactive materials

  18. Modifying and developing health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L W

    1984-01-01

    The literatures on both behavior modification and behavioral development have engendered innovations in public health programs, addressing problems of patient adherance to preventive and therapeutic regimens, delay in seeking diagnosis of illness symptoms, risk-taking behavior, and other aspects of lifestyle associated with health. Because most of this literature derives from psychology, there has been a distinct bias in the construction of interventions, pointing them directly at individuals, usually in a counseling or small group mode of delivery. These developments served public health well enough during a decade or so when the preoccupation was with utilization of health services and medical management of chronic diseases. With the publication of the Lalonde Report in Canada in 1974, the passage of Public Law 94-317 in 1976 in the United States, and similar initiatives in other English-speaking and European countries, the recognition of the greater complexities of lifestyle development and modification in the absence of symptoms has taken hold. Policy makers and public health workers seek a more efficient and equitable set of strategies to meet the behavioral health challenges of modern society without placing the entire weight of responsibility for behavior on the individual or on therapeutic practitioners. Concurrently, on a more global scale and in the developing countries, a concern has emerged for strategies that give individuals, families, and communities a greater role in deciding their own health priorities. The convergence of these two trends--one seeking to distribute responsibility for lifestyle more equitably and the other seeking to distribute responsibility for planning health programs more equitably --calls for policies, strategies, and interventions that will place similar emphasis on health education and organizational, economic, and environmental supports for health behavior. The combination of these elements of support for behavior calls, in

  19. Health concerns in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Mortality of uranium miners form both lung cancer and other respiratory diseases is strongly dependent on exposure to radon daughters, cigarette smoking and height. Lung cancer among 15 different mining groups (uranium, iron, led, zinc) was analyzed to determine what factors influence incidence and the induction-latent period. At low exposure or exposure rates, alpha radiation is more efficient in inducing lung cancer, producing an upward convex exposure-response curve. The induction-latent period is shortened by increased age at start of mining, by cigarette smoking and by high exposure rates. For a follow-up period of 20 to 25 years, the incidence increases with age at start of mining, with magnitude of exposure and with amount of cigarette smoking. Instead of extrapolating downward from high exposures to estimate risk at low levels, it is suggested that it might be more appropriate to use cancer rates associated with background radiation as the lowest point on the exposure-response curve. Although health risks are much greater in uranium mines than mills, there is some health risk in the mills from long-lived radioactive materials

  20. Development of a measure of college students' adherence to religious doctrine concerning sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Elizabeth C; Bowman, Hilary; Thompson, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The authors developed a 14-item measure of adherence to religious doctrine concerning sexual behavior (ARDSB). The ARDSB psychometric properties were investigated to better understand religious motivations associated with changes in sexual behavior that may provide support for sexual health promotion and prevention programs. Four hundred eighty-three undergraduates aged 18 to 26. Data were collected from an online survey during the 2012-2013 academic school year. Principle components factor analysis identified 2 factors: reasons to break religious doctrine and reasons to adhere to religious doctrine concerning sexual behavior. The subscales had good internal consistency. Correlations, t tests, and analyses of variance of the subscales with measures of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity and self-reported sexual behavior and risk provide support for concurrent validity. The ARDSB could be employed as a measure to better understand sexual behavior; it is inexpensive and relatively easy to employ in both research and campus ministry settings.

  1. Health physics concerns in commercial aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barish, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Airline pilots and flight attendants are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation. There has been uncertainty about how to handle the radiation protection requirements of their unique situation. Calculated dose equivalents associated with typical flight routes and crewmember work patterns have recently been published. The results show that flight attendants and pilots on ordinary subsonic aircraft can receive annual doses approaching 10 mSv y-1. I argue that flight crewmembers should receive specific education regarding the risks to their health from radiation exposure. I also argue that a suitable dosimeter system should be employed to provide crewmembers with information on their total doses. This is of particular importance for pregnant crewmembers who risk exceeding recommended fetal dose limits by working some routes during their pregnancy. In addition to airline crewmembers, business frequent flyers may receive significant occupational exposures while traveling. They too need appropriate education in order to assist them in assessing their risks from such exposures. Finally, flying during a large solar proton event would significantly increase the dose that would be received. During such an event, the total dose to the fetus of a pregnant crewmember or passenger might exceed the 0.5 mSv recommended monthly maximum. Warnings and action plans for these special circumstances should be improved

  2. Effect of psychological distress on weight concern and weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Kabir, Ali; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Shokouh, Pedram; Aalaei-Andabili, Seyed Hossein; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic disorders like coronary artery diseases, metabolic syndrome, cancers, and psychiatric disorders. Stress may contribute to weight gain by disrupting weight concern, and lead to uncontrolled eating behavior. This study aimed to investigate the effects of stress on weight concern and control behaviors in normal weight and obese adults. A total of 9544 subjects were selected by multi-stage random sampling from three provinces in central Iran. Information related to weight concern and control behavior was registered in normal weight and obese participants. Psychological distress was measured by a 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and subjects were divided into high and low stress groups. Logistic regression was used for analysis. The mean age of participants was 38.7 ± 15.5 years and 50% (4772) of them were males. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for age, sex and education of high stress to low stress level for weight concern, weight control behavior and acceptable physical activity behavior was more than 1; but the OR was less than 1 for waist circumference, obesity and healthy diet behavior. Among obese participants, higher levels of stress were associated with lower weight concern with OR, 95%CI: 0.821, (0.682 - 0.988), lower acceptable physical activity with OR = 0.833, 95%CI: (0.624 - 0.912), but higher rates of healthy diet behavior with OR = 1.360, 95% CI: (1.040 - 1.780). Individuals with high stress level have lower weight concern and lower physical activity; therefore, they are prone to weight gain and obesity. It could be concluded that stress management should be considered as a crucial component of obesity prevention and control programs.

  3. Early concern and disregard for others as predictors of antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P; Boeldt, Debra L; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K; Knafo, Ariel; Lahey, Benjamin B; Robinson, JoAnn; Van Hulle, Carol A; Waldman, Irwin D; Young, Susan E; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2013-02-01

    Prediction of antisocial behavior is important, given its adverse impact on both the individuals engaging in antisocial behavior and society. Additional research identifying early predictors of future antisocial behavior, or antisocial propensity, is needed. The present study tested the hypothesis that both concern for others and active disregard for others in distress in toddlers and young children predict antisocial behavior during middle childhood and adolescence. A representative sample of same-sex twins (N=956) recruited in Colorado was examined. Mother-rated and researcher-observed concern and disregard for others assessed at age 14-36 months were examined as predictors of parent- (age 4-12), teacher- (age 7-12), and self-reported (age 17) antisocial behavior.   Observed disregard for others predicted antisocial behavior assessed by three different informants (parents, teachers, and self), including antisocial behavior assessed 14 years later. It also predicted a higher order antisocial behavior factor (β=.58, pconcern for others. Mother-rated disregard for others predicted parent-reported antisocial behavior. Contrary to predictions, neither mother-rated nor observed concern for others inversely predicted antisocial behavior. RESULTS of twin analyses suggested that the covariation between observed disregard for others and antisocial behavior was due to shared environmental influences. Disregard for others in toddlerhood/early childhood is a strong predictor of antisocial behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. The results suggest the potential need for early assessment of disregard for others and the development of potential interventions. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. Can Health and Environmental Concerns Meet in Food Choices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Cavaliere

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to analyze if there is a relationship between health and environmental sustainability concerns in food choices. We used data of 300 Italian consumers collected through a vis-à-vis survey. We performed cross-tabulations and chi-square tests for a selected set of variables measuring both types of concerns, segmenting the sample by age, gender and education. Our results suggest that the association between health and environmental concerns is often statistically significant, though we observe a high variable specificity of the associations. Socio-demographic conditions seem to play a role in determining the association between the two concerns, with middle-aged and/or highly-educated respondents showing a stronger association between health and environmental concerns.

  5. Sexual Health Concerns in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Page Sexual Health Concerns in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease Lindsey Rosman , John M. Cahill , Susan L. McCammon , ... and difficulty achieving and maintaining an erection. 2 Cardiovascular disease and its treatment may also affect a man’s ...

  6. E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern Language: ... young adults you know about the dangers of e-cigarette use. E-cigarettes, devices that typically deliver nicotine, ...

  7. Health and fracking: Should the medical profession be concerned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fracking) may reduce carbon emissions relative to the use of coal and have substantial economic benefits for South Africa. However, concerns have been raised regarding the health and environmental impacts. The drilling and fracking processes ...

  8. Analysis of Health Behavior Theories for Clustering of Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Duffy, Sonia A

    The objective of this article was to review the utility of established behavior theories, including the Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Transtheoretical Model, and Health Promotion Model, for addressing multiple health behaviors among people who smoke. It is critical to design future interventions for multiple health behavior changes tailored to individuals who currently smoke, yet it has not been addressed. Five health behavior theories/models were analyzed and critically evaluated. A review of the literature included a search of PubMed and Google Scholar from 2010 to 2016. Two hundred sixty-seven articles (252 studies from the initial search and 15 studies from the references of initially identified studies) were included in the analysis. Most of the health behavior theories/models emphasize psychological and cognitive constructs that can be applied only to one specific behavior at a time, thus making them not suitable to address multiple health behaviors. However, the Health Promotion Model incorporates "related behavior factors" that can explain multiple health behaviors among persons who smoke. Future multiple behavior interventions guided by the Health Promotion Model are necessary to show the utility and applicability of the model to address multiple health behaviors.

  9. Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa. Fasil Mengistu1, Kedir Hussen1, Abraham Ali1, Goroma Getahun1, Dessalegn Sifer1. Abstract. Introduction: Animal bites and scratches represent the most important public health issue related to dogs and cats because of the risk of rabies transmission associated with ...

  10. Supporting Children with Mental Health Concerns in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climie, Emma; Altomare, Alyssa A.

    2013-01-01

    There are a growing number of children who begin to develop mental concerns during the school-age years. As such, it is important that schools recognize and understand mental health issues and are actively engaged in supporting these students. This article provides a review of mental health in schools, highlighting the importance of school-health…

  11. Public attitudes toward health information exchange: perceived benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Linda; Patel, Vaishali; Scheffler, Scott A; Posnack, Steve

    2011-12-01

    To characterize consumers' attitudes regarding the perceived benefits of electronic health information exchange (HIE), potential HIE privacy and security concerns, and to analyze the intersection of these concerns with perceived benefits. A cross-sectional study. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of English-speaking adults was conducted in 2010. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the association between consumer characteristics and concerns related to the security of electronic health records (EHRs) and HIE. A majority of the 1847 respondents reported they were either "very" or "somewhat" concerned about privacy of HIE (70%), security of HIE (75%), or security of EHRs (82%). Concerns were significantly higher (P security, and 60% would permit HIE for treatment purposes even if the physician might not be able to protect their privacy all of the time. Over half (52%) wanted to choose which providers access and share their data. Greater participation by consumers in determining how HIE takes place could engender a higher degree of trust among all demographic groups, regardless of their varying levels of privacy and security concerns. Addressing the specific privacy and security concerns of minorities, individuals 40 to 64 years old, and employed individuals will be critical to ensuring widespread consumer participation in HIE.

  12. Health concerns and ethical considerations regarding international surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoche, Jonathan W

    2014-08-01

    Since the advent of IVF, various arrangements for child bearing and rearing have developed. With the confluence of advanced medical technology, reproductive choice, and globalization, a market in international surrogacy has flourished. However, myriad health, social, and ethical concerns abound regarding the well-being of gestational carriers and children, the infringement of autonomy and free choice, and threats to human dignity. The present paper examines the scope, health risks, and ethical concerns of cross-border surrogacy, arguing that the risks may not exceed the benefits. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Population health concerns during the United States' Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Benjamin M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Childers, Matthew A; Dredze, Mark; Ayers, John W

    2014-02-01

    Associations between economic conditions and health are usually derived from cost-intensive surveys that are intermittently collected with nonspecific measures (i.e., self-rated health). This study identified how precise health concerns changed during the U.S. Great Recession analyzing Google search queries to identify the concern by the query content and their prevalence by the query volume. Excess health concerns were estimated during the Great Recession (December 2008 through 2011) by comparing the cumulative difference between observed and expected (based on linear projections from pre-existing trends) query volume for hundreds of individual terms. As performed in 2013, the 100 queries with the greatest excess were ranked and then clustered into themes based on query content. The specific queries with the greatest relative excess were stomach ulcer symptoms and headache symptoms, respectively, 228% (95% CI=35, 363) and 193% (95% CI=60, 275) greater than expected. Queries typically involved symptomology (i.e., gas symptoms) and diagnostics (i.e., heart monitor) naturally coalescing into themes. Among top themes, headache queries were 41% (95% CI=3, 148); hernia 37% (95% CI=16, 142); chest pain 35% (95% CI=6, 313); and arrhythmia 32% (95% CI=3, 149) greater than expected. Pain was common with back, gastric, joint, and tooth foci, with the latter 19% (95% CI=4, 46) higher. Among just the top 100, there were roughly 205 million excess health concern queries during the Great Recession. Google queries indicate that the Great Recession coincided with substantial increases in health concerns, hinting at how population health specifically changed during that time. © 2013 Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  14. Health concerns associated with unconventional gas mining in rural Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haswell, Melissa R; Bethmont, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Many governments globally are investigating the benefits and risks associated with unconventional gas mining for shale, tight and coal seam gas (coalbed methane) to determine whether the industry should proceed in their jurisdiction. Most locations likely to be developed are in rural areas, with potential impact on farmers and small communities. Despite significant health concerns, public health knowledge and growing evidence are often overlooked in decision-making. It is difficult to gain a broad but accurate understanding of the health concerns for rural communities because the evidence has grown very recently and rapidly, is complex and largely based in the USA, where the industry is advanced. In 2016, a concerned South Australian beef and lamb farmer in an area targeted for potential unconventional gas development organised visits to homes in developed unconventional gas areas of Pennsylvania and forums with leading researchers and lawyers in Pennsylvania and New York. Guided by priorities identified during this trip, this communication concisely distils the research evidence on these key concerns, highlighting the Australian situation where evidence exists. It summarises key information of particular concern to rural regions, using Australia as an example, to assist rural health professionals to be better prepared to engage in decision-making and address the challenges associated with this new industry. Discussions with communities and experts, supported by the expanding research from the USA and Australia, revealed increasing health concerns in six key areas. These are absence of a safe solution to the toxic wastewater management problems, air pollution, land and water competition, mental health and psychosocial wellbeing risks, fugitive methane emissions and lack of proven regulatory regimes. Emerging epidemiological studies suggesting interference with foetal development and birth outcomes, and exacerbation of asthma conditions, are particularly concerning

  15. Existing Smog in Lahore, Pakistan: An Alarming Public Health Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Ramsha; Hamid, Khizar

    2018-01-25

    Lahore, the second-largest and most polluted city in Pakistan, has been plagued by a heavy blanket of smog recently. The ever-growing urbanization and industrialization have contributed to the worsening air quality of the city. Smog, being hazardous to health, is leading to a rapid sprout in multiple health-related problems, as well as raising concerns about the long-term deleterious effects on public health. The current situation is expected to worsen due to the lack of an active action plan from the government's side and a failure of concerned authorities to take note of the urgency of the situation. Hence, we aim to highlight this pressing issue in the light of previously published articles, to alert the relevant authorities regarding the detrimental consequences smog can have on public health and urge them to take immediate action to avoid further damage.

  16. Veterans Health Administration Behavioral Health Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with behavioral health measure data. VHA reports data on a set of core performance measures for Hospital-Based Inpatient Psychiatric Services...

  17. Health Sector Evolution Plan in Iran; Equity and Sustainability Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Vosoogh-Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-08-31

    In 2014, a series of reforms, called as the Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP), was launched in the health system of Iran in a stepwise process. HSEP was mainly based on the fifth 5-year health development national strategies (2011-2016). It included different interventions to: increase population coverage of basic health insurance, increase quality of care in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) affiliated hospitals, reduce out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for inpatient services, increase quality of primary healthcare, launch updated relative value units (RVUs) of clinical services, and update tariffs to more realistic values. The reforms resulted in extensive social reaction and different professional feedback. The official monitoring program shows general public satisfaction. However, there are some concerns for sustainability of the programs and equity of financing. Securing financial sources and fairness of the financial contribution to the new programs are the main concerns of policy-makers. Healthcare providers' concerns (as powerful and influential stakeholders) potentially threat the sustainability and efficiency of HSEP. Previous experiences on extending health insurance coverage show that they can lead to a regressive healthcare financing and threat financial equity. To secure financial sources and to increase fairness, the contributions of people to new interventions should be progressive by their income and wealth. A specific progressive tax would be the best source, however, since it is not immediately feasible, a stepwise increase in the progressivity of financing must be followed. Technical concerns of healthcare providers (such as nonplausible RVUs for specific procedures or nonefficient insurance-provider processes) should be addressed through proper revision(s) while nontechnical concerns (which are derived from conflicting interests) must be responded through clarification and providing transparent information. The requirements of

  18. Health Sector Evolution Plan in Iran; Equity and Sustainability Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Moradi-Lakeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, a series of reforms, called as the Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP, was launched in the health system of Iran in a stepwise process. HSEP was mainly based on the fifth 5-year health development national strategies (2011-2016. It included different interventions to: increase population coverage of basic health insurance, increase quality of care in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME affiliated hospitals, reduce out-of-pocket (OOP payments for inpatient services, increase quality of primary healthcare, launch updated relative value units (RVUs of clinical services, and update tariffs to more realistic values. The reforms resulted in extensive social reaction and different professional feedback. The official monitoring program shows general public satisfaction. However, there are some concerns for sustainability of the programs and equity of financing. Securing financial sources and fairness of the financial contribution to the new programs are the main concerns of policy-makers. Healthcare providers’ concerns (as powerful and influential stakeholders potentially threat the sustainability and efficiency of HSEP. Previous experiences on extending health insurance coverage show that they can lead to a regressive healthcare financing and threat financial equity. To secure financial sources and to increase fairness, the contributions of people to new interventions should be progressive by their income and wealth. A specific progressive tax would be the best source, however, since it is not immediately feasible, a stepwise increase in the progressivity of financing must be followed. Technical concerns of healthcare providers (such as nonplausible RVUs for specific procedures or nonefficient insurance-provider processes should be addressed through proper revision(s while nontechnical concerns (which are derived from conflicting interests must be responded through clarification and providing transparent information. The

  19. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  20. Exploring the health concerns of people taking methadone

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    James, P

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study to uncover the health concerns of clients attending a methadone maintenance programme in an addiction service in Ireland. This is an extended version of the article published in Nursing Times; 104: 35, 26–27.

  1. Mental Health Concerns of Students on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jane Thierfeld; Meeks, Lisa; Rigler, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to the autism spectrum and discusses the characteristics, traits, common concerns, and potential supports for this population. The chapter also provides some recommendations for proactive and collaborative support efforts for students with both an autism spectrum disorder and mental health issues.

  2. Weight-related concerns and diet behaviors among urban young females: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Omidvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Females are more likely than males to perceive themselves as too heavy, this has been explained in terms of the equation of “female beauty with extreme thinness.” Therefore, females are in general prone to develop unhealthy behaviors for weight management. Wrong weight control behaviors have significant health consequences. Objectives: To investigate the body weight concerns, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors among young females and their association with age and socioeconomic status (SES. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted in urban areas from a major city in South India. About 650 healthy unmarried females aged 15–25 years formed the study population. Self-reporting questionnaires were used to obtain relevant data. The categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square, correlation, and regression analyses by SPSS version 16. Results: Most overweight and obese subjects perceived themselves as overweight. Adolescents were more likely to report themselves as overweight. The perceived weight, body satisfaction, and weight control behaviors are influenced by weight status and age of the subjects. However, SES of the participants did not exhibit effect of others' opinion about their weight and body satisfaction as well as weight management behaviors. Conclusion: The high prevalence of weight-related concerns suggests that all females should be reached with appropriate information and interventions. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly promoted and unhealthy practices discouraged. Young females need special attention toward weight management.

  3. Ethical concerns and dilemmas of Finnish and Dutch health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopia, Hanna; Lottes, Ilsa; Kanne, Mariël

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare professionals encounter ethical dilemmas and concerns in their practice. More research is needed to understand these ethical problems and to know how to educate professionals to respond to them. To describe ethical dilemmas and concerns at work from the perspectives of Finnish and Dutch healthcare professionals studying at the master's level. Exploratory, qualitative study that used the text of student online discussions of ethical dilemmas at work as data. Participants' online discussions were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The sample consisted of 49 students at master's level enrolled in professional ethics courses at universities in Finland and the Netherlands. Permission for conducting the study was granted from both universities of applied sciences. All students provided their informed consent for the use of their assignments as research data. Participants described 51 problematic work situations. Among these, 16 were found to be ethical dilemmas, and the remaining were work issues with an ethical concern and did not meet criteria of a dilemma. The most common problems resulted from concerns about quality care, safety of healthcare professionals, patients' rights, and working with too few staff and inadequate resources. The results indicated that participants were concerned about providing quality of care and raised numerous questions about how to provide it in challenging situations. The results show that it was difficult for students to differentiate ethical dilemmas from other ethical work concerns. Online discussions among healthcare providers give them an opportunity to relate ethical principles to real ethical dilemmas and problems in their work as well as to critically analyze ethical issues. We found that discussions with descriptions of ethical dilemmas and concerns by health professionals provide important information and recommendations not only for education and practice but also for health policy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. role of altruistic behavior, empathetic concern, and social responsibility motivation in blood donation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Whitney Randolph; Schreiber, George B; Guiltinan, Anne; Nass, Catharie; Glynn, Simone A; Wright, David J; Kessler, Debra; Schlumpf, Karen S; Tu, Yongling; Smith, James W; Garratty, George

    2008-01-01

    Blood donation can be described as a prosocial behavior, and donors often cite prosocial reasons such as altruism, empathy, or social responsibility for their willingness to donate. Previous studies have not quantitatively evaluated these characteristics in donors or examined how they relate to donation frequency. As part of a donor motivation study, 12,064 current and lapsed donors answered questions used to create an altruistic behavior, empathetic concern, and social responsibility motivation score for each donor. Analysis of variance was used to compare mean scores by demographics and donor status and to determine the influence of each variable on the mean number of donations in the past 5 years. The mean score for each prosocial characteristic appeared high, with lower scores in male and younger donors. Higher altruistic behavior and social responsibility motivation scores were associated with increased past donation frequency, but the effects were minor. Empathetic concern was not associated with prior donation. The largest differences in prior donations were by age and donor status, with older and current donors having given more frequently. Most blood donors appear to have high levels of the primary prosocial characteristics (altruism, empathy, and social responsibility) commonly thought to be the main motivators for donation, but these factors do not appear to be the ones most strongly related to donation frequency. Traditional donor appeals based on these characteristics may need to be supplemented by approaches that address practical concerns like convenience, community safety, or personal benefit.

  5. Electronic health records: eliciting behavioral health providers' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Nancy; Willborn, Elizabeth; Pytlikzillig, Lisa; Noel, Harmonijoie

    2012-04-01

    Interviews with 32 community behavioral health providers elicited perceived benefits and barriers of using electronic health records. Themes identified were (a) quality of care, (b) privacy and security, and (c) delivery of services. Benefits to quality of care were mentioned by 100% of the providers, and barriers by 59% of providers. Barriers involving privacy and security concerns were mentioned by 100% of providers, and benefits by 22%. Barriers to delivery of services were mentioned by 97% of providers, and benefits by 66%. Most providers (81%) expressed overall positive support for electronic behavioral health records.

  6. Health and fracking: should the medical profession be concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Rachel; Minnaar, Jolynn; Mash, Bob

    2014-02-26

    The use of natural gas that is obtained from high-volume hydraulic fracturing (fracking) may reduce carbon emissions relative to the use of coal and have substantial economic benefits for South Africa. However, concerns have been raised regarding the health and environmental impacts. The drilling and fracking processes use hundreds of chemicals as well as silica sand. Additional elements are either released from or formed in the shale during drilling. These substances can enter the environment in various ways: through failures in the well casing; via alternative underground pathways; as wastewater, spills and leaks on the wellpad; through transportation accidents; and as air pollution. Although many of these chemicals and elements have known adverse health effects, there is little evidence available on the health impacts of fracking. These health concerns have not yet been fully addressed in policy making, and the authors recommend that the voice of health professionals should be part of the public debate on fracking and that a full health impact assessment be required before companies are given the go-ahead to drill. 

  7. Health behaviors of postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jasińska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health status and health-related quality of life of postmenopausal women are issues, which nowadays pose a serious challenge to many domains of science. Climacteric symptoms which occur at this stage of life, lower its quality and make a negative contribution to self-reported health status, are mostly observed in a particular group of women. Evaluation of health behaviors performed using a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI, may help establish a comprehensive diagnosis of women’s health, and thus select effective interventions. A systemic approach to menopause assumes that full fitness of women and good quality of their lives can be maintained not only by means of pharmacotherapy but also other forms of action, especially health education oriented towards changes in the lifestyle and promotion of healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to perform a HBI-based assessment of women’s health behaviors in such categories as healthy eating habits (HEH, preventive behaviors (PB, positive mental attitudes (PMA, and health practices (HP. Material and methods: The study involved 151 healthy postmenopausal women. A research tool was a standardized questionnaire, the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI. Results: The surveyed women obtained 70% of the maximum score on average, which suggests a medium level of health behaviors in this group. The levels of health behaviors in the categories of positive mental attitudes and health practices significantly differed between older women and their younger counterparts (higher levels were observed among older respondents. There were also significant differences in the levels of healthy behaviors between women with secondary and higher education (those better educated declared healthy behaviors more often. There was no correlation between the level of health behaviors and the BMI of the surveyed women. Conclusions : Older women attached greater

  8. Effect of age, education and health status on community dwelling older men's health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara

    2012-06-01

    A significant gap in evidence characterizes the process of establishing patient-centered health priorities for older men. A cross-sectional postal survey of 2325 Canadian community dwelling men aged 55-97 years old was conducted in 2008 to gauge older men's level of concern for 24 different health items, to determine the impact of age, education and health status on these perceptions, and to ascertain whether men perceive that their health concerns are being attended to. Health issues of greatest concern to men were mobility impairment (64% of respondents), memory loss (64%), and medication side effects (63%). Respondents with lower educational attainment expressed greater concern about their health and were almost 2-fold times more likely to report being concerned about stroke, heart disease and prostate disorders in analyses that controlled for age and health status. Physical and mental health were independently associated with various concerns about health, but old age was not a reliable predictor, with only younger men (erectile dysfunction. Health items of greatest concern to men tended to be those with the lowest screening or counseling rates: these included incontinence, osteoporosis, mobility impairment, falls, anxiety issues, memory loss and depression. An improved consumer-guided agenda for addressing older men's health in the coming decade is urgently required.

  9. Forging Multidisciplinary Collaboration to Improve Mental/Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Wanda M; Bunde, Paula K; Remick-Erickson, Kara; Rebeck, Shelby; Denny, Darla

    2017-09-01

    Five Johnson and Johnson fellows validated the lack of communication regarding students with mental/behavioral health issues and took a leadership position within their school district to address the problem. An open-ended survey revealed inconsistent and fragmented support given to students with mental/behavioral health concerns. A multidisciplinary task force was formed consisting of stakeholders including district and nondistrict community members. The procedure for district staff to address students' behavioral/mental health concerns was adapted by representatives from all stakeholders and was distributed district wide and uploaded to the district's staff website for general access. Training of district employees in Youth Mental Health First Aid has provided the foundation for communicating and implementing a standardized approach for identifying, responding, and referring students with mental/behavioral health concerns. Open dialog, better communication and understanding of disciplines, and more initiatives aimed at improving the mental health of all students has resulted from the collaboration started with this initiative.

  10. Access to essential medicines in Pakistan: policy and health systems research concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehla Zaidi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. METHODS: An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder's Roundtable. FINDINGS: A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. CONCLUSION: Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda.

  11. Causal Analysis of Databases Concerning Electromagnetism and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Alonso-Stenberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we conducted a causal analysis of a system extracted from a database of current data in the telecommunications domain, namely the Eurobarometer 73.3 database arose from a survey of 26,602 citizens EU on the potential health effects that electromagnetic fields can produce. To determine the cause-effect relationships between variables, we represented these data by a directed graph that can be applied to a qualitative version of the theory of discrete chaos to highlight causal circuits and attractors, as these are basic elements of system behavior.

  12. Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

      Objective: Neuroeconomics integrates behavioral economics, psychology and neuroscience. Recently, this line of research is summarized in a neuroeconomic model (NeM) which addresses behavioral health from a new angle as surveyed in this study. Data and Method Firstly, NeM is used as framework...... for explanation of the neural dynamics of normal decision making. Secondly, the literature is reviewed for evidence on hypothesized applications of NeM in behavioral health. Results I. The present bias as documented by neuroeconomic game-trials is explained by NeM as rooted in the basal activation of Amygdala...... mechanism. In this case neuroeconomics may serve as an evidence-based public monitoring across specific historical meditation settings. Conclusion Neuroeconomics reveal the action-mechanism of dominant behavioral health interventions as integrated home care for patients suffering from stroke, heart failure...

  13. An urban survey of paediatric environmental health concerns: Perceptions of parents, guardians and health care professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buka, Irena; Rogers, W Todd; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R; Hoffman, Harold; Pearce, Marni; Li, Yuen Yee

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To conduct a survey in Edmonton, Alberta, to gather information regarding concerns about the influence of environmental factors on children’s health and to use the information to set an agenda for the resources of the Paediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit at Misericordia Hospital (Edmonton, Alberta). METHODS Two questionnaires with 28 closed-ended questions were developed to examine parents’, guardians’ and health care professionals’ concerns. They comprised items about six environmental factors (air, water and food quality; household supplies; radiation; and waste disposal). Health care professionals were also asked four questions about their knowledge of and their needs in Paediatric Environmental Health. Parents and guardians attending the public health centres and nurses working therein received questionnaires. Physicians were surveyed by e-mail. RESULTS After verification, the questionnaire data from 400 parents or guardians and 152 health care professionals were used for analyses. Results from contingency table, Hotelling’s T2 and effect size analyses revealed similarities in the levels of concern in both groups, and the results were combined. The greatest concern of both groups was with environmental tobacco smoke, followed by pesticides in water. Concerns about six additional environmental elements were also expressed. The health care professionals showed a high level of concern about the need for resources, specific training and public education regarding paediatric environmental health. CONCLUSION A significant level of concern was consistently found between the two groups studied, regardless of professional training. The highest level of concern was with a well-documented topic (ie, environmental tobacco smoke). Less concern associated with decreased documentation calls for increasing the knowledge of society, including health care professionals, to address the adverse effects of environmental factors on children. PMID

  14. Early concern and disregard for others as predictors of antisocial behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P.; Boeldt, Debra L.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John. K.; Knafo, Ariel; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Robinson, JoAnn; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Young, Susan E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Background Prediction of antisocial behavior is important given its adverse impact on both the individuals engaging in antisocial behavior and society. Additional research identifying early predictors of future antisocial behavior, or antisocial propensity, is needed. The present study tested the hypothesis that both concern for others and active disregard for others in distress in toddlers and young children predict antisocial behavior during middle childhood and adolescence. Methods A representative sample of same-sex twins (N = 956) recruited in Colorado was examined. Mother-rated and researcher-observed concern and disregard for others assessed at age 14 to 36 months were examined as predictors of parent- (age 4 to 12), teacher- (age 7 to 12), and self-reported (age 17) antisocial behavior. Results Observed disregard for others predicted antisocial behavior assessed by three different informants (parents, teachers, and self), including antisocial behavior assessed 14 years later. It also predicted a higher-order antisocial behavior factor (β = .58, p concern for others. Mother-rated disregard for others predicted parent-reported antisocial behavior. Contrary to predictions, neither mother-rated nor observed concern for others inversely predicted antisocial behavior. Results of twin analyses suggested that the covariation between observed disregard for others and antisocial behavior was due to shared environmental influences. Conclusions Disregard for others in toddlerhood/early childhood is a strong predictor of antisocial behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. The results suggest the potential need for early assessment of disregard for others and the development of potential interventions. PMID:23320806

  15. Parents' evaluation of developmental status: how well do parents' concerns identify children with behavioral and emotional problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances Page

    2003-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine which parental concerns are most associated with significant behavioral/emotional problems and the extent to which parents' concerns can be depended on in the detection of mental health problems. An additional goal is to view how well a recently published screening test relying on parents' concerns, Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS), detects behavioral and emotional problems. Subjects were a national sample of 472 parents and their children (21 months to 8 years old) who were participants in 1 of 2 test standardization and validation studies. Sites included various pediatric settings, public schools, and Head Start programs in 5 diverse geographic locations. Subjects were representative of U.S. demographics in terms of ethnicity, parental level of education, gender, and socioeconomic status. At each site, psychological examiners, educational diagnosticians, or school psychologists recruited families, and obtained informed consent. Examiners disseminated a demographics questionnaire (in English or Spanish) and a developmental screening test that relies on parents' concerns (PEDS). Examiners were blinded to PEDS' scoring and interpretation administered either by interview or in writing, the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) or the Possible Problems Checklist (PPC), a subtest of the Child Development Inventory that includes items measuring emotional well-being and behavioral self-control. PEDS was used to sort children into risk for developmental disabilities according to various types of parental concern. Those identified as having high or moderate risk were nominated for diagnostic testing or screening followed by developmental and mental health services when indicated. Because their emotional and behavioral needs would have been identified and addressed, these groups were removed from the analysis (N = 177). Of the 295 children who would not have been nominated for further scrutiny on PEDS due to their

  16. Helping behavior induced by empathic concern attenuates anterior cingulate activation in response to others' distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sugawara, Sho K; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Makita, Kai; Hamano, Yuki H; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Helping behavior is motivated by empathic concern for others in distress. Although empathic concern is pervasive in daily life, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. Empathic concern involves the suppression of the emotional response to others' distress, which occurs when individuals distance themselves emotionally from the distressed individual. We hypothesized that helping behavior induced by empathic concern, accompanied by perspective-taking, would attenuate the neural activation representing aversive feelings. We also predicted reward system activation due to the positive feeling resulting from helping behavior. Participant underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing a virtual ball-toss game. In some blocks ("concern condition"), one player ("isolated player") did not receive ball-tosses from other players. In this condition, participants increased ball-tosses to the isolated player (helping behavior). Participants then evaluated the improved enjoyment of the isolated player resulting from their helping behavior. Anterior cingulate activation during the concern condition was attenuated by the evaluation of the effect of helping behavior. The right temporoparietal junction, which is involved in perspective-taking and the dorsal striatum, part of the reward system, were also activated during the concern condition. These results suggest that humans can attenuate affective arousal by anticipating the positive outcome of empathic concern through perspective-taking.

  17. Unhealthy marketing of pharmaceutical products: An international public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinari, Shai

    2016-05-01

    I consider the current state of pharmaceutical marketing vis-à-vis ethical and legal standards and advocate measures to improve it. There is abundant evidence of unethical or illicit marketing. It fuels growing concerns about undue corporate influence over pharmaceutical research, education, and consumption. The most extensive evidence of industry transgressions comes from the United States (US), where whistle-blowers are encouraged by financial rewards to help uncover illicit marketing and fraud. Outside the US increasing evidence of transgressions exists. Recently I have observed a range of new measures to align pharmaceutical marketing practices with ethical and legal standards. In the interest of public health, I highlight the need for additional and more profound reforms to ensure that information about medicines supports quality and resource-efficient care.

  18. Factors associated with parent concern for child weight and parenting behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Karissa L; Welk, Gregory; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Yang, Shu; Kim, Jae-Kwang

    2015-06-01

    A parent's perception about their child's overweight status is an important precursor or determinant of preventative actions. Acknowledgment of, and concern for, overweight may be moderated by the parent's own weight status whereas engaging in healthy behaviors at home may promote healthy weight status. It is hypothesized that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and acknowledge overweight in their own children whereas heavier parents may report more concern about child weight. A total of 1745 parents of first- through fifth-grade students completed a questionnaire assessing reactions to a school BMI report and perceptions about BMI issues. Specific items included perceptions of child's weight status, concern for child weight status, and preventive practices. Parents also provided information about their own weight status. Relationships between measured child weight, perceived child weight, parent weight, parent concern, and healthy behaviors were examined. Overweight parents were more likely to identify overweight in their child and report concern about their child's weight. Concern was higher for parents of overweight children than of normal weight children. Normal weight parents and parents of normal weight children reported more healthy behaviors. Results support the hypothesis that normal weight parents are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and that overweight parents are more likely to report concern about child weight. However, overweight parents are also more likely to acknowledge overweight status in their own child. Future research should examine links between parent concern and actual pursuit of weight management assistance.

  19. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  20. Online video game therapy for mental health concerns: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Nathan; Ang, Rebecca P; Goh, Dion H

    2008-07-01

    There has been research on the use of offline video games for therapeutic purposes but online video game therapy is still fairly under-researched. Online therapeutic interventions have only recently included a gaming component. Hence, this review represents a timely first step toward taking advantage of these recent technological and cultural innovations, particularly for the treatment of special-needs groups such as the young, the elderly and people with various conditions such as ADHD, anxiety and autism spectrum disorders. A review integrating research findings on two technological advances was conducted: the home computer boom of the 1980s, which triggered a flood of research on therapeutic video games for the treatment of various mental health conditions; and the rise of the internet in the 1990s, which caused computers to be seen as conduits for therapeutic interaction rather than replacements for the therapist. We discuss how video games and the internet can now be combined in therapeutic interventions, as attested by a consideration of pioneering studies. Future research into online video game therapy for mental health concerns might focus on two broad types of game: simple society games, which are accessible and enjoyable to players of all ages, and online worlds, which offer a unique opportunity for narrative content and immersive remote interaction with therapists and fellow patients. Both genres might be used for assessment and training purposes, and provide an unlimited platform for social interaction. The mental health community can benefit from more collaborative efforts between therapists and engineers, making such innovations a reality.

  1. Cyber disorders: the mental health concern for the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K; Pistner, M; O'Mara, J; Buchanan, J

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence has suggested that mental health practitioners' report increased caseloads of clients whose primary complaint involves the Internet. However, little is known about the incidence, associated behaviors, attitudes of practitioners, and interventions involved related to this relatively new phenomenon. Therefore, this study surveyed therapists who have treated clients suffering from cyber-related problems to gather such outcome information. Respondents reported an average caseload of nine clients who they classified as Internet-addicted, with a range between 2 and 50 clients treated within the past year. Five general subtypes of Internet addiction were categorized based on the most problematic types of online applications, and they include addictions to Cybersex, Cyber-relationships, online stock trading or gambling, information surfing, and computer games. Treatment strategies included cognitive-behavioral approaches, sexual offender therapy, marital and family therapy, social skills training, and pharmacological interventions. Based on their client encounters, efforts to initiate support groups and recovery programs specializing in the treatment of Internet addiction were being considered. Finally, based upon the findings, this article examines the impact of cyberdisorders on future research, treatment, and public policy issues for the new millennium.

  2. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S.

    2017-01-01

    Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers. PMID:28588530

  3. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S

    2017-01-01

    Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today's culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women ( n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  4. Do Online Privacy Concerns Predict Selfie Behavior among Adolescents, Young Adults and Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Dhir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies, editing (cropping and filtering, and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%. The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.

  5. Associations between Violent Video Gaming, Empathic Concern, and Prosocial Behavior toward Strangers, Friends, and Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ashley M.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Stockdale, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove…

  6. Staff Concerns in Schools Planning for and Implementing School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyre, Ashli D.; Feuerborn, Laura L.; Woods, Leslie

    2018-01-01

    Understanding staff concerns about a systemic change effort allows leadership teams to better anticipate and address staff needs for professional development and support. In this study, staff concerns in nine schools planning for or implementing School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) were explored using the…

  7. Gender and online privacy among teens: risk perception, privacy concerns, and protection behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Seounmi; Hall, Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    Survey data from 395 high school students revealed that girls perceive more privacy risks and have a higher level of privacy concerns than boys. Regarding privacy protection behaviors, boys tended to read unsolicited e-mail and register for Web sites while directly sending complaints in response to unsolicited e-mail. This study found girls to provide inaccurate information as their privacy concerns increased. Boys, however, refrained from registering to Web sites as their concerns increased.

  8. Trust Me, I’m a Doctor: Examining Changes in How Privacy Concerns Affect Patient Withholding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler; Ford, Eric W; Huerta, Timothy R

    2017-01-01

    Background As electronic health records (EHRs) become ubiquitous in the health care industry, privacy breaches are increasing and being made public. These breaches may make consumers wary of the technology, undermining its potential to improve care coordination and research. Objective Given the developing concerns around privacy of personal health information stored in digital format, it is important for providers to understand how views on privacy and security may be associated with patient disclosure of health information. This study aimed to understand how privacy concerns may be shifting patient behavior. Methods Using a pooled cross-section of data from the 2011 and 2014 cycles of the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS), we tested whether privacy and security concerns, as well as quality perceptions, are associated with the likelihood of withholding personal health information from a provider. A fully interacted multivariate model was used to compare associations between the 2 years, and interaction terms were used to evaluate trends in the factors that are associated with withholding behavior. Results No difference was found regarding the effect of privacy and security concerns on withholding behavior between 2011 and 2014. Similarly, whereas perceived high quality of care was found to reduce the likelihood of withholding information from a provider in both 2011 (odds ratio [OR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.94) and 2014 (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.76), no difference was observed between years. Conclusions These findings suggest that consumers’ beliefs about EHR privacy and security, the relationship between technology use and quality, and intentions to share information with their health care provider have not changed. These findings are counter to the ongoing discussions about the implications of security failures in other domains. Our results suggest that providers could ameliorate privacy and security by focusing on the care

  9. Towards a feminist global bioethics: addressing women's health concerns worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, R

    2001-01-01

    In this paper I argue that a global bioethics is possible. Specifically, I present the view that there are within feminist approaches to bioethics some conceptual and methodological tools necessary to forge a bioethics that embraces the health-related concerns of both developing and developed nations equally. To support my argument I discuss some of the challenges that have historically confronted feminists. If feminists accept the idea that women are entirely the same, then feminists present as fact the fiction of the essential "Woman." Not only does "Woman" not exist, -she" obscures important racial, ethnic, cultural, and class differences among women. However, if feminists stress women's differences too much, feminists lose the power to speak coherently and cogently about gender justice, women's rights, and sexual equality in general. Analyzing the ways in which the idea of difference as well as the idea of sameness have led feminists astray, I ask whether it is possible to avoid the Scylla of absolutism (imperialism, colonialism, hegemony) on the one hand and the Charybdis of relativism (postmodernism, fragmentation, Balkanization) on the other. Finally, after reflecting upon the work of Uma Narayan, Susan Muller Okin, and Martha Nussbaum, I conclude that there is a way out of this ethical bind. By focusing on women's, children's, and men's common human needs, it is possible to lay the foundation for a just and caring global bioethics.

  10. Health and safety concerns of textiles with nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L.; Ramos, D.

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing concern related to the effects of nanomaterials in health and safety.Nanotechnologies are already present in many consumer products, including textiles. “Nanotextiles” can be considered as traditional textiles with the incorporation of nanoparticles. They present often functionalities such as antibacterial, ultraviolet radiation protection, water and dirt repellency, self-cleaning or flame retardancy. Nanoparticles can be released from the textile materials due to different effects (abrasion and other mechanical stresses, sweat, irradiation, washing, temperature changes, etc.). It is then expectable that “nanotextiles” may release individual nanoparticles, agglomerates of nanoparticles or small particles of textile with or without nanoparticles, depending on the type of integration of the nanoparticles in textiles. The most important exposure route of the human body to nanoparticles in case of textiles is skin contact. Several standards are being developed under the auspices of the European Committee for Standardization. In this paper, it is presented the development and application of a test method to evaluate the skin exposure to nanoparticles, to evaluate the transfer of the nanoparticles from the textile to the skin by the effect of abrasion and sweat.

  11. Peer Rejection in Middle School: Subgroup Differences in Behavior, Loneliness, and Interpersonal Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Jennifer T.; Asher, Steven R.

    1992-01-01

    Studied patterns of behavior and emotional response associated with peer rejection in early adolescence. Obtained data on seventh and eighth graders' loneliness, social dissatisfaction, and concerns. The combination of aggressiveness and submissiveness with low levels of prosocial behavior was associated with peer rejection. (GLR)

  12. Risk perception and environmental health concerns in conditions of social security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarova, D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: this study explores the connection between the perception of different societal risk, health concerns and behavioral attitudes of people in condition of social security threat. Two small and two big industrial towns were chosen in order to observe the social and psychological price of the structural changes in the industry such as unemployment and its reflection on the households and the individuals' social attitudes. Key stakeholders were interviewed and questionnaire survey was carried out. The results showed high level of risk sensitivity and health concerns when people felt threatened by lack of social and economic security. The pollution was found to be important problem when it caused direct and obvious risk to human health and the environment. In the same time reverse environmental behavior like insensitiveness and neglectful attitude was observed in cases when the health consequences of the pollution were perceived to be unclear and with delayed effect. In situation of a great socio-economic threat noninvolvement helped the individuals to adapt. The research proved the influence of several risk characteristics on risk perception. It was found a connection between the risk perception and risk controllability, voluntariness of exposure and cost/benefits distribution. In the study areas respondents' judgments on these characteristics reflected directly their social status and material state. The study presented here is in progress - it i's supported by research grant from Open Society Foundation. (author)

  13. Associations among Life Events, Empathic Concern, and Adolescents' Prosocial and Aggressive Behaviors Toward Specific Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexandra N; Luce, Haley; Davalos, Natasha

    2018-05-25

    The goal of the present study was to examine the links between life events and adolescents' social behaviors (prosocial and aggressive behaviors) toward specific targets and to examine how empathic concern may play a role in these associations. The study examined two hypotheses: both the mediating role of empathic concern and the moderating role of empathic concern. The sample included 311 high school students from the Midwest (M age = 16.10 years; age range = 14-19 years; 58.7% girls; 82.7% White, 13.6% Latino). The results demonstrated support for the moderation model as well as complex links between life events and prosocial and aggressive behaviors toward specific targets. The discussion focuses on the role of empathic concern in understanding how life events are ultimately associated with adolescents' social development.

