Mohammad Reza Iravani
Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.
Marcotte, Thomas D.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Meyer, Rachel A.; Brown, Sandra A.
Background Binge drinking is common among adolescents. Alcohol use, and binge-drinking in particular, has been associated with neurocognitive deficits as well as risk-taking behaviors, which may contribute to negative driving outcomes among adolescents even while sober. Objectives To examine differences in self-reported driving behaviors between adolescent binge-drinkers and a matched sample of controls, including (a) compliance with graduated licensing laws, (b) high risk driving behaviors, and (c) driving outcomes (crashes, traffic tickets). Methods The present study examined driving behaviors and outcomes in adolescent recent binge drinkers (n=21) and demographically and driving history matched controls (n=17), ages 16-18. Results Binge drinkers more frequently violated graduated licensing laws (e.g., driving late at night), and engaged in more “high risk” driving behaviors, such as speeding and using a cell-phone while driving. Binge drinkers had more traffic tickets, crashes and “near crashes” than the control group. In a multivariate analysis, binge drinker status and speeding were the most robust predictors of a crash. Conclusion Binge drinking teens consistently engage in more dangerous driving behaviors and experience more frequent crashes and traffic tickets. They are also less compliant with preventative restrictions placed on youth while they are learning critical safe driving skills. Scientific Significance These findings highlight a need to examine the contribution of underlying traits (such as sensation seeking) and binge-related cognitive changes to these high-risk driving behaviors, which may assist researchers in establishing alternative prevention and policy efforts targeting this population. PMID:22324748
Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Seyed-Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash
Sexual behavior is a complex activity affecting all aspects of human's life. Risky sexual behaviors impose negative outcomes on family, relationships and health. Unsafe sex is the second most leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. Valid and reliable tools for assessment of risky sexual behaviors are necessary for implementing preventive measures. we searched Medline and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, with the keywords of "risky sexual behavior assessment", "sexual risk assessment", "high risk sexual behavior", "sexual risk taking". By reviewing references of the articles, some complementary studies were added. Assessment can be performed by questionnaire or non-questionnaire instruments. Questionnaires vary depending on their target population, evaluation of risky sexual behavior as a whole or focusing on an associated risk factor. In order to avoid usual biases in self reports, objective biomarker assessment of unprotected sex are employed. These markers include prostate specific antigen, chromosome Y DNA and Seminogelin. Risky sexual behavior can be assessed by various subjective and objective methods. While self-reports are more feasible, objective methods offer a higher degree of reliability. Further studies for finding more feasible methods of using biomarkers are recommended.
Seidman, S N; Sterk-Elifson, C; Aral, S O
Drug-using men are at high risk for acquisition and transmission of STD, presumably due to the risky behaviors practiced in environments of drug use. To study behaviors associated with STD transmission among drug-using men. Drug outreach workers distributed vouchers to self-identified drug-using men in urban Atlanta. Vouchers could be redeemed for cash at a storefront clinic where subjects provided urine for a urethritis screening test (leukocyte esterase test) and a drug screen, and were interviewed. Of 382 voucher recipients, 252 (66%) came to the clinic. Subjects were predominantly black (92%), homeless (70%), and aged 20 to 40 (88%). All used illicit drugs; none were currently receiving drug abuse treatment. Urine drug screen confirmed recent cocaine use in 63%, and recent opiate use in 4%. Three-fourths reported a history of STD, mostly gonorrhea. In the preceding 3 months, 14% had not had sex, 80% had sex exclusively with women, 4% had sex with both men and women, and 2% had sex exclusively with men. Of the heterosexually active men, 29% had 5 or more recent partners. Compared to other heterosexually active men, these men were more likely to always use alcohol or crack before having sex (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-2.5) and to drink alcohol every day (PR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.3). Daily crack use was associated with choosing partners at elevated STD risk; daily alcohol use with having more partners. Positive drug screen for cocaine was associated with self-reported crack use. Urethritis, detected in 16%, was not correlated with behavior. A substantial number of drug-using men practice high-risk sexual behavior and should be targeted for intervention. Monetary and other incentives should be considered for recruitment. Further study is needed to clarify the relationship between sexual behavior, cocaine use, and STD.
Kilgus, Stephen P.; Taylor, Crystal N.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.
The purpose of this study was to support the identification of Social, Academic, and Emotional Behavior Risk Screener (SAEBRS) cut scores that could be used to detect high-risk students. Teachers rated students across two time points (Time 1 n = 1,242 students; Time 2 n = 704) using the SAEBRS and the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System…
Tolan, Patrick; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David
Four hundred twenty-four families who resided in inner-city neighborhoods and had a child entering 1st grade were randomly assigned to a control condition or to a family-focused preventive intervention combined with academic tutoring. SAFEChildren, which was developed from a developmental-ecological perspective, emphasizes developmental tasks and community factors in understanding risk and prevention. Tracking of linear-growth trends through 6 months after intervention indicated an overall effect of increased academic performance and better parental involvement in school. High-risk families had additional benefits for parental monitoring, child-problem behaviors, and children's social competence. High-risk youth showed improvement in problem behaviors and social competence. Results support a family-focused intervention that addresses risk in low-income communities as managing abnormal challenges.
Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Mellin, Alison; Leffert, Nancy; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone A
To examine associations between family meal frequency and developmental assets and high-risk behaviors among a national sample of adolescents. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 99,462 sixth to 12th grade students from public and alternative schools in 213 cities and 25 states across the United States. Logistic regression analyses tested differences in assets and high-risk behaviors by family dinner frequency. Consistent positive associations were found between the frequency of family dinners and all developmental assets, including both external (e.g., support, boundaries and expectations; odds ratio [OR] 2.1-3.7) and internal assets (e.g., commitment to learning, positive values, social competencies, and positive identity; OR 1.8-2.6); relationships were attenuated, but remained significant after adjusting for demographics and general family communication and support. Consistent inverse relationships were found between the frequency of family dinners and all high-risk behaviors measured (i.e., substance use, sexual activity, depression/suicide, antisocial behaviors, violence, school problems, binge eating/purging, and excessive weight loss; OR .36-.58), relationships were attenuated, but remained significant after adjusting for demographics and family factors. The findings of the present study suggest that the frequency of family dinner is an external developmental asset or protective factor that may curtail high-risk behaviors among youth. Creative and realistic strategies for enhancing and supporting family meals, given the context within which different families live, should be explored to promote healthy adolescent development. Family rituals such as regular mealtimes may ease the stress of daily living in the fast-paced families of today's society.
KHAN, MARIA R.; RASOLOFOMANANA, JUSTIN R.; McCLAMROCH, KRISTI J.; RALISIMALALA, ANDRIAMAMPIANINA; ZAFIMANJAKA, MAURICE G.; BEHETS, FRIEDA; WEIR, SHARON S.
Background Persistent high levels of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Madagascar indicate current prevention strategies are inadequate. STI/HIV prevention based in social venues may play an important role in reaching individuals at risk of infection. We identified venues where people meet sexual partners and measured the need and potential for venue-based prevention. Methods Interviews were conducted in 7 Madagascar towns with 1) community informants to identify social venues, 2) individuals socializing at a sample of venues to assess sexual behavior among venue patrons, and 3) venue representatives to assess the potential for venue-based intervention. Results Community informants identified numerous venues (range: 67–211 venues, depending on the town); streets, bars, and hotels were most commonly reported. Among 2982 individuals socializing at venues, 78% of men and 74% of women reported new sexual partnership or sex trade for money, goods, or services in the past 4 weeks and 19% of men and 18% of women reported symptoms suggestive of STI in the past 4 weeks. STI symptom levels were disproportionately high among respondents reporting either sex trade or new sexual partnership in the past 4 weeks. Twenty-eight percent of men and 41% of women reported condom use during the last sex act with a new partner. Although 24% to 45% of venues had hosted STI/HIV interventions, interventions were deemed possible at 73% to 90% venues according to 644 interviews with venue representatives. Conclusions Venue-based intervention is possible and would reach a spectrum of populations vulnerable to STI/HIV including sex workers, their clients, and other high-risk populations. PMID:18496471
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. High Risk Behaviors in Marine Mammals : Linking...comprehensive evaluation of biological safety zones for diving marine mammals . In this way we intend to identify those marine mammal species or specific...improving the protection of marine mammals during naval operations. OBJECTIVES We are testing the hypothesis that extreme behaviors requiring
Ferguson, Christopher J
Several legal cases in the United States in which adolescents were charged with child pornography distribution after sharing nude photographs of themselves with romantic partners or others have highlighted the issue of sexting behaviors among youth. Although policy makers, mental health workers, educators and parents have all expressed concern regarding the potential harm of sexting behaviors, little to no research has examined this phenomenon empirically. The current study presents some preliminary data on the incidence of sexting behavior and associated high risk sexual behaviors in a sample of 207 predominantly Hispanic young women age 16-25. Approximately 20% of young women reported engaging in sexting behavior. Sexting behaviors were not associated with most other high-risk sexual behaviors, but were slightly more common in women who found sex to be highly pleasurable or who displayed histrionic personality traits.
Adams, Troy; Moore, Monique
The number of students accumulating credit card debt--and the amount of debt itself--on college campuses is increasing. If high-risk credit and health behavior are associated, health behavior interventions might apply to high-risk credit behavior. Objective: The authors' purpose was to examine these possible associations. Participants and Methods:…
Johnson, Audrey S.
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether peer involvement, family involvement, media within the school campus, and cultural beliefs about college life were related to student involvement in risky behaviors, such as binge drinking, illicit drug use, risky sexual behavior, and problem gambling. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model was…
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.
In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater…
Addington, Jean; Epstein, Irvin; Liu, Lu; French, Paul; Boydell, Katherine M; Zipursky, Robert B
There has been increasing interest in early detection during the prodromal phase of a psychotic disorder. To date a few treatment studies have been published with some promising results for both pharmacological treatments, using second generation antipsychotics, and psychological interventions, mainly cognitive behavioral therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine first if cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was more effective in reducing the rates of conversion compared to a supportive therapy and secondly whether those who received CBT had improved symptoms compared to those who received supportive therapy. Fifty-one individuals at clinical high risk of developing psychosis were randomized to CBT or a supportive therapy for up to 6 months. The sample was assessed at 6, 12 and 18 months post baseline on attenuated positive symptoms, negative symptoms, depression, anxiety and social functioning. Conversions to psychosis only occurred in the group who received supportive therapy although the difference was not significant. Both groups improved in attenuated positive symptoms, depression and anxiety and neither improved in social functioning and negative symptoms. There were no differences between the two treatment groups. However, the improvement in attenuated positive symptoms was more rapid for the CBT group. There are limitations of this trial and potential explanations for the lack of differences. However, both the results of this study and the possible explanations have significant implications for early detection and intervention in the pre-psychotic phase and for designing future treatments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.
Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…
Full Text Available Introduction: Addiction as a social, health problem with its specific complications threatens societies. High risk behaviors such as violence, self mutilation, tattooing, shared injections and unprotected sex behaviors are some of the problems in addicts that need to be treated. One of these treatments is methadone therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of methadone in prevention or reduction of high risk behaviors in clients of a MMT center of Shaheed Sadoughi University of medical sciences of Yazd. Methods: This study was done on 93 clients of a MMT center.Questionnaire for this study included items from MAP and questions about some other risky behaviors. This questionnaire was completed at onset of treatment and 6 months after. Data was analyzed with SPSS software program Results: 89.2% of participants were married and 10.8% were single. 63.5% of them were in the20-40 years age group. Most commonly abused substances were heroin and opium. Before onset of treatment, 37.6% of participants had history of imprisonment, 35.5% had shared injections, 32.3%had had unprotected sex, 22.6%had tattooing and 5.4%had mutilated their own selves. Only 36.6% didn’t have any high risk behavior. These behaviors were more common in heroin users and in the20-40 years age group. After onset of treatment and during 6 month of MMT, 86% of clients didn’t have any risky behavior. Only 14%of them continued to have unsafe sex behaviors Conclusion: Addiction can cause high risk behaviors. Data in this paper suggests that young age, heroin use, low education level and no or inadequate information about addictive substances and their consequences are effective and important factors that cause high risk behaviors. Treatment of addicts with methadone maintenance therapy plays an important role in reduction of risky behaviors. Development of appropriate and more MMT centers are recommended.
Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E; Barnes, Jaclyn E; Haralson, Katherine J
High-risk Internet behaviors, including viewing sexually explicit content, provocative social networking profiles, and entertaining online sexual solicitations, were examined in a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated adolescent girls aged 14 to 17 years. The impact of Internet behaviors on subsequent offline meetings was observed over 12 to 16 months. This study tested 2 main hypotheses: (1) maltreatment would be a unique contributor to high-risk Internet behaviors and (2) high-quality parenting would dampen adolescents' propensity to engage in high-risk Internet behaviors and to participate in offline meetings. Online and offline behaviors and parenting quality were gleaned from 251 adolescent girls, 130 of whom experienced substantiated maltreatment and 121 of whom were demographically matched comparison girls. Parents reported on adolescent behaviors and on the level of Internet monitoring in the home. Social networking profiles were objectively coded for provocative self-presentations. Offline meetings with persons first met online were assessed 12 to 16 months later. Thirty percent of adolescents reported having offline meetings. Maltreatment, adolescent behavioral problems, and low cognitive ability were uniquely associated with high-risk Internet behaviors. Exposure to sexual content, creating high-risk social networking profiles, and receiving online sexual solicitations were independent predictors of subsequent offline meetings. High-quality parenting and parental monitoring moderated the associations between adolescent risk factors and Internet behaviors, whereas use of parental control software did not. Treatment modalities for maltreated adolescents should be enhanced to include Internet safety literacy. Adolescents and parents should be aware of how online self-presentations and other Internet behaviors can increase vulnerability for Internet-initiated victimization.
Hickman, Nichole Erin; Schaar, Gina
Health care providers need to develop improved methods of educating adolescents. This study was developed to evaluate adolescents' responses to and satisfaction with an educational text message intervention to promote healthy behaviors, reduce the incidence of unhealthy behaviors, and prevent high-risk behaviors. Adolescent participants received weekly text messages regarding high-risk sexual behaviors, healthy dietary habits, exercise, drug, or alcohol use, and social issues. Results indicate adolescents learned something new, made a behavioral change, and overall liked the delivery of educational information via text message. This indicates long-term continuation of a text message intervention is a viable means to deliver adolescent health information, thereby improving an adolescent's current and future health status.
Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J
The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.
Collier, Crystal; Henriksen, Richard C., Jr.
Much of the success of high-risk behavior prevention programs rests with teachers who deliver the curriculum however; few studies have investigated teachers' perceptions of program implementation. The objective of this phenomenological study was to answer the question, "What are the experiences of teachers who are asked to be involved in the…
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…
Moyer, Matthew B.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Lombardi, Emilia L.; Taylor, Christopher A.
Concerned about reports of a 15% decline in HIV testing among high-risk youth in an earlier study in Pittsburgh, this study was initiated to explore reasons why young people are not getting tested for HIV, while gathering data on their respective level of risk taking behaviors. A total of 580 surveys were collected from youth aged between 14 and…
DeCuir, Jennifer; Lovasi, Gina S; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman; Lewis, Crystal Fuller
Although much research has been conducted on the determinants of HIV risk behavior among people who inject drugs (PWID), the influence of the neighborhood context on high-risk injection behavior remains understudied. To address this gap in the literature, we measured associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and high-risk injection behavior, and determined whether these associations were modified by drug-related police activity and syringe exchange program (SEP) accessibility. Our sample was comprised of 484 pharmacy-recruited PWID in New York City. Measures of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage were created using data from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey. Associations with high-risk injection behavior were estimated using multivariable Poisson regression. Effect modification by drug-related police activity and SEP accessibility was assessed by entering cross-product terms into adjusted models of high-risk injection behavior. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with decreased receptive syringe sharing and unsterile syringe use. In neighborhoods with high drug-related police activity, associations between neighborhood disadvantage and unsterile syringe use were attenuated to the null. In neighborhoods with high SEP accessibility, neighborhood disadvantage was associated with decreased acquisition of syringes from an unsafe source. PWID in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported safer injection behaviors than their counterparts in neighborhoods that were relatively better off. The contrasting patterns of effect modification by SEP accessibility and drug-related police activity support the use of harm reduction approaches over law enforcement-based strategies for the control of blood borne virus transmission among PWID in disadvantaged urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Raj, Anita; Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael; Samet, Jeffrey H
The purpose of this study was to assess associations between substance use (alcohol to intoxication, heroin, and cocaine) and sexual activity, high risk sexual behaviors, and STD among detoxification inpatients (n = 470). Participants were surveyed on past 30 day substance use, past 6 month sexual behaviors, and STD in the past 6 months and/or over 24 months of follow-up. Logistic regression models adjusted for demographics found that cocaine use was significantly associated with being sexually active (OR(adj) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.8) and selling sex (OR(adj) = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.3). Alcohol and heroin were not significantly associated with sexual activity, high risk sexual behaviors or STD in this sample.
Chen, Joseph S; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Malesker, Mark A; Morrow, Lee E
Although tobacco practices and the effects of tobacco use among the general American population are well described, minimal data exist regarding tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals. Anonymous, voluntary surveys based on a previously implemented instrument were completed by 100 smoking individuals residing at a homeless shelter. These surveys assessed high-risk smoking behaviors and respondents' perceived barriers to long-term smoking cessation. Ninety percent of study participants reported engaging in at least one of the high-risk tobacco practices. Nicotine replacement therapy was perceived by respondents to be the most desired form of smoking cessation aid. Excessive stress with use of tobacco smoking to alleviate stress and anxiety was the most significant self-perceived barrier to smoking cessation. High-risk tobacco practices are remarkably common among smoking homeless individuals. Despite literature consistently showing that non-nicotine tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies (varenicline, buproprion) have higher smoking cessation rates, nicotine replacement monotherapy was perceived as more valuable by survey respondents. Although lack of financial resources was expected to be the biggest barrier to successful cessation, social stressors and the use of smoking to cope with homelessness were perceived as a greater obstacle in this cohort. Given the paucity of data on the long-term effects of the high-risk tobacco behaviors reported by these homeless smokers, this study highlights the need for further investigations regarding tobacco use and tobacco cessation in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Ulinski, Sandra L; Moysés, Simone T; Werneck, Renata I; Moysés, Samuel J
To explore high-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. Data from 398 drivers on sociodemographic parameters, high-risk behaviors, experiences with traffic law, and traffic law violations were collected through interviews conducted at sobriety checkpoints. Exploratory-descriptive and analytical statistics were used. The mean age of the participants was 32.6±11.2 years (range, 18 to 75 years). Half of the drivers reported having driven after drinking in the last year, predominantly single men aged 18 to 29 years who drive cars and drink alcohol frequently. Only 55% of the drivers who had driven after drinking in the last year self-reported some concern about being detected in a police operation. A significant association was found between sociodemographic variables and behavior, which can help tailor public interventions to a specific group of drivers: young men who exhibit high-risk behaviors in traffic, such as driving after drinking alcohol, some of whom report heavy alcohol consumption. This group represents a challenge for educational and enforcement interventions, particularly because they admit to violating current laws and have a low perception of punishment due to the low risk of being detected by the police.
Sandra L. Ulinski
Full Text Available Objective: To explore high-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. Method: Data from 398 drivers on sociodemographic parameters, high-risk behaviors, experiences with traffic law, and traffic law violations were collected through interviews conducted at sobriety checkpoints. Exploratory-descriptive and analytical statistics were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32.6±11.2 years (range, 18 to 75 years. Half of the drivers reported having driven after drinking in the last year, predominantly single men aged 18 to 29 years who drive cars and drink alcohol frequently. Only 55% of the drivers who had driven after drinking in the last year self-reported some concern about being detected in a police operation. Conclusions: A significant association was found between sociodemographic variables and behavior, which can help tailor public interventions to a specific group of drivers: young men who exhibit high-risk behaviors in traffic, such as driving after drinking alcohol, some of whom report heavy alcohol consumption. This group represents a challenge for educational and enforcement interventions, particularly because they admit to violating current laws and have a low perception of punishment due to the low risk of being detected by the police.
Full Text Available Background: Children are one of the most vulnerable groups of the society and are constantly threatened by different people in their family or society. The aim of this study was investigating the correlation of child abuse with personality features and high risk behavior in high school students of Islamshahr, Iran. Methods: This study cross-sectional analytical was conducted on the high school girls and boys of Islamshahr in spring 2014.528 students were selected by cluster random sampling among 4 high schools (two female and two male high schools. Childhood trauma questionnaire, NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Youth Risk-Taking Scale were used for data collection. Data were analyzed by independence t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression. Results: The results of independence t-test indicated significant differences between girls and boys in terms of child abuse and high risk experience (t=-2.16,p=0.03 and t=-5.03, P=0.001, respectively. Also, the results demonstrated a significant relationship between child abuse and personality characteristics, high risk behavior and all its subscales (P<0.05. The findings of multiple linear regressionindicated that child abuse could explain 14% total risk-taking, 25% neurotic personality feature , 14% extroversion, 10% agreeableness, 1% flexibility and 13% conscientiousness (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to the research findings, appropriate behavior with children is of great importance. Therefore, child abuse would form inappropriate personality features and increase risk behaviors among children.
Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.
Brown, Susan D; Ehrlich, Samantha F; Kubo, Ai; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Hedderson, Monique M; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira
Diet and physical activity lifestyle behaviors are modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes and are shaped by culture, potentially influencing diabetes health disparities. We examined whether ethnic identity-the strength of attachment to one's ethnic group, and a long-standing focus of psychological research-could help account for variations in lifestyle behaviors within a diverse population at high risk for chronic disease. Using data from the Gestational Diabetes' Effects on Moms trial, this US-based cross-sectional study included 1463 pregnant women (74% from minority ethnic/racial groups; 46% born outside the US) with gestational diabetes (GDM), a common pregnancy complication conferring high risk for type 2 diabetes after delivery. Mixed linear regression models examined whether ethnic identity is associated with lifestyle behaviors after adjusting for demographic, clinical, and acculturative characteristics (e.g., nativity and length of residence in the US). In the overall sample, a one-unit increase in ethnic identity score was significantly associated with 3% greater fiber intake, 4% greater fruit/vegetable intake, 11% greater total activity, and 11% greater walking (p values ethnic/racial groups, a one-unit increase in ethnic identity score was significantly associated with 17% greater fiber intake among Filipina women; 5% lower total caloric intake among non-Hispanic White women; and 40% greater total activity, 35% greater walking, and 8% greater total caloric intake among Latina women (p values ≤ 0.03). Results from this large study suggest that ethnic group attachment is associated with some lifestyle behaviors, independent of acculturation indicators, among young women with GDM who are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Stronger ethnic identity may promote certain choices known to be associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Prospective research is needed to clarify the temporal nature of associations between ethnic identity and
Jones, Deborah; Bagga, Rashmi; Nehra, Ritu; Deepika; Sethi, Sunil; Walia, Kamini; Kumar, Mahendra; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Lopez, Maria; Weiss, Stephen M
With a population of 1.1 billion, India is considered to be a country in which effective prevention interventions could contain the development of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Heterosexual transmission accounts for 85 % of the extant HIV infections. This study sought to assess the feasibility of conducting a group, culturally tailored behavioral intervention and its impact on sexual barrier use, self-efficacy, knowledge, conflict resolution, and coping among high-risk heterosexual couples in Northern India. This pilot study was conducted at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India from February 2008 to January 2009. Thirty sexually active high-risk couples were drawn from a convenience sample of PGIMER patients attending infectious disease and family planning clinics. Couples participated in 1 month of three weekly gender-concordant behavioral intervention groups and were individually administered assessments preintervention and post-intervention. The intervention was tailored to the Northern Indian context and addressed sexual barrier use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection transmission, and cognitive behavioral skill building focusing on sexual negotiation and communication. The participants had a mean age of 32 years (men) and 29 years (women), and the majority had at least 10 years of education. At baseline, the majority reported inconsistent condom use (knowledge, and women increased their use of positive coping tactics. The results highlight the potential to successfully utilize a group intervention to discuss sensitive issues such as sexual risk behavior among both men and women. Strategies to improve condom use and communication without increasing intimate partner violence in high-risk couples may be an important adjunct to preventing the development of a generalized epidemic in India.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence. Methods Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA, which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175 of a small northeastern city in the United States. We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years. Results Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior. Conclusion By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.
Full Text Available This study is a sociological analysis of the three dimensions of social structure including institutional, relational, and embodied structures that have an impact on the individuals’ deviant behaviors in the society. The authors used a mix method to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data of 402 high risk abandoned substance users in 2008 in Tehran, capital city of Iran. The leading reasons of substance use were categorized into four fundamental themes as follows: stress, deviant social networks, and low social capital and weak social support sources. In addition, the epidemiology model of regression analysis provides a brief explanation to assess the association between the demographical and etiological variables, and the drug users’ deviant behaviors. In sum, substance use is discussed as a deviant behavior pattern which stems from a comorbidity of weak social structures.
Full Text Available Background & aim: AIDS is one of the major public health challenges all over the world. Perceived risk is a significant predictor of high-risk behaviors related to AIDS. Women constitute more than half of the HIV patients, and the rate of female sex workers with AIDS is more than the rest of female population. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate AIDS risk perception and its related factors in females with high-risk behaviors in Mashhad, Iran. Methods:This descriptive study was performed on 58 women who were arrested on prostitution charges and imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad Prison in 2013. The data were collected using self-designed questionnaires assessing knowledge regarding AIDS as well as sexual activities and also perceived risk of HIV questionnaire. One-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test, linear regression, and Chi-square tests were run, using SPSS version 16. Results: The mean score of HIV risk perception was 18.43±5.92, which was average. There was a significant relationship between the mean score of perceived risk of HIV and knowledge regarding AIDS (P=0.005, alcohol consumption (P=0.04, history of addiction (P=0.008, using contraceptive methods (P=0.01, condom use during intercourse (P=0.02, voluntary HIV testing (P=0.001, and follow-up of HIV test (P=0.009. Conclusion:The findings of the present study revealed that knowledge, alcohol consumption, history of addiction, contraceptive methods, the rate of condom use during intercourse, as well as voluntary HIV testing and follow-up were associated with perceived risk of HIV infection. Therefore, taking the necessary steps towards health promotion through appropriate training and interventional approaches seems to be mandatory for reducing high-risk behaviors in populations with low risk perception.
Brown, Matthew R G; Benoit, James R A; Juhás, Michal; Dametto, Ericson; Tse, Tiffanie T; MacKay, Marnie; Sen, Bhaskar; Carroll, Alan M; Hodlevskyy, Oleksandr; Silverstone, Peter H; Dolcos, Florin; Dursun, Serdar M; Greenshaw, Andrew J
High-risk behavior in adolescents is associated with injury, mental health problems, and poor outcomes in later life. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of high-risk behavior and impulsivity shows promise for informing clinical treatment and prevention as well as policy to better address high-risk behavior. We recruited 21 adolescents (age 14-17) with a wide range of high-risk behavior tendencies, including medically high-risk participants recruited from psychiatric clinics. Risk tendencies were assessed using the Adolescent Risk Behavior Screen (ARBS). ARBS risk scores correlated highly (0.78) with impulsivity scores from the Barratt Impulsivity scale (BIS). Participants underwent 4.7 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an emotional Go/NoGo task. This task presented an aversive or neutral distractor image simultaneously with each Go or NoGo stimulus. Risk behavior and impulsivity tendencies exhibited similar but not identical associations with fMRI activation patterns in prefrontal brain regions. We interpret these results as reflecting differences in response inhibition, emotional stimulus processing, and emotion regulation in relation to participant risk behavior tendencies and impulsivity levels. The results are consistent with high impulsivity playing an important role in determining high risk tendencies in this sample containing clinically high-risk adolescents.
Braverman, Julia; LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Shaffer, Howard J
Using actual gambling behavior provides the opportunity to develop behavioral markers that operators can use to predict the development of gambling-related problems among their subscribers. Participants were 4,056 Internet gamblers who subscribed to the Internet betting service provider bwin.party. Half of this sample included multiple platform gamblers who were identified by bwin.party's Responsible Gambling (RG) program; the other half were controls randomly selected from those who had the same first deposit date. Using the daily aggregated Internet betting transactions for gamblers' first 31 calendar days of online betting activities at bwin.party, we employed a 2-step analytic strategy: (a) applying an exploratory chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree method to identify characteristics that distinguished a subgroup of high-risk Internet gamblers from the rest of the sample, and (b) conducting a confirmatory analysis of those characteristics among an independent validation sample. This analysis identified two high-risk groups (i.e., groups in which 90% of the members were identified by bwin.party's RG program): Group 1 engaged in three or more gambling activities and evidenced high wager variability on casino-type games; Group 2 engaged in two different gambling activities and evidenced high variability for live action wagers. This analysis advances an ongoing research program to identify potentially problematic Internet gamblers during the earliest stages of their Internet gambling. Gambling providers and public policymakers can use these results to inform early intervention programs that target high-risk Internet gamblers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Wade, Emily
Objective: To evaluate the effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, 341 at-risk youths were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide, especially in eastern Europe, South America, and east and southeast Asia. Among people actively injecting drugs, provision of clean needles and opioid substitution reduce HIV-transmission. However, former injecting drug users (fIDUs are often overlooked as a high risk group for HIV transmission. We compared HIV risk behavior among current and former injecting drug users (IDUs in Indonesia, which has a rapidly growing HIV-epidemic largely driven by injecting drug use. Methods Current and former IDUs were recruited by respondent driven sampling in an urban setting in Java, and interviewed regarding drug use and HIV risk behavior using the European Addiction Severity Index and the Blood Borne Virus Transmission Questionnaire. Drug use and HIV transmission risk behavior were compared between current IDUs and former IDUs, using the Mann-Whitney and Pearson Chi-square test. Results Ninety-two out of 210 participants (44% were self reported former IDUs. Risk behavior related to sex, tattooing or piercing was common among current as well as former IDUs, 13% of former IDUs were still exposed to contaminated injecting equipment. HIV-infection was high among former (66% and current (60% IDUs. Conclusion Former IDUs may contribute significantly to the HIV-epidemic in Indonesia, and HIV-prevention should therefore also target this group, addressing sexual and other risk behavior.
Wu, Di; Wang, Zhenhong; Jiang, Zhenxia; Fu, Xiaojing; Li, Hui; Zhang, Dapeng; Liu, Hui; Hu, Yifei
To understand the characteristics of recreational drug users' behaviors and social network, as well as their potential impact to the transmission of sexual transmitted infections (STI). Qualitative interview was used to collect information on rough estimation of population size and behavior change before and after recreational drug use. A total of 120 participants were recruited by convenient sampling from April to October, 2013 in a community of Qingdao city. Blood specimens were taken for HIV/syphilis serological testing and social network analysis was performed to understand the characteristics of their behavior and social network. All participants used methamphetamine and 103 of them showed social connection. The prevalence of syphilis and HIV were 24.2% (29/120) and 2.5% (3/120) respectively. The estimated size of recreational drug users was big with a wide diversity of occupations and age range, and males were more frequent than females. Drug use may affect condom use and frequent drug users showed symptom of psychosis and neuro-toxicities. The size of social network was 2.45 ± 1.63 in the past 6 months, which indicated an increasing trend of the sexual partner number and risky behaviors. Recreational drug use could increase the size of social network among sex partners, the frequency of risky sexual behaviors and syphilis prevalence, which indicate a high risk of HIV/STI among this population as well as a huge burden of disease prevention and control in the future.
Kimonis, Eva R.; Frick, Paul J.; Boris, Neil W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Cornell, Amy H.; Farrell, Jamie M.; Zeanah, Charles H.
A behaviorally-uninhibited temperament, callous-unemotional (CU) features, and harsh parenting have been associated with specific patterns of aggressive behavior in older children and adolescents. We tested the additive and interactive effects of these factors in predicting different types of aggressive behavior in a high-risk preschool sample.…
Burke, Ainsley K.; Galfalvy, Hanga; Everett, Benjamin; Currier, Dianne; Zelazny, Jamie; Oquendo, Maria A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Kolko, David; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M.; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John; Brent, David A.
Objective: Exposure to suicidal behavior in peers and relatives is thought to increase risk for suicidal behavior in vulnerable individuals, possibly as a result of imitation or modeling. This study examines exposure to suicidal behavior and likelihood of suicide attempt in a high-risk cohort of offspring of a depressed parent. Method: A total of…
Diao, Diana Y; Lee, Tim K
Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes. PMID:24379732
Fernandes, Fernanda R P; Mousquer, Gina J; Castro, Lisie S; Puga, Marco A; Tanaka, Tayana S O; Rezende, Grazielli R; Pinto, Clarice S; Bandeira, Larissa M; Martins, Regina M B; Francisco, Roberta B L; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana R C
Female sex workers (FSWs) are considered a high-risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection due to their social vulnerability and factors associated with their work. We estimated the prevalence of HIV, and identified viral subtypes and risk factors among FSWs. A cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was conducted among 402 FSWs in Campo Grande city, Brazil, from 2009 to 2011. Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about sociodemograpic characteristics and risk behavior. Blood samples were collected for serological testing of HIV. Of the 402 FSWs, median age and age of initiating sex work were 25 years (Interquartile range [IQR]: 9) and 20 years (IQR: 6), respectively. The majority reported use of alcohol (88.5%), had 5-9 years (median: 9; IQR: 3) of schooling (54.5%), 68.6% had tattoos/body piercings, and 45.1% had more than seven clients per week (median: 7; IQR: 10). Only 32.9% of FSW reported using a condom with nonpaying partners in the last sexual contact. Prevalence of HIV infection was 1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-2.6%). Genotyping for HIV-1 performed on three samples detected subtypes B, C, and F1. Sex work in the Midwestern region of Brazil is characterized by reduced education, large numbers of clients per week, and inconsistent condom use, mainly with nonpaying partners. Although prevalence of HIV infection is currently low, elevated levels of high-risk sexual behavior confirm a need to implement prevention measures. Specific interventions targeting FSWs must emphasize the risk associated with both clients and nonpaying partners while providing knowledge about HIV prevention.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Addiction is one of the problems in world threating the social, economic and culture factors. It is essential to have an accurate knowledge about the characteristics of drug users in order to diminish the high-risk behaviors of intravenous drug addicts. This research has been done to assess relationship between individual characteristics and high risk behavior in intravenous drug addicts. Method: In this descriptive-analytic research, 360 drug users were selected from different places in Ardabil city and interviewed by a prepared questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests including t-test, Pearson correlation and ANOVA with SPSS statistical software. Results: The results showed that the age, gender, material status, job position, age of addiction start, age of injection start, injection frequency, injection frequency per day, syringe supply place and the partner’s gender during recent few months had no significant difference compared to drug users with needle sharing and without needle sharing. The educational level of drug users with needle sharing was lower (P=0.037 and the number of new syringe usage per month was also lesser (P=0.001. They predicted to be more likely infected with AIDS (P=0.001 and had a less argument with their partner about using condom, also mostly have not used condom at their last sexual relationship (P=0.001. The average number of their partners during last three months was high (P=0.003 and there was a meaningful relationship between true sense of peril and using condom in drug users with needle sharing group (p=0.001. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between the true sense of danger and the using condom. It is necessary to have an appropriate advertising to increase using condoms among injecting drug users.
gender sub-analyses. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Borderline Personality Disorder , SUICIDE 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER...this will be to identify symptoms associated with suicidal behavior that may advise future treatment. We will assess symptom domains including mood ...extend beyond personality disorder diagnosis. Thirty suicide attempters with BPD (SABPD+) will be compared with 30 suicide attempters without BPD
Full Text Available Diana Y Diao,1 Tim K Lee1,21Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Cancer Control Research Program, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Over 3 million new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the US annually. Melanoma, a subtype of skin cancer that can be fatal if the disease is not detected and treated at an early stage, is the most common cancer for those aged 25–29 years and the second most common cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–29 years. The primary carcinogen for the genesis of skin cancers is ultraviolet light from solar radiation and tanning beds. In spite of massive health campaigns to raise public awareness on ultraviolet radiation, sun-protective practices still fall behind. A plausible explanation is the lack of behavioral change in the populations at risk; in this review article, we examine sun-protective behavior in the four high-risk skin cancer groups: skin cancer survivors, individuals with a family history of melanoma, individuals with physical characteristics associated with skin cancer risk, and organ transplantation patients. Findings in the literature demonstrate that increased knowledge and awareness does not consequently translate into behavioral changes in practice. Behavior can differ as a result of different attitudes and beliefs, depending on the population at risk. Thus, intervention should be tailored to the population targeted. A multidisciplinary health team providing consultation and education is required to influence these much needed changes.Keywords: skin cancer, melanoma, risk, prevention, behaviour
Cohen, Deborah A; Taylor, Stephanie L; Zonta, Michela; Vestal, Katherine D; Schuster, Mark A
The Surgeon General has called for an expansion of school-based extracurricular sports programs to address the obesity epidemic. However, little is known about the availability of and participation in high school extracurricular sports and how participation in these sports is related to high-risk behaviors. We surveyed Los Angeles County public high schools in 2002 to determine the number of extracurricular sports programs offered and the percentage of students participating in those programs. We used community data on rates of arrests, births, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among youth to examine associations between risk behaviors and participation in sports programs. The average school offered 14 sports programs, and the average participation rate was 39% for boys and 30% for girls. Smaller schools and schools with higher percentages of disadvantaged students offered fewer programs. The average school offering 13 or fewer programs had 14% of its students participating, while the average school offering 16 or more programs had 31% of its students participating in sports. Controlling for area-level demographics, juvenile arrest rates and teen birth rates, but not STD rates, were lower in areas where schools offered more extracurricular sports. Opportunities for participation in high school extracurricular sports are limited. Future studies should test whether increased opportunities will increase physical activity and impact the increasing overweight problem in youths.
Habib Ahmadi; Mehdi Moeini
Introduction A young population and delayed socialization for a new world order in the transitional society of Iran, has led to the development of adolescent and youth delinquency. In this context, young people who cannot direct their desires in a normal channel may turn into deviant and delinquent behaviors (Mohammadi asl, 2006: 11) . This study considers serious delinquent behaviors which are named as high-risk behaviors, namely, behaviors that increase probability of physical, psychologi...
Sjauw, Krischan D; Konorza, Thomas; Erbel, Raimund
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective multicenter registry evaluated the safety and feasibility of left ventricular (LV) support with the Impella 2.5 (Abiomed Europe GmbH, Aachen, Germany) during high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Patients with complex or high-risk coronary...... with poor LV function. The Impella 2.5, a percutaneous implantable LV assist device, might be a superior alternative to the traditionally used intra-aortic balloon pump. METHODS: The Europella registry included 144 consecutive patients who underwent a high-risk PCI. Safety and feasibility end points.......5%. Rates of myocardial infarction, stroke, bleeding requiring transfusion/surgery, and vascular complications at 30 days were 0%, 0.7%, 6.2%, and 4.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This large multicenter registry supports the safety, feasibility, and potential usefulness of hemodynamic support with Impella 2...
Bagner, Daniel M.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lester, Barry M.; Liu, Jing; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik
Objective: To examine the relationship between early parenting stress and later child behavior in a high-risk sample and measure the effect of drug exposure on the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior. Methods: A subset of child-caregiver dyads (n = 607) were selected from the Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS), which is a large…
Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Javadi
Conclusion: Among predictor variables aggression, law breaking behavior, and national religious identity can better predict driving accidents, attitude toward law, and high risk behaviors. Aggression, attitude, and law breaking behavior are considered as abnormal behaviors that lead to legal problems, delinquencies, substance abuse and other destructive behaviors among adolescents and consequently cause damage, injury and disabilities in themselves and others. Moreover, involvement in aggressive behaviors can play a critical role in creating and exacerbating new behavioral problems in adolescents, and those problems are carried over immutably at the later stages of their life.