  14. Mobile Health Application and e-Health Literacy: Opportunities and Concerns for Cancer Patients and Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunmin; Goldsmith, Joy V; Sengupta, Soham; Mahmood, Asos; Powell, M Paige; Bhatt, Jay; Chang, Cyril F; Bhuyan, Soumitra S

    2017-11-14

    Health literacy is critical for cancer patients as they must understand complex procedures or treatment options. Caregivers' health literacy also plays a crucial role in caring for cancer patients. Low health literacy is associated with low adherence to medications, poor health status, and increased health care costs. There is a growing interest in the use of mobile health applications (apps) to improve health literacy. Mobile health apps can empower underserved cancer patients and their caregivers by providing features or functionalities to enhance interactive patient-provider communication and to understand medical information more readily. Despite the potentiality of improving health literacy through mobile health apps, there exist several related concerns: no equal access to mobile technology, no familiarity or knowledge of using mobile health apps, and privacy and security concerns. These elements should be taken into account for health policy making and mobile apps design and development. Importantly, mobile apps should be developed with the goal of achieving a high range of user access by considering all health literacy level and various cultural and linguistic needs.

  15. Associations between violent video gaming, empathic concern, and prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ashley M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, Larry J; Stockdale, Laura A

    2012-05-01

    Exposure to media violence, including violent video gaming, can have a cognitive desensitization effect, lowering empathic concern for others in need. Since emerging adulthood offers increased opportunities to volunteer, strengthen relationships, and initiate new relationships, decreases in empathic concern and prosocial behavior may prove inhibitive to optimal development during this time. For these reasons, the current study investigated associations between violent video gaming, empathic responding, and prosocial behavior enacted toward strangers, friends, and family members. Participants consisted of 780 emerging adults (M age = 19.60, SD = 1.86, range = 18–29, 69% female, 69% Caucasian) from four universities in the United States. Results showed small to moderate effects between playing violent video gaming and lowered empathic concern for both males and females. In addition, lowered empathic concern partially mediated the pathways between violent video gaming and prosocial behavior toward all three targets (at the level of a trend for females), but was most strongly associated with lower prosocial behavior toward strangers. Discussion highlights how violent video gaming is associated with lower levels of prosocial behavior through the mechanism of decreased empathic concern, how this association can affect prosocial behavior differently across target, and finally what implications this might have for development during emerging adulthood.

  16. BEHAVIORAL HAZARD IN HEALTH INSURANCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicker, Katherine; Mullainathan, Sendhil; Schwartzstein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental implication of standard moral hazard models is overuse of low-value medical care because copays are lower than costs. In these models, the demand curve alone can be used to make welfare statements, a fact relied on by much empirical work. There is ample evidence, though, that people misuse care for a different reason: mistakes, or “behavioral hazard.” Much high-value care is underused even when patient costs are low, and some useless care is bought even when patients face the full cost. In the presence of behavioral hazard, welfare calculations using only the demand curve can be off by orders of magnitude or even be the wrong sign. We derive optimal copay formulas that incorporate both moral and behavioral hazard, providing a theoretical foundation for value-based insurance design and a way to interpret behavioral “nudges.” Once behavioral hazard is taken into account, health insurance can do more than just provide financial protection—it can also improve health care efficiency. PMID:23930294

  17. Identity, prosocial behavior, and generative concern in German and Cameroonian Nso adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Holger; Hofer, Jan

    2011-08-01

    Little is known about whether ego identity statuses have the same developmental concomitants in different cultural contexts. Thus, 159 German and 158 Cameroonian Nso adolescents aged 15-18 were recruited to test if associations between identity and generativity (i.e. the desire to create a positive legacy) and prosocial behavior (i.e. helpful and supportive behavior), respectively, are comparable. In both cultural samples, only identity achievement was positively linked with generative concern and prosocial tendencies. Integrating these and previous findings on the association between prosocial behavior and generativity, a partial mediation of the relation between identity achievement and generative concern through prosocial tendencies was hypothesized and confirmed for both cultural groups. Thus, there is an equivalent association between identity achievement, prosocial behavior, and generative concern in adolescents with widely different cultural background. Copyright © 2010 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid Assessment of Stakeholder Concerns about Public Health. An Introduction to a Fast and Inexpensive Approach Applied on Health Concerns about Intensive Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Marleen; van der Ree, Joost; Lebret, Erik

    2017-12-11

    To effectively manage environmental health risks, stakeholders often need to act collectively. Stakeholders vary in their desire to act due to many factors, such as knowledge, risk perception, interests, and worldviews. Understanding their perceptions of the issues at stake is crucial to support the risk governance process. Even though concern assessment is a pivotal element of risk governance, few tools for rapid assessment are reported in the literature. We tested a rapid and relatively cheap approach, taking the Dutch debate on Intensive Animal Production Systems (IAPS) and health as an example. Dutch policy-oriented publications on IAPS and health and ten semi-structured in-depth interviews with a variety of stakeholders were analyzed to identify stakeholders and concerns involved in the Dutch debate about IAPS and health. Concerns were mapped and a stakeholder network was derived. Three classes of concerns were recognized in the discussions about IAPS and health: concerns related to health risks, concerns regarding the activity causing the risks (IAPS), and concerns about the process to control the risks. The notions of 'trust' and 'scientific uncertainty' appeared as important themes in the discussions. Argumentation based on concerns directly related to health risks, the activity causing the risk (IAPS), and its risk management can easily become muddled up in a societal debate, limiting the development of effective action perspectives. Acknowledging these multiple stakeholder concerns can clarify the positions taken by stakeholders and allow for more and other action perspectives to develop.

  19. Rapid Assessment of Stakeholder Concerns about Public Health. An Introduction to a Fast and Inexpensive Approach Applied on Health Concerns about Intensive Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Kraaij-Dirkzwager

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To effectively manage environmental health risks, stakeholders often need to act collectively. Stakeholders vary in their desire to act due to many factors, such as knowledge, risk perception, interests, and worldviews. Understanding their perceptions of the issues at stake is crucial to support the risk governance process. Even though concern assessment is a pivotal element of risk governance, few tools for rapid assessment are reported in the literature. We tested a rapid and relatively cheap approach, taking the Dutch debate on Intensive Animal Production Systems (IAPS and health as an example. Dutch policy-oriented publications on IAPS and health and ten semi-structured in-depth interviews with a variety of stakeholders were analyzed to identify stakeholders and concerns involved in the Dutch debate about IAPS and health. Concerns were mapped and a stakeholder network was derived. Three classes of concerns were recognized in the discussions about IAPS and health: concerns related to health risks, concerns regarding the activity causing the risks (IAPS, and concerns about the process to control the risks. The notions of ‘trust’ and ‘scientific uncertainty’ appeared as important themes in the discussions. Argumentation based on concerns directly related to health risks, the activity causing the risk (IAPS, and its risk management can easily become muddled up in a societal debate, limiting the development of effective action perspectives. Acknowledging these multiple stakeholder concerns can clarify the positions taken by stakeholders and allow for more and other action perspectives to develop.

  20. [Health behavior change: motivational interviewing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pócs, Dávid; Hamvai, Csaba; Kelemen, Oguz

    2017-08-01

    Public health data show that early mortality in Hungary could be prevented by smoking cessation, reduced alcohol consumption, regular exercise, healthy diet and increased adherence. Doctor-patient encounters often highlight these aspects of health behavior. There is evidence that health behavior change is driven by internal motivation rather than external influence. This finding has led to the concept of motivational interview, which is a person-centered, goal-oriented approach to counselling. The doctor asks targeted questions to elicit the patient's motivations, strengths, internal resources, and to focus the interview around these. The quality and quantity of the patient's change talk is related to better outcomes. In addition, the interview allows the patient to express ambivalent feelings and doubts about the change. The doctor should use various communication strategies to resolve this ambivalence. Furthermore, establishing a good doctor-patient relationship is the cornerstone of the motivational interview. An optimal relationship can evoke change talk and reduce the patient's resistance, which can also result in a better outcome. The goal of the motivational interview is to focus on the 'why' to change health behavior rather than the 'how', and to utilize internal motivation instead of persuasion. This is the reason why motivational interview has become a widely-accepted evidence based approach. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(34): 1331-1337.

  1. Mental health concerns among Canadian physicians: results from the 2007-2008 Canadian Physician Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Frank, Erica

    2011-01-01

    In light of prior reports on the prevalence of stress, depression, and other mental health problems among physicians in training and practice, we examined the mental health concerns of Canadian physicians using data from the 2007-2008 Canadian Physician Health Study. Among 3213 respondents, 5 variables (depressive symptoms during the past year, anhedonia in the past year, mental health concerns making it difficult to handle one's workload in the past month, problems with work-life balance, and poor awareness of resources for mental health problems) were examined in relation to sex, specialty, practice type (solo practice vs group or other practice settings), and practice setting (inner city, urban/suburban, or rural/small town/remote). Nearly one quarter of physicians reported a 2-week period of depressed mood, and depression was more common among female physicians and general practitioners/family physicians. Anhedonia was reported by one fifth; anesthesiologists were most likely to report anhedonia, followed by general practitioners/family physicians. More than one quarter reported mental health concerns making it difficult to handle their workload, which was more common among female physicians and general practitioners/family physicians and psychiatrists. Nearly one quarter reported poor work-life balance. Lack of familiarity with mental health resources was problematic, which was more prominent among female physicians and specialists outside of general practice/family medicine or psychiatry. Mental health concerns are relatively common among Canadian physicians. Training programs and programmatic/policy enhancements should redouble efforts to address depression and other mental health concerns among physicians for the benefit of the workforce and patients served by Canadian physicians. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cancer among circumpolar populations: an emerging public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kue Young

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine and compare the incidence of cancer among the 8 Arctic States and their northern regions, with special focus on 3 cross-national indigenous groups – Inuit, Athabaskan Indians and Sami. Methods: Data were extracted from national and regional statistical agencies and cancer registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the “world average” rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. Findings: Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions, averaged over the decade 2000–2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a “Circumpolar Inuit” group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008. There has been marked increase in lung, colorectal and female breast cancers, while cervical cancer has declined. Compared to the GLOBOCAN world average, Inuit are at extreme high risk for lung and colorectal cancer, and also certain rare cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Athabaskans (from Alaska and Northwest Territories share some similarities with the Inuit but they are at higher risk for prostate and breast cancer relative to the world average. Among the Sami, published data from 3 cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Finland show generally lower risk of cancer than non-Sami. Conclusions: Cancer among certain indigenous people in the Arctic is an increasing public health concern, especially lung and colorectal cancer.

  3. Ethical concerns and dilemmas of Finnish and Dutch health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilsa Lottes; Hanna Hopia; Mariël Kanne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Healthcare professionals encounter ethical dilemmas and concerns in their practice. More research is needed to understand these ethical problems and to know how to educate professionals to respond to them. Research objective: To describe ethical dilemmas and concerns at work

  4. Implications of emotion regulation strategies for empathic concern, social attitudes, and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Matthew S; Dovidio, John F

    2015-04-01

    Empathic concern-a sense of caring and compassion in response to the needs of others-is a type of emotional response to the plights and misfortunes of others that predicts positive social attitudes and altruistic interpersonal behaviors. One psychological process that has been posited to facilitate empathic concern is the ability to regulate one's own emotions. However, existing research links some emotion-regulation approaches (e.g., suppression) to social outcomes that would appear at odds with empathic concern, such as decreased interpersonal closeness. In the present research, we tested whether relying on suppression to regulate one's emotions would lead to decreases in empathic concern-and related downstream variables, such as negative social attitudes and unwillingness to engage in altruistic behavior-when learning about another person's misfortune. In Study 1, dispositional and instructionally induced suppression was negatively associated with empathic concern, which led to increased stigmatizing attitudes. By contrast, instructing participants to use another emotion-regulation strategy examined for comparison-reappraisal-did not decrease empathic concern, and dispositional reliance on reappraisal was actually positively associated with empathic concern. In Study 2, the findings of Study 1 regarding the effects of habitual use of reappraisal and suppression were replicated, and reliance on suppression was also found to be associated with reluctance to engage in helping behaviors. These findings are situated within the existing literature and employed to shed new light on the interpersonal consequences of intrapersonal emotion-regulation strategies. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Getting angry matters: Going beyond perspective taking and empathic concern to understand bystanders' behavior in bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Thornberg, Robert

    2017-12-01

    The present study examined the relations between different empathic dimensions and bystanders' behavior in bullying. Specifically, the indirect effects of empathic concern and perspective taking via empathic anger on defending and passive bystanding were tested in a sample of Italian young adolescents (N = 398; M age  = 12 years, 3 months, 47.2% girls). Path analysis confirmed the direct and indirect effects, via empathic anger, of empathic concern and perspective taking on bystanders' behavior, with the exception of the direct association between perspective taking and passive bystanding that was not significant. Our findings suggest that considering empathic anger together with empathic concern and perspective taking could help researchers to better understand the links between empathic dispositions and bystanders' behavior in bullying. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. What Factors Affect Health Seeking Behavior?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reducing cost, disability and death from diseases. (2). However, good health ... The Health Belief Model where the concept is the 'perceived susceptibility', which refers ... behavioral intentions and actions (6). ... integrated behavioral model.

  7. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Internet communications and third party servers. Both of these practices would be considered problematic under HIPAA, suggesting that increased use of mHealth apps could lead to less secure treatment of health data unless mHealth vendors make improvements in the way they communicate and store data.

  8. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia

    2017-11-01

    In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  9. Burgeoning menopausal symptoms: An urgent public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There is a high burden of postmenopausal symptoms which have shown an increasing trend with advancement of age. This calls for establishment of specific health interventions for postmenopausal women in the health-care settings.

  10. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A.; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Internet communications and third party servers. Both of these practices would be considered problematic under HIPAA, suggesting that increased use of mHealth apps could lead to less secure treatment of health data unless mHealth vendors make improvements in the way they communicate and store data. PMID:25954370

  11. Social media in health--what are the safety concerns for health consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Annie Y S; Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel

    Recent literature has discussed the unintended consequences of clinical information technologies (IT) on patient safety, yet there has been little discussion about the safety concerns in the area of consumer health IT. This paper presents a range of safety concerns for consumers in social media, with a case study on YouTube. We conducted a scan of abstracts on 'quality criteria' related to YouTube. Five areas regarding the safety of YouTube for consumers were identified: (a) harmful health material targeted at consumers (such as inappropriate marketing of tobacco or direct-to-consumer drug advertising); (b) public display of unhealthy behaviour (such as people displaying self-injury behaviours or hurting others); (c) tainted public health messages (i.e. the rise of negative voices against public health messages); (d) psychological impact from accessing inappropriate, offensive or biased social media content; and (e) using social media to distort policy and research funding agendas. The examples presented should contribute to a better understanding about how to promote a safe consumption and production of social media for consumers, and an evidence-based approach to designing social media interventions for health. The potential harm associated with the use of unsafe social media content on the Internet is a major concern. More empirical and theoretical studies are needed to examine how social media influences consumer health decisions, behaviours and outcomes, and devise ways to deter the dissemination of harmful influences in social media.

  12. Family characteristics and parents' and children's health behaviour are associated with public health nurses' concerns at children's health examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Hakulinen, Tuovi; Mäki, Päivi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to establish whether family characteristics and the health behaviour and illnesses of parents and children are associated with public health nurses' (PHNs') concerns about children's physical health and psychosocial development in the context of health examinations. Factors affecting children's health and well-being should be identified as early as possible to provide children and families appropriate support. In 2007-2009, a cross-sectional study in Finland collected information about PHNs' concerns, children's health and well-being as well as the background factors affecting them during health examinations of preschool-age children and school-aged children (n = 4795). Associations between family characteristics, parents' and children's behaviour and diseases, and PHNs' concerns were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Overweight in children, the long-term illnesses of both children and parents, and parental smoking were the factors most strongly associated with PHNs' concerns about a child's physical health whereas non-nuclear family types, the father's low educational level and unemployment, the child's lack of sleep, and bullying were associated with concerns about the child's psychosocial development. The connections found demonstrate that health examinations should address factors that affect the whole family's well-being so as to comprehensively promote children's health, growth and development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps

    OpenAIRE

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A.; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Intern...

  14. Putting the Focus Back on the Patient: How Privacy Concerns Affect Personal Health Information Sharing Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Mohamed; Gaia, Joana; Sanders, G Lawrence

    2017-09-13

    Health care providers are driven by greater participation and systemic cost savings irrespective of benefits to individual patients derived from sharing Personal Health Information (PHI). Protecting PHI is a critical issue in the sharing of health care information systems; yet, there is very little literature examining the topic of sharing PHI electronically. A good overview of the regulatory, privacy, and societal barriers to sharing PHI can be found in the 2009 Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act. This study investigated the factors that influence individuals' intentions to share their PHI electronically with health care providers, creating an understanding of how we can represent a patient's interests more accurately in sharing settings, instead of treating patients like predetermined subjects. Unlike privacy concern and trust, patient activation is a stable trait that is not subject to change in the short term and, thus, is a useful factor in predicting sharing behavior. We apply the extended privacy model in the health information sharing context and adapt this model to include patient activation and issue involvement to predict individuals' intentions. This was a survey-based study with 1600+ participants using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) data to validate a model through various statistical techniques. The research method included an assessment of both the measurement and structural models with post hoc analysis. We find that privacy concern has the most influence on individuals' intentions to share. Patient activation, issue involvement, and patient-physician relationship are significant predictors of sharing intention. We contribute to theory by introducing patient activation and issue involvement as proxies for personal interest factors in the health care context. Overall, this study found that although patients are open to sharing their PHI, they still have concerns over the privacy of their PHI

  15. Work ability, age and its perception, and other related concerns of Ukraine health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobko, Natalia A; Barishpolets, Alexey T

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 250 health care workers aged 18 to 68 (mean = 32.5 years) completed the Survey of Health Care Professionals. Self-ratings of their social skills, mental capacity, and physical capability corresponded to their ratings of work demands. Physical tiredness and tension were rated higher than mental tiredness. Worker age did not affect self-ratings of work performance, but physical and mental tiredness increased with increases in the age that one felt. The younger participants felt compared to their calendar ages, the better the level of current work ability they reported. The main concerns of workers were connected with off-the-job factors, most likely caused by the economic crisis and unfavorable ecological conditions in Ukraine. More than half of the participants were quite a bit or extremely concerned with changes in the cost of living, water quality, food safety, and radiation. The variable most closely related to these concerns is the discrepancy between calendar age and how old one feels. Coping strategies of workers can be related to sleeping, entertainment, and other off-the-job activities. These behaviors are related to the discrepancy between calendar age and how old one looks and feels, as well as felt age.

  16. How behavioral science can advance digital health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Bennett, Gary G

    2013-09-01

    The field of behavioral science has produced myriad data on health behavior change strategies and leveraged such data into effective human-delivered interventions to improve health. Unfortunately, the impact of traditional health behavior change interventions has been heavily constrained by patient and provider burden, limited ability to measure and intervene upon behavior in real time, variable adherence, low rates of implementation, and poor third-party coverage. Digital health technologies, including mobile phones, sensors, and online social networks, by being available in real time, are being explored as tools to increase our understanding of health behavior and to enhance the impact of behavioral interventions. The recent explosion of industry attention to the development of novel health technologies is exciting but has far outpaced research. This Special Section of Translational Behavioral Medicine, Smartphones, Sensors, and Social Networks: A New Age of Health Behavior Change features a collection of studies that leverage health technologies to measure, change, and/or understand health behavior. We propose five key areas in which behavioral science can improve the impact of digital health technologies on public health. First, research is needed to identify which health technologies actually impact behavior and health outcomes. Second, we need to understand how online social networks can be leveraged to impact health behavior on a large scale. Third, a team science approach is needed in the developmental process of health technologies. Fourth, behavioral scientists should identify how a balance can be struck between the fast pace of innovation and the much slower pace of research. Fifth, behavioral scientists have an integral role in informing the development of health technologies and facilitating the movement of health technologies into the healthcare system.

  17. Sociodemographic Characteristics, Behavioral Problems, Parental Concerns and Children’s Strengths Reported by Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Ribas Emerich

    Full Text Available Abstract: Parental report is essential to understand adaptive difficulties in childhood. The aim of the study was to identify concerns of parents and qualities of children reported by parents, as well as the association of these variables with sociodemographic factors and child behavior problems. Parents of 353 schoolchildren from three public schools and one private school took part in the study. Assessment of behavior problems and parental reports about concerns and children’s strengths were obtained from the Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. We submitted parents’ answers to the open-ended questions in the CBCL to a lexical analysis with the IRAMUTEQ software. Results concerning ‘strengths’ were related to affective and social interaction, while ‘concerns’ were related to academic performance and prevention of behavior problems. We concluded that parent concerns are targets of preventive interventions in childhood, while child strengths reported by parents are skills that need to be developed, as they help in adaptive functioning.

  18. General beliefs and the theory of planned behavior : The role of environmental concerns in the TPB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith; Steg, Linda

    This study tested whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985) could explain people's intention to use a park-and-ride facility (transferium) in Groningen, The Netherlands. We extended the TPB by including egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric concerns. A questionnaire study was

  19. Health workers' use of electronic information concerning children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information regarding young children who experience barriers to the development of listening, language and learning is limited in the South African context. Health workers, in particular those ... These health workers also have access to and are active users of computers and the Internet. They may therefore benefit from ...

  20. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Zimmerman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  1. Nuclear denotation: a topic for global public health concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-01-01

    In mid of March 2011, a big Tsunami attacked Japan and caused serious destruction. In addition to the destroyed infrastructure, disruption of the nuclear plants occurred and this is the origin of the big problem of nuclear denotation which is of present concern. Nuclear denotation is an actually interesting new problem that affects a large group of world population. This situation is new and requires our attention in a global level. In this article, the author summarizes and discusses this important topic

  2. Risks and concerns regarding transgenic food and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Acosta

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic technology in agriculture has recently been in the center of an intense debate between two radically opposite points of view. Some non-government organizations (NGO consider this technology as dangerous for human health, environment and economics of developing countries. On the contrary, the scientific community has been publicly supportive of this technology, suggesting that education is the key to gaining the public acceptance. Although genetically modified (GM plants for food use might have the potential to provide benefits in food quality, nutrition, health and environment, GM plants need additional considerations related with biosafety. Despite there is not evidence that GM foods are more dangerous to human health than conventional food it is necessary to test GM food following the best scientific methodology available. This review focuses on the potential effects that GM food might have on human health.

  3. Environmental Behavior's Dirty Secret: The Prevalence of Waste Management in Discussions of Environmental Concern and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Rachelle K.; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Biggar, Matt; Cravens, Amanda E.; Wojcik, Deb

    2016-08-01

    Humankind and the planet face many thorny environmentally related challenges that require a range of responses, including changing behaviors related to transportation, eating habits, purchasing, and myriad other aspects of life. Using data from a 1201-person survey and 14 Community Listening Sessions (CLSs), we explore people's perceptions of and actions taken to protect the environment. Our data indicate a striking prevalence of waste management-related actions. Survey respondents described actions and concerns related to trash, recycling, and composting as the most common environmental behaviors; similarly, participants in CLSs discussed waste-related topics, for which we did not prompt, as frequently as those topics for which we specifically prompted. Explanations for this prevalence emerging from the data include (1) the nature of waste-related behaviors (concrete, supported by infrastructure, simple, compatible with lifestyle); (2) norms and social dynamics (family interactions, feelings of belonging/participation, government policy); and (3) internal psychological processes (internalized norms and environmental concern). We also found that many waste-related discussions were relatively superficial, focusing on immediate waste-related issues (e.g., litter or recycling) rather than larger issues such as consumption. Our results may provide insight into future efforts to encourage pro-environmental behavior. Given that most pro-environmental behavior involves tasks more complex and lifestyle-changing than those related to simple aspects of waste management, we suggest focusing on the latter two intertwined categories that our data suggest are important: encouraging social dynamics and related development of norms concerning environmental behavior (category 2), and fostering internalized norms and environmental concern (category 3).

  4. Health care voluntourism: addressing ethical concerns of undergraduate student participation in global health volunteer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Daniel; Iltis, Ana S

    2014-12-01

    The popularity and availability of global health experiences has increased, with organizations helping groups plan service trips and companies specializing in "voluntourism," health care professionals volunteering their services through different organizations, and medical students participating in global health electives. Much has been written about global health experiences in resource poor settings, but the literature focuses primarily on the work of health care professionals and medical students. This paper focuses on undergraduate student involvement in short term medical volunteer work in resource poor countries, a practice that has become popular among pre-health professions students. We argue that the participation of undergraduate students in global health experiences raises many of the ethical concerns associated with voluntourism and global health experiences for medical students. Some of these may be exacerbated by or emerge in unique ways when undergraduates volunteer. Guidelines and curricula for medical student engagement in global health experiences have been developed. Guidelines specific to undergraduate involvement in such trips and pre-departure curricula to prepare students should be developed and such training should be required of volunteers. We propose a framework for such guidelines and curricula, argue that universities should be the primary point of delivery even when universities are not organizing the trips, and recommend that curricula should be developed in light of additional data.

  5. Trust Me, I'm a Doctor: Examining Changes in How Privacy Concerns Affect Patient Withholding Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Daniel M; Johnson, Tyler; Ford, Eric W; Huerta, Timothy R

    2017-01-04

    As electronic health records (EHRs) become ubiquitous in the health care industry, privacy breaches are increasing and being made public. These breaches may make consumers wary of the technology, undermining its potential to improve care coordination and research. Given the developing concerns around privacy of personal health information stored in digital format, it is important for providers to understand how views on privacy and security may be associated with patient disclosure of health information. This study aimed to understand how privacy concerns may be shifting patient behavior. Using a pooled cross-section of data from the 2011 and 2014 cycles of the Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS), we tested whether privacy and security concerns, as well as quality perceptions, are associated with the likelihood of withholding personal health information from a provider. A fully interacted multivariate model was used to compare associations between the 2 years, and interaction terms were used to evaluate trends in the factors that are associated with withholding behavior. No difference was found regarding the effect of privacy and security concerns on withholding behavior between 2011 and 2014. Similarly, whereas perceived high quality of care was found to reduce the likelihood of withholding information from a provider in both 2011 (odds ratio [OR] 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.94) and 2014 (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.76), no difference was observed between years. These findings suggest that consumers' beliefs about EHR privacy and security, the relationship between technology use and quality, and intentions to share information with their health care provider have not changed. These findings are counter to the ongoing discussions about the implications of security failures in other domains. Our results suggest that providers could ameliorate privacy and security by focusing on the care quality benefits EHRs provide. ©Daniel M Walker

  6. Obesity epidemic in Brazil and Argentina: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, Alberto K; Rocha, Denise R T W; Aizenberg, Marisa; Ciruzzi, Maria S

    2014-06-01

    The obesity epidemic is rapidly advancing in South America, leading to inevitable health consequences. Argentinian and Brazilian health policies try to become adapted to the new economic and social framework that follows from this epidemic. It is in incipient and ineffective control so far since the prevalence of obesity was not restrained. The Argentine national legislation is more advanced, through the so-called "Ley de Obesidad." In Brazil, there are numerous local initiatives but still not a comprehensive law. National policies relating to decisions regarding obesity are discussed in this paper. Trends in decisions issued in higher courts of Argentina (Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation--CSJN) and Brazil (Supreme Court of Justice--STF), in the last 15 years, seek to clarify the approach of each country and court's resolutions. Marked differences were found in their positions. Finally, legal and health solutions to this obesity epidemic are proposed.

  7. Weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors among overweight adolescents in Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastav Radhika

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is emerging as a public health problem among adolescents in India. The aim of this study was to describe specific weight-related concerns among school-going youth in Delhi, India and to assess the prevalence of weight control behaviors, including healthy and unhealthy ones. Differences by weight status, gender, grade level, and school-type (a proxy for SES in this setting are considered. Methods This study is cross-sectional by design. A sample of eighth and tenth graders (n = 1818 enrolled in Private (middle-high SES and Government (low SES schools (n = 8 in Delhi, India participated. All students' height and weight were measured. Students participated in a survey of weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors, as well. Mixed-effects regression models were used to test for differences in weight-related concerns and weight-control behaviors across key factors of interest (i.e., weight status, gender, grade level, and SES. Results The combined prevalence of obesity and overweight was 16.6%, overall. Controlling one's weight was important to overweight and non-overweight youth, alike (94.2% v. 84.8%, p p Conclusions Interventions to promote healthy weight control should be pertinent to and well-received by school-going youth in India. Healthy weight control practices need to be explicitly encouraged and unhealthy practices reduced. Future interventions should address issues specific to body image, too, as body dissatisfaction was not uncommon among youth.

  8. Environmental concern and cooperative-competitive behavior in a simulated commons dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Bell, P A

    1992-08-01

    Commons-dilemma simulation games are designed to examine behavior associated with preservation and destruction of slowly regenerating natural resources. In Experiment 1, 120 introductory psychology students in the United States were assigned to high- or low-environmental-concern conditions based on a median split of their scores from a pretest. They then played either a points game, in which they selected numerical points from a slowly regenerating pool, or a tree game, in which they harvested trees from a jointly managed forest. After the game, subjects were asked to sign a petition for an environmental cause, to participate in a litter pick-up, and to participate in a recycling drive. Neither environmental concern nor proenvironmental behaviors were related to commons dilemma performance. In Experiment 2, 57 other introductory psychology students were assessed on environmental concern and Machiavellian personality, size of other players' harvesting choices, and other players' altruistic choices, all correlated with subjects' outcomes in the game. Overall, cooperation and competition were more important than environmental concern in predicting behavior in the commons dilemma simulation game.

  9. Health Risk Behavior in Foster Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Problem Adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore identification of risk behavior is critical. Method A secondary analysis of data from a larger study investigated the health risk behavior of 56 foster youth using the CHIP-AE. Findings Foster youth had some increased risk behavior. Younger adolescents and those in kinship care had less risky behavior. Youth had more risk behavior when: in group homes, parental death, histories of physical or emotional abuse, or history of attempted suicide. Conclusions These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability in foster youth. PMID:19490278

  10. Addressing Geriatric Oral Health Concerns through National Oral Health Policy in India

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    Abhinav Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an escalating demand for geriatric oral healthcare in all developed and developing countries including India. Two-thirds of the world’s elderly live in developing countries. This is a huge population that must receive attention from policy-makers who will be challenged by the changing demands for social and health services including oral health services. Resources are limited thus rather than being aspirational in wanting to provide all treatment needed for everybody, this critique presents a road map of how we might answer the present and future geriatric oral health concerns in a most efficient manner in a developing country. Viewing the recent Indian demographic profile and the trends in oral health, pertinent policy subjects have been discussed concerning the oral health needs of the elderly and also the associated challenges which include strategies to improve quality of life, strategies to train and educate the dental workforce and above all the role of healthcare systems towards realization of better aged society in India and other developing countries

  11. Environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity: potential public health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczylo, Emma L; Jacobs, Miriam N; Gant, Timothy W

    2016-09-01

    Throughout our lives, epigenetic processes shape our development and enable us to adapt to a constantly changing environment. Identifying and understanding environmentally induced epigenetic change(s) that may lead to adverse outcomes is vital for protecting public health. This review, therefore, examines the present understanding of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the mammalian life cycle, evaluates the current evidence for environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in human cohorts and rodent models and highlights the research considerations and implications of this emerging knowledge for public health and regulatory toxicology. Many hundreds of studies have investigated such toxicity, yet relatively few have demonstrated a mechanistic association among specific environmental exposures, epigenetic changes and adverse health outcomes in human epidemiological cohorts and/or rodent models. While this small body of evidence is largely composed of exploratory in vivo high-dose range studies, it does set a precedent for the existence of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity. Consequently, there is worldwide recognition of this phenomenon, and discussion on how to both guide further scientific research towards a greater mechanistic understanding of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in humans, and translate relevant research outcomes into appropriate regulatory policies for effective public health protection.

  12. Maternal health research concerns men too | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-06-11

    Jun 11, 2018 ... At first glance, maternal health only seems to focus on women and children. ... to maternal healthcare and to improve access to and use of services ... a program of visits to the homes of all pregnant women in the project area.

  13. Sexual dysfunction among youth: an overlooked sexual health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Moreau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing recognition that youth sexual health entails a broad range of physical, emotional and psychosocial responses to sexual interactions, yet little is known about sexual dysfunctions and well being in youth populations. This study explored sexual dysfunctions among youth and its associations with other domains of sexual health. Sexual dysfunctions were defined as: problems related to orgasm, pain during intercourse, lack of sexual desire or sexual pleasure. Methods Data were drawn from the 2010 French national sexual and reproductive health survey comprising a random sample of 2309 respondents aged 15-24 years. The current analysis included 842 females and 642 males who had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months. Chi square tests were used to test for differences in sexual dysfunctions by sex and explore associations with other domains of sexual health. Results Half of females (48% reported at least one sexual dysfunction versus 23% of males. However, over half (57% of youth reporting at least one dysfunction did not consider this to hinder their sexuality. Altogether, 31% of females cited at least one sexual dysfunction hindering their sexuality—more than three times the 9% of males. Sexual dysfunction was strongly and inversely related to sexual satisfaction for both males and females and additionally to a recent diagnosis of STI or unintended pregnancy for females. Sexual dysfunctions hindering sexuality were also correlated with a history of unintended pregnancy among males. Conclusion While most youth in France enjoy a satisfying sexual life, sexual dysfunction is common, especially among females. Public health programs and clinicians should screen for and address sexual dysfunction, which substantially reduce youth sexual wellbeing.

  14. Sexual dysfunction among youth: an overlooked sexual health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Caroline; Kågesten, Anna E; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-11-18

    There is growing recognition that youth sexual health entails a broad range of physical, emotional and psychosocial responses to sexual interactions, yet little is known about sexual dysfunctions and well being in youth populations. This study explored sexual dysfunctions among youth and its associations with other domains of sexual health. Sexual dysfunctions were defined as: problems related to orgasm, pain during intercourse, lack of sexual desire or sexual pleasure. Data were drawn from the 2010 French national sexual and reproductive health survey comprising a random sample of 2309 respondents aged 15-24 years. The current analysis included 842 females and 642 males who had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months. Chi square tests were used to test for differences in sexual dysfunctions by sex and explore associations with other domains of sexual health. Half of females (48%) reported at least one sexual dysfunction versus 23% of males. However, over half (57%) of youth reporting at least one dysfunction did not consider this to hinder their sexuality. Altogether, 31% of females cited at least one sexual dysfunction hindering their sexuality-more than three times the 9% of males. Sexual dysfunction was strongly and inversely related to sexual satisfaction for both males and females and additionally to a recent diagnosis of STI or unintended pregnancy for females. Sexual dysfunctions hindering sexuality were also correlated with a history of unintended pregnancy among males. While most youth in France enjoy a satisfying sexual life, sexual dysfunction is common, especially among females. Public health programs and clinicians should screen for and address sexual dysfunction, which substantially reduce youth sexual wellbeing.

  15. Is Balamuthia mandrillaris a public health concern worldwide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2013-10-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic, free-living amoeba that can cause skin lesions and the typically fatal Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis (BAE) both in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Available data for BAE cases indicate that this disease is difficult to detect because knowledge of predisposing factors is lacking, causing a challenge for diagnosing BAE. The number of reported BAE cases is increasing worldwide, and this is a major concern because little is known about the pathogen, no standardized detection tools are available, and most of the treatments are almost empirical. The recently reported cases, novel diagnostics tools, and successful therapeutic approaches against BAE infections are reviewed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social, Psychological and Health Concerns of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Mysore District, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Shibu Thomas; Siddanna, Sunitha

    2016-03-01

    One of the significant health and social problem the world facing today is Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AiDS). The patients affected with HIV and their family may face various psychosocial problems during diagnosis and treatment due to the stigma associated with this disease. The objective of the study was to identify social, psychological and health concerns of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and its association with the demographic factors in Mysore District, Karnataka, India. A questionnaire based study was conducted among 194 participants in Mysore District, Karnataka state who were receiving care and support services. A 22-item questionnaire provided information regarding social, psychological and health concerns of PLWHA in Mysore district. A general linear regression model was used for assessing the predictors of social, psychological and health concerns. The main social concern was that of "Fear of Losing a loved one" whereas the main psychological concern was "Too much worry", "No cure for AIDS" was the highly rated health concern. Males had more social, psychological and health concerns when compared to females but was not statistically significant. Employed people were having fewer psychological concerns when compared to unemployed people. Unemployed people were having fewer health concerns than employed people. For every unit increase in age there were fewer social and health concerns and both these findings were statistically significant. PLWHA in the present study reported that they were concerned about social, psychological and health issues in spite of the fact they were attending counseling. Health care workers, including those in public health sector should be educated about the importance of these factors that influence the health of the population they are caring for.

  17. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  18. Cannabis Smoking in 2015: A Concern for Lung Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Jason R; Burnham, Ellen L

    2015-09-01

    Recent legislative successes allowing expanded access to recreational and medicinal cannabis have been associated with its increased use by the public, despite continued debates regarding its safety within the medical and scientific communities. Despite legislative changes, cannabis is most commonly used by smoking, although alternatives to inhalation have also emerged. Moreover, the composition of commercially available cannabis has dramatically changed in recent years. Therefore, developing sound scientific information regarding its impact on lung health is imperative, particularly because published data conducted prior to widespread legalization are conflicting and inconclusive. In this commentary, we delineate major observations of epidemiologic investigations examining cannabis use and the potential associated development of airways disease and lung cancer to highlight gaps in pulmonary knowledge. Additionally, we review major histopathologic alterations related to smoked cannabis and define specific areas in animal models and human clinical translational investigations that could benefit from additional development. Given that cannabis has an ongoing classification as a schedule I medication, federal funding to support investigations of modern cannabis use in terms of medicinal efficacy and safety profile on lung health have been elusive. It is clear, however, that the effects of inhaled cannabis on lung health remain uncertain and given increasing use patterns, are worthy of further investigation.

  19. Are Australians concerned about nanoparticles? A comparative analysis with established and emerging environmental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Adam; Rolfe, Margaret; Gillespie, James; Smith, Wayne

    2015-02-01

    Introducing new technologies into society raises considerable public concern. We determine the public concern about nanoparticles, and compare this concern to other environmental health issues such as wind farms and coal seam gas production. A repeat cross sectional survey examining views on environmental health issues, risk, chemicals and trust was undertaken in more than 1,300 Australian residents in 2000 and 2013. Logistic regression and principal component analysis was used to investigate predictors of nanoparticle concern and identify a component structure for environmental health issues that could explain a trend of future nanoparticle concern. Australians have a relatively low level of concern about the risks of nanoparticles to health when compared to their concerns about other environmental health issues. Items associated with concern included gender, a general wish to avoid chemicals and possibly trust in politicians. Concern over nanoparticles clustered with similar views on technological risks. Current public concern over the risks of nanoparticles is low. However, a reframing of the issue towards 'chemicals' is likely to have a negative effect on risk perceptions. This paper raises questions about appropriate channels for the effective communication of risk. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Orbitofrontal and limbic signatures of empathic concern and intentional harm in the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Morales, Juan P; Slachevsky, Andrea; Torralva, Teresa; Matus, Cristian; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-02-01

    Perceiving and evaluating intentional harms in an interpersonal context engages both cognitive and emotional domains. This process involves inference of intentions, moral judgment, and, crucially, empathy towards others' suffering. This latter skill is notably impaired in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). However, the relationship between regional brain atrophy in bvFTD and deficits in the above-mentioned abilities is not well understood. The present study investigated how gray matter (GM) atrophy in bvFTD patients correlates with the perception and evaluation of harmful actions (attribution of intentionality, evaluation of harmful behavior, empathic concern, and moral judgment). First, we compared the behavioral performance of 26 bvFTD patients and 23 healthy controls on an experimental task (ET) indexing intentionality, empathy, and moral cognition during evaluation of harmful actions. Second, we compared GM volume in patients and controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Third, we examined brain regions where atrophy might be associated with specific impairments in the patient group. Finally, we explored whether the patients' deficits in intentionality comprehension and empathic concern could be partially explained by regional GM atrophy or impairments in other relevant factors, such as executive functions (EFs). In bvFTD patients, atrophy of limbic structures (amygdala and anterior paracingulate cortex--APC) was related to impairments in intentionality comprehension, while atrophy of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was associated with empathic concern deficits. Intentionality comprehension impairments were predicted by EFs and orbitofrontal atrophy predicted deficits in empathic concern. Thus, although the perception and evaluation of harmful actions are variously compromised in bvFTD, deficits in empathic concern may be central to this syndrome as they are associated with one of the earliest atrophied region. More generally, our results

  1. Self-esteem, behavior, and concerns surrounding epilepsy in siblings of children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, J

    1997-04-01

    Researchers document the emotional impact of epilepsy on the child with seizures. Minimal data are available examining the effects of epilepsy on the siblings of children with seizures. Twenty children whose siblings had either frequent seizures or infrequent seizures were matched by age, gender, and birth order to control subjects with no chronic illness. These three groups were compared. Self-esteem, behavioral and social functioning, and family stress were measured by the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale, Child Behavior Checklist, and Family Inventory of Life Events. The siblings of children with epilepsy completed the Sibling Concern About Seizure Scale to define and measure their concerns surrounding epilepsy. There is no statistical difference in self-esteem or social functioning among the three groups. There is a trend toward increased incidence of externalizing behavior in siblings of children with frequent seizures. Data indicate a trend toward siblings of children with frequent seizures having more concerns about epilepsy than siblings of children with infrequent seizures. There is significantly more stress in families of children with frequent seizures compared to families of children with infrequent seizures and families of children with no chronic illness. Although there were no significant differences in the self-esteem, behavior, socialization, and concerns between the siblings in the family when compared to the control group or to each other, there were trends in the results that may be of clinical significance. These issues, along with the level of family stress, should be considered when coordinating and providing care to families of children with intractable epilepsy.

  2. Electromyographically Assessed Empathic Concern and Empathic Happiness Predict Increased Prosocial Behavior in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sharee N.; Moran, Zachary D.; Swander, Lena; Le, Van; Cage, Brandi; Burghy, Cory; Westbrook, Cecilia; Greishar, Larry; Davidson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The relation between empathy subtypes and prosocial behavior was investigated in a sample of healthy adults. "Empathic concern" and "empathic happiness," defined as negative and positive vicarious emotion (respectively) combined with an other-oriented feeling of “goodwill” (i.e. a thought to do good to others/see others happy), were elicited in 68 adult participants who watched video clips extracted from the television show Extreme Makeover: Home Edition. Prosocial behavior was quantified via performance on a non-monetary altruistic decision-making task involving book selection and donation. Empathic concern and empathic happiness were measured via self-report (immediately following each video clip) and via facial electromyography recorded from corrugator (active during frowning) and zygomatic (active during smiling) facial regions. Facial electromyographic signs of (a) empathic concern (i.e. frowning) during sad video clips, and (b) empathic happiness (i.e. smiling) during happy video clips, predicted increased prosocial behavior in the form of increased goodwill-themed book selection/donation. PMID:25486408

  3. The development of cognitive empathy and concern in preschool children: A behavioral neuroscience investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Meidenbauer, Kimberly L; Cowell, Jason M

    2018-05-01

    This developmental neuroscience study examined the electrophysiological responses (EEG and ERPs) associated with perspective taking and empathic concern in preschool children, as well as their relation to parental empathy dispositions and children's own prosocial behavior. Consistent with a body of previous studies using stimuli depicting somatic pain in both children and adults, larger early (~200 ms) ERPs were identified when perceiving painful versus neutral stimuli. In the slow wave window (~800 ms), a significant interaction of empathy condition and stimulus type was driven by a greater difference between painful and neutral images in the empathic concern condition. Across early development, children exhibited enhanced N2 to pain when engaging in empathic concern. Greater pain-elicited N2 responses in the cognitive empathy condition also related to parent dispositional empathy. Children's own prosocial behavior was predicted by several individual differences in neural function, including larger early LPP responses during cognitive empathy and greater differentiation in late LPP and slow wave responses to empathic concern versus affective perspective taking. Left frontal activation (greater alpha suppression) while engaging in affective perspective taking was also related to higher levels of parent cognitive empathy. Together, this multilevel analysis demonstrates the important distinction between facets of empathy in children; the value of examining neurobehavioral processes in development. It provides provoking links between children's neural functioning and parental dispositions in early development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Current status of Plasmodium knowlesi vectors: a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vythilingam, I; Wong, M L; Wan-Yussof, W S

    2018-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite is currently affecting humans in Southeast Asia. Malaysia has reported the most number of cases and P. knowlesi is the predominant species occurring in humans. The vectors of P. knowlesi belong to the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles mosquitoes. These are generally described as forest-dwelling mosquitoes. With deforestation and changes in land-use, some species have become predominant in farms and villages. However, knowledge on the distribution of these vectors in the country is sparse. From a public health point of view it is important to know the vectors, so that risk factors towards knowlesi malaria can be identified and control measures instituted where possible. Here, we review what is known about the knowlesi malaria vectors and ascertain the gaps in knowledge, so that future studies could concentrate on this paucity of data in-order to address this zoonotic problem.

  5. Conceptions of mobile emergency service health professionals concerning psychiatric emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bonfada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the Brazilian Psychiatric Reformation, assistance to psychological seizures represents a challenge for the emergency services. Therefore, the objective of this paper is the analysis of the conceptions of health professionals who work at the Mobile Emergency Service in Natal on psychiatric emergency care. This paper is, then, a qualitative study that used interviews as tools for collecting information. By using thematic analysis, the speeches were grouped into three categories: the stigma on patients and the professionals' fear of services interventions in psychiatric emergencies; having psychiatric emergencies regarded as harmful to patients and others' security; psychiatric emergencies being taken as patients' aggressiveness or severe depression. The data collected indicate that the interviewed professionals' ideas are supported by elements associated with the ideology that insanity implies social segregation and dangerousness. Thus, the survey prompted reflection on relevant issues to the process of psychiatric reformation implementation.

  6. A national action plan for workforce development in behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Michael A; Morris, John A; Stuart, Gail W; Huey, Leighton Y; Bergeson, Sue; Flaherty, Michael T; Morgan, Oscar; Peterson, Janice; Daniels, Allen S; Paris, Manuel; Madenwald, Kappy

    2009-07-01

    Across all sectors of the behavioral health field there has been growing concern about a workforce crisis. Difficulties encompass the recruitment and retention of staff and the delivery of accessible and effective training in both initial, preservice training and continuing education settings. Concern about the crisis led to a multiphased, cross-sector collaboration known as the Annapolis Coalition on the Behavioral Health Workforce. With support from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, this public-private partnership crafted An Action Plan for Behavioral Health Workforce Development. Created with input from a dozen expert panels, the action plan outlines seven core strategic goals that are relevant to all sectors of the behavioral health field: expand the role of consumers and their families in the workforce, expand the role of communities in promoting behavioral health and wellness, use systematic recruitment and retention strategies, improve training and education, foster leadership development, enhance infrastructure to support workforce development, and implement a national research and evaluation agenda. Detailed implementation tables identify the action steps for diverse groups and organizations to take in order to achieve these goals. The action plan serves as a call to action and is being used to guide workforce initiatives across the nation.

  7. Education and health behavior of patients with gastric ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zastawna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ulcer disease is one of the most common gastrointestinal condition. The aim of the work is to prove the need for education concerning this disease and to present the lifestyle and health behavior of a person suffering from this condition. The method of case study was used in this study. The author used a questionnaire survey and interview technique, observation and analysis of patient documentation. The results of our research were compared with those of other Polish authors dealing with the topic. The results outline the patient's knowledge of general illness and proper diet; as well as engaging unhealthy behaviors, despite having sufficient knowledge concerning healthy lifestyle.

  8. Senior military officers' educational concerns, motivators and barriers for healthful eating and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Lori D; Anderson, Jennifer E; Auld, Garry W

    2005-10-01

    The increasing trend of overweight in the military, the high cost of health care associated with overweight, and the failure to meet some Healthy People 2000 objectives related to diet identify the need for more appropriate nutrition and fitness education for military personnel. The purpose of this study was to assess senior military officers' concerns on various health topics, educational preferences for nutrition and health topics, eating habits, and barriers and motivators for eating healthfully and exercising regularly. The survey was completed by 52 resident students at the U.S. Army War College. Fitness, weight, and blood cholesterol were top health concerns, and respondents wanted to know more about eating healthfully on the run. The primary barrier to eating healthfully and exercising regularly was lack of time, whereas health and appearance were top motivators. Health interventions for this population should include their topics of concern and should address perceived barriers and motivators.

  9. The impact of educational interventions on the empathic concern of health professional students: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Naleya; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Pitt, Victoria

    2018-05-24

    This review aimed to identify programs that promote health professional students' empathic concern. Empathic concern is a key mediator of important outcomes for both patients and health professionals. However the empathic concern of health professional students tends to decline over the course of their studies. To date studies that have evaluated the impact of educational programs on empathic concern have not been reviewed. The databases ProQuest, CINAHL and Ovid were searched for studies that had evaluated educational programs for health professional students using a validated psychometric measure of empathic concern. Studies were graded using The Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Of 2977 identified studies, fifteen met inclusion criteria. Seven studies separately reported empathic concern scores. Four of the fifteen studies reported increased empathy scale scores after students took part in a program. Two studies received a strong quality rating, six a moderate rating and seven a weak rating. This review did not identify any studies that clearly demonstrated an increase in students' empathic concern after taking part in an educational program. Mindfulness based stress reduction, providing empathy content at each stage of a degree, programs that incorporate the film Wit, and Balint groups, may promote empathic concern. In light of the significant impact of health professionals' levels of empathic concern on outcomes for patients and health professionals, further robustly designed research using appropriate psychometric scales is needed to inform the development of education programs in this area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Lan; Tang, Ren-Bin

    2016-04-01

    Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  11. Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Lan Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS.

  12. Road safety in India: A Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha S Parsekar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic accident (RTA is one of the major preventable public health problems and is on the rise which can be attributed to increase in the number of vehicles and lifestyle changes and risky attitudes. This paper is intended to search for available published information which in turn might help the policy makers as well as practitioners to make use of it. Methods: The information has been gathered from papers related to RTAs from various databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, government websites to get an overview in India for the last 15 years. Result and Conclusion: The burden of RTA was found to be considerably high globally as well as in India. RTA causes a number of effects which can be: economical, physical, psychological and social. The burden of RTA is on the rise which makes it necessary to take a multi-sectoral approach in its prevention and control

  13. The Associations between Substance Use, Sexual Behaviors, Bullying, Deviant Behaviors, Health, and Cyber Dating Abuse Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Torres, Elizabeth; Choi, Hye Jeong; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel; Temple, Jeff R.

    2017-01-01

    Dating violence is an important public health concern and is considered to be a form of school violence. While digital technologies have enabled perpetrators of dating violence to target their victims online (cyber dating abuse), little is known about how this form of perpetration relates to specific adolescent risk behaviors. This brief research…

  14. Behavioral control is an important predictor of soy intake in adults in the USA concerned about diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyun; Camp, Shirley; Finck, Jananne; Winter, Martha; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the variables associated with intention to consume soy products and identify key variables that could be used as targets in soy nutrition education and consumption promotion. A pre/post-test survey was used during a three session class focused on diabetes that discussed and introduced soy foods. The Theory of Planned Behavior framed the questions and variables examined. Subjective norms and behavioral control were most important in predicting intention to consume soy foods. Specifically, health experts and providers were important subjective norms; accessibility and ability to prepare were key behavioural control determinants. While most participants tried soy during the program, taste and texture perceptions did not impact intention to buy soy in adults concerned about diabetes.

  15. Openness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and family health and aging concerns interact in the prediction of health-related Internet searches in a representative U.S. sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eBogg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent estimates suggest 60 % of the U.S. adult population uses the Internet to find health-related information. The goal of the present study was to model health-related Internet searches as a function of an interdependent system of personality adaptation in the context of recent health and aging-related concerns. Assessments of background factors, Big Five personality traits, past-month health and aging-related concerns, and the frequency of past-month health-related Internet searches (via Google, Yahoo, AOL, Bing, or some other search engine were obtained from a representative U.S. sample (N = 1,015. Controlling for background factors, regression analyses showed more frequent health-related Internet searches were predicted by a drive for exploration and investigation (high openness, as well as alarm sensitivity (high openness and high neuroticism and an anticipatory inclination (high openness and high conscientiousness in the context of recent problems with aging parents and recent health concerns for a family member. Consistent with interdependent models of personality adaptation, as well as prior evidence for surrogate health-related Internet searches, the results suggest a personality process model of search behavior that is partially dependent upon dispositional levels of exploration, emotional stability, control, and health and aging concerns for family members.

  16. Openness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and family health and aging concerns interact in the prediction of health-related Internet searches in a representative U.S. sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogg, Tim; Vo, Phuong T

    2014-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest 60% of the U.S. adult population uses the Internet to find health-related information. The goal of the present study was to model health-related Internet searches as a function of an interdependent system of personality adaptation in the context of recent health and aging-related concerns. Assessments of background factors, Big Five personality traits, past-month health and aging-related concerns, and the frequency of past-month health-related Internet searches (via Google, Yahoo, AOL, Bing, or some other search engine) were obtained from a representative U.S. sample (N = 1,015). Controlling for background factors, regression analyses showed more frequent health-related Internet searches were predicted by a drive for exploration and investigation (high openness), as well as alarm sensitivity (high openness and high neuroticism) and an anticipatory inclination (high openness and high conscientiousness) in the context of recent problems with aging parents and recent health concerns for a family member. Consistent with interdependent models of personality adaptation, as well as prior evidence for "surrogate" health-related Internet searches, the results suggest a personality process model of search behavior that is partially dependent upon dispositional levels of exploration, emotional stability, control, and health and aging concerns for family members.

  17. Family characteristics and health behaviour as antecedents of school nurses' concerns about adolescents' health and development: a path model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Levälahti, Esko; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2015-05-01

    Family socio-economic factors and parents' health behaviours have been shown to have an impact on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. Family characteristics have also been associated with school nurses' concerns, which arose during health examinations, about children's and adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development. Parental smoking has also been associated with smoking in adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development related to family characteristics are mediated through parents' and adolescents' own health behaviours (smoking). A path model approach using cross-sectional data was used. In 2008-2009, information about health and well-being of adolescents was gathered at health examinations of the Children's Health Monitoring Study. Altogether 1006 eighth and ninth grade pupils in Finland participated in the study. The associations between family characteristics, smoking among parents and adolescents and school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development were examined using a structural equation model. Paternal education had a direct, and, through fathers' and boys' smoking, an indirect association with school nurses' concerns about the physical health of boys. Paternal labour market status and family income were only indirectly associated with concerns about the physical health of boys by having an effect on boys' smoking through paternal smoking, and a further indirect effect on concerns about boys' health. In girls, only having a single mother was strongly associated with school nurses' concerns about psychosocial development through maternal and adolescent girl smoking. Socio-economic family characteristics and parental smoking influence adolescent smoking and are associated with school nurses' concerns about adolescents' physical health and psychosocial development. The findings

  18. The Perceived Stigma of Mental Health Services Among Rural Parents of Children With Psychosocial Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polaha, Jodi; Williams, Stacey L; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Studts, Christina R

    2015-01-01

    To examine parents' perceptions of stigma regarding mental health services for their child, consider stigma in the context of novel service delivery settings (e.g., telehealth, primary care, and schools), and evaluate stigma with other factors known to influence service access. 347 caregivers of children with psychosocial concerns completed surveys regarding their perceptions of stigma, service delivery settings, and barriers to care. Parents endorsed low levels of stigma around services. Greater perceived stigma was related to less willingness to seek services in a mental/behavioral health center or schools but not in other settings, even when other barriers were considered. Having a younger child and a history of prior services was associated with greater willingness to seek services. Stigma does appear to present as a barrier, but only for some parents. Providing mental health services to young children and their parents in some nontraditional settings may increase access. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. School Counselors' Education and Training, Competency, and Supportive Behaviors Concerning Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William J.; McDougald, Amanda M.; Kresica, Aimee M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined high school counselors' education and training, counseling competency, and supportive behavior regarding gay, lesbian, and bisexual students. Sexual minority students often face a range of school and mental health problems. Results show that participants' counseling competency skills, knowledge, and attitudes predict…

  20. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  1. Development of a health information technology acceptance model using consumers' health behavior intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongeun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2012-10-01

    For effective health promotion using health information technology (HIT), it is mandatory that health consumers have the behavioral intention to measure, store, and manage their own health data. Understanding health consumers' intention and behavior is needed to develop and implement effective and efficient strategies. To develop and verify the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in health care by describing health consumers' behavioral intention of using HIT. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. We extended TAM by adding more antecedents and mediating variables to enhance the model's explanatory power and to make it more applicable to health consumers' behavioral intention. Additional antecedents and mediating variables were added to the hypothetical model, based on their theoretical relevance, from the Health Belief Model and theory of planned behavior, along with the TAM. We undertook structural equation analysis to examine the specific nature of the relationship involved in understanding consumers' use of HIT. Study participants were 728 members recruited from three Internet health portals in Korea. Data were collected by a Web-based survey using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The overall fitness indices for the model developed in this study indicated an acceptable fit of the model. All path coefficients were statistically significant. This study showed that perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected health consumers' attitude and behavioral intention. Health consumers' health status, health belief and concerns, subjective norm, HIT characteristics, and HIT self-efficacy had a strong indirect impact on attitude and behavioral intention through the mediators of perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. An extended TAM in the HIT arena was found to be valid to describe health consumers' behavioral intention. We categorized the concepts in

  2. Social Relationships and Health: The Meaning of Social "Connectedess" and How It Relates to Health Concerns for Rural Scottish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Leo B.; Reid, Marylou

    2000-01-01

    Discusses social belonging as both a health-related goal and an antidote for emotional crises. Examines how social connectedess represents both a content and process variable in Northern Scottish young people's discussion of their health concerns. Analyses reveal both the potency of all these concerns and participants' belief that skills acquired…

  3. Targeting self-regulation to promote health behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Fredericks, Emily M; Katz, Benjamin; Shapiro, Lilly Fink; Holden, Kelsie; Kaciroti, Niko; Gonzalez, Richard; Hunter, Christine; Lumeng, Julie C

    2018-02-01

    Poor self-regulation (i.e., inability to harness cognitive, emotional, motivational resources to achieve goals) is hypothesized to contribute to unhealthy behaviors across the lifespan. Enhancing early self-regulation may increase positive health outcomes. Obesity is a major public health concern with early-emerging precursors related to self-regulation; it is therefore a good model for understanding self-regulation and health behavior. Preadolescence is a transition when children increase autonomy in health behaviors (e.g., eating, exercise habits), many of which involve self-regulation. This paper presents the scientific rationale for examining self-regulation mechanisms that are hypothesized to relate to health behaviors, specifically obesogenic eating, that have not been examined in children. We describe novel intervention protocols designed to enhance self-regulation skills, specifically executive functioning, emotion regulation, future-oriented thinking, and approach bias. Interventions are delivered via home visits. Assays of self-regulation and obesogenic eating behaviors using behavioral tasks and self-reports are implemented and evaluated to determine feasibility and psychometrics and to test intervention effects. Participants are low-income 9-12 year-old children who have been phenotyped for self-regulation, stress, eating behavior and adiposity through early childhood. Study goals are to examine intervention effects on self-regulation and whether change in self-regulation improves obesogenic eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  5. Working in Australia's heat: health promotion concerns for health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhvir; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2015-06-01

    This exploratory study describes the experiences arising from exposure to extreme summer heat, and the related health protection and promotion issues for working people in Australia. Twenty key informants representing different industry types and occupational groups or activities in Australia provided semi-structured interviews concerning: (i) perceptions of workplace heat exposure in the industry they represented, (ii) reported impacts on health and productivity, as well as (iii) actions taken to reduce exposure or effects of environmental heat exposure. All interviewees reported that excessive heat exposure presents a significant challenge for their industry or activity. People working in physically demanding jobs in temperatures>35°C frequently develop symptoms, and working beyond heat tolerance is common. To avoid potentially dangerous health impacts they must either slow down or change their work habits. Such health-preserving actions result in lost work capacity. Approximately one-third of baseline work productivity can be lost in physically demanding jobs when working at 40°C. Employers and workers consider that heat exposure is a 'natural hazard' in Australia that cannot easily be avoided and so must be accommodated or managed. Among participants in this study, the locus of responsibility for coping with heat lay with the individual, rather than the employer. Heat exposure during Australian summers commonly results in adverse health effects and productivity losses, although quantification studies are lacking. Lack of understanding of the hazardous nature of heat exposure exacerbates the serious risk of heat stress, as entrenched attitudinal barriers hamper amelioration or effective management of this increasing occupational health threat. Educational programmes and workplace heat guidelines are required. Without intervention, climate change in hot countries, such as Australia, can be expected to further exacerbate heat-related burden of disease and loss

  6. ACADEMIC YOUTH’S HEALTH BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Radzimińska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A very important role in the protection of human health is their life style, their habits and patterns of conduct. Early adulthood is the best period to achieve long-term benefits from a selection of healthy living. However, the results of studies on health-related behavior of youth in Poland and in the world are not satisfactory. The purpose of the study: The purpose of the research was to assess the health behaviors of students of higher education in Bydgoszcz. Material: The study involved 272 students (124 women and 148 men Bydgoszcz higher education students in the following fields of study: physiotherapy, nutrition, logistics and national security. The Inventory of Health-Related Behavior by Zygfryd Juczyński has been used in the research. The statistical analysis was performed using the package PQ Stat 1.6.2. Results: Throughout the treatment group an average level of health-related behavior has been shown. The results of the different categories of health-related behavior were lower than the results of the standardization groups. A higher level of health behavior has been shown in a group of medical students compared to non-medical students. The results for women were higher than men's results. Conclusions: The results of personal research and the research findings of other authors demonstrate that there is a need for implementation of programs of health promotion and health education in all fields of study.

  7. School Nurses' Descriptions of Concerns Arising during Pupils' Health Check-Ups: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutiainen, Hannele; Holopainen, Arja; Hakulinen-Viitanen, Tuovi; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the concerns and modes of action of Finnish school nurses during pupils' health check-ups. Methods: Focus group interviews with 17 school nurses were performed in 2011 and again in 2013. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. Results: School nurses' concerns were mostly associated with the psychosocial…

  8. Emotional responses to behavioral economic incentives for health behavior change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; Mathijssen, Jolanda J.P.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J.; Prast, Henriëtte M.

    2018-01-01

    Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals

  9. Emotional Responses to Behavioral Economic Incentives for Health Behavior Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan; Prast, Henriette

    2018-01-01

    Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals

  10. Nativity, Chronic Health Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayog, Maria L G; Waters, Catherine M

    2018-05-01

    Nearly half of Americans have a chronic health condition related to unhealthful behavior. One in four Americans is an immigrant; yet immigrants' health has been studied little, particularly among Asian American subpopulations. Years lived in United States, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, walking, adiposity, and fruit/vegetable variables in the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed to examine the influence of nativity on chronic health conditions and health behaviors in 555 adult Filipinos, the second largest Asian American immigrant subpopulation. Recent and long-term immigrant Filipinos had higher odds of having hypertension and diabetes, but lower odds of smoking and overweight/obesity compared with second-generation Filipinos. Being born in the United States may be protective against chronic health conditions, but not for healthful behaviors among Filipinos. Chronic disease prevention and health promotion strategies should consider nativity/length of residence, which may be a more consequential health determinant than other immigration and acculturation characteristics.

  11. Transformational leadership behaviors in allied health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, David A; Gallagher, Helen L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore self-reported transformational leadership behavior profiles within the six largest allied health profession groups in the National Health Service in Scotland and to determine whether factors such as seniority of grade, locus of employment, and/or leadership training have a positive influence on transformational leadership behaviors. A postal survey comprising the shorter version of the Multifactorial Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and contextual demographic information was completed by 753 allied health professionals from four Health Board areas across Scotland who were randomly selected through a modified cluster sampling technique. The MLQ contains 36 items that measure nine identified leadership factors; however, only the responses to the five transformational leadership factors are reported here. The study identified significant differences in transformational leadership behaviors between individual allied health professions. Radiographers and podiatrists scored consistently lower than the other professional groups across the range of transformational behaviors. Seniority of grade significantly influenced the scores, with higher-graded staff reporting greater leadership behaviors (p leadership training also positively influenced transformational behaviors (p transformational leadership behaviors between individual allied health professions, indicating that some professional groups are inherently advantaged in embracing the modernization agenda. This highlights an as-yet missed opportunity for effectively targeting and evaluating multidisciplinary leadership training programs across the allied health professions.

  12. Health Beliefs Concerning Breast Self-examination of Nurses in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinc Tastan, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: It is important to be aware of the health beliefs of nurses regarding BSE so that their own health can be protected and improved. Beneficial attitudes and behaviors of nurses regarding BSE will enable them to provide more effective services to women regarding breast cancer. Understanding the nurses’ health beliefs, attitude and behavior that are influential to make BSE will guide nursing practices towards early diagnosis of breast cancer at the societal level.

  13. [Health and health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Glòria; Martí-Pastor, Marc; Gotsens, Mercè; Bartoll, Xavier; Diez, Elia; Borrell, Carme

    2015-01-01

    to Describe perceived health, mental health and certain health-related behaviors according to sexual attraction and behavior in the population residing in Barcelona in 2011. Perceived health, mental health, chronic conditions and health-related behaviors were analyzed in 2675 people aged 15 to 64 years. The Barcelona Health Survey for 2011 was used, which included questions on sexual attraction and behavior. Multivariate robust Poisson regression models were fitted to obtain adjusted prevalence ratios. People feeling same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of worse perceived and mental health. These people and those who had had sex with persons of the same sex more frequently reported harmful health-related behaviors. Lesbian, gay, transgender and bisexual people may have health problems that should be explored in depth, prevented, and attended. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Stereotype confirmation concerns predict dropout from cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Suzanne; Price, Matthew; Mehta, Natasha; Anderson, Page L

    2014-08-19

    There are high attrition rates observed in efficacy studies for social anxiety disorder, and research has not identified consistent nor theoretically meaningful predictors of dropout. Pre-treatment symptom severity and demographic factors, such as age and gender, are sometimes predictive of dropout. The current study examines a theoretically meaningful predictor of attrition based on experiences associated with social group membership rather than differences between social group categories--fear of confirming stereotypes. This is a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing two cognitive behavioral treatments for social anxiety disorder: virtual reality exposure therapy and exposure group therapy. Participants (N = 74) with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder who were eligible to participate in the parent study and who self-identified as either "African American" (n = 31) or "Caucasian" (n = 43) completed standardized self-report measures of stereotype confirmation concerns (SCC) and social anxiety symptoms as part of a pre-treatment assessment battery. Hierarchical logistic regression showed that greater stereotype confirmation concerns were associated with higher dropout from therapy--race, age, gender, and pre-treatment symptom severity were not. Group treatment also was associated with higher dropout. These findings urge further research on theoretically meaningful predictors of attrition and highlight the importance of addressing cultural variables, such as the experience of stereotype confirmation concerns, during treatment of social anxiety to minimize dropout from therapy.

  15. The behavioral economics of health and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    People often make decisions in health care that are not in their best interest, ranging from failing to enroll in health insurance to which they are entitled, to engaging in extremely harmful behaviors. Traditional economic theory provides a limited tool kit for improving behavior because it assumes that people make decisions in a rational way, have the mental capacity to deal with huge amounts of information and choice, and have tastes endemic to them and not open to manipulation. Melding economics with psychology, behavioral economics acknowledges that people often do not act rationally in the economic sense. It therefore offers a potentially richer set of tools than provided by traditional economic theory to understand and influence behaviors. Only recently, however, has it been applied to health care. This article provides an overview of behavioral economics, reviews some of its contributions, and shows how it can be used in health care to improve people's decisions and health.

  16. Sexual Behavior and Concerns in a Sample of Elderly, Former Indentured Swiss Child Laborers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Past research suggests a link between post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an increased risk for sexual problems. However, there is still no clear picture whether these higher rates are related to trauma exposure or to PTSD itself. Aim The aim of the present study was to complement existing knowledge on the relative impact of trauma and PTSD on sexuality in later life, considering different aspects of trauma exposure on both men and women. Methods The study was conducted on a unique population sample of former Swiss indentured child laborers (55 men, M age 78, age range 60–95 years) who have repeatedly experienced a variety of severe childhood traumas. Main Outcome Measures Sexual outcomes were measured using two scales from the Trauma Symptom Inventory—Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior (DSB) and Sexual Concerns (SC). PTSD symptoms and trauma were assessed with the Short Screening Scale for PTSD and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, respectively. Results Twenty‐two individuals showed PTSD symptoms, and 53 reported having experienced childhood trauma. Significant differences between men and women were reported for DSB and SC. Men reported a significantly higher prevalence of both SC and DSB compared with women. Conclusions This is the very first study investigating DSB and SC in a sample of older adults exposed to similar traumatic experiences and settings. However, some study limitations need to be considered such as the small sample size. Additional studies are needed to further explore the relative role of traumatization and PTSD on sexual behavior and well‐being, especially to improve sexual therapy for patients who experience trauma. Rechsteiner K, Burri A, and Maercker A. Sexual behavior and concerns in a sample of elderly, former indentured Swiss child laborers. Sex Med 2015;3:305–314. PMID:26797066

  17. Sexual Behavior and Concerns in a Sample of Elderly, Former Indentured Swiss Child Laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechsteiner, Karin; Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Past research suggests a link between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an increased risk for sexual problems. However, there is still no clear picture whether these higher rates are related to trauma exposure or to PTSD itself. The aim of the present study was to complement existing knowledge on the relative impact of trauma and PTSD on sexuality in later life, considering different aspects of trauma exposure on both men and women. The study was conducted on a unique population sample of former Swiss indentured child laborers (55 men, M age 78, age range 60-95 years) who have repeatedly experienced a variety of severe childhood traumas. Sexual outcomes were measured using two scales from the Trauma Symptom Inventory-Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior (DSB) and Sexual Concerns (SC). PTSD symptoms and trauma were assessed with the Short Screening Scale for PTSD and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, respectively. Twenty-two individuals showed PTSD symptoms, and 53 reported having experienced childhood trauma. Significant differences between men and women were reported for DSB and SC. Men reported a significantly higher prevalence of both SC and DSB compared with women. This is the very first study investigating DSB and SC in a sample of older adults exposed to similar traumatic experiences and settings. However, some study limitations need to be considered such as the small sample size. Additional studies are needed to further explore the relative role of traumatization and PTSD on sexual behavior and well-being, especially to improve sexual therapy for patients who experience trauma. Rechsteiner K, Burri A, and Maercker A. Sexual behavior and concerns in a sample of elderly, former indentured Swiss child laborers. Sex Med 2015;3:305-314.

  18. Coping experience of health concerns and physical disability for older Chinese people: A qualitative, descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, He; Turale, Sue

    2017-12-01

    In this qualitative, descriptive study, we explored the perspectives of older, community-dwelling Chinese people regarding their experiences of coping with a physical disability and their health concerns. Twenty participants were interviewed in-depth, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Five themes with 13 subthemes emerged that described older people's experiences of coping with health concerns and disability: (i) ignoring health concerns; (ii) managing self; (iii) seeking medical help; (iv) living with physical disability; and (v) relying on limited resources. Most participants did not have sufficient access to health services due to physical disability and financial deficits, so they tended to ignore their health conditions or tackle them independently before seeking medical help. At the same time, they were impacted on by social and cultural factors. Policies are required that offer more resources to community-dwelling people with disabilities in China. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Seasonal agricultural youth workers' concerns on development - growth in adolescence period and utilization of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep simsek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Physical, psychological and social changes occurring in adolescence period may be cause for concern. In this study, it was aimed to determine concerns on growth and development in adolescence period, related factors and utilization of health services. Methods: In this study, data related youths' concerns, utilization of health services and socio-demographic variables obtained from multi-purpose cross-sectional survey named Needs Assesment of Seasonal Agricultural Worker Families Survey-2011 were used. Survey framework was consisted of aged 15-24 young people of families who worked as a seasonal agricultural farmworker in the year of research conducted. Survey was completed in 1021 households total 915 youths selected by probability cluster sampling method of 1200 households by Turkish Statistical Institution (Response rates were 90,7% in women, and 77,2% in men. and lsquo;Woman and Men Questionnaires' were applied by face to face interview. University Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Data entry and analysis performed using SPSS 11.5 software, descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: Of participants 63,6% of female and 46,6% of male adolescents reported at least one concern related to growth and development inadolescent period. While having any concern prevalence in women were changed working time in the fields and health perception, marital status and education level with adolescent's concerns were related in men significantly (P <0,05. 13,8% of females and 10,9% of males utilized the health services because of concerns. Conclusion: By Family Health Centers at this risky young group during their period of residence in their address, adolescent follow-up should be done, should be asked concerns and given early diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, health education programs on adolescence period by Community Health Centers will be useful. [TAF Prev Med Bull

  20. The Effects of Public Concern for Information Privacy on the Adoption of Health Information Exchanges (HIEs) by Healthcare Entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pouyan

    2018-05-08

    The implementation of Health Information Exchanges (HIEs) by healthcare organizations may not achieve the desired outcomes as consumers may request that their health information remains unshared because of information privacy concerns. Drawing on the insights of concern for information privacy (CFIP) literature, this work extends the application of CFIP to the HIE domain. This study attempts to develop and test a model centered on the four dimensions of CFIP construct (collection, errors, unauthorized access, and secondary use) and their antecedents to predict consumers' opt-in behavioral intention toward HIE in the presence of the perceived health status' effects. We conducted an online survey in the United States using 826 samples. The results demonstrate that the perceived health information sensitivity and computer anxiety meaningfully contribute to information privacy concerns and CFIP construct significantly impedes consumers' opt-in decision to HIEs. Interestingly, contrary to our expectation, perceived poor health status considerably attenuates the negative effects exerted by CFIP on opt-in intention. The model proposed by this study can be used as a useful conceptual tool by both further studies and practitioners to examine the complex nature of patients' reactions to information privacy threats associated with the use of HIE technology in the healthcare industry.

  1. Knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors of adults concerning nonalcoholic beverages suggest some lack of comprehension related to sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Kim, Hyeyoung; Gao, Zhifeng; House, Lisa A

    2014-02-01

    Key recommendations in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate are to reduce the intake of added sugars, particularly from sugar-sweetened beverages, and drink water instead of "sugary" beverages. However, little is known about consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors regarding sugars in beverages. We hypothesized that consumers would have limited or inaccurate knowledge of the sugars in beverages and that their beverage consumption behaviors would not reflect their primary concerns related to sugars in beverages. An online survey was completed by 3361 adults 18 years and older residing throughout the United States. Water was consumed in the highest amounts followed by (in descending amounts) other beverages (includes coffee and tea), added sugar beverages, milk, diet drinks, and 100% fruit juice and blends. Participants primarily associated the term "sugary" with beverages containing added sugars; however, almost 40% identified 100% fruit juice as sugary. Some participants misidentified the types of sugars in beverages, particularly with respect to milk and 100% fruit juices. Generally, beverage choices were consistent with stated concerns about total, added, or natural sugars; however, less than 40% of participants identified added sugars as a primary concern when choosing beverages despite public health recommendations to reduce the intake of added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages. Results suggest that there may be a considerable level of consumer misunderstanding or confusion about the types of sugars in beverages. More consumer research and education are needed with the goal of helping consumers make more informed and healthy beverage choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Daily health concerns in Kakabo: anthropological explorations in a Bangladeshi village

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Selin, N.; Zaman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Daily health concerns in Kakabo: Anthropological explorations in a Bangladeshi village is a collection of essays written by students of BRAC James P Grant School of Public Health in 2005, 2006 and 2007. These essays are the results of exploratory studies conducted in a village named Kakabo, about

  3. The health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers in the Toronto sportswear industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannagé, C M

    1999-01-01

    Immigrant women's conditions of work have worsened with new government and managerial strategies to restructure the Canadian apparel industry. Changes in occupational health and safety legislation have both given and taken away tools that immigrant women workers could use to improve the quality of their working lives. The author outlines a methodology for eliciting the health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers.

  4. Chronological changes in Japanese physicians' attitude and behavior concerning relationships with pharmaceutical representatives: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Saito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent qualitative studies indicated that physicians interact with pharmaceutical representatives depending on the relative weight of the benefits to the risks and are also influenced by a variety of experiences and circumstances. However, these studies do not provide enough information about if, when, how and why their attitudes and behaviors change over time. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A qualitative study using semi-structured face-to-face individual interviews was conducted on 9 Japanese physicians who attended a symposium on conflicts of interest held in Tokyo. Interviews were designed to explore chronological changes in individual physicians' attitude and behavior concerning relationships with pharmaceutical representatives and factors affecting such changes. Their early interaction with pharmaceutical representatives was passive as physicians were not explicitly aware of the meaning of such interaction. They began to think on their own about how to interact with pharmaceutical representatives as they progressed in their careers. Their attitude toward pharmaceutical representatives changed over time. Factors affecting attitudinal change included work environment (local regulations and job position, role models, views of patients and the public, acquisition of skills in information seeking and evidence-based medicine, and learning about the concepts of professionalism and conflict of interest. However, the change in attitude was not necessarily followed by behavioral change, apparently due to rationalization and conformity to social norms. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians' attitudes toward relationships with pharmaceutical representatives changed over time and factors affecting such changes were various. Paying attention to these factors and creating new social norms may be both necessary to produce change in behavior consistent with change in attitude.

  5. Barriers to mental health service use and preferences for addressing emotional concerns among lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Winger, Joseph G; Hanna, Nasser; Jalal, Shadia I; Fakiris, Achilles J; Einhorn, Lawrence H; Birdas, Thomas J; Kesler, Kenneth A; Champion, Victoria L

    2014-07-01

    This study examined barriers to mental health service use and preferences for addressing emotional concerns among lung cancer patients (N=165) at two medical centers in the Midwestern United States. Lung cancer patients completed an assessment of anxiety and depressive symptoms, mental health service use, barriers to using these services, and preferences for addressing emotional concerns. Only 45% of distressed patients received mental health care since their lung cancer diagnosis. The most prevalent patient-reported barriers to mental health service use among non-users of these services (n=110) included the desire to independently manage emotional concerns (58%) and inadequate knowledge of services (19%). In addition, 57% of distressed patients who did not access mental health services did not perceive the need for help. Seventy-five percent of respondents (123/164) preferred to talk to a primary care physician if they were to have an emotional concern. Preferences for counseling, psychiatric medication, peer support, spiritual care, or independently managing emotional concerns also were endorsed by many patients (range=40-50%). Older age was associated with a lower likelihood of preferring to see a counselor. Findings suggest that many distressed lung cancer patients underuse mental health services and do not perceive the need for such services. Efforts to increase appropriate use of services should address patients' desire for autonomy and lack of awareness of services. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Effect of Health Beliefs, Media Perceptions, and Communicative Behaviors on Health Behavioral Intention: An Integrated Health Campaign Model on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sun-Wook; Kim, Jarim; Lee, Yeunjae

    2018-01-01

    Social media have recently gained attention as a potential health campaign tool. This study examines this line of expectation concerning the role social media may play in health campaigns by testing an integrated health campaign model that combines insights from research on social media-specific perceptions and communicative behaviors in order to predict health behaviors. Specifically, this study aims to (a) develop a more holistic social media campaign model for predicting health behaviors in the social media context, (b) investigate how social media channel-related perceptions affect preventive health behaviors, and (c) investigate how communicative behaviors mediate perceptions and behavioral intention. The study conducted an online survey of 498 females who followed the Purple Ribbon Twitter campaign (@pprb), a cervical cancer prevention campaign. The results indicated that information acquisition mediated perceived risk's effect on intention. Information acquisition also mediated the relationships between intention and information selection and information transmission. On the other hand, social media-related perceptions indirectly impacted behavioral intention through communicative behaviors. The findings' theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. First experience concerning the seismic behavior of an electric power system in eastern North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierre, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The November 25, 1988, Saguenay earthquake of magnitude M b L g = 6.5 occurred in the province of Quebec, Canada. It represents the first strong event in eastern North America for which the seismic behavior of a power system is documented. The paper describes the seismic performance of the main components of the power system with emphasis on damages to the substation's equipment and on the triggering of control and protection devices by the seismic waves. Performance of the network is analyzed taking in account the seismological and strong ground motion features. Attention is drawn to general observations related to soil conditions and topographical relief. These data, when extrapolated to the eastern North American context, indicate that caution must be exercised concerning the seismic resistance of lifelines in eastern Canada and United States

  8. Work stress and health risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes; Rödel, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    This contribution discusses current knowledge of associations between psychosocial stress at work and health risk behavior, in particular cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and overweight, by reviewing findings from major studies in the field published between 1989 and 2006. Psychosocial stress at work is measured by the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. Health risk behavior was analyzed in the broader context of a health-related Western lifestyle with socially and economically patterned practices of consumption. Overall, the review, based on 46 studies, only modestly supports the hypothesis of a consistent association between work stress and health risk behavior. The relatively strongest relationships have been found with regard to heavy alcohol consumption among men, overweight, and the co-manifestation of several risks. Suggestions for further research are given, and the need to reduce stressful experience in the framework of worksite health promotion programs is emphasized.

  9. Transparency of Mandatory Information Disclosure and Concerns of Health Services Providers and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Kung, Chih-Ming; Fang, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Yi

    2017-01-09

    This study analyzed differences between transparency of information disclosure and related demands from the health service consumer's perspective. It also compared how health service providers and consumers are associated by different levels of mandatory information disclosure. We obtained our research data using a questionnaire survey (health services providers, n = 201; health service consumers, n = 384). Health service consumers do not have major concerns regarding mandatory information disclosure. However, they are concerned about complaint channels and settlement results, results of patient satisfaction surveys, and disclosure of hospital financial statements ( p transparency of information disclosure ( p information provided by hospitals. Thus, when a hospital discloses information, it is necessary for the government to consider the information's applicability. Toward improving medical expertise and information asymmetry, the government has to reduce the burden among health service consumers in dealing with this information, and it has to use the information effectively.

  10. The effect of individual factors on health behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of eHealth literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, WanChen; Chiang, ChiaHsun; Yang, ShuChing

    2014-12-12

    College students' health behavior is a topic that deserves attention. Individual factors and eHealth literacy may affect an individual's health behaviors. The integrative model of eHealth use (IMeHU) provides a parsimonious account of the connections among the digital divide, health care disparities, and the unequal distribution and use of communication technologies. However, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors, and IMeHU has not been empirically investigated. This study examines the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors using IMeHU. The Health Behavior Scale is a 12-item instrument developed to measure college students' eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. The eHealth Literacy Scale is a 12-item instrument designed to measure college students' functional, interactive, and critical eHealth literacy. A nationally representative sample of 525 valid college students in Taiwan was surveyed. A questionnaire was administered to collect background information about participants' health status, degree of health concern, major, and the frequency with which they engaged in health-related discussions. This study used Amos 6.0 to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to identify the best measurement models for the eHealth Literacy Scale and the Health Behavior Scale. We then conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors. Additionally, causal steps approach was used to explore indirect (mediating) effects and Sobel tests were used to test the significance of the mediating effects. The study found that perceptions of better health status (t520=2.14-6.12, PeHealth literacy and adoption of healthy eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. Moreover, eHealth literacy played an intermediary role in the association between individual factors and health behaviors (Sobel test=2.09-2.72, PeHealth

  11. Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Before and After a Refinery Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Martin, Kathryn Remmes; Owen, Steven V.; Goodwin, James S.

    2014-01-01

    On March 23, 2005, a large explosion at an oil refinery in Texas City, Texas caused 15 deaths and approximately 170 injuries. Little is known about how such an industrial accident influences concern about environmental health risks. We used measures of environmental health concern about nearby petrochemical production with a sample of Texas City residents to understand patterns of concern and change in concern after an industrial accident, as well as individual and contextual factors associated with those patterns. Survey interviews with residents of Texas City, Texas (N =315) both pre- and postexplosion using a brief Concern About Petrochemical Health Risk Scale (CAPHRS) and other questions were used to collect pertinent predictor information. CAPHRS baseline, postexplosion, and change scores were compared and modeled using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and a mixed model. Higher preexplosion CAPHRS scores were predicted by younger adults, foreign-born Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks, lower- and middle-income groups, and those who live with someone who has worked at the petrochemical plants. Higher CAPHRS change scores are predicted by the same variables (except income), as well as proximity to, or perception of, the explosion, and reports of neighborhood damage. Findings suggest these groups’ concern scores could indicate a greater vulnerability to psychological and physical harm generated by concern and stress arising from local petrochemical activities. A clearer understanding of concern about actual environmental health risks in exposed populations may enhance the evolving theory of stress and coping and eventually enable public health professionals to develop appropriate mitigation strategies. PMID:18643817

  12. Outcome and Efficacy of Interventions by a Public Figure Threat Assessment and Management Unit: A Mirrored Study of Concerning Behaviors and Police Contacts Before and After Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David V; Farnham, Frank R

    2016-09-01

    Specialized units for the assessment and management of concerning behaviors towards public figures have been set up in various jurisdictions. Their efficacy has been demonstrated descriptively and in terms of reduction in concern rates. This study of 100 consecutive cases from the Fixated Threat Assessment Centre (FTAC) in the UK uses a novel measure of outcome in the form of reduction in behaviors of concern and in police call-outs/stops, using data culled from police and health service records. It adopts a mirrored design, comparing individuals over 12-month and 2-year periods before and after FTAC intervention. It demonstrates significant reductions in both numbers of individuals involved in, and number of actual incidents of, concerning communication and problematic approach, as well as police call-outs/stops. Most results are consistent across subgroups with regard to gender, previous convictions, concern level, compulsory hospitalization and grievance-driven behavior. Such threat assessment units reduce risky behavior and save police time and, possibly, costs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Do Parents Expect Pediatricians to Pay Attention to Behavioral Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Justine Julia; Lynch, Sean; Tarver, Leslie Bishop; Mitchell, Laura; Frosch, Emily; Solomon, Barry

    2015-08-01

    This study is a qualitative analysis examining caregivers' expectations for pediatricians with regard to behavioral health care. Fifty-five parents/caregivers of children seen in an urban primary care clinic participated in semistructured interviews. Participants were parents or guardians of children between the ages of 2 and 17 years, referred from the pediatric clinic to the mental health center. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Pertinent themes were the following: expected range of care, components of an effective primary care provider (PCP) relationship, action of the PCP, and parent reaction to PCP intervention. Forty-seven percent of caregivers saw the PCP role as strictly for physical health care; 53% expected the PCP to have a role in both physical and behavioral health. Responses were overwhelmingly positive from caregivers when the PCP asked about or conducted a behavioral health intervention. Caregivers did not consistently expect but responded positively to PCPs engaging around behavioral health concerns. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Physician privacy concerns when disclosing patient data for public health purposes during a pandemic influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Emam, Khaled; Mercer, Jay; Moreau, Katherine; Grava-Gubins, Inese; Buckeridge, David; Jonker, Elizabeth

    2011-06-09

    Privacy concerns by providers have been a barrier to disclosing patient information for public health purposes. This is the case even for mandated notifiable disease reporting. In the context of a pandemic it has been argued that the public good should supersede an individual's right to privacy. The precise nature of these provider privacy concerns, and whether they are diluted in the context of a pandemic are not known. Our objective was to understand the privacy barriers which could potentially influence family physicians' reporting of patient-level surveillance data to public health agencies during the Fall 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza outbreak. Thirty seven family doctors participated in a series of five focus groups between October 29-31 2009. They also completed a survey about the data they were willing to disclose to public health units. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the amount of patient detail the participants were willing to disclose, factors that would facilitate data disclosure, and the consensus on those factors. The analysis of the qualitative data was based on grounded theory. The family doctors were reluctant to disclose patient data to public health units. This was due to concerns about the extent to which public health agencies are dependable to protect health information (trusting beliefs), and the possibility of loss due to disclosing health information (risk beliefs). We identified six specific actions that public health units can take which would affect these beliefs, and potentially increase the willingness to disclose patient information for public health purposes. The uncertainty surrounding a pandemic of a new strain of influenza has not changed the privacy concerns of physicians about disclosing patient data. It is important to address these concerns to ensure reliable reporting during future outbreaks.

  15. Health promoting behaviors in industrial workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Yilmazel

    2015-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Health promoting behaviors were found to be in moderate level among cement factory workers. In our country, health protection and development programs at the national level would be useful to standardize for employees in the industrial sector. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 153-162

  16. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  17. 'Your health our concern, our health whose concern?': perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberese-Ako, M.; van Dijk, H.; Gerrits, T.; Arhinful, D.K.; Agyepong, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers’ attitudes and performance in delivering

  18. Your health our concern, our health whose concern? : perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberese-Ako, M.; Dijk, van H.; Gerrits, T.; Arhinful, D.K.; Agyepong, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers’ attitudes and performance in delivering

  19. Young Love: Romantic Concerns and Associated Mental Health Issues among Adolescent Help-Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Megan; Hides, Leanne; Cockshaw, Wendell; Staneva, Aleksandra A; Stoyanov, Stoyan R

    2016-05-06

    Over 50% of young people have dated by age 15. While romantic relationship concerns are a major reason for adolescent help-seeking from counselling services, we have a limited understanding of what types of relationship issues are most strongly related to mental health issues and suicide risk. This paper used records of 4019 counselling sessions with adolescents (10-18 years) seeking help from a national youth counselling service for a romantic relationship concern to: (i) explore what types and stage (pre, during, post) of romantic concerns adolescents seek help for; (ii) how they are associated with mental health problems, self-harm and suicide risk; and (iii) whether these associations differ by age and gender. In line with developmental-contextual theory, results suggest that concerns about the initiation of relationships are common in early adolescence, while concerns about maintaining and repairing relationships increase with age. Relationship breakups were the most common concern for both male and female adolescents and for all age groups (early, mid, late adolescence). Data relating to a range of mental health issues were available for approximately half of the sample. Post-relationship concerns (including breakups) were also more likely than pre- or during-relationship concerns to be associated with concurrent mental health issues (36.8%), self-harm (22.6%) and suicide (9.9%). Results draw on a staged developmental theory of adolescent romantic relationships to provide a comprehensive assessment of relationship stressors, highlighting post-relationship as a particularly vulnerable time for all stages of adolescence. These findings contribute to the development of targeted intervention and support programs.

  20. Radio frequency identification (RFID) in health care: privacy and security concerns limiting adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P

    2014-03-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been implemented in a wide variety of industries. Health care is no exception. This article explores implementations and limitations of RFID in several health care domains: authentication, medication safety, patient tracking, and blood transfusion medicine. Each domain has seen increasing utilization of unique applications of RFID technology. Given the importance of protecting patient and data privacy, potential privacy and security concerns in each domain are discussed. Such concerns, some of which are inherent to existing RFID hardware and software technology, may limit ubiquitous adoption. In addition, an apparent lack of security standards within the RFID domain and specifically health care may also hinder the growth and utility of RFID within health care for the foreseeable future. Safeguarding the privacy of patient data may be the most important obstacle to overcome to allow the health care industry to take advantage of the numerous benefits RFID technology affords.