Otten, W.; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Keulen, H. van; Janssen, J.B.; Nunen, A. van
The present report focuses on developing a comprehensive framework that guides the design of ePartners that support behavior change to promote health. An ePartner is an interactive, virtual or embodied computer assistant to which one can communicate and that assists persons through tailored advice,
Carbucicchio, Corrado; Della Bella, Paolo; Fassini, Gaetano; Trevisi, Nicola; Riva, Stefania; Giraldi, Francesco; Baratto, Francesca; Marenzi, Giancarlo; Sisillo, Erminio; Bartorelli, Antonio; Alamanni, Francesco
two patients (11%); one patient (5%) with persistent VT episodes acutely died after heart transplant. At a mean follow-up of 42 months (range 15-60 months), 5/18 patients (28%) were free from VT recurrence, 7/18 (39%) had a clear clinical improvement with reduced implantable cardioverter defibrillator interventions. 5/14 patients (36%) had ES recurrence; among them, three died because of acute heart failure. No serious CPS-related complications were observed. The CPS warrants acceptable hemodynamic stabilization and efficacious mapping in high-risk patients undergoing CA for unstable VT in the emergency setting. Safety and efficacy of this technique translate into significant clinical improvement in the majority of patients. Even if only relatively invasive, CPS should be reserved to patients with ES or intractable arrhythmia causing acute heart failure; moreover, the need for an experienced team of multidisciplinary operators implies that its use is restricted to selected high-competency institutions.
Chung, Soondool; Jeon, Haesang; Song, Ahyoung
Despite compelling evidence showing that social networks and social support are associated with depression, relatively little research is available on this topic for older Koreans at high risk of depression. This article aimed to examine the relationship among different types of social networks (family vs. friends), social support (instrumental vs. emotional), and perceived general health among older Koreans at high risk of depression. We would then test for possible differences in pathways between two age groups (60-74 years vs. 75 years and older). Using data from the 2008 Survey of Elderly Life and Welfare Need, age 60-74 years (n = 2,815) and age 75 years and older (n = 1,784) were analyzed separately. Path analyses were used to examine the relationships among social network, support, and health among Korean older adults at high risk of depression. Findings highlighted the complex associations among social networks, social support, and perceived general health within old age. Moreover, this study called attention to the negative association between instrumental support from family networks and perceived general health among older Koreans aged 60-74 years at high risk of depression. The work discussed in this article would help inform the design of much needed and effective social intervention programs for the growing number of Korean older adults with depression.
Full Text Available Tobacco taxation is an essential component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. However, to fully realize the benefits it is vital to understand the impact of increased taxes among high-risk subpopulations. Are they influenced to the same extent as the general population? Do they need additional measures to influence smoking behavior? The objectives of this study were to synthesize the evidence regarding differential effects of taxation and price on smoking in: youth, young adults, persons of low socio-economic status, with dual diagnoses, heavy/long-term smokers, and Aboriginal people. Using a better practices approach, a knowledge synthesis was conducted using a systematic review of the literature and an expert advisory panel. Experts were involved in developing the study plan, discussing findings, developing policy recommendations, and identifying priorities for future research. Most studies found that raising cigarette prices through increased taxes is a highly effective measure for reducing smoking among youth, young adults, and persons of low socioeconomic status. However, there is a striking lack of evidence about the impact of increasing cigarette prices on smoking behavior in heavy/long-term smokers, persons with a dual diagnosis and Aboriginals. Given their high prevalence of smoking, urgent attention is needed to develop effective policies for the six subpopulations reviewed. These findings will be of value to policy-makers and researchers in their efforts to improve the effectiveness of tobacco control measures, especially with subpopulations at most risk. Although specific studies are needed, tobacco taxation is a key policy measure for driving success.
Bader, Pearl; Boisclair, David; Ferrence, Roberta
Tobacco taxation is an essential component of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. However, to fully realize the benefits it is vital to understand the impact of increased taxes among high-risk subpopulations. Are they influenced to the same extent as the general population? Do they need additional measures to influence smoking behavior? The objectives of this study were to synthesize the evidence regarding differential effects of taxation and price on smoking in: youth, young adults, persons of low socio-economic status, with dual diagnoses, heavy/long-term smokers, and Aboriginal people. Using a better practices approach, a knowledge synthesis was conducted using a systematic review of the literature and an expert advisory panel. Experts were involved in developing the study plan, discussing findings, developing policy recommendations, and identifying priorities for future research. Most studies found that raising cigarette prices through increased taxes is a highly effective measure for reducing smoking among youth, young adults, and persons of low socioeconomic status. However, there is a striking lack of evidence about the impact of increasing cigarette prices on smoking behavior in heavy/long-term smokers, persons with a dual diagnosis and Aboriginals. Given their high prevalence of smoking, urgent attention is needed to develop effective policies for the six subpopulations reviewed. These findings will be of value to policy-makers and researchers in their efforts to improve the effectiveness of tobacco control measures, especially with subpopulations at most risk. Although specific studies are needed, tobacco taxation is a key policy measure for driving success.
Sacolo, Hlengiwe Nokuthula; Chung, Min-Huey; Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru
Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths.
Hlengiwe Nokuthula Sacolo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. RESULTS: The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths.
Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru
Background Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. Results The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Conclusions Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths. PMID:23861756
Full Text Available African-American adolescents experience disproportionate rates of negative consequences of substance use despite using substances at average or below-average rates. Due to underrepresentation of African-American adolescents in etiological literature, risk and protective processes associated with their substance use require further study. This study examines the role of parental support in adolescents’ conduct problems (CPs, depressive symptoms (DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use in a national sample and a high-risk sample of African-American adolescents. In both samples, parental support was inversely related to adolescent CPs, DSs, and alcohol and marijuana use. CPs, but not DSs, partially mediated the relation of parental support to substance use. Results were consistent across the national and high-risk samples, suggesting that the protective effect of parental support applies to African-American adolescents from a range of demographic backgrounds.
Raquel Guimarães Nobre
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the eating behavior and body image perception in pregnant women attending a high-risk outpatient center. Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study conducted with 28 overweight pregnant women attending the first consultation in the nutrition outpatient center of a maternity hospital in Fortaleza-CE, from December 2010 to February 2011. It has been used a pre-established form containing data on the characterization of the sample (socioeconomic, obstetric, and nutritional, the BES (Binge Eating Scale to assess binge eating and BSQ (Body Shape Questionnaire to assess the severity or absence of body image disorder. The variables were presented as mean ± standard deviation and simple frequency and percentage. The Pearson’s correlation was used to verify the relation between body image and binge eating, considering p <0.05. Results: The pregnant women studied had a mean age of 29.4 ± 6.3 years and mean gestational age of 24.6 ± 8.2 weeks. It was found a prevalence of 71.5% (n=20 of body image disorder and 17.8% (n=5 of binge eating. It was also observed a direct and significant correlation between the body image perception and the degree of binge eating (r=0.4358, p=0.020. Conclusion: The high rate of body image disorder positively related to a significant binge eating indicates an unfavorable adjustment of this group of pregnant women to alterations in weight and body shape and size, which are inherent to pregnancy, standing out as group that needs special attention by the professional team. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p256
Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Boat, Barbara W.; Putnam, Frank W.; Dates, Harold F.; Mahlman, Andrew R.
This study examined the association between ownership of high-risk ("vicious") dogs and the presence of deviant behaviors in the owners as indicated by court convictions. We also explored whether two characteristics of dog ownership (abiding licensing laws and choice of breed) could be useful areas of inquiry when assessing risk status…
Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael
Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…
Tuffaha, Haitham W; Roberts, Shelley; Chaboyer, Wendy; Gordon, Louisa G; Scuffham, Paul A
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nutritional support compared with standard care in preventing pressure ulcers (PrUs) in high-risk hospitalized patients. An economic model using data from a systematic literature review. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of nutritional support in reducing the incidence of PrUs was conducted. Modeled cohort of hospitalized patients at high risk of developing PrUs and malnutrition simulated during their hospital stay and up to 1 year. Standard care included PrU prevention strategies, such as redistribution surfaces, repositioning, and skin protection strategies, along with standard hospital diet. In addition to the standard care, the intervention group received nutritional support comprising patient education, nutrition goal setting, and the consumption of high-protein supplements. The analysis was from a healthcare payer perspective. Key outcomes of the model included the average costs and quality-adjusted life years. Model results were tested in univariate sensitivity analyses, and decision uncertainty was characterized using a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Compared with standard care, nutritional support was cost saving at AU $425 per patient and marginally more effective with an average 0.005 quality-adjusted life years gained. The probability of nutritional support being cost-effective was 87%. Nutritional support to prevent PrUs in high-risk hospitalized patients is cost-effective with substantial cost savings predicted. Hospitals should implement the recommendations from the current PrU practice guidelines and offer nutritional support to high-risk patients.
Sheri D Weiser
Full Text Available In Botswana, an estimated 24% of adults ages 15-49 years are infected with HIV. While alcohol use is strongly associated with HIV infection in Africa, few population-based studies have characterized the association of alcohol use with specific high-risk sexual behaviors.We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana using a stratified two-stage probability sample design. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess correlates of heavy alcohol consumption (>14 drinks/week for women, and >21 drinks/week for men as a dependent variable. We also assessed gender-specific associations between alcohol use as a primary independent variable (categorized as none, moderate, problem and heavy drinking and several risky sex outcomes including: (a having unprotected sex with a nonmonogamous partner; (b having multiple sexual partners; and (c paying for or selling sex in exchange for money or other resources. Criteria for heavy drinking were met by 31% of men and 17% of women. Adjusted correlates of heavy alcohol use included male gender, intergenerational relationships (age gap > or =10 y, higher education, and living with a sexual partner. Among men, heavy alcohol use was associated with higher odds of all risky sex outcomes examined, including unprotected sex (AOR = 3.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 7.32, multiple partners (AOR = 3.08; 95% CI, 1.95 to 4.87, and paying for sex (AOR = 3.65; 95% CI, 2.58 to 12.37. Similarly, among women, heavy alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of unprotected sex (AOR = 3.28; 95% CI, 1.71 to 6.28, multiple partners (AOR = 3.05; 95% CI, 1.83 to 5.07, and selling sex (AOR = 8.50; 95% CI, 3.41 to 21.18. A dose-response relationship was seen between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors, with moderate drinkers at lower risk than both problem and heavy drinkers.Alcohol use is associated with multiple risks for HIV transmission among both men
Sacolo, Hlengiwe Nokuthula; Chung, Min-Huey; Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru
BACKGROUND: Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned be...
Full Text Available Children diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD may have serious behavioral problems such as aggression, self-injury, and violence. However, the literature on ASD either overrules any correlation between aggression and ASD or maintains the fact that the efforts to link them have so far been inconclusive. Although severe forms of violence are extremely rare in children with autism, there are a few cases reported in the literature with significant harm to siblings. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with ASD who caused the death of his sibling by throwing her out of the window. Shared similarities of all defenestration cases indicate a pattern of high-risk behavior threatening the survival of minors. We recommend precautions against this high-risk behavior in children with ASD.
. Conclusion Prudent measures such as access to sterile syringes, rehabilitation and opiate substitution therapies are required to reduce high risk behaviors of IDUs in Pakistan.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to understand the knowledge about AIDS, identify the correlates and determine the prevalence of HIV infection, syphilis, HCV among migrant workers in Zhejiang, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using face-to-face anonymous questionnaire interviews was conducted and blood samples were collected for HIV, syphilis and Hepatitis C infection screening. RESULTS: 17,377 (92.8% of 18,730 migrant workers approached were interviewed. Among 17,377 participants, the HIV/AIDS knowledge rate was 66.2%. A total of 12,694 (73% of the participants reported having ever had sexual intercourse, with 30.1% of single participants reporting having had sexual intercourse. Among those respondents with sexual experiences, 7.5% admitted they had two or more sexual partners and 4.9% reported having had sex with casual (unpaid partners in the previous 12 months, whilst 3.7% had paid for sex. More than half of those who had paid for sex (59.4% had not used a condom every time in their sexual acts with the sex workers. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that high risk sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner without using a condom consistently was associated with being divorced or widowed (P<0.05 for single; male gender; shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang; working in factory, market or domestic service (P<0.05 for odd job; having a province of origin inside Zhejiang; and drug use. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were 0.02% (95% CI: 0.01%-0.06% and 0.40% (95%CI: 0.31%-0.51%, respectively. The prevalence of syphilis among those who were sexually active was 0.55% (95% CI: 0.43%-0.70%. Risk factors for syphilis included shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang, ethnic minority status, being divorced or widowed and having had multiple sex partners. CONCLUSIONS: Much greater efforts are needed to promote safer sex, and programs for the control of syphilis need to be tailored for migrant
Narimani, Mohammad; Abbasi, Moslem; Abolghasemi, Abbas; Ahadi, Batoul
Now a days the utilization of Acceptance / Commitment and Emotion Regulation Strategy as a comprehensive treatment plan has been discussed in both the prevention and the control of destructive and risky behaviors. Treatment based on Acceptance/Commitment and Emotion Regulation was effective in both the improvement and the control of high-risk behaviors of students with dyscalculia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment, and Emotional Regulation training in high-risk behaviors of students with dyscalculia. This research was experimental, with pre-test, post-test and a control group. The statistical universe of this study included all sixth-grade male students in Ardabil city in the academic year of 2012-2013 (A.H.). The subjects of this study involved 800 sixth-grade elementary students in Ardabil province, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling. From among them, 60 students with dyscalculia were selected using random sampling method after the initial diagnosis by structured clinical interview and the Keymath Mathematic test. Twenty pupil were selected for either the experimental or the control group. To collect data, the questionnaires of "Keymath Mathematic test" and High-risk Behavior" were used. The results of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed that "Acceptance / Commitment and Emotion Regulation" treatment trainings were effective in reducing high-risk behaviors, in a manner that they led to a reduction in negative emotions, self-destructive and impulsive behaviors of students with math disorder (dyscalculia). It can be concluded that teaching these skills to the students has been influential in enhancing awareness level and change or positive attitude creation in the subjects. Therefore, it is essential to design and implement interventions based on "prevention caused by the peer group, in collaboration with the parents either at the school or at home among the family members".
Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis
High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…
Full Text Available Background: Drug addiction is one of the social health problems at the present century. The high risk sexual behaviors as well as drug abusing are factors of sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center. Methods: In this descriptive study, 76 women who have referred to Niloofar de-addiction center in Kermanshah-Western Iran, were recruited using convenience sampling method. Questionnaire was completed by all subjects and blood sample were taken to determine Hepatitis B, Syphilis, and Herpes simplex virus infection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t- test, Chi-2 and the Fisher exact test. Results: The mean age of women was 35.22±0.99 year. 51.3% of subjects were illiterate and 48.7% were supported by social welfare system. There were not common needle using and multiple sexual contacts in the subjects. None of the subjects had positive test for hepatitis B and syphilis but HSV antibody was determined in 91.6% of subjects.Conclusion: In this study, high-risk behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases were less than expected. This study was carried out in a state governmental clinic, future studies in different populations of addicted women referred to prison and private sectors are recommended.
O'Brien, Mary P; Miklowitz, David J; Candan, Kristin A; Marshall, Catherine; Domingues, Isabel; Walsh, Barbara C; Zinberg, Jamie L; De Silva, Sandra D; Woodberry, Kristen A; Cannon, Tyrone D
This study investigated whether family focused therapy (FFT-CHR), an 18-session intervention that consisted of psychoeducation and training in communication and problem solving, brought about greater improvements in family communication than enhanced care (EC), a 3-session psychoeducational intervention, among individuals at clinical high risk for developing psychosis. This study was conducted within a randomized controlled trial across 8 sites. We examined 10-min problem-solving discussions at baseline and 6-month reassessment among 66 adolescents and young adults and their parents. Trained coders who were blind to treatment and time of assessment achieved high levels of interrater reliability when evaluating family discussions on categories of calm-constructive and critical-conflictual behavior. Individuals at high risk and their family members who participated in FFT-CHR demonstrated greater improvement from baseline to 6-month reassessment in constructive communication and decreases in conflictual behaviors during family interactions than those in EC. Participants in FFT-CHR showed greater increases from baseline to 6 months in active listening and calm communication and greater decreases in irritability and anger, complaints and criticism, and off-task comments compared to participants in EC. These changes occurred equally in high-risk participants and their family members. A 6-month family skills training treatment can bring about significant improvement in family communication among individuals at high risk for psychosis and their parents. Future studies should examine the association between enhancements in family communication and reduced risk for the onset of psychosis among individuals at high risk. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Mital Prajapati; D.V.Bala; Hemant Tiwari
Background: Adolescence is a distinct age group (10-19 yrs) with complex needs because of physical and psychological development during puberty. Aim: To evaluate adolescents’ nutritional status and high risk behavior. Settings and design: A Cross Sectional study was conducted in West Zone of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, Gujarat. Methods & Material: 401 students (10-19years) from 10 schools and colleges surveyed using pretested questionnaire ab...
Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth
Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…
Almond, Christopher S D; Chen, Eric A; Berman, Michael R; Less, Joanne R; Baldwin, J Timothy; Linde-Feucht, Sarah R; Hoke, Tracey R; Pearson, Gail D; Jenkins, Kathy; Duncan, Brian W; Zuckerman, Bram D
Pediatric mechanical circulatory support is a critical unmet need in the United States. Infant- and child-sized ventricular assist devices are currently being developed largely through federal contracts and grants through the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Human testing and marketing of high-risk devices for children raises epidemiologic and regulatory issues that will need to be addressed. Leaders from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), NHLBI, academic pediatric community, and industry convened in January 2006 for the first FDA Workshop on the Regulatory Process for Pediatric Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices. The purpose was to provide the pediatric community with an overview of the federal regulatory process for high-risk medical devices and to review the challenges specific to the development and regulation of pediatric mechanical circulatory support devices. Pediatric mechanical circulatory support present significant epidemiologic, logistic, and financial challenges to industry, federal regulators, and the pediatric community. Early interactions with the FDA, shared appreciation of challenges, and careful planning will be critical to avoid unnecessary delays in making potentially life-saving devices available for children. Collaborative efforts to address these challenges are warranted.
Johnston, J. M.; Foxx, R. M.; Jacobson, J. W.; Green, G.; Mulick, J. A.
This article reviews the origins and characteristics of the positive behavior support (PBS) movement and examines those features in the context of the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA). We raise a number of concerns about PBS as an approach to delivery of behavioral services and its impact on how ABA is viewed by those in human services. We…
Shehadeh, Nancy; Virginia McCoy, H; Rubens, Muni; Batra, Anamica; Renfrew, Roderick; Winter, Kelly
Among migrant workers (MWs) in the US, HIV/AIDS prevalence may be as high as 13.5%. This serial cross-sectional study examines associations between Ethnic Identity (EI) in African American and Hispanic MWs and short-term changes in high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline and 3-month follow-up data was collected from a larger HIV intervention study among MWs in Immokalee, Florida (n = 119) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess EI. A high EI score indicates less acculturation to one's new surroundings. Females had higher levels of positive behavior change. Lower EI was associated with higher levels of positive change in relation to HIV/AIDS risk behavior. Among Hispanics, education was negatively correlated with EI. Education was a predictor of behavior change. Future interventions should focus on reducing acculturation stress, which may prompt harmful coping behaviors, such as high-risk sex and substance abuse.
According to a Durex Sheik online survey of Panama City Beach, Florida, spring breakers, college students are actually less sexually active during spring break than they are back on campus, despite long-standing perceptions to the contrary. That's the good news. The bad news is that those having sex at spring break are more likely to be doing so with several different partners and less likely to be using condoms than they are back at school. The survey of 664 college students, who responded via beach side computers hooked up to the Internet, showed that 36% of spring breakers hadn't had any sexual encounters during their week at the beach vs. 23% who said they had no such encounters during a typical week at school. 23% said they had one encounter per week during spring break, while 18% had two or three liaisons, 9% had four or five, and 13% had more than five. A closer look at those who had more than five partners per week reveals even more startling figures: 47% said they did not use a condom during any of their encounters during spring break vs. 23% for all spring breakers and 15% for those who were with only one partner. And among those who had more than five partners and for whom alcohol was involved in all of their encounters, a shocking 74% didn't use condoms. "We conducted this survey to better understand sexual attitudes and behavior at spring break," said Catherine Taylor, Durex. "What we found is a small but dangerous group of individuals who are engaging in very risky behavior, supporting the belief that we need to talk to young adults in their own language to teach them how condoms can be a normal part of a healthy intimate relationship." To normalize the acceptance of condoms, two 7-foot-tall Durex condom characters handed out 70,000 free Durex Sheik condom samples in Panama City Beach. Durex Sheik also hosted an event with MTV "Singled Out" star Carmen Electra and conducted a hands-on game in which contestants, racing against the clock, slipped
Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander
Alcohol use among underage youth has a major impact on public health, accidents, fatalities, and other problem behaviors. In Israel, alcohol use, binge drinking, and related problem behaviors are a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine underserved and underreported Ethiopian origin youth by comparing their substance use patterns and behavior with other high-risk youth. Data were collected from a purposive sample of boys of Ethiopian, former Soviet Union, and Israeli origin who were receiving treatment for drug use. Youth were asked to complete a simply worded self-report questionnaire developed for monitoring substance use and related problem behaviors. Ethiopian youth reported higher rates of family unemployment and public welfare dependence, last 30-day consumption of beer and hard liquor, serious fighting, and achievement decline when in school compared with the other youths. Findings highlight the need for ethno-cultural specific prevention and intervention efforts and further research of this high-risk, underserved group of immigrant origin youth.
Dennis, C-L; Hodnett, E; Kenton, L; Weston, J; Zupancic, J; Stewart, D E; Kiss, A
To evaluate the effectiveness of telephone based peer support in the prevention of postnatal depression. Multisite randomised controlled trial. Seven health regions across Ontario, Canada. 701 women in the first two weeks postpartum identified as high risk for postnatal depression with the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and randomised with an internet based randomisation service. Proactive individualised telephone based peer (mother to mother) support, initiated within 48-72 hours of randomisation, provided by a volunteer recruited from the community who had previously experienced and recovered from self reported postnatal depression and attended a four hour training session. Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, structured clinical interview-depression, state-trait anxiety inventory, UCLA loneliness scale, and use of health services. After web based screening of 21 470 women, 701 (72%) eligible mothers were recruited. A blinded research nurse followed up more than 85% by telephone, including 613 at 12 weeks and 600 at 24 weeks postpartum. At 12 weeks, 14% (40/297) of women in the intervention group and 25% (78/315) in the control group had an Edinburgh postnatal depression scale score >12 (chi(2)=12.5, P<0.001; number need to treat 8.8, 95% confidence interval 5.9 to 19.6; relative risk reduction 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.24 to 0.62). There was a positive trend in favour of the intervention group for maternal anxiety but not loneliness or use of health services. For ethical reasons, participants identified with clinical depression at 12 weeks were referred for treatment, resulting in no differences between groups at 24 weeks. Of the 221 women in the intervention group who received and evaluated their experience of peer support, over 80% were satisfied and would recommend this support to a friend. Telephone based peer support can be effective in preventing postnatal depression among women at high risk. ISRCTN 68337727.
Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.
Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…
Simeonova, Diana I; Lee, Frances J; Walker, Elaine F
This is the first study to investigate whether positive family history (FH) of psychosis and affective disorders moderates the relationship between child diagnostic status and parent-reported social and behavioral problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in clinical high-risk adolescents. This longitudinal investigation assessed 122 participants (mean age=14.25±1.8years) from three groups (at-risk, other personality disorders, non-psychiatric controls) at baseline and one year follow-up. As predicted, there was a main effect of FH for a number of CBCL scales indicating higher scores for adolescents with positive FH. The findings also demonstrate a significant Diagnostic Status×Family History interaction for several behavioral scales providing support for FH as a concurrent and longitudinal moderator of the relationship between diagnostic status and CBCL scales. The moderating effect is present for areas of functioning associated with depression, anxiety, social adjustment, thought problems, attention problems, and aggressive behavior. The findings also indicate that both positive and negative symptoms are related to the genetic vulnerability for developing psychosis in clinical high-risk individuals, particularly those symptoms reflective of emotional, attentional, and interpersonal functioning. The present findings are novel and have significant clinical and research implications. This investigation provides a platform for future studies to clarify further the role of FH in clinical high-risk individuals and contributes to integration of this knowledge in the development of early intervention and prevention approaches in at-risk populations for the emergence of severe mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pear, Veronica A; Petito, Lucia C; Abrams, Barbara
A history of adversity in childhood is associated with cigarette smoking in adulthood, but there is less evidence for prenatal and next-generation offspring smoking. We investigated the association between maternal history of childhood adversity, pregnancy smoking, and early initiation of smoking in offspring, overall and by maternal race/ethnicity. Data on maternal childhood exposure to physical abuse, household alcohol abuse, and household mental illness, prenatal smoking behaviors, and offspring age of smoking initiation were analyzed from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, n = 2999 mothers) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults Survey (NLSYCYA, n = 6596 children). Adjusted risk ratios were estimated using log-linear regression models. We assessed multiplicative interaction by race/ethnicity for all associations and a three-way interaction by maternal exposure to adversity and race/ethnicity for the association between prenatal and child smoking. Maternal exposure to childhood physical abuse was significantly associated with 39% and 20% increased risks of prenatal smoking and child smoking, respectively. Household alcohol abuse was associated with significantly increased risks of 20% for prenatal smoking and 17% for child smoking. The prenatal smoking-child smoking relationship was modified by maternal exposure to household alcohol abuse and race. There were increased risks for Hispanic and white/other mothers as compared to the lowest risk group: black mothers who did not experience childhood household alcohol abuse. Mothers in this national sample who experienced adversity in childhood are more likely to smoke during pregnancy and their offspring are more likely to initiate smoking before age 18. Findings varied by type of adversity and race/ethnicity. These findings support the importance of a life-course approach to understanding prenatal and intergenerational smoking, and suggest that maternal early-life history is a potentially
den Braver, N R; de Vet, E; Duijzer, G; Ter Beek, J; Jansen, S C; Hiddink, G J; Feskens, E J M; Haveman-Nies, A
Although there are many effective lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevention, insight into effective intervention pathways, especially of long-term interventions, is often lacking. This study aims to provide insight into the effective intervention pathways of the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention using mediation analyses. In total, 240 participants at increased risk of T2DM were included in the analyses over 18 months. The intervention was a combined lifestyle intervention with a dietary and a physical activity (PA) component. The primary and secondary outcomes were change in fasting insulin (pmol/L) and change in body weight (kg) after 18 months, respectively. Firstly, in a multiple mediator model, we investigated whether significant changes in these outcomes were mediated by changes in dietary and PA behavior. Secondly, in multiple single mediator models, we investigated whether changes in dietary and PA behavior were mediated by changes in behavioral determinants and the participants' psychological profile. The mediation analyses used linear regression models, where significance of indirect effects was calculated with bootstrapping. The effect of the intervention on decreased fasting insulin was 40% mediated by change in dietary and PA behavior, where dietary behavior was an independent mediator of the association (34%). The effect of the intervention on decreased body weight was 20% mediated by change in dietary and PA behavior, where PA behavior was an independent mediator (17%). The intervention significantly changed intake of fruit, fat from bread spread, and fiber from bread. Change in fruit intake was mediated by change in action control (combination of consciousness, self-control, and effort), motivation, self-efficacy, intention, and skills. Change in fat intake was mediated by change in action control and psychological profile. No mediators could be identified for change in fiber intake. The change in PA behavior was mediated
Full Text Available The identification of individuals at high risk of developing psychosis is entirely based on clinical assessment, associated with limited predictive potential. There is therefore increasing interest in the development of biological markers that could be used in clinical practice for this purpose. We studied 25 individuals with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis and 25 healthy controls using structural MRI, and functional MRI in conjunction with a verbal memory task. Data were analysed using a standard univariate analysis, and with Support Vector Machine (SVM, a multivariate pattern recognition technique that enables statistical inferences to be made at the level of the individual, yielding results with high translational potential. The application of SVM to structural MRI data permitted the identification of individuals at high risk of psychosis with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 76%, resulting in an accuracy of 72% (p<0.001. Univariate volumetric between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, the univariate fMRI analysis identified between-group differences (p<0.05 corrected while the application of SVM to the same data did not. Since SVM is well suited at identifying the pattern of abnormality that distinguishes two groups, whereas univariate methods are more likely to identify regions that individually are most different between two groups, our results suggest the presence of focal functional abnormalities in the context of a diffuse pattern of structural abnormalities in individuals at high clinical risk of psychosis.
Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis is a worldwide sexually transmitteddisease (STD, and is associated with important publichealth problems, including enhancement of HIV transmission.The prevalence of the parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis, dependson host factors such as age, sexual activity, number ofsexual partners and sexual behavior. The aim of the study wasto evaluate the prevalence of trichomoniasis in high-risk behaviorwomen, such as drug addicts and those who had multiplesexual partners, attending Gynecology Clinics in penitentiariesof Tehran province to help gynecologists with the diagnosisand treatment of the disease.Methods: Samples of posterior vaginal fornix discharges andurines of 450 women attending Gynecology Clinics of three prisonsin Tehran province were collected. All samples were examinedby direct smear and cultured in TYI-S-33 culture media.Results: 10.2% of subjects were positive for trichomoniasis.82.7% of infected patients were symptomatic individuals whocomplained of vaginal discharge and itching and/or burningsensation. Most of the infected women in the high risk behaviorgroup were drug users (54.3%. Physical examinationshowed that 50% of T. vaginalis positive subjects had a normalappearance of vagina and cervix. The peak prevalence (32.8%of the disease occurred in the age range of 31-40 years.Conclusion: T. vaginalis infection is commonly associatedwith other STDs, and is a marker of high-risk sexual behavior.Due to the side effects of the drugs used to treat the infection,it is suggested that the treatment be performed after definitediagnosis using a diagnostic method with a higher sensitivity.
Harris, Keith M; McLean, John P; Sheffield, Jeanie
To assist suicide prevention we need a better understanding of how suicidal individuals act in their environment, and the online world offers an ideal opportunity to examine daily behaviors. This anonymous survey (N = 1,016) provides first-of-its-kind empirical evidence demonstrating suicide-risk people (n = 290) are unique in their online behaviors. Suicidal users reported more time online, greater likelihood of developing online personal relationships, and greater use of online forums. In addition, suicide-risk women reported more time browsing/surfing and social networking. The authors conclude that suicide prevention efforts should respond to suicide-risk users' greater demands for online interpersonal communications.
Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.
A model of problematic adolescent behavior that expands current theories of social skill deficits in delinquent behavior to consider both social skills and orientation toward the use of adaptive skills was examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 113 male and female adolescents. Adolescents were selected on the basis of moderate to serious risk for difficulties in social adaptation in order to focus on the population of youth most likely to be targeted by prevention efforts. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-sectional data using multiple informants (adolescents, peers, and parents) and multiple methods (performance test and self-report). Adolescent social orientation, as reflected in perceived problem solving effectiveness, identification with adult prosocial values, and self-efficacy expectations, exhibited a direct association to delinquent behavior and an indirect association to drug involvement mediated by demonstrated success in using problem solving skills. Results suggest that the utility of social skill theories of adolescent problem behaviors for informing preventive and remedial interventions can be enhanced by expanding them to consider adolescents’ orientation toward using the skills they may already possess. PMID:16929380
Dembo, Richard; Sullivan, Christopher
We report the results of a parallel-process, latent growth model analysis examining the relationships between cocaine use and delinquent behavior among youths. The study examined a sample of 278 justice-involved juveniles completing at least one of three follow-up interviews as part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded study. The results…
Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Blockeel, Christophe; Tremellen, Kelton P
Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?......Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?...
Adolescents are at higher risk for suicide attempts than other age groups. Suicide is now the second leading cause of death in the United States for ages 12 to 18; moreover, the risk of suicide is significantly higher for adoptive teens. In fact, adoptive teenagers have a four times higher rate of suicide attempts than biological children, perhaps due to the underlying nature of adoption, which can involve a pervasive sense of grief and loss for the adoptee. Unresolved anger and sadness from feelings of abandonment-especially when transitioning to adolescence-can cause a seemingly functional child to dissociate through self-harm and eventually demonstrate suicidal behavior. Little evidence-based research exists on the risk factors for adoptive teens who resort to suicidal behavior. Thus, it is vitally important for school nurses to understand the emotional stressors that adolescent adoptees face throughout life to help identify teens at risk for suicide. School districts and registered nurses are well positioned to address this critical health issue through education, assessment, and intervention.
Sheri D Weiser
Full Text Available Both food insufficiency and HIV infection are major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa, yet the impact of food insufficiency on HIV risk behavior has not been systematically investigated. We tested the hypothesis that food insufficiency is associated with HIV transmission behavior.We studied the association between food insufficiency (not having enough food to eat over the previous 12 months and inconsistent condom use, sex exchange, and other measures of risky sex in a cross-sectional population-based study of 1,255 adults in Botswana and 796 adults in Swaziland using a stratified two-stage probability design. Associations were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses, clustered by country and stratified by gender. Food insufficiency was reported by 32% of women and 22% of men over the previous 12 months. Among 1,050 women in both countries, after controlling for respondent characteristics including income and education, HIV knowledge, and alcohol use, food insufficiency was associated with inconsistent condom use with a nonprimary partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-2.36, sex exchange (AOR 1.84, 95% CI 1.74-1.93, intergenerational sexual relationships (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.08, and lack of control in sexual relationships (AOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.24-2.28. Associations between food insufficiency and risky sex were much attenuated among men.Food insufficiency is an important risk factor for increased sexual risk-taking among women in Botswana and Swaziland. Targeted food assistance and income generation programs in conjunction with efforts to enhance women's legal and social rights may play an important role in decreasing HIV transmission risk for women.
Full Text Available HIV transmission in rural areas of China is being fueled in part by migrant workers who acquire HIV outside of their hometowns. Recent surveillance statistics indicate that HIV prevalence among returning migrants has increased significantly.We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among migrant returnees in Nantong, Jiangsu Province, one of the largest exporters of migrant laborers.A total of 1625 subjects were enrolled with a response rate of 89%. All participants were male and of the majority Han ethnicity. The mean age was 39.0 years (SD = 6.7; range: 18 to 63, and most had a stable partner (N = 1533, 94.3%. Most correctly identified the major modes of HIV transmission (68.9%-82.0%, but fewer were able to identify ways that HIV cannot be transmitted. Nearly one-third of participants held positive attitudes toward having multiple sex partners, and nearly half believed that sex work should be legalized. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that risky sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner was associated with no stable partner; working abroad; correct condom use; age <22 at first sex; higher coital frequency; and having a positive attitude towards multiple sex partners.We found high levels of reported sex with a casual or commercial sex partner and low levels of consistent condom use. HIV prevention interventions among migrant workers need to focus on younger migrants, migrants without stable partners, and migrants who travel abroad for work.
Cartledge, Susie; Bray, Janet E; Leary, Marion; Stub, Dion; Finn, Judith
Targeting basic life support (BLS) training to bystanders who are most likely to witness an out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is an important public health intervention. We performed a systematic review examining the evidence of the effectiveness of providing BLS training to family members of high-risk cardiac patients. A search of Ovid MEDLINE, CINAL, EMBASE, Informit, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global was conducted. We included all studies training adult family members of high-risk cardiac patients regardless of methods used for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or BLS training. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of evidence using GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation). We included 26 of the 1172 studies identified. The majority of studies were non-randomised controlled trials (n=18), of very low to moderate quality. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to indicate a benefit of this intervention for patients; largely because of low numbers of OHCA events and high loss to follow-up. However, the majority of trained individuals were able to competently perform BLS skills, reported a willingness to use these skills and experienced lower anxiety. Whilst there is no current evidence for improvement in patient outcomes from targeted BLS training for family members, this group are willing and capable to learn these skills. Future research may need to examine longer periods of follow-up using alternate methods (e.g. cardiac arrest registries), and examine the effectiveness of training in the modern era. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: African-American women are affected by disproportionately high rates of violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. It is imperative to address the intersection of these two urgent public health issues, particularly as these affect African-American adolescent girls. This study assessed the prevalence of rape victimization (RV among a sample of African-American adolescent females and examined the extent to which participants with a history of RV engage in STI/HIV associated risk behaviors over a 12-month time period.Methods: Three hundred sixty-seven African-American adolescent females ages 15-21, seeking sexual health services at three local teenager-oriented community health agencies in an urban area of the Southeastern United States, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI at baseline, six- and 12-month follow-up. We assessed sociodemographics, history of RV and sexual practices. At baseline, participants indicating they had experienced forced sex were classified as having a history of RV.Results: Twenty-five percent of participants reported a history of RV at baseline. At six- and 12-months, victims of RV had significantly lower proportions of condom-protected sex (p=.008, higher frequency of sex while intoxicated (p=.005, more inconsistent condom use (p=.008, less condom use at last sex (p=.017, and more sex partners (p=.0001 than non-RV victims. Over the 12-month follow-up period, of those who did not report RV at baseline, 9.5% reported that they too had experienced RV at some point during the 12-month time frame.Conclusion: African-American adolescent females who experience RV are engaging in more risky sexual behaviors over time than non-RV girls, thereby placing themselves at higher risk for contracting STIs. In light of the results from this unique longitudinal study, we discuss considerations for
Ranney, Megan L; Choo, Esther K; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Spirito, Anthony; Thorsen, Margaret; Mello, Michael J; Morrow, Kathleen
To elucidate key elements surrounding acceptability/feasibility, language, and structure of a text message-based preventive intervention for high-risk adolescent females. We recruited high-risk 13- to 17-year-old females screening positive for past-year peer violence and depressive symptoms, during emergency department visits for any chief complaint. Participants completed semistructured interviews exploring preferences around text message preventive interventions. Interviews were conducted by trained interviewers, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. A coding structure was iteratively developed using thematic and content analysis. Each transcript was double coded. NVivo 10 was used to facilitate analysis. Saturation was reached after 20 interviews (mean age 15.4; 55% white; 40% Hispanic; 85% with cell phone access). (1) Acceptability/feasibility themes: A text-message intervention was felt to support and enhance existing coping strategies. Participants had a few concerns about privacy and cost. Peer endorsement may increase uptake. (2) Language themes: Messages should be simple and positive. Tone should be conversational but not slang filled. (3) Structural themes: Messages may be automated but must be individually tailored on a daily basis. Both predetermined (automatic) and as-needed messages are requested. Dose and timing of content should be varied according to participants' needs. Multimedia may be helpful but is not necessary. High-risk adolescent females seeking emergency department care are enthusiastic about a text message-based preventive intervention. Incorporating thematic results on language and structure can inform development of future text messaging interventions for adolescent girls. Concerns about cost and privacy may be able to be addressed through the process of recruitment and introduction to the intervention. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Patel, Sweta; Siddiq, Ashraf Uddin; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Khan, Ashraful I.; Saha, Amit; Cravioto, Alejandro; Clemens, John; Qadri, Firdausi; Ali, Mohammad
Diarrhea remains one of the major causes of death in Bangladesh. We studied diarrheal disease risk and healthcare seeking behavior among populations at high risk for diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey conducted during April and September 2010. The prevalence of diarrhea was calculated by age-group and sex. A generalized estimating equation with logit link function was used to predict diarrheal disease risk and seeking care from a professional healthcare provider. Of 316,766 individuals, 10% were young children (Bangladesh. Dissemination of information on health education, increasing the supply of skilled healthcare providers, and low-cost and quality healthcare services may encourage more people to seek care from professional healthcare providers, thus may help reduce child mortality in the country. Further studies are warranted to validate the results. PMID:26121650
Full Text Available Hydropower project construction is a high-risk operation, where accidents occur frequently. Moreover, the factors leading to accidents are often human factors, so safety evaluation of these factors for the hydropower projects’ work system is very significant. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS framework is applied to build evaluation system. In the evaluation process, correlation analysis is used to form the intercriteria analysis matrix that helps the decision makers to build impact relation matrix. Factor weights are calculated by the Analytic Network Process (ANP. In the index value determination step, the evidence theory is used to eliminate the conflicts of three decision makers and the index values are then calculated. The faulty behavior risk (FBR assessment value is finally obtained. The proposed method is practical and its applicability is proved by an example.