  1. The privacy paradox : Investigating discrepancies between expressed privacy concerns and actual online behavior - A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, Susanne; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2017-01-01

    Also known as the privacy paradox, recent research on online behavior has revealed discrepancies between user attitude and their actual behavior. More specifically: While users claim to be very concerned about their privacy, they nevertheless undertake very little to protect their personal data.

  2. In their own words: older male prisoners' health beliefs and concerns for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susan J; Steffensmeier, Darrell; Myco, Priscilla M

    2007-01-01

    U.S. prisons are experiencing an exponential growth in inmates aged 50 years and older, a group with disproportionately high disease burden. The purpose of this study was to examine, in largely exploratory terms, the health beliefs and concerns of older male inmates and the health challenges they anticipate facing upon their return to the community. Results indicate that there is much to be gained from the assessments and insights of older prisoners with regard to health changes that occur during incarceration, health programs that they desire, the reasons for their confidence (or lack thereof) in health self-management, and fears about their health upon release. Geriatric nurses are well positioned to heed these important insights of inmates and translate them into steps for 1) preventing many of the health deteriorations experienced by older prisoners and 2) advocating for more seamless health care when incarcerated offenders transition back into the community.

  3. Knowledge and behavior of Nigerian dentists concerning the treatment of children with special needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanu Oluwatosin O

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with special needs (CSN are reported to receive less adequate dental care due to various behavioral problems and barriers created by dental professionals. This study was carried out to determine the knowledge and behaviour of Nigerian dentists concerning the treatment of CSN. Methods Questionnaires consisting of open and closed ended questions requesting socio-demographic information, type of practice, undergraduate and postgraduate training, self-rated knowledge and behaviour concerning care of CSN, were hand delivered to 359 dentists in the 3 geographical zones of Nigeria over a period of 8 weeks. Responses were compared across age groups, gender, type of practice and training received. Result Two hundred and eighty questionnaires were returned completed, constituting 79.9% response rate. Most of the respondents were aged 30 – 39 years (44.3%. There were more males (56.1% and more recent graduates of 10 years and below (78.5%. Over 80% of respondents had treated children with disabilities, those with physical disabilities being most encountered. Only 19.3% of respondents rated their knowledge of management of CSN as adequate, with no significant difference across age groups and gender, but with a significantly higher number of older graduates reporting to have adequate knowledge (p Conclusion From this study, very few dentists reported to have adequate knowledge of management of CSN, irrespective of age, gender and place of practice. A significant number of those with more experience rated their knowledge as adequate. Although most dentists rated the children's behaviour as challenging, they indicated their willingness to treat them in their practices.

  4. Emotional responses to behavioral economic incentives for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M

    2018-03-05

    Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals do not get their prize but receive feedback on what their forgone earnings would have been. This counterfactual feedback should provoke anticipated regret and increase commitment to health goals. We explored which emotions were actually expected upon missing out on a prize due to unsuccessful weight loss and which incentive-characteristics influence their likelihood and intensity. Participants reported their expected emotional response after missing out on a prize in one of 12 randomly presented incentive-scenarios, which varied in incentive type, incentive size and deadline distance. Participants primarily reported feeling disappointment, followed by regret. Regret was expected most when losing a lottery prize (vs. a fixed incentive) and intensified with prize size. Multiple features of the participant and the lottery incentive increase the occurrence and intensity of regret. As such, our findings can be helpful in designing behavioral economic incentives that leverage emotions to support health behavior change.

  5. [The health preserving behavior in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bitskii, V Iu; Makeev, N I

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the results of study of health preserving behavior of 310 students of senior classes of high schools of town of Jukovsky of Moskovskaya oblast. The higher level of prevalence of harmful habits among adolescents is revealed. It is emphasized that among girls the prevalence of harmful habits is not at large lower than among boys. The lower level of medical activities of respondents is explained by mistrusting physicians of curative preventive establishments, fear of queues, self-confidence in one's own knowledge and low level of medical awareness. The priority of physical culture and sport in the life of adolescents is reducing. The reorientation of trends in modern fashion to the behavior stereotypes with motional activities restriction occurs. The making of conditions to develop consistent health preserving behavior can become the most important reserve of preservation and enhancement of adolescents' health.

  6. A typology of health marketing research methods--combining public relations methods with organizational concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Wan, Thomas T H; Liberman, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Research plays a critical role throughout virtually every conduit of the health services industry. The key terms of research, public relations, and organizational interests are discussed. Combining public relations as a strategic methodology with the organizational concern as a factor, a typology of four different research methods emerges. These four health marketing research methods are: investigative, strategic, informative, and verification. The implications of these distinct and contrasting research methods are examined.

  7. Changing health behaviors with social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Almazor, M E

    2011-08-01

    Social marketing uses marketing techniques to promote healthy attitudes and behaviors. As in traditional marketing, the development and implementation of social marketing programs is based on the four P's: product, price, place, and promotion, but it also incorporates the partnership and participation of stakeholders to enhance public health and engage policy makers. The "product" in social marketing is generally a behavior, such as a change in lifestyle (e.g., diet) or an increase in a desired health practice (e.g., screening). In order for people to desire this product, it must offer a solution to a problem that is weighed with respect to the price to pay. The price is not just monetary, and it often involves giving something up, such as time (e.g., exercising) or a wanted, satisfying behavior (e.g., smoking). In its development phase, social marketing incorporates qualitative methods to create messages that are powerful and potentially effective. The implementation of the programs commonly involves mass campaigns with advertisement in various media. There have been a few social media campaigns targeting bone health that have been disseminated with substantial outreach. However, these have not been systematically evaluated, specifically with respect to change in behavior and health outcomes. Future campaigns should identify target behaviors that are amenable to change such as bone mass measurement screening or exercise. Audience segmentation will be crucial, since a message for young women to increase peak bone mass would be very different from a message for older individuals who have just experienced a fracture. Campaigns should involve key stakeholders, including policy makers, health providers, and the public. Finally, success must be carefully evaluated, not just by the outreach of the campaign, but also by a change in relevant behaviors and a decrease in deleterious health outcomes.

  8. Water pollution: A review of microbial quality and health concerns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviewed aquatic ecosystem pollution with particular reference to pathogens in water, sediment and fish and their human health concerns. It highlighted the historical perspective of the relationship between microbes and humans regarding the “ranging war” between them, arising from the reckless exploitation of ...

  9. Perceptions of Mental Health Concerns for Secondary Students with Disabilities during Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppen, Marcus; Sinclair, James; Hirano, Kara; Lindstrom, Lauren; Unruh, Deanne

    2016-01-01

    This study reports results from a national survey of education and community professionals regarding secondary level students with disabilities who were experiencing mental health concerns. A total of 648 professionals from 49 states completed the on-line survey. Respondents reported that almost half (48%) of their students with disabilities were…

  10. Personality Traits and Psychological Health Concerns: The Search for Psychology Student Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Michael S.; Lymburner, Jocelyn A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored whether an affliction similar to Medical Student Syndrome occurs in psychology students (i.e., Psychology Student Syndrome) by examining the relationship between self ratings of psychological health and the number of psychopathology courses taken. Undergraduate participants rated their level of concern about suffering…

  11. Behavioral health leadership: new directions in occupational mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L

    2014-10-01

    The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health.

  12. Child oral health concerns amongst parents and primary care givers in a Sure Start local programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, B; Clarke, W; McEvoy, W; Periam, K; Zoitopoulos, L

    2010-09-01

    To conduct an oral health promotion needs assessment amongst parents and primary care givers of pre-school children in a South East London Sure Start Local Programme (SSLP). To explore the oral health concerns and oral health literacy with regard to children's oral health amongst parents and primary care givers in a South East London SSLP. A qualitative study using four in-depth focus groups with a purposive sample of 20 participants. Data were analysed using the framework method. The SSLP was identified as an important source of information, support and social interaction for participants. Participants rated the informal networks of the programme as equally authoritative as other formal sources of information. Oral health concerns included: introducing healthy eating, establishing tooth brushing, teething and access to dental care. While participants had adequate knowledge of how to prevent oral disease they cited many barriers to acting on their knowledge which included: parents' tiredness, lack of confidence in parenting skills, confusing information, widespread availability of sugary foods and drinks, and lack of local child friendly dentists. Parenting skills and the social support provided by the SSLP appeared to be integral to the introduction of positive oral health behaviours. SSLPs were seen as a trusted source of support and information for carers of pre-school children. Integration of oral health promotion into SSLPs has the potential to tap into early interventions which tackle the wider support needs of carers of pre-school children while also supporting the development of positive oral health behaviours.

  13. Applying the Health Belief Model to college students' health behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Seon; Ahn, Joo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how university students' nutrition beliefs influence their health behavioral intention. This study used an online survey engine (Qulatrics.com) to collect data from college students. Out of 253 questionnaires collected, 251 questionnaires (99.2%) were used for the statistical analysis. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) revealed that six dimensions, "Nutrition Confidence," "Susceptibility," "Severity," "Barrier," "Benefit," "Behavioral Intention to Eat Healthy Food," and "Behavioral Intention to do Physical Activity," had construct validity; Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliabilities were tested for item reliability. The results validate that objective nutrition knowledge was a good predictor of college students' nutrition confidence. The results also clearly showed that two direct measures were significant predictors of behavioral intentions as hypothesized. Perceived benefit of eating healthy food and perceived barrier for eat healthy food to had significant effects on Behavioral Intentions and was a valid measurement to use to determine Behavioral Intentions. These findings can enhance the extant literature on the universal applicability of the model and serve as useful references for further investigations of the validity of the model within other health care or foodservice settings and for other health behavioral categories. PMID:23346306

  14. Analysis concerning nutritional behaviors in the context of the risk of orthorexia

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    Olejniczak D

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dominik Olejniczak,1 Dorota Bugajec,1 Mariusz Panczyk,2 Anna Brytek-Matera,3 Urszula Religioni,4 Aleksandra Czerw,1 Aleksandra Grąbczewska,1 Grzegorz Juszczyk,1 Karolina Jabłkowska-Górecka,1 Anna Staniszewska5 1Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Science, Medical University of Warsaw, 2Division of Teaching and Outcomes of Education, Faculty of Health Science, Warsaw Medical University, 3Faculty of Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Katowice, 4Collegium of Socio-Economics, Warsaw School of Economics, 5Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: Orthorexia is recognized as an eating disorder, an obsessive–compulsive spectrum disorder, or a somatoform disorder. The aim of our research was to analyze nutritional behaviors for the assessment of the risk of orthorexia. The authors developed a questionnaire in which 981 respondents participated and used it as a research method. Both men and women ate mostly 4–5 meals per day (46.30% women versus 34.74% men; however, more men than women ate 1–2 meals daily (18.95% men versus 7.9% women. Both place of birth and field of study did not differ in terms of the number of meals. Moreover, it was observed that the number of meals per day was correlated with the declared time spent on planning a diet. People who ate over 3 meals per day more often indicates that they spent >3 h per day on planning their diet in comparison with people who ate only 1–2 meals. Only 17.6% of the respondents declared that they most often ate meals in a company of someone, whereas 45.3% indicated that there was no rule. The remaining 37.1% of the respondents most often consumed their meals alone. Almost twice as many men as women never paid attention to the qualitative composition of nutrition. Women followed a slimming diet more often than men (20.3% versus 5.8% and this indicated >4 attempts of losing weight

  15. Primary care patients reporting concerns about their gambling frequently have other co-occurring lifestyle and mental health issues

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    Shepherd Robin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Problem gambling often goes undetected by family physicians but may be associated with stress-related medical problems as well as mental disorders and substance abuse. Family physicians are often first in line to identify these problems and to provide a proper referral. The aim of this study was to compare a group of primary care patients who identified concerns with their gambling behavior with the total population of screened patients in relation to co-morbidity of other lifestyle risk factors or mental health issues. Methods This is a cross sectional study comparing patients identified as worrying about their gambling behavior with the total screened patient population for co morbidity. The setting was 51 urban and rural New Zealand practices. Participants were consecutive adult patients per practice (N = 2,536 who completed a brief multi-item tool screening primary care patients for lifestyle risk factors and mental health problems (smoking, alcohol and drug misuse, problem gambling, depression, anxiety, abuse, anger. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and non-parametric binomial tests with adjusting for clustering by practitioner using STATA survey analysis. Results Approximately 3/100 (3% answered yes to the gambling question. Those worried about gambling more likely to be male OR 1.85 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.1. Increasing age reduced likelihood of gambling concerns – logistic regression for complex survey data OR = 0.99 (CI 95% 0.97 to 0.99 p = 0.04 for each year older. Patients concerned about gambling were significantly more likely (all p Conclusion Our questionnaire identifies patients who express a need for help with gambling and other lifestyle and mental health issues. Screening for gambling in primary care has the potential to identify individuals with multiple co-occurring disorders.

  16. Does Integrated Behavioral Health Care Reduce Mental Health Disparities for Latinos? Initial Findings

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    Bridges, Ana J.; Andrews, Arthur R.; Villalobos, Bianca T.; Pastrana, Freddie A.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Gomez, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) is a model of mental health care service delivery that seeks to reduce stigma and service utilization barriers by embedding mental health professionals into the primary care team. This study explored whether IBHC service referrals, utilization, and outcomes were comparable for Latinos and non-Latino White primary care patients. Data for the current study were collected from 793 consecutive patients (63.8% Latino; M age = 29.02 years [SD = 17.96]; 35.1% under 18 years; 65.3% women; 54.3% uninsured) seen for behavioral health services in 2 primary care clinics during a 10.5 month period. The most common presenting concerns were depression (21.6%), anxiety (18.5%), adjustment disorder (13.0%), and externalizing behavior problems (9.8%). Results revealed that while Latino patients had significantly lower self-reported psychiatric distress, significantly higher clinician-assigned global assessment of functioning scores, and fewer received a psychiatric diagnosis at their initial visit compared to non-Latino White patients, both groups had comparable utilization rates, comparable and clinically significant improvements in symptoms (Cohen’s d values > .50), and expressed high satisfaction with integrated behavioral services. These data provide preliminary evidence suggesting integration of behavioral health services into primary care clinics may help reduce mental health disparities for Latinos. PMID:25309845

  17. Partially wrong? Partial equilibrium and the economic analysis of public health emergencies of international concern.

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    Beutels, P; Edmunds, W J; Smith, R D

    2008-11-01

    We argue that traditional health economic analysis is ill-equipped to estimate the cost effectiveness and cost benefit of interventions that aim at controlling and/or preventing public health emergencies of international concern (such as pandemic influenza or severe acute respiratory syndrome). The implicit assumption of partial equilibrium within both the health sector itself and--if a wider perspective is adopted--the economy as a whole would be violated by such emergencies. We propose an alternative, with the specific aim of accounting for the behavioural changes and capacity problems that are expected to occur when such an outbreak strikes. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Utilization of emergency medical transports and hospital admissions among persons with behavioral health conditions.

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    Cuddeback, Gary; Patterson, P Daniel; Moore, Charity Galena; Brice, Jane H

    2010-04-01

    Emergency medical services transport and emergency department misuse among persons with behavioral health conditions is a concern. Administrative data were used to examine medical transports and hospital admissions among persons with behavioral health conditions. Data on 70,126 medical transports to emergency departments in three southeastern counties were analyzed. Compared with general medical transports, fewer behavioral health transports resulted in a hospital admission. Among behavioral health transports, persons with schizophrenia were 2.62 times more likely than those with substance use disorders to be admitted, and persons with mood disorders were 4.36 times more likely than those with substance use disorders to be admitted. Also, among behavioral health transports, rural transports were less likely than more urban transports to result in a hospital admission. More training of emergency medical services personnel and more behavioral health crisis resources, especially targeting rural areas and substance use disorders, are needed.

  19. Human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats: a continuing public health concern in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnolo, E R; Lind, L R; Long, J M; Moll, M E; Rankin, J T; Martin, K F; Deasy, M P; Dato, V M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    Rabid free-ranging cats have been a public health concern in Pennsylvania since raccoon variant rabies first was recognized in the state in the early 1980s. Over the last decade, between 1.5 and 2.5% of cats submitted to Pennsylvania's state laboratories for rabies testing have been positive. In this report, we describe the extent of rabies in free-ranging cats in Pennsylvania. We also present two examples of human exposure to rabid free-ranging cats that occurred in Pennsylvania during 2010-2011 and the public health actions taken to address rabies exposure in the humans and animals. We then describe the concerns surrounding the unvaccinated and free-ranging cat population in Pennsylvania and possible options in managing this public and animal health problem. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. The business cycle and health behaviors.

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    Xu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    While it is well documented that economic expansions provide widespread and immediate financial benefits, the evidence on how an economic downturn affects individual's health behaviors is surprisingly mixed. In this paper, we take a structural approach to investigate the effects of wages and working hours on health behaviors of low-educated persons using variations in wages and hours caused by changes in local economic activity. In the empirical analysis, we adopt a two-sample instrumental variables approach to combine the data on individual health behaviors from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) with the data on individual employment from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The total sample size of the combined CPS-BRFSS data for the time period of 1984-2005 is 967,594, while that of the combined CPS-NHIS data for the time period of 1976-2001 is 364,078. We find that increases in wages caused by economic expansions are associated with greater consumption of cigarettes in the United States. We also find that increases in hours of work caused by economic expansions are associated with more cigarette consumption, but less physical activity and physician visits. More importantly, the evidence suggests that most of such effects associated with changes in hours of work can be attributed to the changes at the extensive margin of employment, meaning the changes in employment status, rather than the changes at the intensive margin, meaning changes in hours of work conditional on being employed. These findings imply that changes in employment may have heterogeneous impacts on time-intensive and less time-intensive health behaviors and also provide additional evidence on the importance of time in health production, particularly for time-intensive activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transparency of Mandatory Information Disclosure and Concerns of Health Services Providers and Consumers

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    Yu-Hua Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study analyzed differences between transparency of information disclosure and related demands from the health service consumer’s perspective. It also compared how health service providers and consumers are associated by different levels of mandatory information disclosure. Methods: We obtained our research data using a questionnaire survey (health services providers, n = 201; health service consumers, n = 384. Results: Health service consumers do not have major concerns regarding mandatory information disclosure. However, they are concerned about complaint channels and settlement results, results of patient satisfaction surveys, and disclosure of hospital financial statements (p < 0.001. We identified significant differences in health service providers’ and consumers’ awareness regarding the transparency of information disclosure (p < 0.001. Conclusions: It may not be possible for outsiders to properly interpret the information provided by hospitals. Thus, when a hospital discloses information, it is necessary for the government to consider the information’s applicability. Toward improving medical expertise and information asymmetry, the government has to reduce the burden among health service consumers in dealing with this information, and it has to use the information effectively.

  2. Social relationships and health: the meaning of social "connectedness" and how it relates to health concerns for rural Scottish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, L B; Reid, M

    2000-12-01

    Adolescence has been posited as an important period for the onset of mental health problems and for the need to adapt successfully to many psychosocial changes. The assumption has been made that social belonging is both a health-related goal and an antidote for other sorts of emotional crises, but there is little research on how normal adolescents themselves view connections between social relationships and their physical and mental health. This qualitative study examines how social connectedness represents both a content and process variable in northern Scottish young people's discussion of their health concerns, that is, it was both a source of distress and implicated as a helpful or harmful factor in relation to other health concerns. Analyses revealed both the potency of all of these concerns and participants' belief that skills acquired now could affect their future life goals and health. Suggestions are given for building new approaches for conceptualizing rural young people's health problems and helping them cope with the social contexts involved within and around them. Copyright 2000 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  3. An analysis of electronic health record-related patient safety concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Derek W; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Lesley; Sittig, Dean F; Scott, Jean M; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-01-01

    Objective A recent Institute of Medicine report called for attention to safety issues related to electronic health records (EHRs). We analyzed EHR-related safety concerns reported within a large, integrated healthcare system. Methods The Informatics Patient Safety Office of the Veterans Health Administration (VA) maintains a non-punitive, voluntary reporting system to collect and investigate EHR-related safety concerns (ie, adverse events, potential events, and near misses). We analyzed completed investigations using an eight-dimension sociotechnical conceptual model that accounted for both technical and non-technical dimensions of safety. Using the framework analysis approach to qualitative data, we identified emergent and recurring safety concerns common to multiple reports. Results We extracted 100 consecutive, unique, closed investigations between August 2009 and May 2013 from 344 reported incidents. Seventy-four involved unsafe technology and 25 involved unsafe use of technology. A majority (70%) involved two or more model dimensions. Most often, non-technical dimensions such as workflow, policies, and personnel interacted in a complex fashion with technical dimensions such as software/hardware, content, and user interface to produce safety concerns. Most (94%) safety concerns related to either unmet data-display needs in the EHR (ie, displayed information available to the end user failed to reduce uncertainty or led to increased potential for patient harm), software upgrades or modifications, data transmission between components of the EHR, or ‘hidden dependencies’ within the EHR. Discussion EHR-related safety concerns involving both unsafe technology and unsafe use of technology persist long after ‘go-live’ and despite the sophisticated EHR infrastructure represented in our data source. Currently, few healthcare institutions have reporting and analysis capabilities similar to the VA. Conclusions Because EHR-related safety concerns have complex

  4. HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIOR AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS IN CHANDIGARH, INDIA

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    Suraj Senjam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: India faces multiple threats of diseases. The increasing trend of lifestyle related health problems is becoming a serious issue in India. The best strategy to tackle this changing health concern is adoption of healthy lifestyle and health promotion activities. Objectives: To determine the level of involvement in health promoting behaviors of college students in Chandigarh. Material & Methods: This college based cross sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected colleges of Chandigarh during September 2007 to June 2008. Results: Two hundred students (F=100, M=100 were studied by using self administered health promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP questionnaires. Mean HPLP score was 138.69 (M=137.98, F=139.39. Female students were more likely to have better health promoting practices than their counterpart male students, but difference was not significant. Female students showed more sense of health responsibility than male students (p=0.00, whereas male students were significantly more involved in physical activities than female students (p=0.02. Overall, only few students (18.5% searched health related article from the internet; 26% went for normal health check up in the last year; 13.5% students practiced yoga regularly; 24.5% of them tried to choose diet with low fat content; 30% of them skipped meals regularly, and 25.5% of them ate processed food regularly. Conclusion: The study results showed that college students in Chandigarh had reasonably good orientation towards health promoting practices.

  5. Behavioral lifestyle and mental health status of Japanese factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, S; Morimoto, K

    1994-01-01

    Lifestyle factors, sometimes associated with physical health and mortality, have also been known to be associated with mental health status. This study seeks to correlate behavioral lifestyles with major components of mental health among Japanese factory workers. We administered the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and a questionnaire concerning eight personal health practices to 2,132 male and 668 female factory workers at a camera-manufacturing company in Japan. There were strong negative relationships of a higher total number of favorable lifestyles as indicated by the Health Practice Index (HPI) to psychological distress and its components: somatic symptoms, anxiety-insomnia, and social dysfunction. After controlling for the effects of confounding factors that included age, marital status, and somatic condition, multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that five of the eight health factors among male workers--mental stress, nutritional balance, eating breakfast regularly, physical exercise, and working hours--were significantly related to the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Among female workers, five health practices, i.e., mental stress, physical exercise, sleeping hours, working hours, and cigarette smoking, were significantly associated with the grade of psychological distress or its three components. Good health practices might be individually and as a whole associated with better mental health status in factory workers.

  6. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3) were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI) subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia was

  7. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3 were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body

  8. Identifying veterinary students' capacity for moral behavior concerning animal ethics issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians face unique animal ethics challenges as practitioners and policy advisors to government and industry. Changing societal attitudes, cultural diversity, and the often conflicting needs and interests of patients and clients contribute to moral distress. Yet little has been done to identify veterinarians' capacity to address these animal ethics issues. In this study, first-year and final-year veterinary students in an Australian university were surveyed to explore moral sensitivity, moral motivation, and moral character and their relationship with moral reasoning. The majority of students were concerned about animal ethics issues and had experienced moral distress in relation to the treatment of animals. Most believed that veterinarians should address the wider social issues of animal protection and that veterinary medicine should require a commitment to animals' interests over owners'/caregivers' interests. There was less agreement that the veterinary profession was sufficiently involved in addressing animal ethics issues. The principal motivators for studying veterinary medicine were, in declining importance, enjoyment in working with animals, helping sick and injured animals, and improving the way animals are treated. However, most students had taken little or no action to address animal ethics issues. These results suggest that both first- and fifth-year veterinary students are sensitive to animal ethics issues and are motivated to prioritize the interests of animals but have little experience in taking action to address these issues. Further research is needed to determine ways to identify and assess these moral behavior components in veterinary education to develop veterinarians' capacity to address animal ethics issues.

  9. Pro-environmental analysis of farmers' concerns and behaviors towards soil conservation in central district of Sari County, Iran

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    Masoud Bijani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to pro-environmentally analyze farmers' concerns and behaviors towards soil conservation. This research was a descriptive, causal, and correlational and conducted through a survey technique. The study population consisted of all farmers at the central district of Sari county, Iran (N=9621. Based on the Cochran's formula, 120 farmers were selected using stratified random sampling. The instrument employed in this study was a questionnaire with its validity being confirmed by a number of academic experts and agriculture specialists and its reliability being proved using Cronbach's alpha coefficients in a pilot study (outside the scope of the current study. (0.66≤α≤0.90. The results of the analysis regarding the effects of independent variables on the variables "soil conservation behavior" and "soil conservation concern" indicated that, among the variables affecting these two variables, the variable "attitude towards soil conservation "was the most powerful predictor of "soil conservation concerns" and the variable "social pressures on soil conservation" predicted farmers' "soil conservation behaviors" better. Furthermore, the independent variables used in this research could predict 42% of the variance in terms of soil conservation concern and 21% of the variance in terms of soil conservation behavior. These findings can be practical and appropriate for executive officials since, instead of making efforts to direct change the behavior, they can first focus on conceptual changes and persuasive changes like changing attitudes towards soil conservation.

  10. Cancer surveillance and information: balancing public health with privacy and confidentiality concerns (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deapen, Dennis

    2006-06-01

    Rapid advances in informatics and communication technologies are greatly expanding the capacity for information capture and transportation. While these tools can be used for great good, they also offer new opportunities for those who seek to obtain and use information for improper purposes. While issues related to identity theft for financial gain garner the most attention, protection of privacy in public health endeavors such as cancer surveillance is also a significant concern. Some efforts to protect health-related information have had unintended consequences detrimental to health research and public health practice. Achieving a proper balance between measures to protect privacy and the ability to guard and improve public health requires careful consideration and development of appropriate policies, regulations and use of technology.

  11. Help Preferences Among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-08-01

    To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e., wellness service). Respondents to an electronic questionnaire who acknowledged wishing to change health behaviors in relation to smoking (n = 845), alcohol (n = 684), eating (n = 4,431), and physical activity (n = 5,179) were asked to choose up to three help alternatives on a predefined list. In descending order, smokers preferred help from nicotine gum, no help, and help and support from family and friends. Alcohol consumers preferred no help or help and support from family and friends or "other" forms. Employees who wanted to change eating habits preferred a free fruit bowl, free nutritional guidance, and healthy food at work. Employees who wanted to change physical activity patterns preferred exercise at work, offers of free exercise, and exercise in a social/collegial context. Wishing to change health behaviors is not always accompanied by perceiving a need for assistance. The no-help option was selected fairly frequently and mostly in relation to alcohol and smoking. A fruit bowl was the most preferred option for help, followed by exercise at work and free exercise. Help from traditional health services was ranked low, possibly reflecting that they are primarily viewed as a solution for stopping disease rather than promoting health. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Health behaviors of Bydgoszcz high school graduates

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    Alicja Kostencka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle affects the physical, mental, social development, health and learning ability. It seems that there are differences in the health behaviors  of young females and males, however these differences are not well described. The aim of the current study was to assess the lifestyle of eighteen-years old and to compare their health behaviors of young persons according to their gender. The study was conducted among 98 students of high schools in Bydgoszcz (35 females and 68 males. All participants were 18 years old. The questionnaire was prepared especially for the purposes of the study, a part of the questions of this questionnaire was taken from the Canada Fitness Survey. The physical activity, mode of nutrition, use of stimulants, hours of sleep, time spent in front of screens and the level of stress were taken into consideration while assessing the teenagers’ lifestyle. The lifestyle of high school graduates is worrisome. It is characterized by low level of physical activity, irregular nutrition, not enough fruits, vegetables and water consumed. A large group of young people drink alcohol, smoke tobacco and marijuana, sleep too short. Males also spend too many hours in front of a television, computer or other similar device. Differences in the health behaviors of  women and men appear to be significant. The prevalence of alcohol abuse in this group is very high and affects both sexes. The sex differences in the health-promoting behaviors among men and women in this group of adolescents seems to diminish. Observed unhealthy behaviors indicates the urgent need for health education, especially those that educate the student about the value of the person, the value of health, and the development of social skills that underlie personal development. The foremost priority is  risk prevention implementation in primary schools. Further research and continuous monitoring of health behaviors in different age groups  is needed as well as  to

  13. Presenteeism according to healthy behaviors, physical health, and work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Whitmer, R William

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the contribution that selected demographic characteristics, health behaviors, physical health outcomes, and workplace environmental factors have on presenteeism (on-the-job productivity loss attributed to poor health and other personal issues). Analyses are based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 3 geographically diverse US companies in 2010. Work-related factors had the greatest influence on presenteeism (eg, too much to do but not enough time to do it, insufficient technological support/resources). Personal problems and financial stress/concerns also contributed substantially to presenteeism. Factors with less contribution to presenteeism included physical limitations, depression or anxiety, inadequate job training, and problems with supervisors and coworkers. Presenteeism was greatest for those ages 30-49, women, separated/divorced/widowed employees, and those with a high school degree or some college. Clerical/office workers and service workers had higher presenteeism. Managers and professionals had the highest level of presenteeism related to having too much to do but too little time to do it, and transportation workers had the greatest presenteeism because of physical health limitations. Lowering presenteeism will require that employers have realistic expectations of workers, help workers prioritize, and provide sufficient technological support. Financial stress and concerns may warrant financial planning services. Health promotion interventions aimed at improving nutrition and physical and mental health also may contribute to reducing presenteeism.

  14. [Views of health system administrators, professionals, and users concerning the electronic health record and facilitators and obstacles to its implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jose Felipe Riani; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo

    2018-02-05

    The design and deployment of complex technologies like the electronic health record (EHR) involve technical, personal, social, and organizational issues. The Brazilian public and private scenario includes different local and regional initiatives for implementation of the electronic health record. The Brazilian Ministry of Health also has a proposal to develop a national EHR. The current study aimed to provide a comprehensive view of perceptions by health system administrators, professionals, and users concerning their experiences with the electronic health record and their opinions of the possibility of developing a national EHR. This qualitative study involved 28 semi-structured interviews. The results revealed both the diversity of factors that can influence the implementation of an electronic health record and the existence of convergences and aspects that tend to be valued differently according to the different points of view. Key aspects include discussions on the electronic health record's attributes and it impact on healthcare, especially in the case of local electronic health records, concerns over costs and confidentiality and privacy pertaining to electronic health records in general, and the possible implications of centralized versus decentralized data storage in the case of a national EHR. The interviews clearly showed the need to establish more effective communication among the various stakeholders, and that the different perspectives should be considered when drafting and deploying an EHR at the local, regional, and national levels.

  15. Framing the tax and health nexus: a neglected aspect of public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, David; Chigudu, Simukai; Tillmann, Taavi

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have described various associations between tax policy and health. Here we propose a unifying conceptual framework of 'Five R's' to stimulate awareness about the importance of tax to health improvement. First, tax can improve representation and democratic accountability, and help make governments more responsive to the needs of its citizens. Second, tax can create a revenue stream for a universal pool of public finance for health care and other public services. Third, progressive taxation when combined with appropriate public spending can help redistribute wealth and income and mitigate social and health inequalities. Fourth, the re-pricing of harmful products (e.g. tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy food) can help reduce their consumption. Fifth, taxation provides a route by which certain harmful industries can be regulated. The paper also discusses the barriers that hinder the full potential for taxation to be used to improve health, including: weak tax administrations, large 'shadow economies', international trade liberalisation, tax avoidance, transfer pricing by transnational corporations and banking secrecy. We suggest that a greater awareness of the manifold associations between tax and health will encourage health practitioners to actively promote fairer and better taxation, thereby helping to improve health and reduce health inequalities.

  16. Academic dental public health diplomates: their distribution and recommendations concerning the predoctoral dental public health faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, L M; Sadler, Z E; Hayes, K L; Narendran, S; Niessen, L C; Weintraub, J A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the representation of academically based diplomates of the American Board of Dental Public Health (ABDPH) and to identify their perceptions on the training of dental public health predoctoral faculty. Data were collected by a mailed, self-administered, 13-item questionnaire. The population was the 48 diplomates of the ABDPH as of March 1997 associated with academic institutions. Twenty of the 55 US dental schools had a diplomate of the ABDPH with a mean of 1.8 diplomates per school with a diplomate. An average of 4.5 full-time faculty members per school were associated with teaching dental public health. A master's degree in public health (MPH) was the most frequently suggested educational requirement for dental public health faculty. Continuing education courses were training needs perceived for dental public health faculty. The lack of time, money, and incentives, along with perceived rigidity of requirements for board certification, were reported as major barriers for faculty becoming dental public health board certified. Numerous challenges confront the development of a strong dental public health presence in US dental schools. These challenges include, among others, insufficient numbers of academic dental public health specialists and insufficient motivations to encourage promising candidates to pursue specialty status.

  17. An exploration of the relationship between parenting styles and health risk-taking behaviors among early phase adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Howerton, Mollie W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relationship exists between parenting styles, adolescent self-esteem, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 343 middle school students from Harrisonburg, Virginia who completed a questionnaire consisting of three major components: parenting styles, self-esteem, and health risk behaviors. The health risk behaviors component contained questions concerning alcohol use, drug use, sexual activity, and eating behaviors. The parenting s...

  18. 'Your health our concern, our health whose concern?': perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberese-Ako, Matilda; van Dijk, Han; Gerrits, Trudie; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2014-09-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers' attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients' health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision making

  19. ‘Your health our concern, our health whose concern?’: perceptions of injustice in organizational relationships and processes and frontline health worker motivation in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Han; Gerrits, Trudie; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Agyepong, Irene Akua

    2014-01-01

    Taking a perspective of frontline health workers as internal clients within health systems, this study explored how perceived injustice in policy and organizational matters influence frontline health worker motivation and the consequent effect on workers’ attitudes and performance in delivering maternal and neonatal health care in public hospitals. It consisted of an ethnographic study in two public hospitals in Southern Ghana. Participant observation, conversation and in-depth interviews were conducted over a 16-month period. Ethical approval and consent were obtained from relevant persons and authorities. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo 8 was used for coding and analysis of data. Main themes identified in the analysis form the basis for interpreting and reporting study findings. Findings showed that most workers perceived injustice in distributive, procedural and interactional dimensions at various levels in the health system. At the national policy level this included poor conditions of service. At the hospital level, it included perceived inequity in distribution of incentives, lack of protection and respect for workers. These influenced frontline worker motivation negatively and sometimes led to poor response to client needs. However, intrinsically motivated workers overcame these challenges and responded positively to clients’ health care needs. It is important to recognize and conceptualize frontline workers in health systems as internal clients of the facilities and organizations within which they work. Their quality needs must be adequately met if they are to be highly motivated and supported to provide quality and responsive care to their clients. Meeting these quality needs of internal clients and creating a sense of fairness in governance arrangements between frontline workers, facilities and health system managers is crucial. Consequently, intervention measures such as creating more open door policies, involving frontline workers in decision

  20. School Response to Self-Injury: Concerns of Mental Health Staff and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelada, Lauren; Hasking, Penelope; Melvin, Glenn A.

    2017-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents poses a significant problem for schools, adolescents, and their families. However, appropriate guidelines for addressing NSSI, including when to disclose the behavior to parents, are currently lacking. The present study aimed to understand how school mental health staff and parents of secondary…

  1. Explanatory models concerning the effects of small-area characteristics on individual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtländer, Sven; Vogt, Verena; Mielck, Andreas; Razum, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    Material and social living conditions at the small-area level are assumed to have an effect on individual health. We review existing explanatory models concerning the effects of small-area characteristics on health and describe the gaps future research should try to fill. Systematic literature search for, and analysis of, studies that propose an explanatory model of the relationship between small-area characteristics and health. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Using various theoretical approaches, almost all of the models are based on a three-tier structure linking social inequalities (posited at the macro-level), small-area characteristics (posited at the meso-level) and individual health (micro-level). No study explicitly defines the geographical borders of the small-area context. The health impact of the small-area characteristics is explained by specific pathways involving mediating factors (psychological, behavioural, biological). These pathways tend to be seen as uni-directional; often, causality is implied. They may be modified by individual factors. A number of issues need more attention in research on explanatory models concerning small-area effects on health. Among them are the (geographical) definition of the small-area context; the systematic description of pathways comprising small-area contextual as well as compositional factors; questions of direction of association and causality; and the integration of a time dimension.

  2. Transparency of Mandatory Information Disclosure and Concerns of Health Services Providers and Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Hua; Kung, Chih-Ming; Fang, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study analyzed differences between transparency of information disclosure and related demands from the health service consumer’s perspective. It also compared how health service providers and consumers are associated by different levels of mandatory information disclosure. Methods: We obtained our research data using a questionnaire survey (health services providers, n = 201; health service consumers, n = 384). Results: Health service consumers do not have major concerns regarding mandatory information disclosure. However, they are concerned about complaint channels and settlement results, results of patient satisfaction surveys, and disclosure of hospital financial statements (p transparency of information disclosure (p < 0.001). Conclusions: It may not be possible for outsiders to properly interpret the information provided by hospitals. Thus, when a hospital discloses information, it is necessary for the government to consider the information’s applicability. Toward improving medical expertise and information asymmetry, the government has to reduce the burden among health service consumers in dealing with this information, and it has to use the information effectively. PMID:28075362

  3. Human factors and ergonomics in home care: Current concerns and future considerations for health information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Calvin K.L.; Valdez, Rupa S.; Casper, Gail R.; Carayon, Pascale; Burke, Laura J.; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2010-01-01

    Sicker patients with greater care needs are being discharged to their homes to assume responsibility for their own care with fewer nurses available to aid them. This situation brings with it a host of human factors and ergonomic (HFE) concerns, both for the home care nurse and the home dwelling patient, that can affect quality of care and patient safety. Many of these concerns are related to the critical home care tasks of information access, communication, and patient self-monitoring and self-management. Currently, a variety of health information technologies (HITs) are being promoted as possible solutions to those problems, but those same technologies bring with them a new set of HFE concerns. This paper reviews the HFE considerations for information access, communication, and patients self-monitoring and self-management, discusses how HIT can potentially mitigate current problems, and explains how the design and implementation of HIT itself requires careful HFE attention. PMID:19713630

  4. Motivators of and Barriers to Health-Promoting Behaviors among Culturally Diverse Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippold, Guillermo M.; Tucker, Carolyn M; Smith, Tasia M.; Rodriguez, Victoria A.; Hayes, Lynda F.; Folger, Austin C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Youth obesity in the United States is a major health concern. Obesity can be reduced by increasing health-promoting behaviors. Purpose: The goals of the present study were to (1) identify the strongest motivators of and barriers to health-promoting behaviors among a culturally diverse group of middle and high school students and (2)…

  5. Determinants of performance of health systems concerning maternal and child health: a global approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Myriam; Idrovo, Álvaro J; Arredondo López, Abel Armando

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association of social determinants on the performance of health systems around the world. A transnational ecological study was conducted with an observation level focused on the country. In order to research on the strength of the association between the annual maternal and child mortality in 154 countries and social determinants: corruption, democratization, income inequality and cultural fragmentation, we used a mixed linear regression model for repeated measures with random intercepts and a conglomerate-based geographical analysis, between 2000 and 2010. Health determinants with a significant association on child mortality(corrupt government (Q3 vs Q1 = 83,05; 95%CI: 33,10 to 133). Improving access to water and sanitation systems, decreasing corruption in the health sector must become priorities in health systems. The ethno-linguistic cultural fragmentation and the detriment of democracy turn out to be two factors related to health results.

  6. Passion for Academics and Problematic Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Alexander T; Razon, Selen; Saville, Bryan K; Tokac, Umit; Judge, Lawrence W

    2017-01-01

    According to the Dualistic Model of Passion (39), passion entails valuing, liking, and spending time on an activity. The Dualistic Model also posits two types of passion for activities: harmonious passion (individual voluntarily engages in the activity) and obsessive passion (individual is compelled to engage in the activity). The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible links between college students' passion for academic activities and problematic health behaviors including smoking, excessive drinking, exercise addiction, disordered eating, and sleepiness, which is a possible indicator of sleep deprivation. Participants (n = 502) completed a survey gauging passion type and health behaviors. Regression analyses revealed obsessive passion for academic activities was positively associated with scores on measures of excessive drinking (β = .15, p= .008), exercise addiction (β = .19, ppassion for academic activities, in contrast, was negatively associated with excessive drinking behavior (β = -.16, p = .002) and sleep deprivation (β = -.13, p = .007) but was not associated with exercise addiction (β = .002, p = .97) and disordered eating (β = -.04, p = .37). These findings provide further support for the Dualistic Model of Passion. Students who are obsessively passionate about their academic activities are more likely to engage in poor health behaviors and, in turn, may experience greater negative outcomes than students who are harmoniously passionate about their academics.

  7. Behavioral Health Emergencies Managed by School Nurses Working with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Greenberg, Cynthia; Sapien, Robert; Bauer-Creegan, Judith; Hine, Beverly; Geary, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses provide behavioral health services. Studies indicate that school nurses may lack sufficient continuing education in adolescent behavioral health and in the management of behavioral health emergencies, specifically. We conducted this study to describe the adolescent behavioral health…

  8. The Perceived Stigma of Mental Health Services Among Rural Parents of Children With Psychosocial Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Polaha, Jodi; Williams, Stacey L.; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Studts, Christina R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine parents’ perceptions of stigma regarding mental health services for their child, consider stigma in the context of novel service delivery settings (e.g., telehealth, primary care, and schools), and evaluate stigma with other factors known to influence service access. Methods 347 caregivers of children with psychosocial concerns completed surveys regarding their perceptions of stigma, service delivery settings, and barriers to care. Results Parents endorsed low levels of s...

  9. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A.; Dreu, C.K.W. de; Vaart, T. van der

    2002-01-01

    In a study of 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation - as a personality trait - increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern,

  10. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A.; Dreu, C.K.W. de; Vaart, T. van der

    2001-01-01

    In a study in 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation – as a personality trait -increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern,

  11. Social value orientation, organizational goal concerns and interdepartmental problem-solving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, A; De Dreu, CKW; Van der Vaart, T

    In a study of 11 organizations among 120 manufacturing, planning and sales employees, support was found for the hypothesis that a prosocial value orientation-as a personality trait-increases the likelihood that employees show a high concern for the goals of other departments. This concern, combined

  12. Avian Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis: A Closer Look at Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Control and Public Health Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Lutful Kabir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis are considered to be the major bacterial diseases in the poultry industry world-wide. Colibacillosis and salmonellosis are the most common avian diseases that are communicable to humans. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns of avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis. A better understanding of the information addressed in this review article will assist the poultry researchers and the poultry industry in continuing to make progress in reducing and eliminating avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis from the poultry flocks, thereby reducing potential hazards to the public health posed by these bacterial diseases.

  13. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  14. Testing an app for reporting health concerns-Experiences from older people and home care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göransson, Carina; Eriksson, Irene; Ziegert, Kristina; Wengström, Yvonne; Langius-Eklöf, Ann; Brovall, Maria; Kihlgren, Annica; Blomberg, Karin

    2017-12-05

    To explore the experiences of using an app among older people with home-based health care and their nurses. Few information and communication technology innovations have been developed and tested for older people with chronic conditions living at home with home-based health care support. Innovative ways to support older people's health and self-care are needed. Explorative qualitative design. For 3 months to report health concerns, older people receiving home-based health care used an interactive app, which included direct access to self-care advice, graphs and a risk assessment model that sends alerts to nurses for rapid management. Interviews with older people (n = 17) and focus group discussions with home care nurses (n = 12) were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. The findings reveal that a process occurs. Using the app, the older people participated in their care, and the app enabled learning and a new way of communication. The interaction gave a sense of security and increased self-confidence among older people. The home care nurses viewed the alerts as appropriate for the management of health concerns. However, all participants experienced challenges in using new technology and had suggestions for improvement. The use of an app appears to increase the older people's participation in their health care and offers them an opportunity to be an active partner in their care. The app as a new way to interact with home care nurses increased the feeling of security. The older people were motivated to learn to use the app and described potential use for it in the future. The use of an app should be considered as a useful information and communication technology innovation that can improve communication and accessibility for older people with home-based health care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Detached Concern of Forensic Mental Health Nurses in Therapeutic Relationships With Patients: The Application of the Early Recognition Method Related to Detached Concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluttert, F.A.J.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Nijman, H.L.I.; Björkly, S.; Grypdonck, M.H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective - Improvement of the interaction between forensic mental health nurses and patients may lead to a reduction of inpatient violence. The concept under study is detached concern, which refers to nurses' skills to neutralize the emotional appeal of patients by a balanced attitude between

  16. Complex systems and health behavior change: insights from cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G; Plaut, David C

    2014-05-01

    To provide proof-of-concept that quantum health behavior can be instantiated as a computational model that is informed by cognitive science, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and quantum health behavior theory. We conducted a synthetic review of the intersection of quantum health behavior change and cognitive science. We conducted simulations, using a computational model of quantum health behavior (a constraint satisfaction artificial neural network) and tested whether the model exhibited quantum-like behavior. The model exhibited clear signs of quantum-like behavior. Quantum health behavior can be conceptualized as constraint satisfaction: a mitigation between current behavioral state and the social contexts in which it operates. We outlined implications for moving forward with computational models of both quantum health behavior and health behavior in general.

  17. Detached concern of forensic mental health nurses in therapeutic relationships with patients the application of the early recognition method related to detached concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluttert, Frans; van Meijel, Berno; Nijman, Henk; Bjørkly, Stål; Grypdonck, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    Improvement of the interaction between forensic mental health nurses and patients may lead to a reduction of inpatient violence. The concept under study is detached concern, which refers to nurses' skills to neutralize the emotional appeal of patients by a balanced attitude between objectivity and emotional involvement. The Patient Contact Questionnaire (PCQ) aims at measuring the degree of concern of nurses for their patients. The PCQ was applied in a pretest-posttest design, evaluating the effects of the Early Recognition Method (ERM). This method aims at the prevention of inpatient violence in forensic psychiatry. Subjects were 116 forensic mental heath nurses working on 16 wards of a large Dutch forensic hospital. First, the baseline scores were compared to scores reported in an earlier study conducted in general psychiatry. Second, pretest-posttest comparisons were carried out for all nurses, and for subgroups of nurses with regard to gender, educational level, years of working experience, and patient population. Third, pretest-posttest comparisons were made on the PCQ item level. The baseline scores of male nurses indicated significantly higher levels of concern than those of female nurses. In addition, more experienced nurses scored significantly higher with regard to concern than less experienced nurses. When comparing the scores before and after applying ERM, no significant differences were found. However, the sores of female nurses showed a tendency toward more concern after implementation of ERM. Detached concern may be a meaningful concept in forensic mental health nursing in measuring nurses' concern for their patients. Levels of detached concern did not change significantly after application of ERM. However, the application of the PCQ could contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between nurses and their patients. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Parental access to minors' health records in the South African health care context: concerns and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MN Slabbert

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Privacy and confidentiality have long been recognized as essential elements of the doctor-patient relationship. Patients should feel free to disclose the most intimate and private medical facts about themselves to their physicians in order to facilitate optimal patient care. Medical records, whether hand-written or electronic, also play an important role in other contexts, such as medical research, health care management and financial audit. In South Africa there is little consistency in approaches to patient confidentiality. There are also no national standards or policies on patient confidentiality, apart from specific ethical rules, some ad hoc statutory provisions and general constitutional provisions not directly related to the intricacies of the doctor-patient relationship. A closer look at the relevant statutory provisions reveal the existence of conflicting standards, most notably in respect of parental access to a minors' health records. The purpose of this paper is to examine the discrepancies and contradictory provisions relating to the access to and disclosure of health information, in particular parental access to health records of minors. In the final instance, some recommendations will be suggested.

  19. Health care: a community concern? : developments in the organization of Canadian health services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crichton, Anne

    1997-01-01

    ... Canadian Health Care Organizational Policies 1967-86 IV Service Delivery Systems and Their Response to the Need for Change to a Collective Care Organization 9. Care in the Doctor's Office 10. Support Services for Physicians in General Practice 11. Medical Practice Organization: Alternative Medical Care Delivery Models 12. Evolution of Public H...

  20. Health life-styles, health concern and social position in Germany and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, F.C.J.; Diederiks, J.P.M.; Loschen, G.; Zee, J. van der

    1995-01-01

    Based on a telephone survey of 1352 adults in Germany and The Netherlands 3 health life-style dimensions were distinguished and labelled as: i) sobriety (not smoking, healthy food habits and abstinence from alcohol), ii) activity (participation in sports and exercise and low body mass index) and

  1. How do Polish workers respond to the information concerning health-oriented lifestyle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Korzeniowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information overload, including commercial ones, about healthy lifestyle, is a challenge for perception of health education. Material and Methods: The empirical data gathered from 100 employees in 2010 by means of free interviews with a standardized list of required information, aimed at analyzing a feeling of pressure to lead a healthy lifestyle, including reactions to meassages provided by the media. Results: Respondents feel pressure associated with a healthy lifestyle from doctors, the state, relatives, friends and themselves. They accept pressure exerted by doctors and appreciate it from relatives and friends, however, the latter may stimulate adverse behavior. As a negative pressure they perceive that imposed by the media, government’s shifting the responsibility for citizens’ health, information overload contradictory to their own knowledge, unattainable recommendations and their volatility. Such pressure evokes conviction for their own resistance or rejection of the messages. They criticize the media for promoting unhealthy behavior, attending interests of advertisers, hiding information about harmful environmental influence. They appreciate the media for facilitating learning about health and preventive examinations. Health education messages are only occasionally identified by better educated people. Conclusions: “Dense” information environment is a hostile background for health education. An excess of critically evaluated information evokes pressure and lack of trust in information. Therefore, health education should facilitate the identification of its contents, avoid normative methods, limit the number of guidelines and better explain the faced changes, counteract tendencies to associate healthy lifestyle mainly with consumer behaviors, teach how to maintain self orientation in information overload conditions, and build up awareness of one’s own brand. Med Pr 2017;68(4:525–543

  2. [How do Polish workers respond to the information concerning health-oriented lifestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Elżbieta; Puchalski, Krzysztof

    2017-06-27

    Information overload, including commercial ones, about healthy lifestyle, is a challenge for perception of health education. The empirical data gathered from 100 employees in 2010 by means of free interviews with a standardized list of required information, aimed at analyzing a feeling of pressure to lead a healthy lifestyle, including reactions to meassages provided by the media. Respondents feel pressure associated with a healthy lifestyle from doctors, the state, relatives, friends and themselves. They accept pressure exerted by doctors and appreciate it from relatives and friends, however, the latter may stimulate adverse behavior. As a negative pressure they perceive that imposed by the media, government's shifting the responsibility for citizens' health, information overload contradictory to their own knowledge, unattainable recommendations and their volatility. Such pressure evokes conviction for their own resistance or rejection of the messages. They criticize the media for promoting unhealthy behavior, attending interests of advertisers, hiding information about harmful environmental influence. They appreciate the media for facilitating learning about health and preventive examinations. Health education messages are only occasionally identified by better educated people. "Dense" information environment is a hostile background for health education. An excess of critically evaluated information evokes pressure and lack of trust in information. Therefore, health education should facilitate the identification of its contents, avoid normative methods, limit the number of guidelines and better explain the faced changes, counteract tendencies to associate healthy lifestyle mainly with consumer behaviors, teach how to maintain self orientation in information overload conditions, and build up awareness of one's own brand. Med Pr 2017;68(4):525-543. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Validity and Reliability of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Assessment Tool Among Vulnerable Women Concerning Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Boroumandfar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to design and evaluate the content and face validity, and reliability of knowledge, attitude, and behavior questionnaire on preventive behaviors among vulnerable women concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases of an action research. In the first phase, to explain STDs preventive domains, 20 semi- structured interviews were conducted with the vulnerable women, residing at women prison and women referred to counseling centers. After analyzing content of interviews, three domains were identified: improve their knowledge, modify their attitude and change their behaviors. In the second phase, the questionnaire was designed and tested in a pilot study. Then, its content validity was evaluated. Face validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by test re- test method and Cronbach alpha respectively.Results: Index of content validity in each three domain of the questionnaire (knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning STDs was obtained over 0.6. Overall content validity index was 0.86 in all three domains of the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha as reliability of questionnaire was 0.80 for knowledge, 0.79 for attitude and 0.85 for behavior.Conclusion: The results showed that the designed questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool to measure knowledge, attitude and behavior of vulnerable women, predisposed to risk of STDs.

  4. Determinants of performance of health systems concerning maternal and child health: a global approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pinzón-Flórez

    Full Text Available To assess the association of social determinants on the performance of health systems around the world.A transnational ecological study was conducted with an observation level focused on the country. In order to research on the strength of the association between the annual maternal and child mortality in 154 countries and social determinants: corruption, democratization, income inequality and cultural fragmentation, we used a mixed linear regression model for repeated measures with random intercepts and a conglomerate-based geographical analysis, between 2000 and 2010.Health determinants with a significant association on child mortality(<1year: higher access to water (βa Quartile 4(Q4 vs Quartile 1(Q1 = -6,14; 95%CI: -11,63 to -0,73, sanitation systems, (Q4 vs Q1 = -25,58; 95%CI: -31,91 to -19,25, % measles vaccination coverage (Q4 vs Q1 = -7.35; 95%CI: -10,18 to -4,52, % of births attended by a healthcare professional (Q4 vs Q1 = -7,91; 95%CI: -11,36 to -4,52 and a % of the total health expenditure (Q3 vs Q1 = -2,85; 95%CI: -4,93 to -0,7. Ethnic fragmentation (Q4 vs Q1 = 9,93; 95%CI: -0.03 to 19.89 had a marginal effect. For child mortality<5 years, an association was found for these variables and democratization (not free vs free = 11,23; 95%CI: -0,82 to 23,29, out-of-pocket expenditure (Q1 vs Q4 = 17,71; 95%CI: 5,86 to 29,56. For MMR (Maternal mortality ratio, % of access to water for all the quartiles, % of access to sanitation systems, (Q3 vs Q1 = -171,15; 95%CI: -281,29 to -61, birth attention by a healthcare professional (Q4 vs Q1 = -231,23; 95%CI: -349,32 to -113,15, and having corrupt government (Q3 vs Q1 = 83,05; 95%CI: 33,10 to 133.Improving access to water and sanitation systems, decreasing corruption in the health sector must become priorities in health systems. The ethno-linguistic cultural fragmentation and the detriment of democracy turn out to be two factors related to health results.

  5. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; a Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Rouhipour, Alaleh; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Yousefifard, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was first reported in 1976 with two concurrent outbreaks of acute viral hemorrhagic fever centered in Yambuku (near the Ebola river), Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Nzara, Sudan. The current outbreak of the Ebola virus was started by reporting the first case in March 2014 in the forest regions of southeastern Guinea. Due to infection rates raising over 13,000% within a 6-month period, Ebola is now considered as a global public health emergency and on August 8(th), 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. With more than 5000 involved cases and nearly 3000 deaths, this event has turned into the largest and most dangerous Ebola virus outbreak in the world. Based on the above-mentioned, the present article aimed to review the virologic characteristics, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Ebola virus disease.

  6. [Energy drinks and their contribution to current health concerns for children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Michał

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated beverages including energy drinks make up an increasing percentage of energy intake amongst adults as well as children and adolescents. Due to high content of di- or monosaccharides and biologically active compounds (mainly caffeine), their regular intake may involve addictions and potential health risks, including diabetes. Although consumption of energy drinks is usually not recommended by the manufacturers to the children under the age of 16, due to its popularity and unrestricted availability on market energy drinks are easily accessible to younger children. Low awareness of the potential health risks involved with such beverages in society together with unrestricted distribution and advertising requires undertaking general information campaign concerning energy drinks. In this paper a critical review has been made to discuss potential somatic and psychological health risks issue. Moreover, conclusions were supported with the results of the survey conducted among college and high-school adolescents.

  7. Stopping Antidepressants and Anxiolytics as Major Concerns Reported in Online Health Communities: A Text Mining Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbe, Adeline; Falissard, Bruno

    2017-10-23

    Internet is a particularly dynamic way to quickly capture the perceptions of a population in real time. Complementary to traditional face-to-face communication, online social networks help patients to improve self-esteem and self-help. The aim of this study was to use text mining on material from an online forum exploring patients' concerns about treatment (antidepressants and anxiolytics). Concerns about treatment were collected from discussion titles in patients' online community related to antidepressants and anxiolytics. To examine the content of these titles automatically, we used text mining methods, such as word frequency in a document-term matrix and co-occurrence of words using a network analysis. It was thus possible to identify topics discussed on the forum. The forum included 2415 discussions on antidepressants and anxiolytics over a period of 3 years. After a preprocessing step, the text mining algorithm identified the 99 most frequently occurring words in titles, among which were escitalopram, withdrawal, antidepressant, venlafaxine, paroxetine, and effect. Patients' concerns were related to antidepressant withdrawal, the need to share experience about symptoms, effects, and questions on weight gain with some drugs. Patients' expression on the Internet is a potential additional resource in addressing patients' concerns about treatment. Patient profiles are close to that of patients treated in psychiatry. ©Adeline Abbe, Bruno Falissard. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 23.10.2017.

  8. Integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation for healthcare and public health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukhanin, Vadim; Searle, Alexandra; Zwerling, Alice; Dowdy, David W; Taylor, Holly A; Merritt, Maria W

    2018-02-01

    Social justice is the moral imperative to avoid and remediate unfair distributions of societal disadvantage. In priority setting in healthcare and public health, social justice reaches beyond fairness in the distribution of health outcomes and economic impacts to encompass fairness in the distribution of policy impacts upon other dimensions of well-being. There is an emerging awareness of the need for economic evaluation to integrate all such concerns. We performed a systematic review (1) to describe methodological solutions suitable for integrating social justice concerns into economic evaluation, and (2) to describe the challenges that those solutions face. To be included, publications must have captured fairness considerations that (a) involve cross-dimensional subjective personal life experience and (b) can be manifested at the level of subpopulations. We identified relevant publications using an electronic search in EMBASE, PubMed, EconLit, PsycInfo, Philosopher's Index, and Scopus, including publications available in English in the past 20 years. Two reviewers independently appraised candidate publications, extracted data, and synthesized findings in narrative form. Out of 2388 publications reviewed, 26 were included. Solutions sought either to incorporate relevant fairness considerations directly into economic evaluation or to report them alongside cost-effectiveness measures. The majority of reviewed solutions, if adapted to integrate social justice concerns, would require their explicit quantification. Four broad challenges related to the implementation of these solutions were identified: clarifying the normative basis; measuring and determining the relative importance of criteria representing that basis; combining the criteria; and evaluating trade-offs. All included solutions must grapple with an inherent tension: they must either face the normative and operational challenges of quantifying social justice concerns or accede to offering incomplete policy

  9. Concern about security and privacy, and perceived control over collection and use of health information are related to withholding of health information from healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Adisa, Akinyele O; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the perceptions and behaviors of US adults about the security of their protected health information (PHI). The first cycle of the fourth wave of the Health Information National Trends Survey was analyzed to assess respondents' concerns about PHI breaches. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of such concerns on disclosure of sensitive medical information to a healthcare professional (pdata breach when their PHI was being transferred between healthcare professionals by fax (67.0%; 95% CI 64.2% to 69.8%) or electronically (64.5%; 95% CI 61.7% to 67.3%). About 12.3% (95% CI 10.8% to 13.8%) of respondents had ever withheld information from a healthcare provider because of security concerns. The likelihood of information withholding was higher among respondents who perceived they had very little say about how their medical records were used (adjusted OR=1.42; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.96). This study underscores the need for enhanced measures to secure patients' PHI to avoid undermining their trust.

  10. The role of biomarkers in evaluating human health concerns from fungal contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul C; Flannery, Brenna; Isitt, Catherine; Ali, Mariyam; Pestka, James

    2012-06-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites that globally contaminate an estimated 25 % of cereal crops and thus exposure is frequent in many populations. Aflatoxins, fumonisins and deoxynivalenol are amongst those mycotoxins of particular concern from a human health perspective. A number of risks to health are suggested including cancer, growth faltering, immune suppression and neural tube defects; though only the demonstrated role for aflatoxin in the aetiology of liver cancer is widely recognised. The heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins in food restricts the usefulness of food sampling and intake estimates; instead biomarkers provide better tools for informing epidemiological investigations. Validated exposure biomarkers for aflatoxin (urinary aflatoxin M(1), aflatoxin-N7-guaunine, serum aflatoxin-albumin) were established almost 20 years ago and were critical in confirming aflatoxins as potent liver carcinogens. Validation has included demonstration of assay robustness, intake v. biomarker level, and stability of stored samples. More recently, aflatoxin exposure biomarkers are revealing concerns of growth faltering and immune suppression; importantly, they are being used to assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies. For fumonisins and deoxynivalenol these steps of development and validation have significantly advanced in recent years. Such biomarkers should better inform epidemiological studies and thus improve our understanding of their potential risk to human health.

  11. 40 CFR 720.50 - Submission of test data and other data concerning the health and environmental effects of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning the health and environmental effects of a substance. 720.50 Section 720.50 Protection of... environmental effects of a substance. (a) Test data on the new chemical substance in the possession or control... concerning the health and environmental effects of the new chemical substance that are known to or reasonably...

  12. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D.; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Mash, Heath

    2017-01-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010–2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  13. Analysis of Influencing Factors Related to Health Promotion Behavior in Hospital Radiological Technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jong Kyung; Kwon, Duk Mun; Kang, Yeong Han

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that could affect health of radiological technologists, which is useful for health care and development of programs for health promotion. Subjects were 234 of radiological technologists who work in general hospitals. Some questionnaires were made about perceptions of health condition and promotional behavior of health for this study. The questionnaires of health perception were 20 items that consist of the present condition of health, health concern and sensitivity. The reliability was sufficient(Cronbach's α=0.79). The other questionnaires about health promotion behavior were 47 items that consist of self-realization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, personal relationships, and stress management. The results turned out to be was sufficient (Cronbach's α=0.93). Every data was treated statistically, comparison of average(t-test, ANOVA), correlation, and multiple regression. Related factors to health promotion behavior were age, marriage, salary, class of one's position, career, employment, and religion, in general features. In health life habit, related factors were smoke and exercise. Results of health promotion behavior was 2.90 of mean score, 0.37 of standard deviation. Correlations between factors of health perception and health promotion behavior was positive(p<0.01). Health promotion behavior were affected by sensitivity, presents condition of health, exercise, smoke, career. Sensitivity was the most affectable variable, which means that promotional behavior score became higher and higher as the score of sensitivity and present condition were increased. In addition, persons who exercise regularly, had been smoked, and has higher career showed higher score of promotional behavior. Radiological technologists have to keep their health, trying not to infected by a disease. Most of all, no smoking and regular exercise are the most important thing to all of members.

  14. Analysis of Influencing Factors Related to Health Promotion Behavior in Hospital Radiological Technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jong Kyung [Kim, In Hwan Internal Medicine Health Promotion Cnter, Youngcheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duk Mun [Dept. of Radiology Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic Univesity Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that could affect health of radiological technologists, which is useful for health care and development of programs for health promotion. Subjects were 234 of radiological technologists who work in general hospitals. Some questionnaires were made about perceptions of health condition and promotional behavior of health for this study. The questionnaires of health perception were 20 items that consist of the present condition of health, health concern and sensitivity. The reliability was sufficient(Cronbach's {alpha}=0.79). The other questionnaires about health promotion behavior were 47 items that consist of self-realization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, personal relationships, and stress management. The results turned out to be was sufficient (Cronbach's {alpha}=0.93). Every data was treated statistically, comparison of average(t-test, ANOVA), correlation, and multiple regression. Related factors to health promotion behavior were age, marriage, salary, class of one's position, career, employment, and religion, in general features. In health life habit, related factors were smoke and exercise. Results of health promotion behavior was 2.90 of mean score, 0.37 of standard deviation. Correlations between factors of health perception and health promotion behavior was positive(p<0.01). Health promotion behavior were affected by sensitivity, presents condition of health, exercise, smoke, career. Sensitivity was the most affectable variable, which means that promotional behavior score became higher and higher as the score of sensitivity and present condition were increased. In addition, persons who exercise regularly, had been smoked, and has higher career showed higher score of promotional behavior. Radiological technologists have to keep their health, trying not to infected by a disease. Most of all, no smoking and regular exercise are the most important thing to all of members.

  15. Health concern, food choice motives, and attitudes toward healthy eating: the mediating role of food choice motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Hua Christine

    2008-07-01

    This study addresses how various health concerns might influence not only consumers' food choice motives but also consumers' subsequent attitudes toward healthy eating. This study expects that those consumers with greater health concerns would have different food choice motives and better attitudes toward healthy eating. A self-completion questionnaire was used to gather information. Participants, a random sample of 500 undergraduate students from a national university in Taipei, Taiwan, provided a total of 456 usable questionnaires, representing a valid response rate of 91%. The average age of the respondents at the time of the survey was 21 years and 63% of respondents were females. The relationship between health concern and healthy eating attitudes was confirmed. The relationship between health concern of developing diseases and attitudes toward healthy eating was fully mediated by food choice motives. However, the relationship between calorie consumption health concern and healthy eating attitudes was only partially mediated by food choice motives. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Cosmetic Ingredients as Emerging Pollutants of Environmental and Health Concern. A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Juliano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic and personal care products are used in huge quantities throughout the world; as a result of their regular use, they are continuously released into the environment in very large amounts. Many of these products are biologically active and are characterized by persistence and bioaccumulation potential, posing a threat to ecosystem and human health. On the basis of the most recent scientific literature available on this subject, this paper provides an overview of some cosmetic ingredients that are considered environmental emerging pollutants of particular concern such as UV filters, some preservatives (parabens, triclosan, and microplastics.

  17. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Increases High-Risk Sexual Behaviors: A Myth or Valid Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the first human pappilomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved for females aged 9 to 26. However, the national HPV vaccination rate among young women has been low. Public concerns were raised in regard to the fact that HPV vaccination might encourage unsafe sex. This cross-sectional study examined the differences in sexual practices between…

  18. An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Health Behavior Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…

  19. Improving Access to Essential Medicines: How Health Concerns can be Prioritised in the Global Governance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Devi

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the politics of access to essential medicines and identifies 'space' in the current system where health concerns can be strengthened relative to trade. This issue is addressed from a global governance perspective focusing on the main actors who can have the greatest impact. These include developing country coalitions and citizens in developed countries though participation in civil society organisations. These actors have combined forces to tackle this issue successfully, resulting in the 2001 Doha Declaration on Public Health. The collaboration has been so powerful due to the assistance of the media as well as the decision to compromise with pharmaceutical companies and their host countries. To improve access to essential medicines, six C's are needed: coalitions, civil society, citizenship, compromise, communication and collaboration.

  20. Field trials of the phenomena of concern for psychiatric/mental health nursing: proposed methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H S

    1989-10-01

    An important step in the development of the American Nurses' Association (ANA) Task Force's Classification of Phenomena of Concern for Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing is a plan for conducting field trials to determine interrater diagnostic reliability using the classification system. The ANA Task Force identified field testing as stage two in a three-stage process for completion of our work. In this article, we identify methodologic directions that will allow us to answer two important questions. First, what is the interrater reliability of the system of psychiatric nursing diagnoses when applied to clients by psychiatric/mental health nurse clinicians in their practice, and second, how do the clinicians who use this system view its usefulness for planning and evaluating nursing care?

  1. A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.

  2. Environmental concern and ecological responsible behavior in university students: A comparative analysis between Chilean and Spanish students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireya Palavecinos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a pilot study aimed at the transcultural analysis of environmental concern and its relationship with ecological behavior, a questionnaire assessing these was developed in Spain, and tested in Spain and in Chile. Chilean (n=88 and Spanish (n=149 students filled out the questionnaire. The results were analysed according to the model of multidimensional conceptualisation of concern for the environment manifested in 4 types of attitude: apathetic, anthropocentric, connected and emotional affinity (Amérigo et al., 2012. Results differed between the two groups, and cultural and psychosocial variables appear to play a significant role in this. This suggest that it is important to have instruments that facilitate environmental studies in the Chilean context, and to take contextual factors (such as the exacerbation of the country's environmental crisis and citizens' concern about the situation into account in such studies. Transcultural studies are key to deepening our understanding of the subject at the worldwide level.

  3. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadar, Haji [International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafalou, Sara [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  4. A systematic critical review of epidemiological studies on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, France; Ncube, Esper Jacobeth; Voyi, Kuku

    2017-03-01

    The ultimate aim of this review was to summarise the epidemiological evidence on the association between municipal solid waste management operations and health risks to populations residing near landfills and incinerators, waste workers and recyclers. To accomplish this, the sub-aims of this review article were to (1) examine the health risks posed by municipal solid waste management activities, (2) determine the strengths and gaps of available literature on health risks from municipal waste management operations and (3) suggest possible research needs for future studies. The article reviewed epidemiological literature on public health concerns of municipal solid waste handling published in the period 1995-2014. The PubMed and MEDLINE computerised literature searches were employed to identify the relevant papers using the keywords solid waste, waste management, health risks, recycling, landfills and incinerators. Additionally, all references of potential papers were examined to determine more articles that met the inclusion criteria. A total of 379 papers were identified, but after intensive screening only 72 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Of these studies, 33 were on adverse health effects in communities living near waste dumpsites or incinerators, 24 on municipal solid waste workers and 15 on informal waste recyclers. Reviewed studies were unable to demonstrate a causal or non-causal relationship due to various limitations. In light of the above findings, our review concludes that overall epidemiological evidence in reviewed articles is inadequate mainly due to methodological limitations and future research needs to develop tools capable of demonstrating causal or non-causal relationships between specific waste management operations and adverse health endpoints.

  5. Evaluating of Knowledge and Attitude of Patients with Periodontitis Concerning Effect of Smoking on Periodontal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Atarbashi Moghadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although bacterial plaque is regarded as the major cause of periodontitis, the role of smoking as an important risk factor has been established in the progression of periodontal disease. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate knowledge and attitude of patients with periodontitis concerning effects of smoking on periodontal health. Method: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 300 patients with periodontitis, aged between 18-74 years, were selected via convenience sampling out of patients referred to Periodontology Department of Shahid Sadoughi Dental Faculty and Khatam Alanbia professional clinic of Yazd. The study data were collected using a questionnaire, which were then analyzed by SPSS software (ver. 17 applying Chi-square, T-test and ANOVA statistical tests. Results: The mean total scores of patients' knowledge and attitude in regard with smoking effect on periodontal health were reported 86.7±18.4 and 48.1±7.3, respectively. A significant relationship was observed between knowledge and attitude with students' educational level. In the present study, 42% of smokers tried to quit smoking at least once, among which 14.3% of cases occured due to oral and dental health as well as consultation with dentists. Conclusion: The study findings showed despite patients' good knowledge concerning the effect of smoking on periodontal health, their attitude was reported moderate. Patients' moderate attitude can be mentioned as the main reason of continuing smoking despite their good knowledge. Moreover, dentists were demonstrated to have a negligible role with respect to patients' awareness in this regard.

  6. Health Effects and Public Health Concerns of Energy Drink Consumption in the United States: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaar, Laila; Vercammen, Kelsey; Lu, Chang; Richardson, Scott; Tamez, Martha; Mattei, Josiemer

    2017-01-01

    As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions. Despite the consistency in evidence, most studies are of cross-sectional design or focus almost exclusively on the effect of caffeine and sugar, failing to address potentially harmful effects of other ingredients. The negative health effects associated with energy drinks (ED) are compounded by a lack of regulatory oversight and aggressive marketing by the industry toward adolescents. Moreover, the rising trend of mixing ED with alcohol presents a new challenge that researchers and public health practitioners must address further. To curb this growing public health issue, policy makers should consider creating a separate regulatory category for ED, setting an evidence-based upper limit on caffeine, restricting sales of ED, and regulating existing ED marketing strategies, especially among children and adolescents.

  7. Health Effects and Public Health Concerns of Energy Drink Consumption in the United States: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Al-Shaar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As energy drink consumption continues to grow worldwide and within the United States, it is important to critically examine the nutritional content and effects on population health of these beverages. This mini-review summarizes the current scientific evidence on health consequences from energy drink consumption, presents relevant public health challenges, and proposes recommendations to mitigate these issues. Emerging evidence has linked energy drink consumption with a number of negative health consequences such as risk-seeking behaviors, poor mental health, adverse cardiovascular effects, and metabolic, renal, or dental conditions. Despite the consistency in evidence, most studies are of cross-sectional design or focus almost exclusively on the effect of caffeine and sugar, failing to address potentially harmful effects of other ingredients. The negative health effects associated with energy drinks (ED are compounded by a lack of regulatory oversight and aggressive marketing by the industry toward adolescents. Moreover, the rising trend of mixing ED with alcohol presents a new challenge that researchers and public health practitioners must address further. To curb this growing public health issue, policy makers should consider creating a separate regulatory category for ED, setting an evidence-based upper limit on caffeine, restricting sales of ED, and regulating existing ED marketing strategies, especially among children and adolescents.

  8. Exploring the linkages among urban form travel behavior and public health with person level data from smart phone applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The interaction between the built environment, travel behavior and public health is now a major concern for both : researchers and urban planners. Currently, there is little empirical research that explores and examines the : relationship between eac...

  9. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to

  10. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces – an occupational health concern for women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya Venugopal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. Objective: The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014–2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT, sweat rate (SwR, and urine specific gravity (USG were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Results: Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=−2.3879, p=0.0192, inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ2=4.03, p=0.0444, and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ2=42.92, p=0.0005×10−7 reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. Conclusions: The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the

  11. Heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at workplaces - an occupational health concern for women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Vidhya; Rekha, Shanmugam; Manikandan, Krishnamoorthy; Latha, Perumal Kamalakkannan; Vennila, Viswanathan; Ganesan, Nalini; Kumaravel, Perumal; Chinnadurai, Stephen Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns unique to women are growing with the large number of women venturing into different trades that expose them to hot working environments and inadequate sanitation facilities, common in many Indian workplaces. The study was carried out to investigate the health implications of exposures to hot work environments and inadequate sanitation facilities at their workplaces for women workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 312 women workers in three occupational sectors in 2014-2015. Quantitative data on heat exposures and physiological heat strain indicators such as core body temperature (CBT), sweat rate (SwR), and urine specific gravity (USG) were collected. A structured questionnaire captured workers perceptions about health impacts of heat stress and inadequate sanitary facilities at the workplace. Workplace heat exposures exceeded the threshold limit value for safe manual work for 71% women (Avg. wet bulb globe temperature=30°C±2.3°C) during the study period. Eighty-seven percent of the 200 women who had inadequate/no toilets at their workplaces reported experiencing genitourinary problems periodically. Above normal CBT, SwR, and USG in about 10% women workers indicated heat strain and moderate dehydration that corroborated well with their perceptions. Observed significant associations between high-heat exposures and SwR (t=-2.3879, p=0.0192), inadequate toilet facilities and self-reported adverse heat-related health symptoms (χ (2)=4.03, p=0.0444), and prevalence of genitourinary issues (χ (2)=42.92, p=0.0005×10(-7)) reemphasize that heat is a risk and lack of sanitation facilities is a major health concern for women workers. The preliminary evidence suggests that health of women workers is at risk due to occupational heat exposures and inadequate sanitation facilities at many Indian workplaces. Intervention through strong labor policies with gender sensitivity is the need of the hour to empower women, avert further health risks, and

  12. Behavioral Profiles of Children with Epilepsy: Parent and Teacher Reports of Emotional, Behavioral, and Educational Concerns on the BASC-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Jeffrey B.; Kanive, Rebecca; Sanders, Sarah J.; Blackburn, Lynn Bennett

    2008-01-01

    The Behavior Assessment Scale for Children-Second Edition (BASC-2) was administered to 108 parents and 37 teachers of children with epilepsy (mean age of 10.6 years; 51% female, 49% male). Results demonstrated high mean scores on the Atypicality, Attention Problems, Withdrawal, and Adaptive Skills scales and a high percentage of At-Risk or…

  13. Awareness, concern, and communication between physicians and patients on bone health in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Debu; Durie, Brian G M; Mautner, Beatrice; Ferenz, Krag S; Moul, Judd W

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to explore physician-patient communications about bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL). The study utilizes online survey of patients with breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma, and the physicians who treat them. Even though 69 and 48 % of patients with nonmetastatic breast and prostate cancer aware of treatment-induced bone loss, only 39 and 23 %, respectively, were concerned about bone loss. Yet, 62 and 71 % of oncologists treating breast and prostate cancer felt that their patients were concerned. Among patients with metastatic breast and prostate cancer, two thirds had not discussed treatment for bone metastases with their doctor; when discussed, 88 and 91 % of discussions were initiated by the doctor, usually prior to initiating treatment. Most myeloma patients (77 %) had discussed treatment options with their physicians; 99 % of hematologists reported discussing treatment of bone disease with patients. Physicians are primary sources of information to patients regarding bone health. There is a gap between what physicians assume their patients know about bone health and the patients' perceptions, presenting a need for systematic awareness and education.

  14. Concerns about pregabalin: further experience with its potential of causing addictive behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gahr, M.; Franke, B.; Freudenmann, R.W.; Kolle, M.A.; Schonfeldt-Lecuona, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pregabalin (PRG) is approved for the treatment of neuropathic pain, partial seizures, and generalized anxiety disorder in many countries. Supported by case reports and a few studies there is an ongoing debate on PRG's potential to cause addictive behaviors. Considering that PRG is currently under

  15. Electronic Health Records: VAs Efforts Raise Concerns about Interoperability Goals and Measures, Duplication with DOD, and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS VA’s Efforts Raise Concerns about Interoperability Goals and Measures, Duplication with DOD...Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate July 13, 2016 ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS VA’s Efforts Raise Concerns about Interoperability Goals...initiatives with the Department of Defense (DOD) that were intended to advance the ability of the two departments to share electronic health records ,

  16. Experiences of chronic stress and mental health concerns among urban Indigenous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Anita C; Cotnam, Jasmine; Raboud, Janet; Greene, Saara; Beaver, Kerrigan; Zoccole, Art; O'Brien-Teengs, Doe; Balfour, Louise; Wu, Wei; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-10-01

    We measured stress, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) levels of urban Indigenous women living with and without HIV in Ontario, Canada, and identified correlates of depression. We recruited 30 Indigenous women living with HIV and 60 without HIV aged 18 years or older who completed socio-demographic and health questionnaires and validated scales assessing stress, depression and PTSD. Descriptive statistics were conducted to summarize variables and linear regression to identify correlates of depression. 85.6 % of Indigenous women self-identified as First Nation. Co-morbidities other than HIV were self-reported by 82.2 % (n = 74) of the sample. High levels of perceived stress were reported by 57.8 % (n = 52) of the sample and 84.2 % (n = 75) had moderate to high levels of urban stress. High median levels of race-related (51/88, IQR 42-68.5) and parental-related stress (40.5/90, IQR 35-49) scores were reported. 82.2 % (n = 74) reported severe depressive symptoms and 83.2 % (n = 74) severe PTSD. High levels of perceived stress was correlated with high depressive symptoms (estimate 1.28 (95 % CI 0.97-1.58), p stress and physical and mental health concerns. Interventions cutting across diverse health care settings are required for improving and preventing adverse health outcomes.

  17. Zoonoses: an occupational hazard for livestock workers and a public health concern for rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeJeune, J; Kersting, A

    2010-07-01

    Farming employs one of the most diverse work forces, while at the same time it is one of the most dangerous occupations in the U.S. Individuals associated with the livestock industry face an additional risk: zoonotic diseases. In an effort to improve the overall well-being of the farming community, this review addresses zoonoses as a health concern for the farming community. The discussion of agriculturally acquired zoonoses includes infections naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to man (e.g., rabies) and those common to animals and man (e.g., Salmonella). Special consideration is given to identifying individuals potentially at higher risk for developing disease. Case reports and epidemiological studies are reviewed from published veterinary and human-health literature to illustrate exposure scenarios and associated health outcomes. Additionally, key livestock zoonoses in the U.S. are summarized, and an overview of prevention and control strategies is provided. Findings show that livestock can transmit many zoonoses directly and indirectly, and human health can be significantly impacted, but the number of people adversely impacted is largely unknown. This review concludes that more education about zoonosis transmission and prevention is needed, and healthcare providers serving rural communities are a critical link in providing this information. In order for healthcare providers to address the educational gap, we recommend greater collaboration with veterinary specialists schooled in population medicine, zoonosis prevention and control, and animal production.

  18. Health lifestyle behaviors among U.S. adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarron M. Saint Onge

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing research that studies individual health behaviors and conceive of behaviors as simplistically reflecting narrow intentions toward health may obscure the social organization of health behaviors. Instead, we examine how eight health behaviors group together to form distinct health behavior niches. Using nationally-representative data from U.S. adults aged 18 and over from the 2004–2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, we use Latent Class Analysis to identify classes of behavior based on smoking status, alcohol use, physical activity, physician visits, and flu vaccination. We identify 7 distinct health behavior classes including concordant health promoting (44%, concordant health compromising (26%, and discordant classes (30%. We find significant race/ethnic, sex, regional, and age differences in class membership. We show that health behavior classes are associated with prospective mortality, suggesting that they are valid representations of health lifestyles. We discuss the implications of our results for sociological theories of health behaviors, as well as for multiple behavior interventions seeking to improve population health.

  19. Understanding Youth's Health-Compromising Behaviors in Germany: An Application of the Risk-Behavior Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Barbara P.; Lee, Che-Fu

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed the health-compromising behaviors of German youth using responses of 2,330 seventh, eighth, and ninth graders from the German Youth Study. Smoking and drinking are not seen by these students as health-threatening behaviors, but as socially appealing behaviors. Discusses implications for health education. (SLD)

  20. Health habits, attitudes and behavior towards oral health of children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children suffering from epilepsy are high at risk of oral diseases primarily due to their underlying medical condition which can have an impact on the maintenance level of oral hygiene, but also due to adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. Objective. The aim of this paper was to identify habits, attitudes and behavior of children with epilepsy and parents in respect to oral health. Method. The experimental group consisted of 50 children with epilepsy, 24 boys and 26 girls, 7-14 years old, mean age 11.2±2.2 years. The control group consisted of healthy children, matched by age and gender. The instruments of investigation consisted of the structured interview of children and parents concerning oral health habits, attitudes and behavior. We used medical records of children with epilepsy as a source of information on their diagnosis, duration of the illness and current therapy. Statistical analysis was performed by chi-squared test, nonparametric correlation, Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and logistic regression. Results. Results showed that more children with epilepsy and their parents had inappropriate habits and attitudes towards oral health, as well as nutrition habits (p<0.001. Compared to healthy controls, children with epilepsy washed their teeth less often and shorter, they had less knowledge about causes of oral diseases and about influence of oral diseases on general health, and they had worse self-rating of teeth and gum condition. In addition, significantly more children with epilepsy used an incorrect technique of teeth brushing (p<0.001. Characteristics of children’s epilepsy and educational degree of parents had no influence on these differences. Conclusion. Study results showed that children with epilepsy and their parents had worse habits, attitudes and behavior towards oral health than healthy controls and their parents. This difference can be explained primarily by worse parental estimation of oral health and

  1. Medical Students Raising Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Hickey, Andrea; Warrens, Anthony N; Westwood, Olwyn M R

    2016-09-16

    After a number of high-profile incidents and national reports, it has become clear that all health professionals and all medical students must be able to raise concerns about a colleague's behavior if this behavior puts patients, colleagues, or themselves at risk.Detailed evidence from medical students about their confidence to raise concerns is limited, together with examples of barriers, which impair their ability to do so. We describe a questionnaire survey of medical students in a single-center, examining self-reported confidence about raising concerns in a number of possible scenarios. Thematic analysis was applied to comments about barriers identified.Although 80% of respondents felt confident to report a patient safety issue, students were less confident around issues of probity, attitude, and conduct. This needs to be addressed to create clear mechanisms to raise concerns, as well as support for students during the process.

  2. Self-rated health in rural Appalachia: health perceptions are incongruent with health status and health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyle Donald N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.

  3. Diabetes, diet-health behavior, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sven; Schroeter, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    High-quality diets play an important role in diabetes prevention. Appropriate dietary adherence can improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control, and thus contribute to lifestyle improvement. However, previous research suggests that dietary adherence is arguably among the most difficult cornerstones of diabetes management. The objectives of this study are (1) to estimate whether and to what extent individuals diagnosed with diabetes show significant differences in diet quality [healthy eating index (HEI)] compared to healthy individuals, (2) to quantify whether and to what extent diabetics experience significantly higher outcomes of body mass index (BMI), and (3) to estimate whether and to what extent dietary supplementation impacts diabetes patient's diet quality and/or BMI outcomes. We use data from the 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The NHANES is the primary, randomized, and nationally representative survey used to assess the health and nutritional status in the U.S. We apply propensity score matching (PSM) to account for selection bias and endogeneity between self-reported diet and health behavir (treatment) and BMI outcomes. We control for an individual's BMI as to capture the impact of past dietary behavior in its impact on HEI. Matching results suggest that regular dietary supplement consumption is associated with significant lower BMI outcomes of almost 1 kg/m(2). The close relationship between diabetes and obesity has been at the center of the diet-health policy debate across Canada and the U.S. Knowledge about this linkage may help to improve the understanding of the factors that impact dietary choices and their overall health outcomes, which may lead to a more efficient and effective promotion of dietary guidelines, healthy food choices, and targeted consumer health and lifestyle policies.

  4. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Akulume

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation. Results. For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers’ segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant (r=0.524, P<0.001. The theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers’ segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion. Generally, health workers’ health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers’ health care waste segregation behaviors.

  5. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2016-01-01

    Objective . The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology . One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation). Results . For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers' segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant ( r = 0.524, P theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers' segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion . Generally, health workers' health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers' health care waste segregation behaviors.

  6. Mobile medical and health apps: state of the art, concerns, regulatory control and certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N. Kamel; Brewer, Ann C.; Karimkhani, Chante; Buller, David B.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the state of the art in mobile clinical and health-related apps. A 2012 estimate puts the number of health-related apps at no fewer than 40,000, as healthcare professionals and consumers continue to express concerns about the quality of many apps, calling for some form of app regulatory control or certification to be put in place. We describe the range of apps on offer as of 2013, and then present a brief survey of evaluation studies of medical and health-related apps that have been conducted to date, covering a range of clinical disciplines and topics. Our survey includes studies that highlighted risks, negative issues and worrying deficiencies in existing apps. We discuss the concept of ‘apps as a medical device’ and the relevant regulatory controls that apply in USA and Europe, offering examples of apps that have been formally approved using these mechanisms. We describe the online Health Apps Library run by the National Health Service in England and the calls for a vetted medical and health app store. We discuss the ingredients for successful apps beyond the rather narrow definition of ‘apps as a medical device’. These ingredients cover app content quality, usability, the need to match apps to consumers’ general and health literacy levels, device connectivity standards (for apps that connect to glucometers, blood pressure monitors, etc.), as well as app security and user privacy. ‘Happtique Health App Certification Program’ (HACP), a voluntary app certification scheme, successfully captures most of these desiderata, but is solely focused on apps targeting the US market. HACP, while very welcome, is in ways reminiscent of the early days of the Web, when many “similar” quality benchmarking tools and codes of conduct for information publishers were proposed to appraise and rate online medical and health information. It is probably impossible to rate and police every app on offer today, much like in those early days of the Web

  7. Best practices in managing child and adolescent behavioral health emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Vera; Rocker, Joshua; Saggu, Babar M; Andrus, Jason M

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral health emergencies most commonly present as depression, suicidal behavior, aggression, and severe disorganization. Emergency clinicians should avoid relying solely on past medical history or previous psychiatric diagnoses that might prematurely rule out medical pathologies. Treatments for behavioral health emergencies consist of de-escalation interventions aimed at preventing agitation, aggression, and harm. This issue reviews medical pathologies and underlying causes that can result in psychiatric presentations and summarizes evidence-based practices to evaluate, manage, and refer patients with behavioral health emergencies.

  8. Collagen films with stabilized liquid crystalline phases and concerns on osteoblast behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Minjian; Ding, Shan; Min, Xiang; Jiao, Yanpeng, E-mail: tjiaoyp@jnu.edu.cn; Li, Lihua; Li, Hong; Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    To duplicate collagen's in vivo liquid crystalline (LC) phase and investigate the relationship between the morphology of LC collagen and osteoblast behavior, a self-assembly method was introduced for preparing collagen films with a stabilized LC phase. The LC texture and topological structure of the films before and after stabilization were observed with polarizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The relationship between the collagen films and osteoblast behavior was studied with the 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide method, proliferation index detection, alkaline phosphatase measurements, osteocalcin assay, inverted microscopy, SEM observation, AFM observation, and cytoskeleton fluorescence staining. The results showed that the LC collagen film had continuously twisting orientations in the cholesteric phase with a typical series of arced patterns. The collagen fibers assembled in a well-organized orientation in the LC film. Compared to the non-LC film, the LC collagen film can promote cell proliferation, and increase ALP and osteocalcin expression, revealing a contact guide effect on osteoblasts. - Highlights: • Collagen film with liquid crystalline (LC) phase was observed by POM, SEM and AFM. • The effect of LC collagen film on osteoblasts behaviors was studied in detail. • LC collagen film promoted osteoblast proliferation and osteogenesis activity.

  9. Determining attitudinal and behavioral factors concerning milk and dairy intake and their association with calcium intake in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Rengers, Brooke; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2018-04-01

    Average intake of calcium among college students is below the recommended intake, and knowledge surrounding the attitudinal and behavioral factors that influence milk and dairy intake, a primary food source of calcium, is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate college students' attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy consumption and their association with calcium intake. Participants were 1,730 undergraduate students who completed an online survey (SurveyMonkey) as part of baseline data collection for a social marketing dairy campaign. The online survey assessed attitudes and behaviors concerning milk and dairy intake, and calcium intake. Questions about milk- and dairy-related attitudes and behaviors were grouped into 14 factors using factor analysis. Predictors of calcium intake were then evaluated. Median calcium intake across all participants was 928.6 mg/day, with males consuming higher calcium intakes than females ( P negative-parent rules concerning milk ( P = 0.031) and viewing milk in dining halls negatively ( P = 0.05). Calcium intakes among college students enrolled in the current study was below the recommended dietary allowance of 1,000 mg/day, reinforcing the need for dietary interventions in this target population, especially females. Practitioners and researchers should consider the factors found here to impact calcium intake, particularly associating milk with specific eating occasions (e.g., milk with breakfast) and having calcium-rich foods available in the dorm room or apartment, as intervention strategies in future efforts aimed at promoting milk and dairy foods and beverages for improved calcium intake in college students.