Hoebe Christian JPA
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CT is the most prevalent bacterial STD. Sexually active adolescents and young adults are the main risk group for CT. However, STD testing rates in this group are low since exposed individuals may not feel at risk, owing-at least in part-to the infection's largely asymptomatic nature. Designing new testing environments that are more appealing to young people who are most at risk of acquiring chlamydia can be an important strategy to improve overall testing rates. Here we evaluate the effect of a school-based sexual health program conducted among vocational school students, aiming to obtain better access for counseling and enhance students' STD testing behavior. Methods Adolescents (median age 19 years attending a large vocational school were provided with sexual health education. Students filled in a questionnaire measuring CT risk and were offered STD testing. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we assessed differences between men and women in STD-related risk behavior, sexual problems, CT testing behavior and determinants of CT testing behavior. Results Of 345 participants, 70% were female. Of the 287 sexually active students, 75% were at high risk for CT; one third of women reported sexual problems. Of sexually active participants, 61% provided a self-administered specimen for STD testing. Independent determinants for testing included STD related symptoms and no condom use. All CT diagnoses were in the high-CT-risk group. In the high-risk group, STD testing showed an increased uptake, from 27% (previous self-reported test to 65% (current test. CT prevalence was 5.7%. Conclusions Vocational school students are a target population for versatile sexual health prevention. When provided with CT testing facilities and education, self selection mechanisms seemed to increase CT testing rate dramatically in this high-CT-risk population expressing sexual problems. Considering the relative ease
Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Dabroski, Alexis; Aveyard, Paul; Markham, Wolfgang A
We examined whether schools achieving better than expected educational outcomes for their students influence the risk of drug use and delinquency among urban, racial/ethnic minority youth. Adolescents (n = 2,621), who were primarily African American and Hispanic and enrolled in Chicago public schools (n = 61), completed surveys in 6th (aged 12) and 8th (aged 14) grades. Value-added education was derived from standardized residuals of regression equations predicting school-level academic achievement and attendance from students' sociodemographic profiles and defined as having higher academic achievement and attendance than that expected given the sociodemographic profile of the schools' student composition. Multilevel logistic regression estimated the effects of value-added education on students' drug use and delinquency. After considering initial risk behavior, value-added education was associated with lower incidence of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use; stealing; and participating in a group-against-group fight. Significant beneficial effects of value-added education remained for cigarette and marijuana use, stealing and participating in a group-against-group fight after adjustment for individual- and school-level covariates. Alcohol use (past month and heavy episodic) showed marginally significant trends in the hypothesized direction after these adjustments. Inner-city schools may break the links between social disadvantage, drug use and delinquency. Identifying the processes related to value-added education in order to improve school environments is warranted given the high costs associated with individual-level interventions.
A controversy has emerged about the relationship between positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis. Some behavior analysts suggest that positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis are the same (e.g., Carr & Sidener, 2002). Others argue that positive behavior support is harmful to applied behavior analysis (e.g., Johnston,…
Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W
A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.
Hoeller, Ulrike; Heide, Juergen; Kroeger, Nicolaus; Krueger, William; Jaenicke, Fritz; Alberti, Winfried
Purpose: To assess the toxicity and efficacy of radiotherapy with respect to locoregional control after adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy for patients with breast cancer. At first, radiotherapy was withheld because of toxicity concerns, but it was introduced in 1995 because of reported high locoregional relapse rates. Methods and Materials: Between 1992 and 1998, 40 patients with Stage II-III high-risk breast cancer received adjuvant high-dose chemotherapy consisting of thiotepa, mitoxantrone, and cyclophosphamide and peripheral blood stem cell support after four cycles of induction chemotherapy. The chest wall or breast, as well as the supraclavicular nodes, were irradiated with electrons and photons to a median dose of 50.4 Gy in 20 patients. Six additional patients received only supraclavicular irradiation to a median dose of 50.4 Gy. Acute toxicity was scored clinically. Pulmonary function tests were performed in 14 irradiated patients before high-dose chemotherapy and 1.1-4.4 years (median 1.6) after irradiation. The median follow-up time of living patients was 33 vs. 67 months in irradiated (n=26) and nonirradiated (n=14) patients, respectively. Results: G2 and G3 hematologic toxicity occurred in 1 patient each. No clinical pneumonitis or clinical impairment of lung function was observed. After 1-2 years, the lung function tests showed only minor changes in 4 patients. The 3-year locoregional control rate was 92% in the irradiated patients vs. 58% in the nonirradiated patients (p=0.049, actuarial analysis). Conclusion: In this series, adjuvant radiotherapy after adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer appeared well tolerated, with improved local regional control and without significant side effects. Longer follow-up and more patient accrual, as well as Phase III trials, are necessary for confirmation
Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel
Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. PMID:21856515
Ebersöhn, Liesel; Loots, Tilda; Eloff, Irma; Ferreira, Ronél
This article uses a South African case study to argue that postcolonial, emerging economy societies in transition often contain schools characterised as high risk and high need. Such schools require teachers to adapt to roles other than facilitating learning, such as psychosocial support and care, and which requires additional professional…
Full Text Available Malekshahi F1, Momen-nasab M1 1. Instructor, Department of nursing, Faculty of nursing and midwifery, Lorestan University of medical sciences Abstract Background: High risk behaviors are the most prevalent factors that endanger the health of a community. Nowadays the prevalence of high risk behaviors, especially among adolescents and young adults has created a lot of worries for human societies and despite the preventive measures of the last three decades, high risk behaviors have grown tremendousely in the world and have imposed heavy medical bills.Since prevention has been recognized to be the only way of controlling such behaviors, medical professionals should change people’s health behaviors by promoting the knowledge of the society. Among these professionals, health trainers can have an important role in increasing community knowledge for the prevention and control of high risk behaviors. Therefore, the level of their knowledge is important. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of high - risk - behavior prevetion educational program on the knowledge and atittude of school health trainers in Khoramabad in 1384. Materials and methods: The study was a quasi-experimental one. The sample of the study was all school health trainers (n=50 in Khoramabad. The data collection tool was a three-section questionnaire including questions on demographic data, knowledge, and atittude toward high risk behaviors which was prepared based on reliable information, books and papers and was used after confirming its reliability and validity. In this study the intervening variable was the high - risk - behavior prevetion educational program. The educational method in this study was a two-session workshop. The educational content emphasized on the promotion of knowledge, positive attitude toward prevetion to implement healthy behaviors which was performed by university instructors in the field. After two months of education, the post test was
Lemmers-Jansen, Imke L J; Fett, Anne-Kathrin J; Hanssen, Esther; Veltman, Dick J; Krabbendam, Lydia
Psychosis is characterized by problems in social functioning that exist well before illness onset, and in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. Trust is an essential element for social interactions that is impaired in psychosis. In the trust game, chronic patients showed reduced baseline trust, impaired response to positive social feedback, and attenuated brain activation in reward and mentalizing areas. We investigated whether first-episode psychosis patients (FEP) and CHR show similar abnormalities in the neural and behavioral mechanisms underlying trust. Twenty-two FEP, 17 CHR, and 43 healthy controls performed two trust games, with a cooperative and an unfair partner in the fMRI scanner. Region of interest analyses were performed on mentalizing and reward processing areas, during the investment and outcome phases of the games. Compared with healthy controls, FEP and CHR showed reduced baseline trust, but like controls, learned to trust in response to cooperative and unfair feedback. Symptom severity was not associated with baseline trust, however in FEP associated with reduced response to feedback. The only group differences in brain activation were that CHR recruited the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) more than FEP and controls during investment in the unfair condition. This hyper-activation in CHR was associated with greater symptom severity. Reduced baseline trust may be associated with risk for psychotic illness, or generally with poor mental health. Feedback learning is still intact in CHR and FEP, as opposed to chronic patients. CHR however show distinct neural activation patterns of hyper-activation of the TPJ.
Brotman, Laurie Miller; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Huang, Keng-Yen; Rosenfelt, Amanda; O'Neal, Colleen; Klein, Rachel G.; Shrout, Patrick
This article presents long-term effects of a preventive intervention for young children at high risk for antisocial behavior. Ninety-two children (M age = 4 years) were randomly assigned to an 8-month family intervention or no-intervention control condition and assessed 4 times over a 24-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed significant…
Saw, Yu Mon; Saw, Thu Nandar; Chan, Nyein; Cho, Su Myat; Jimba, Masamine
Methamphetamine (MA) use is a significant public health concern due to its negative effects on health. However, to date, no epidemiological research has examined high-risk sexual behaviors (inconsistent condom use, having multiple sexual partners and having a history of sexually transmitted infections) among MA users. This topic is particularly important in Myanmar, which is recognized as one of the key MA production countries in the Southeast Asia region. Therefore, this study examined factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviors among MA users in Muse city, Myanmar. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2013 in Muse city, Northern Shan State, Myanmar. In total, 1183 MA users (772 male; 411 female) were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and a computer assisted self-interviewing method. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviors. A large proportion of MA users engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors (inconsistent condom use: males, 90.7%, females, 85.2%; multiple sexual partners: males, 94.2%, females, 47.2%; and history of STIs: males, 55.7%, females, 56.0%). Among males, being a multiple stimulants drug user (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.30-2.41) and being a client of sex workers (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.08-1.83) were risk factors for engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Among females, being a migrant worker (AOR = 2.70; 95% CI = 1.86-3.93) and being employed (AOR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.13-2.18) were risk factors for engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors as well. High-risk sexual behaviors were particularly pronounced among both male and female MA users. MA prevention programs that reflect gender considerations should be developed to pay more attention to vulnerable populations such as migrants, clients of sex workers, and less educated female MA users.
Bryan, Amanda E B; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults have elevated rates of high-risk alcohol consumption compared with heterosexual adults. Although drinking tends to decline with age in the general population, we know little about LGB older adults' drinking. Using 2014 data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS), we aimed to identify factors associated with high-risk drinking in LGB older adults. A U.S. sample of 2,351 LGB adults aged 50-98 years completed a survey about personal and social experiences, substance use, and health. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify predictors of past-month high-risk alcohol consumption. Approximately one fifth (20.6%) of LGB older adults reported high-risk drinking, with nonsignificantly different rates between men (22.4%) and women (18.4%). For women, current smoking and greater social support were associated with greater likelihood of high-risk drinking; older age, higher income, recovery from addiction, and greater perceived stress were associated with lower likelihood. For men, higher income, current smoking, and greater day-to-day discrimination were associated with greater likelihood of high-risk drinking; transgender identity and recovery from addiction were associated with lower likelihood. Social contexts and perceived drinking norms may encourage higher levels of alcohol consumption in LGB older women, whereas men's drinking may be linked with discrimination-related stress. Prevention and intervention with this population should take into account gender differences and sexual minority-specific risk factors. With future waves of data, we will be able to examine LGB older adults' drinking trajectories over time. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Phillip Oliver Coffin
Full Text Available The United States is amidst an opioid epidemic, including synthetic opioids that may result in rapid death, leaving minimal opportunity for bystander rescue. We pilot tested a behavioral intervention to reduce the occurrence of opioid overdose among opioid dependent persons at high-risk for subsequent overdose.We conducted a single-blinded randomized-controlled trial of a repeated dose motivational interviewing intervention (REBOOT to reduce overdose versus treatment as usual, defined as information and referrals, over 16 months at the San Francisco Department of Public Health from 2014-2016. Participants were 18-65 years of age, had opioid use disorder by Structured Clinical Interview, active opioid use, opioid overdose within 5 years, and prior receipt of naloxone kits. The intervention was administered at months 0, 4, 8, and 12, preceded by the assessment which was also administered at month 16. Dual primary outcomes were any overdose event and number of events, collected by computer-assisted personal interview, as well as any fatal overdose events per vital records.A total of 78 persons were screened and 63 enrolled. Mean age was 43 years, 67% were born male, 65% White, 17% African-American, and 14% Latino. Ninety-two percent of visits and 93% of counseling sessions were completed. At baseline, 33.3% of participants had experienced an overdose in the past four months, with a similar mean number of overdoses in both arms (p = 0.95; 29% overdosed during follow-up. By intention-to-treat, participants assigned to REBOOT were less likely to experience any overdose (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.62 [95%CI 0.41-0.92, p = 0.019 and experienced fewer overdose events (IRR 0.46, 95%CI 0.24-0.90, p = 0.023, findings that were robust to sensitivity analyses. There were no differences between arms in days of opioid use, substance use treatment, or naloxone carriage.REBOOT reduced the occurrence of any opioid overdose and the number of overdoses
Ramdurg, Santosh; Ambekar, Atul; Lal, Rakesh
People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30) and naltrexone (n = 30) maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.
Calsyn, Donald A.; Cousins, Sarah J.; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Mandler, Raul; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Woody, George
Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high risk sexual behavior. Heterosexual men (n=505) in substance abuse treatment completed a computer administered interview assessing sexual risk behaviors. Most men (73.3%) endorsed sex under the influence in the prior 90 days, and 39.1% endorsed sex under the influence during their most recent sexual event. Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. PMID:20163383
Shrestha, Roman; Altice, Frederick L; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Karki, Pramila; Copenhaver, Michael
Evidence from recent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials has demonstrated its safety and efficacy in significantly reducing the risk of HIV acquisition for those who are at considerable risk of acquiring HIV infection. With a rapid increase in the amount of research on the efficacy of PrEP for HIV prevention, complementary research on the willingness to use PrEP has grown, especially among MSM, but limited research has been focused among people who use drugs (PWUD). As part of the formative process, we utilized the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change to characterize and guide intervention development for promoting willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD. The analysis included 400 HIV-negative high-risk PWUD enrolled in a community-based methadone maintenance treatment who reported drug- and/or sex-related HIV risk behaviors in the past 6-months. Analyses revealed support for the IMB model as PrEP-related behavioral skills were found to mediate the influence of PrEP-related information and motivation on willingness to use PrEP. The results provide evidence as to the utility of the IMB model to increase willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD. It therefore makes an important contribution to our understanding of the applicability of theoretically-grounded models of willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD, who are one of the key risk populations who could benefit from the use of PrEP.
Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQoL is measuring a patient’s experience of his health status and represents an outcome of medical interventions. Existing data proves that a healthy lifestyle is positively associated with HRQoL in all age groups. Patients with a high risk for cardiovascular disease typically led an unhealthy lifestyle combined with risk diseases. We aimed to analyse these characteristics and their reflection in HRQoL.
Alloy, Lauren B; Bender, Rachel E; Whitehouse, Wayne G; Wagner, Clara A; Liu, Richard T; Grant, David A; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Molz, Ashleigh; Choi, James Y; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Abramson, Lyn Y
A prospective, behavioral high-risk design provided a theoretically guided examination of vulnerability to first onset of bipolar spectrum disorder based on the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) model. Adolescents (ages 14-19) at an "age of risk" for bipolar disorder onset were screened on BAS sensitivity by interviewers blind to current symptoms, lifetime history, and family history of psychopathology. Participants were selected with high versus moderate levels of BAS sensitivity and administered a lifetime diagnostic interview. Those with a bipolar spectrum disorder, psychosis, or hypomanic episode with onset prior to the BAS sensitivity assessment were excluded. High BAS (n = 171) and moderate BAS (n = 119) sensitivity participants in the final sample completed baseline measures of symptoms, goal-setting, and reward responsiveness and were followed prospectively with semistructured diagnostic interviews every 6 months. Consistent with the vulnerability hypothesis of the BAS model of bipolar disorder, high BAS participants had a greater likelihood, and shorter time to onset, of bipolar spectrum disorder than moderate BAS participants across an average of 12.8 months of follow-up (12.9% vs. 4.2%), controlling for baseline depressive and hypomanic symptoms, and family history of bipolar disorder. High reward responsiveness on a behavioral task and ambitious goal-striving for popular fame and financial success (but not impulsivity) also predicted first onset of bipolar spectrum disorder controlling for the covariates and BAS risk group, and ambitious goal-striving partially mediated the BAS risk group effect. We discuss implications of the findings for the BAS model of bipolar disorder and early intervention efforts.
Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Larsen, Kim Juul
Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at high risk of suicide. The study was conducted in 2014 on a sample of 85 adolescents (90.6% females) who participated at follow-up (85.9%) out of the 99 (49.7%) baseline respondents. All adolescents were recruited from a specialized suicide-prevention clinic in Denmark. Through multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined whether baseline suicidal behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally predicted suicidal behavior at follow-up over and above suicidal behavior at baseline. Actual suicide attempts at baseline strongly predicted suicide attempts at follow-up. Baseline suicidal ideation severity and intensity did not significantly predict future actual attempts over and above baseline attempts. The suicidal ideation intensity items deterrents and duration were significant predictors of subsequent actual attempts after adjustment for baseline suicide attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, respectively. Suicidal ideation severity and intensity, and the intensity items frequency, duration and deterrents, all significantly predicted any type of suicidal behavior at follow-up, also after adjusting for baseline suicidal behavior. The present study points to an incremental predictive validity of the C-SSRS suicidal ideation scales for short-term suicidal behavior of any type among high-risk adolescents.
Full Text Available Introduction: People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30 and naltrexone (n = 30 maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. Results: The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P < 0.05 there were no significant differences among both the groups except above findings. Conclusion: Conclusion was treatment is associated with sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.
Full Text Available Background and aim Although sweepers are one of the high risk groups for HIV and HBV infections; nevertheless, there is a paucity of research into high risk behaviors of sweepers. The aim of this study was to determine occupational high risk behaviors leading to infection in sweepers who are working in district twenty, Tehran municipality. MethodsThis study is a descriptive-analytical type. A convenience sample included 400 sweepers working in district twenty, Tehran municipality were selected by simple sampling. Demographic and occupational high risk behavior lead to infection inventories were two instruments for collecting data in the present study. Reliability and validity of scales had estimated. Statistical analysis of data was performed with SPSS 16 software for Windows. Results Thirty percents of sweepers had a history of needle stick injuries and 35/5% of them had a history of cuts of hand from blades existing rubbishes. %25/5 of sweepers had not action encounter to discarded syringes and needles in streets and other places. In the case of needle stick injury occurred, 2/5 percent of sweepers were washing damaged organ with clean water, 3/8% with soap and water and 7/8% with alcohol. 0/5% of them were sent out blood of damaged organ with pressure, 11 percent reported the incident to a doctor to get post-exposure treatment and 74/5% had not action. 4/8% of sweepers never wear gloves for collecting garbage and only 54% of sweepers were using gloves regularly. 4/8% of sweepers were never using boots when collecting garbage and only 41/5% of sweepers were using boots regularly . 65 percent of sweepers reported that municipal contractors provides boots and gloves and 53 percents of them reported that these tools are unsafe and thin. Conclusion Results of this study demonstrated that there are numerous occupational high risk behaviors which may lead to infection in sweepers. Educational talks were given to sweepers and municipal
Garcia, Tracey A; Fairlie, Anne M; Litt, Dana M; Waldron, Katja A; Lewis, Melissa A
Drinking protective behavioral strategies (PBS) have been associated with reductions in alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in young adults. PBS subscales, Limiting/Stopping (LS), Manner of Drinking (MOD), and Serious Harm Reduction (SHR), have been examined in the literature; LS, MOD, and SHR have mixed support as protective factors. Understanding moderators between PBS and alcohol use and related consequences is an important development in PBS research in order to delineate when and for whom PBS use is effective in reducing harm from alcohol use. Perceptions of vulnerability to negative consequences, included in health-risk models, may be one such moderator. The current study examined whether two types of perceived vulnerability (perceived vulnerability when drinking; perceived vulnerability in uncomfortable/unfamiliar situations) moderated the relations between LS, MOD, SHR strategies and alcohol use and related negative consequences. High-risk young adults (N = 400; 53.75% female) recruited nationally completed measures of PBS, alcohol use and related consequences, and measures of perceived vulnerability. Findings demonstrated that perceived vulnerability when drinking moderated the relations between MOD strategies and alcohol use. The interactions between perceived vulnerability when drinking and PBS did not predict alcohol-related consequences. Perceived vulnerability in unfamiliar/uncomfortable social situations moderated relations between MOD strategies and both alcohol use and related negative consequences; no other significant interactions emerged. Across both perceived vulnerability types and MOD strategies, those with the highest levels of perceived vulnerability and who used MOD strategies the most had the greatest decrements in alcohol use and related negative consequences. Prevention and intervention implications are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a critical period in life, which is associated with tumultuous transitions and “storm and stress. The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between depression, anxiety, and stress with the high-risk behaviors among the adolescents in Torghabeh and Shandiz towns, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 adolescents from the high schools. Participants were selected via two-stage sampling. Data were collected using the validated Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21 and history of high-risk behaviors in the students. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16. Results:Variable degrees of depression, anxiety, and stress were reported in 43.3%, 43.3%, and 38.9% of the students, respectively. Although the difference was not statistically significant, female students were more affected by the mentioned disorders compared to the male students. Among the high-risk behaviors, smoking cigarettes was significantly correlated with the depression, anxiety, and stress subscales. In addition, a significant association was observed between opium consumption and stress. However, no significant correlation was observed between smoking hookah and the DASS-21 subscales. Regular alcohol consumption was found to be significantly correlated with the higher rate of depression in the studied adolescents. Also, premarital sexual behaviors had a significant association with the stress and depression subscales. Conclusion: Lack of attention to depression, anxiety, and stress and their risk factors in adolescents may lead to variable degrees of life dissatisfaction in the community. Therefore, it is recommended that on-school mental screening programs be performed for high-school students in order prevent these complications.
José R Banegas
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We examined physician perception of blood pressure control and treatment behavior in patients with previous cardiovascular disease and uncontrolled hypertension as defined by European Guidelines. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 321 primary care physicians throughout Spain consecutively studied 1,614 patients aged ≥18 years who had been diagnosed and treated for hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg, and had suffered a documented cardiovascular event. The mean value of three blood pressure measurements taken using standardized procedures was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Mean blood pressure was 143.4/84.9 mmHg, and only 11.6% of these cardiovascular patients were controlled according to 2007 European Guidelines for Hypertension Management target of <130/80 mmHg. In 702 (49.2% of the 1426 uncontrolled patients, antihypertensive medication was not changed, and in 480 (68.4% of these cases this was due to the physicians judgment that blood pressure was adequately controlled. In 320 (66.7% of the latter patients, blood pressure was 130-139/80-89 mmHg. Blood pressure level was the main factor associated (inversely with no change in treatment due to physician perception of adequate control, irrespective of sociodemographic and clinical factors. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians do not change antihypertensive treatment in many uncontrolled cardiovascular patients because they considered it unnecessary, especially when the BP values are only slightly above the guideline target. It is possible that the guidelines may be correct, but there is also the possibility that the care by the physicians is appropriate since BP <130/80 mmHg is hard to achieve, and recent reviews suggest there is insufficient evidence to support such a low BP target.
GILETTA, MATTEO; HASTINGS, PAUL D.; RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; BAUER, DANIEL J.; NOCK, MATTHEW K.; PRINSTEIN, MITCHELL J.
Poor physiological self-regulation has been proposed as a potential biological vulnerability for adolescent suicidality. This study tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of parasympathetic stress responses on future suicide ideation. In addition, drawing from multilevel developmental psychopathology theories, the interplay between parasympathetic regulation and friendship support, conceptualized as an external source of regulation, was examined. At baseline, 132 adolescent females (M age = 14.59, SD = 1.39) with a history of mental health concerns participated in an in vivo interpersonal stressor (a laboratory speech task) and completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms and perceived support within a close same-age female friendship. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured before and during the speech task. Suicide ideation was assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 9 months follow-up. The results revealed that females with greater relative RSA decreases to the laboratory stressor were at higher risk for reporting suicide ideation over the subsequent 9 months. Moreover, parasympathetic responses moderated the effect of friendship support on suicide ideation; among females with mild changes or higher relative increases in RSA, but not more pronounced RSA decreases, friendship support reduced risk for future suicide ideation. Findings highlight the crucial role of physiological and external regulation sources as protective factors for youth suicidality. PMID:28031059
behavioral motivation in causing long term behavior change. Albert Bandura , who states “cognitive processes play a prominent role in the acquisition...self-efficacy, which Ajzen and Bandura agree is essentially interchangeable with perceived behavioral control, because they both “are concerned with...perceived ability to perform a behavior” (Ajzen, 2002:668; Bandura , 1977:193). These two variables have shown universally applicable in studies but
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Brucellosis is among the most common zoonotic diseases. Educational programs can be effective in the prevention of this disease in humans. The present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on the Health Belief Model (HBM in the empowerment of stockbreeders against high risk behaviors associated with brucellosis in Charuymaq county, East Azerbaijan. Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2014 in Charuymaq county. A total of 200 people selected through stratified random sampling participated in the study. Data were collected using a researcher-designed questionnaire including items on participants' demographic information, knowledge and the HBM constructs. Training sessions were then designed and held for the intervention group. Three months after the intervention was held, data were collected from both groups and then analyzed using descriptive statistics including the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon test. Results: The mean scores obtained for knowledge, HBM constructs (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits and self-efficacy and brucellosis preventive behaviors showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention however, after the educational intervention, significant differences were observed between the mean scores obtained by the intervention group and the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The cooperation of charismatic individuals with intervention programs and the use of education theories can be more effective in modifying high-risk behaviors these programs should therefore be widely implemented across the country.
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.
McIntosh, Kent; Turri, Mary G.
Because of its widespread adoption and implementation (in over 13,000 schools in the US; Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, 2010), there has been increasing attention to how School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems can be sustained. Sustained implementation can be defined as "continued use of an…
Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M
This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18. Physical abuse was directly associated with risky sexual behavior in boys but not girls. For girls, physical abuse had a significant indirect effect on risky sexual behavior via externalizing symptoms. Gender-focused preventive intervention strategies may be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rulison, Kelly L; Wahesh, Edward; Wyrick, David L; DeJong, William
This study tested whether perceived parental approval of high-risk drinking is directly linked to alcohol-related outcomes or whether the link between perceived parental approval and these outcomes is mediated by perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. In fall 2009, 1,797 incoming first-year college students (49.7% female) from 142 U.S. colleges and universities completed a web-based survey before participating in an online substance use prevention program. The analytic sample included only 18- to 20-year-old freshmen students who had consumed alcohol in the past year. Students answered questions about perceived parental approval and perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. They also answered questions about their alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking, risky drinking behaviors), use of self-protective strategies (to prevent drinking and driving and to moderate alcohol use), and negative alcohol-related consequences (health, academic and work, social consequences, and drinking and driving). Mediation analyses controlling for the clustering of students within schools indicated that perceived parental approval was directly associated with more easily observable outcomes (e.g., academic- and work-related consequences, drinking and driving). Perceived friends' approval significantly mediated the link between perceived parental approval and outcomes that are less easily observed (e.g., alcohol use, health consequences). During the transition to college, parents may influence students' behaviors both directly (through communication) as well as indirectly (by shaping their values and whom students select as friends). Alcohol use prevention programs for students about to start college should address both parental and friend influences on alcohol use.
Dunlap, Glen; Carr, Edward G.; Horner, Robert H.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Schwartz, Ilene
Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s as an approach for understanding and addressing problem behaviors. PBS was derived primarily from applied behavior analysis (ABA). Over time, however, PBS research and practice has incorporated evaluative methods, assessment and intervention procedures, and conceptual perspectives associated…
Smith, Elliot J; Reitan, Oyvind; Keeble, Thomas; Dixon, Kerry; Rothman, Martin T
To investigate the safety of a novel percutaneous circulatory support device during high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The Reitan catheter pump (RCP) consists of a catheter-mounted pump-head with a foldable propeller and surrounding cage. Positioned in the descending aorta the pump creates a pressure gradient, reducing afterload and enhancing organ perfusion. Ten consecutive patients requiring circulatory support underwent PCI; mean age 71 +/- 9; LVEF 34% +/- 11%; jeopardy score 8 +/- 2.3. The RCP was inserted via the femoral artery. Hemostasis was achieved using Perclose sutures. PCI was performed via the radial artery. Outcomes included in-hospital death, MI, stroke, and vascular injury. Hemoglobin (Hb), free plasma Hb (fHb), platelets, and creatinine (cre) were measured pre PCI and post RCP removal. The pump was inserted and operated successfully in 9/10 cases (median 79 min). Propeller rotation at 10,444 +/- 1,424 rpm maintained an aortic gradient of 9.8 +/- 2 mm Hg. Although fHb increased, there was no significant hemolysis (4.7 +/- 2.4 mg/dl pre vs. 11.9 +/- 10.5 post, P = 0.04, reference 20 mg/dl). Platelets were unchanged (pre 257 +/- 74 x 10(9) vs. 245 +/- 63, P = NS). Renal function improved (cre pre 110 +/- 27 micromol/l vs. 99 +/- 28, P = 0.004). The RCP was not used in one patient following femoral introducer sheath related aortic dissection. All PCI procedures were successful with no deaths or strokes, one MI, and no vascular complications following pump removal. The RCP can be used safely in high-risk PCI patients. This device may be an alternative to other percutaneous systems when substantial cardiac support is needed. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Hudson, Angela L; Nandy, Karabi
The purpose of this study was to compare prevalence of substance use, high-risk sexual behaviors, and depression symptoms between homeless youth with and without a history of foster care placement. Approximately 26,000 young persons exit foster care annually in the United States. Once they 'age out' of foster care, however, many young persons do not have access to comprehensive health care. They also are at risk for substance abuse, homelessness, or mental illness. Because persons with a history of foster care are at risk for negative psycho-social outcomes, it is unclear if these young people might be different than homeless youth without this history. The design is descriptive and cross-sectional. A total of 156 homeless young persons, of whom 44 had a history of foster care placement, were recruited from a drop-in center that caters to homeless youth and young adults. The sample was majority male and white; ages were 16-25. Significantly higher proportion of homeless former foster youth used methamphetamine within the last six months compared to non-fostered homeless youth p = 0.03). Homeless former foster youth were significantly older (p = 0.02) and less educated (p = 0.02) than their homeless counterparts without a history of foster care placement. Prevalence of using tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, crack cocaine, and powder cocaine were similar for both groups. Although not significant, a higher proportion of homeless former foster youth reported trading sex for money or drugs compared to non-fostered, homeless youth (19% versus 12% [trading sex for money], and 26% versus 14% [trading sex for drugs], respectively. Findings from this study show that, in general, homelessness is a negative outcome, irrespective of having a foster care history. However, those with that history need continued support when transitioning to independent living, such as access to health care, and encouragement to further their education. It is important that nurses, who serve homeless
von Schuckmann, Lena A; Smithers, Bernhard M; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Beesley, Vanessa L; van der Pols, Jolieke C; Hughes, Maria B; Green, Adele C
To characterise use of support services in patients diagnosed with high-risk primary melanoma by their location of residence. In a cross-sectional study of 787 patients with histologically-confirmed clinical stage 1B-2 melanoma, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) using regression models to assess the association of support service use with residence in rural, regional or urban areas. We also evaluated demographic and clinical correlates of support service use. Among 113 rural patients, 33 (29%) used support services around time of diagnosis compared to 88 (39%) of 224 regional participants and 164 of 448 (37%) urban participants. Regional participants more commonly used support services compared to rural participants (OR 1.84; CI 1.09-3.10), but there was no association with urban versus rural residence (OR 1.32; CI 0.82-2.13). As well, females (OR 1.58; CI 1.15-2.18), those <65 years (OR 1.96; CI 1.42-2.71), or with higher education (OR 2.30; CI 1.53-3.44), or those with T-stage 4B (OR 2.69; CI 1.36-5.32) were more likely to use support services than other patients. Use of support services is lower among rural patients and other sub-groups of primary melanoma patients who have poorer prognoses than others. Implications for public health: Appropriate triage to support services is required for rural and other vulnerable patient groups to ensure optimal patient care. © 2017 The Authors.
Tuffaha, Haitham W; Roberts, Shelley; Chaboyer, Wendy; Gordon, Louisa G; Scuffham, Paul A
Pressure ulcers are a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and increased healthcare cost. Nutritional support may reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients who are at risk of pressure ulcer and malnutrition. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nutritional support in preventing pressure ulcers in high-risk hospitalised patients, and to assess the value of further research to inform the decision to implement this intervention using value of information analysis (VOI). The analysis was from the perspective of Queensland Health, Australia using a decision model with evidence derived from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resources were valued using 2014 prices and the time horizon of the analysis was one year. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate net monetary benefits (NB) and to calculate VOI measures. Compared with standard hospital diet, nutritional support was cost saving at AU$425 per patient, and more effective with an average 0.005 quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. At a willingness-to-pay of AU$50,000 per QALY, the incremental NB was AU$675 per patient, with a probability of 87 % that nutritional support is cost-effective. The expected value of perfect information was AU$5 million and the expected value of perfect parameter information was highest for the relative risk of developing a pressure ulcer at AU$2.5 million. For a future trial investigating the relative effectiveness of the interventions, the expected net benefit of research would be maximised at AU$100,000 with 1,200 patients in each arm if nutritional support was perfectly implemented. The opportunity cost of withholding the decision to implement the intervention until the results of the future study are available would be AU$14 million. Nutritional support is cost-effective in preventing pressure ulcers in high-risk hospitalised patients compared with standard diet. Future research to reduce decision uncertainty is worthwhile; however, given the
Banneheke, Hasini; Paranavitane, Sarath; Jayasuriya, Vathsala; Banneheka, Sarath
The aim of this study was to assess community knowledge and behavioral impact of the social mobilization and communication strategy applied in a dengue high-risk area in Sri Lanka. A group of adults visiting selected primary care facilities in Colombo district were interviewed to collect socio-demographic data, attributes of knowledge regarding dengue and the responsive behaviors adopted by them following the dengue control program though the media and social marketing campaigns. These attributes were classified as 'good', 'fair,' or 'poor' by developing a composite scale for analysis and interpretation of data. The primary source of information was television in the majority. The overall knowledge of the disease, vector and control methods was poor. The overall level of contribution to dengue control activities was good. Awareness of the disease and its complications had not contributed to favorable behavior changes. While the social mobilization and behavior change campaign in Sri Lanka had low impact on knowledge and behaviors, a better understating of community perceptions of DF and how these perceptions are formulated within the social and cultural context; would be useful to improve uptake. This knowledge would be valuable for program planners to strengthen dengue control activities in SL and other similar settings across the region.
King, Rachel; Barker, Joseph; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lubwama, George; Bagenda, Danstan; Lane, Tim; Opio, Alex; Hladik, Wolfgang
In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.
Full Text Available In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.
Full Text Available One of the most promising areas of modern research is speech analysis for the purpose of identifying the mental state and assessing the mental health of the speaker / writer. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in solving problems of this kind with the use of methods and tools for computer linguistics and data mining. A separate scientific problem far from its solution and, undoubtedly, requiring consolidation of the efforts of psychologists, linguists and experts in the intellectual analysis of data, is the problem of diagnosing a propensity for autoaggressive behavior (and suicide as an extreme form of it based on linguistic analysis of writing. This problem has not only theoretical, but also obvious practical significance. Using the methods of natural language processing, scientists analyze the texts (mostly English of suiciders and build models that classify the text as belonging or not belonging to the suicider, and reveal the characteristics of such texts. At the same time, if earlier mainly the fiction texts of suiciders were analyzed, then in the newest works scientists study Internet texts (blogs, tweets, Facebook posts etc. of persons who committed suicide or express their intention to commit it. The Russian language has long remained on the periphery of such studies. The article presents the results of studies aimed at identifying the linguistic features of Russian-language texts of persons who committed suicide, as well as persons prone to autoaggressive behavior. The studies used methods and techniques of corpus linguistics, computer linguistics, statistical analysis. Prospects for further research are indicated.
Linda Beatrice Mlunde
Full Text Available People who inject drugs are at risk of various infectious diseases. Despite such a risk, evidence is limited which studied the utilization of screening services for common infectious diseases among people who inject drugs in Tanzania. We aimed to examine their high-risk behaviors; utilization of screening services for HIV infection, hepatitis B/C, any other sexually transmitted infection, and tuberculosis; and their associated factors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.We conducted a baseline cross-sectional study as part of a prospective cohort study of people who inject drugs. We included 578 participants comprising of new enrollees of the integrated methadone-assisted treatment program and those who were selected from the communities but not enrolled in the program. We interviewed new enrollees preceding their enrollment and receipt of services from the program. We measured participants' high-risk behaviors and their utilization of screening services. We analyzed the data descriptively and used multiple logistic regressions to identify the factors associated with ever being screened for infectious diseases.Of 578 participants, 14.2% shared injection needles. Of 547 sexually active participants, 37.5% had multiple sexual partners and only 17.4% used a condom. Of all participants, however, only 36.0% had ever been screened for HIV infection, 18.5% for tuberculosis, 11.8% for any other sexually transmitted infection, and 11.6% for hepatitis B/C. They were more likely to have ever been screened for HIV infection if they had education levels above primary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.54, 95% CI: 1.54-4.20, had a history of transactional sex (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.01-6.84, and were new enrollees of the program (AOR: 7.41, 95% CI: 4.41-12.86.People who inject drugs practice high-risk behaviors but their utilization of screening services for infectious diseases is poor in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It is crucial to increase the coverage of screening
Erwin, Christina M; McEvoy, Claire T; Moore, Sarah E; Prior, Lindsay; Lawton, Julia; Kee, Frank; Cupples, Margaret E; Young, Ian S; Appleton, Katherine; McKinley, Michelle C; Woodside, Jayne V
Epidemiological and randomised controlled trial evidence demonstrates that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) can reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, methods used to support dietary change have been intensive and expensive. Peer support has been suggested as a possible cost-effective method to encourage adherence to a MD in at risk populations, although development of such a programme has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to use mixed-methods to determine the preferred peer support approach to encourage adherence to a MD. Qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative methods (questionnaire and preference scoring sheet) were used to determine preferred methods of peer support. Sixty-seven high CVD risk participants took part in 12 focus groups (60% female, mean age 64 years) and completed a questionnaire and preference scoring sheet. Focus group data were transcribed and thematically analysed. The mean preference score (1 being most preferred and 5 being least preferred) for group support was 1.5, compared to 3.4 for peer mentorship, 4.0 for telephone peer support and 4.0 for internet peer support. Three key themes were identified from the transcripts: 1. Components of an effective peer support group: discussions around group peer support were predominantly positive. It was suggested that an effective group develops from people who consider themselves similar to each other meeting face-to-face, leading to the development of a group identity that embraces trust and honesty. 2. Catalysing Motivation: participants discussed that a group peer support model could facilitate interpersonal motivations including encouragement, competitiveness and accountability. 3. Stepping Stones of Change: participants conceptualised change as a process, and discussed that, throughout the process, different models of peer support might be more or less useful. A group-based approach was the preferred method of peer support to encourage a population at high
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess community knowledge and behavioral impact of the social mobilization and communication strategy applied in a dengue high-risk area in Sri Lanka.Methods: A group of adults visiting selected primary care facilities in Colombo district were interviewed to collect socio-demographicdata, attributes of knowledge regarding dengue and the responsive behaviors adopted by them following the dengue control program though the media and social marketing campaigns. These attributes were classified as `good ', `fair,' or `poor' by developing a composite scale for analysis and interpretation of data.Results: The primary source of information was television in the majority. The overall knowledge of the disease, vector and control methods was poor. The overall level of contribution to dengue control activities was good.Conclusion: Awareness of the disease and its complications had not contributed to favorable behavior changes. While the social mobilization and behavior change campaign in Sri Lanka had low impact on knowledge and behaviors, a better understating of community perceptions of DF and how these perceptions are formulated within the social and cultural context; would be useful to improve uptake. This knowledge would be valuable for program planners to strengthen dengue control activities in SL and other similar settings across the region.
Ross, Scott W.; Horner, R. H.
Bullying behaviors are a growing concern in U.S. schools. We present here a behavioral approach to bully prevention utilizing a schoolwide intervention. Bully prevention in positive behavior support (BP-PBS) teaches students to withhold the social rewards hypothesized to maintain bullying. A single-subject multiple baseline design across 6 students and three elementary schools was implemented in an empirical evaluation of the intervention's effectiveness. Results indicated that implementation...