  10. [Behaviour concerning smoking among the patients making use of advice in women health centres].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Alina; Szymański, Przemysław; Rzeźnicki, Adam; Stelmach, Włodzimierz

    2007-01-01

    The level of knowledge in the society about the harmful influence of smoking is increasing systematically. But there are still many people ignoring the warnings and prohibitions concerning smoking. The results of the research show that it is highly worrying that there are people for whom smoking is incredibly dangerous, e.g. children, youth, women, especially pregnant women. The aim of the work was to establish the percentage of smoking women among the patients of the women health centre, with the special focus on pregnant women. There were 120 women encompassed in this study in the health centre in Opoczno and 120 women using a similar health centre in Lodz between the 1st and the 15th March 2007, using a auditoria survey questionnaire. The collected data was worked out statistically. In the group of 240 tested people, 87 admitted to smoking, which is 36.3% of the respondents. Among the 185 women who were not pregnant, but were smoking, there were 75 (40.5%) and in the group of 55 pregnant women, there were 12 who smoked (f=0.22). Over 22% of the smoking women smoked over 10 cigarettes a day. From among 87 of the surveyed, 35.6% claimed they smoked everywhere they wanted. Majority of the respondents that is 52.9% lived with at least one other smoking person. Over 70% of them would like to quit smoking. Almost 48% stated their doctor has never talked with them about the influence of smoking on their health and almost 42% stated that no nurse or midwife has ever talked to them about this subject. Frequency of smoking among the tested people who were using the women health centre was high. Especially worrying was the percentage of the smoking pregnant women--every fifth of them smoked.

  11. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  12. Occupational Safety and Health Concerns in Logging: A Cross-Sectional Assessment in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwook Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased logging mechanization has helped improve logging safety and health, yet related safety risks and concerns are not well understood. A cross-sectional study was completed among Virginia loggers. Participants (n = 122 completed a self-administered questionnaire focusing on aspects of safety and health related to logging equipment. Respondents were at a high risk of workplace injuries, with reported career and 12-month injury prevalences of 51% and 14%, respectively. Further, nearly all (98% respondents reported experiencing musculoskeletal symptoms. Over half (57.4% of respondents reported symptoms related to diesel exhaust exposure in their career. Few (15.6%, however, perceived their jobs to be dangerous. Based on the opinions and suggestions of respondents, three priority areas were identified for interventions: struck-by/against hazards, situational awareness (SA during logging operations, and visibility hazards. To address these hazards, and to have a broader and more substantial positive impact on safety and health, we discuss the need for proactive approaches such as incorporating proximity technologies in a logging machine or personal equipment, and enhancing logging machine design to enhance safety, ergonomics, and SA.

  13. Health and safety concerns os migrant workers: the experience of tunisian workers in modena, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faïçal Daly

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relatively under-researched field of healthand safety of migrant workers, with special reference to Tunisian construction workers in the city of Modena in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna. The empirical material comes from questionnaires and interviews with Tunisian migrants, plus smaller numbers of interviews with employers and trade union representatives in Modena. The paper starts by critically reviewing the scattered literature onthe health and safety of minority workers, most of which refers to the United States and the United Kingdom. The discussion then moves to a consideration of migrant health and safety questions in the contexts of racism, discrimination, social class, working conditions, labour market segmentation and (non- regulation. Specialattention is given to the failed role of trade unions in defending the rights of minority workers, in advanced countries generally and in Italy in particular. A case study is then made of the construction sector in Italy, enriched by personal accounts of the experiences of Tunisian migrant workers in Modena. Employer and tradeunion interviews reveal a lack of concern and ability to tackle the relevant issues. Barriers to health and safety awareness training are outlined. In the conclusion, recommendations are made for policy initiatives in this area.

  14. Data concerning the psychometric properties of the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scales for the Portuguese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Almeida, Fernando; Pinto, Marta; Segarra, Pilar; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    The behavioral inhibition/behavioral activation (BIS/BAS) scales (Carver & White, 1994), which allow rating the Gray's motivational systems, were translated and adapted into Portuguese. In this study, the authors present the procedure and the psychometric analyses of the Portuguese version of the scales, which included basic item and scales psychometric characteristics, as well as confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. After the psychometric analyses provided evidence for the quality of the Portuguese version of the scales, the normative data was provided by age and school grade. The confirmatory factor analysis of the BIS/BAS scales that the authors performed did not demonstrate satisfactory fit for the 2- or 4-factor solution. The authors also tested the more recent 5-factor model, but the fit indices remained inadequate. As fit indices were not satisfactory they proceeded with an exploratory factor analysis to examine the structure of the Portuguese scales. These psychometric analyses provided evidence of a successful translation of the original scales. Therefore these scales can now be used in future research with Portuguese or Brazilian population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. “FOCUS-GROUP” STUDY CONCERNING MEAT CONSUMER`S BEHAVIOR IN THE CITY OF TIMISOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GENOVEVA BUZAMĂT

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Focus-group is an exploratory qualitative research, a demi-structured interview whichallows us to get to know the consumer`s perceptions, reasons, feelings, needs andattitudes. This technique has been used to make evident what especially determines theconsumers to choose a certain meat sort. The research has been carried out on twogroups, in the city of Timisoara. The objectives aimed at within this research were:determination of the consumer`s motivation for a certain meat sort; correlation betweenlifestyle and meat sort; consumption habits. The main tool was represented by theinterview guide, in which we have used open questions in order to hear our subjects`opinions concerning the meat consumption, open questions for their familiarization andintroductive questions, with the help of which we introduced the subjects to the theme ofthis research.

  16. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

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    Derek G. Shendell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries. Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  17. Motivations, concerns, and expectations of Scandinavian health professionals volunteering for humanitarian assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; McSpadden, Lucia Ann; Garrett, Martha J

    2006-01-01

    International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in humanitarian assistance employ millions of volunteers. One of the major challenges for the organizations is the high turnover rate among their personnel. Another is recruiting the right persons. As part of a series of studies investigating factors that affect the recruitment process and the success of assignment, this qualitative study examined health professionals' motivations for volunteering, their various concerns, and their expectations about themselves and the organizations for which they would work. The findings from focus group interviews with potential humanitarian volunteers were considered within the framework of Hertzberg's theory of motivations and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The study has significant implications for personnel policy and practice in the humanitarian sector. Recruitment officers should have the self-actualized person, as described by Maslow, in mind when interviewing candidates. This perspective would make it easier for them to understand the candidates' thoughts and concerns and would lead to more effective interventions. Program officers should have satisfiers and dissatisfiers, as identified by Herzberg, in mind when planning programs. The probability that personnel will leave humanitarian work is lower if they perceive working conditions as good.

  18. The Association Between Men's Concern About Demonstrating Masculine Characteristics and Their Sexual Risk Behaviors: Findings from the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare; Powell, Wizdom; Gottert, Ann; Lerebours, Leonel; Donastorg, Yeycy; Brito, Maximo O

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative analyses exploring the relationship between masculinities and men's sexual risk behaviors have most commonly used one dimension of masculinities: men's gender ideology. Examining other dimensions may enhance our understanding of and ability to intervene upon this relationship. In this article, we examined the association between gender role conflict/stress (GRC/S)-men's concern about demonstrating masculine characteristics-and three different sexual risk behaviors (having two or more sex partners in the last 30 days; never/inconsistent condom use with non-steady partners; and drinking alcohol at last sex) among a sample of heterosexual men in the Dominican Republic who were participating in an HIV prevention intervention (n = 293). The GRC/S Scale we used was adapted for this specific cultural context and has 17 items (α = 0.75). We used logistic regression to assess the relationship between GRC/S and each sexual behavior, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. In adjusted models, a higher GRC/S score was significantly associated with increased odds of having two or more sex partners in the past 30 days (AOR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.01-1.74), never/inconsistent condom use with non-steady partners (AOR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.04-2.01), and drinking alcohol at last sex (AOR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.13-2.17). These results highlight the importance of expanding beyond gender ideology to understanding the influence of GRC/S on men's sexual risk behaviors. Interventions should address men's concern about demonstrating masculine characteristics to reduce the social and internalized pressure men feel to engage in sexual risk behaviors.

  19. Public health concerns associated with care of free-living birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Julia K

    2011-09-01

    Free-living birds are not only susceptible to certain infectious diseases; wild bird populations serve as reservoirs of several important diseases of public health concern. Bacterial and viral diseases endemic in populations of free-living birds such as tuberculosis, avian influenza, arboviral infections, and enteropathogens have been classified as emerging or reemerging. Providing care to wild avian patients increases the opportunity for direct contact with infected birds and the possibility of transmission of infectious disease to human handlers. Awareness of disease potential is critical to disease monitoring of wild populations and will allow for the implementation of precautionary measures when working with wild avian species. Biosecurity measures designed to minimize risk must be evaluated by individual facilities.

  20. Anticipated regret and health behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Noel T; DeFrank, Jessica T; Gilkey, Melissa B

    2016-11-01

    Risk beliefs are central to most theories of health behavior, yet many unanswered questions remain about an increasingly studied risk construct, anticipated regret. The authors sought to better understand anticipated regret's role in motivating health behaviors. The authors systematically searched electronic databases for studies of anticipated regret and behavioral intentions or health behavior. They used random effects meta-analysis to synthesize effect sizes from 81 studies (n = 45,618). Anticipated regret was associated with both intentions (r+ = .50, p emotions and risk appraisals. Anticipated inaction regret has a stronger and more stable association with health behavior than previously thought. The field should give greater attention to understanding how anticipated regret differs from similar constructs, its role in health behavior theory, and its potential use in health behavior interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and externa...

  2. Associations between health culture, health behaviors, and health-related outcomes: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yingnan; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua

    2017-01-01

    To examine the associations between demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes in Chinese workplaces. A total of 1508 employees from 10 administrative offices and 6 enterprises were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Self-administered questionnaires mainly addressed demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes including self-rated health, mental health, and happiness. The proportion of participants who reported good health-related outcomes was significantly higher in those working in administrative offices than those working in enterprises. The result of the potential factors related to self-rated health (SRH), mental health, and happiness by logistic regression analyses showed that age and income were associated with SRH; type of workplace, age, smoking, and health culture at the workplace level were associated with mental health; and beneficial health effects of direct leadership was positively associated with happiness. Moreover, there were some similar results among 3 multivariate regression models. Firstly, good SRH (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.744), mental health (OR = 1.891), and happiness (OR = 1.736) were more common among highly physically active participants compared with those physical inactive. Furthermore, passive smoking was negatively correlated with SRH (OR = 0.686), mental health (OR = 0.678), and happiness (OR = 0.616), while health culture at the individual level was positively correlated with SRH (OR = 1.478), mental health (OR = 1.654), and happiness (OR = 2.916). The present study indicated that workplace health culture, health behaviors, and demographic characteristics were associated with health-related outcomes. Furthermore, individual health culture, physical activity, and passive smoking might play a critical role in workplace health promotion.

  3. Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Psychological Health and Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Karla S; Meade, Michelle A; Krause, James S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between employment and psychological health and health management as described by individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) who were employed at least once following injury. Methods: A qualitative approach used 6 focus groups at 2 sites with 44 participants who were at least 10 years post SCI. All had been employed at some point since injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were delineated based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. Group sessions followed a semi-structured interview format with questions about personal, environmental, and policy related factors influencing employment following SCI. All group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded into conceptual categories to identify topics, themes, and patterns. Inferences were drawn about their meaning. NVivo 10 software using the constant comparative method was used for data analysis. Results: Narratives discussed the relationship between employment and psychological and emotional health and health management. Four themes were identified: (1) adjustment and dealing with emotional reactions, (2) gaining self-confidence, (3) preventing burnout, and (4) attitudes and perspectives. Most themes reflected issues that varied based on severity of injury as well as stage of employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successful in working following injury must determine how to perform the behaviors necessary to manage their health and prevent emotional or physical complications. The emotional consequences of SCI must be recognized and addressed and specific behaviors enacted in order to optimize employment outcomes.

  4. A small business worksite wellness model for improving health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a wellness program delivered by WellSteps, LLC, aimed at improving employee health behaviors in small companies that lack the resources to independently develop and manage a wellness program. Analyses are based on 618 employees from five diverse companies that completed an initial personal health assessment. Exercise and dietary behaviors significantly improved across the five companies. Significant improvements in health perception and life satisfaction also resulted and were associated with improvements in health behaviors. Three of the five companies, each with fewer than 50 employees, were most effective in influencing positive health behaviors, health perceptions, and life satisfaction. The worksite wellness program effectively improved health behaviors, health perceptions, and life satisfaction.

  5. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng T. Endarti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI =  0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion

  6. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort. - Highlights: • Indoor and outdoor environments were classified by exposure to health concern. • Measurements taken by people provide better knowledge than fixed stations. • Social stress and noise are more stressing factors than Thermal load and CO. • The most stressful places are crowded ones like markets etc. • Short visit in green spaces are effective in reducing levels of stress.

  7. Eliciting Patients’ Health Concerns in Consulting Rooms and Wards in Vietnamese Public Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Thi Linh Nguyen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the doctor’s elicitation of the patient’s presenting health concern in two clinical settings in the Vietnamese public hospital system: the consulting room and the ward. The data were taken from 66 audio-recorded consultations. Our analysis shows that the elicitors used by the doctor in the consulting room often communicate a weak epistemic stance towards the patient’s health issue, while those used in the ward tend to signal a strong epistemic stance. In addition, this contrast between the elicitors employed in the consulting room and the ward is evident in our data regardless of whether the consultation is a first visit or a same follow-up (in which the doctor is the same one that treated the patient on their last visit, though the contrast is less clear for different follow-ups (in which the doctor has not treated the patient before. An additional finding is that the clinical setting has some bearing on the use of inappropriate elicitation formats (in which the doctor opens the visit with an elicitor which is more appropriate for another type of visit. The precise way in which each of the consulting room and the ward operates is, of course, a feature of the Vietnamese public hospital system itself. Hence, the overall contrast between the elicitors and elicitation formats used in these two settings illustrates how, on a more general level, the institutional context can have an impact on doctor-patient communication.

  8. Reproductive health concerns in six conflict-affected areas of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottegoda, Sepali; Samuel, Kumudini; Emmanuel, Sarala

    2008-05-01

    This article draws on a study conducted by the Women and Media Collective between 2004 and 2005 to highlight some of the reproductive health concerns of women from Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim ethnic groups, living in situations of conflict in Sri Lanka. The study focussed on women from six conflict-affected areas in the north and east of the country: Jaffna (Northern Province), Mannar and Puttalam (North-Western Province), Polonnaruwa (North-Central Province), Batticaloa and Ampara (Eastern Province). Higher levels of poverty, higher rates of school drop-out, low pay and precarious access to work, mainly in the informal sector, higher rates of early marriage, pregnancy and home births, higher levels of maternal mortality and lower levels of contraceptive use were found. Economic, social and physical insecurity were key to these phenomena. Physically and psychologically, women were at high risk of sexual and physical violence, mainly from their partners/spouses but also from family members, often related to dowry. The article brings out the voices of women whose lives have been overshadowed by conflict and displacement, and the nature of structural barriers that impede their right to health care services, to make informed decisions about their lives and to live free of familial violence.

  9. Analysis of a health team's records and nurses' perceptions concerning signs and symptoms of delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rosa Carla Gomes da; Silva, Abel Avelino de Paiva E; Marques, Paulo Alexandre Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the extent of under-diagnosis of acute confusion/delirium by analyzing the records of a health team and the perception of nurses concerning this phenomenon. This quantitative study was developed in a central university hospital in Portugal and used the documentary and interview techniques. The sample obtained through the application of the NeeCham's scale was composed of 111 patients with the diagnosis of acute confusion/delirium hospitalized in the medical and surgical acute care units. A rate of 12.6% of under-diagnosis was identified in the records and a rate of 30.6% was found taking into account the perception of nurses. No indicators of acute confusion/delirium were found in 8.1% of the 111 cases and only 4.5% of the patients were diagnosed with acute confusion/delirium. The results indicate there is difficulty in identifying acute confusion/delirium, with implications for the quality of care, suggesting the need to implement training measures directed to health teams.

  10. Stress among Graduate Students in Relation to Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkel, Kelly; Reeves, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    Problem: While stress is universal for graduate students, the difference in terms of stress symptoms and the effects on health behavior is how students cope. While numerous research studies have linked stress and negative health behaviors, few studies have objectively assessed these variables. Purpose: Utilize current health and fitness technology…

  11. The health policy implications of individual adaptive behavior responses to smog pollution in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jie; Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yi; Brooke Anderson, G; Li, Tiantian

    2017-09-01

    Smog pollution is a serious public health issue in urban China, where it is associated with public health through a range of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses. Despite the negative health impacts of smog pollution, individual adaptive behaviors are poorly understood. This knowledge gap hinders the development of effective public policy to support and encourage the adoption of individual adaptive and mitigating behaviors to smog pollution. A questionnaire survey of 1141 randomly sampled individuals in a typical PM 2.5 -polluted Chinese city was designed to establish smog concerns and behavior changes during smog events. The results demonstrate a variety of behavior responses associated with risk perception, experience of smog, age, and gender of respondents. An understanding of these variations is critical to the development of effective public policy and ultimately to the improvement of public health in cities affected by smog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Evolution of the American Family and Its Effects on Health Behavior Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Terri M.

    The evolution of the family concerns health educators because family environment has been consistently linked to development of various addictions and negative behaviors, such as drug and alcohol abuse, eating disorders, workaholism, excessive exercise, sexual promiscuity, vandalism, youth crime, and violence and abuse. It is recognized that a…

  13. The Significance of Privacy and Trust in Providing Health-Related Services to Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Rhodes, Scott D.; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that bisexual men face unique health concerns in comparison to their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts. However, little is known about behaviorally bisexual men's experiences with health services, including ways of providing services that would be most appropriate to meet the health needs of this…

  14. Public Health Concern on Fukushima Radiation Risks in Korea and Response Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chaewon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 75 Nowon-Ro, Seoul 139-781 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of public perception on radiation risks by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident and aims to suggest the appropriate strategies for minimizing social anxiety and managing the risk effectively on the basis of those features. In South Korea, the nearest country to Japan, fishery sales decreased 20% in 2013 due to consumers' fears over radiation contaminated seafood products. Public health concern is also increasing. The characteristics of public perception on the risk are the key factors of social anxiety, which are 'ongoing hazard' and 'uncertainty'. They can be translated same as the concepts of 'fear' and 'unknown risk', the psychometric factors of risk perception described in Slovic (1989)'s qualitative characteristics. News on a series of hazardous situations such as radioactive water leaks or radioactive steam at Fukushima is continually reported. Noting no expectation of accident settlement in near future, media coverage which has the expression of 'the maximum permissible level of radiation' without any translation of the measured dosimetric quantity causes the public's phobic fear. Uncertainties on health risks of low dose ionizing radiation in humans are not only the causes of fear but the challenges in building trust in risk communications. Rumours appear under ambiguous and uncertain situation with a lack of information. The communications among public authorities, related institutes, experts and the public become very important since the public health concern on radiation contamination turns into attention to the system of inspection, distribution, and regulation of imported food. The public shows deep interest in the safety standard of guidelines used in regulatory policy and safety management, which leads to a desire for participation in policy making process. Situational crisis communication theory can be applied to the situation quoted and

  15. Confidentiality Concerns and Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Among Adolescents and Young Adults Aged 15-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copen, Casey E; Dittus, Patricia J; Leichliter, Jami S

    2016-12-01

    Data from the National Survey of Family Growth •About 7% of persons aged 15-25 would not seek sexual or reproductive health care because of concerns that their parents might find out about it. •For females aged 15-17 and 18-25, those who had confidentiality concerns were less likely to receive sexual and reproductive health services in the past year compared with those without these concerns. •Less than one-half of teenagers aged 15-17 (38.1%) spent some time alone in the past year during a visit with a doctor or other health care provider without a parent, relative, or guardian in the room. •Teenagers aged 15-17 who spent some time alone during a visit with a health care provider were more likely to have received sexual or reproductive health services in the past year compared with those who had not. Confidentiality concerns can impact adolescent and young adults' access to sexual and reproductive health services (1-4). Young people who are covered by their parents' private health insurance may be deterred from obtaining these services due to concerns that their parents might find out about it (2). Similarly, confidentiality concerns may arise because youth seeking such services may not have time alone during a visit with a health care provider (4). This report describes two measures related to confidentiality concerns and sexual and reproductive health care. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  16. Business travel and behavioral and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, Andrew G; Revenson, Tracey A; Friedman, Michael

    2017-12-21

    Assess associations between business travel and behavioral and mental health. Cross-sectional analyses of de-identified electronic medical record data from EHE International, Inc. a provider of corporate wellness programs. Higher levels of business travel were associated with poorer outcomes. Compared to traveling 1-6 nights/month for work, those who traveled 21 + nights were more likely to: smoke (prevalence ratio = 3.74, 95% CI 2.56, 5.46), report trouble sleeping (PR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.09, 1.71), be sedentary (PR = 1.95, 95%CI 1.56, 2.43) and score above clinical thresholds for alcohol dependence (CAGE score>1: PR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.26, 3.29), and mild or worse anxiety (GAD-7 Score>4: PR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.29, 2.21) and depression symptoms (PHQ-9 Score>4: PR = 2.27, 95%CI 1.70, 3.03). Employers should provide programs to help employees manage stress and maintain health while traveling for work.

  17. A Behavior Change Framework of Health Socialization and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Christopher T.; Stanley, Lauren H. K.

    2017-01-01

    An individual's identity related to health is critically important in terms of the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors, and guides approaches to health change across the lifespan. This article presents a review of the literature and proposes a health socialization and health identity framework, which may be used to clarify challenges in…

  18. Time series clustering analysis of health-promoting behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi-Ta; Hung, Yu-Shiang; Deng, Guang-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Health promotion must be emphasized to achieve the World Health Organization goal of health for all. Since the global population is aging rapidly, ComCare elder health-promoting service was developed by the Taiwan Institute for Information Industry in 2011. Based on the Pender health promotion model, ComCare service offers five categories of health-promoting functions to address the everyday needs of seniors: nutrition management, social support, exercise management, health responsibility, stress management. To assess the overall ComCare service and to improve understanding of the health-promoting behavior of elders, this study analyzed health-promoting behavioral data automatically collected by the ComCare monitoring system. In the 30638 session records collected for 249 elders from January, 2012 to March, 2013, behavior patterns were identified by fuzzy c-mean time series clustering algorithm combined with autocorrelation-based representation schemes. The analysis showed that time series data for elder health-promoting behavior can be classified into four different clusters. Each type reveals different health-promoting needs, frequencies, function numbers and behaviors. The data analysis result can assist policymakers, health-care providers, and experts in medicine, public health, nursing and psychology and has been provided to Taiwan National Health Insurance Administration to assess the elder health-promoting behavior.

  19. Health-related behaviors and technology usage among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Bridget F; Bigham, Lauren E; Bland, Helen W; Bird, Matthew; Fairman, Ciaran

    2014-07-01

    To examine associations between technology usage and specific health factors among college students. The research employed was a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional design; undergraduate students enrolled in spring 2012 general health education courses were recruited to participate. To explore college students' specific technology usage and health-related behaviors, a 28-item questionnaire was utilized. Statistical significant differences of technology usage were found between 3 of the 4 health-related behaviors under study (BMI, sleep, and nutrition) (p technology usage continues to evolve within the college student population, health professionals need to understand its implications on health behaviors.

  20. An adolescent with bestiality behaviour: Psychological evaluation and community health concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Satapathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bestiality is a serious but less commonly reported form of animal cruelty occurring in a society. It is a punishable sexual offence in India. Bestiality has received little attention in recent psychiatric literature, and even though case reports have been published, an elaborate psychological assessment is often missing. This case report of 18 year old male presented here highlighted the importance of psychological assessment to emphasize on its implications for the further risk assessment of the person, family psycho-education and non-pharmacological intervention for bestialists. The overall assessment suggested of absence of any brain dysfunction and active psychopathology, average intelligence (IQ and intact cognitive functioning. The findings portrayed physical and sexual inadequacies, emotional and sexual immaturity, difficulty in emotional attachment, internalized hostility, voyeuristic tendencies and infantile social behaviour, excitement seeker, inability to delay gratification of impulses, lacks empathy, poor self-discipline, less conscientiousness and less sensitive to criticism. The report also emphasized the role of child sexual abuse on sexual behavior later life. The importance of including the topic within the community health/sexual and reproductive health education programmes was highlighted.

  1. A Review of Hip Hop-Based Interventions for Health Literacy, Health Behaviors, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Winfrey, Adia

    2017-07-01

    African-American children and adolescents experience an undue burden of disease for many health outcomes compared to their White peers. More research needs to be completed for this priority population to improve their health outcomes and ameliorate health disparities. Integrating hip hop music or hip hop dance into interventions may help engage African-American youth in health interventions and improve their health outcomes. We conducted a review of the literature to characterize hip hop interventions and determine their potential to improve health. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies that assessed hip hop interventions. To be included, studies had to (1) be focused on a psychosocial or physical health intervention that included hip hop and (2) present quantitative data assessing intervention outcomes. Twenty-three articles were identified as meeting all inclusion criteria and were coded by two reviewers. Articles were assessed with regards to sample characteristics, study design, analysis, intervention components, and results. Hip hop interventions have been developed to improve health literacy, health behavior, and mental health. The interventions were primarily targeted to African-American and Latino children and adolescents. Many of the health literacy and mental health studies used non-experimental study designs. Among the 12 (of 14) health behavior studies that used experimental designs, the association between hip hop interventions and positive health outcomes was inconsistent. The number of experimental hip hop intervention studies is limited. Future research is required to determine if hip hop interventions can promote health.

  2. Parenting style, parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Walton-Moss, Benita

    2012-07-01

    Parental guidance is critical to the development of children's health-related behaviors. The purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between parenting factors, including parenting style and parenting stress, and children's health-related behaviors. In this descriptive, correlational study, 284 parents of preschool children were interviewed using the Child Rearing Questionnaire and the Korean Parenting Stress Index-Short Form. Parent distress, authoritative and permissive parenting styles, family income, and mother's education were significantly associated with children's health-related behaviors. These findings suggest that higher levels of warmth, characteristics of both parenting styles, may be a critical factor in the development of health-related behaviors.

  3. Parental influence on children's oral health-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutanen, Raija; Lahti, Satu; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Hausen, Hannu

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences between oral health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of children and their parents, and to identify the family-related factors associated with children's poor or good oral health-related behavior. The data were gathered by means of questionnaires from 11-12-year-old schoolchildren and their parents who replied without having knowledge of the answers of the others. Differences between subgroups of children were analyzed by cross-tabulation, and the factors related to children's good or poor oral health-related behavior by logistic regression analyses. Parents of children who reported good oral health-related behavior had better knowledge and more favorable behaviors than those of other parents. Predictors for a child's poor oral health-related behavior were the child's poor knowledge, male gender, the parent's frequent consumption of sweets, and the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. When a less strict threshold for the child's poor oral health-related behavior was used, more predictors entered the model: the parent's unfavorable use of fluoride toothpaste; among girls, the parent's lack of knowledge; and among children whose mother's occupation level was high, the parent's infrequent use of xylitol gum. The parents of children whose oral health behavior was favorable were more likely to have a high level occupation and favorable oral health-related behaviors. Oral health-related knowledge of children and their parents seems to be associated with children's oral health-related behavior. Parents' behaviors, but not attitudes, were associated with children's oral health behavior.

  4. Oral health related knowledge and health behavior of parents and school children

    OpenAIRE

    Lalić Maja; Aleksić Ema; Gajić Mihajlo; Malešević Đoka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old). Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and ...

  5. Driving while black: a comparison of the beliefs, concerns, and behaviors of black and white Maryland drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnam, Katrina J; Beck, Kenneth H

    2011-12-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration suggests that given the changing demographics of the United States it is important to examine motor vehicle statistics by race and ethnicity. The current study sought to explore differences in traffic safety concerns and driving behaviors between black and white drivers. An annual, anonymous, random-digit-dial telephone survey was used to collect data between 2003 and 2009 from Maryland drivers. Drivers (N = 5503) were assessed regarding their driving behaviors and perceived risk of receiving a traffic violation. Results showed that black drivers perceived a greater likelihood of being stopped for driving under the influence (DUI), for not wearing a seat belt and for speeding than white drivers. These differences were found among drivers with or without a history of being ticketed. Black drivers were also more likely to report a variety of risky driving behaviors than white drivers. However, black drivers were not more likely to report receiving a ticket or citation in the last month after controlling for demographic factors, risky driving behaviors, and geographic region of the state, where traffic enforcement may vary. Findings indicate that black drivers are not more likely to be ticketed, despite perceptual biases that may exist among some drivers. These differences appear to be explained by demographic as well as regional factors. These results highlight the need for more research to understand the potential differences in driving behaviors between racial and ethnic groups. More research is also needed to develop countermeasures for racial and ethnic groups most at risk for motor vehicle violations and crashes.

  6. [Health promotion. Instrument development for the application of the theory of planned behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y O

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe operationalization of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The quest to understand determinants of health behaviors has intensified as evidence accumulates concerning the impact of personal behavior on health. The majority of theory-based research has used the Health Belief Model(HBM). The HBM components have had limited success in explaining health-related behaviors. There are several advantages of the TPB over the HBM. TPB is an expansion of the Theory of Reasoned Action(TRA) with the addition of the construct, perceived behavioral control. The revised model has been shown to yield greater explanatory power than the original TRA for goal-directed behaviors. The process of TPB instrument development was described, using example form the study of smoking cessation behavior in military smokers. It was followed by a discussion of reliability and validity issues in operationalizing the TPB. The TPB is a useful model for understanding and predicting health-related behaviors when carefully operationalized. The model holds promise in the development of prescriptive nursing approaches.

  7. The Behavioral Health Role in Nursing Facility Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Dennis R; Rogers, Robin K; LeCrone, Harold H; Kelley, Katherine

    2017-09-01

    Types of compromised resident behaviors licensed nursing facility social workers encounter, the behavioral health role they enact, and effective practices they apply have not been the subject of systematic investigation. Analyses of 20 in-depth interviews with Bachelor of Social Work (BSW)/Master of Social Work (MSW) social workers averaging 8.8 years of experience identified frequently occurring resident behaviors: physical and verbal aggression/disruption, passive disruption, socially and sexually inappropriateness. Six functions of the behavioral health role were care management, educating, investigating, preventing, mediating, and advocating. Skills most frequently applied were attention/affirmation/active listening, assessment, behavior management, building relationship, teamwork, and redirection. Narratives revealed role rewards as well as knowledge deficits, organizational barriers, personal maltreatment, and frustrations. Respondents offered perspectives and prescriptions for behavioral health practice in this setting. The findings expand understanding of the behavioral health role and provide an empirical basis for more research in this area. Recommendations, including educational competencies, are offered.

  8. Rapid Assessment of Stakeholder Concerns about Public Health : An Introduction to a Fast and Inexpensive Approach Applied on Health Concerns about Intensive Animal Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Marleen; van der Ree, Joost; Lebret, Erik

    2017-01-01

    To effectively manage environmental health risks, stakeholders often need to act collectively. Stakeholders vary in their desire to act due to many factors, such as knowledge, risk perception, interests, and worldviews. Understanding their perceptions of the issues at stake is crucial to support the

  9. Rapid Assessment of Stakeholder Concerns about Public Health. An Introduction to a Fast and Inexpensive Approach Applied on Health Concerns about Intensive Animal Production Systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij-Dirkzwager, Marleen; van der Ree, Joost; Lebret, Erik

    2017-01-01

    To effectively manage environmental health risks, stakeholders often need to act collectively. Stakeholders vary in their desire to act due to many factors, such as knowledge, risk perception, interests, and worldviews. Understanding their perceptions of the issues at stake is crucial to support the

  10. Does marriage explain murders in a society? In what way is divorce a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Paul Andrew; Hudson-Davis, Angela; Sharpe-Pryce, Charlene; Clarke, Jeffery; Solan, Ikhalfani; Rhule, Joan; Francis, Cynthia; Watson-Coleman, Olive; Sharma, Anushree; Campbell-Smith, Janinne

    2014-01-01

    Like medicine, public health practitioners seek to understand causes of mortality, practices of humans and issues that can change population conditions, in order to preserve and care for life. The murder pandemic has been such in Jamaica that the World Bank sponsored a qualitative study on crime in urban areas in Jamaica in the late 1990s to provide a platform to guide policy intervention and programmes. As a result this study will fill the gap in the literature by providing the evidence to support that divorce and marriage are public health concerns from the perspective of murders. To evaluate the role of divorce and marital relationships on murders. The data for this study are taken from various Jamaica Government Publications. The period for this work is from 1950 through 2013. Data were recorded, stored and retrieved using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows, Version 21.0. The level of significance that is used to determine statistical significance is less than 5% (0.05). Ordinary least square (OLS) regression analyses and curve estimations were used to determine models and best fitted models. On average, annually, 523 Jamaicans are murdered (± 484), with there being 9,531 marriages (± 22,747) and 904 divorces (± 468). Logged marriage rate and divorce rate are factors of murder rate, with both independent factors accounting for 82.2% of the variability in the murder rate. Both factors are positively correlated with the murder rate, with the divorce rate accounting for most of the variance in the murder rate (R2 = 79.2%). Death can be extremely devasting to families, however, murder among married couples can severely disrupt the lives of both families along with any children from such relationship.

  11. Factors associated with Taiwanese lesbians' breast health-care behavior and intentions: Qualitative interview findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Ching; Griffiths, Jane; Grande, Gunn

    2017-09-01

    This article presents the qualitative findings of a mixed-methods study that explored factors influencing lesbians' breast health-care behavior and intentions. A total of 37 semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted among women who self-identified as lesbians or women who partnered with the same gender who were aged 20 years or above in four areas of Taiwan (North, Central, South, and East Taiwan) between August 2012 and October 2012. Interviews were audio recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were analyzed using constant comparative analysis with Nvivo audio-coding support. Four themes were identified to be strongly associated with the lesbians' breast health-care behavior and their intentions, namely, gender identity, gender role expression, partners' support, and concerns about health-care providers' reactions. Important barriers to the women's breast health-care behavior and intentions were masculine identity ("T-identity" in Taiwan), masculine appearance, concerns about health-care providers' lack of knowledge of multiple gender diversity, and their attitudes toward lesbians. Conversely, their partners' support was a factor facilitating the women's breast health-care behavior and intentions, particularly for the T-identity lesbians. These findings suggest the significance of and need for culturally competent care and are important for improving Taiwanese lesbians' breast health.

  12. Health behavior change: can genomics improve behavioral adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Bryan, Angela D; Bray, Molly S; Swan, Gary E; Green, Eric D

    2012-03-01

    The National Human Genome Research Institute recommends pursuing "genomic information to improve behavior change interventions" as part of its strategic vision for genomics. The limited effectiveness of current behavior change strategies may be explained, in part, by their insensitivity to individual variation in adherence responses. The first step in evaluating whether genomics can inform customization of behavioral recommendations is evidence reviews to identify adherence macrophenotypes common across behaviors and individuals that have genetic underpinnings. Conceptual models of how biological, psychological, and environmental factors influence adherence also are needed. Researchers could routinely collect biospecimens and standardized adherence measurements of intervention participants to enable understanding of genetic and environmental influences on adherence, to guide intervention customization and prospective comparative effectiveness studies.

  13. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the independent influencing factors of health literacy included education level, race, former occupation, household income, age, physical exercise, health examination, smoking, and health information access (p

  14. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008 and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452. Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points. There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001. The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001. The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors

  15. Health Concerns of Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Youth and Their Parents Upon Presentation to a Transgender Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlis, Shauna M; Donkin, Hillary R; Bates, Justin R; Britto, Maria T; Conard, Lee Ann E

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of specific health concerns identified by transgender and gender nonconforming patients and their parents at initial clinic visit. Checklists were developed in an iterative process and distributed to both patients and parents at their initial visit to a transgender clinic. Retrospective chart review and secondary data analyses were performed to determine the number of items endorsed, frequency with which each item was endorsed, and provider domain of each item endorsed: physician, social work, or both physician and social work. Checklists were collected from 118 patients and 103 parents. Patients endorsed a mean of 8.4 concerns (range 0-22) and parents 7.9 concerns (range 0-20). The most commonly endorsed patient concerns included use of gender-affirming hormones, steps for transition, gender-affirming surgery, restroom/dressing room use, and legal issues. Common parent concerns included general resources, child safety at school, acute mental health concerns, restroom/dressing room use, and steps for transition. Of the concerns endorsed by patients, 44% were in the social work domain, 37% in the physician domain, and 19% in both the social work and physician domain. Of the concerns endorsed by parents, 40% were in the social work domain, 31% in the physician domain, and 29% in the social work and physician domain. Although patients and parents had similar numbers of concerns, they primarily focused on different topics. Youth were more interested in hormones and transition, while parents were more interested with transition and acceptance. Many concerns for both patients and parents fell within the social work domain. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Wu, Junwen; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Taking ad-Vantage of lax advertising regulation in the USA and Canada: Reassuring and distracting health-concerned smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Stacey J; Pollay, Richard W; Ling, Pamela M

    2006-01-01

    We explored the evolution from cigarette product attributes to psychosocial needs in advertising campaigns for low-tar cigarettes. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and print advertising images indicated that low-tar brands targeted smokers who were concerned about their health with advertising images intended to distract them from the health hazards of smoking. Advertising first emphasized product characteristics (filtration, low tar) that implied health benefits. Over...

  18. Parent's pro-health awareness concerning oral health of their children in the light of survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapniarska, Karolina; Buła, Katarzyna; Hilt, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Oral hygiene is a crucial part of caring for young children. This problem is frequently marginalized or even ignored by parents/guardians, what affects child's whole further life. The assessment of parents' knowledge concerning oral hygiene and prevention of dental caries in infants and young children. The test group consisted of parents, as well as men and women currently expecting a child. The study was conducted in a form of a survey, using an original questionnaire, which was carried out in several hospitals in Lodz and online, on a popular local forum for parents. The data obtained were analyzed statistically, allowing the assessment of health awareness of respondents and the creation of various profiles of parental knowledge on the subject investigated. Most of respondents knew the age at which milk and permanent teeth erupt, gave the correct frequency of brushing child's teeth and were in favor of limiting sweets in the diet. A total of 59% correctly gave the number of deciduous teeth and 66% had heard of the "bottle tooth decay". All respondents thought that helping and controlling a child while brushing their teeth is indispensable, but they did not know the best time to start using the toothpaste with fluoride. The information about child's oral hygiene was more often looked for by women (67%) than by men (29%). The study also showed that if a training on the given subject was organized, 60% of respondents would be willing to participate in it. In the test group, pro-health awareness is insufficient to maintain the oral health of the offspring and requires constant developing.

  19. Determinants of Consumer eHealth Information Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefer, Ryan H; Westra, Bonnie L; Khairat, Saif S; Pieczkiewicz, David S; Speedie, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet and other technologies to engage in their own healthcare, but little research has focused on the determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors related to Internet use. This study uses data from 115,089 respondents to four years of the National Health Interview Series to identify the associations between one consumer eHealth behavior (information seeking) and demographics, health measures, and Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) (messaging, scheduling, refills, and chat). Individuals who use PHIM are 7.5 times more likely to search the internet for health related information. Just as health has social determinants, the results of this study indicate there are potential social determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors including personal demographics, health status, and healthcare access.

  20. Electronic Health Record-Related Safety Concerns: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Electronic Health Record Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajunen, Tuuli; Saranto, Kaija; Lehtonen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Background The rapid expansion in the use of electronic health records (EHR) has increased the number of medical errors originating in health information systems (HIS). The sociotechnical approach helps in understanding risks in the development, implementation, and use of EHR and health information technology (HIT) while accounting for complex interactions of technology within the health care system. Objective This study addresses two important questions: (1) “which of the common EHR error types are associated with perceived high- and extreme-risk severity ratings among EHR users?”, and (2) “which variables are associated with high- and extreme-risk severity ratings?” Methods This study was a quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive study of EHR users. We conducted a cross-sectional web-based questionnaire study at the largest hospital district in Finland. Statistical tests included the reliability of the summative scales tested with Cronbach’s alpha. Logistic regression served to assess the association of the independent variables to each of the eight risk factors examined. Results A total of 2864 eligible respondents provided the final data. Almost half of the respondents reported a high level of risk related to the error type “extended EHR unavailability”. The lowest overall risk level was associated with “selecting incorrectly from a list of items”. In multivariate analyses, profession and clinical unit proved to be the strongest predictors for high perceived risk. Physicians perceived risk levels to be the highest (Prisk levels (PeLearning courses on EHR-use was associated with lower risk for some of the risk factors. Conclusions Based on a large number of Finnish EHR users in hospitals, this study indicates that HIT safety hazards should be taken very seriously, particularly in operating rooms, procedure units, emergency departments, and intensive care units/critical care units. Health care organizations should use proactive and

  1. Antecedents of Philanthropic Behavior of Health Care Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Siti Noormi; Ismail, Maimunah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to propose a conceptual model of philanthropic behavior of volunteers in the health care sector. Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on an extensive review of past research on philanthropic behavior. To conduct the literature review, keywords such as philanthropy, philanthropic behavior, giving, donating,…

  2. Assessment of basic behavioural risks concerning health of students attending Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Govyazina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We chose students from all the six years attending Medical and Prevention Faculty of Perm State Medical University named after academician E.A. Vagner as our research object. Our research goal was to examine and to assess basic behavioral risks which could cause health risks for students attending medical higher educational establishment. We applied a set of techniques in our work: information-bibliographic one (15 literature sources were studied, both periodicals and monographs, sociological one (467 students of Medical and Prevention Faculty were included into a one-time questioning, them all being an entire assembly, statistic one (we calculated relative values and mean values, as well as correlation coefficients. The research was performed in two steps; the first one was based on analyzing subjective evidence, namely, sociologic questioning results; in our second step we focused on examining pathologic damages as per medical examinations data as well as data on morbidity obtained from register of visits to a students' polyclinic.

  3. Child labor and childhood behavioral and mental health problems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence and describe the nature of behavioral and mental health problems, as well as child abuse, nutritional problems, gross physical illness and injury among child laborers aged 8 to 15 years in Ethiopia. However, only the behavioral and mental health ...

  4. Health risk behavior of youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramkowski, Bridget; Kools, Susan; Paul, Steven; Boyer, Cherrie B; Monasterio, Erica; Robbins, Nancy

    2009-05-01

    Many adolescent health problems are predominantly caused by risk behavior. Foster adolescents have disproportionately poor health; therefore, identification of risk behavior is critical. Data from a larger study were analyzed to investigate the health risk behavior of 56 youth in foster care using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Adolescent Edition. Data indicated that youth in foster care had some increased risk behavior when compared with a normative adolescent population. Younger adolescents and those in relative placement had less risky behavior. Risk behavior was increased for youth in foster care when they were in group homes, had experienced a parental death, or had a history of physical or emotional abuse or attempted suicide. These results point to areas of strength and vulnerability for youth in foster care and suggest areas for clinicians and caregivers of these adolescents to focus interventions towards harm reduction and enhancement of resiliency.

  5. Television viewing, psychological positive health, health complaints and health risk behaviors in Spanish children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Moledo, C; Castro-Piñero, J; Ortega, F B; Pulido-Martos, M; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to study the correlation of television viewing with positive and negative health in youth. The present cross-sectional study comprised a total of 680 children and adolescents aged 6-17.9 (46% girls) representative of the province of Cádiz (south Spain). We used the Health Behavior in School-aged Children questionnaire to assess television viewing, positive and negative health. It was found that correlations between television viewing >2 hours and several outcomes were inconsistent. No effects were found for quality of family relationships, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in children, or with perceived excellent health status, excellent life satisfaction, quality of peer relationships, perceived academic performance and health risk behaviors in adolescents. However viewing >2 hours of television was correlated with lower quality family relations in adolescents, and lower perceived excellent health status, lower life satisfaction and higher health complaints index in children. Correction for multiple comparisons would render all television relationships as non-significant. Our results suggest that negative television influences on children and adolescents are minimal. However excessive television viewing may be symptomatic of other underlying mental health problems for some children.

  6. 'Is it normal to feel these questions ...?': a content analysis of the health concerns of adolescent girls writing to a magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Melissa; Cannon, Bianca; Remond, Louise; Quine, Susan

    2009-06-01

    There is a mismatch between presenting concerns of adolescents to GPs and behaviours that lead to adolescent morbidity and mortality. Better understanding of health concerns of this target group would enhance communication between health professionals and adolescent patients. To explore and categorize the health concerns of adolescent girls sending unsolicited emails to a teenage girls' magazine. We conducted a content analysis of 1000 systematic randomly selected unsolicited emails submitted to the health column of an Australian adolescent girls' magazine over a 6-month period. Three main foci of concern were identified: Context of Concern, Health Issue of Concern and Advice Sought for Concern. Within Health Issue of Concern, there were five categories: body (47.5%), sex (31.9%), relationship (14.7%), mind (4.7%) and violence and/or safety (1.2%). Concerns within the body and sex categories ranged enormously, but frequently expressed intimate descriptions of anatomy, feelings, sexual practices and relationships. Many concerns occurred in the context of adolescents' relationships with others. The proportion of concerns about physical or psychological symptoms or health issues commonly associated with the adolescent age group (such as health risk behaviours, mental health, pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections) was relatively small. GPs and other health professionals might engage more readily with adolescent patients with a deeper understanding of the concerns that adolescents have about their bodies, relationships and overall health. Seemingly 'trivial' issues, such as normal puberty, could be used as discussion triggers in health consultations to help alleviate anxiety and build rapport.