Patterson, Thomas L.; Goldenberg, Shira; Gallardo, Manuel; Lozada, Remedios; Semple, Shirley J.; Orozovich, Prisci; Abramovitz, Daniela; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Objectives To determine sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of HIV infection among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Methods 400 men aged 18 or older who had paid or traded for sex with a FSW in Tijuana during the past 4 months were recruited in Tijuana’s “zone of tolerance,” where prostitution is practiced openly under a municipal permit system. Efforts were made to balance the sample between residents of the U.S. (San Diego County) and of Mexico (Tijuana). Participants underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. Logistic regression identified correlates of HIV infection. Results Mean age was 36.6. One quarter had injected drugs within the previous 4 months. Lifetime use of heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine was 36%, 50% and 64%, respectively. Men had frequented FSWs for an average of 11 years, visiting FSWs an average of 26 times last year. In the past four months, one half reported having unprotected sex with an FSW; 46% reported frequently being high when having sex with an FSW. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia was 4%, 2%, 2.5% and 7.5%; 14.2% were positive for at least one infection. Factors independently associated with HIV infection were living in Mexico, ever using methamphetamine, living alone, and testing positive for syphilis. Conclusions Male clients of FSWs in Tijuana had a high sex and drug risk profile. While STI prevalence was lower than among FSWs, HIV prevalence was comparable, suggesting the need for interventions among clients to prevent spread of HIV and STIs. PMID:19584699
Mahoney, C A
A sample of 879 undergraduate students were recruited from a public university in western New York state during the 1993-94 academic year in order to study condom use among sexually active young people 18-24 years old. A 104-item questionnaire was administered consisting of 5 instruments and single-item measures of sexual behavior and demographics. The instruments were: the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale (CUSES), the Perceived Barriers to Condom Use, the Perceived Susceptibility to HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the Cues to Condom Action Scale, and the Perceived Norms scale. 92% of students reported having had sexual intercourse in the past, while 86.75 reported having sexual intercourse in the previous year. About 61% reported having 1 sex partner in the previous 12 months, whereas 35.2% reported having 3 or more partners. 22.4% reported 2 or more 1-night stands. 54.5% reported worrying about HIV/AIDS occasionally, while 23.1% reported doing so frequently. 17.2% (99) of the students were classified as non-users of condoms, 50.2% (289) as sporadic users, and 32.6% (188) as consistent users. 78 (12%) could not be classified. A multiple discriminant function analysis was also conducted to distinguish among the 3 condom user groups totalling 576 cases. The variables were age, gender, frequency of drunkenness during sexual intercourse, number of sex partners, and number of 1-night stands in the past 12 months, perceived barriers, worrying about HIV/AIDS, perceived susceptibility, condom use self-efficacy, and cues to condom action. Two significant functions emerged. Function 1 clearly separated the sporadic users from the consistent users (p 0.001), while Function 2 clearly separated the sporadic users from the non-users (p 0.001). The discriminating variables correctly classified 64.58% of the respondents into the 3 condom user groups. The variables were most effective at correctly classifying non-users (68.7%), consistent users (67.8%), and sporadic users (61.2%). Sporadic
economy. The World Bank has said that “corruption creates an unfavorable business environment by undermining the operation efficiency of firms and... Bank Began as ‘Ponzi Scheme,’” 11/27/2012. 64 Independent Joint Anti-Corruption Monitoring and Evaluation Committee, Unfinished Business : The Follow...HIGH RISK AREA 7: Oversight 51 HIGH-RISK AREA 8: Strategy and Planning 55 CONCLUSION HIGH RISK LIST I JANUARY 11, 2017 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM have become a high-risk group of HIV infection in China. To date, little is known regarding the behavioral, social and psychological characteristics in Chinese MSM, which makes the implementation of preventive and therapeutic strategies for this high-risk subpopulation of people extremely difficult. Methods A total of 714 questionnaires were retrieved from the database of a Chinese government-sponsored National Key Research Project titled "Risk Analysis and Strategic Prevention of HIV Transmission from MSM to the General Population in China". The respondents were categorized into a high-risk group and a control group. Their behavioral, social and psychological characteristics were comparatively analyzed. Results Of the 714 MSM analyzed, 59 (8.26% had high-risk homosexual behaviors. This sub-group of MSM had a higher in-marriage rate, a higher monthly income, heavier alcohol consumption and more serious problems with sexual abuse in childhood, intentional suicide attempts and mistaken assumption on condom's role in protecting HIV infection, as compared with the control group (P P > 0.05. A vast majority of the individuals in both behavior categories expressed support of legally protected gay clubs as well as gay marriage legislation in China. There was a strong correlation between high-risk behaviors and sexual abuse in childhood, alcohol drinking, income level and a mistaken belief in perfect HIV protection through the use of condoms. Conclusions MSM with and without high-risk homosexual behaviors have different social and psychological characteristics, which should be taken into account when implementing behavioral and therapeutic interventions aimed at preventing HIV/AIDS transmission among MSM as well as from MSM to the general population in China.
Kiene, Susan M; Lule, Haruna; Sileo, Katelyn M; Silmi, Kazi Priyanka; Wanyenze, Rhoda K
Intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and depression are key vulnerabilities for HIV in Uganda, and taken together may have a synergistic effect on risk. Our objective was to investigate the associations between depression, IPV, and alcohol use and HIV-risk indicators among a sample of outpatients in rural Uganda, and the effect of co-occurrence of these factors on HIV-risk indicators. In a structured interview we collected data on high-risk sexual behavior, depression symptoms, emotional and physical IPV, and alcohol use, as well as a blood sample for HIV and syphilis tests and a urine sample for chlamydia and gonorrhea tests from 325 male and female outpatients receiving provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) at a public hospital outpatient clinic in rural Uganda. We used logistic regression and generalized linear modeling to test independent associations between depression, IPV, and alcohol use and HIV-risk indicators, as well as the effect of co-occurrence on HIV-risk indicators. Twelve percent of men and 15% of women had two or more of the following conditions: depression, IPV, and alcohol use; another 29% of men and 33% of women had 1 condition. Each condition was independently associated with HIV risk behavior for men and women, and for women, depression was associated with testing positive for HIV or a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Men with one condition (AOR 2.32, 95% CI 1.95-2.77) and two or more conditions (AOR 12.77, 95% CI 7.97-20.47) reported more high risk sex acts compared to those with no potential co-occurring conditions. For men, experiencing two or more conditions increased risky sex more than one alone (χ 2 24.68, p risk for risky sex (AOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.64-2.91). We also found preliminary evidence suggesting synergistic effects between depression and emotional IPV and between alcohol use and depression. This study demonstrates the co-occurrence of depression, IPV, and alcohol use in men and women in an
Full Text Available The majority of the students who enroll at the Walter Sisulu University (WSU in South Africa are not equipped with the necessary academic/learning skills to cope with the university environment, especially in Mechanical Engineering. The Department of Higher Education and Training (2013, p. 17, further states that “students’ support is crucial to ensure that students adapt to the demands of college life and that they can meet the demands of college programmes”. Particularly in South Africa, the school environment might also contribute to poor student performance as a result of insufficient student support, and a lack of facilities and resources. In order to address this gap, a Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL programme was implemented to provide support targeting high-risk subjects for at-risk students in Mechanical Engineering at WSU. The programme therefore is pro-active and student-driven in that senior students assist junior students with their academic work and learning processes. The programme is designed to encourage collaborative and cooperative learning approaches during group sessions and active student engagement to support student learning (Laal & Laal, 2012. The programme requires substantial resources and time commitments. It is important from an operational, learning, and student perspective to understand in what ways the PAL programme assists students (if at all. Eliciting the experiences of students also helps the department to design interventions from a student-centred perspective using the lens of learning theories. This qualitative case study explores the student experience of the Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL programme. Open-ended questionnaires/survey from 20 first-year students elicited their perceptions and experiences of the PAL programme. Responses were analysed thematically. Findings indicated that the students had useful insights that may contribute to revising the programme. Aspects mentioned were improved study
Guo, Yanli; Wang, Dongli; Zhou, Jianbo; Chen, Shulei; Wang, Jinta; Zhen, Sen; Huan, Xiping; Yin, Yueping
To study the effects of educational background of men who have sex with men (MSM) on their high risk sexual behaviors and the HIV/STI infection rates. During July to November of 2009 and March to October of 2010, snowball and convenience sampling methods were adopted to recruit MSM from MSM venues and via the internet in Changzhou city of Jiangsu province, and finally 659 MSM were conducted a questionnaire survey and serological testing. According to the educational background of MSM, they were divided into 3 groups, that is, junior high school group (206 cases), high school group (254 cases), and university group (199 cases). The questionnaire mainly includes information on social demography, sexual behaviors, condom use, etc. Blood samples were collected for HIV and syphilis spirochete detection, and urine samples were also collected in 291 MSM who were recruited during July to November of 2009 for neisseria gonorrhoeae and chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid detection. χ(2) test and other statistical analysis methods were used to compare the characteristics of sexual behaviors and HIV/STI infections in 3 groups. Of the 659 valid questionnaires returned, junior high school group, high school group, and university group accounted for 31.3% (206 cases), 38.5% (254 cases) and 30.2% (199 cases). Places where MSM of different education levels most often to seek sexual partners, were significantly different. Junior high school group and high school group mostly went to bath house/sauna club (56.3%, 116 cases) and bar (34.8%, 88 cases) for partners, respectively, while the university group sought partners mainly through the internet (41.1%, 81 cases) (χ(2) = 99.35, P sex with men in the last 6 months, which was higher than that of high school group (67.7%, 172/254) (χ(2) = 9.74, P sex with women in the last 6 months, which was higher than that of university group (38.6%, 76/197) (χ(2) = 10.10, P sex in junior high school group (73.4%, 80/109) , high school group (78
A wide variety of neurocognitive deficits have been reported for help-seeking individuals who are at clinical or ultra high risk for psychosis based on fulfilling set criteria for prodromal syndromes\\/at risk mental states. We wished to extend this research by conducting the first population-based assessment of prodromal syndromes and associated neurocognition.
The impact of the Good Behavior Game, a universal classroom-based preventive intervention in first and second grades, on high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders into young adulthood.
Kellam, Sheppard G; Wang, Wei; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Brown, C Hendricks; Ompad, Danielle C; Or, Flora; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Poduska, Jeanne M; Windham, Amy
The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a method of teacher classroom behavior management, was tested in first- and second-grade classrooms in 19 Baltimore City Public Schools beginning in the 1985-1986 school year. The intervention was directed at the classroom as a whole to socialize children to the student role and reduce aggressive, disruptive behaviors, confirmed antecedents of a profile of externalizing problem outcomes. This article reports on the GBG impact on the courses and interrelationships among aggressive, disruptive behavior through middle school, risky sexual behaviors, and drug abuse and dependence disorders through ages 19-21. In five poor to lower-middle class, mainly African American urban areas, classrooms within matched schools were assigned randomly to either the GBG intervention or the control condition. Balanced assignment of children to classrooms was made, and teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control. Analyses involved multilevel growth mixture modeling. By young adulthood, significant GBG impact was found in terms of reduced high-risk sexual behaviors and drug abuse and dependence disorders among males who in first grade and through middle school were more aggressive, disruptive. A replication with the next cohort of first-grade children with the same teachers occurred during the following school year, but with minimal teacher mentoring and monitoring. Findings were not significant but generally in the predicted direction. A universal classroom-based prevention intervention in first- and second-grade classrooms can reduce drug abuse and dependence disorders and risky sexual behaviors.
Stanton, B F; Aronson, R; Borgatti, S; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S
Risk activities for acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain prevalent among urban adolescents. While interdisciplinary approaches to examine the variables contributing to risk/protective behaviors have been promoted, strategies for such explorations require further formulation. Recently we employed focus group discussions to explore factors placing urban adolescents at risk for engaging in HIV risk behaviors. The focus group format enables substantial interaction on a topic in a limited time period, but does not always provide expression of the full range of behavioral options. In this study we investigated the use of pile-sorts for confirmation of impressions from focus group discussions among 57 urban youths aged 10-14. The pile-sorts revealed some support for most of the views expressed in the group discussions. However, the sorts revealed more variability in views than was expressed in the group discussions. Substantial gender and age-based differences in perceptions were revealed with potentially important intervention implications.
How Persuasive are Serious Games, Social Media and mHealth Technologies for Vulnerable Young Adults? Design Factors for Health Behavior and Lifestyle Change Support: Sexual Health Case. Proceedings Third International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSS 2015)
Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; den Daas, Chantal; David, Silke; Kelders, Saskia; Kulyk, Olga; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri
Modern eHealth technologies, such as serious games, social media and mobile applications addressing health behavior support are evolving rapidly. High-risk young adults with low educational background and of foreign origin could especially benefit from personalized health technologies, designed for
Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Shaw, Daniel S; Winter, Charlotte E; Wilson, Melvin
A large literature provides strong empirical support for the influence of parenting on child outcomes. The current study addresses enduring research questions testing the importance of early parenting behavior to children's adjustment. Specifically, we developed and tested a novel multi-method observational measure of parental positive behavior support at age 2. Next, we tested whether early parental positive behavior support was related to child adjustment at school age, within a multi-agent and multi-method measurement approach and design. Observational and parent-reported data from mother-child dyads (N = 731; 49 percent female) were collected from a high-risk sample at age 2. Follow-up data were collected via teacher report and child assessment at age 7.5. The results supported combining three different observational methods to assess positive behavior support at age 2 within a latent factor. Further, parents' observed positive behavior support at age 2 predicted multiple types of teacher-reported and child-assessed problem behavior and competencies at 7.5 years old. Results supported the validity and predictive capability of a multi-method observational measure of parenting and the importance of a continued focus on the early years within preventive interventions.
Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal
Antenatal care is aiming to reduce maternal land foetal mortality and morbidity. Maternal and foetal mortality can be due to different causes. Their knowledge allows identifying pregnancy (high risk pregnancy) with factors associated with an increased risk for maternal and/or foetal mortality and serious morbidity. Identification of high risk pregnancies and initiation of appropriate treatment and/or surveillance should improve maternal and/or foetal outcome. New risk factors are continuously described thanks to improvement in antenatal care and development in biology and cytopathology, increasing complexity in identifying high risk pregnancies. Level of risk can change all over the pregnancy. Ideally, it should be evaluated prior to the pregnancy and at each antenatal visit. Clinical examination is able to screen for intra-uterin growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, threatened for preterm labour; ultrasounds help in the diagnosis of foetal morphological anomalies, foetal chromosomal anomalies, placenta praevia and abnormal foetal growth; biological exams are used to screen for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, trisomy 21 (for which screening method just changed), rhesus immunisation, seroconversion for toxoplasmosis or rubeola, unknown infectious disease (syphilis, hepatitis B, VIH). During pregnancy, most of the preventive strategies have to be initiated during the first trimester or even before conception. Prevention for neural-tube defects, neonatal hypocalcemia and listeriosis should be performed for all women. On the opposite, some measures are concerning only women with risk factors such as prevention for toxoplasmosis, rhesus immunization (which recently changed), tobacco complications and pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth factor restriction.
A computerized display has been created for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) that incorporates information from plant sensors in a thermodynamic model display. The display is designed to provide an operator with an overall view of the plant process as a heat engine. The thermodynamics of the plant are depicted through the use of ionic figures, animated by plant signals, that are related to the major plant components and systems such as the reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, secondary system, evaporators, superheaters, steam system, steam drum, and turbine-generator. This display supports knowledge based reasoning for the operator as well as providing the traditional rule and skill based behavior, and includes side benefits such a inherent signal validation
This paper reports on a computerized display that has been created for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II that incorporates information from plant sensors in a thermodynamic model display. The display is designed to provide an operator with an overall view of the plant process as a heat engine. The thermodynamics of the plant are depicted through the use of iconic figures, animated by plant signals, that are related to the major plant components and systems such as the reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, secondary system, evaporators, superheaters, steam system, steam drum, and turbine-generator. This display supports knowledge based reasoning for the operator as well as providing data for the traditional rule and skill based behavior, and includes side benefits such as inherent signal validation
Full Text Available The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm, both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.
Graham, Susan M; Mugo, Peter; Gichuru, Evanson; Thiong'o, Alexander; Macharia, Michael; Okuku, Haile S; van der Elst, Elise; Price, Matthew A; Muraguri, Nicholas; Sanders, Eduard J
African men who have sex with men (MSM) face significant stigma and barriers to care. We investigated antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among high-risk adults, including MSM, participating in a clinic-based cohort. Survival analysis was used to compare attrition across patient groups. Differences in adherence, weight gain, and CD4 counts after ART initiation were assessed. Among 250 HIV-1-seropositive adults, including 108 MSM, 15 heterosexual men, and 127 women, patient group was not associated with attrition. Among 58 participants who were followed on ART, 40 % of MSM had less than 95 % adherence, versus 28.6 % of heterosexual men and 11.5 % of women. Although MSM gained less weight after ART initiation than women (adjusted difference -3.5 kg/year), CD4 counts did not differ. More data are needed on barriers to adherence and clinical outcomes among African MSM, to ensure that MSM can access care and derive treatment and prevention benefits from ART.
Harel, Yoni; Shechtman, Zipora; Cutrona, Carolyn
The study explores the types of support expressed in counseling groups attended by trainee counselors. Support is a crucial factor in human life in general, and in groups in particular, yet little is known about the type of support presented in counseling groups. Type of support was categorized by means of the Social Support Behavior Code (SSBC;…
The majority of the students who enroll at the Walter Sisulu University (WSU) in South Africa are not equipped with the necessary academic/learning skills to cope with the university environment, especially in Mechanical Engineering. The Department of Higher Education and Training (2013, p. 17), further states that "students' support is…
Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Rohani, Darius A.; Tuxen, Nanna
Behavioral activation has shown to be a simple yet efective therapy for depressive patients. The method relies on extensive collection of patient reported activity data on an hourly basis. We are currently in the process of designing a smartphone-based behavioral activation system for depressive...... disorders. However, it is an open question to what degree patients would use this approach given the high demand for user input. In order to investigate this question, we collected paper-based behavioral activation forms from 5 patients, covering in total 18 weeks, 115 days, and 1,614 hours of self......-reported activity data. In this paper we present an analysis of this data and discuss the implications for the design of a smartphone-based system for behavioral activation....
Full Text Available Similar to other parts of the world, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the Asia-Pacific Region has rapidly increased during the last few decades. The purposes of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility and the effects of a capacity building program for Village Health Volunteers (VHVs to support self-management in a T2DM high risk population from a rural subdistrict in Northeast Thailand. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using surveys, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed and used to develop a 12-week capacity building program for VHVs. This program was then implemented on 60 subjects at high risk of T2DM in the selected community. According to the paired t-test and Wilcoxon-signed rank test, VHVs had higher scores on knowledge and self-efficacy of T2DM prevention after a 12 week intervention (p = .03 and p = .02, respectively. Study participants at risk for T2DM also had a significant increase in T2DM knowledge and self-management (p < .001. Implementation of the capacity building program for VHVs in Northeast Thailand was feasible. The key successes were strong community bonding, community empowerment, and support from family and public health nurses. Effects of the program should be examined with those in other Asia-Pacific countries.
Jaime, Karen; Knowlton, Earle
In many schools, supports for children with a dual diagnosis of mental retardation and behavioral disorders are inadequate or nonexistent. Often these students are placed with teachers who, although appropriately trained and licensed, are not familiar with support strategies for meeting the behavioral and emotional needs of these students at an…
Kincaid, Don; Childs, Karen; Blase, Karen A.; Wallace, Frances
As the number of schools implementing systemic, schoolwide positive behavior support (PBS) processes expands (nationally, at least 5,000 schools are participating), increasing attention is being paid to the efficacy of implementation. This article describes a case study of the experiences of Florida's Positive Behavior Support Project, which used…
van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Reitberger, Wolfgang; Langrial, Sitwat; Ploderer, Bernd; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill
The First International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems attracted a great research interest. The selected papers focused on abstraction, implementation and evaluation of Behavior Change Support Systems. The workshop is an evidence of how researchers from around the globe have their own
Boulden, Walter T.
The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…
Strathdee, Steffanie A; Fraga, Wendy Davila; Case, Patricia; Firestone, Michelle; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Perez, Saida Gracia; Magis, Carlos; Fraga, Miguel Angel
Injection drug use is a growing problem on the US-Mexico border, where Tijuana is situated. We studied the context of injection drug use among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana to help guide future research and interventions. Guided in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 male and 10 female current IDUs in Tijuana. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles, and environmental influences. Interviews were taped, transcribed verbatim, and translated. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. Of the 20 IDUs, median age and age at first injection were 30 and 18. Most reported injecting at least daily: heroin ("carga", "chiva", "negra"), methamphetamine ("crico", "cri-cri"), or both drugs combined. In sharp contrast to Western US cities, almost all regularly attended shooting galleries ("yongos" or "picaderos") because of the difficulties obtaining syringes and police oppression. Almost all shared needles/paraphernalia ["cuete" (syringe), "cacharros" (cookers), cotton from sweaters/socks (filters)]. Some reported obtaining syringes from the United States. Key themes included (1) pharmacies refusing to sell or charging higher prices to IDUs, (2) ample availability of used/rented syringes from "picaderos" (e.g., charging approximately 5 pesos or "10 drops" of drug), and (3) poor HIV/AIDS knowledge, such as beliefs that exposing syringes to air "kills germs." This qualitative study suggests that IDUs in Tijuana are at high risk of HIV and other blood-borne infections. Interventions are urgently needed to expand access to sterile injection equipment and offset the potential for a widespread HIV epidemic.
Gur, David; Zheng, Bin; Lederman, Dror; Dhurjaty, Sreeram; Sumkin, Jules; Zuley, Margarita
A new resonance-frequency based electronic impedance spectroscopy (REIS) system with multi-probes, including one central probe and six external probes that are designed to contact the breast skin in a circular form with a radius of 60 millimeters to the central ("nipple") probe, has been assembled and installed in our breast imaging facility. We are conducting a prospective clinical study to test the performance of this REIS system in identifying younger women (detection of a highly suspicious breast lesion and 50 were determined negative during mammography screening. REIS output signal sweeps that we used to compute an initial feature included both amplitude and phase information representing differences between corresponding (matched) EIS signal values acquired from the left and right breasts. A genetic algorithm was applied to reduce the feature set and optimize a support vector machine (SVM) to classify the REIS examinations into "biopsy recommended" and "non-biopsy" recommended groups. Using the leave-one-case-out testing method, the classification performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.816 +/- 0.042. This pilot analysis suggests that the new multi-probe-based REIS system could potentially be used as a risk stratification tool to identify pre-screened young women who are at higher risk of having or developing breast cancer.
Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth
African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation…
Koulil, S. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Thieme, K.; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L. van; Evers, A.W.M.
OBJECTIVE: The heterogeneity of cognitive-behavioral patterns in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) has been proposed to underlie the variability in treatment outcomes. It has previously been shown that pain-avoidance and pain-persistence treatments tailored to the patient's pattern are effective in
Amuta, Ann O; Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E
Studies have shown that many college students do not meet the recommended daily physical activity (PA) levels, and about 22% of these students are overweight. Given that engaging in PA is a protective behavior against many chronic conditions, it is imperative to understand what sources of information/advice to engage in PA is most influential. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the relative impact of different sources of advice regarding exercise and PA on actual PA engagement among obese/overweight adolescents. Using data from 319 overweight/obese college students, multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine which source of advice (from parents, peers, or healthcare provider) to engage in PA was associated with PA behavior among these adolescents. Influence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) family history on PA behavior was also examined. Moderate and vigorous PA behavior was more likely among obese/overweight adolescents who received advice to exercise or engage in PA from their peers (B = 200.85, β = 0.193, p = 0.001; B = 121.19, β = 0.145, p = 0.014). Overweight/obese adolescents with a T2D family history were more likely to walk compared with those without a T2D family history (χ 2 = 12.97, p = 0.000). Findings suggest that although healthcare professionals advise obese/overweight adolescents, those who received advice regarding PA behavior from their peers were more likely to heed the advice and exercise/engage in PA. In essence, intervention efforts should focus on employing peer ambassadors to counsel other adolescents on the importance of PA.
Hajian, Sepideh; Vakilian, Katayon; Najabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Hosseini, Jalil; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Early diagnosis allows efficient treatment and increases survival, but the efficacy of breast self examination (BSE) is not sufficiently well established. The American Cancer Society aims to give women the opportunity to recognize the utility, limitations and adverse effects of breast cancer screening through education models based on psychological theories. With the Health Belief Model, people's health perceptions and attitudes influence their practices, for example with screening. The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine the effect of education based on this model on breast cancer screening in high risk Iranian women. Participants were women with a family history of breast cancer (mother, sister, and daughter). After explanation of the study objectives to participants, they were recruited on obtaining oral consent and each filled out the study questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model. Allocation was into two groups by computerized randomization, control and intervention, receiving education on breast cancer screening. Perceived susceptibility to and seriousness of breast cancer, perceived usefulness of and barriers to BSE, clinical breast examination, and mammography, and self-efficacy in the ability to perform these, were assessed, with comparison of scores for BSE practice before and after education and doing mammography and clinical examination by a physician in intervention and control group. The mean age was 37.8 ± 11.7 (range 19-60). The mean rank in the intervention group significantly differed before and after the education, but except for " perceived threat" and "perceived usefulness of breast self examination", we did not find any significant differences from the control group. After educational sessions, breast self examination and clinical examination practice rates were elevated. Health education based on well known psychological theories for breast cancer
Kelders, Saskia Marion; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri; Kelders, Saskia; Kulyk, Olga; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri
The Third International Workshop on Behavior Change Support Systems provides a place to discuss recent advances in BCSS research. The selected papers show that research into behavior change support systems is expanding: not only by trying to reach more and other people, but also by expanding the
Valdivieso, Bernardo; García-Sempere, Anibal; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Faubel, Raquel; Librero, Julian; Soriano, Elisa; Peiró, Salvador
To assess the effect of home based telehealth or structured telephone support interventions with respect to usual care on quality of life, mortality and healthcare utilization in elderly high-risk multiple chronic condition patients. 472 elderly high-risk patients with plurimorbidity in the region of Valencia (Spain) were recruited between June 2012 and May 2013, and followed for 12 months from recruitment. Patients were allocated to either: (a) a structured telephone intervention, a nurse-led case management program with telephone follow up every 15 days; (b) telehealth, which adds technology for remote self-management and the exchange of clinical data; or (c) usual care. Main outcome measures was quality of life measured by the EuroQol (EQ-5D) instrument, cognitive impairment, functional status, mortality and healthcare resource use. Inadequate randomization process led us to used propensity scores for adjusted analyses to control for imbalances between groups at baseline. EQ-5D score was significantly higher in the telehealth group compared to usual care (diff: 0.19, 0.08-0.30), but was not different to telephone support (diff: 0.04, -0.05 to 0.14). In adjusted analyses, inclusion in the telehealth group was associated with an additional 0.18 points in the EQ-5D score compared to usual care at 12 months (p<0.001), and with a gain of 0.13 points for the telephone support group (p<0.001). No differences in mortality or utilization were found, except for a borderline significant increase in General Practitioner visits. Telehealth was associated with better quality of life. Important limitations of the study and similarity of effects to telephone intervention call for careful endorsement of telemedicine. Clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT02447562). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Evren, Cuneyt; Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Bilge; Demirci, Arzu Ciftci
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of higher risk of Internet addiction (HRIA) with lifetime substance use, psychological and behavioral factors among Turkish 10(th) grade students. Cross-sectional online self-report survey conducted in 45 schools from the 15 districts in Istanbul, Turkey. A representative sample of 4957 10(th) grade students was studied between October 2012 and December 2012. Other than sociodemographic variables the survey included the Addiction Profile Index Internet Addiction Form-Screening Version (BAPINT-SV) and the Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA). The participants were classified into two groups as those with HRIA (15.96%) and those with lower risk of Internet addiction. The rate of HRIA was higher in the males. The findings indicated that HRIA is related with negative consequences in school, lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol and/or drug, suicidal thoughts, self-harming and delinquent behaviors. Male gender, lifetime use of tobacco, alcohol and/or drug, depression, attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms and lack of assertiveness predicted the HRIA in Turkish 10(th) grade students. Being aware of those with HRIA is important in prevention and management of Internet addiction as well as other important problems among students, such as substance use.
DiNapoli, Jean Marie; Garcia-Dia, Mary Joy; Garcia-Ona, Leila; O'Flaherty, Deirdre; Siller, Jennifer
The Healthy People 2020 (2012) report has identified that isolation, lack of social services, and a shortage of culturally competent providers serve as barriers to the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals who have HIV/AIDS. Self-transcendence theory proposes that individuals who face increased vulnerability or mortality may acquire an increased capacity for self-transcendence and its positive influence on mental health and well-being. The use of technology-enabled social and community support and group interventions through computer mediated self-help (CMSH) with LGBT individuals may help meet mental health needs of this group, and support healthy lifestyle practices. This article presents an overview of steps taken to propose a theory-based CMSH intervention for testing in research and eventual application in practice. © 2013.
Hirsch, Gary B.; Homer, Jack (Homer Consulting); Chenoweth, Brooke N.; Backus, George A.; Strip, David R.
As Sandia National Laboratories serves its mission to provide support for the security-related interests of the United States, it is faced with considering the behavioral responses that drive problems, mitigate interventions, or lead to unintended consequences. The effort described here expands earlier works in using healthcare simulation to develop behavior-aware decision support systems. This report focuses on using qualitative choice techniques and enhancing two analysis models developed in a sister project.
Öörni, Anssi; Kelders, Saskia Marion; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Oinas-Kukkonen, Harri
Behavior change support systems (BCSS) research is an evolving area. While the systems have been demonstrated to work to the effect, there is still a lot of work to be done to better understand the influence mechanisms of behavior change, and work out their influence on the systems architecture. The
Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane
As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…
Patterson, Thomas L; Goldenberg, Shira; Gallardo, Manuel; Lozada, Remedios; Semple, Shirley J; Orozovich, Prisci; Abramovitz, Daniela; Strathdee, Steffanie A
To determine sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of HIV infection among male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana. Four hundred men aged 18 years or older who had paid or traded for sex with a FSW in Tijuana during the past 4 months were recruited in Tijuana's 'zone of tolerance,' where prostitution is practiced openly under a municipal permit system. Efforts were made to balance the sample between residents of the United States (San Diego County) and of Mexico (Tijuana). Participants underwent interviews and testing for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia. Logistic regression identified correlates of HIV infection. Mean age was 36.6 years. One-quarter had injected drugs within the previous 4 months. Lifetime use of heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine was 36, 50, and 64%, respectively. Men had frequented FSWs for an average of 11 years, visiting FSWs an average of 26 times last year. In the past 4 months, one-half reported having unprotected sex with a FSW; 46% reported being high fairly or very often when having sex with a FSW. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia was 4, 2, 2.5, and 7.5%; 14.2% were positive for at least one infection. Factors independently associated with HIV infection were living in Mexico, ever using methamphetamine, living alone, and testing positive for syphilis. Male clients of FSWs in Tijuana had a high sex and drug risk profile. Although sexually transmitted infection prevalence was lower than among FSWs, HIV prevalence was comparable suggesting the need for interventions among clients to prevent spread of HIV and sexually transmitted infections.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
This report provides an overview of efforts undertaken by the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) in 1990 to review and report on federal program areas its work identified as high risk because of vulnerabilities to waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement. It reviews the current status of efforts to address these concerns. The six categories of…
Greaney, Mary L.; Puleo, Elaine; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Haines, Jess; Houghton, Serena C.; Emmons, Karen M.
Introduction: Social support is important for behavior change, and it may be particularly important for the complexities of changing multiple risk behaviors (MRB). Research is needed to determine if participants in an MRB intervention can be encouraged to activate their social network to aid their change efforts. Methods: Healthy Directions 2, a…
Ability of the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile and the Youth Self Report-Dysregulation Profile to identify serious psychopathology and association with correlated problems in high-risk children and adolescents.
Dölitzsch, Claudia; Kölch, Michael; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmeck, Klaus; Schmid, Marc
The current analyses examined whether the dysregulation profile (DP) 1) could be used to identify children and adolescents at high risk for complex and serious psychopathology and 2) was correlated to other emotional and behavioral problems (such as delinquent behavior or suicide ideation). DP was assessed using both the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Youth Self Report (YSR) in a residential care sample. Children and adolescents (N=374) aged 10-18 years living in residential care in Switzerland completed the YSR, and their professional caregivers completed the CBCL. Participants meeting criteria for DP (T-score ≥67 on the anxious/depressed, attention problems, and aggressive behavior scales of the YSR/CBCL) were compared against those who did not for the presence of complex psychopathology (defined as the presence of both emotional and behavioral disorders), and also for the prevalence of several psychiatric diagnoses, suicidal ideation, traumatic experiences, delinquent behaviors, and problems related to quality of life. The diagnostic criteria for CBCL-DP and YSR-DP were met by just 44 (11.8%) and 25 (6.7%) of participants. Only eight participants (2.1%) met the criteria on both instruments. Further analyses were conducted separately for the CBCL-DP and YSR-DP groups. DP was associated with complex psychopathology in only 34.4% of cases according to CBCL and in 60% of cases according to YSR. YSR-DP was somewhat more likely to be associated with psychiatric disorders and associated problems than was the CBCL-DP. Because of the relatively small overlap between the CBCL-DP and YSR-DP, analyses were conducted largely with different samples, likely contributing to the different results. Despite a high rate of psychopathology in the population studied, both the YSR-DP and the CBCL-DP were able to detect only a small proportion of those with complex psychiatric disorders. This result questions the validity of YSR-DP and the CBCL-DP in detecting subjects
Kegel, Roeland Hendrik,Pieter; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Kulyk, Olga Anatoliyivna; Kelders, S.; van Gemert-Pijnen, L.; Oinas-Kukkonen, H
This article proposes to use Behavior Change Support Systems (BCSSs) to improve the security of IT applications and the privacy of its users. We discuss challenges specific to BCSSs applied to information security, list research questions to be answered in order to meet these challenges, and propose
Stephenson, Amber L.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of brand identification and supportive behaviors for alumni of a medium-sized state-run public institution of higher education in the mid-Atlantic region of the US. The research examined the perceptions of donor and non-donor alumni of a state-run public institution of higher education to…
Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.
This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…
Accardo, Amy L.
A yoga-based school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) may provide a foundation for teaching mindfulness and self-regulation in K-12 schools. Here, the use of yoga as a SWPBS was examined through a review of existing literature and interviews of yoga program facilitators. Yoga was reported to be effective as a pedagogical approach, and found…
Kostyunina, Nadezhda Y.; Kazaeva, Evgenia A.; Karimova, Raushan B.
The relevance of the research problems of pedagogical support of preschool children with behavioral problems is explained by changes due and of taking place in modern Russia in various spheres of life: ecological and economic disadvantage, social instability, the growing influence of pseudo-culture, unfavorable climate in family, too busy parents,…
Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; McHugo, Gregory J; Marsch, Lisa A; Bartels, Stephen J
Promoting physical activity is essential for addressing elevated cardiovascular risk and high obesity rates affecting people with serious mental illness. Numerous challenges interfere with exercise participation in this high-risk group including mental health symptoms, low motivation, and limited access to safe and affordable options for physical activity. Wearable devices and mobile health technologies may afford new opportunities for promoting physical activity and supporting behavioral weight loss efforts. This exploratory study examined whether daily step count measured using Fitbit wearable devices was associated with weight loss and improved fitness among individuals with serious mental illness enrolled in a 6-month lifestyle program. Participants (n=34) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (23.5%), major depression (50.0%), or bipolar disorder (26.5%), and wore Fitbits most of the days (M=86.2%; SD=18.4%) they were enrolled in the study. At 6-months, higher average daily step count was associated with greater weight loss (F=5.07; df=1,32; p=0.0314), but not improved fitness (F=1.92; df=1,31; p=0.176). These findings demonstrate that encouraging participants with serious mental illness enrolled in lifestyle interventions to collect more steps may contribute to greater weight loss. This suggests that wearable devices may offer a feasible and potentially effective strategy for supporting behavioral weight loss in community mental health settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Steen, Y; Gimpel-Drees, J; Lataster, T
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess associations between momentary stress and both affective and psychotic symptoms in everyday life of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR), compared to chronic psychotic patients and healthy controls, in search for evidence of early stress...... and 26 healthy controls. RESULTS: Multilevel models showed significantly larger associations between negative affect (NA) and activity-related stress for CHR patients than for psychotic patients (P = 0.008) and for CHR compared to controls (P
Santos, Glenn-Milo; Coffin, Phillip O.; Das, Moupali; Matheson, Tim; DeMicco, Erin; Raiford, Jerris L.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dilley, James W.; Colfax, Grant; Herbst, Jeffrey H.
We evaluated the relationship between frequency and number of substances used and HIV risk [ie, serodiscordant unprotected anal intercourse (SDUAI)] among 3173 HIV-negative substance-using MSM. Compared with nonusers, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for SDUAI among episodic and at least weekly users, respectively, was 3.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.55 to 4.28] and 5.46 (95% CI, 3.80 to 7.84) for methamphetamine, 1.86 (95% CI, 1.51 to 2.29) and 3.13 (95% CI, 2.12 to 4.63) for cocaine, and 2.08 (95% CI, 1.68 to 2.56) and 2.54 (95% CI, 1.85 to 3.48) for poppers. Heavy alcohol drinkers reported more SDUAI than moderate drinkers [AOR, 1.90 (95% CI, 1.43 to 2.51)]. Compared with nonusers, AORs for using 1, 2, and ≥3 substances were 16.81 (95% CI, 12.25 to 23.08), 27.31 (95% CI, 18.93 to 39.39), and 46.38 (95% CI, 30.65 to 70.19), respectively. High-risk sexual behaviors were strongly associated with frequency and number of substances used. PMID:23572012
Anderson, Cynthia M.; Kincaid, Donald
School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478439
Shrestha, Roman; Karki, Pramila; Altice, Frederick L; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Meyer, Jaimie P; Madden, Lynn; Copenhaver, Michael
Although people who use drugs (PWUD) are key populations recommended to receive pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV, few data are available to guide PrEP delivery in this underserved group. We therefore examined the willingness to initiate PrEP and the anticipation of HIV risk reduction while on PrEP among high-risk PWUD. In a cross-sectional study of 400 HIV-negative, opioid dependent persons enrolled in a methadone program and reporting recent risk behaviors, we examined independent correlates of being willing to initiate PrEP. While only 72 (18%) were aware of PrEP, after being given a description of it, 251 (62.7%) were willing to initiate PrEP. This outcome was associated with having neurocognitive impairment (aOR=3.184, p=0.004) and higher perceived HIV risk (aOR=8.044, p<0.001). Among those willing to initiate PrEP, only 12.5% and 28.2%, respectively, indicated that they would always use condoms and not share injection equipment while on PrEP. Consistent condom use was associated with higher income (aOR=8.315, p=0.016), always using condoms with casual partners (aOR=6.597, p=0.001), and inversely associated with ongoing drug injection (aOR=0.323, p=0.027). Consistent safe injection, however, was inversely associated with age (aOR=0.948, p=0.035), ongoing drug injection (aOR=0.342, p<0.001), and perceived HIV risk (aOR=0.191, p=0.019). While willingness to initiate PrEP was high and correlated with being at elevated risk for HIV, anticipated higher risk behaviors in this group even while on PrEP suggests that the next generation of HIV prevention approaches may need to combine biomedical and behavioral components to sustain HIV risk reduction over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deci, E L; Ryan, R M
In this article we suggest that events and contexts relevant to the initiation and regulation of intentional behavior can function either to support autonomy (i.e., to promote choice) or to control behavior (i.e., to pressure one toward specific outcomes). Research herein reviewed indicates that this distinction is relevant to specific external events and to general interpersonal contexts as well as to specific internal events and to general personality orientations. That is, the distinction is relevant whether one's analysis focuses on social psychological variables or on personality variables. The research review details those contextual and person factors that tend to promote autonomy and those that tend to control. Furthermore, it shows that autonomy support has generally been associated with more intrinsic motivation, greater interest, less pressure and tension, more creativity, more cognitive flexibility, better conceptual learning, a more positive emotional tone, higher self-esteem, more trust, greater persistence of behavior change, and better physical and psychological health than has control. Also, these results have converged across different assessment procedures, different research methods, and different subject populations. On the basis of these results, we present an organismic perspective in which we argue that the regulation of intentional behavior varies along a continuum from autonomous (i.e., self-determined) to controlled. The relation of this organismic perspective to historical developments in empirical psychology is discussed, with a particular emphasis on its implications for the study of social psychology and personality.
There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.
Battistelli, Adalgisa; Picci, Patrizia; Odoardi, Carlo
In recent years, the idea that innovation is one of the determining factors in the efficacy and survival of organizations has been strongly consolidated. Individuals and groups within the various organizations undertake specific creative activities with the express intention of deriving direct benefits from the changes with regard to the generational phase of ideas. Innovative Work Behavior (IWB) is a complex behavioral pattern which consists of a set of three different tasks, namely, idea generation, idea promotion and idea realization. Considering the scant attention that has been paid to date to the potentially different role of antecedent factors in the various phases of innovative behavior, the aim of the present work was to examine the combined conflicting and supportive roles on innovation within the three stages of IWB. The results obtained from a sample of 110 Public Elementary School teachers confirm, as expected, that in the realization phase there are a positive influence from conflicting and supportive roles on innovation and a positive influence from support for innovation also in the phase of idea promotion; whereas, unexpectedly, a positive influence from conflicting is exercised in the phases of idea generation.
Garnier, Robert; Chevalier, Marcel
Studying large and complex industrial sites, requires more and more accuracy in modeling. In particular, when considering Spares, Maintenance and Repair / Replacement processes, determining optimal Integrated Logistic Support policies requires a high level modeling formalism, in order to make the model as close as possible to the real considered processes. Generally, numerical methods are used to process this kind of study. In this paper, we propose an alternate way to process optimal Integrated Logistic Support policy determination when dealing with large, complex and distributed multi-policies industrial sites. This method is based on the use of behavioral Monte Carlo simulation, supported by Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets. (author)
Optimizing the phenotyping of rodent ASD models: enrichment analysis of mouse and human neurobiological phenotypes associated with high-risk autism genes identifies morphological, electrophysiological, neurological, and behavioral features
Buxbaum Joseph D
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is interest in defining mouse neurobiological phenotypes useful for studying autism spectrum disorders (ASD in both forward and reverse genetic approaches. A recurrent focus has been on high-order behavioral analyses, including learning and memory paradigms and social paradigms. However, well-studied mouse models, including for example Fmr1 knockout mice, do not show dramatic deficits in such high-order phenotypes, raising a question as to what constitutes useful phenotypes in ASD models. Methods To address this, we made use of a list of 112 disease genes etiologically involved in ASD to survey, on a large scale and with unbiased methods as well as expert review, phenotypes associated with a targeted disruption of these genes in mice, using the Mammalian Phenotype Ontology database. In addition, we compared the results with similar analyses for human phenotypes. Findings We observed four classes of neurobiological phenotypes associated with disruption of a large proportion of ASD genes, including: (1 Changes in brain and neuronal morphology; (2 electrophysiological changes; (3 neurological changes; and (4 higher-order behavioral changes. Alterations in brain and neuronal morphology represent quantitative measures that can be more widely adopted in models of ASD to understand cellular and network changes. Interestingly, the electrophysiological changes differed across different genes, indicating that excitation/inhibition imbalance hypotheses for ASD would either have to be so non-specific as to be not falsifiable, or, if specific, would not be supported by the data. Finally, it was significant that in analyses of both mouse and human databases, many of the behavioral alterations were neurological changes, encompassing sensory alterations, motor abnormalities, and seizures, as opposed to higher-order behavioral changes in learning and memory and social behavior paradigms. Conclusions The results indicated that mutations
Full Text Available Along with the great increase of internet and e-commerce, the use of credit card is an unavoidable one. Due to the increase of credit card usage, the frauds associated with this have also increased. There are a lot of approaches used to detect the frauds. In this paper, behavior based classification approach using Support Vector Machines are employed and efficient feature extraction method also adopted. If any discrepancies occur in the behaviors transaction pattern then it is predicted as suspicious and taken for further consideration to find the frauds. Generally credit card fraud detection problem suffers from a large amount of data, which is rectified by the proposed method. Achieving finest accuracy, high fraud catching rate and low false alarms are the main tasks of this approach.
Jahanpour, A.; Jönsson, J.; Moharrami, H.
During the recent past decade semi-supported steel shear walls (SSSW) have been introduced as an alternative to the traditional type of steel plate shear walls. In this system the shear wall does not connect directly to the main columns of the building frame; instead it is connected to a pair...... of secondary columns that do not carry vertical gravity loads. In this paper, the interaction between the wall plate and the surrounding frame is investigated experimentally for typical SSSW systems in which the wall-frame has a bending-dominant behavior. Based on the possible storey failure mechanisms...... a simple method is proposed for design of the floor beams. A quasi static cyclic experimental study has been performed in order to investigate the collapse behavior of the wall-plate and surrounding frame. Furthermore the test setup has been developed in order to facilitate standardized cyclic tests...
Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Hekler, Eric; Saranummi, Niilo; Intille, Stephen; Korhonen, Ilkka; Nilsen, Wendy; Rivera, Daniel E; Spring, Bonnie; Michie, Susan; Asch, David A; Sanna, Alberto; Salcedo, Vicente Traver; Kukakfa, Rita; Pavel, Misha
Adverse and suboptimal health behaviors and habits are responsible for approximately 40 % of preventable deaths, in addition to their unfavorable effects on quality of life and economics. Our current understanding of human behavior is largely based on static "snapshots" of human behavior, rather than ongoing, dynamic feedback loops of behavior in response to ever-changing biological, social, personal, and environmental states. This paper first discusses how new technologies (i.e., mobile sensors, smartphones, ubiquitous computing, and cloud-enabled processing/computing) and emerging systems modeling techniques enable the development of new, dynamic, and empirical models of human behavior that could facilitate just-in-time adaptive, scalable interventions. The paper then describes concrete steps to the creation of robust dynamic mathematical models of behavior including: (1) establishing "gold standard" measures, (2) the creation of a behavioral ontology for shared language and understanding tools that both enable dynamic theorizing across disciplines, (3) the development of data sharing resources, and (4) facilitating improved sharing of mathematical models and tools to support rapid aggregation of the models. We conclude with the discussion of what might be incorporated into a "knowledge commons," which could help to bring together these disparate activities into a unified system and structure for organizing knowledge about behavior.
Hieneman, Meme; Childs, Karen; Sergay, Jane
Now the theory and research behind the positive behavior support (PBS) process--an approach already proven effective in schools and community programs--has been transformed into a practical, easy-to-use guide that's perfect for sharing with parents. Developed by educators and families, this user-friendly handbook offers parents easy-to-follow…
Feuerborn, Laura L.; Tyre, Ashli D.; Beaudoin, Kathleen
Classified staff are important stakeholders in schools and commonly interact with students across grade levels, subject matter areas, and physical locations--making their involvement in the implementation of schoolwide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) essential. However, their voice, including the intentional and systematic…
Full Text Available In this paper, a system supporting behavioral therapy for autistic children is presented. The system consists of sensors network, base station and a brooch indicating person's emotional states. The system can be used to measure values of physiological parameters that are associated with changes in the emotional state. In the future, it can be useful to inform the autistic child and the therapist about the emotional state of the interlocutor objectively, on the basis of performed measurements. The selected physiological parameters were chosen during the experiment which was designed and conducted by authors. In this experiment, a group of volunteers under controlled conditions was exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound. For each of the volunteers, a set of physiological parameters, was recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design electronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy for children with autism.
Luciana Brasil Rebelo dos Santos
Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language (UML is currently accepted as the standard for modeling (object-oriented software, and its use is increasing in the aerospace industry. Verification and Validation of complex software developed according to UML is not trivial due to complexity of the software itself, and the several different UML models/diagrams that can be used to model behavior and structure of the software. This paper presents an approach to transform up to three different UML behavioral diagrams (sequence, behavioral state machines, and activity into a single Transition System to support Model Checking of software developed in accordance with UML. In our approach, properties are formalized based on use case descriptions. The transformation is done for the NuSMV model checker, but we see the possibility in using other model checkers, such as SPIN. The main contribution of our work is the transformation of a non-formal language (UML to a formal language (language of the NuSMV model checker towards a greater adoption in practice of formal methods in software development.
Mano, Roy; Eastham, James; Yossepowitch, Ofer
Background Treatment of high-risk prostate cancer has evolved considerably over the past two decades, yet patients with very high-risk features may still experience poor outcome despite aggressive therapy. We review the contemporary literature focusing on current definitions, role of modern imaging and treatment alternatives in very high-risk prostate cancer. Methods We searched the MEDLINE database for all clinical trials or practice guidelines published in English between 2000 – 2016 with the following search terms: ‘prostatic neoplasms’ (MeSH Terms) AND (‘high risk’ (keyword) OR ‘locally advanced’ (keyword) OR ‘node positive’ (keyword)). Abstracts pertaining to very high-risk prostate cancer were evaluated and 40 pertinent studies served as the basis for this review. Results The term ‘very’ high-risk prostate cancer remains ill defined. The EAU and NCCN guidelines provide the only available definitions, categorizing those with clinical stage T3-4 or minimal nodal involvement as very-high risk irrespective of PSA level or biopsy Gleason score. Modern imaging with mpMRI and PET-PSMA scans plays a role in pretreatment assessment. Local definitive therapy by external beam radiation combined with androgen deprivation is supported by several randomized clinical trials whereas the role of surgery in the very high-risk setting combined with adjuvant radiation/ androgen deprivation therapy is emerging. Growing evidence suggest neoadjuvant taxane based chemotherapy in the context of a multimodal approach may be beneficial. Conclusions Men with very high-risk tumors may benefit from local definitive treatment in the setting of a multimodal regimen, offering local control and possibly cure in well selected patients. Further studies are necessary to better characterize the ‘very’ high-risk category and determine the optimal therapy for the individual patient. PMID:27618950
... High-Risk Infants Follow us Photo: iStock Predicting Autism in High-Risk Infants AN NIH-SUPPORTED STUDY ... high-risk, 6-month-old infants will develop autism spectrum disorder by age 2. Such a tool ...
Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara
Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…
determine the factors associated with high risk for obstructive sleep apnoea and use it to identify patients at risk for the condition in ... mainstay of management is CPAP in addition to behavioral ..... the present study has some potential limitations which ... consequences of obstructive sleep apnea and short sleep duration.
An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. ... questionnaires to evaluate key high – risk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism.
Hareva, David H; Okada, Hiroki; Kitawaki, Tomoki; Oka, Hisao
The authors previously developed a mobile ecological momentary assessment (EMA) system as a real-time data collection device using a mobile phone. In this study, a real-time advice function and real-time reporting function were added to the previous system as a supportive intervention. The improved system was found to work effectively and was applied to several clinical cases, including patients with depressive disorder, dizziness, smoking habit, and bronchial asthma. The average patient compliance rate was high (89%) without the real-time advice and higher (93%) with the advice. The trends in clinical data for patients using a mobile EMA with/without the new function were analyzed for up to several months. In the case of dizziness, an improving trend in its clinical data was observed after applying the real-time advice, and in the case of depressive disorder, a stabilizing trend was observed. The mobile EMA system with the real-time advice function could be useful as a supportive intervention in behavior modification and for motivating patients in self-management of their disease.
Tamae, Daniel; Mostaghel, Elahe; Montgomery, Bruce; Nelson, Peter S; Balk, Steven P; Kantoff, Philip W; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Penning, Trevor M
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Treatment of localized high-risk disease and de novo metastatic disease frequently leads to relapse. These metastatic castration resistant prostate cancers (mCRPC) claim a high mortality rate, despite the extended survival afforded by the growing armamentarium of androgen deprivation, radiation and immunotherapies. Here, we review two studies of neoadjuvant treatment of high-risk localized prostate cancer prior to prostatectomy, the total androgen pathway suppression (TAPS) trial and the neoadjuvant abiraterone acetate (AA) trial. These two trials assessed the efficacy of the non-specific P450c17 inhibitor, ketoconazole and the specific P450c17 inhibitor, AA, to inhibit tissue and serum androgen levels. Furthermore, a novel and validated stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assay was used to accurately quantify adrenal and gonadal androgens in circulation during the course of these trials. The adrenal androgens, Δ(4)-androstene-3,17-dione, dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were significantly reduced in the patients receiving ketoconazole or AA compared to those who did not. However, in both trials, a significant amount of DHEA-S (∼20 μg/dL) persists and thus may serve as a depot for intratumoral conversion to the potent androgen receptor ligands, testosterone (T) and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The final step in conversion of Δ(4)-androstene-3,17-dione and 5α-androstanedione to T and DHT, respectively, is catalyzed by AKR1C3. We therefore present the case that in the context of the DHEA-S depot, P450c17 and AKR1C3 inhibition may be an effective combinatorial treatment strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tarallo, P A; Smolowitz, J; Carriero, D; Tarallo, J; Siegel, A; Jia, H; Emond, J C
We sought to assess the prevalence and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among female liver transplant (LT) candidates. Traditional health screening before LT listing has included Pap smear and is typically carried out by the patient's local provider. The prevalence of high-risk HPV in this population has not been studied. With Institutional Review Board approval, 62 LT candidates received a liquid-based Pap smear with high-risk HPV testing as part of their pre-transplant evaluation by a single provider. Clinical variables included age, ethnicity, insurance status, prior Pap smear, and HPV results, HPV risk factors including age of first intercourse, number of lifetime partners, last sexual activity, smoking, birth control pill use, history of sexually transmitted infections, human immunodeficiency virus status, immunosuppressive medication, medical diagnoses, prescribed medications, and history of hepatitis A, B, C, or D. The 62 women had a median age of 56 years, and 39% had high-risk behavior known to be associated with HPV. Ten of 62 patients (16.1%) had high-risk HPV at baseline screening, 5 of whom had atypical cytology. All of the patients who were positive for high-risk HPV had an etiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) as the underlying cause of liver disease, with the majority (90%) having no history of high-risk behavior for HPV. In contrast, all patients with high-risk behavior who were HCV negative were HPV negative. Fisher's exact test demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between HPV and HCV; odds ratio = 24.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.4, 438.7, P-value = 0.0013. None of the other potential risk factors were associated with HPV in this cohort. In this study, we provide evidence of a strong association between HCV and HPV in LT candidates, which has not been previously reported. HPV positivity was observed in non-sexually active women, suggesting a reactivation of dormant HPV. An association between
Lee, Seungbum; Han, Keunsu
Whereas there have been many academic studies on European soccer team supporters, relatively few studies have looked at supporters in Asia, especially regarding their supporting behavior and culture. Broadly, the purpose of this paper is to describe the behavior and culture of supporters of the Korean professional soccer league (K-League).…
Lorencatto, F.; West, R.; Bruguera, C.; Michie, S.
Objectives: Behavioral support for smoking cessation is delivered through different modalities, often guided by treatment manuals. Recently developed methods for assessing fidelity of delivery have shown that face-to-face behavioral support is often not delivered as specified in the service treatment manual. This study aimed to extend this method to evaluate fidelity of telephone-delivered behavioral support. \\ud \\ud Method: A treatment manual and transcripts of 75 audio-recorded behavioral s...
Tiarapuspa; Indyastuti, D. L.; Sari, W. R.
This study aims to explore the definition of counterproductive behavior based on supervisors’ and sub ordinaries’ perceptions. Recently, environmental management system is a strategic tool to gain a competitive advantage. Human resource is the vital factor for successful environmental management system. Counterproductive behavior will destroy environmental management system. Unfortunately, the construct of counterproductive behavior is still debatable. Different culture show different dimensions and indicators of counterproductive behavior. The unclear construct results ambiguous empirical evidence. This study results that many items are included of counterproductive behavior, such as come late, impolite communication, playing gadget in working time, and the other negative behaviors.
Miller, Faith G.; Patwa, Shamim S.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.
An increased emphasis on collecting and using data in schools has occurred, in part, because of the implementation of multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS). Commonly referred to as response to intervention in the academic domain and school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports in the behavioral domain, these initiatives have a…
Røder, Martin Andreas; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Christensen, Ib Jarle
) is regarded as primary therapy by others. This study examined the outcome for high-risk localized PCa patients treated with RP. Material and methods. Of 1300 patients who underwent RP, 231 were identified as high-risk. Patients were followed for biochemical recurrence (BCR) (defined as prostate-specific......Abstract Objective. The optimal therapeutic strategy for high-risk localized prostate cancer (PCa) is controversial. Supported by randomized trials, the combination of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and endocrine therapy (ET) is advocated by many, while radical prostatectomy (RP...... antigen ≥ 0.2 ng/ml), metastatic disease and survival. Excluding node-positive patients, none of the patients received adjuvant therapy before BCR was confirmed. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. Results. Median follow-up was 4.4 years...
Paguntalan, John C; Gregoski, Mathew
Worksite wellness programs offer an ideal setting to target high-risk sedentary workers to improve health status. Lack of physical activity is associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease and mortality. Despite the risks, the number of sedentary workers is increasing. This study examined the perceived barriers and motivators for physical activity among employees at high-risk for coronary heart disease. A purposive sample of 24 high-risk workers participating in a wellness program in rural South Carolina were enrolled in the study. Qualitative data was obtained through semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Grounded theory was used to analyze qualitative data, and identify overarching themes. Physical limitations due to pain and weakness, lack of motivation, and lack of time emerged as the main barriers to physical activity. Family relationships were reported as the strongest motivator along with social support and potential health benefits. Findings highlight the unique experience of high-risk workers with physical activity. The findingsunderscore the need to design and implement effective interventions specifically designed to meet the needs of high-risk employees.
Yousaf, U.F.; Hayat, S.
High risk deliveries are usually associated with increased neonatal mortality and morbidity. Neonatal resuscitation can appreciably affect the outcome in these types of deliveries. Presence of personnel trained in basic neonatal resuscitation at the time of delivery can play an important role in reducing perinatal complications in neonates at risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of newborn resuscitation on neonatal outcome in high risk deliveries. Methods: This descriptive case series was carried out at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Ninety consecutive high risk deliveries were included and attended by paediatricians trained in newborn resuscitation. Babies delivered by elective Caesarean section, normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries and still births were excluded. Neonatal resuscitation was performed in babies who failed to initiate breathing in the first minute after birth. Data was analyzed using SPSS-16.0. Results: A total of 90 high risk deliveries were included in the study. Emergency caesarean section was the mode of delivery in 94.4% (n=85) cases and spontaneous vaginal delivery in 5.6% (n=5). Preterm pregnancy was the major high risk factor. Newborn resuscitation was required in 37.8% (n=34) of all high risk deliveries (p=0.013). All the new-borns who required resuscitation survived. Conclusion: New-born resuscitation is required in high risk pregnancies and personnel trained in newborn resuscitation should be available at the time of delivery. (author)
Mailhé, Boris; Sturm, Bob L.; Plumbley, Mark
is not locally nested: there is a dictionary and supports Γ ⊃ Γ′ such that OMP can recover all signals with support Γ, but not all signals with support Γ′. We also show that the support recovery optimality of OMP is globally nested: if OMP can recover all s-sparse signals, then it can recover all s...
Catalia Rafsiah Sari Sari
relationship Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Citizenship Behavior through Organizational Commitment. Keywords: Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Citizenship Behavior,Organizational Commitment
Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Jorge, Vanessa Marques Ferreira; Nonnenmacher, Daniele; Fráguas Junior, Renério; Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza de; Zugaib, Marcelo
To identify the risk of suicidal behavior in high-risk pregnant women at a public hospital in São Paulo. We conducted a semi-structured interview with each of the participants (n = 268) through a previously prepared questionnaire. Risk of suicidal behavior was assessed by the Portuguese version of PRIME-MD. The mean age of patients was 29 years (SD = 0.507) and gestation period was 30 weeks (SD = 0.556). Of the total sample, specific risk of suicide was found in 5% (n = 14). Of these, 85% have a stable relationship (married or cohabitating), the pregnancy was planned in 50% of cases, and 71% have no religion or professional activities. The correlation of risk of suicide with data from marital status, planned birth, age, education, professional practice, risk of prematurity, and religion showed that having a religion is statistically significant (p = 0.012). There were no positive associations for any of the other selected variables when compared with the risk of suicide. By correlating the risk of suicide with other characteristic symptoms of major depression, there was statistical significance in the sample with regard to insomnia or hypersomnia (p = 0.003), fatigue or loss of energy (p = 0.001), decreased or increased appetite (p = 0.005), less interest in daily activities (p = 0.000), depressed mood (p = 0.000), feelings of worthlessness or guilt (p = 0.000), decreased concentration (p = 0.002), and agitation or psychomotor retardation (p = 0.002). We found that religion can be a protective factor against suicidal behavior. Besides providing a social support network needed by women during pregnancy, religion supports belief in life after death and in a loving God, giving purpose to life and self esteem and providing models for coping with crises. The results show the importance of prevention and early diagnosis of suicidal behavior, since suicide is an attempt to move from one sphere to another by force, seeking to solve what seems impossible.
Handler, Marcie W.; Rey, Jannette; Connell, James; Thier, Kimberly; Feinberg, Adam; Putnam, Robert
School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has been identified as an effective and efficient method to teach students prosocial skills. It requires both effective behavior support practices and systems that will support these changes, including data-based decision making among the school leadership team. There are many practical and systemic…
The role of emotion as moderator of the relationships between perceived autonomy supportive behavior and autonomous motivation and between motivation and behavioral engagement in physical education are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Tindle, Jennifer A.
This research was designed with the primary purpose of identifying the dimensions of principal support perceived by public high school teachers in Virginia and identifying the relationship between principal support and organizational citizenship behaviors. In addition, this study also examined the relationship between principal support and student…
Feuerborn, Laura L.; Tyre, Ashli D.; King, Joe P.
The practices of schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) are dependent on staff implementation in classroom and common areas throughout the school. Thus, gaining the support and commitment of school staff is a critical step toward reaching full implementation of SWPBS. However, achieving buildingwide support can be challenging; many schools…
Senteio, Charles; Collins, Summer Wright; Jackson, Rachael; Welk, Stacy; Zhang, Shun
The sexual health behavior of formerly incarcerated persons (FIPs) not only affects the FIP, their sex partners, and their significant others, but also affects their families and the communities in which they live. Certain health conditions, which are overrepresented in incarcerated populations, are directly impacted by sexual health behavior.…
Good, Chris P.; McIntosh, Kent; Gietz, Carmen
Bullying is often defined as unprovoked aggressive behavior repeatedly carried out against victims who are unable to defend themselves. Children and youth who engage in bullying behavior may have a physical advantage, higher social status, or power in numbers, whereas those who are targeted by bullies are likely to be solitary, smaller in stature,…
Wright, Diana Browning; Mayer, G. Roy; Cook, Clayton R.; Crews, S. Dean; Kraemer, Bonnie Rawlings; Gale, Bruce
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of two trainings designed to increase the competencies of professionals to develop high quality positive behavior support plans for students that engage in problem behaviors that interfere with theirs and/or others' ability to learn. Training one consisted of training attendees on six key…
Cotrina Luque, J; Guerrero Aznar, M D; Alvarez del Vayo Benito, C; Jimenez Mesa, E; Guzman Laura, K P; Fernández Fernández, L
«High-risk drugs» are those that have a very high «risk» of causing death or serious injury if an error occurs during its use. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) has prepared a high-risk drugs list applicable to the general population (with no differences between the pediatric and adult population). Thus, there is a lack of information for the pediatric population. The main objective of this work is to develop a high-risk drug list adapted to the neonatal or pediatric population as a reference model for the pediatric hospital health workforce. We made a literature search in May 2012 to identify any published lists or references in relation to pediatric and/or neonatal high-risk drugs. A total of 15 studies were found, from which 9 were selected. A model list was developed mainly based on the ISMP one, adding strongly perceived pediatric risk drugs and removing those where the pediatric use was anecdotal. There is no published list that suits pediatric risk management. The list of pediatric and neonatal high-risk drugs presented here could be a «reference list of high-risk drugs » for pediatric hospitals. Using this list and training will help to prevent medication errors in each drug supply chain (prescribing, transcribing, dispensing and administration). Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L.; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M.; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Glöckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R.; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C.; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H.; Herrmann, Carl; O’Sullivan, Roderick J.; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K.; Fischer, Matthias
Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system1. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive2–4. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type1,2,5. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours. PMID:26466568
Yunyong, Liu; Zhe, Wang; Junting, Xu; Yan, Zhou; Xiaoxia, An; Li, Zhao; Yuan, Gu; Chao, Jiang
This study was designed to assess the levels of and associations between gay-related stressful events, social support, emotional distress and the number of unprotected anal intercourse partners among Chinese men who have sex with men. Using a respondent-driven sampling method, 807 men who have sex with men were recruited in urban areas of northeast China and data were collected via face-to-face interviews. Gay-related stressful events were measured using the Gay-Related Stressful Life Events Scale; levels of depression, anxiety symptoms and social support were measured using the Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and the Social Support Rating Scale, respectively. Over a quarter of study participants experienced gay-related stressful events during the preceding 3 months. Their average Self-Rating Depression Scale, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Social Support scores differed significantly from the national norm. Gay-related stressful events significantly correlated with anxiety (r = 0.167, p Gay-related stressful events are common and are significantly associated with emotional distress, lack of social support and high-risk sexual behaviors among Chinese men who have sex with men. Multifaceted approaches are warranted to increase social support and reduce intolerance toward homosexual behaviors and to reduce risky sexual behaviors related to the rapid HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men population in China. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Full Text Available Sven BraeutigamOxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, University of Oxford, Oxford, United KingdomAbstract: For about a hundred years, theorists and traders alike have tried to unravel and understand the mechanisms and hidden rules underlying and perhaps determining economically relevant behavior. This review focuses on recent developments in neuroeconomics, where the emphasis is placed on two directions of research: first, research exploiting common experiences of urban inhabitants in industrialized societies to provide experimental paradigms with a broader real-life content; second, research based on behavioral genetics, which provides an additional dimension for experimental control and manipulation. In addition, possible limitations of state-of-the-art neuroeconomics research are addressed. It is argued that observations of neuronal systems involved in economic behavior converge to some extent across the technologies and paradigms used. Conceptually, the data available as of today raise the possibility that neuroeconomic research might provide evidence at the neuronal level for the existence of multiple systems of thought and for the importance of conflict. Methodologically, Bayesian approaches in particular may play an important role in identifying mechanisms and establishing causality between patterns of neural activity and economic behavior.Keywords: neuroeconomics, behavioral genetics, decision-making, consumer behavior, neural system
Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heung Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam
The fuel rod (FR) support behavior is changed during operation resulting from effects such as clad creep-down, spring force relaxation due to irradiation, and irradiation growth of spacer straps in accordance with time or increase of burnup. The FR support behavior is closely associated with time or increase of burnup. The FR support behavior is closely associated with FR damage due to fretting, therefore the analysis on the FR support behavior is normally required to minimize the damage. The characteristics of the parameters, which affect the FR support behavior, and the methodology developed for estimating the FR support behavior in the reactor core are described in this work. The FR support condition for the KOFA (KOrean Fuel Assembly) fuel has been analyzed by this method, and the results of the analysis show that the fuel failure due to the fuel rod fretting wear is closely related to the support behavior of FR in the core. Therefore, the present methodology for estimating the FR support condition seems to be useful for estimating the actual FR support condition. In addition, the optimization seems to be a reliable tool for establishing the optimal support condition on the basis of these results. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 26 figs
Cullum, Kristiana G H; Mayo, Ann M
Assessing an instrument's psychometric properties to determine appropriateness for use can be a challenging process. Dissecting the statistical terminology may be even more perplexing. There are several instruments that evaluate adolescents' perceived social support, but a fairly new instrument related to this construct assesses not only the availability of social support but also support for healthy behaviors in this population. The Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale for Healthy Behaviors, first published in 2013, demonstrates adequate initial reliability and validity. The purpose of this article is to review the psychometric properties of the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale for Healthy Behaviors and potential uses of the instrument.
Arsenault, Lisa N; Xu, Kathleen; Taveras, Elsie M; Hacker, Karen A
Successful childhood obesity interventions frequently focus on behavioral modification and involve parents or family members. Parental confidence in supporting behavior change may be an element of successful family-based prevention efforts. We aimed to determine whether parents' own obesity-related behaviors were related to their confidence in supporting their child's achievement of obesity-related behavioral goals. Cross-sectional analyses of data collected at baseline of a randomized control trial testing a treatment intervention for obese children (n = 787) in primary care settings (n = 14). Five obesity-related behaviors (physical activity, screen time, sugar-sweetened beverage, sleep duration, fast food) were self-reported by parents for themselves and their child. Behaviors were dichotomized on the basis of achievement of behavioral goals. Five confidence questions asked how confident the parent was in helping their child achieve each goal. Logistic regression modeling high confidence was conducted with goal achievement and demographics as independent variables. Parents achieving physical activity or sleep duration goals were significantly more likely to be highly confident in supporting their child's achievement of those goals (physical activity, odds ratio 1.76; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.60; sleep, odds ratio 1.74; 95% confidence interval 1.09-2.79) independent of sociodemographic variables and child's current behavior. Parental achievements of TV watching and fast food goals were also associated with confidence, but significance was attenuated after child's behavior was included in models. Parents' own obesity-related behaviors are factors that may affect their confidence to support their child's behavior change. Providers seeking to prevent childhood obesity should address parent/family behaviors as part of their obesity prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Solomon, Benjamin G.; Tobin, Kevin G.; Schutte, Gregory M.
The Effective Behavior Support Self-Assessment Survey (SAS; Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2003) is designed to measure perceived Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) implementation and identify priorities for improvement. Despite its longevity, little published research exists documenting its reliability or validity for these purposes.…
Ali H. Muhammad
This article examines the relationship among perceived organizational support, affective organizational commitment, and employee citizenship behavior in Kuwaiti business organizations. Employees¡¯ affective organizational commitment is proposed to mediate the relationship between perceived organizational support and employee citizenship behavior. Data were collected from 261 employees affiliated with 9 Kuwait business organizations. These businesses represented firms in the banking, and finan...
Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla
This study examined the relationship of emotional detachment from parents, parental support, and problem behaviors and focused on the unique and common contribution that detachment and parental support made to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. A total of 461 young adolescents, 13 to 14 years old ("M" = 13.4;…
Kurth, Jennifer A.; Enyart, Matt
Although the number of schools implementing schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS) has increased dramatically, the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in these efforts remains negligible. This article describes the evolution of positive behavior intervention and supports into the SWPBS approach used in many schools today,…
J.E.W.C. Gemert-Pijnen; N. Nijhof; Joost van Hoof; H. van Rijn
BACKGROUND: This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a technology-supported leisure game for people with dementia in relation to the stimulation of social behavior. OBJECTIVE: In this study we explore the additional impact of technology-supported leisure activities on behavioral outcomes
Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.
Neighborhood characteristics have been linked to healthy behavior, including effective parenting behaviors. This may be partially explained through the neighborhood's relation to parents' access to social support from friends and family. The current study examined associations of neighborhood characteristics with parenting behaviors indirectly…
Flannery, K. Brigid; Frank, Jennifer L.; Kato, Mimi McGrath; Doren, Bonnie; Fenning, Pamela
Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) is a systems-level intervention designed to prevent the occurrence of problem behavior and increase social competence. A growing body of research documents that SWPBS reduces problem behavior and improves academics (e.g., McIntosh, Chard, Boland, & Horner, 2006), yet documentation of the feasibility…
Banks, Tachelle; Obiakor, Festus E.
Classrooms are not culturally neutral terrains, but rather are constructed around sets of norms, values, and expected behaviors that are culturally bound. Low tolerance levels and expectations are an indication of the incongruence between the education strategies utilized by teachers and the cultural and linguistic differences of students that are…
to help women and their children achieve safety and wellbeing while challenging communities to end sexual and family violence. In the process, TESSA...did not engage with the SupportNet intervention as a function of their level of burnout. Lack of military support was cited by staff as being a barrier...October 2013, which resulted in government employees being furloughed. Since the project itself was funded by the Department of Defense, the project was
Review of the Impact of Adherence on the Effectiveness of e-Therapies. Journal of Medical Internet Research , 13(3), 52. Frank, R. (2003, January...Improve the Uptake and Impact of eHealth Technologies. Journal of Medical Internet Research , 13(4), 111. 41 Appendix V SupportNet
Deming, Charlene A; Vasterling, Jennifer J
Preparation and training for long-duration spaceflight bring with them psychosocial stressors potentially affecting the well-being and performance of astronauts, before and during spaceflight. Social support from within the workplace may mitigate behavioral health concerns arising during the preflight period and enhance resiliency before and during extended missions. The purpose of this review was to evaluate evidence addressing the viability of workplace social support as a pre-mission countermeasure, specifically addressing: 1) the observed relationships between workplace social support and behavioral health; 2) perceived need, acceptability, and format preference for workplace social support among high-achievers; 3) potential barriers to delivery/receipt of workplace social support; 4) workplace social support interventions; and 5) delivery timeframe and anticipated duration of workplace social support countermeasure benefits. We conducted an evidence review examining workplace social support in professional contexts sharing one or more characteristics with astronauts and spaceflight. Terms included populations of interest, social support constructs, and behavioral health outcomes. Abstracts of matches were subsequently reviewed for relevance and quality. Research findings demonstrate clear associations between workplace social support and behavioral health, especially following exposure to stress. Further, studies indicate strong need for support and acceptability of support countermeasures, despite barriers. Our review revealed two general formats for providing support (i.e., direct provision of support and training to optimize skills in provision and receipt of support) with potential differentiation of expected duration of benefits, according to format. Workplace social support countermeasures hold promise for effective application during pre-mission phases of long-duration spaceflight. Specific recommendations are provided.Deming CA, Vasterling JJ
Loprinzi, Paul D; Crush, Elizabeth A
To examine the association of source of social support and size of social support network on sedentary behavior among older adults. Cross-sectional. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. 2519 older adults (60+ years). Sedentary behavior was assessed via accelerometry over a 7-day period. Social support was assessed via self-report. Sources evaluated include spouse, son, daughter, sibling, neighbor, church member, and friend. Regarding size of social network, participants were asked, "In general, how many close friends do you have?" Multivariable linear regression. After adjustment, there was no evidence of an association between the size of social support network and sedentary behavior. With regard to specific sources of social support, spousal social support was associated with less sedentary behavior (β = -11.6; 95% confidence interval: -20.7 to -2.5), with evidence to suggest that this was only true for men. Further, an inverse association was observed between household size and sedentary behavior, with those having a greater number of individuals in the house having lower levels of sedentary behavior. These associations occurred independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, age, gender, race-ethnicity, measured body mass index, total cholesterol, self-reported smoking status, and physician diagnosis of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer, hypertension, or diabetes. Spouse-specific emotion-related social support (particularly for men) and household size were associated with less sedentary behavior.
Family supportive supervision has emerged as an important prerequisite for effective work-family integration and employees' well-being. Scholars are addressing the need to develop family supportive managers and have introduced a new construct and measure, 'family supportive supervisor behavior'. So
Jacobs, Petra; Estrada, Yannine A; Tapia, Maria I; Quevedo Terán, Ana M; Condo Tamayo, Cecilia; Albán García, Mónica; Valenzuela Triviño, Gilda M; Pantin, Hilda; Velazquez, Maria R; Horigian, Viviana E; Alonso, Elizabeth; Prado, Guillermo
Developing, testing and implementing evidence-based prevention interventions are important in decreasing substance use and sexual risk behavior among adolescents. This process requires research expertise, infrastructure, resources and decades of research testing, which might not always be feasible for low resource countries. Adapting and testing interventions proven to be efficacious in similar cultures might circumvent the time and costs of implementing evidence-based interventions in new settings. This paper describes the two-phase study, including training and development of the research infrastructure in the Ecuadorian university necessary to implement a randomized controlled trial. Familias Unidas is a multilevel parent-centered intervention designed in the U.S. to prevent drug use and sexual risk behaviors in Hispanic adolescents. The current study consisted of Phase 1 feasibility study (n=38) which adapted the intervention and study procedures within a single-site school setting in an area with a high prevalence of drug use and unprotected sexual behavior among adolescents in Ecuador, and Phase 2 randomized controlled trial of the adapted intervention in two public high schools with a target population of families with adolescents from 12 to 14 years old. The trial is currently in Phase 2. Study recruitment was completed with 239 parent-youth dyads enrolling. The intervention phase and the first follow-up assessment have been completed. The second and third follow-up assessments will be completed in 2016. This project has the potential of benefitting a large population of families in areas of Ecuador that are disproportionally affected by drug trafficking and its consequences. MSP-DIS-2015-0055-0, Ministry of Public Health (MSP), Quito, Ecuador. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Behavioral outcome including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/hyperactivity disorder and minor neurological signs in perinatal high-risk newborns at 4-6 years of age with relation to risk factors.
Sato, Masuko; Aotani, Hirofumi; Hattori, Ritsuko; Funato, Masahisa
Diagnostic problems with the criteria of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th edn, have been identified. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the minor neurological signs test (MNT) the authors had previously reported was a predictor for the criteria of ADHD or hyperactivity disorder (HD) in perinatal risk children at 4-6 years of age and what kind of risk factors related to MNT. A total of 136 children discharged from neonatal intensive care units were examined at the age of 4-6 years by a developmental neuropediatrician using both MNT and diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV ADHD/ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th edn) HD. SPSS base and professional were used for statistical analysis. On comparison of diagnostic criteria between ADHD (11.0%) and HD (27.5%), the incidence in the same subjects showed significant difference. MNT scores showed significant correlation with criteria of ADHD (P Apgar 5 in the NLBW group and toxemia of pregnancy and small for gestational age (SGA) in VLBW group were highly correlated with behavioral outcome. Minor neurological signs test score was a significant predictor for criteria of ADHD and HD. High incidences of positive MNT were suspected in not only VLBW children but also NLBW children and Apgar 5 in NLBW children and toxemia of pregnancy and SGA in VLBW children influenced behavioral outcome.
Moss, Howard B.; Kirby, Susan D.; Donodeo, Fred
Background Market or audience segmentation is widely used in social marketing efforts to help planners identify segments of a population to target for tailored program interventions. Market-based segments are typically defined by behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, opinions, or lifestyles. They are more helpful to health communication and marketing planning than epidemiologically-defined groups because market-based segments are similar in respect to how they behave or might react to marketing and communication efforts. However, market segmentation has rarely been used in alcohol research. As an illustration of its utility, we employed commercial data that describes the sociodemographic characteristics of high-risk drinkers as an audience segment; where they tend to live, lifestyles, interests, consumer behaviors, alcohol consumption behaviors, other health-related behaviors, and cultural values. Such information can be extremely valuable in targeting and planning public health campaigns, targeted mailings, prevention interventions and research efforts. Methods We describe the results of a segmentation analysis of those individuals who self-report consuming five or more drinks per drinking episode at least twice in the last 30-days. The study used the proprietary PRIZM™ audience segmentation database merged with Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database. The top ten of the 66 PRIZM™ audience segments for this risky drinking pattern are described. For five of these segments we provide additional in-depth details about consumer behavior and the estimates of the market areas where these risky drinkers reside. Results The top ten audience segments (PRIZM clusters) most likely to engage in high-risk drinking are described. The cluster with the highest concentration of binge drinking behavior is referred to as the “Cyber Millenials.” This cluster is characterized as “the nation's tech-savvy singles
Moss, Howard B; Kirby, Susan D; Donodeo, Fred
Market or audience segmentation is widely used in social marketing efforts to help planners identify segments of a population to target for tailored program interventions. Market-based segments are typically defined by behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, opinions, or lifestyles. They are more helpful to health communication and marketing planning than epidemiologically defined groups because market-based segments are similar in respect to how they behave or might react to marketing and communication efforts. However, market segmentation has rarely been used in alcohol research. As an illustration of its utility, we employed commercial data that describes the sociodemographic characteristics of high-risk drinkers as an audience segment, including where they tend to live, lifestyles, interests, consumer behaviors, alcohol consumption behaviors, other health-related behaviors, and cultural values. Such information can be extremely valuable in targeting and planning public health campaigns, targeted mailings, prevention interventions, and research efforts. We described the results of a segmentation analysis of those individuals who self-reported to consume 5 or more drinks per drinking episode at least twice in the last 30 days. The study used the proprietary PRIZM (Claritas, Inc., San Diego, CA) audience segmentation database merged with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) database. The top 10 of the 66 PRIZM audience segments for this risky drinking pattern are described. For five of these segments we provided additional in-depth details about consumer behavior and the estimates of the market areas where these risky drinkers resided. The top 10 audience segments (PRIZM clusters) most likely to engage in high-risk drinking are described. The cluster with the highest concentration of binge-drinking behavior is referred to as the "Cyber Millenials." This cluster is characterized as "the nation's tech
Stenner, Shane P; Chen, Qingxia; Johnson, Kevin B
To evaluate the impact of generic substitution decision support on electronic (e-) prescribing of generic medications. The authors analyzed retrospective outpatient e-prescribing data from an academic medical center and affiliated network for July 1, 2005-September 30, 2008 using an interrupted time-series design to assess the rate of generic prescribing before and after implementing generic substitution decision support. To assess background secular trends, e-prescribing was compared with a concurrent random sample of hand-generated prescriptions. Proportion of generic medications prescribed before and after the intervention, evaluated over time, and compared with a sample of prescriptions generated without e-prescribing. The proportion of generic medication prescriptions increased from 32.1% to 54.2% after the intervention (22.1% increase, 95% CI 21.9% to 22.3%), with no diminution in magnitude of improvement post-intervention. In the concurrent control group, increases in proportion of generic prescriptions (29.3% to 31.4% to 37.4% in the pre-intervention, post-intervention, and end-of-study periods, respectively) were not commensurate with the intervention. There was a larger change in generic prescribing rates among authorized prescribers (24.6%) than nurses (18.5%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.63). Two years after the intervention, the proportion of generic prescribing remained significantly higher for e-prescriptions (58.1%; 95% CI 57.5% to 58.7%) than for hand-generated prescriptions ordered at the same time (37.4%; 95% CI 34.9% to 39.9%) (p<0.0001). Generic prescribing increased significantly in every specialty. Implementation of generic substitution decision support was associated with dramatic and sustained improvements in the rate of outpatient generic e-prescribing across all specialties.