  7. Health Behaviors and Academic Performance Among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Eun Sun; Park, Byoung Mo

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the most prominent health-related behaviors impacting the academic performance of Korean adolescents. The 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey data were analyzed using an ordinal regression analysis after adjusting for general and other health behaviors. Before adjustment, all health behaviors were significantly associated with academic performance. After adjustment for other health behaviors and confounding factors, only smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 2.16), p academic performance, and engaging in a regular diet [OR = 0.65, 95% CI (0.65, 0.62), p academic performance. Regular diet, reducing smoking and alcohol drinking, and physical activity should be the target when designing health interventions for improving academic performance in Korean adolescents. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Why does bee health matter? The science surrounding honey bee health concerns and what we can do about it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Marla S; Browning, Zac; Goblirsch, Mike; Lee, Katie; Otto, Clint R.; Smart, Matthew; Wu-Smart, Judy

    2017-01-01

    A colony of honey bees is an amazing organism when it is healthy; it is a superorganism in many senses of the word. As with any organism, maintaining a state of health requires cohesiveness and interplay among cells and tissues and, in the case of a honey bee colony, the bees themselves. The individual bees that make up a honey bee colony deliver to the superorganism what it needs: pollen and nectar collected from flowering plants that contain nutrients necessary for growth and survival. Honey bees with access to better and more complete nutrition exhibit improved immune system function and behavioral defenses for fighting off effects of pathogens and pesticides (Evans and Spivak 2010; Mao, Schuler, and Berenbaum 2013; Wahl and Ulm 1983). Sadly, as this story is often told in the headlines, the focus is rarely about what it means for a honey bee colony to be healthy and is instead primarily focused on colony survival rates. Bee colonies are chronically exposed to parasitic mites, viruses, diseases, miticides, pesticides, and poor nutrition, which weaken and make innate defenses insufficient at overcoming these combined stressors. Colonies that are chronically weakened can be even more susceptible to infections and levels of pesticide exposure that might otherwise be innocuous, further promoting a downward spiral of health. Sick and weakened bees diminish the colony’s resiliency, ultimately leading to a breakdown in the social structure, production, efficiency, immunity, and reproduction of the colony, and eventual or sudden colony death.

  9. Metals in pond sediments as archives of anthropogenic activities: a study in response to health concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graney, Joseph R.; Eriksen, Timothy M.

    2004-01-01

    An environmental geochemistry approach was applied in response to health concerns about present day and past exposure to pollutants within Broome County, New York by determining historical records of anthropogenic activities as preserved in sediment cores. Sediment was collected from a stormwater retention pond adjacent to a warehouse complex in the urban community of Hillcrest as well as from 3 other ponds in rural locations in Broome County. Metal concentrations and decay products of 210 Pb and 137 Cs were measured to determine the timing of source specific differences in the distribution of metals in the sediment cores. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Cd and As were elevated in the retention pond sediments when compared to sediment from other locations. Topography influenced atmospheric transport and deposition of pollutants within incised river valleys and enhanced runoff from impervious surfaces within an urban watershed contributed to the elevated metal concentrations at Hillcrest. Temporal changes in Pb deposition within retention pond sediment mimic the rise and fall in use of leaded gasoline. Arsenic concentrations decreased following placement of emission controls on nearby coal-fired power plant sources. Superimposed over the temporal trends of Pb and As are co-varying Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Cd concentrations; a suite of metals commonly used in metal plating processes by local industries. Analysis of sediment in stormwater retention ponds in other urban areas may provide opportunities for detailed records of pollution history to be obtained in many communities. Residents in urban communities located in incised river valley locations similar to Hillcrest may be particularly prone to enhanced exposure to metals from anthropogenic sources

  10. Social responses to wind energy development in Ontario: The influence of health risk perceptions and associated concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Songsore, Emmanuel; Buzzelli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study documents and analyzes the role of health risk perceptions and other associated concerns of wind energy development (henceforth WED) in Ontario. Drawing on the risk society framework, we conduct a longitudinal media content analysis to document and analyze perceptions of and responses to WED over a nine year period. Attention is paid to temporal variations in responses relative to Ontario's Green Energy Act (2009) (henceforth GEA); legislation aimed at the rapid expansion of renewable energy. The study reveals that the most radical forms of resistance to WED on health grounds are driven by perceived injustices in the treatment of potential at-risk citizens and citizens with health concerns. The GEA is fuelling these perceptions of injustices in subtle and nuanced ways, particularly by acting as a major confounder to health risk concerns. Contrary to several existing studies, we problematize the use of financial incentives to foster the development of wind energy. We also provide policy recommendations which include the need for increased public engagement in the WED process, the importance of using third party health and environmental assessments to inform developments as well as the need for post-development strategies to address ongoing community concerns. - Highlights: • We analyze health risk perception-based responses to wind energy development. • Health risks concerns are a major driver of public resistance to wind energy. • Perceptions of injustices strongly fuel resistance to wind energy on health grounds. • Acceptance of turbines does not imply successful coexistence with turbines. • Using financial benefits to promote social acceptance could be problematic

  11. Effects of level of social contact on dairy calf behavior and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    Housing preweaned dairy calves in pairs rather than individually has been found to positively affect behavioral responses in novel social and environmental situations, but concerns have been raised that close contact among very young animals may impair their health. In previous studies, the level...... of social contact permitted in individual housing has been auditory, visual, or physical contact. It is unclear how these various levels of social contact compare with each other and to pair housing, when their effects on behavior and health are considered, and whether the timing of pair housing has...

  12. "Carrying Ibuprofen in the Bag": Priority Health Concerns of Latin American Migrants in Spain- A Participatory Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Roura

    Full Text Available An estimated 2.7 million Latin Americans reside in Europe, mostly in Spain. Part of a broader project aimed at developing a research agenda on the health status and determinants of this population, this qualitative study engaged Latin American migrants in the identification of research priorities.We conducted 30 group discussions between November 2012-March 2013 with 84 participants purposively selected for maximum diversity in Madrid and Barcelona (Spain. We facilitated sequences of task-oriented visual activities to explore their views on priority health concerns. We tape-recorded and transcribed discussions and developed a coding frame based on socio-ecological frameworks, which we applied to all the data using NVIVO-10. A final round of eight group discussions allowed us to triangulate and enrich interpretations by including participants' insights.The cumulative toll of daily stresses was the major health concern perceived by a population that conceptualised ill-health as a constellation of symptoms rather than as specific diseases. Work-related factors, legislative frameworks regulating citizenship entitlements and feeling ethnically discriminated were major sources of psycho-social strain. Except for sexually transmitted infections, participants rarely referred to communicable diseases as a concern. The perception that clinicians systematically prescribed painkillers discouraged health seeking and fostered self-medication. Participants felt that the medicalised, chemicalised, sexually liberal and accelerated culture of the host society damaged their own, and the local populations' health.Health systems bear a disproportionate responsibility in addressing health problems rooted in other sectors. Occupational and migration policies should be recognised explicitly as health policies. The mismatch between researchers' emphasis on communicable infections and the health concerns of Latin American migrants highlights the need for greater

  13. Understanding Health and Health-Related Behavior of Users of Internet Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimble, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about how actual use of Internet health-related information is associated with health or health-related behavior. Using a nationally representative sample of 34,525 from 2012, this study examined the demographics of users of Internet health-related information (users), reports estimates of association with several health and behavioral outcomes adjusting for demographic factors, and analyzed the sample by education level, race, gender, and age. Analysis of a large nationally representative sample shows evidence that users of health-related information (users) on the Internet are younger, more educated, more likely to be insured, more likely to be female, and less likely to be African American. After adjusting for demographic differences, users are more likely to have been diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, stroke, and high cholesterol, but no evidence of current hypertension, weight-related issues, or being in fair or poor health. Users are less likely to smoke and among smokers are more likely to attempt quitting. Users are more likely to exercise, get a flu shot, pap smear, mammogram, HIV test, colon cancer screening, blood pressure check, and cholesterol check, but likely to be heavy drinkers. With few exceptions, results appear robust across gender, age groups, level of education, and ethnicity. Use is generally positively associated with prior diagnosis for several conditions and behaviors related to improved health, but I find no relationship with existing health status. The association between use of health-related Internet information and health-related behavior seems robust across levels of education, age, gender, and race.

  14. Behavioral Health Services in the Changing Landscape of Private Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Constance M; Stewart, Maureen T; Reif, Sharon; Garnick, Deborah W; Hodgkin, Dominic; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Quinn, Amity E

    2016-06-01

    Health plans play a key role in facilitating improvements in population health and may engage in activities that have an impact on access, cost, and quality of behavioral health care. Although behavioral health care is becoming more integrated with general medical care, its delivery system has unique aspects. The study examined how health plans deliver and manage behavioral health care in the context of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the 2008 Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA). This is a critical time to examine how health plans manage behavioral health care. A nationally representative survey of private health plans (weighted N=8,431 products; 89% response rate) was conducted in 2010 during the first year of MHPAEA, when plans were subject to the law but before final regulations, and just before the ACA went into effect. The survey addressed behavioral health coverage, cost-sharing, contracting arrangements, medical home innovations, support for technology, and financial incentives to improve behavioral health care. Coverage for inpatient and outpatient behavioral health services was stable between 2003 and 2010. In 2010, health plans were more likely than in 2003 to manage behavioral health care through internal arrangements and to contract for other services. Medical home initiatives were common and almost always included behavioral health, but financial incentives did not. Some plans facilitated providers' use of technology to improve care delivery, but this was not the norm. Health plans are key to mainstreaming and supporting delivery of high-quality behavioral health services. Since 2003, plans have made changes to support delivery of behavioral health services in the context of a rapidly changing environment.

  15. Pre-transplant history of mental health concerns, non-adherence, and post-transplant outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumabay, Franz Marie; Novak, Marta; Bansal, Aarushi; Mitchell, Margot; Famure, Olusegun; Kim, S Joseph; Mucsi, Istvan

    2018-02-01

    The association between pre-transplant mental health concerns and non-adherence and post-transplant outcomes after kidney transplantation is not fully established. We examined the relationship between a pre-transplant history of mental health concerns and non-adherence and post-transplant outcomes among kidney transplant recipients. In this retrospective single center cohort study of adult kidney transplant recipients (n=955) the associations between the history of mental health concerns or non-adherence and the time from kidney transplant to biopsy proven acute rejection; death-censored graft failure and total graft failure were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. Mean (SD) age was 51 (13) years, 61% were male and 27% had a history of diabetes. Twenty-two and 11% of patients had mental health concerns and non-adherence, respectively. Fifteen percent of the patients had acute rejection, 5.6% had death-censored graft failure and 13.0% had total graft failure. The history of mental health concerns was not associated with acute rejection, death-censored graft failure or total graft failure. Patients with versus without a history of non-adherence tended to have higher cumulative incidence of acute rejection (23.3% [95% CI: 16.1, 33.2] vs. 13.6% [95% CI: 11.4, 16.2]) and death-censored graft failure (15.0% [95% CI: 6.9, 30.8] vs. 6.4% [95% CI: 4.7, 8.7]) (log rank p=0.052 and p=0.086, respectively). These trends were not significant after multivariable adjustment. In summary, a history of pre-transplant mental health concerns or non-adherence is not associated with adverse outcomes in patients who completed transplant workup and received a kidney transplant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lifestyle Assessment: Helping Patients Change Health Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ciliska, Donna; Wilson, Douglas M. C.

    1984-01-01

    This article is the second in a series of six on lifestyle assessment and behavior change. The first article presented an assessment tool called FANTASTIC, which has been tested for reliability and is currently in wide use. After assessment, family physicians must help patients decide to change—and give them guidance on how to change—unhealthy behaviors. This article explains how the family physician can use educational, behavioral and relaxation strategies to increase patients' motivation, m...

  17. Immigration concern and the white/non-white difference in smoking: Group position theory and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frank L

    2017-12-01

    National data indicate that U.S. whites have a higher prevalence of smoking compared to non-whites. Group position theory and public opinion data suggest racial differences in immigration concern. This study examines whether immigration concern mediates the racial difference in smoking. Drawing on the 2012 General Social Survey, the 2012 American National Election Study, and the 2006 Portraits of American Life Study, immigration concern was associated with smoking, controlling for covariates across all three nationally representative surveys. Mediation analysis indicated that immigration concern partially mediated the higher odds of smoking among whites across all surveys. Immigration concern also presents a possible explanation for the healthy immigrant advantage and Hispanic paradox as they pertain to smoking differences.

  18. Applying the reasoned action approach to understanding health protection and health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Mark; McEachan, Rosemary; Lawton, Rebecca; Gardner, Peter

    2017-12-01

    The Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) developed out of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior but has not yet been widely applied to understanding health behaviors. The present research employed the RAA in a prospective design to test predictions of intention and action for groups of protection and risk behaviors separately in the same sample. To test the RAA for health protection and risk behaviors. Measures of RAA components plus past behavior were taken in relation to eight protection and six risk behaviors in 385 adults. Self-reported behavior was assessed one month later. Multi-level modelling showed instrumental attitude, experiential attitude, descriptive norms, capacity and past behavior were significant positive predictors of intentions to engage in protection or risk behaviors. Injunctive norms were only significant predictors of intention in protection behaviors. Autonomy was a significant positive predictor of intentions in protection behaviors and a negative predictor in risk behaviors (the latter relationship became non-significant when controlling for past behavior). Multi-level modelling showed that intention, capacity, and past behavior were significant positive predictors of action for both protection and risk behaviors. Experiential attitude and descriptive norm were additional significant positive predictors of risk behaviors. The RAA has utility in predicting both protection and risk health behaviors although the power of predictors may vary across these types of health behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pregnancy-related Health Behavior of Women with Congenital Heart Disease : Room for Behavioral Change Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; Costermans, Els; Huyghe, Els; Pieper, Petronella G.; Drenthen, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. In order to reduce risks for unfavorable outcomes, pregnant women need to adopt specific health behaviors. We investigated the pregnancy-related health behavior of women with

  20. Health and human rights concerns of drug users in detention in Guangxi Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Elizabeth Cohen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although confinement in drug detoxification ("detox" and re-education through labor (RTL centers is the most common form of treatment for drug dependence in China, little has been published about the experience of drug users in such settings. We conducted an assessment of the impact of detention on drug users' access to HIV prevention and treatment services and consequent threats to fundamental human rights protections. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Chinese government HIV and anti-narcotics legislation and policy documents were reviewed, and in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with 19 injection drug users (IDUs and 20 government and nongovernmental organization officials in Nanning and Baise, Guangxi Province. Significant contradictions were found in HIV and antinarcotics policies, exemplified by the simultaneous expansion of community-based methadone maintenance therapy and the increasing number of drug users detained in detox and RTL center facilities. IDU study participants reported, on average, having used drugs for 14 y (range 8-23 y and had been confined to detox four times (range one to eight times and to RTL centers once (range zero to three times. IDUs expressed an intense fear of being recognized by the police and being detained, regardless of current drug use. Key informants and IDUs reported that routine HIV testing, without consent and without disclosure of the result, was the standard policy of detox and RTL center facilities, and that HIV-infected detainees were not routinely provided medical or drug dependency treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. IDUs received little or no information or means of HIV prevention, but reported numerous risk behaviors for HIV transmission while detained. CONCLUSIONS: Legal and policy review, and interviews with recently detained IDUs and key informants in Guangxi Province, China, found evidence of anti-narcotics policies and practices that appear to violate human rights

  1. Health and human rights concerns of drug users in detention in Guangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J Elizabeth; Amon, Joseph J

    2008-12-09

    Although confinement in drug detoxification ("detox") and re-education through labor (RTL) centers is the most common form of treatment for drug dependence in China, little has been published about the experience of drug users in such settings. We conducted an assessment of the impact of detention on drug users' access to HIV prevention and treatment services and consequent threats to fundamental human rights protections. Chinese government HIV and anti-narcotics legislation and policy documents were reviewed, and in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with 19 injection drug users (IDUs) and 20 government and nongovernmental organization officials in Nanning and Baise, Guangxi Province. Significant contradictions were found in HIV and antinarcotics policies, exemplified by the simultaneous expansion of community-based methadone maintenance therapy and the increasing number of drug users detained in detox and RTL center facilities. IDU study participants reported, on average, having used drugs for 14 y (range 8-23 y) and had been confined to detox four times (range one to eight times) and to RTL centers once (range zero to three times). IDUs expressed an intense fear of being recognized by the police and being detained, regardless of current drug use. Key informants and IDUs reported that routine HIV testing, without consent and without disclosure of the result, was the standard policy of detox and RTL center facilities, and that HIV-infected detainees were not routinely provided medical or drug dependency treatment, including antiretroviral therapy. IDUs received little or no information or means of HIV prevention, but reported numerous risk behaviors for HIV transmission while detained. Legal and policy review, and interviews with recently detained IDUs and key informants in Guangxi Province, China, found evidence of anti-narcotics policies and practices that appear to violate human rights and imperil drug users' health.

  2. The health indicators associated with screen-based sedentary behavior among adolescent girls: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Sarah A; Barnett, Lisa; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Lubans, David R

    2013-04-01

    Evidence suggests sitting time is independently associated with a range of health issues in adults, yet the relationship between sedentary behavior and health indicators in young people is less clear. Age-related increases in sedentary behavior are well-documented; the behavioral patterns of adolescent girls are of particular concern. More than one third of adolescent girls' sedentary behavior time is accumulated through use of recreational screen-based behaviors. The objective of this review was to investigate the association between recreational screen-based sedentary behavior and the physical, behavioral, and psychosocial health indicators for adolescent girls. A secondary objective was to identify studies that have adjusted sedentary behavior indicators for physical activity. A structured electronic search of all publication years (through December 2011) was conducted to identify studies in: CINAHL, Communications and Mass Media Complete, ERIC, MEDLINE with Full Text, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus with Full Text. Included publications were observational and interventional studies involving adolescent girls (12-18 years) that examined associations between screen-based, sedentary behavior and health indicators (physical, psychosocial, and/or behavioral). The search identified 33 studies that evaluated health indicators of screen-based sedentary behaviors among adolescent girls. Strong evidence for a positive association between screen-based sedentary behavior and weight status was found. A positive association was observed between screen-time and sleep problems, musculoskeletal pain and depression. Negative associations were identified between screen time and physical activity/fitness, screen time and psychological well-being, and screen time and social support. The relationship between screen-based sedentary behavior and diet quality was inconclusive. Less than half of the studies adjusted sedentary behavior indicators for physical activity. Screen-based sedentary

  3. Why are there social gradients in preventative health behavior? A perspective from behavioral ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nettle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Within affluent populations, there are marked socioeconomic gradients in health behavior, with people of lower socioeconomic position smoking more, exercising less, having poorer diets, complying less well with therapy, using medical services less, ignoring health and safety advice more, and being less health-conscious overall, than their more affluent peers. Whilst the proximate mechanisms underlying these behavioral differences have been investigated, the ultimate causes have not.This paper presents a theoretical model of why socioeconomic gradients in health behavior might be found. I conjecture that lower socioeconomic position is associated with greater exposure to extrinsic mortality risks (that is, risks that cannot be mitigated through behavior, and that health behavior competes for people's time and energy against other activities which contribute to their fitness. Under these two assumptions, the model shows that the optimal amount of health behavior to perform is indeed less for people of lower socioeconomic position.The model predicts an exacerbatory dynamic of poverty, whereby the greater exposure of poor people to unavoidable harms engenders a disinvestment in health behavior, resulting in a final inequality in health outcomes which is greater than the initial inequality in material conditions. I discuss the assumptions of the model, and its implications for strategies for the reduction of health inequalities.

  4. The Utrecht Healthy School Project: Connecting adolescent health behavior, academic achievement and Health Promoting Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, V.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy behaviors contribute to the development of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders. Most often these behaviors develop in the teenage years. This thesis addresses the following topics: (1) How do health-related behaviors cluster and affect health in

  5. Health plans' disease management programs: extending across the medical and behavioral health spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth Levy; Horgan, Constance M; Garnick, Deborah W; Hodgkin, Dominic; Morley, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Although the disease management industry has expanded rapidly, there is little nationally representative data regarding medical and behavioral health disease management programs at the health plan level. National estimates from a survey of private health plans indicate that 90% of health plan products offered disease management for general medical conditions such as diabetes but only 37% had depression programs. The frequency of specific depression disease management activities varied widely. Program adoption was significantly related to product type and behavioral health contracting. In health plans, disease management has penetrated more slowly into behavioral health and depression program characteristics are highly variable.

  6. Purchased Behavioral Health Care Received by Military Health System Beneficiaries in Civilian Medical Facilities, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Nikki R; Brittingham, Jordan A; Pitner, Ronald O; Tavakoli, Abbas S; Jeffery, Diana D; Haddock, K Sue

    2018-02-06

    Behavioral health conditions are a significant concern for the U.S. military and the Military Health System (MHS) because of decreased military readiness and increased health care utilization. Although MHS beneficiaries receive direct care in military treatment facilities, a disproportionate majority of behavioral health treatment is purchased care received in civilian facilities. Yet, limited evidence exists about purchased behavioral health care received by MHS beneficiaries. This longitudinal study (1) estimated the prevalence of purchased behavioral health care and (2) identified patient and visit characteristics predicting receipt of purchased behavioral health care in acute care facilities from 2000 to 2014. Medical claims with Major Diagnostic Code 19 (mental disorders/diseases) or 20 (alcohol/drug disorders) as primary diagnoses and TRICARE as the primary/secondary payer were analyzed for MHS beneficiaries (n = 17,943) receiving behavioral health care in civilian acute care facilities from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2014. The primary dependent variable, receipt of purchased behavioral health care, was modeled for select mental health and substance use disorders from 2000 to 2014 using generalized estimating equations. Patient characteristics included time, age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Visit types included inpatient hospitalization and emergency department (ED). Time was measured in days and visits were assumed to be correlated over time. Behavioral health care was described by both frequency of patients and visit type. The University of South Carolina Institutional Review Board approved this study. From 2000 to 2014, purchased care visits increased significantly for post-traumatic stress disorder, adjustment, anxiety, mood, bipolar, tobacco use, opioid/combination opioid dependence, nondependent cocaine abuse, psychosocial problems, and suicidal ideation among MHS beneficiaries. The majority of care was received for mental health disorders (78

  7. The Relationship between Health Locus of Control and Health Behaviors in Emergency Medicine Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhoseinzadeh, Mansour; Gheibizadeh, Mahin; Moradikalboland, Mehrnaz

    2017-10-01

    Health locus of control defined as individual beliefs based on past experiences in health issues and having external or internal control over them, could affect health. Health locus of control plays a role in health behaviors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health locus of control and health behavior in emergency medical personnel in Ahvaz during 2016. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study, which began in August 2016 for a period of six months on 215 emergency medical personnel in Ahvaz who were selected randomly. The data were collected by a demographic questionnaire, Rotter's locus of control questionnaire, and health behavior questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software, version 22. The correlation between variables was estimated by Pearson's correlation coefficient and independent t test. The level of significance for all statistical tests was set at 0.05. We found no significant relationship between health locus of control (external and internal) and health behavior (P>0.05).Health behaviors were very good in terms of personal health (86.5%), nutrition (53%), and sleep and rest (48.4%), and poor in terms of physical activity (52.6%) and stress management (79.5%). Furthermore, 79.5% of the emergency personnel, in general, had poor heath behaviors. Leaders and officials in the field of health must necessarily design programs in relation to health locus of control and the factors developing and affecting it as well as the role of health locus of control in doing correct behaviors.

  8. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral Health Attitudes and Behavior among Graduating Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The high dependence on doctors for oral health information due to the shortage of oral health manpower in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. It is imperative therefore, that medical students as future medical doctors have proper knowledge and oral health behavior. Objective: To evaluate self reported oral ...

  10. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  11. Ethical Theories for Promoting Health through Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Janelle K.; Price, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Arguments based on the philosophies of natural law, utilitarianism, paternalism, and distributive justice are examined for their pertinence to health behavior change strategies. Health educators should prepare individuals to make health-generating decisions but may need to limit the conditions under which they intervene. (Author/PP)

  12. Development of a Medicaid Behavioral Health Case-Mix Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robst, John

    2009-01-01

    Many Medicaid programs have either fully or partially carved out mental health services. The evaluation of carve-out plans requires a case-mix model that accounts for differing health status across Medicaid managed care plans. This article develops a diagnosis-based case-mix adjustment system specific to Medicaid behavioral health care. Several…

  13. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  14. The role of narcissism in health-risk and health-protective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin M

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the role of narcissism in health-risk and health-protective behaviors in a sample of 365 undergraduate students. Regression analyses were used to test the influence of narcissism on health behaviors. Narcissism was positively predictive of alcohol use, marijuana use, and risky driving behaviors, and it was associated with an increased likelihood of consistently having a healthy eating pattern. Narcissism was also positively predictive of physical activity. Results are discussed with reference to the potential short-term and long-term health implications and the need for future research on the factors involved in the relationship between narcissism and health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Special issue: Behavioral Economics and Health Annual Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The application of behavioral economics to health and health care has captured the imagination of policymakers across the political spectrum. The idea is that many people are irrational in predictable ways, and that this both contributes to unhealthy behaviors like smoking and holds one of the keys to changing those behaviors. Because health care costs continue to increase, and a substantial portion of costs are incurred because of unhealthy behaviors, employers and insurers have great interest in using financial incentives to change behaviors. However, it is in the details that complexity and controversies emerge. Who should the targets be, and what outcomes should be rewarded? How should incentives be structured, to maximize their effectiveness and minimize unintended consequences? In what situations should we be intervening to affect decisions by people who may prefer to be obese or to smoke, and in what situations should we accept their preferences? To begin to answer these questions, the Penn-CMU Roybal P30 Center on Behavioral Economics and Health held its first annual Behavioral Economics and Health Symposium on March 24-25, 2011 with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The symposium drew more than 50 researchers, scholars, and health professionals from a variety of disciplines, including medicine, public health, economics, law, management, marketing, and psychology. They heard perspectives on behavioral economics from public and private funders, the CEO of the University of Pennsylvania Health System, and the CEO of stickK.com, a start-up company that uses online, voluntary commitment contracts to help people achieve their goals. Participants formed eight working groups to review the current state-of-the-art in a variety of clinical contexts and to consider how behavioral economics could inform a research agenda to improve health. This Issue Brief summarizes the findings of these working groups and the symposium.

  16. Determination of knowledge levels, attitude and behaviors of female university students concerning cervical cancer, human papiloma virus and its vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yörük, Selda; Açıkgöz, Ayla; Ergör, Gül

    2016-08-03

    The purpose of the study is to investigate knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine of female students studying at a university in a health related department and explore variables affecting taking the vaccine. The research group consists of female students attending a health related department in Balıkesir University. The data of this cross-sectional research was collected via surveys. The average total knowledge score of the students concerning risks, symptoms and screening methods of cervical cancer and HPV vaccines was 14.15 ± 6.7. The HPV knowledge score of the students attending the faculty of medicine was higher compared to the students attending other departments and their HPV vaccine knowledge score was higher compared to the students attending nursing and paramedics students. The HPV vaccine knowledge score of the students attending the department of midwifery was significantly higher compared to other students. Only 0.9 % of the students took the vaccine. One third of the students who did not take the vaccine did not know that the vaccine was available in our country. In terms of the department that they attended, the students with a higher total knowledge score compared to the average (OR:1.5) and students with history of cancer in their families (OR:1.6) were more likely to consider taking the vaccine. Research group's knowledge on risk factors of cervical cancer, Pap smear test, symptoms and prevention ways of cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine was low.

  17. Concerns and future challenges of health literacy in the Nordic countries - From the point of view of health promotion practitioners and researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsberg, K C; Olander, E; Tillgren, P; Thualagant, N; Trollvik, A

    2018-02-01

    Health literacy is an essential social determinant for promoting and maintaining the health of a population. From a health promotion perspective, explore health literacy issues, concerns and future challenges among Nordic practitioners and researchers. Data were collected in a workshop at the 8 th Nordic Health Promotion Conference, and in a literature review, with articles from five databases. The search included title and abstract with the search terms health literacy* and health literacy as a MeSH term and all the Nordic countries. Qualitative and quantitative analysis were used. Twenty-five persons participated in the workshop. The discussions were summarized in six themes: concept of health literacy in national language; risk of victim blaming; measuring health literacy; content in school curricula on health literacy; new technologies for information and communication; communication and collaboration between different actors in support of health. Forty-three articles on health literacy were identified, mainly conducted within three fields: development, test and adaptation of instruments for measuring health literacy; measurement of health literacy among patients, or other defined target groups and on populations; and developing and evaluating methods/tools for the training of personnel groups or different target groups. There is a need for further studies providing a more in-depth understanding of the health literacy concept, knowledge on how to measure health literacy, ethical aspects, application in intersectoral collaboration as well as the adaptation to new technologies for information and communication in education supporting health literacy. As health literacy is an essential social health determinant, a concern and a future challenge must be, to make the health literacy concept familiar and visible in health promotion policies, research and practice such as health education.

  18. Problematic gaming behavior among adolescents and young adults:relationship between gaming behavior and health

    OpenAIRE

    Männikkö, N. (Niko)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to describe and explain the problematic gaming behavior and the relationship between the digital gaming behavior (gaming time, medium, genres and motives), health (psychological, social and physical) and problematic gaming behavior among young people aged from 13 to 24 years. Information received can be used for developing practices to identify individuals with problematic gaming behavior, promote their lifestyle change and subsequently to increase knowle...

  19. Individualized Behavioral Health Monitoring Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Given the extended duration of future missions and the isolated, extreme and confined environments, there is the possibility that behavioral conditions and mental...

  20. Concerns and perceptions immediately following Superstorm Sandy: ratings for property damage were higher than for health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    Governmental officials, health and safety professionals, early responders, and the public are interested in the perceptions and concerns of people faced with a crisis, especially during and immediately after a disaster strikes. Reliable information can lead to increased individual and community preparedness for upcoming crises. The objective of this research was to evaluate concerns of coastal and central New Jersey residents within the first 100 days of Superstorm Sandy's landfall. Respondents living in central New Jersey and Jersey shore communities were differentially impacted by the storm, with shore residents having higher evacuation rates (47% vs. 13%), more flood waters in their homes, longer power outages (average 23 vs. 6 days), and longer periods without Internet (29 vs. 6 days). Ratings of concerns varied both among and within categories as a function of location (central vs. coastal New Jersey), stressor level (ranging from 1 to 3 for combinations of power outages, high winds, and flooding), and demographics. Respondents were most concerned about property damage, health, inconveniences, ecological services, and nuclear power plants in that order. Respondents from the shore gave higher ratings to the concerns within each major category, compared to those from central Jersey. Four findings have implications for understanding future risk, recovery, and resiliency: (1) respondents with the highest stressor level (level 3) were more concerned about water damage than others, (2) respondents with flood damage were more concerned about water drainage and mold than others, (3) respondents with the highest stressor levels rated all ecological services higher than others, and (4) shore respondents rated all ecological services higher than central Jersey residents. These data provide information to design future preparedness plans, improve resiliency for future severe weather events, and reduce public health risk.

  1. Risk assessment of parents' concerns at 18 months in preventive child health care predicted child abuse and neglect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, I.I.E.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.; van Stel, H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As child maltreatment has a major impact, prevention and early detection of parenting problems are of great importance. We have developed a structured interview which uses parents’ concerns for a joint needs assessment by parents and a child health care nurse, followed by a professional

  2. Parent Concern and Enrollment in Intervention Services for Young Children with Developmental Delays: 2007 National Survey of Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer; Kirby, Russell S.; Gorski, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to address underenrollment and late entry to early intervention by identifying factors associated with parental concern and services for developmental delays. The authors analyzed responses from 27,566 parents of children from birth to age 5 from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health to quantify and to identify factors…

  3. It Starts With Me: Privacy concerns and stigma in the evaluation of a Facebook health promotion intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, T Charles; Guise, Andy; Nutland, Will; Bourne, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Background As efforts continue to increase rates of HIV testing and condom use among at-risk communities in England, organisations have sought use social media for health promotion interventions. As part of a wider evaluation of It Starts With Me (ISWM), a sexual health promotion intervention in England targeting gay and bisexual men and African people through Facebook, this study sought to explore how the online environment shapes end user engagement with sexual health interventions. A primary objective was to explore how privacy concerns can act as a barrier to engagement for the audience of ISWM. A purposive sample of 40 individuals were recruited, who were targeted by the intervention for in-depth interviews. Data collection was in two phases. In the first phase, individuals were sampled based on engagement with online health interventions in general, while in the second phase, all individuals were sampled on the basis of engagement with the intervention. Privacy concerns related to the ecology of social networking sites, issues with implied disclosure and discrimination, as well as uncertainty over control of data. These concerns limited the organic reach of the intervention by confining the intervention to those who already held the norms diffused through it, and by discouraging participants from sharing and commenting on content. Care should be taken to address concerns when designing interventions delivered through social media. Gated interventions may be more beneficial for marginalised communities, while large-scale interventions such as ISWM may provide a useful backdrop for face-to-face interventions.

  4. Health-related Quality of Life and Existential Concerns Among Patients with End-stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Samir; Bodhare, Trupti N; Mudgalkar, Nikhil; Saraf, Abhay; Valsangkar, Sameer

    2012-05-01

    Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL) among patients with End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) is significantly impacted by virtue of varied disease or treatment-related factors, and its evaluation along with existential concerns is required for providing comprehensive care to the patient. The aim of this study was to describe the various dimensions of HRQOL and existential concerns and to examine the relationship between the two among patients with ESRD. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 54 patients with ESRD undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in a teaching hospital. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics and existential concerns of the respondents. The HRQOL was evaluated using a standardized scale of Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) questionnaire. Data were presented as frequencies, mean ± Standard Deviation (SD) for baseline characteristics and scores. Pearson correlation was used to study the association between various domains of quality of life and existential concerns. Among HRQOL, the worst results obtained were in the domain of burden of kidney disease (33.45 ± 13.53), work status (49.07 ± 24.75), quality of social interaction (62.22 ±11.80), general health (43.06 ± 13.01), and physical functioning (47.50 ± 18.88). Disrupted personal integrity (12.80 ± 2.81) and loss of continuity (5.37 ± 1.17) were most bothersome existential concerns. A co-relational model behaves distinctly eliciting weak to strong association among various domains of HRQOL and existential concerns. Patients with ESRD reported impaired HRQOL in most of the domains. Existential concerns are distinguished as important dimensions of HRQOL. Association between HRQOL and existential concerns showed that these dimensions are distinct, and there is a need for assessing and attending these entities through a multidisciplinary approach to alleviate the suffering and achieving a sense of overall

  5. Health status and air pollution related socioeconomic concerns in urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng

    2018-01-01

    Background China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investig...

  6. Wealth and health behavior: Testing the concept of a health cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans); T.J. Galama (Titus)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWealthier individuals engage in healthier behavior. This paper seeks to explain this phenomenon by exploiting both inheritances and lottery winnings to test a theory of health behavior. We distinguish between the direct monetary cost and the indirect health cost (value of health lost) of

  7. Stigmatizing Images in Obesity Health Campaign Messages and Healthy Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Subramanian, Roma; Hinnant, Amanda

    2016-08-01

    Background Antiobesity campaigns blaming individual behaviors for obesity have sparked concern that an emphasis on individual behavior may lead to stigmatization of overweight or obese people. Past studies have shown that perpetuating stigma is not effective for influencing behavior. Purpose This study examined whether stigmatizing or nonstigmatizing images and text in antiobesity advertisements led to differences in health-related behavioral intentions. Method Participants in this experiment were 161 American adults. Measures included self-reported body mass index, weight satisfaction, antifat attitudes, and intention to increase healthy behaviors. Results Images in particular prompted intention to increase healthy behavior, but only among participants who were not overweight or obese. Conclusion Images and text emphasizing individual responsibility for obesity may influence behavioral intention among those who are not overweight, but they do not seem to be effective at altering behavioral intentions among overweight people, the target audience for many antiobesity messages. Images in antiobesity messages intended to alter behavior are influential and should be selected carefully. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. Health Promotion Behaviors of Women and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naile Bilgili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Women should be healthy and have health promotion behaviors, so they can accomplish both their maternal and social tasks. This descriptive study was conducted to determine the healthy life-style behaviors of married women and the factors which could affect those behaviors. METHOD: The population comprised all married women older than 15 years and who live in Ankara Kale region. Three hundred-sixty five married women were included in the study. The questionnaire form and the healthy life-style behaviors scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: The mean score taken from scale was 112.2±19.4. The scores of the women who graduated from middle school / high school, who have sufficient income and good socio-economic status, who have a perception of physical health fairly good and who have any chronic disease in their families, have significantly higher mean scores from healthy life-style behaviors scale and subgroups (p<0.05 CONCLUSION: Health promotion behaviors of the women was low and some factors like education level, income, socioeconomic status, perception of health, having any chronic illness and using regular medicine affected healthy life-style behaviors. It is recommended that nurses, who have education and consultation roles, should inform the women about health promotion behaviors and encourage them to use that information in their lives. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 497-502

  9. The Impact of Health Behaviors and Health Management on Employment After SCI: Physical Health and Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle A; Reed, Karla S; Krause, James S

    2016-01-01

    Background : Research has shown that employment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is related to health and functioning, with physical health and functioning after SCI frequently identified as a primary barrier to employment. Objective: To examine the relationship between employment and behaviors associated with the management of physical health and functioning as described by individuals with SCI who have been employed post injury. Methods: A qualitative approach using 6 focus groups at 2 sites included 44 participants with SCI who had worked at some time post injury. Heterogeneous and homogeneous groups were created based on specific characteristics, such as education, gender, or race. A semi-structured interview format asked questions about personal, environmental, and policy-related factors influencing employment after SCI. Groups were recorded, transcribed, and entered into NVivo before coding by 2 reviewers. Results: Within the area of behaviors and management of physical health and functioning, 4 overlapping themes were identified: (1) relearning your own body and what it can do; (2) general health and wellness behaviors; (3) communication, education, and advocacy; and (4) secondary conditions and aging. Specific themes articulate the many types of behaviors individuals must master and their impact on return to work as well as on finding, maintaining, and deciding to leave employment. Conclusions: Individuals with SCI who are successfully employed after injury must learn how to perform necessary behaviors to manage health and function in a work environment. The decision to leave employment often appears to be associated with secondary complications and other conditions that occur as persons with SCI age.

  10. Impact of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) on patient health-related behaviors and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Hyla H; Khanfar, Nile M; Clauson, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends billions of dollars annually on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Patient perspectives on the impact of televised DTCA on health-related behaviors and issues were assessed by means of a 68-question survey. 58.6% of respondents believed that DTCA allowed consumers to have a more active role in managing their health. However, 27.6% felt DTCA caused confusion, and an alarming 17.8% of respondents stopped taking their medication because of concerns about serious side effects mentioned in DTCA. Overall, participants believed DTCA plays a useful role in health self-management; however, a considerable percentage thought that the cost outweighs the benefits.

  11. Dedicated pediatric behavioral health unit: serving the unique and individual needs of children in behavioral health crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Purva; Lee, Timothy

    2013-02-01

    Pediatric mental health emergencies are an increasing part of emergency medical practice because emergency departments have become the safety net for a fragmented mental health infrastructure that is experiencing critical shortages in services in all sectors. The emergency services for behavioral health unit at Akron Children's Hospital is an innovative model for delivering care to pediatric patients with mental health emergencies. A multidisciplinary team using the expertise of emergency services, psychiatry, social work, parent advisory counsel, security services, and engineering/architecture developed the emergency services for behavioral health unit blueprint, process, and staffing model.

  12. Perceived health competence predicts health behavior and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Justin M; Goggins, Kathryn M; Nwosu, Samuel K; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Kripalani, Sunil; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2016-12-01

    Evaluate the effect of perceived health competence, a patient's belief in his or her ability to achieve health-related goals, on health behavior and health-related quality of life. We analyzed 2063 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome and/or congestive heart failure at a large academic hospital in the United States. Multivariable linear regression models investigated associations between the two-item perceived health competence scale (PHCS-2) and positive health behaviors such as medication adherence and exercise (Health Behavior Index) as well as health-related quality of life (5-item Patient Reported Outcome Information Measurement System Global Health Scale). After multivariable adjustment, perceived health competence was highly associated with health behaviors (pperceived health competence was associated with a decrease in health-related quality of life between hospitalization and 90days after discharge (pPerceived health competence predicts health behavior and health-related quality of life in patients hospitalized with cardiovascular disease as well as change in health-related quality of life after discharge. Patients with low perceived health competence may be at risk for a decline in health-related quality of life after hospitalization and thus a potential target for counseling and other behavioral interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Does the perception that God controls health outcomes matter for health behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Carr, Lucas J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between God Locus of Health Control, health behaviors, and beliefs utilizing a cross-sectional online survey (N = 549). Results indicated that God Locus of Health Control was correlated with alcohol use, physical activity, perceived risk of chronic disease, and beliefs that poor health behaviors contribute to chronic disease (all p values God Locus of Health Control was only an independent correlate of the belief that physical inactivity contributed to chronic disease. Insights from this study may be important for future faith-based health behavior change interventions.

  14. Wealth and Health Behavior: Testing the Concept of a Health Cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kippersluis, Hans; Galama, Titus J

    2014-11-01

    Wealthier individuals engage in healthier behavior. This paper seeks to explain this phenomenon by exploiting both inheritances and lottery winnings to test a theory of health behavior. We distinguish between the direct monetary cost and the indirect health cost (value of health lost) of unhealthy consumption. The health cost increases with wealth and the degree of unhealthiness, leading wealthier individuals to consume more healthy and moderately unhealthy, but fewer severely unhealthy goods. The empirical evidence presented suggests that differences in health costs may indeed partially explain behavioral differences, and ultimately health outcomes, between wealth groups.

  15. Narrative review of provider behavior in primary care behavioral health: How process data can inform quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, Gregory P; Lilienthal, Kaitlin R; Possemato, Kyle; Johnson, Emily M; King, Paul R; Shepardson, Robyn L; Vair, Christina L; Reyner, Jacqueline; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Maisto, Stephen A; Wray, Laura O

    2017-09-01

    Primary care behavioral health (PCBH) is a population-based approach to delivering mental and behavioral health care in the primary care setting. Implementation of the PCBH model varies across practice settings, which can impact how PCBH providers deliver services to patients and in turn may predict a variety of important outcomes. This article aims to characterize PCBH provider engagement in key processes of integrated care as demonstrated in results from empirical studies of real-world clinical practice. For this narrative review of published studies on PCBH provider engagement in processes of care, PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched from January 1990 through May 2016 to identify relevant articles. Provider adherence to the brief, time-limited treatment model appears suboptimal. Common mental health conditions, such as depression, were often the primary focus of provider attention, with less consistent emphasis on behavioral medicine concerns. Whereas providers regularly conducted qualitative functional assessments with patients, routine use of standardized measures was low. Engagement in interprofessional collaboration with the primary care team was also low, but engagement in behaviors that fostered therapeutic relationships was high. This review identified several strengths and weaknesses of typical PCBH provider practices. Results are discussed in relation to their value as areas for future quality improvement initiatives that can improve PCBH service delivery and, ultimately, patient outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Health behavior and college students: does Greek affiliation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2008-02-01

    The college years offer an opportunity for new experiences, personal freedom, and identity development; however, this period is also noted for the emergence of risky health behaviors that place college students at risk for health problems. Affiliation with on-campus organizations such as fraternities or sororities may increase a students' risk given the rituals and socially endorsed behaviors associated with Greek organizations. In this study, we examined alcohol and drug use, smoking, sexual behavior, eating, physical activity, and sleeping in 1,595 college students (n = 265 Greek members, n = 1,330 non-Greek members). Results show Greek members engaged in more risky health behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, cigarette smoking, sexual partners, and sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs) than non-Greek members. Greek and non-Greek members did not differ in condom use, unprotected sex, eating, and physical activity behaviors. Implications for prevention and intervention strategies among Greek members are discussed.

  17. Relationships Between eHealth Literacy and Health Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Son, Youn-Jung

    2017-02-01

    The Internet is a useful and accessible source for health-related information for modern healthcare consumers. Individuals with adequate eHealth literacy have an incentive to use the Internet to access health-related information, and they consider themselves capable of using Web-based knowledge for health. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the relationship between eHealth literacy and health behaviors. A total of 230 adults aged 18 to 39 years and residing in South Korea participated in the study. The mean (SD) score for eHealth literacy was 25.52 (4.35) of a total possible score of 40. The main source of health information was the Internet. Using hierarchical linear regression, the results showed that eHealth literacy was the strongest predictor of health behaviors after adjusting for general characteristics. These findings indicate that eHealth literacy can be an important factor in promoting individual health behaviors. Further research on eHealth literacy and actual health behaviors including intention and self-reported health behaviors are required to explain the impact of eHealth literacy on overall health status.

  18. Behavior Change or Empowerment: On the Ethics of Health-Promotion Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2016-03-01

    One important ethical issue for health promotion and public health work is to determine what the goals for these practices should be. This paper will try to clarify what some of these goals are thought to be, and what they ought to be. It will specifically discuss two different approaches to health promotion, such as, behavior change and empowerment. The general aim of this paper is, thus, to compare the behavior-change approach and the empowerment approach, concerning their immediate (instrumental) goals or aims, and to morally evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of these two goal models, in relation to the ultimate goal of health promotion. The investigation shows that the behavior-change approach has several moral problems. First of all, it is overly paternalistic and often disregards the individual's or group's own perception of what is important-something that also increases the risk of failed interventions. Furthermore, it risks leading to 'victim blaming' and stigmatization, and to increased inequalities in health, and it puts focus on the 'wrong' problems, i.e., behavior instead of the 'causes of the causes'. It is thereafter shown that the empowerment approach does not have any of these problems. Finally, some specific problems for the empowerment approach are discussed and resolved, such as, the idea that empowering some groups might lead to power over others, the objection that the focus is not primarily on health (which it should be), and the fact that empowered people might choose to live lives that risk reducing their health.