Kiuru, Noona; Pakarinen, Eija; Vasalampi, Kati; Silinskas, Gintautas; Aunola, Kaisa; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
In the longitudinal study presented here, we tested the theoretical assumption that children's task-focused behavior in learning situations mediates the associations between supportive interpersonal environments and academic performance. The sample consisted of 2,137 Finnish-speaking children. Data on supportive interpersonal environments (characterized by authoritative parenting, positive teacher affect toward the child, and peer acceptance) were gathered in Grade 1. The children's task-focused behavior was measured in Grades 2 and 3, and academic performance was measured in Grades 1 and 4. The results supported our assumption by showing that all three supportive environments were positively associated with children's subsequent academic performance via increased task-focused behavior in learning situations. These findings suggest that students' academic performance can be promoted by increasing the support they receive from peers, parents, and teachers because such increased support leads to better task focus in learning tasks.
Chow, Jeremy Y; Konda, Kelika A; Calvo, Gino M; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Cáceres, Carlos F
Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru bear a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In a context of quickly expanding communication technology, increasing numbers of MSM and TW are using social media applications to seek sex partners. Understanding social media users and their sex partnering practices is needed to update HIV and STI prevention programming. In Lima, Peru, 312 MSM and 89 TW from 2 STI clinics underwent HIV and STI testing and participated in a survey of demographics, behaviors, sexual health, and social media practices. χ, t tests, and Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare those with and without recent social media sex partners. Men who have sex with men with social media sex partners were younger, more educated, and more likely to identify as gay. They were significantly more likely to report greater numbers of sex partners, including anonymous sex partners; sex in higher-risk venues, orgies, and have rectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Transgender women with social media sex partners were also younger, more likely to participate in sex work, and have a lower rate of rapid plasma reagin positivity or history of syphilis. Participants reported using several social media sites including sexual hook-up applications, websites for gay men, pornographic websites, and chat sites, but the most common was Facebook. Prevention strategies targeting Peruvian MSM and TW who use social media are needed to address higher-risk sexual behavior and the high burden of STIs.
Hamlett, Nakia M; Carr, Erika R; Hillbrand, Marc
Positive behavior support (PBS) plans are increasingly used on inpatient units to assess and treat serious and dangerous behaviors displayed by patients with serious psychiatric impairment. A contemporary extension of traditional applied behavior analytic procedures, PBS plans integrate theories from several domains with perspectives on community psychology, positive psychology, and recovery-oriented care. Because there is little evidence to suggest that more invasive, punitive disciplinary strategies lead to long-term positive behavioral change (Parkes, 1996), PBS plans have emerged as an alternative to the use of seclusion and restraint or other forms of restrictive measures typically used on inpatient psychiatric units (Hammer et al., 2011). Moreover, PBS plans are a preferred method of intervention because more invasive interventions often cause more harm than good to all involved (Elliott et al., 2005). This article seeks to provide an integrated framework for the development of positive behavior support plans in inpatient psychiatric settings. In addition to explicating the philosophy and core elements of PBS plans, this work includes discussion of the didactic and pragmatic aspects of training clinical staff in inpatient mental health settings. A case vignette is included for illustration and to highlight the use of PBS plans as a mechanism for helping patients transition to less restrictive settings. This work will add to the scant literature examining the use of positive behavioral support plans in inpatient psychiatric settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
the Medicare Trustees, the Office of the Actuary , and the Congressional Budget Office have raised concerns about whether some of the Medicare... actuarially sound. For more information, see the National Flood Insurance Program section of this High-Risk report. Among other things, the report...and mathematics (STEM) functional community. In addition to the efforts of the Working Group, the President’s Fiscal Year 2013 budget—released in
Henrich, Christopher C; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Shrier, Lydia A; Shahar, Golan
To examine the longitudinal associations between supportive relationships with friends and parents and sexual risk behavior in adolescence based on an ecological-transactional perspective. Analyses were conducted on 2,652 sexually active adolescents from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). African-American adolescents had lower risk for sexual risk behavior. Supportive friendships and parent connectedness interacted in predicting decreased likelihood of sexual risk behavior. Mother-child communication about sex contributed to decreased likelihood of sexual risk only for girls. There were also small reciprocal effects of sexual risk behavior on decreased relationship quality over time. To better understand the parents' role in adolescent sexual risk behavior, multiple facets of parenting, the social contexts of parenting and adolescents' peers, and the effects of adolescents' behavior on these relationships should be taken into consideration.
Chullen, C Logan; Dunford, Benjamin B; Angermeier, Ingo; Boss, R Wayne; Boss, Alan D
In an era when healthcare organizations are beset by intense competition, lawsuits, and increased administrative costs, it is essential that employees perform their jobs efficiently and without distraction. Deviant workplace behavior among healthcare employees is especially threatening to organizational effectiveness, and healthcare managers must understand the antecedents of such behavior to minimize its prevalence. Deviant employee behavior has been categorized into two major types, individual and organizational, according to the intended target of the behavior. Behavior directed at the individual includes such acts as harassment and aggression, whereas behavior directed at the organization includes such acts as theft, sabotage, and voluntary absenteeism, to name a few (Robinson and Bennett 1995). Drawing on theory from organizational behavior, we examined two important features of supportive leadership, leader-member exchange (LMX) and perceived organizational support (POS), and two important features of job design, intrinsic motivation and depersonalization, as predictors of subsequent deviant behavior in a sample of over 1,900 employees within a large US healthcare organization. Employees who reported weaker perceptions of LMX and greater perceptions of depersonalization were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the individual, whereas employees who reported weaker perceptions of POS and intrinsic motivation were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the organization. These findings give rise to specific prescriptions for healthcare managers to prevent or minimize the frequency of deviant behavior in the workplace.
García Díez, César; Soler Iglesias, Carles
Executive report of the adaptation study "Needs assessment and design of the intervention for high risk sex offenders social reintegration: Adaptation of the Circles of Support and Accountability to the Penal Enforcement System of Catalonia".
Gabriel Fernando Todeschi Variane
Conclusion: This study supports previous results and demonstrates the utility of amplitude‐integrated electroencephalography for monitoring brain function and predicting early outcome in the studied groups of infants at high risk for brain injury.
Full Text Available The widespread of smartphones usage have increased the convenience of accessing information and knowledge sharing for higher learning students. University’s students are exposed with the multi channels of knowledge from various sources primarily from online learning’s resources. The study examines smartphone habit, internet literacy, and mobile learning in relation to self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to the internal forces of a student’s belief in the abilities in utilizing smartphone as educational aid in the context of mobile learning. This study deploys a quantitative approach in assessing the relationship between self-efficacy, internet literacy and smartphone’s habits for of university students. Understanding student self-efficacy is important factor to deliver an effective ways in supporting mobile learning activities. In addition to documenting the findings of self-efficacy and mobile learning, the research also represents a model of internal and external factors that affects student self-efficacy to make mobile learning successful.
Orkin, Melissa; May, Sidney; Wolf, Maryanne
This research investigated the influence of parental practices on helpless behaviors of struggling readers during homework tasks. Parents (N = 36) of elementary students reported on their children's helpless behaviors, such as task avoidance and negative affect, during homework assignments, and on the nature and frequency of their support.…
Coyle, Samantha; Demaray, Michelle K.; Malecki, Christine K.; Tennant, Jaclyn E.; Klossing, Jacqueline
Background: Peer bullying is associated with internalizing problems for children and adolescents. However, less is known about how these same behaviors are related to student well-being when they occur within the context of the sibling relationship and how supportive behavior may benefit those experiencing bullying. Objective: The purpose of this…
Li, Yiqiong; Chen, Peter Y.; Chen, Fu-Li; Wu, Wen-Chi
This article examines how past bullied victims engage two types of bystander behaviors (defender and outsider) when they witness bullying situations.We also investigate if fatalism mediates the relationship between past victimization and two bystander behaviors. Finally, we test if parental support moderates the relationship between fatalism and…
Runge, Timothy J.; Longwill, Douglas A.; Staszkiewicz, Mark J.; Palmiero, James; Lawson, Tina M.
Pennsylvania began scaling up high-fidelity implementation of SchoolWide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) in 2006-2007 due to converging regulatory, legal, ethical, and practical influences. The Pennsylvania Community of Practice on School-Based Behavioral Health adopted Algozzine et al.'s (2010) blueprint to describe and…
Hermens, Hermanus J.; op den Akker, Harm; Tabak, Monique; Wijsman, J.L.P; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé
Chronic conditions cannot be cured but daily behavior has a major effect on the severity of secondary problems and quality of life. Changing behavior however requires intensive support in daily life, which is not feasible with a human coach. A new coaching approach – so-called Personal Coaching
Pavel, Misha; Jimison, Holly B; Korhonen, Ilkka; Gordon, Christine M; Saranummi, Niilo
Health-related behaviors are among the most significant determinants of health and quality of life. Improving health behavior is an effective way to enhance health outcomes and mitigate the escalating challenges arising from an increasingly aging population and the proliferation of chronic diseases. Although it has been difficult to obtain lasting improvements in health behaviors on a wide scale, advances at the intersection of technology and behavioral science may provide the tools to address this challenge. In this paper, we describe a vision and an approach to improve health behavior interventions using the tools of behavioral informatics, an emerging transdisciplinary research domain based on system-theoretic principles in combination with behavioral science and information technology. The field of behavioral informatics has the potential to optimize interventions through monitoring, assessing, and modeling behavior in support of providing tailored and timely interventions. We describe the components of a closed-loop system for health interventions. These components range from fine grain sensor characterizations to individual-based models of behavior change. We provide an example of a research health coaching platform that incorporates a closed-loop intervention based on these multiscale models. Using this early prototype, we illustrate how the optimized and personalized methodology and technology can support self-management and remote care. We note that despite the existing examples of research projects and our platform, significant future research is required to convert this vision to full-scale implementations.
Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C
HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found...... among the 31 seronegative high-risk subjects, either by virus isolation of by PCR (97.5% confidence limits, 0-11). Our results indicate that ongoing HIV infection in seronegative persons at high risk of infection is a rare event....
Roderick, Erin; Jung, Adrian Woo
School administrators fall short of supporting special education teachers due to a lack of knowledge of and experience in special education. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare leadership behaviors perceived as supportive by special education teachers and school site administrators. Data collection involved a survey instrument…
Bath, Debra M.
Research has consistently reported that social support from family, friends, and colleagues is an important factor in the bereaved person's ability to cope after the loss of a loved one. This study used a Theory of Planned Behavior framework to identify those factors that predict a person's intention to interact with, and support, a grieving…
Feuerborn, Laura L.; Tyre, Ashli D.
Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) offers an alternative to reactive and exclusionary school discipline practices. However, the shift to SWPBS requires substantial change in the practices of staff, and many leadership teams struggle to rally staff support for implementation. With a more thorough understanding of staff perceptions, level…
Kwan, Mun Yee; Gordon, Kathryn H
Two studies tested a model where perceived stress was the proposed mediator for the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and unhealthy food consumption among undergraduate students. Study 1 was a longitudinal, online study in which undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Bulimia Test-Revised at the Time 1 assessment, and the Perceived Stress Scale and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire at the Time 2 assessment, approximately four weeks later. Study 2 was an experimental study in which female participants were randomly assigned into a group with or without social support. Stress was induced with a speech task, followed by a bogus taste task paradigm designed to assess unhealthy food consumption. Bootstrap analyses revealed an indirect effect of perceived social support on bulimic behaviors and unhealthy food consumption through perceived stress. Perceived social support was associated with lower perceived stress in both studies. Lower perceived stress was associated with less self-reported bulimic behaviors in Study 1 and greater consumption of unhealthy foods in Study 2. The negative association between perceived stress and calorie consumption in Study 2 was moderated by dietary restraint. Findings suggest that stress perception helps to explain the relationship between perceived social support and bulimic behaviors, and between perceived social support and calorie consumption. Stress perception may be an important treatment target for eating disorder symptoms among undergraduate students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tyre, Ashli D.; Feuerborn, Laura L.; Woods, Leslie
Understanding staff concerns about a systemic change effort allows leadership teams to better anticipate and address staff needs for professional development and support. In this study, staff concerns in nine schools planning for or implementing School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) were explored using the…
Boccaccini, Dino; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Blennow Tullmar, Peter
Creep is the inelastic deformation of a material at high temperatures over long periods of time. It can be defined as timedependent deformation at absolute temperatures greater than one half the absolute melting. Creep resistance is a key parameter for high temperature steel components, e.g. SOFC...... metal supports, where high corrosion resistance is a major design requirement. The four variables affecting creep rate are strain, time, temperature, and stress level and make creep difficult to quantify. In this work, the creep parameters of a SOFC metal support have been determined for the first time...... by means of a thermo mechanical analyzer (TMA) for stresses in the range of 1-17 MPa and temperatures between 650-750 °C. The creep parameters of Crofer® 22 APU were also acquired and compared with values obtained from literature to validate the technique....
Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.
Santos, Venetia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zamberlan, Maria Cristina [National Institute of Tehnology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Human Reliability and Ergonomics Research Group for the Oil, Gas and Energy Sector
The evolution of ergonomics methodology has become necessary due to the dynamics imposed by the work environment, by the increase of the need of human cooperation and by the high interaction between various sections within a company. In the last 25 years, as of studies made in the high risk process control, we have developed a methodology to evaluate these situations that focus on the assessment of activities and human cooperation, the assessment of context, the assessment of the impact of work of other sectors in the final activity of the operator, as well as the modeling of existing risks. (author)
Falk, Erling; Sillesen, Henrik; Muntendam, Pieter
The High-Risk Plaque (HRP) Initiative is a research and development effort to advance the understanding, recognition, and management of asymptomatic individuals at risk for a near-term atherothrombotic event such as myocardial infarction or stroke. Clinical studies using the newest technologies...... have been initiated, including the BioImage Study in which novel approaches are tested in a typical health plan population. Asymptomatic at-risk individuals were enrolled, including a survey-only group (n = 865), a group undergoing traditional risk factor scoring (n = 718), and a group in which all...
Kiernan, Michaela; Moore, Susan D.; Schoffman, Danielle E.; Lee, Katherine; King, Abby C.; Taylor, C. Barr; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen; Perri, Michael G.
Social support could be a powerful weight-loss treatment moderator or mediator but is rarely assessed. We assessed the psychometric properties, initial levels, and predictive validity of a measure of perceived social support and sabotage from friends and family for healthy eating and physical activity (eight subscales). Overweight/obese women randomized to one of two 6-month, group-based behavioral weight-loss programs (N=267; mean BMI 32.1±3.5; 66.3% White) completed subscales at baseline, and weight loss was assessed at 6 months. Internal consistency, discriminant validity, and content validity were excellent for support subscales and adequate for sabotage subscales; qualitative responses revealed novel deliberate instances not reflected in current sabotage items. Most women (>75%) “never” or “rarely” experienced support from friends or family. Using non-parametric classification methods, we identified two subscales—support from friends for healthy eating and support from family for physical activity—that predicted three clinically meaningful subgroups who ranged in likelihood of losing ≥5% of initial weight at 6 months. Women who “never” experienced family support were least likely to lose weight (45.7% lost weight) whereas women who experienced both frequent friend and family support were more likely to lose weight (71.6% lost weight). Paradoxically, women who “never” experienced friend support were most likely to lose weight (80.0% lost weight), perhaps because the group-based programs provided support lacking from friendships. Psychometrics for support subscales were excellent; initial support was rare; and the differential roles of friend versus family support could inform future targeted weight-loss interventions to subgroups at risk. PMID:21996661
Tayib, Abdulmalik M.
Objective was to evaluate the short-term tolerability and outcome of high power green light potassium titanyl phosphate laser prostatectomy in high-risk patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eleven high risk operative patients were included in this study at the International Medical Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January and September 2007. Patients enrolled in this study underwent preoperative and postoperative, cardiac and anesthesia evaluation. Clinical presentations, ultrasound of urinary tract and preoperative laboratory investigation were recorded. All patients underwent high power green light laser prostatectomy using the green light photo vaporization system with setting of 120 watts. The intraoperative and postoperative complications and follow-up were recorded. The patient's age varied between 65-82 years with a mean age of 75.3+-8.6 years old. Seven patients presented with refractory acute urinary retention and 4 patients presented with severe lower urinary tract symptoms. The average prostate volume was 61.22 cc. All patients had uneventful intra- and postoperative course, without the intensive care. The average blood loss was insignificant and only one of the patients required blood transfusion. Foley catheters were removed one day after the procedure. All patients voided satisfactorily after removal of catheter and 8 patients complained of urgency. High power green light laser prostatectomy is a safe and effective method of treating symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia in patients with high operative risk. (author)
Riedl, C.C.; Ponhold, L.; Gruber, R.; Pinker, K.; Helbich, T.H.
Women with an elevated risk for breast cancer require intensified screening beginning at an early age. Such high risk screening differs considerably from screening in the general population. After an expert has evaluated the exact risk a breast MRI examination should be offered at least once a year and beginning latest at the age of 30 depending on the patients risk category. Complementary mammograms should not be performed before the age of 35. An additional ultrasound examination is no longer recommended. To ensure a high sensitivity and specificity high risk screening should be performed only at a nationally or regionally approved and audited service. Adequate knowledge about the phenotypical characteristics of familial breast cancer is essential. Besides the common malignant phenotypes, benign morphologies (round or oval shape and smooth margins) as well as a low prevalence of calcifications have been described. Using MRI benign contrast media kinetics as well as non-solid lesions with focal, regional and segmental enhancement can often be visualized. (orig.) [de
Elwell, Laura; Powell, Jane; Wordsworth, Sharon; Cummins, Carole
Evidence indicates that health behavior change initiatives are often not implemented successfully. This qualitative study aims to understand the barriers and facilitators to implementation of health behavior change brief advice into routine practice in an acute children's hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals working at a UK children's hospital (n=33). Participants were purposively sampled to incorporate a range of specialties, job roles and training. An inductive thematic framework analysis identified two emergent themes. These capture the challenges of implementing routine health behavior change support in a children's hospital setting: (1) 'health professional knowledge, beliefs and behaviors' and (2) 'patient and family related challenges'. This study enhances findings from previous research by outlining the challenges pediatric health professionals face in relation to supporting health behavior change. Challenges include failure to assume responsibility, low confidence, prioritization of the health provider relationship with patients and families, health provider and patient knowledge, and low patient and family motivation. Skills-based behavior change training is needed for pediatric health professionals to effectively support health behavior change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shirazi, Mandana; Emami, Amir Hosein; Mirmoosavi, Seyed Jamal; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Hadi; Fathollahbeigi, Faezeh; Masiello, Italo
Effective leadership is of prime importance in any organization and it goes through changes based on accepted health promotion and behavior change theory. Although there are many leadership styles, transformational leadership, which emphasizes supportive leadership behaviors, seems to be an appropriate style in many settings particularly in the health care and educational sectors which are pressured by high turnover and safety demands. Iran has been moving rapidly forward and its authorities have understood and recognized the importance of matching leadership styles with effective and competent care for success in health care organizations. This study aimed to develop the Supportive Leadership Behaviors Scale based on accepted health and educational theories and to psychometrically test it in the Iranian context. The instrument was based on items from established questionnaires. A pilot study validated the instrument which was also cross-validated via re-translation. After validation, 731 participants answered the questionnaire. The instrument was finalized and resulted in a 20-item questionnaire using the exploratory factor analysis, which yielded four factors of support for development, integrity, sincerity and recognition and explaining the supportive leadership behaviors (all above 0.6). Mapping these four measures of leadership behaviors can be beneficial to determine whether effective leadership could support innovation and improvements in medical education and health care organizations on the national level. The reliability measured as Cronbach's alpha was 0.84. This new instrument yielded four factors of support for development, integrity, sincerity and recognition and explaining the supportive leadership behaviors which are applicable in health and educational settings and are helpful in improving self -efficacy among health and academic staff.
Lippold, Melissa A; Glatz, Terese; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E
Prior studies have found that parents' perceptions of control over their lives and their social support may both be important for parenting behaviors. Yet, few studies have examined their unique and interacting influence on parenting behaviors during early adolescence. This longitudinal study of rural parents in two-parent families (N = 636) investigated (a) whether perceived control and social support when their youth were in sixth grade were independently or interactively associated with changes in parenting behaviors (discipline, standard setting) and parent-child warmth and hostility 6 months later and (b) if these linkages differed by parent gender. We also investigated the interactive links between perceived control, social support, and parenting. Specifically, we tested if parents' perceived control moderated the linkages between social support and parenting and if these linkages differed by parent gender. Greater perceived control predicted more increases in parents' consistent discipline and standard setting, whereas greater social support predicted increases in parent-child warmth and decreases in parent-child hostility. Parental perceived control moderated the effect of social support on parental warmth: For mothers only, social support was significantly linked to parent-child warmth only when mothers had low (but not high) perceived self-control. The discussion focuses on reasons why perceived control and social support may have associations with different aspects of parenting and why these might differ for mothers and fathers. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Kittelman, Angus; Wagner Bromley, Katherine; Mazzotti, Valerie L.
Work experiences are linked to positive post-school outcomes for youth and young adults with disabilities. Unfortunately, students who struggle to manage conflict and challenges in work settings have a difficult time maintaining employment. Though ecological assessments are used to create supported work plans surrounding socially inappropriate…
Lloyd, Gillian R; Oza, Sonal; Kozey-Keadle, Sarah; Pellegrini, Christine A; Conroy, David E; Penedo, Frank J; Spring, Bonnie J; Phillips, Siobhan M
Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors' interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors' interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Breast cancer survivors [n=279; M age =60.7 ( SD =9.7)] completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors' interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. On average, survivors spent 10.1 ( SD =4.3) hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0%) and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%). Survivors believed they should move around after 30-60 (56.7%) or ≥60 (29.9%) minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1%) or walking in place (73.4%). The majority of survivors (79.9%) was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3%) 2-3 times/day (48.0%), 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%). Most survivors (73.5%) believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5%) via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3%) or text messages (54.4%). Technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions may be feasible and
Bonnie J. Spring
Full Text Available Purpose: Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors’ interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors’ interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Methods: Breast cancer survivors (n = 279; Mage = 60.7 (SD = 9.7 completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors’ interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, survivors spent 10.1 (SD = 4.3 hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0% and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%. Survivors believed they should move around after 30–60 (56.7% or ≥ 60 (29.9% minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1% or walking in place (73.4%. The majority of survivors (79.9% was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3% 2–3 times/day (48.0%, 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%. Most survivors (73.5% believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5% via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3% or text messages (54.4%. Conclusions: Technology-supported sedentary
Shirazi, Mandana; Emami, Amir Hosein; Mirmoosavi, ,Seyed Jamal; Alavinia, Seyed Mohammad; Zamanian, Hadi; Fathollahbeigi, Faezeh; Masiello, Italo
Background: Effective leadership is of prime importance in any organization and it goes through changes based on accepted health promotion and behavior change theory. Although there are many leadership styles, transformational leadership, which emphasizes supportive leadership behaviors, seems to be an appropriate style in many settings particularly in the health care and educational sectors which are pressured by high turnover and safety demands. Iran has been moving rapidly forward and its ...
Xu, Na; Chen, Ming; Han, Minfang
In this work, we investigated the long-term oxidation behavior of a Ni-Fe (1:1 weight ratio) support for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Ni-Fe supports were obtained through tape casting, high temperature sintering and pre-reducing in 97% H2/N2 (9/91)-3% H2O at 750 and 1000 °C, respect...... annealed in the two atmospheres maintained sufficiently high conductivity. The results from the current work demonstrate that the porous Ni-Fe support can be well employed in SOFCs, especially metal-supported SOFCs....
Lorencatto, Fabiana; West, Robert; Bruguera, Carla; Michie, Susan
Behavioral support for smoking cessation is delivered through different modalities, often guided by treatment manuals. Recently developed methods for assessing fidelity of delivery have shown that face-to-face behavioral support is often not delivered as specified in the service treatment manual. This study aimed to extend this method to evaluate fidelity of telephone-delivered behavioral support. A treatment manual and transcripts of 75 audio-recorded behavioral support sessions were obtained from the United Kingdom's national Quitline service and coded into component behavior change techniques (BCTs) using a taxonomy of 45 smoking cessation BCTs. Interrater reliability was assessed using percentage agreement. Fidelity was assessed by comparing the number of BCTs identified in the manual with those delivered in telephone sessions by 4 counselors. Fidelity was assessed according to session type, duration, counselor, and BCT. Differences between self-reported and actual BCT use were examined. Average coding reliability was high (81%). On average, 41.8% of manual-specified BCTs were delivered per session (SD = 16.2), with fidelity varying by counselor from 32% to 49%. Fidelity was highest in pre-quit sessions (46%) and for BCT "give options for additional support" (95%). Fidelity was lowest for quit-day sessions (35%) and BCT "set graded tasks" (0%). Session duration was positively correlated with fidelity (r = .585; p reliably coded in terms of BCTs. This can be used to assess fidelity to treatment manuals and to in turn identify training needs. The observed low fidelity underlines the need to establish routine procedures for monitoring delivery of behavioral support. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lei; Liao, Jiangqun
The presence of delay of gratification (DG) in childhood is correlated with success later in a person's life. Is there any way of helping adults with a low level of DG to obtain similar success? The present research examines how social support helps those low in DG nonetheless to act similarly to those high in DG. This research includes both correlational studies and experiments that manipulate social support as well as both field studies and a laboratory study. The results show that with high social support, employees (Study 1) and university students (Study 2) low in DG report vocational and academic DG behavioral intentions, respectively, similar to those high in DG. Study 3 found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed job-choice DG similar to those high in the DG. Study 4 controlled for mood and self-image and found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed more money-choice DG than those high in the DG. Study 5 showed that social support moderated the relationship between DG and actual DG behaviors. These findings provide evidence for a moderating role of social support in the expression of DG behavior. PMID:27047408
Shuaishuai WANG; Caichao ZHU; Chaosheng SONG; Huali HAN
The reliability and service life of wind turbines are influenced by the complex loading applied on the hub,especially amidst a poor external wind environment.A three-point elastic support,which includes the main bearing and two torque arms,was considered in this study.Based on the flexibilities of the planet carrier and the housing,a coupled dynamic model was developed for a wind turbine drive train.Then,the dynamic behaviors of the drive train for different elastic support parameters were computed and analyzed.Frequency response functions were used to examine how different elastic support parameters influence the dynamic behaviors of the drive train.Results showed that the elastic support parameters considerably influenced the dynamic behaviors of the wind turbine drive train.A large support stiffness of the torque arms decreased the dynamic response of the planet carrier and the main bearing,whereas a large support stiffness of the main bearing decreased the dynamic response of planet carrier while increasing that of the main bearing.The findings of this study provide the foundation for optimizing the elastic support stiffness of the wind turbine drive train.
Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Bodner, Todd; Crain, Tori
Recently, scholars have demonstrated the importance of Family Supportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB), defined as behaviors exhibited by supervisors that are supportive of employees’ family roles, in relation to health, well-being, and organizational outcomes. FSSB was originally conceptualized as a multidimensional, superordinate construct with four subordinate dimensions assessed with 14 items: emotional support, instrumental support, role modeling behaviors, and creative work-family management. Retaining one item from each dimension, two studies were conducted to support the development and use of a new FSSB-Short Form (FSSB-SF). Study 1 draws on the original data from the FSSB validation study of retail employees to determine if the results using the 14-item measure replicate with the shorter 4-item measure. Using data from a sample of 823 information technology professionals and their 219 supervisors, Study 2 extends the validation of the FSSB-SF to a new sample of professional workers and new outcome variables. Results from multilevel confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel regression analyses provide evidence of construct and criterion-related validity of the FSSB-SF, as it was significantly related to work-family conflict, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, control over work hours, obligation to work when sick, perceived stress, and reports of family time adequacy. We argue that it is important to develop parsimonious measures of work-family specific support to ensure supervisor support for work and family is mainstreamed into organizational research and practice. PMID:23730803
Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle
Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were…
Reigles, Damon G., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [engNoveX, Inc., 19C Trolley Square, Wilmington, DE 19806 (United States); Brachmann, Ingo; Johnson, William H. [Bechtel Nuclear, Security & Environmental, 12011 Sunset Hills Rd, Suite 110, Reston, VA 20190 (United States); Gürbüz, Orhan [Tobolski Watkins Engineering, Inc., 4125 Sorrento Valley Blvd, Suite B, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)
Highlights: • Describes dynamic response behavior of unistrut type cable tray supports. • Summarizes observations from past full-scale shake table test programs. • Outlines testing methodologies necessary to identify key system parameters. - Abstract: Nuclear power plant safety-related cable tray support systems subjected to seismic loadings were originally understood and designed to behave as linear elastic systems. This behavioral paradigm persisted until the early 1980s when, due to evolution of regulatory criteria, some as-installed systems needed to be qualified to higher seismic motions than originally designed for. This requirement prompted a more in-depth consideration of the true seismic response behavior of support systems. Several utilities initiated extensive test programs, which demonstrated that trapeze strut-type cable tray support systems exhibited inelastic and nonlinear response behaviors with plastic hinging at the connections together with high damping due to bouncing of cables in the trays. These observations were used to demonstrate and justify the seismic adequacy of the aforementioned as-installed systems. However, no formalized design methodology or criteria were ever established to facilitate use of these test data for future evaluations. This paper assimilates and reviews the various test data and conclusions for the purpose of developing a design methodology for the seismic qualification of safety-related cable tray support systems.
Full Text Available The present essay will analyze the offence of prescribing high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics, as it was regulated - together with other offences - by Law no 143 of July 26, 2000 on preventing and fighting against the traffic and illicit consumption of narcotics. The same law defines the meaning of such a phrase “substances which are under national control” by mentioning the fact that they are the narcotics and their precursors listed in Annexes I-IV of the law. The analysis of the offence of prescribing the high risk narcotics and trading or illicit purchasing of high risk narcotics is following the already known structure mentioned in the doctrine and which consists of: object and subjects of the offence, its constituent content: the objective side with its material element, the immediate consequence and causality connections; the subjective side of the offence, as well as forms and modalities of these offences, and the applicable sanctions, of course.
Full Text Available Driving support and cruise assist systems are of growing importance in achieving both road traffic safety and convenience. Such driver support seeks to achieve, with the highest possible quality, nothing less than “driver-vehicle symbiosis under all conditions.” At the same time, many traffic accidents result from improper driver behavior. The author focuses on driver behavior under various driving conditions, conducting detailed measurement and analysis of visual perception and attention characteristics as well as perceptual characteristics involved in driving. The aim in doing so is to support research on driving support systems and driving workload reduction technologies that function as human-vehicle systems and take such characteristics into account.
Rofcanin, Yasin; Heras , Mireia Las; Bakker, Arnold B
Informed by social information processing (SIP) theory, in this study, we assessed the associations among family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSBs) as perceived by subordinates, subordinate work engagement, and supervisor-rated work performance. Moreover, we explored the role of family supportive organizational culture as a contextual variable influencing our proposed associations. Our findings using matched supervisor-subordinate data collected from a financial credit company in Mexico ...
Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Miramontes, Nancy Y.
Criteria for evaluating behavior support programs are changing. Consumer-based educational and behavioral programs, such as School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), are particularly influenced by consumer opinion. Unfortunately, the need for and use of social validity measures have not received adequate attention in the empirical literature…
Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Peristera, Paraskevi; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Westerlund, Hugo
Lifestyle has been regarded as a key pathway through which adverse psychosocial working characteristics can give rise to long-term health problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect/mediated effect of health behaviors in the longitudinal work characteristics-depression relationship. The analyses were based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 3706 working participants with repeat survey measures on four occasions (2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014). Psychosocial work characteristics including demands and social support were analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were used to estimate the intermediate effects of unhealthy behaviors including current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Both workplace demands and social support were related to later depressive symptoms. In bivariate models we found no significant paths from workplace demands to health behaviors, but two out of three significant time-specific paths from workplace support to excessive drinking and from excessive drinking to depressive symptoms. Social support was also associated with subsequent unhealthy diet, and one path from unhealthy diet to depressive symptoms was found. However, despite indications of certain longitudinal relationships between psychosocial working conditions and health behaviors as well as between health behaviors and depressive symptoms, no significant intermediate effects were found (p>0.05). We conclude that changes in unhealthy behaviors over a period of two years are unlikely to act as strong intermediaries in the longitudinal relationship between job demands and depressive symptoms and between social support and depressive symptoms.
Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Peristera, Paraskevi; Chungkham, Holendro Singh; Westerlund, Hugo
Lifestyle has been regarded as a key pathway through which adverse psychosocial working characteristics can give rise to long-term health problems. The purpose of this study was to estimate the indirect/mediated effect of health behaviors in the longitudinal work characteristics-depression relationship. The analyses were based on the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health, including 3706 working participants with repeat survey measures on four occasions (2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014). Psychosocial work characteristics including demands and social support were analyzed in relation to depressive symptoms. Autoregressive longitudinal mediation models using structural equation modeling were used to estimate the intermediate effects of unhealthy behaviors including current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Both workplace demands and social support were related to later depressive symptoms. In bivariate models we found no significant paths from workplace demands to health behaviors, but two out of three significant time-specific paths from workplace support to excessive drinking and from excessive drinking to depressive symptoms. Social support was also associated with subsequent unhealthy diet, and one path from unhealthy diet to depressive symptoms was found. However, despite indications of certain longitudinal relationships between psychosocial working conditions and health behaviors as well as between health behaviors and depressive symptoms, no significant intermediate effects were found (p>0.05). We conclude that changes in unhealthy behaviors over a period of two years are unlikely to act as strong intermediaries in the longitudinal relationship between job demands and depressive symptoms and between social support and depressive symptoms. PMID:28036376
... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other People at High Risk of Developing Flu–Related Complications ... related complications if they get sick with influenza. People at High Risk for Developing Flu-Related Complications ...
Abernethy, Amy P; Wheeler, Jane L; Courtney, Paul K; Keefe, Francis J
The advancement of translational behavioral medicine will require that we discover new methods of managing large volumes of data from disparate sources such as disease surveillance systems, public health systems, and health information systems containing patient-centered data informed by behavioral and social sciences. The term "liquidity," when applied to data, refers to its availability and free flow throughout human/computer interactions. In seeking to achieve liquidity, the focus is not on creating a single, comprehensive database or set of coordinated datasets, nor is it solely on developing the electronic health record as the "one-stop shopping" source of health-related data. Rather, attention is on ensuring the availability of secure data through the various methods of collecting and storing data currently existent or under development-so that these components of the health information infrastructure together support a liquid data system. The value of accessible, interoperable, high-volume, reliable, secure, and contextually appropriate data is becoming apparent in many areas of the healthcare system, and health information liquidity is currently viewed as an important component of a patient-centered healthcare system. The translation from research interventions to behavioral and psychosocial indicators challenges the designers of healthcare systems to include this new set of data in the correct context. With the intention of advancing translational behavioral medicine at the local level, "on the ground" in the clinical office and research institution, this commentary discusses data liquidity from the patient's and clinician's perspective, requirements for a liquid healthcare data system, and the ways in which data liquidity can support translational behavioral medicine.
Suicidal and violent behaviors as well as early life adversity are prevalent in clinical high-risk populations. Early life adversity is related to developmental dysregulation of behavioral and emotional traits. The neuroendocrine systems involved in the development of dysfunctional behavior and impulsive aggressive traits are not fully known. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and personality traits, as well as to exposur...
Full Text Available Purpose: The exactly and precisely supply of carrying spare parts has a crucial impact on support and could improve the performance of equipment. Spare parts support is the crux work which will be limited by spare parts allocation and support cost input. Reasonable support strategy can help in making good use of available resources and support the equipment in normal operational status. The purpose of this paper is to propose a dynamics model of spare parts support process based on considering the interaction of multiple factors, and explores the regulation of dynamics behavior in the system. In order to achieve the optimization strategy to improve the effect of support so that will enhance the relevant support parameters of equipment. Design/methodology/approach: Meditate the feedback relationship among some important factors of support that involve support cost, support time and maintenance ability. System dynamics theory is adopted to propose a dynamics model of spare parts support process, on the analysis of multiple factors and casual relationship to find some major ones which have crucial impact on spare parts support. Spare parts support cost and availability was regarded as the control objective, moreover, adjust the control paramours and improve the effect of cannibalization and lateral supply scheduling strategy for spares support. Findings: The factors of spare parts supply, demand and maintenance have relationship of control feedback, and adjust the value of some crucial factors can reduce the support cost and improve the availability value. The main finding is that adopting cannibalization strategy under condition of available materials can relieve the mission and operational availability decline caused by shortage of spare parts. Combining the lateral supply and cannibalization strategy can reduce the inventory of warship carrying spare parts. Practical implications: By controlling the value of key factors regarding aspect of spare
Bayer, Angela M.; Cabrera, Lilia Z.; Gilman, Robert H.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Tsui, Amy O.
We analyzed the association between sub-scales developed with adolescents and the outcomes of precoital behaviors and vaginal sex in Lima, Peru. Adolescent participants in key informant sessions operationalized concepts identified during qualitative concept mapping into several sub-scales. Face and content validity testing and pilot application with respondent debriefing were used to refine the sub-scales. Three hundred 15–17 year olds were surveyed about the sub-scales, socio-demographics and sexual behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed six sub-scales, self-image, goals and decision-making, family education, parental rules/control, school support and peer support, which we regressed on the outcomes. Twice as many males as females reported more than three precoital behaviors and vaginal sex. Higher peer support reduced the likelihood of vaginal sex and precoital behaviors and higher family education reduced precoital behaviors. Results affirm the importance of including adolescents in the entire research process and of sex education with family- and peer-based strategies. PMID:25305443
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Koth, Christine W.; Bevans, Katherine B.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Leaf, Philip J.
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a universal, school-wide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 7,500 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. PBIS aims to alter school environments…
Hollingshead, Aleksandra; Kroeger, Stephen D.; Altus, Jillian; Trytten, Joyce Brubaker
Struggling with frequent off-task behavior, a teacher in a midwestern inner-city high school requested assistance in her social studies classroom. A study was designed to investigate if a combination of positive behavior supports-based interventions such as behavior-specific praise and reduced teacher reprimands might improve on-task behavior. A…
Poursoroush, Asma; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Laradji, Mohamed
Solid-supported lipid bilayers are utilized by experimental scientists as models for biological membranes because of their stability. However, compared to free standing bilayers, their close proximity to the substrate may affect their phase behavior. As this is still poorly understood, and few co...
Kincaid, Don; Dunlap, Glen; Kern, Lee; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Bambara, Linda M.; Brown, Fredda; Fox, Lise; Knoster, Timothy P.
Positive behavior support (PBS) has been a dynamic and growing enterprise for more than 25 years. During this period, PBS has expanded applications across a wide range of populations and multiple levels of implementation. As a result, there have been understandable inconsistencies and confusion regarding the definition of PBS. In this essay, we…
Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.
Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…
Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane
The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…
Gay, Ronald Lynn
This study examined factors related to the implementation of a School Wide Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support (SWPBIS) program at a large middle school in the United States. Parent Teacher Student Association volunteers at the school reported that teacher fidelity to implementation of SWPBIS activities was inconsistent, threatening the…
Combs, Christine; Martin, Barbara N.
This article examines what occurred within schools successfully implementing and sustaining Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports through the lens of leadership capacity. Leadership capacity, a broad-based, skillful participation in leadership, promotes the capabilities of many organizational members to lead. Researchers used quantitative analysis…
Hall, William J.; McDougald, Amanda M.; Kresica, Aimee M.
This study examined high school counselors' education and training, counseling competency, and supportive behavior regarding gay, lesbian, and bisexual students. Sexual minority students often face a range of school and mental health problems. Results show that participants' counseling competency skills, knowledge, and attitudes predict…
Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Gage, Nicholas A.; Sugai, George
Given the increased interest and implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems in schools in the United States, practitioners and researchers have become interested in how to improve implementation with students and staff from a wide range of cultural backgrounds. Fallon, O'Keeffe, and Sugai (2012) reviewed the literature…
Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang; Wang, Jing-Jy; Yen, Maiofen; Liu, Tzu-Ti
Institutionalized elderly who are frail and dependent are vulnerable to be abused by overwhelmed caregivers especially caregiver psychological abusive behavior is a growing but hidden problem with few evidence-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an educational support group in alleviating caregiver's…
Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chu, Cordia M.; Lin, Jin-Ding
Although many previous studies have begun to address the reproductive health needs of women with intellectual disabilities; however, the supportive behaviors of caregivers to assist their reproductive health is not well understood. Data from a cross-sectional survey of ""2009 National Survey on Reproductive Health Care Needs and Health…
Young, Linn D.