  19. Biodemographic And Health Seeking Behavior Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal ...

  20. Mental-behavioral health data: 2001 NHIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, Terry R

    2004-01-01

    These data highlights are based on analysis of the 2001 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) public use data (http://www.cdc. gov/nchs/nhis.htm). NHIS is a multi-purpose survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NHIS has been conducted continuously since 1957.

  1. Behavioral Health and Health Care Reform Models: Patient-Centered Medical Home, Health Home, and Accountable Care Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P.; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient Centered Medical Home, the H...

  2. Oral Health Behavior of Parents as a Predictor of Oral Health Status of Their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bozorgmehr, Elham; Hajizamani, Abolghasem; Malek Mohammadi, Tayebeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. It is widely acknowledged that the behavior of parents affects their children's health. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oral health behavior of parents and oral health status and behavior of their children in a sample of preschool children in Iran. Method and Material. A random sample of over-five-year-old preschool children and their parents were enrolled in the study. Selection of schools was by clustering method. Parents were asked to fill a piloted ques...

  3. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on the molecule of tetracycline concerning its behavior as complexing and extracting agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade e Silva, Leonardo Gondim de

    1982-01-01

    Both solvent extraction and spectrophotometric techniques were used to show the alterations that gamma radiation causes in the behavior of tetracycline molecule as far as its extracting and complexing power are concerned. The effect of gamma radiation on the solid tetracycline molecule, benzyl alcohol and on the solution of both was examined in solvent extraction systems whose aqueous phases were made up by 152 Eu- 154 Eu radioactive tracer solutions and whose organic phases were constituted by tetracycline-benzyl alcohol solutions. Experiments were performed in order to determine whether or not the water used for the pre-saturation of benzyl alcohol would influence the radiolysis of tetracycline. Solvent extraction and spectrophotometry were the techniques used to obtain the necessary data. Absorption spectra of irradiated tetracycline benzyl alcohol solutions submitted to several gamma radiation doses were examined and the alterations shown by these spectra were examined. The effect of gamma radiation on the tetracycline molecule was also studied when tetracycline-benzyl alcohol solutions were irradiated under several gaseous atmospheres, namely: O 2 , N 2 , SF 6 and N 2 O. The variation on the concentration of the tetracycline-benzyl alcohol solution caused by several doses of gamma radiation was determined by using the spectrophotometric technique. (author)

  4. Automating Behavioral Health Screening - Addressing Risk Communication Electronically

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crow, Bruce E; Gahm, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    ... outpatient behavioral health clinic and 3,451 Soldiers screened 90 days following return from OIF deployment. The screening was completed via scanning software and has more recently been updated to a completed automated kiosk system...

  5. Rethinking behavioral health processes by using design for six sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Anthony G; Primus, Kelly; Kovach, Jamison V; Fredendall, Lawrence D

    2015-02-01

    Clinical evidence-based practices are strongly encouraged and commonly utilized in the behavioral health community. However, evidence-based practices that are related to quality improvement processes, such as Design for Six Sigma, are often not used in behavioral health care. This column describes the unique partnership formed between a behavioral health care provider in the greater Pittsburgh area, a nonprofit oversight and monitoring agency for behavioral health services, and academic researchers. The authors detail how the partnership used the multistep process outlined in Design for Six Sigma to completely redesign the provider's intake process. Implementation of the redesigned process increased access to care, decreased bad debt and uncollected funds, and improved cash flow--while consumer satisfaction remained high.

  6. Social media in health care: benefits, concerns, and guidelines for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suby, ChrysMarie

    2013-01-01

    The use of social media and other electronic communication has exploded as the number of social media outlets and applications continue to increase. These are exciting and valuable tools when used wisely, but pose risks when inappropriately used. The purpose of this article is to consider what comprises social media, its benefits and concerns, and guidelines for use that protect patients, employees, and organizations.

  7. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions,...

  8. An Integrative Behavioral Health Care Model Using Automated SBIRT and Care Coordination in Community Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwinnells, Ronald; Misik, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    Efficient and effective integration of behavioral health programs in a community health care practice emphasizes patient-centered medical home principles to improve quality of care. A prospective, 3-period, interrupted time series study was used to explore which of 3 different integrative behavioral health care screening and management processes were the most efficient and effective in prompting behavioral health screening, identification, interventions, and referrals in a community health practice. A total of 99.5% ( P < .001) of medical patients completed behavioral health screenings; brief intervention rates nearly doubled to 83% ( P < .001) and 100% ( P < .001) of identified at-risk patients had referrals made using a combination of electronic tablets, electronic medical record, and behavioral health care coordination.

  9. Some views of health professionals and basic health care unit users concerning nutritional education - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v1i2.86en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Françoise da Silva Aquino

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional education is a participatory process of knowledge acquisition concerning a healthy diet. The implementation of nutritional education in the public health care system is put into question based on a survey carried out with health professionals, and with users of one Basic Health Care Unit (UBS. The execution of nutritional education requires health professional specific knowledge in order to approach alimentary problems. The nutritionist is not duly involved in the public health care. Based on quantitative and qualitative methodologies, eight UBS health professionals were interviewed in order to verify their professional and personal experiences concerning nutritional education. There were 306 users interviewed, which is a representative sample of the population which is assisted by the UBS, in order to analyze the influence of such activity in their health. The interview results show that the professionals have some difficulty in approaching information concerning alimentation and that they believe there is some room for a nutritionist's participation in a multi-disciplinary team. Around 97% of the users believe that nutrition interferes in their life quality and 19.28% of them believe that nutrition problems are related to education. Nutritional education, as a structured program, does not exist. The mobilization of nutritionists in the exercise of their function and in meeting demands of health professionals and health care users is necessary.

  10. Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Army Study Shows Decline in Behavioral Health Stigma By Rob McIlvaine Army News Service WASHINGTON, Jan. 20, 2012 - A newly released Army study on...conference yesterday. The three-year study outlines the problem of suicide in the Army and related issues of substance abuse, spouse abuse and child abuse...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma 5a. CONTRACT

  11. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: Background and Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    RYAN, POLLY

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In ...

  12. Teaching Good Behavior (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    When people are young and healthy, they often think they’re invincible, but certain behaviors put adolescents at risk for serious health problems. In this podcast, Dr. Stephanie Zaza discusses the most common risk behaviors that affect adolescents.

  13. Teaching Good Behavior (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-19

    When people are young and healthy, they often think they’re invincible, but certain behaviors put adolescents at risk for serious health problems. In this podcast, Dr. Stephanie Zaza discusses the most common risk behaviors that affect adolescents.  Created: 6/19/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 6/19/2014.

  14. Adolescent Health-Compromising Behaviors: Motivating School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Liza; Scherer, David G.; Lee, William

    2000-01-01

    Investigated middle and high school counselors' perceptions of adolescent health-compromising behaviors and motivations to intervene. Data from a survey based on protection motivation theory showed differences in counselors' perceptions of the severity of risk-taking behaviors. Perceptions were highly correlated with intentions to seek out…

  15. Adolescent Behavior and Health in Cross-Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Specific behavioral problems appear during early adolescence, and they become more pronounced. Although these problems are universal in many aspects, cultural differences are also conspicuous. The author, in addition to analyzing the five studies in the Special Issue, addresses questions concerning the cross-cultural context. The analysis reveals…

  16. Health behavior-related indicator of lifestyle: application in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; Almeida, Maria-da-Conceição C; Alvim, Sheila; Chor, Dora; Aquino, Estela M L

    2018-05-01

    Various behaviors are considered health enhancing. Nevertheless, according to the current scientific literature, four health behaviors are considered particularly risky in view of their association with a group of chronic diseases: 1) smoking; 2) excessive alcohol consumption; 3) poor diet; and 4) lack of physical activity. Theoretically, it should be possible to make improvements to one's health by maximizing the number of healthy behaviors and minimizing the unhealthy ones. However, in reality, the different behaviors interconnect to create more complex lifestyles. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present the construction of a lifestyle indicator based on health behaviors selected in the ELSA-Brazil study. This indicator revealed two lifestyles: less healthy and healthier lifestyles. The model proved adequate and was confirmed using latent class analysis (LCA). Agreement was 83.2 between the indicator and the LCA results, with a kappa coefficient of 0.65. Women were more likely to have a healthier lifestyle than men, reinforcing the scientific consistency of the indicator, since this finding is in agreement with data from the scientific literature. The indicator created to define lifestyle was found to have scientific consistency and validity; therefore, its use can be recommended for future population-based studies concerning the promotion of health and healthy lifestyles.

  17. Covariance among multiple health risk behaviors in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla de la Haye

    Full Text Available In a diverse group of early adolescents, this study explores the co-occurrence of a broad range of health risk behaviors: alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use; physical inactivity; sedentary computing/gaming; and the consumption of low-nutrient energy-dense food. We tested differences in the associations of unhealthy behaviors over time, and by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.Participants were 8360 students from 16 middle schools in California (50% female; 52% Hispanic, 17% Asian, 16% White, and 15% Black/multiethnic/other. Behaviors were measured with surveys in Spring 2010 and Spring 2011. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess if an underlying factor accounted for the covariance of multiple behaviors, and composite reliability methods were used to determine the degree to which behaviors were related.The measured behaviors were explained by two moderately correlated factors: a 'substance use risk factor' and an 'unhealthy eating and sedentary factor'. Physical inactivity did not reflect the latent factors as expected. There were few differences in the associations among these behaviors over time or by demographic characteristics.Two distinct, yet related groups of health compromising behaviors were identified that could be jointly targeted in multiple health behavior change interventions among early adolescents of diverse backgrounds.

  18. Women’s health behaviors and selected determinants in breast cancer prevention / Zachowania zdrowotne kobiet i wybrane ich determinanty w profilaktyce raka piersi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ślusarska Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer in women in Poland. Health behaviors concerning lifestyle and breast self-examination (BSE constitute a significant element of early prevention.

  19. Health behavior change in hearing healthcare: a discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya K. C. Manchaiah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Health behavior change (HBC refers to facilitating changes to habits and/or behavior related to health. In healthcare practice, it is quite common that the interactions between practitioner and patient involve conversations related to HBC. This could be mainly in relation to the practitioner trying to directly persuade the patients to make some changes in their health behavior. However, the patients may not be motivated to do so as they do not see this change as important. For this reason, direct persuasion may result in a breakdown of communication. In such instances, alternative approaches and means of indirect persuasion, such as empowering the patient and their family members, could be helpful. Furthermore, there are several models and/or theories proposed which explain the health behavior and also provide a structured framework for health behavior change. Many such models/approaches have been proven effective in facilitating HBC and health promotion in areas such as cessation of smoking, weight loss and so on. This paper provides an overview of main models/theories related to HBC and some insights into how these models/approaches could be adapted to facilitate behavior change in hearing healthcare, mainly in relation to: i hearing help-seeking and hearing-aid uptake; and ii hearing conservation in relation to music-induced hearing loss (MIHL. In addition, elements of current research related to this area and future directions are highlighted.

  20. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: background and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care.

  1. Risky music-listening behaviors and associated health-risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Burdorf, Alex; de Waart, Frouwkje

    2012-06-01

    To examine, among adolescents and emerging adults attending inner-city lower education, associations between risky music-listening behaviors (from MP3 players and in discotheques and at pop concerts) and more traditional health-risk behaviors: substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, and hard drugs) and unsafe sexual intercourse. A total of 944 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their music-listening and traditional health-risk behaviors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between music-listening and traditional health-risk behaviors. Risky MP3-player listeners used cannabis more often during the past 4 weeks. Students exposed to risky sound levels during discotheque and pop concert attendance used cannabis less often during the past 4 weeks, were more often binge drinkers, and reported inconsistent condom use during sexual intercourse. The coexistence of risky music-listening behaviors with other health-risk behaviors provides evidence in support of the integration of risky music-listening behaviors within research on and programs aimed at reducing more traditional health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and unsafe sexual intercourse.

  2. The role of health-related behaviors in the socioeconomic disparities in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Wael; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the socioeconomic disparities in health-related behaviors and to assess if behaviors eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health in a nationally representative sample of adult Americans. Data are from the US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Behaviors were indicated by smoking, dental visits, frequency of eating fresh fruits and vegetables and extent of calculus, used as a marker for oral hygiene. Oral health outcomes were gingival bleeding, loss of periodontal attachment, tooth loss and perceived oral health. Education and income indicated socioeconomic position. Sex, age, ethnicity, dental insurance and diabetes were adjusted for in the regression analysis. Regression analysis was used to assess socioeconomic disparities in behaviors. Regression models adjusting and not adjusting for behaviors were compared to assess the change in socioeconomic disparities in oral health. The results showed clear socioeconomic disparities in all behaviors. After adjusting for behaviors, the association between oral health and socioeconomic indicators attenuated but did not disappear. These findings imply that improvement in health-related behaviors may lessen, but not eliminate socioeconomic disparities in oral health, and suggest the presence of more complex determinants of these disparities which should be addressed by oral health preventive policies.

  3. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Hutchinson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling and physical activity (92 studies or sedentary behaviors (19 studies. Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14, including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste and other health behaviors ((n = 20 smoking, dietary intake, alcohol. These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain.

  4. Obstetric knowledge, attitude, and behavior concerning periodontal diseases and treatment needs in pregnancy: influencing factors in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laura; Schaeffer, Mickaël; Davideau, Jean-Luc; Tenenbaum, Henri; Huck, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Many studies have shown that periodontal diseases are risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and clinical attitude of French obstetricians and/or gynecologists regarding periodontal diseases. A cross-sectional study was performed on randomly selected French obstetricians and/or gynecologists using a self-administered, structured questionnaire during an annual French professional congress. The questionnaire was completed by 190 French obstetricians and/or gynecologists. Among respondents, 88% were aware of the inflammatory and infectious nature of periodontal diseases. Furthermore, 74.7% of respondents were conscious of its negative impact on pregnancy outcomes. Few obstetricians and/or gynecologists (26.3%) interviewed patients about oral health. Information on oral health was systematically provided to patients by 10.5% of the practitioners. However, 55.6% addressed this issue if they considered the patient at risk for pregnancy. Only 33.2% of practitioners systematically referred the patient to a dentist. Periodontal disease knowledge and consideration levels increased in more experienced practitioners with a private practice and a personal history of periodontal disease. Periodontal knowledge of the French obstetricians and/or gynecologists surveyed seemed satisfyingly apparent and influenced by levels of professional experience and personal history. However, clinical behavior did not adequately correlate with this knowledge.

  5. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  6. Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Shroff, Zubin; Zang, Omer Ramses; Kingue, Samuel; Djienouassi, Sebastien; Kouontchou, Christian; Sorgho, Gaston

    2015-03-01

    Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, Pimpact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on the analysis of locally relevant, actionable incentives, generated through the involvement of policy-makers at the design stage, this study provides an example of research directly linked to policy action to address a vitally important issue in global health.

  7. Health behaviours & problems among young people in India: Cause for concern & call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sunitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The young people in the age group of 10-24 yr in India constitutes one of the precious resources of India characterized by growth and development and is a phase of vulnerability often influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect their health and safety. Nearly 10-30 per cent of young people suffer from health impacting behaviours and conditions that need urgent attention of policy makers and public health professionals. Nutritional disorders (both malnutrition and over-nutrition, tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, other substance use, high risk sexual behaviours, stress, common mental disorders, and injuries (road traffic injuries, suicides, violence of different types specifically affect this population and have long lasting impact. Multiple behaviours and conditions often coexist in the same individual adding a cumulative risk for their poor health. Many of these being precursors and determinants of non communicable diseases (NCDs including mental and neurological disorders and injuries place a heavy burden on Indian society in terms of mortality, morbidity, disability and socio-economic losses. Many health policies and programmes have focused on prioritized individual health problems and integrated (both vertical and horizontal coordinated approaches are found lacking. Healthy life-style and health promotion policies and programmes that are central for health of youth, driven by robust population-based studies are required in India which will also address the growing tide of NCDs and injuries.

  8. Behavioral Risk Factors - Vision & Eye Health

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2016. In 2013 and subsequently, one question in the core of BRFSS asks about vision: Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing...

  9. Behavioral Risk Factors - Vision & Eye Health

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2015. In 2013 and subsequently, one question in the core of BRFSS asks about vision: Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing, even when wearing...

  10. Health behaviors and work-related outcomes among school employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Merrill, Ray M; Masterson, Travis

    2015-05-01

    To determine the association between selected health behaviors and work-related outcomes among 2398 school-based employees who voluntarily enrolled in a worksite wellness program. This study presents participants' baseline data collected from a personal health assessment used by Well-Steps, a third-party wellness company. Employees with high levels of exercise, fruit/vegetable consumption, or restful sleep exhibited higher job-performance and job-satisfaction, and lower absenteeism (p job-performance (Prevalence Ratio=1.09; 95% CI=1.05-1.13), job-satisfaction (Prevalence Ratio=1.53; 95% CI=1.30-1.80), and lower absenteeism (Prevalence Ratio=1.16; 95% CI=1.08-1.325). Further, number of co-occurring health behaviors influenced other satisfaction and emotional health outcomes. Selected healthy behaviors, individually or co-occurring, are associated with health outcomes potentially important at the worksite.

  11. The modern crisis in health services--professional concerns and the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheps, C G

    1981-01-01

    The modern crisis in the health service systems of developed nations is described. Six major issues are discussed. 1) The need for recognition of the wholeness of man and the implications of this for implementing the concept of essential unity in the development and organization of health services; 2) the creation of ample opportunity for health manpower to work effectively in team situations; 3) the need for community-wide epidemiologic intelligence that will allow for better identification of problems and solutions; 4) the need to move away from the entrepreneurial framework of health care and regionalize facilities; 5) the assessment of costs both in terms of actions and inactions; and 6) the need for the professionals and public to work together in order to improve health services.

  12. The divided communities of shared concerns: mapping the intellectual structure of e-Health research in social science journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L Crystal; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Peng, Tai-Quan; Zhu, Jonathan J H

    2015-01-01

    Social scientific approach has become an important approach in e-Health studies over the past decade. However, there has been little systematical examination of what aspects of e-Health social scientists have studied and how relevant and informative knowledge has been produced and diffused by this line of inquiry. This study performed a systematic review of the body of e-Health literature in mainstream social science journals over the past decade by testing the applicability of a 5A categorization (i.e., access, availability, appropriateness, acceptability, and applicability), proposed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, as a framework for understanding social scientific research in e-Health. This study used a quantitative, bottom-up approach to review the e-Health literature in social sciences published from 2000 to 2009. A total of 3005 e-Health studies identified from two social sciences databases (i.e., Social Sciences Citation Index and Arts & Humanities Citation Index) were analyzed with text topic modeling and structural analysis of co-word network, co-citation network, and scientific food web. There have been dramatic increases in the scale of e-Health studies in social sciences over the past decade in terms of the numbers of publications, journal outlets and participating disciplines. The results empirically confirm the presence of the 5A clusters in e-Health research, with the cluster of applicability as the dominant research area and the cluster of availability as the major knowledge producer for other clusters. The network analysis also reveals that the five distinctive clusters share much more in common in research concerns than what e-Health scholars appear to recognize. It is time to explicate and, more importantly, tap into the shared concerns cutting across the seemingly divided scholarly communities. In particular, more synergy exercises are needed to promote adherence of the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  13. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among

  14. Health status and air pollution related socioeconomic concerns in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng

    2018-02-05

    China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investigated with consideration of the socioeconomic factors. Based on nationwide survey data of China in 2014, we applied the multilevel mixed-effects model to evaluate how socioeconomic status (represented by education and income) contributed to the relationship between self-rated air pollution and self-rated health status at community level and individual level. The findings indicated that there was a non-linear relationship between the community socioeconomic status and community air pollution in urban China, with the highest level of air pollution presented in the communities with moderate socioeconomic status. In addition, health effects associated air pollution in different socioeconomic status groups were not equal. Self-rated air pollution had the greatest impact on self-rated health of the lower socioeconomic groups. With the increase of socioeconomic status, the effect of self-rated air pollution on self-rated health decreased. This study verified the different levels of exposure to air pollution and inequality in health effects among different socioeconomic groups in China. It is imperative for the government to urgently formulate public policies to enhance the ability of the lower socioeconomic groups to circumvent air pollution and reduce the health damage caused by air pollution.

  15. Health risk behavior among Thai youth: national survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.

  16. Health risk behavior of rural secondary school students in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, C K; McDermott, R J; Westhoff, W W; Mushore, M; Mushore, T; Chitsika, E; Majange, C S; Chauke, P

    2001-10-01

    A socioculturally appropriate health risk behavior instrument, modeled after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), was administered to 717 secondary school students in a rural area of Zimbabwe. Comparisons of risk behaviors by gender and school grade were made using univariate procedures and multiple logistic regression. Males were significantly more likely than females to have had sexual intercourse (odds ratio = 5.02, p < .0001) and to report drug use behaviors. Males also were significantly more likely to report early initiation (by age 13 years) of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. School site violence and drug use behaviors also were prevalent in this sample. An interaction between gender and grade was evident for some behaviors. Additional research may further the understanding of these risk behaviors and facilitate development of effective, culturally relevant risk reduction programs.

  17. [Structure of Relationships Formed by Occupational Health Nurses for Co-operating with Managers to Support Workers with Mental Health Concerns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Junko; Takasaki, Masako; Hatanaka, Michiyo

    2018-05-31

    Occupational health staff and managers play important roles in supporting workers with mental health concerns and mutual co-operation among them is a necessary element. However, when co-operating with other professionals, several problems arise that often make such co-operation a challenge. Effective mutual actions are needed to promote such co-operation, and relationships must be formed for this purpose. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to clarify how occupational health nurses form relationships for facilitating co-operation with managers to provide support to workers with mental health concerns. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 11 occupational health nurses who provide individualized mental health support and who have at least 5 years of experience as occupational health nurses. Analysis of the recorded interviews was performed using a qualitative statistical method (KJ method). Six elements that constitute the formation of relationships were identified. When occupational health nurses form relationships for facilitating co-operation with a manager to provide support to workers, they "form relationships through strategic communication" with them and when co-operation is required, they form a relationship by "acting in a manner that suits the manager," such as his/her character and the situation. To support this relationship, occupational health nurses "provide mental support to the manager" by listening to his/her anxiety or real intention about supporting the subordinate with mental health concerns and provide relief while understanding their burdens during the co-operation. Occupational health nurses even "provide support to the manager in their activities," which assessed the situation at the workplace as the specialist and advised the manager to understand how to concern to the subordinate specifically. In addition, they "indirectly support the manager" which included coordinating with the concerned persons so as to not excessively

  18. Earthquakes in El Salvador: a descriptive study of health concerns in a rural community and the clinical implications, part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woersching, Joanna C; Snyder, Audrey E

    2003-01-01

    This is the first article in a series that evaluates the health concerns of people living in a Salvadoran rural community after major earthquakes. Part I reviews the background, methods, and results of post-earthquake conditions with regards to healthcare, access to healthcare, housing, food, water and sanitation. Part II reviews the implications of these results and recommendations for improvements within the community. Part III investigates the psychosocial and mental health consequences of the earthquakes and provides suggestions for improved mental health awareness, assessment, and intervention. El Salvador experienced 2 major earthquakes in January and February 2001. This study evaluates the effects of the earthquakes on the health practices in the rural town of San Sebastian. The research was conducted with use of a convenience sample survey of subjects affected by the earthquakes. The sample included 594 people within 100 households. The 32-question survey assessed post-earthquake conditions in the areas of health care and access to care, housing, food and water, and sanitation. Communicable diseases affected a number of family members. After the earthquakes, 38% of households reported new injuries, and 79% reported acute exacerbations of chronic illness. Rural inhabitants were 30% more likely to have an uninhabitable home than were urban inhabitants. Concerns included safe housing, water purification, and waste elimination. The findings indicate a need for greater public health awareness and community action to adapt living conditions after a disaster and prevent the spread of communicable disease.

  19. Poor mental health status and aggression are associated with poor driving behavior among male traffic offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoli N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Abdoli,1,2 Vahid Farnia,3 Ali Delavar,4 Alirez Esmaeili,5 Fariborz Dortaj,4 Noorali Farrokhi,4 Majid Karami,6 Jalal Shakeri,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,7 Serge Brand7,8 1International University of Imam Reza, Mashhad, 2Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Psychiatry Department, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 4Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, 5Police University, Tehran, 6Baharestan Research Center, Kermanshah Transportation Terminal, Kermanshah, Iran, 7Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Basel, 8Department of Sport and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: In Iran, traffic accidents and deaths from traffic accidents are among the highest in the world, and generally driver behavior rather than either technical failures or environmental conditions are responsible for traffic accidents. In the present study, we explored the extent to which aggressive traits, health status, and sociodemographic variables explain driving behavior among Iranian male traffic offenders. Method: A total of 443 male driving offenders (mean age: M =31.40 years, standard deviation =9.56 from Kermanshah (Iran took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire booklet covering sociodemographic variables, traits of aggression, health status, and driving behavior. Results: Poor health status, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and social dysfunction, and also higher levels of trait aggression explained poor driving behavior. Multiple regressions indicated that poor health status, but not aggression, independently predicted poor driving behavior. Conclusion: Results suggest that health status concerns are associated with poor driving behavior. Prevention and intervention might therefore focus on drivers reporting poor mental health status

  20. Mental Health Concerns in Williams Syndrome: Intervention Considerations and Illustrations from Case Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kristin D.; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.

    2009-01-01

    The refinement of the Williams syndrome phenotype has frequently included the study of behavioral and temperamental features common to individuals with this disorder. Within this line of research, the importance of evaluating incidence of psychopathology has been increasingly recognized, with studies consistently identifying an increased risk for…

  1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices.

  2. Health literacy and health-promoting behaviors among multiethnic groups of women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chang, Shu-Chen; Yang, Yung-Mei; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2014-01-01

    To understand the current status of health literacy and the relationship between health literacy and health-promoting behaviors among multiethnic groups of women in Taiwan. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were used to recruit study participants. Data were collected using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. We recruited community female adults who lived in greater Taipei or Taoyuan areas (northern Taiwan) from January 1, 2010 through June 30, 2011. A total of 378 female participants were contacted, of which 351 consented to participate and 347 completed valid questionnaires for analysis. Health literacy was measured with the Taiwan Health Literacy Scale, and health-promoting behaviors were measured by the Chinese version of the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile. Participants had a moderate level of health literacy, and one third of them had inadequate health literacy. Participants with inadequate health literacy were more likely to be younger, not a high school graduate, and Vietnamese; to have a low monthly family income and no diagnosed diseases; to use a second language; and to regard TV/radio as the most useful source of health information. Health literacy alone could significantly predict health-promoting behaviors among the participants. Our findings confirmed that low health literacy is prevalent among underprivileged women in Taiwan. Health-related programs that are literacy sensitive and culturally appropriate are needed to teach and encourage health-promoting behaviors. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. Statement of the American Psychological Association in response to the "joint principles: integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norman B; Belar, Cynthia D; Cubic, Barbara A; Garrison, Ellen G; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-06-01

    Comments on the article "Joint principles: Integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home" (see record 2014-24217-011), presented by the Working Party Group on Integrated Behavioral Healthcare. The American Psychological Association (APA) shares concerns about the lack of reference to behavioral health care in the original 2007 Joint Principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home for which this new document is intended to supplement but not replace. The decision to support the supplemental Joint Principles was not an easy one for APA, as there is one area of significant concern. That concern is related to the use of the term "physician-directed medical practice"

  4. Behavioral health and health care reform models: patient-centered medical home, health home, and accountable care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of health care delivery and payment reforms have largely been silent about how behavioral health could be incorporated into reform initiatives. This paper draws attention to four patient populations defined by the severity of their behavioral health conditions and insurance status. It discusses the potentials and limitations of three prominent models promoted by the Affordable Care Act to serve populations with behavioral health conditions: the Patient-Centered Medical Home, the Health Home initiative within Medicaid, and the Accountable Care Organization. To incorporate behavioral health into health reform, policymakers and practitioners may consider embedding in the reform efforts explicit tools-accountability measures and payment designs-to improve access to and quality of care for patients with behavioral health needs.

  5. The Impact of Privacy Concerns and Perceived Vulnerability to Risks on Users Privacy Protection Behaviors on SNS: A Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Noora Sami Al-Saqer; Mohamed E. Seliaman

    2016-01-01

    This research paper investigates Saudi users’ awareness levels about privacy policies in Social Networking Sites (SNSs), their privacy concerns and their privacy protection measures. For this purpose, a research model that consists of five main constructs namely information privacy concern, awareness level of privacy policies of social networking sites, perceived vulnerability to privacy risks, perceived response efficacy, and privacy protecting behavior was developed. An online survey questi...

  6. Update on Emergency Department Visits Involving Energy Drinks: A Continuing Public Health Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including older adults. 3 Marketing analysts reported increasing sales of energy shots in 2011 that were expected ... perceived health benefits are largely due to marketing techniques rather than scientific evidence. Because of the drinks’ ...

  7. A Discourse Analysis of Denmark´s Public Health Policy Concerning Overweight among Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg

    2017-01-01

    . Health care professionals’ approach to governing overweight pregnant women is affected by this breach in the discursive field. Thus, overweight pregnant women have become an issue for medical experts, who are encouraged to use stricter rhetoric when addressing them. This shift also renders pregnant women......A recent Danish public health report classified being overweight during pregnancy as a chronic disease, marking a discursive shift from its previous classification as a risk factor for complications in maternal and foetal health. This discursive shift is considered a breach in the discursive field...... subject to interventions by medical experts. The aim of this article is to critically analyse recommendations for how health professionals should govern these highrisk individuals and to discuss the implications of such governance for overweight pregnant women. In this study, overweight is classified...

  8. Senior Military Officers' Educational Concerns, Motivators and Barriers for Healthful Eating and Regular Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sigrist, Lori D; Anderson, Jennifer E; Auld, Garry W

    2005-01-01

    The increasing trend of military personnel being overweight, the high cost of health care associated with being overweight, and the failure to meet some Healthy People 2000 objectives related to diet...

  9. Update on Neonatal Herpes Simplex Epidemiology in the Netherlands: A Health Problem of Increasing Concern?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oeffelen, Louise; Biekram, Manisha; Poeran, Jashvant; Hukkelhoven, Chantal; Galjaard, Sander; van der Meijden, Wim; Op de Coul, Eline

    2018-01-01

    This paper provides an update on the incidence of neonatal herpes, guideline adherence by health care professionals (HCP), and trends in genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy in the Netherlands.

  10. Conference Support: Dose-Response Issues Concerning Physical Activity and Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude

    2001-01-01

    ... among physical activity, fitness, and health. This special issue includes the papers, as revised, that were presented and critiqued at the symposium held October 11-15, 2000, at the Hockley Valley Resort, Ontario, Canada...

  11. Addressing Health Workforce Distribution Concerns: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Develop Rural Retention Strategies in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jacob Robyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Nearly every nation in the world faces shortages of health workers in remote areas. Cameroon is no exception to this. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH is currently considering several rural retention strategies to motivate qualified health personnel to practice in remote rural areas. Methods To better calibrate these mechanisms and to develop evidence-based retention strategies that are attractive and motivating to health workers, a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE was conducted to examine what job attributes are most attractive and important to health workers when considering postings in remote areas. The study was carried out between July and August 2012 among 351 medical students, nursing students and health workers in Cameroon. Mixed logit models were used to analyze the data. Results Among medical and nursing students a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary (aOR= 8.27, 95% CI: 5.28-12.96, P< 0.001 and improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.54, 95% CI: 2.73-4.58 respectively were the attributes with the largest effect sizes. Among medical doctors and nurse aides, a rural retention bonus of 75% of base salary was the attribute with the largest effect size (medical doctors aOR= 5.60, 95% CI: 4.12-7.61, P< 0.001; nurse aides aOR= 4.29, 95% CI: 3.11-5.93, P< 0.001. On the other hand, improved health facility infrastructure (aOR= 3.56, 95% CI: 2.75-4.60, P< 0.001, was the attribute with the largest effect size among the state registered nurses surveyed. Willingness-to-Pay (WTP estimates were generated for each health worker cadre for all the attributes. Preference impact measurements were also estimated to identify combination of incentives that health workers would find most attractive. Conclusion Based on these findings, the study recommends the introduction of a system of substantial monetary bonuses for rural service along with ensuring adequate and functional equipment and uninterrupted supplies. By focusing on

  12. Peer Positive Social Control and Men's Health-Promoting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Janie; Meunier, Sophie; Coulombe, Simon; Mercerat, Coralie; Gaboury, Isabelle; Tremblay, Gilles; de Montigny, Francine; Cloutier, Lyne; Roy, Bernard; Auger, Nathalie; Lavoie, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Men are generally thought to be less inclined to take care of their health. To date, most studies about men's health have focused on deficits in self-care and difficulties in dealing with this sphere of their life. The present study reframes this perspective, using a salutogenic strengths-based approach and seeking to identify variables that influence men to take care of their health, rather than neglect it. This study focuses on the association between peer positive social control and men's health behaviors, while controlling for other important individual and social determinants (sociodemographic characteristics, health self-efficacy, home neighborhood, spousal positive social control, and the restrictive emotionality norm). In a mixed-method study, 669 men answered a self-reported questionnaire, and interviews were conducted with a maximum variation sample of 31 men. Quantitative results indicated that, even after controlling for sociodemographic variables and other important factors, peer positive social control was significantly associated with the six health behaviors measured in the study (health responsibility, nutrition, physical activity, interpersonal relations, stress management, and spirituality). Interview results revealed that peer positive social control influenced men's health behaviors through three different mechanisms: shared activity, being inspired, and serving as a positive role model for others. In summary, friends and coworkers could play a significant role in promoting various health behaviors among adult men in their daily life. Encouraging men to socialize and discuss health, and capitalizing on healthy men as role models appear to be effective ways to influence health behavior adoption among this specific population.

  13. [Is health really the most important value? - Results of a representative survey of the German general population concerning the subjective meaning of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, A; Hübscher, U; Brähler, E; Berth, H

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which meaning is attributed to health by the general population. Furthermore, the relationship between health satisfaction and health importance was also analysed. A sample of 4,808 representatively selected subjects from the general German population judged the importance and the satisfaction with several life domains, including health, using the questions on life satisfaction FLZ (M). Moreover, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, socioeconomic status) and psychological variables (self-esteem, resilience, anxiety and depression) were collected. Health is the most important life domain. The importance of health increases with increasing age. However, there are no sex differences and SES (socio-economic status) differences concerning the importance of health. Subjective satisfaction with health and health importance are only marginally correlated (r=0.08). High degrees of self-esteem and resilience are associated with a high importance of health. Anxiety and depression show only weak relationships to the importance of health. In the German general population health has a very high subjective significance. This is not only true for handicapped or ill people, but for all subsamples of the society. Therefore, a general plea for an understanding of the importance of health is not necessary, not even for subgroups. Preventive activity can be based on the general understanding of the meaning of health, but it should pursue specific health- related goals for target groups. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. The silencing of political context in health research in Ethiopia: why it should be a concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østebø, Marit Tolo; Cogburn, Megan D; Mandani, Anjum Shams

    2018-03-01

    In 2004, the Ethiopian government launched what has been called an innovative and groundbreaking solution to the country's public health challenges; the Health Extension Programme (HEP). The positive public health outcomes that have been reported following the implementation of the HEP have led researchers and global health actors to propose it as a model for other countries to emulate. In this systematic review, we point to a potential weakness and methodological bias in the existing research. Despite being implemented within a context of an increasingly authoritarian regime, research conducted following the implementation of HEP reflects a limited discussion of the political context. Following a discussion of why political context is marginalized we provide arguments for why a focus on political context is important: first, political context has an impact on health systems and actualizes questions related to good governance and ethics. While some of the studies we reviewed acknowledge the importance of political factors we contend that the one-sided focus on the positive relationship between political will, political commitment and political leadership on the one hand, and key public health outcomes on the other, reflects a narrow engagement with health system governance frameworks. This leads to a silencing of issues actualized by the authoritarian nature of the Ethiopian regime. Secondly, the political context has methodological implications. More specifically, we contend that the current political situation increases the probability of social desirability bias. In order to balance the overarching positive literature on Ethiopia's health system, research that takes the political context into account is much needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Veterans’ Health Care: Limited Progress Made to Address Concerns That Led to High Risk Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Women Veterans. GAO-17-52. Washington , D.C.: December 2, 2016. Veterans Health Care: Improvements Needed in Operationalizing Strategic Goals and...Access to Primary Care. GAO-16-328. Washington , D.C.: March 18, 2016. DOD and VA Health Care: Actions Needed to Help Ensure Appropriate Medication...ET Wednesday, March 15, 2017 GAO-17-473T United States Government Accountability Office United States Government Accountability Office

  16. Health Concerns and Health Service Utilization in a Population Cohort of Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Isaacs, Barry; Diepstra, Heidi; Wilton, Andrew S.; Brown, Hilary K.; McGarry, Caitlin; Lunsky, Yona

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have many health needs that place demands on the health service sector. This study used administrative data to compare health profiles in young adults 18-24 years of age with ASD to peers with and without other developmental disability. Young adults with ASD were more likely to have almost all the…

  17. Social network characteristics associated with health promoting behaviors among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Becky; Elder, John P; Arredondo, Elva M; Madanat, Hala; Ji, Ming; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between social network characteristics and health promoting behaviors (having a routine medical check-up, consuming no alcohol, consuming no fast food, and meeting recommendations for leisure-time physical activity and sleep duration) among Latinos to identify potential targets for behavioral interventions. Personal network characteristics and health behavior data were collected from a community sample of 393 adult Latinos (73% women) in San Diego County, California. Network characteristics consisted of size and composition. Network size was calculated by the number of alters listed on a name generator questionnaire eliciting people with whom respondents discussed personal issues. Network composition variables were the proportion of Latinos, Spanish-speakers, females, family, and friends listed in the name generator. Additional network composition variables included marital status and the number of adults or children in the household. Network members were predominately Latinos (95%), Spanish-speakers (80%), females (64%), and family (55%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, gender moderated the relationship between network composition, but not size, and a health behavior. Married women were more likely to have had a routine medical check-up than married men. For both men and women, having a larger network was associated with meeting the recommendation for leisure-time physical activity. Few social network characteristics were significantly associated with health promoting behaviors, suggesting a need to examine other aspects of social relationships that may influence health behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Oral health Knowledge and behavior among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The present study was carried out to assess the level of oral health knowledge, behavior, experience and sources of oral health knowledge among pregnant women attending Kyela district hospital. Study participants and Methods: This was a hospital based Cross-sectional study among 380 pregnant women attending ...

  19. Health seeking behavior of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is increasingly recognized as one of the public health problems among women in developing countries. Most women with cervical cancer are seen in the health care system late with advanced stage of cancer. This study aims to explore the care seeking behavior of women with cervical cancer.

  20. Promoting health: intervention strategies from social and behavioral research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smedley, Brian D; Syme, S. Leonard

    ... on Capitalizing on Social Science and Behavioral Research to Improve the Public's Health Division of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created pu...

  1. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  2. Health Behavior Change Challenge: Understanding Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Claire F.

    2011-01-01

    This semester-long activity requires students to reflect on their own strengths and weaknesses in attempting to take on a personally meaningful health behavior change challenge. This assignment affords them the opportunity to take a deeper look at theory and health concepts learned throughout the semester and to see how it has informed their own…

  3. Cognitive ability and health-related behaviors during adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L; Skinner, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal research on the links between intelligence and health behaviors among adolescents is rare. We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence as assessed in Grade 7 and consequential health outcomes in Grade 11. The mean age of respondents (N=420;...

  4. Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and Its Relationship to Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyfault, John P; Du, Mengmeng; Kraus, William E; Levine, James A; Booth, Frank W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on the findings and recommendations of the “Physiology of Sedentary Behavior and its Relationship to Health Outcomes” group, a part of a larger workshop entitled Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities sponsored by the National Heart, and Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging, which aimed to establish sedentary behavior research priorities. Methods The discussion within our workshop lead to the formation of critical physiological research objectives related to sedentary behaviors, that if appropriately researched would greatly impact our overall understanding of human health and longevity. Results and Conclusions Primary questions are related to physiological “health outcomes” including the influence of physical activity vs. sedentary behavior on function of a number of critical physiological systems (aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle metabolism and function, telomeres/genetic stability, and cognitive function). The group also derived important recommendations related to the “central and peripheral mechanisms” that govern sedentary behavior and how energy balance has a role in mediating these processes. General recommendations for future sedentary physiology research efforts include that studies of sedentary behavior, including that of sitting time only, should focus on the physiological impact of a “lack of human movement” in contradistinction to the effects of physical movement and that new models or strategies for studying sedentary behavior induced adaptations and links to disease development are needed to elucidate underlying mechanism(s). PMID:25222820

  5. Health marketing and behavioral change: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirez, Cristina-Mihaela; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2018-01-01

    Health marketing as a part of social marketing, must influence individuals, voluntarily, through various social programmes, in order to accept, reject, modify or abandon a behavior in favour of a healthier lifestyle. Acting on individual behavior change, social marketing can influence the behaviour of those who decide public policies, with positive effects in social change. In time, in order to understand and predict a behavior, a number of theories, models and tactics were developed with the aim to identify factors and mechanisms with the greatest impact in the changing process. Cognitive- social theories proved to be more effective, because they offer guidelines for conducting research in behavioral change.

  6. Health marketing and behavioral change: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirez, Cristina-Mihaela; Purcărea, Victor Lorin

    2018-01-01

    Health marketing as a part of social marketing, must influence individuals, voluntarily, through various social programmes, in order to accept, reject, modify or abandon a behavior in favour of a healthier lifestyle. Acting on individual behavior change, social marketing can influence the behaviour of those who decide public policies, with positive effects in social change. In time, in order to understand and predict a behavior, a number of theories, models and tactics were developed with the aim to identify factors and mechanisms with the greatest impact in the changing process. Cognitive- social theories proved to be more effective, because they offer guidelines for conducting research in behavioral change. PMID:29696059

  7. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the sexual functioning and behavior of men anxious about the size of their penis and the means that they might use to try to alter the size of their penis. Aim: To compare sexual functioning and behavior in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerning penis size and in men with small penis anxiety (SPA without BDD) and in a control group of men who do not have any concerns. Methods: An opportunistic sample of 90 men from the community were recru...

  8. Risky music-listening behaviors and associated health-risk behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vogel (Ineke); P.M. van de Looij-Jansen (Petra); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); A. Burdorf (Alex); F. de Waart (Frouwkje)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To examine, among adolescents and emerging adults attending inner-city lower education, associations between risky music-listening behaviors (from MP3 players and in discotheques and at pop concerts) and more traditional health-risk behaviors: substance use (cigarettes,

  9. Are modern health worries, environmental concerns, or paranormal beliefs associated with perceptions of the effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, Mamta; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-09-01

    To investigate to what extent paranormal beliefs, modern health worries (MHWs), and environmental concerns were related to beliefs about, and behaviour associated with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Of the participants, 150 completed a four-part questionnaire measuring use and perception of CAM, MHWs, paranormal beliefs, and environmental concerns. A factor analysis on the CAM questions revealed three clear components, labelled efficacy of CAM, attitudes to CAM, and safety of CAM. Age, total MHWs, paranormal beliefs, and environmental concerns were used as predictor variables in regression analyses with efficacy as criterion variable. Age was found to be a significantly related to efficacy of CAM. When total MHW score, paranormal belief score, and environmental concern score were added to the model, the r(2) increased by 29%. Environmental concern did not significantly relate to efficacy but spiritualism beliefs did. A factor analysis of the MHW scale items revealed nine factors. Out of these, radiation, doctors playing God, disasters, and epidemics, as well as harmful rays and air contaminants significantly predict belief in the efficacy of CAM. Overall, older people, with more MHWs, and who believe in the paranormal are more likely to believe that CAM works, possibly because of a more intuitive, 'holistic', thinking style. Limitations of the study are considered.

  10. Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists’ perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from former Canadian medical tourists regarding the use of an information sheet to address this knowledge gap and raise awareness of the safety and ethical concerns related to medical tourism. Results According to feedback provided in interviews with former Canadian medical tourists, the majority of participants responded positively to the information sheet and indicated that this document prompted them to engage in further consideration of these issues. Participants indicated some frustration after reading the information sheet regarding a lack of know-how in terms of learning more about the concerns discussed in the document and changing their decision-making. This frustration was due to participants’ desperation for medical care, a topic which participants frequently discussed regarding ethical concerns related to health care provision. Conclusions The overall perceptions of former medical tourists indicate that an information sheet may promote further consideration of ethical concerns of medical tourism. However, given that these interviews were performed with former medical tourists, it remains unknown whether such a document might impact upon the decision-making of prospective medical tourists. Furthermore, participants indicated a need for an additional tool such as a website for continued discussion about these concerns. As such, along with dissemination of the information sheet

  11. Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists' perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Krystyna; Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Johnston, Rory

    2013-12-06

    Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from former Canadian medical tourists regarding the use of an information sheet to address this knowledge gap and raise awareness of the safety and ethical concerns related to medical tourism. According to feedback provided in interviews with former Canadian medical tourists, the majority of participants responded positively to the information sheet and indicated that this document prompted them to engage in further consideration of these issues. Participants indicated some frustration after reading the information sheet regarding a lack of know-how in terms of learning more about the concerns discussed in the document and changing their decision-making. This frustration was due to participants' desperation for medical care, a topic which participants frequently discussed regarding ethical concerns related to health care provision. The overall perceptions of for