To provide a more developed research model of innovation in organizations, we reconsidered current thinking about the effects of organizational justice on innovative behavior at work. We investigated the mediating role of perceived organizational support (POS) between the two constructs. As hypothesized, empirical results showed that justice…
Chitiyo, Jonathan; May, Michael E.
The Schoolwide Positive Behavior Intervention Support model (SWPBIS) continues to gain widespread use across schools in the United States and abroad. Despite its widespread implementation, little research has examined factors that influence its sustainability. Informed by Rogers's diffusion theory, this study examined school personnel's…
The purpose of this quantitative correlation study was to examine the predictors of user behavioral intention on the decision of oncology care providers to adopt or reject the clinical decision support system. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) formed the foundation of the research model and survey instrument. The…
Macrì, S; Mainetti, L; Patrono, L; Pieretti, S; Secco, A; Sergi, I
The behavioral analysis of laboratory mice plays a key role in several medical and scientific research areas, such as biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and so on. Important information on mice behavior and their reaction to a particular stimulus is deduced from a careful analysis of their movements. Moreover, behavioral analysis of genetically modified mice allows obtaining important information about particular genes, phenotypes or drug effects. The techniques commonly adopted to support such analysis have many limitations, which make the related systems particularly ineffective. Currently, the engineering community is working to explore innovative identification and sensing technologies to develop new tracking systems able to guarantee benefits to animals' behavior analysis. This work presents a tracking solution based on passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. Much emphasis is given to the software component of the system, based on a Web-oriented solution, able to process the raw tracking data coming from a hardware system, and offer 2D and 3D tracking information as well as reports and dashboards about mice behavior. The system has been widely tested using laboratory mice and compared with an automated video-tracking software (i.e., EthoVision). The obtained results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed solution, which is able to correctly detect the events occurring in the animals' cage, and to offer a complete and user-friendly tool to support researchers in behavioral analysis of laboratory mice.
Woodman, Tim; Barlow, Matt; Bandura, Comille; Hill, Miles; Kupciw, Dominika; Macgregor, Alexandra
Although high-risk sport participants are typically considered a homogenous risk-taking population, attitudes to risk within the high-risk domain can vary considerably. As no validated measure allows researchers to assess risk taking within this domain, we validated the Risk Taking Inventory (RTI) for high-risk sport across four studies. The RTI comprises seven items across two factors: deliberate risk taking and precautionary behaviors. In Study 1 (n = 341), the inventory was refined and tested via a confirmatory factor analysis used in an exploratory fashion. The subsequent three studies confirmed the RTI's good model-data fit via three further separate confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2 (n = 518) and in Study 3 (n = 290), concurrent validity was also confirmed via associations with other related traits (sensation seeking, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, impulsivity, self-esteem, extraversion, and conscientiousness). In Study 4 (n = 365), predictive validity was confirmed via associations with mean accidents and mean close calls in the high-risk domain. Finally, in Study 4, the self-report version of the inventory was significantly associated with an informant version of the inventory. The measure will allow researchers and practitioners to investigate risk taking as a variable that is conceptually distinct from participation in a high-risk sport.
Abidi, Samina; Vallis, Michael; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Imran, Syed Ali; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza
We present Diabetes Web-Centric Information and Support Environment (D-WISE) that features: (a) Decision support tool to assist family physicians to administer Behavior Modification (BM) strategies to patients; and (b) Patient BM application that offers BM strategies and motivational interventions to engage patients. We take a knowledge management approach, using semantic web technologies, to model the social cognition theory constructs, Canadian diabetes guidelines and BM protocols used locally, in terms of a BM ontology that drives the BM decision support to physicians and BM strategy adherence monitoring and messaging to patients. We present the qualitative analysis of D-WISE usability by both physicians and patients.
Balcı Şengül, Melike Ceyhan; Kaya, Vildan; Şen, Cenk Ahmet; Kaya, Kemal
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between suicidal behavior and associated factors such as depression, anxiety, and perceived social support level in cancer patients. The study group included 102 patients who were under treatment in the oncology department and the control group included 100 individuals with similar sociodemographic features. A sociodemographic information form, Beck depression inventory, Beck anxiety inventory, suicidal behavior inventory, suicidal ideation inventory, and multidimensional inventory of perceived social support were used. The mean Beck depression inventory and Beck anxiety inventory scores in the study group were significantly higher compared to the control group. Thirteen patients in the study group attempted suicide, whereas 3 individuals attempted suicide in the control group. Similarly, the mean suicide behavior and ideation scores in the study group were significantly higher compared to the control group. The mean total multidimensional inventories of perceived social support score, as well as the mean family and friend sub-inventory scores in the control group were significantly higher compared to the study group. This study revealed that depression and anxiety occur frequently in cancer patients. Suicide attempts and ideation are higher in cancer patients compared to the control group. Social support perceived from family and friends is lower in cancer patients. Suicide attempts are correlated with depression, anxiety, low level of perceived social support, and advanced disease stage.
Andall-Brereton, Glennis; Brown, Eulynis; Slater, Sherian; Holder, Yvette; Luciani, Silvana; Lewis, Merle; Irons, Beryl
To characterize high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in a sample of women in two small English-speaking Caribbean countries: Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Sexually active women ≥ 30 years old attending primary care health facilities participated in the study. Each participant had a gynecological examination, and two cervical specimens were collected: (1) a specimen for a Papanicolaou (Pap) test and (2) a sample of exfoliated cervical cells for HPV DNA testing, using the HPV High Risk Screen Real-TM (Sacace). High-risk HPV genotypes were assessed in 404 women in Saint Kitts and Nevis and 368 women in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV was detected in 102 of 404 (25.2%) in Saint Kitts and Nevis and in 109 of 368 (29.6%) in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV genotypes 52, 35, 51, 45, and 31 were the most common high-risk types in Saint Kitts and Nevis. In Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the most common high-risk HPV genotypes were 45, 35, 31, 18, and 51. Current age was found to be significantly associated with high-risk HPV infection in both countries. In addition, in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, high parity (> 3 pregnancies) and having had an abnormal Pap smear were found to be independent risk factors for high-risk HPV. These results contribute to the evidence on HPV prevalence for small island states of the Caribbean and support the accelerated introduction of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in the two countries and elsewhere in the English-speaking Caribbean. Use of the study's results to guide the development of policy regarding implementation of HPV testing as the primary screening modality for older women is recommended.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To characterize high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infections in a sample of women in two small English-speaking Caribbean countries: Saint Kitts and Nevis and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Methods Sexually active women ≥ 30 years old attending primary care health facilities participated in the study. Each participant had a gynecological examination, and two cervical specimens were collected: (1 a specimen for a Papanicolaou (Pap test and (2 a sample of exfoliated cervical cells for HPV DNA testing, using the HPV High Risk Screen Real-TM (Sacace. High-risk HPV genotypes were assessed in 404 women in Saint Kitts and Nevis and 368 women in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Results High-risk HPV was detected in 102 of 404 (25.2% in Saint Kitts and Nevis and in 109 of 368 (29.6% in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. High-risk HPV genotypes 52, 35, 51, 45, and 31 were the most common high-risk types in Saint Kitts and Nevis. In Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the most common high-risk HPV genotypes were 45, 35, 31, 18, and 51. Current age was found to be significantly associated with high-risk HPV infection in both countries. In addition, in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, high parity (> 3 pregnancies and having had an abnormal Pap smear were found to be independent risk factors for high-risk HPV. Conclusions These results contribute to the evidence on HPV prevalence for small island states of the Caribbean and support the accelerated introduction of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in the two countries and elsewhere in the English-speaking Caribbean. Use of the study’s results to guide the development of policy regarding implementation of HPV testing as the primary screening modality for older women is recommended.
Bellet, S.; Roux, P.; Bhandari, D.R.; Schwirian, R.E.; Yu, C.; Matarazzo, J.C.; Singleton, N.R.
Degradation/failure of thermal shield support system in PWRs has been observed in the US as well as in foreign plants. In almost all the cases, remedial actions were put in place at very high economic costs to the utilities only after the failures had occurred. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive study to predict the long term behavior of a thermal shield support system due to flow-induced vibratory loads and thermal transients. Excellent agreement from the system finite model between the measured plant test data on the barrel/thermal shield beam and shell mode frequencies and the flexure strains confirms the basic structural behavior and physics of the flow induced vibrations. Loads and stresses on the support bolts and the flexures were determined to predict the fatigue life of the components
Lycett, Stephen J; Collard, Mark; McGrew, William C
Culture has long been considered to be not only unique to humans, but also responsible for making us qualitatively different from all other forms of life. In recent years, however, researchers studying chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have challenged this idea. Natural populations of chimpanzees have been found to vary greatly in their behavior. Because many of these interpopulation differences cannot be readily explained by ecological factors, it has been argued that they result from social learning and, therefore, can be regarded as cultural variations. Recent studies showing social transmission in captive chimpanzee populations suggest that this hypothesis is plausible. However, the culture hypothesis has been questioned on the grounds that the behavioral variation may be explained at a proximate level by genetic differences between subspecies. Here we use cladistic analyses of the major cross-site behavioral data set to test the hypothesis that the behavioral differences among the best-documented chimpanzee populations are genetically determined. If behavioral diversity is primarily the product of genetic differences between subspecies, then population data should show less phylogenetic structure when data from a single subspecies (P. t. schweinfurthii) are compared with data from two subspecies (P. t. verus and P. t. schweinfurthii) analyzed together. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the observed behavioral patterns of wild chimpanzee populations can be explained primarily by genetic differences between subspecies. Instead, our results support the suggestion that the behavioral patterns are the product of social learning and, therefore, can be considered cultural.
Andersen, Shuang Ma
behavior of Nafion ionomer on platinized carbon nano fibers (CNFs), carbon nano tubes (CNTs) and amorphous carbon (Vulcan). The interaction is affected by the catalyst surface oxygen groups as well as porosity. Comparisons between the carbon supports and platinized equivalents are carried out. It reveals......The interaction between perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer and supported platinum catalyst is essential. It directly influences platinum accessibility, stability of carbon support and platinum, proton conductivity and electron conductivity in an electrode. In this study, we compare the adsorption...... that the platinization step modifies the surface nature of the carbon supports in terms of specific surface area, crystallinity and especially porosity; therefore, ionomer adsorption over carbon is not always representative for the ionomer adsorption over carbon supported catalyst, though indicative. Moreover...
Ozan BÜYÜKYILMAZ; Yahya FİDAN
This study investigates direct and indirect relationships between perceived organizational support, organizational trust and organizational citizenship behavior. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of employee perceptions of organizational support on the tendency to exhibit organizational citizenship behavior and to determine the mediating role of perceived trust in perceived organizational support and organizational citizenship behavior relationship. The data used in the study we...
Rollo, Megan E; Aguiar, Elroy J; Williams, Rebecca L; Wynne, Katie; Kriss, Michelle; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E
Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM) behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth) technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM. Technologies covered include those widely used for DSM, such as web-based programs and mobile phone and smartphone applications. In addition, examples of novel tools such as virtual and augmented reality, video games, computer vision for dietary carbohydrate monitoring, and wearable devices are provided. The challenges to, and facilitators for, the use of eHealth technologies in DSM are discussed. Strategies to support the implementation of eHealth technologies within practice and suggestions for future research to enhance nutrition and physical activity behaviors as a part of broader DSM are provided.
Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Borgwardt, Stefan; Bechdolf, Andreas; Addington, Jean; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Keshavan, Matcheri; Wood, Stephen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Seidman, Larry J.; Valmaggia, Lucia; Cannon, Tyrone; Velthorst, Eva; De Haan, Lieuwe; Cornblatt, Barbara; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Birchwood, Max; McGlashan, Thomas; Carpenter, William; McGorry, Patrick; Klosterkötter, Joachim; McGuire, Philip; Yung, Alison
Context During the past 2 decades, a major transition in the clinical characterization of psychotic disorders has occurred. The construct of a clinical high-risk (HR) state for psychosis has evolved to capture the prepsychotic phase, describing people presenting with potentially prodromal symptoms. The importance of this HR state has been increasingly recognized to such an extent that a new syndrome is being considered as a diagnostic category in the DSM-5. Objective To reframe the HR state in a comprehensive state-of-the-art review on the progress that has been made while also recognizing the challenges that remain. Data Sources Available HR research of the past 20 years from PubMed, books, meetings, abstracts, and international conferences. Study Selection and Data Extraction Critical review of HR studies addressing historical development, inclusion criteria, epidemiologic research, transition criteria, outcomes, clinical and functional characteristics, neurocognition, neuroimaging, predictors of psychosis development, treatment trials, socioeconomic aspects, nosography, and future challenges in the field. Data Synthesis Relevant articles retrieved in the literature search were discussed by a large group of leading worldwide experts in the field. The core results are presented after consensus and are summarized in illustrative tables and figures. Conclusions The relatively new field of HR research in psychosis is exciting. It has the potential to shed light on the development of major psychotic disorders and to alter their course. It also provides a rationale for service provision to those in need of help who could not previously access it and the possibility of changing trajectories for those with vulnerability to psychotic illnesses. PMID:23165428
Full Text Available The paper presents data of observations made in a group of 10 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 5-8 years experiencing behavioral problems and difficulties with communication and social interaction. A behavioral intervention was carried out in the group basing on the principles of applied behavioral analysis (ABA. Following the primary test and with accordance to the parents’ requests, a team of specialists worked over the period of six months attempting to change problem behaviors and to compensate for academic deficiencies in the children. Each day the specialists along with the parents collected data and introduced necessary corrections into the intervention plans. Since all children in the group could barely understand speech and had much difficulty with communication, one of the core methods employed in the work was visual support which became a basic element in every technique applied. Applying visual supports in education settings as well as at home contributed much to the compensation of the difficulties related to speech understanding and helped decrease the level of anxiety in the children, which, in turn, resulted in an apparent decline in problem behavior and faster progress in the acquisition of academic skills.
Del Arco, Alberto; Park, Junchol; Wood, Jesse; Kim, Yunbok; Moghaddam, Bita
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to play a critical role in behavioral flexibility by monitoring action-outcome contingencies. How PFC ensembles represent shifts in behavior in response to changes in these contingencies remains unclear. We recorded single-unit activity and local field potentials in the dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) of male rats during a set-shifting task that required them to update their behavior, among competing options, in response to changes in action-outcome contingencies. As behavior was updated, a subset of PFC ensembles encoded the current trial outcome before the outcome was presented. This novel outcome-prediction encoding was absent in a control task, in which actions were rewarded pseudorandomly, indicating that PFC neurons are not merely providing an expectancy signal. In both control and set-shifting tasks, dmPFC neurons displayed postoutcome discrimination activity, indicating that these neurons also monitor whether a behavior is successful in generating rewards. Gamma-power oscillatory activity increased before the outcome in both tasks but did not differentiate between expected outcomes, suggesting that this measure is not related to set-shifting behavior but reflects expectation of an outcome after action execution. These results demonstrate that PFC neurons support flexible rule-based action selection by predicting outcomes that follow a particular action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Tracking action-outcome contingencies and modifying behavior when those contingencies change is critical to behavioral flexibility. We find that ensembles of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex neurons differentiate between expected outcomes when action-outcome contingencies change. This predictive mode of signaling may be used to promote a new response strategy at the service of behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/378363-11$15.00/0.
Billerey, A.; Bouffioux, P.
The complete paper follows. According to the fuel management policy in French PWR with respect to high burn-up, the prediction of the mechanical behavior of the irradiated fuel assembly is required as far as excessive deformations of fuel assembly might lead to incomplete Rod Cluster Control Assembly insertion (safety problems) and fretting wear lead to leaking rods (plant operation problems). One of the most important parameter is the evolution of the fuel rod support in the grid cell as it directly governs the mechanical behavior of the fuel assembly and consequently allows to predict the behavior of irradiated structure in terms of (i) axial and lateral deformation (global behavior of the assembly) and (ii) fretting wear (local behavior of the rod). Fuel rod support is provided by a spring-dimple system fixed on the grid. During irradiation, the spring force decreases and a gap between the rod and the spring might open. This phenomenon is due to (i) irradiation-induced stress relaxation for the spring and for the dimples, (ii) grid growth and (iii) reduction of rod diameter. Two models have been developed to predict the behavior of the rod in the grid cell. The first model is able to evaluate the spring force relaxation during irradiation. The second one is able to evaluate the rotation characteristic of the fuel rod in the cell, function of the spring force. The main input parameters are (i) the creep laws of the grid materials, (ii) the growth law of the grid, (iii) the evolution of rod diameter and (iv) the design of the fuel rod support. The objectives of this paper are to: (i) evaluate the consequences of grid support design modifications on the fretting sensitivity in terms of predicted maximum gap during irradiation and operational time to gap appearance; (ii) evaluate, using a non-linear Finite Element assembly model, the impact of the evolution of grid support under irradiation on the mechanical behavior of the full assembly in terms of axial and
Zainal Ariffin Ahmad
Full Text Available As the second largest producer of cement after Egypt in the Middle East, Iran planned to increase production from 33 million ton/yr (Mt/yr currently to 70 Mt/yr by 2021 due to increase in local demand and also to compete in export markets (Dehqan, 2002. Thus, Iran is experiencing some changes in workforce participation in order to achieve high level of organisational performance and effectiveness. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of leadership behavior and perceived organisational support on the job satisfaction of Iranian employees. Data were collected through questionnaire from 136 employees working in Tehran Cement Company. Consideration leadership behavior was found to have significant impact on both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction whereas perceived organisational support was significantly related to extrinsic job satisfaction. Interestingly, the interaction of leadership behavior and perceived organisational support were not significantly related to job satisfaction. The implications to human resource development for organizations that want to increase employee commitment is to focus on improving the quality of the supportive relationships between the employees and both the leader and the organisation.
Study Protocol: The Norfolk Diabetes Prevention Study [NDPS]: a 46 month multi - centre, randomised, controlled parallel group trial of a lifestyle intervention [with or without additional support from lay lifestyle mentors with Type 2 diabetes] to prevent transition to Type 2 diabetes in high risk groups with non - diabetic hyperglycaemia, or impaired fasting glucose.
Pascale, Melanie; Murray, Nikki; Bachmann, Max; Barton, Garry; Clark, Allan; Howe, Amanda; Greaves, Colin; Sampson, Mike
This 7 year NIHR programme [2011-2018] tests the primary hypothesis that the NDPS diet and physical activity intervention will reduce the risk of transition to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in groups at high risk of Type 2 diabetes. The NDPS programme recognizes the need to reduce intervention costs through group delivery and the use of lay mentors with T2DM, the realities of normal primary care, and the complexity of the current glycaemic categorisation of T2DM risk. NDPS identifies people at highest risk of T2DM on the databases of 135 general practices in the East of England for further screening with ab fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c]. Those with an elevated fasting plasma glucose [impaired fasting glucose or IFG] with or without an elevated HbA1c [non -diabetic hyperglycaemia; NDH] are randomised into three treatment arms: a control arm receiving no trial intervention, an arm receiving an intensive bespoke group-based diet and physical activity intervention, and an arm receiving the same intervention with enhanced support from people with T2DM trained as diabetes prevention mentors [DPM]. The primary end point is cumulative transition rates to T2DM between the two intervention groups, and between each intervention group and the control group at 46 months. Participants with screen detected T2DM are randomized into an equivalent prospective controlled trial with the same intervention and control arms with glycaemic control [HbA1c] at 46 months as the primary end point. Participants with NDH and a normal fasting plasma glucose are randomised into an equivalent prospective controlled intervention trial with follow up for 40 months. The intervention comprises six education sessions for the first 12 weeks and then up to 15 maintenance sessions until intervention end, all delivered in groups, with additional support from a DPM in one treatment arm. The NDPS programme reports in 2018 and will provide trial outcome data for a group delivered
Toledo, Edson Luiz; De Togni Muniz, Enilde; Brito, Antônio Marcelo Cabrita; de Abreu, Cristiano Nabuco; Tavares, Hermano
Trichotillomania is a psychiatric condition characterized by the chronic pulling and plucking of one's own hair. Cognitive-behavioral therapy shows promise as a treatment for trichotillomania and might be preferable to pharmacotherapy. However, there have been no randomized, controlled studies of the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We evaluated 44 subjects, recruited from April 2009 to May 2010, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for a diagnosis of trichotillomania. Subjects were randomized to receive 22 sessions of either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group supportive therapy (control). Treatment evaluation was non-blind and used self-report scales. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of hair-plucking behavior as assessed by the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale. Secondary measures included scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report. Both groups showed significant posttreatment improvement in the scores from the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale (F = 23.762, P behavior over time was significantly greater in the study group than in the control group (F = 3.545, P cognitive-behavioral therapy is a valid treatment for trichotillomania. This treatment model should be further revised and expanded to address comorbidities such as anxiety and social maladjustment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01968343. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Castanier, Carole; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim
We investigated the risk-taking behaviors of 302 men involved in high-risk sports (downhill skiing, mountaineering, rock climbing, paragliding, or skydiving). The sportsmen were classified using a typological approach to personality based on eight personality types, which were constructed from combinations of neuroticism, extraversion, and…
Arkkukangas, Marina; Sundler, Annelie J; Söderlund, Anne; Eriksson, Staffan; Johansson, Ann-Christin
It is a challenge to promote exercise among older persons. Knowledge is needed regarding the maintenance of exercise aiming at preventing falls and promoting health and well-being in older persons. This descriptive study used a qualitative inductive approach to describe older persons' experiences of a fall-preventive, home-based exercise program with support for behavioral change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 elderly persons aged 75 years or older, and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Four categories emerged: facilitators of performing exercise in everyday life, the importance of support, perceived gains from exercise, and the existential aspects of exercise. With support from physiotherapists (PTs), home-based exercise can be adapted to individual circumstances in a meaningful way. Including exercises in everyday life and daily routines could support the experience of being stronger, result in better physical functioning, and give hope for an extended active life in old age.
Rofcanin, Yasin; Las Heras, Mireia; Bakker, Arnold B
Informed by social information processing (SIP) theory, in this study, we assessed the associations among family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSBs) as perceived by subordinates, subordinate work engagement, and supervisor-rated work performance. Moreover, we explored the role of family supportive organizational culture as a contextual variable influencing our proposed associations. Our findings using matched supervisor-subordinate data collected from a financial credit company in Mexico (654 subordinates; 134 supervisors) showed that FSSBs influenced work performance through subordinate work engagement. Moreover, the positive association between subordinates' perceptions of FSSBs and work engagement was moderated by family supportive organizational culture. Our results contribute to emerging theories on flexible work arrangements, particularly on family supportive work policies. Moreover, our findings carry practical implications for improving employee work engagement and work performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Hripcsak, George; Forrest, Christopher B; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Stead, William W
Consistent collection and use of social and behavioral determinants of health can improve clinical care, prevention and general health, patient satisfaction, research, and public health. A recent Institute of Medicine committee defined a panel of 11 domains and 12 measures to be included in electronic health records. Incorporating the panel into practice creates a number of informatics research opportunities as well as challenges. The informatics issues revolve around standardization, efficient collection and review, decision support, and support for research. The informatics community can aid the effort by simultaneously optimizing the collection of the selected measures while also partnering with social science researchers to develop and validate new sources of information about social and behavioral determinants of health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.
Lawson, Karen L; Jonk, Yvonne; O'Connor, Heidi; Riise, Kirsten Sundgaard; Eisenberg, David M; Kreitzer, Mary Jo
Health coaching is a client-centric process to increase motivation and self-efficacy that supports sustainable lifestyle behavior changes and active management of health conditions. This study describes an intervention offered as a benefit to health plan members and examines health and behavioral outcomes of participants. High-risk health plan enrollees were invited to participate in a telephonic health coaching intervention addressing the whole person and focusing on motivating health behavior changes. Outcomes of self-reported lifestyle behaviors, perceived health, stress levels, quality of life, readiness to make changes, and patient activation levels were reported at baseline and upon program completion. Retrospectively, these data were extracted from administrative and health coaching records of participants during the first 2 full years of the program. Less than 7% of the 114 615 potential candidates self-selected to actively participate in health coaching, those with the highest chronic disease load being the most likely to participate. Of 6940 active participants, 1082 fully completed health inventories, with 570 completing Patient Activation Measure (PAM). The conditions most often represented in the active participants were depression, congestive heart failure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoporosis, asthma, and low back pain. In 6 months or less, 89% of participants met at least one goal. Significant improvements occurred in stress levels, healthy eating, exercise levels, and physical and emotional health, as well as in readiness to make change and PAM scores. The types of client-selected goals most often met were physical activity, eating habits, stress management, emotional health, sleep, and pain management, resulting in improved overall quality of life regardless of condition. Positive shifts in activation levels and readiness to change suggest that health coaching is an intervention deserving of future prospective research studies to
Şengül, Melike Ceyhan Balcı; Kaya, Vildan; Şen, Cenk Ahmet; Kaya, Kemal
Background The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between suicidal behavior and associated factors such as depression, anxiety, and perceived social support level in cancer patients. Material/Methods The study group included 102 patients who were under treatment in the oncology department and the control group included 100 individuals with similar sociodemographic features. A sociodemographic information form, Beck depression inventory, Beck anxiety inventory, suicidal behavi...
Mouterde, Anne-Laure; Bourdelin, Magali; Maison, Ophélie; Coursier, Sandra; Bontemps, Hervé
By the Order of 6 April 2011, the pharmacist must validate all the prescriptions containing "high-risk drugs" or those of "patients at risk". To optimize this clinical pharmacy activity, we identified high-risk drugs. A list of high-risk drugs has been established using literature, pharmacists' interventions (PI) performed in our hospital and a survey sent to hospital pharmacists. In a prospective study (analysis of 100 prescriptions for each high-risk drug selected), we have identified the most relevant to target. We obtained a statistically significant PI rate (P<0.05) for digoxin, oral anticoagulants direct, oral methotrexate and colchicine. This method of targeted pharmaceutical validation based on high-risk drugs is relevant to detect patients with high risk of medicine-related illness. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hale, WW; Jansen, JHC; Bouhuys, AL; Jenner, JA; vandenHoofdakker, RH
Excessive support seeking and lack of receiving social support have been associated with depression onset and unfavorable course of depression. It has been assumed that social support is effected by observable behaviors that express involvement. Twenty-five patients with major depression were
Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy
This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…
Bruce Eldine Morton
Full Text Available Three terms define brain behavioral laterality: Hemispheric dominance identifies the cerebral hemisphere producing one’s first language. Hemispheric asymmetry locates the brain side of non-language skills. A third term is needed to describe a person’s binary thinking, learning, and behaving styles. Since the 1950s split-brain studies, evidence has accumulated that individuals with right or left brain behavioral orientations (RPs or LPs exist. Originally, hemisphericity sought, but failed, to confirm the existence of such individual differences, due to its assertion that each individual lay somewhere on a gradient between competing left and right brain extremes. Recently, hemisity, a more accurate behavioral laterality context, has emerged. It posits that one’s behavioral laterality is binary: i.e., inherently either right or left brain-oriented. This insight enabled the quantitative determination of right or left behavioral laterality of thousands of subjects. MRI scans of right and left brain-oriented groups revealed two neuroanatomical differences. The first was an asymmetry of an executive element in the anterior cingulate cortex. This provided hemisity both a rationale and a primary standard. RPs and LPs gave opposite answers to many behavioral preference either-or, forced choice questions. This showed that several sex vs. hemisity traits are being conflated by society. Such was supported by the second neuroanatomical difference between the hemisity subtypes, that RPs of either sex had up to three times larger corpus callosi than LPs. Individuals of the same hemisity but opposite sex had more personality traits in common than those of the same sex but different hemisity. Although hemisity subtypes were equally represented in the general population, the process of higher education and career choice caused substantial hemisity sorting among the professions. Hemisity appears to be a valid and promising area for quantitative research of
Marsh, James; Glencross, Mashhuda; Pettifer, Steve; Hubbold, Roger
Network architectures for collaborative virtual reality have traditionally been dominated by client-server and peer-to-peer approaches, with peer-to-peer strategies typically being favored where minimizing latency is a priority, and client-server where consistency is key. With increasingly sophisticated behavior models and the demand for better support for haptics, we argue that neither approach provides sufficient support for these scenarios and, thus, a hybrid architecture is required. We discuss the relative performance of different distribution strategies in the face of real network conditions and illustrate the problems they face. Finally, we present an architecture that successfully meets many of these challenges and demonstrate its use in a distributed virtual prototyping application which supports simultaneous collaboration for assembly, maintenance, and training applications utilizing haptics.
Full Text Available Megan E Rollo,1 Elroy J Aguiar,2 Rebecca L Williams,1 Katie Wynne,3 Michelle Kriss,3 Robin Callister,4 Clare E Collins1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Kinesiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA; 3Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, John Hunter Hospital, Hunter New England Health, New Lambton, NSW, Australia;\t4School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia Abstract: Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM. Technologies covered include those widely used for DSM, such as web-based programs and mobile phone and smartphone applications. In addition, examples of novel tools such as virtual and augmented reality, video games, computer vision for dietary carbohydrate monitoring, and wearable devices are provided. The challenges to, and facilitators for, the use of eHealth technologies in DSM are discussed. Strategies to support the implementation of eHealth technologies within practice and suggestions for future research to enhance nutrition and physical activity behaviors as a part of broader DSM are provided. Keywords: diabetes self-management, eHealth, nutrition, physical activity, smartphones, wearables
Panagioti, M; Gooding, P A; Taylor, P J; Tarrier, N
A growing body of research has highlighted the importance of identifying resilience factors against suicidal behavior. However, no previous study has investigated potential resilience factors among individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived social support buffered the impact of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. Fifty-six individuals who had previously been exposed to a traumatic event and reported PTSD symptoms in the past month (n = 34, 60.7% participants met the full criteria for a current PTSD diagnosis) completed a range of self-report measures assessing PTSD symptoms, perceived social support and suicidal behavior. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine whether perceived social support moderates the effects of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. The results showed that perceived social support moderated the impact of the number and severity of PTSD symptoms on suicidal behavior. For those who perceived themselves as having high levels of social support, an increased number and severity of PTSD symptoms were less likely to lead to suicidal behavior. The current findings suggest that perceived social support might confer resilience to individuals with PTSD and counter the development of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The milieu of social support potentially provides an area of further research and an important aspect to incorporate into clinical interventions for suicidal behavior in PTSD or trauma populations. © 2013.
Relationships between 43 high-risk adolescents and their caregivers were examined qualitatively. Parents and other formal and informal caregivers such as youth workers and foster parents were found to exert a large influence on the behaviors that bolster mental health among high-risk youth marginalized by poverty, social stigma, personal and physical characteristics, ethnicity, and poor social or academic performance. Participants' accounts of their intergenerational relationships with caregivers showed that teenagers seek close relationships with adults in order to negotiate for powerful self-constructions as resilient. High-risk teens say they want the adults in their lives to serve as an audience in front of whom they can perform the identities they construct both inside and outside their homes. This pattern was evident even among youth who presented as being more peer-than family-oriented. The implications of these findings to interventions with caregivers and teens is discussed.
Morton, Bruce E
hemispheric dominance identifies the cerebral hemisphere producing one's first language. Hemispheric asymmetry locates the brain side of non-language skills. A third term is needed to describe a person's binary thinking, learning, and behaving styles. Since the 1950s split-brain studies, evidence has accumulated that individuals with right or left brain behavioral orientations (RPs or LPs) exist. Originally, hemisphericity sought, but failed, to confirm the existence of such individual differences, due to its assertion that each individual lay somewhere on a gradient between competing left and right brain extremes. Recently, hemisity, a more accurate behavioral laterality context, has emerged. It posits that one's behavioral laterality is binary: i.e., inherently either right or left brain-oriented. This insight enabled the quantitative determination of right or left behavioral laterality of thousands of subjects. MRI scans of right and left brain-oriented groups revealed two neuroanatomical differences. The first was an asymmetry of an executive element in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This provided hemisity both a rationale and a primary standard. RPs and LPs gave opposite answers to many behavioral preference "either-or," forced choice questions. This showed that several sex vs. hemisity traits are being conflated by society. Such was supported by the second neuroanatomical difference between the hemisity subtypes, that RPs of either sex had up to three times larger corpus callosi than LPs. Individuals of the same hemisity but opposite sex had more personality traits in common than those of the same sex but different hemisity. Although hemisity subtypes were equally represented in the general population, the process of higher education and career choice caused substantial hemisity sorting among the professions. Hemisity appears to be a valid and promising area for quantitative research of behavioral laterality.
Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1 027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of ...
Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4- 60 months. Methods: ...
Vangsted, A J; Helm-Petersen, S; Cowland, J B
from high-risk patients by GEP70 at diagnosis from Total Therapy 2 and 3A to predict the response by the DRP score of drugs used in the treatment of myeloma patients. The DRP score stratified patients further. High-risk myeloma with a predicted sensitivity to melphalan by the DRP score had a prolonged...
The objective of this study was to estimate lipid profile among high risk stress bank employees' correlated with heart disorders in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 129 patients with high risk stress employees were involved in this study, which were divided into 69 males and 60 females between the age of 25 to 55 years.
Landowska, A.; Karpienko, K.; Wróbel, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.
In this article the procedure of selection of physiological parameters for optoelectronic system supporting behavioral therapy of autistic children is proposed. Authors designed and conducted an experiment in which a group of 30 health volunteers (16 females and 14 males) were examined. Under controlled conditions people were exposed to a stressful situation caused by the picture or sound (1kHz constant sound, which was gradually silenced and finished with a shot sound). For each of volunteers, a set of physiological parameters were recorded, including: skin conductance, heart rate, peripheral temperature, respiration rate and electromyography. The selected characteristics were measured in different locations in order to choose the most suitable one for the designed therapy supporting system. The bio-statistical analysis allowed us to discern the proper physiological parameters that are most associated to changes due to emotional state of a patient, such as: skin conductance, temperatures and respiration rate. This allowed us to design optoelectronic sensors network for supporting behavioral therapy of children with autism.
Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde
The present article concerns group mentoring combined with action learning as a way to counteract work related sickness and early retirement for´ high risk´ teachers. Focus has been on reflection and vitalization. The data shows that this way of working has many possibilities in supporting...
Snijders, G.; Schiweck, C.; Brouwer, R.; Mesman, E.; Grosse, L.; de Wit, H; Nolen, W. A.; Drexhage, H. A.; Hillegers, M. H. J.
Objective: Mounting data support the hypothesis for a role of the immune system in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to examine immune alterations in two unique familial high-risk cohorts for bipolar disorder. Methods: The study population comprised bipolar
A variety of theoretical perspectives describe the crucial behavioral roles of motivation and emotion, but how these interact with perceptions of social contexts and behaviors is less well understood. This study examined whether autonomous motivation mediated the relationship between perceived autonomy support and behavioral engagement in physical education and whether this mediating process was moderated by positive emotion. A sample of 592 Korean middle-school students (304 boys, 288 girls; M age = 14.0 yr., SD = 0.8) completed questionnaires. Autonomous motivation partially mediated the positive association between perceived autonomy support and behavioral engagement. Positive emotion moderated the relationship between autonomous motivation and behavioral engagement. This indirect link was stronger as positive emotion increased. These findings suggest the importance of integrating emotion into motivational processes to understand how and when perceived autonomy support is associated with behavioral engagement in physical education.
Rimmerman, Arie; Chen, Ariel
This feasibility study examines whether the theory of planned behavior can predict supportive behavior provided by either parents to their offspring--or adult siblings to their brothers and sisters--with an intellectual disability living in 2 Israeli institutional care facilities. Participants were 67 parents and 63 siblings who were interviewed at baseline regarding their intentions to visit their offspring or sibling in the institutional care facility, to contact the caregiving staff, and to accept visits at home. Parents' and siblings' behavior regarding visitation and supportive behavior was examined after 6 months by caregiving staff. Core findings indicated that subjective norms in siblings and parents predicted frequency of home visits. Perceived behavioral control predicted frequency of contact between siblings and staff. Differences between parents and siblings regarding their supportive behaviors are discussed with respect to social work practice.
Bloh, Christopher; Axelrod, Saul
With the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, classrooms are now mandated to employ behavioral methods to address target behaviors. These relevant behavioral strategies have long been advanced and disseminated by the field of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Notwithstanding this capability, proponents of the…
Lack of existing literature on the correlation among organizational justice, organizational support, and organizational citizenship behaviors has created a research gap in previous evidence-based practice (EBP) studies on nursing personnel. To investigate whether organizational justice among nurses has a moderating effect between their organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors in order to bridge such a gap of existing literature with the EBP study on nursing personnel. Nursing staff of one large and influential hospital in Taiwan was surveyed. Four hundred questionnaires were distributed, and 386 were collected with a valid response rate of 96.50%. SPSS 17.0 and Amos 17.0 statistical software packages were used for data analysis. Nurses' organizational support positively influences their organizational citizenship behaviors, and their organizational justice perception has a positive moderating effect between organizational support and organizational citizenship behaviors. Results call hospitals' attention to the type of individual behaviors that may improve organizational performance. When nursing staff perceive fair and impartial treatment by the organization and supportive emotional attachment, behaviors beneficial for the organization are expressed in return. Subjective perceptions of nursing staff play an important role in organizational exchange relationship; the higher the degree of nursing staff's perceived organizational justice, the higher the degree of their organizational support, perception, and exhibition of organizational citizenship behaviors such as altruistic behavior and dedication to the work. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Rimmerman, Arie; Chen, Ariel
This research examines the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting supportive behaviors by parents and adult siblings of immediate relatives with intellectual disability. Participants were 67 parents and 63 siblings whose immediate relatives with intellectual disability resided in two institutional care facilities. Three…
The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of consultation alone and consultation plus feedback on the proper use of positive behavior support strategies (PBS) on behaviors of three mothers with children with developmental disabilities. Results indicated that consultation plus feedback was more effective than consultation alone…
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether through a series of teacher training. The participants could acquire better knowledge on Positive Behavior Support (PBS), and develop high quality behavior intervention plans. Thirty-six teachers from three public schools participated in the study. The competency-based training consisted of 12…
A sample of 720 college students from 10 different universities at the Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center are investigated using the Social Support Scale, the Prosocial Behavior Scale, and the Interpersonal Trust Scale. Data are analyzed using SPSS20.0 and Amos7.0. Results show that the subjective support and support utilization of college…
Fiskin, Gamze; Kaydirak, Meltem Mecdi; Oskay, Umran Yesiltepe
High-risk pregnancy research has focused primarily on psychological well-being. The aim is to determine psychosocial adaptation and depression levels of pregnant women who were admitted to hospital with diagnosis of high-risk pregnancy. This study was descriptive. Sampling was composed of 122 high-risk pregnant women who were hospitalized in the perinatology service of Istanbul University Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between January 1, 2014, and May 31, 2014, and met the study criteria. The Pregnant Introduction Form, Psychosocial Adjustment of Illness Scale-Self Report, and CES Depression Scale were used. Of high-risk pregnant women, 47% were found to have a poor level of psychosocial adaptation and 57% presented with depressive symptoms. There were statistically significant difference found between the levels of psychosocial adaptation and status of depressive manifestations. The difference between the average scores increased as the adaptation levels weaken and the pregnant women with a poor level of psychosocial adaptation showed more depressive manifestations. The results of this study indicate that, depending on the high-risk pregnancy status, pregnant women experience difficulty in adaptation to their current status and pregnant women with a poor level of psychosocial adaptation showed more depressive manifestations. Nurses should deliver care in high-risk pregnancies with the awareness of physiological needs as well the psychosocial needs of pregnant women, and information meetings should be held in order to increase the psychosocial support of their families and decrease their tendency toward depression. Nursing initiatives should be developed with further studies for the psychosocial adaptation of high-risk pregnancy and reduction of the depressive manifestations. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Karen S. Ingersoll
Full Text Available While Internet interventions can improve health behaviors, their impact is limited by program adherence. Supporting program adherence through telephone counseling may be useful, but there have been few direct tests of the impact of support. We describe a Telephone Motivational Interviewing (MI intervention targeting adherence to an Internet intervention for drivers with Type 1 Diabetes, DD.com, and compare completion of intervention benchmarks by those randomized to DD.com plus MI vs. DD.com only. The goal of the pre-intervention MI session was to increase the participant's motivation to complete the Internet intervention and all its assignments, while the goal of the post-treatment MI session was to plan for maintaining changes made during the intervention. Sessions were semi-structured and partially scripted to maximize consistency. MI Fidelity was coded using a standard coding system, the MITI. We examined the effects of MI support vs. no support on number of days from enrollment to program benchmarks. Results show that MI sessions were provided with good fidelity. Users who received MI support completed some program benchmarks such as Core 4 (t176 df = −2.25; p < .03 and 11 of 12 monthly driving diaries significantly sooner, but support did not significantly affect time to intervention completion (t177 df = −1.69; p < .10 or rates of completion. These data suggest that there is little benefit to therapist guidance for Internet interventions including automated email prompts and other automated minimal supports, but that a booster MI session may enhance collection of follow-up data.
Kamen, Charles; Garland, Sheila N; Heckler, Charles E; Peoples, Anita R; Kleckner, Ian R; Cole, Calvin L; Perlis, Michael L; Morrow, Gary R; Mustian, Karen M; Roscoe, Joseph A
While cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has been shown to be efficacious in treating cancer survivors' insomnia, 30-60% of individuals have difficulty adhering to intervention components. Psychosocial predictors of adherence and response to CBT-I, such as social support, have not been examined in intervention studies for cancer survivors. Data from a randomized placebo-controlled 2 x 2 trial of CBT-I and armodafinil (a wakefulness promoting agent) were used to assess adherence. Ninety-six cancer survivors participated in the trial (mean age 56, 86% female, 68% breast cancer). CBT-I and armodafinil were administered over the course of seven weeks, and participants were assessed at baseline, during intervention, postintervention, and at a three-month follow-up. Social support was assessed using a Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy subscale, insomnia severity was assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index, and adherence was measured based on CBT-I sleep prescriptions. At baseline, social support was negatively correlated with insomnia severity (r = -0.30, p = 0.002) and associations between social support, CBT-I, and insomnia were maintained through the three-month follow-up. Social support was positively associated with adherence to CBT-I during intervention weeks 3, 4, and 5, and with overall intervention adherence. At postintervention, both social support and treatment with CBT-I independently predicted decreased insomnia severity (p adherence and improved sleep independent of CBT-I. Additional research is needed to determine whether social support can be leveraged to improve adherence and response to CBT-I.
Suzuki, S.; Kusakabe, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Arioka, K.; Ochi, T.
In order to improve the reliability of the Steam Generator (SG), TT Alloy 690 and BEC (Broached Egg Crate) type tube support plate has been developed. Some tests are carried out to heighten the reliability for these improvements all the more and the following results are obtained. (1) SERT test (Slow Extension Rate Test) made clear that TT690 has less IGA susceptibility in comparison with MA600. (2) The alkaline susceptibility on the occurrence of IGA/SCC on TT690 and MA600 obtained by SERT corresponds to that obtained by Model Boiler test. (3) By model boiler test, superior concentration behaviors for BEC type tube support plate configuration have been recognized in comparison with Drill type. This result is obtained by the joint research of the five utilities (Kansai Epco, Hokkaido Epco, Shikoku Epco, Kyushu Epco, JAPCO) and MHI
Nielsen, Matthias; Brewer, Robert S.; Grønbæk, Kaj
Domain experts dealing with big data are typically not familiar with advanced data mining tools. This especially holds true for domain experts within energy management. In this paper, we introduce a visual analytics approach that empowers such users to visually analyze energy behavior based......Viz, that interactively maps data from real world buildings. It is an overview +detail inter-active visual analytics tool supporting both rapid ad hoc explorations and structured evaluation of hypotheses about patterns and anomalies in resource consumption data mixed with occupant survey data. We have evaluated...... the approach with five domain experts within energy management, and further with 10 data analytics experts and found that it was easily attainable and that it supported visual analysis of mixed consumption and survey data. Finally, we discuss future perspectives of affine visual analytics for mixed...
Full Text Available We developed a wheelchair robot to support the movement of elderly people and specifically implemented two functions to enhance their intention to use it: speaking behavior to convey place/location related information and speed adjustment based on individual preferences. Our study examines how the evaluations of our wheelchair robot differ when compared with human caregivers and a conventional autonomous wheelchair without the two proposed functions in a moving support context. 28 senior citizens participated in the experiment to evaluate three different conditions. Our measurements consisted of questionnaire items and the coding of free-style interview results. Our experimental results revealed that elderly people evaluated our wheelchair robot higher than the wheelchair without the two functions and the human caregivers for some items.
Bedi, Gillinder; Carrillo, Facundo; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Slezak, Diego Fernández; Sigman, Mariano; Mota, Natália B; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Javitt, Daniel C; Copelli, Mauro; Corcoran, Cheryl M
Background/Objectives: Psychiatry lacks the objective clinical tests routinely used in other specializations. Novel computerized methods to characterize complex behaviors such as speech could be used to identify and predict psychiatric illness in individuals. AIMS: In this proof-of-principle study, our aim was to test automated speech analyses combined with Machine Learning to predict later psychosis onset in youths at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis. Methods: Thirty-four CHR youths (11 females) had baseline interviews and were assessed quarterly for up to 2.5 years; five transitioned to psychosis. Using automated analysis, transcripts of interviews were evaluated for semantic and syntactic features predicting later psychosis onset. Speech features were fed into a convex hull classification algorithm with leave-one-subject-out cross-validation to assess their predictive value for psychosis outcome. The canonical correlation between the speech features and prodromal symptom ratings was computed. Results: Derived speech features included a Latent Semantic Analysis measure of semantic coherence and two syntactic markers of speech complexity: maximum phrase length and use of determiners (e.g., which). These speech features predicted later psychosis development with 100% accuracy, outperforming classification from clinical interviews. Speech features were significantly correlated with prodromal symptoms. Conclusions: Findings support the utility of automated speech analysis to measure subtle, clinically relevant mental state changes in emergent psychosis. Recent developments in computer science, including natural language processing, could provide the foundation for future development of objective clinical tests for psychiatry. PMID:27336038
Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Harris, Taylor; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric; Henwood, Ben
Homeless persons suffer disproportionately high rates of HIV infection, and moving into permanent supportive housing (PSH) can provide a stable base from which to access needed prevention services. However, little is known about HIV risk or prevention behavior during this critical time of transition. The current study investigated STI and HIV risk and prevention behavior and recent use of prevention and treatment services (i.e., education, testing, medication) among homeless persons preparing to move into PSH. Data come from interviews with 421 homeless adults before they moved into PSH. Thirty-seven percent of the respondents were sexually active; of those, 75.7% reported unprotected sex. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported past year HIV testing and 40% reported testing for another STI. Fewer than one-third (31%) of respondents reported receiving posttest counseling at their last HIV test. HIV seropositivity was self-reported by 10%. Among those persons who were HIV-positive, 57.1% reported less than 100% antiretroviral (ARV) adherence. Among HIV-negative respondents, less than 1% had been prescribed preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Less than half (46.4%) of the sample reported any HIV prevention education in the past year. This population of homeless adults about to move into PSH report high rates of HIV risk behavior, but low rates of HIV prevention education and very little PrEP utilization. Further, low rates of ARV adherence among HIV-positive respondents indicate significant risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. Entering PSH is a period of transition for homeless persons when integrated care is critically important to ensure positive health outcomes, but these data suggest that PrEP and other HIV prevention services are poorly accessed among this population. As such, multipronged services that integrate PrEP and other HIV prevention services are needed to prevent transmission and acquisition of HIV in this high-risk, vulnerable population and ensure the
Lawrence, Ryan E; Friesen, Phoebe; Brucato, Gary; Girgis, Ragy R; Dixon, Lisa
Genetic tests for schizophrenia may introduce risks and benefits. Among young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis, little is known about their concerns and how they assess potential risks. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 young adults at clinical high-risk for psychosis to ask about their concerns. Participants expressed concerns about test reliability, data interpretation, stigma, psychological harm, family planning, and privacy. Participants' responses showed some departure from the ethics literature insofar as participants were primarily interested in reporting their results to people to whom they felt emotionally close, and expressed little consideration of biological closeness. Additionally, if tests showed an increased genetic risk for schizophrenia, four clinical high-risk persons felt obligated to tell an employer and another three would "maybe" tell an employer, even in the absence of clinical symptoms. These findings suggest opportunities for clinicians and genetic counselors to intervene with education and support.
Moos, Rudolf H; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Moos, Bernice S
This study examined long-term mutual predictive associations between social and financial resources and high-risk alcohol consumption in later life. A sample of 55- to 65-year-old older adults (n = 719) was surveyed at baseline and 10 years and 20 years later. At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed social and financial resources and alcohol consumption. Over the 20-year interval, there was evidence of both social causation and social selection processes in relation to high-risk alcohol consumption. In support of a social causation perspective, higher levels of some social resources, such as participation in social activities, friends' approval of drinking, quality of relationship with spouse, and financial resources, were associated with a subsequent increased likelihood of high-risk alcohol consumption. Conversely, indicating the presence of social selection, high-risk alcohol consumption was associated with subsequent higher levels of friends' approval of drinking and quality of the spousal relationship, but lower quality of relationships with extended family members. These findings reflect mutual influence processes in which older adults' social resources and high-risk alcohol consumption can alter each other. Older adults may benefit from information about how social factors can affect their drinking habits; accordingly, information about social causation effects could be used to guide effective prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing the risk that late-life social factors may amplify their excessive alcohol consumption.
Yossepowitch, Ofer; Eastham, James A
Consensus recommendations for the identification and treatment of men whose apparent organ confined prostate cancer has high risk features are lacking. Despite ongoing refinements in surgical technique and improvements in morbidity and functional outcomes, the tradition of steering high-risk patients away from radical prostatectomy (RP) remains steadfast. We performed a medical literature search in English using MEDLINE/PubMed that addressed high risk prostate cancer. We analyzed the literature with respect to the historical evolution of this concept, current risk stratification schemes and treatment guidelines and related short and long term outcomes following RP. Contemporary evidence suggest that patients classified with high-risk prostate cancer by commonly used definitions do not have a uniformly poor prognosis after RP. Many cancers categorized clinically as high risk are actually pathologically confined to the prostate, and most men with such cancers who undergo RP are alive and free of additional therapy long after surgery. RP in the high-risk setting appears to be associated with a similar morbidity as in lower-risk patients. Men with clinically localized high-risk prostate cancer should not be categorically disqualified from local definitive therapy with RP. With careful attention to surgical technique, cancer control rates should improve further, and adverse effects on quality of life after RP should continue to decrease.
Deren, Sherry; And Others
Compared high-risk pregnant (n=55) and nonpregnant (n=598) women from Harlem on human immunodeficiency virus-related drug and sexual risk behaviors. Found higher percentage of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) among nonpregnant women and no significant differences between pregnant and nonpregnant IVDUs in terms of needle risk behaviors. Pregnant…
Full Text Available With the remarkable promotion of e-commerce platforms, consumers increasingly prefer to purchase products online. Online ratings facilitate consumers to choose among products. Thus, to help consumers effectively select products, it is necessary to provide decision support methods for consumers to trade online. Considering the decision makers are bounded rational, this paper proposes a novel decision support model for product selection based on online ratings, in which the regret aversion behavior of consumers is formulated. Massive online ratings provided by experienced consumers for alternative products associated with several evaluation attributes are obtained by software finders. Then, the evaluations of alternative products in format of stochastic variables are conducted. To select a desirable alternative product, a novel method is introduced to calculate gain and loss degrees of each alternative over others. Considering the regret behavior of consumers in the product selection process, the regret and rejoice values of alternative products for consumer are computed to obtain the perceived utility values of alternative products. According to the prior order of the evaluation attributes provided by the consumer, the prior weights of attributes are determined based on the perceived utility values of alternative products. Furthermore, the overall perceived utility values of alternative products are obtained to generate a ranking result. Finally, a practical example from Zol.com.cn for tablet computer selection is used to demonstrate the feasibility and practically of the proposed model.
Machalicek, W.A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Chan, J.M.; Lang, R.B.; Rispoli, M.; Davis, T.; Shogren, K.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Antonuzzi, M.; Langthorne, P.; Andrews, A.; Didden, H.C.M.
We conducted a functional analysis of challenging behavior for two students with autism using widely available videoconferencing equipment (laptop computers equipped with web cameras). Observers used the videoconferencing facilities to collect data on challenging behavior and to instruct the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations
Amis, Sarah Anne
This research project sought to determine the effects of a School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention Support program (SWPBIS) on the intrinsic motivation of third grade students in regard to student achievement, student behavior, and teacher perception. Students of two intermediate schools served as the treatment group and control group, and were…
Poteat, V. Paul; Kimmel, Michael S.; Wilchins, Riki
In 2 studies, beliefs supporting the use of violence moderated the association between normative masculine activities and aggressive behavior (Study 1) and normative masculine attitudes and aggressive and homophobic behavior (Study 2) among adolescent boys. These beliefs also moderated the association between normative masculine activities and…
Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante
Coping research has neglected the study of the reciprocal links between parents' and adolescents' coping behaviors and the potential influence of parental support for the development of adolescent autonomy. This study, therefore, analyzed the coping behaviors of fathers, mothers, and children (53% females) in 196 families who participated in a…
Goodman-Scott, Emily; Hays, Danica G.; Cholewa, Blaire E.
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a widely implemented, culturally responsive framework using prevention and intervention activities to promote a safe school climate and positive academic and behavioral student outcomes. Using a qualitative single-case study design, authors provide a rich description of PBIS implementation…
Anello, Vittoria; Weist, Mark; Eber, Lucille; Barrett, Susan; Cashman, Joanne; Rosser, Mariola; Bazyk, Sue
Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) and school mental health (SMH) are prominent initiatives in the United States to improve student behavior and promote mental health and wellness, led by education and mental health systems, respectively. Unfortunately, PBIS and SMH often operate separately in districts and schools, resulting in…
Durand, V. Mark; Rost, Nichole
Research on the treatment of challenging behaviors such as aggression, tantrums, and self-injury expanded significantly over the past two decades. However, despite of the rather impressive numbers of studies, it is still uncertain whether positive behavioral support (PBS) is effective with everyone. To be able to tell family members and…
Bosworth, Kris; Judkins, Maryann
Preventing bullying requires a comprehensive approach that includes a focus on school climate. We review the climate features shown to reduce bullying, then illustrate how School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) applies these principles in practice. SWPBIS, grounded in multiple theories--behaviorism, social learning…
Wallace, Claire; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Scherer, Catherine; Roizen, Nancy; Augustyn, Marilyn
Tony is a 6-year-old multiracial boy diagnosed as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-combined type who is followed in your primary care practice and has started on a stimulant medication. Tony continues to have difficulty with emotion regulation and impulse control both at home and at school. He was asked to leave his private school soon after beginning first grade because of physical fighting, emotional outbursts, and arguing with teachers.His mother made the decision to enroll Tony in online virtual schooling for the remainder of the academic year, with the plan to transition back to traditional school for the next academic year. They have enrolled in a program that offers lessons online and sends materials to the home for the child to use to complete certain types of assignments (e.g., science experiments). Virtual schools are different from traditional home schooling because children receive their instruction from teachers online with parental assistance as opposed to parents being responsible for teaching all material. Tony's mother comes to your practice requesting assistance with setting up an appropriate school environment for her son at home, where she can monitor and support his academic progress.Tony is a bright child, with an Intelligence Quotient in the superior range. He has advanced academic skills, but he becomes dysregulated if he is told he is wrong or that he has answered a question incorrectly. For example, if he answered a question incorrectly in class, he would become verbally abusive toward his teacher and often have temper tantrums. This challenging behavior occurred daily at school and was one of the factors leading to his expulsion. The behavior had predated the introduction of stimulant medication and had remained consistent after he began medication.Tony's parents are highly educated, and both parents hold professional jobs with steady income. His parents have good command of typical behavior management strategies such as
Gangi, Devon N; Messinger, Daniel S; Martin, Eden R; Cuccaro, Michael L
Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; high-risk siblings) exhibit lower levels of initiating joint attention (IJA; sharing an object or experience with a social partner through gaze and/or gesture) than low-risk siblings of children without ASD. However, high-risk siblings also exhibit substantial variability in this domain. The neurotransmitter dopamine is linked to brain areas associated with reward, motivation, and attention, and common dopaminergic variants have been associated with attention difficulties. We examined whether these common dopaminergic variants, DRD4 and DRD2, explain variability in IJA in high-risk (n = 55) and low-risk (n = 38) siblings. IJA was assessed in the first year during a semi-structured interaction with an examiner. DRD4 and DRD2 genotypes were coded according to associated dopaminergic functioning to create a gene score, with higher scores indicating more genotypes associated with less efficient dopaminergic functioning. Higher dopamine gene scores (indicative of less efficient dopaminergic functioning) were associated with lower levels of IJA in the first year for high-risk siblings, while the opposite pattern emerged in low-risk siblings. Findings suggest differential susceptibility-IJA was differentially associated with dopaminergic functioning depending on familial ASD risk. Understanding genes linked to ASD-relevant behaviors in high-risk siblings will aid in early identification of children at greatest risk for difficulties in these behavioral domains, facilitating targeted prevention and intervention. Autism Res 2016, 9: 1142-1150. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
M Guszkowska; A Bołdak
The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98); wakeboarding (n=30); snowboarding (n=30);...
Almodovar, Armando Silva; Axon, David Rhys; Coleman, Ashley M; Warholak, Terri; Nahata, Milap C
In 2007, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) instituted a star rating system using performance outcome measures to assess Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug (MAPD) and Prescription Drug Plan (PDP) providers. To assess the relationship between 2 performance outcome measures for Medicare insurance providers, comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs), and high-risk medication use. This cross-sectional study included Medicare Part C and Part D performance data from the 2014 and 2015 calendar years. Performance data were downloaded per Medicare contract from the CMS. We matched Medicare insurance provider performance data with the enrollment data of each contract. Mann Whitney U and Spearman rho tests and a hierarchical linear regression model assessed the relationship between provider characteristics, high-risk medication use, and CMR completion rate outcome measures. In 2014, an inverse correlation between CMR completion rate and high-risk medication use was identified among MAPD plan providers. This relationship was further strengthened in 2015. No correlation was detected between the CMR completion rate and high-risk medication use among PDP plan providers in either year. A multivariate regression found an inverse association with high-risk medication use among MAPD plan providers in comparison with PDP plan providers in 2014 (beta = -0.358, P plan providers and higher CMR completion rates were associated with lower use of high-risk medications among beneficiaries. No outside funding supported this study. Silva Almodovar reports a fellowship funded by SinfoniaRx, Tucson, Arizona, during the time of this study. The other authors have nothing to disclose.
Weir, Charlene; Brunker, Cherie; Butler, Jorie; Supiano, Mark A
This paper evaluates the role of facilitation in the successful implementation of Computerized Decision Support (CDS). Facilitation processes include education, specialized computerized decision support, and work process reengineering. These techniques, as well as modeling and feedback enhance self-efficacy, which we propose is one of the factors that mediate the effectiveness of any CDS. In this study, outpatient clinics implemented quality improvement (QI) projects focused on improving geriatric care. Quality Improvement is the systematic process of improving quality through continuous measurement and targeted actions. The program, entitled "Advancing Geriatric Education through Quality Improvement" (AGE QI), consisted of a 6-month, QI based, intervention: (1) 2h didactic session, (2) 1h QI planning session, (3) computerized decision support design and implementation, (4) QI facilitation activities, (5) outcome feedback, and (6) 20h of CME. Specifically, we examined the impact of the QI based program on clinician's perceived self-efficacy in caring for older adults and the relationship of implementation support and facilitation on perceived success. The intervention was implemented at 3 institutions, 27 community healthcare system clinics, and 134 providers. This study reports the results of pre/post surveys for the forty-nine clinicians who completed the full CME program. Self-efficacy ratings for specific clinical behaviors related to care of older adults were assessed using a Likert based instrument. Self-ratings of efficacy improved across the following domains (depression, falls, end-of-life, functional status and medication management) and specifically in QI targeted domains and were associated with overall clinic improvements. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Driessen, W. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Nord e.V., Hamburg (Germany)
Because of modifications to a feed-water line of a power plant structural calculations of the pipework were performed. As a result of a linear (modal) analysis very high restraint forces on the supports were calculated. In order to reduce conservatisms in the calculation the model was optimized with regard to the support stiffnesses and nonlinear behavior of slide bearings, guides and shock absorbers were taken into account. The main result of the non-linear analysis, which was performed by methods of direct-integration, was that nonlinearity yields evident differences in structural frequencies and in energy dissipation (damping) in comparison to the linear analysis. The high restraint forces on the supports became smaller for most of the supports but at some points the forces of the non-linear analysis were even higher. So the conservatism of the linear analysis is not fully valid for the whole structure. The relevance of the non-linear effects in dynamic piping calculations is shown by comparing the calculation result with measurements which were performed on structures in the plant. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen der Aenderung der Speisewasserleitung einer Kraftwerksanlage wurde die Struktur neu berechnet. Die Analysen mit einem linearen Modell (modal), das ueblicherweise verwendet wird, ergaben hohe Lasten an Halterungen. Zum Abbau von Konservativitaeten wurde eine realistischere Modellierung durch die Beruecksichtigung des nichtlinearen Verhaltens der in der Anlage befindlichen Gleitlager, Fuehrungen und Stossbremsen in der Berechnung vorgenommen. Die Untersuchungen haben ergeben, dass durch die Nichtlinearitaet das Frequenzverhalten der Struktur und die Dissipation von Energie durch Reibvorgaenge wesentlich beeinflusst werden. Des Weiteren ist festzustellen, dass aus linearen Analysen nicht uneingeschraenkt konservative Ergebnisse gewonnen werden. Die Relevanz der Beruecksichtigung des nichtlinearen Lagerverhaltens bei einer dynamischen Strukturberechnung wird
Yoshihara, Chika; Shimizu, Shinji
The national representative sample was analyzed to examine the relationship between respondents' drinking practice and the social network which was constructed of three different types of network: support network, drinking network, and intervening network. Non-parametric statistical analysis was conducted with chi square method and ANOVA analysis, due to the risk of small samples in some basic tabulation cells. The main results are as follows: (1) In the support network of workplace associates, moderate drinkers enjoyed much more sociable support care than both nondrinkers and hard drinkers, which might suggest a similar effect as the French paradox. Meanwhile in the familial and kinship network, the more intervening care support was provided, the harder respondents' drinking practice. (2) The drinking network among Japanese people for both sexes is likely to be convergent upon certain types of network categories and not decentralized in various categories. This might reflect of the drinking culture of Japan, which permits people to drink everyday as a practice, especially male drinkers. Subsequently, solitary drinking is not optional for female drinkers. (3) Intervening network analysis showed that the harder the respondents' drinking practices, the more frequently their drinking behaviors were checked in almost all the categories of network. A rather complicated gender double-standard was found in the network of hard drinkers with their friends, particularly for female drinkers. Medical professionals played a similar intervening role for men as family and kinship networks but to a less degree than friends for females. The social network is considerably associated with respondents' drinking, providing both sociability for moderate drinkers and intervention for hard drinkers, depending on network categories. To minimize the risk of hard drinking and advance self-healthy drinking there should be more research development on drinking practice and the social network.
Ghabri, Sawsen; Ouarda, Wael; Alimi, Adel M.
Security and surveillance are vital issues in today's world. The recent acts of terrorism have highlighted the urgent need for efficient surveillance. There is indeed a need for an automated system for video surveillance which can detect identity and activity of person. In this article, we propose a new paradigm to recognize an aggressive human behavior such as boxing action. Our proposed system for human activity detection includes the use of a fusion between Spatio Temporal Interest Point (STIP) and Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HoG) features. The novel feature called Spatio Temporal Histogram Oriented Gradient (STHOG). To evaluate the robustness of our proposed paradigm with a local application of HoG technique on STIP points, we made experiments on KTH human action dataset based on Multi Class Support Vector Machines classification. The proposed scheme outperforms basic descriptors like HoG and STIP to achieve 82.26% us an accuracy value of classification rate.
M. Alex Syaekhoni
Full Text Available Due to increasing concerns about environmental protection, the environmental sustainability of businesses has been widely considered in the manufacturing and supply chain context. Further, its adoption has been implemented in the retail industry for marketing field, including green product promotion. This study aimed to propose a customer purchasing behavior analysis as an alternative for supporting decision-making in order to promote green products in retail stores. Hence, right-on-target marketing strategies can be implemented appropriately. The study was carried out using shopping path data collected by radio frequency identification (RFID from a large retail store in Seoul, South Korea. In addition, the store layout and its traffic were also analyzed. This method is expected to help experts providing appropriate decision alternatives. In addition, it can help retailers in order to increase product sales and achieve high levels of customer satisfaction.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of steel and polypropylene fibers on static behavior of simply supported deep beams of normal concrete strength under patch loading. Also the paper studied the effect of web opening and its positions on shear capacity and mode of failures for steel fiber concrete deep beams under the same conditions of loading and strength. Sixteen beams of (1000*300*100mm, eighteen cubes (150*150*150mm and thirty cylinders (150*300mm in dimensions were cast with different fiber volume content (0, 0.4, 0.64 and 0.89% as additives. Shear capacity, mode of failure and three of mechanical strengths were tested. After testing, the results indicate that shear capacity increases with increasing volume of steel fiber content with change on mode of failure while midspan displacement decreases.
Biedenweg, Kelly; Meischke, Hendrika; Bohl, Alex; Hammerback, Kristen; Williams, Barbara; Poe, Pamela; Phelan, Elizabeth A
Little is known about older adults' perceptions of organized programs that support exercise behavior. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 39 older adults residing in King County, Washington, who either declined to join, joined and participated, or joined and then quit a physical activity-oriented program. We sought to explore motivators and barriers to physical activity program participation and to elicit suggestions for marketing strategies to optimize participation. Two programs supporting exercise behavior and targeting older persons were the source of study participants: Enhance(®)Fitness and Physical Activity for a Lifetime of Success. We analyzed interview data using standard qualitative methods. We examined variations in themes by category of program participant (joiner, decliner, quitter) as well as by program and by race. Interview participants were mostly females in their early 70s. Approximately half were non-White, and about half had graduated from college. The most frequently cited personal factors motivating program participation were enjoying being with others while exercising and desiring a routine that promoted accountability. The most frequent environmental motivators were marketing materials, encouragement from a trusted person, lack of program fees, and the location of the program. The most common barriers to participation were already getting enough exercise, not being motivated or ready, and having poor health. Marketing messages focused on both personal benefits (feeling better, social opportunity, enjoyability) and desirable program features (tailored to individual needs), and marketing mechanisms ranged from traditional written materials to highly personalized approaches. These results suggest that organized programs tend to appeal to those who are more socially inclined and seek accountability. Certain program features also influence participation. Thoughtful marketing that involves a variety of messages and mechanisms is
Crea, Katherine; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Hudry, Kristelle
Family-related predictors of mental health problems were investigated among 30 toddlers at familial high-risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 28 controls followed from age 2- to 3-years. Parents completed the self-report Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the parent-report Behavior Assessment System for Children. High-risk toddlers were assessed for ASD at 3-years. Parent stress and proband mental health difficulties predicted concurrent toddler mental health difficulties at 2-years, but only baseline proband internalising problems continued to predict toddler internalising problems at 3-years; high-risk status did not confer additional risk. Baseline toddler mental health difficulties robustly predicted later difficulties, while high-risk status and diagnostic outcome conferred no additional risk. A family systems perspective may be useful for understanding toddler mental health difficulties.
Swanson, Katie; Gettinger, Maribeth
This study focused on the association between 3 school-level supports for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward LGBT youth. Framed within social support theory, the study used survey method with a sample of 98 teachers in Grades 6-12. The purpose was to examine the relation…
Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.
Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisor training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and postintervention…
Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M
Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches' autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches' competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches' psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches' psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.
Garcia, Eliana; Hoang, Dana
The use of positive reinforcement sometimes gets lost in translation because educators forget the importance of acknowledging good behaviors. We instinctively tend to punish and give consequences because we often forget the importance of preventing undesired behaviors from occurring in the first place. More efforts should be spent on maintaining…
Machalicek, Wendy; O'Reilly, Mark; Chan, Jeffrey M.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Davis, Tonya; Shogren, Karrie; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Antonucci, Massimo; Langthorne, Paul; Andrews, Alonzo; Didden, Robert
We conducted a functional analysis of challenging behavior for two students with autism using widely available videoconferencing equipment (laptop computers equipped with web cameras). Observers used the videoconferencing facilities to collect data on challenging behavior and to instruct the therapist conducting the assessment. Results of the…
Sharaf, Amira Y; Thompson, Elaine A; Walsh, Elaine
If and how family support and self-esteem might interact to protect against adolescent suicide risk is not well understood. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the moderating effect of family support on the relationship between self-esteem and suicide risk behaviors among potential high school dropouts (N = 849), using questionnaires and in-depth assessment interviews. Family support moderated the impact of self-esteem on suicide risk; the ameliorating effect of self-esteem was stronger among adolescents with low versus high family support. Self-esteem influences adolescent suicide risk behaviors for youth with low as well as high family support. Interventions designed to strengthen both self-esteem and support resources are appropriate.
Cheah, Charissa S L; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Leung, Christy Y Y
The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants included 122 Chinese adolescents (M = 13.14 years; SD = 2.22) in Malaysia. Adolescents' perceived parental investments, filial emotions, and warmth and support from each parent were positively, and age was negatively associated with their filial behaviors. No gender differences were found. Perceived maternal warmth and support significantly mediated the effect of age, perceived investments from, and filial emotions toward mothers on adolescents' filial behaviors, but perceived paternal warmth and support did not have a mediating role. The present study sheds light on the unique maternal versus paternal filial role, and important familial processes in Chinese-Malaysian children and adolescents from a cultural perspective. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jiang, Juan; Li, Gu; Tan, Nanshu; Ding, Qian; Mai, Kancheng
Highlights: ► The supported calcium pimelate β-zeolite was prepared. ► The β-nucleation of zeolite was enhanced dramatically through reaction. ► High β-phase content iPP composites were obtained by introducing the β-zeolite into iPP. - Abstract: In order to prepare the zeolite filled β-iPP composites, the calcium pimelate as β-nucleator supported on the surface of zeolite (β-zeolite) was prepared by the interaction between calcified zeolite and pimelic acid. The β-nucleation, crystallization behavior and melting characteristic of zeolite, calcified zeolite and β-zeolite filled iPP composites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffractometer. The results indicated that addition of the zeolite and calcified zeolite as well as β-zeolite increased the crystallization temperature of iPP. The zeolite and calcified zeolite filled iPP composites mainly crystallized in the α-crystal form and the strong β-heterogeneous nucleation of β-zeolite results in the formation of only β-crystal in β-zeolite filled iPP composites. The zeolite filled β-iPP composites with high β-crystal contents (above 0.90) can be easily obtained by adding β-zeolite into iPP matrix.
Kaindl, T; Oelke, J; Kaufmann, S; Tanaka, M; Pasc, A; Konovalov, O V; Funari, S S; Engel, U; Wixforth, A
Highly uniform, strongly correlated domains of synthetically designed lipids can be incorporated into supported lipid membranes. The systematic characterization of membranes displaying a variety of domains revealed that the equilibrium size of domains significantly depends on the length of fluorocarbon chains, which can be quantitatively interpreted within the framework of an equivalent dipole model. A mono-dispersive, narrow size distribution of the domains enables us to treat the inter-domain correlations as two-dimensional colloidal crystallization and calculate the potentials of mean force. The obtained results demonstrated that both size and inter-domain correlation can precisely be controlled by the molecular structures. By coupling α-D-mannose to lipid head groups, we studied the adhesion behavior of the murine macrophage (J774A.1) on supported membranes. Specific adhesion and spreading of macrophages showed a clear dependence on the density of functional lipids. The obtained results suggest that such synthetic lipid domains can be used as a defined platform to study how cells sense the size and distribution of functional molecules during adhesion and spreading.
Sheff, Alex; Park, Elyse R; Neagle, Mary; Oreskovic, Nicolas M
Care coordination programs for high-risk, high-cost patients are a critical component of population health management. These programs aim to improve outcomes and reduce costs and have proliferated over the last decade. Some programs, originally designed for Medicare patients, are now transitioning to also serve Medicaid populations. However, there are still gaps in the understanding of what barriers to care Medicaid patients experience, and what supports will be most effective for providing them care coordination. We conducted two focus groups (n = 13) and thematic analyses to assess the outcomes drivers and programmatic preferences of Medicaid patients enrolled in a high-risk care coordination program at a major academic medical center in Boston, MA. Two focus groups identified areas where care coordination efforts were having a positive impact, as well as areas of unmet needs among the Medicaid population. Six themes emerged from the focus groups that clustered in three groupings: In the first group (1) enrollment in an existing medical care coordination programs, and (2) provider communication largely presented as positive accounts of assistance, and good relationships with providers, though participants also pointed to areas where these efforts fell short. In the second group (3) trauma histories, (4) mental health challenges, and (5) executive function difficulties all presented challenges faced by high-risk Medicaid patients that would likely require redress through additional programmatic supports. Finally, in the third group, (6) peer-to-peer support tendencies among patients suggested an untapped resource for care coordination programs. Programs aimed at high-risk Medicaid patients will want to consider programmatic adjustments to attend to patient needs in five areas: (1) provider connection/care coordination, (2) trauma, (3) mental health, (4) executive function/paperwork and coaching support, and (5) peer-to-peer support.
Ross C. Hollett
Full Text Available According to the ambivalence model of craving, alcohol craving involves the dynamic interplay of separate approach and avoidance inclinations. Cue-elicited increases in approach inclinations are posited to be more likely to result in alcohol consumption and risky drinking behaviors only if unimpeded by restraint inclinations. Current study aims were (1 to test if changes in the net balance between approach and avoidance inclinations following alcohol cue exposure differentiate between low and high risk drinkers, and (2 if this balance is associated with alcohol consumption on a subsequent taste test. In two experiments (N = 60; N = 79, low and high risk social drinkers were exposed to alcohol cues, and pre- and post- approach and avoidance inclinations measured. An ad libitum alcohol consumption paradigm and a non-alcohol exposure condition were also included in Study 2. Cue-elicited craving was characterized by a predominant approach inclination only in the high risk drinkers. Conversely, approach inclinations were adaptively balanced by equally strong avoidance inclinations when cue-elicited craving was induced in low risk drinkers. For these low risk drinkers with the balanced craving profile, neither approach or avoidance inclinations predicted subsequent alcohol consumption levels during the taste test. Conversely, for high risk drinkers, where the approach inclination predominated, each inclination synergistically predicted subsequent drinking levels during the taste test. In conclusion, results support the importance of assessing both approach and avoidance inclinations, and their relative balance following alcohol cue exposure. Specifically, this more comprehensive assessment reveals changes in craving profiles that are not apparent from examining changes in approach inclinations alone, and it is this shift in the net balance that distinguishes high from low risk drinkers.
Wada, Koji; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Takahashi, Miyako
Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists.
Wada, Koji; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Ohtsu, Mayumi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tagaya, Nobumi; Takahashi, Miyako
Improved outcomes of cancer treatment allow patients to undergo treatment while working. However, support from oncologists and medical institutions is essential for patients to continue working. This study aimed to clarify oncologists' awareness and behavior regarding patients who work during treatment, support in medical institutions and their association. A questionnaire was mailed to all 453 diplomates and faculty of the subspecialty board of medical oncology in the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology and all 1016 surgeons certified by the Japanese Board of Cancer Therapy living in the Kanto area. The questionnaire assessed demographics, oncologist awareness and behavior regarding patient employment and support measures at their medical institutions. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of awareness and behavior of oncologists with support measures at their institutions. A total of 668 individuals participated. The overall response rate was 45.5%. Only 53.6% of respondents advised patients to tell their supervisors about prospects for treatment and ask for understanding. For medical institutions, 28.8% had a nurse-involved counseling program and adjustments in radiation therapy (28.0%) and chemotherapy (41.9%) schedules to accommodate patients' work. There was a significant correlation between awareness and behavior of oncologists and medical institutions' measures to support employed cancer patients. There is room for improvement in awareness and behavior of oncologists and support in medical institutions for cancer patients continuing to work. Oncologists could support working patients by exerting influence on their medical institutions. Conversely, proactive development of support measures by medical institutions could alter the awareness and behavior of oncologists. (author)
Crookes, Danielle M; Shelton, Rachel C; Tehranifar, Parisa; Aycinena, Corina; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel R; Greenlee, Heather
Little is known about Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks or their perceived social support to achieve and maintain a healthy diet. This paper describes the social networks and perceived support for healthy eating in a sample of breast cancer survivors of predominantly Dominican descent living in New York City. Spanish-speaking Latina breast cancer survivors enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored dietary intervention. Social networks were assessed using Cohen's Social Network Index and a modified General Social Survey Social Networks Module that included assessments of shared health promoting behaviors. Perceived social support from family and friends for healthy, food-related behaviors was assessed. Participants' networks consisted predominantly of family and friends. Family members were more likely than other individuals to be identified as close network members. Participants were more likely to share food-related activities than exercise activities with close network members. Perceived social support for healthy eating was high, although perceived support from spouses and children was higher than support from friends. Despite high levels of perceived support, family was also identified as a barrier to eating healthy foods by nearly half of women. Although friends are part of Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks, spouses and children may provide greater support for healthy eating than friends. Involving family members in dietary interventions for Latina breast cancer survivors may tap into positive sources of support for women, which could facilitate uptake and maintenance of healthy eating behaviors.
Full Text Available Purpose : Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA 20 ng/ml. Material and methods: We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results : EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258, and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270. Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022. Conclusions : Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease.
Lehners, Nicola; Hayden, Patrick J; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Raab, Marc-Steffen
Despite the progress made in the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma over recent decades, a significant cohort with high-risk disease as defined by specific clinical and genetic criteria continue to respond poorly to standard treatment. These patients represent a particular challenge to the treating physician and require early identification as well as personalized treatment strategies. In this review, we discuss the prognostic impact of adverse clinical, radiological and genetic factors, evaluate available scoring systems and highlight key aspects of the therapeutic management of high-risk myeloma. MEDLINE and recent scientific meetings' databases were searched for the keywords 'high-risk' and 'multiple myeloma' and relevant studies relating to both diagnostic and therapeutic approaches were identified. Expert commentary: A case is made for intensive induction using combinations of novel agents, early high-dose therapy supported by autologous stem cell transplantation and the widespread use of maintenance therapies. Novel therapeutic options, especially in the field of immunotherapy, are currently explored in clinical trials and have the potential to further improve outcomes for patients with high-risk multiple myeloma.
Full Text Available This study investigates direct and indirect relationships between perceived organizational support, organizational trust and organizational citizenship behavior. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of employee perceptions of organizational support on the tendency to exhibit organizational citizenship behavior and to determine the mediating role of perceived trust in perceived organizational support and organizational citizenship behavior relationship. The data used in the study were gathered by questionnaire from 228 graduate students studying at the Karabuk University Institute of Social Sciences and at the same time working in state and private institutions. In the process of testing the hypotheses, path analysis was used in the context of structural equation modeling. As a result of the study, it was determined that organizational trust fully mediates the relationship between perceived organizational support and the dimensions of altruism, conscientiousness and sportsmanship of organizational citizenship behavior and partially mediates the relationship between perceived organizational support and the dimensions of courtesy and civic virtue of organizational citizenship behavior.
Full Text Available Extensive research now demonstrates that lifestyle modification can significantly lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D in high-risk adults. In children, the evidence for lifestyle modification is not as robust, but the rapidly rising rate of obesity in children coupled with the substantial difficulty in changing behaviors later in life illuminates the need to implement prevention efforts early in the life course of children. Genetic data can now be used early in the life course to identify children at high-risk of developing T2D before traditional clinical measures can detect the presence of prediabetes; a metabolic condition associated with obesity that significantly increases risk for developing T2D. Such early detection of risk may enable the promotion of “primordial prevention” in which parents implement behavior change for their at risk children. Young children with genetic risk are a novel target population. Here we review the literature on genetic testing for prevention as it relates to chronic diseases and specifically use T2D as a model. We discuss the history of primordial prevention, the need for primordial prevention of T2D and the role genetic testing has in primordial prevention of high-risk families.
Lecompte, Vanessa; Rousseau, Cécile
Our goal was to examine maternal mental health and associated stresses in a sample of high-risk immigrant mothers, and its association with child insecure attachment in the years following childbirth. Mothers and their child (Mage = 37 months) were recruited through a Health and Social Service organization in the Parc-Extension neighborhood in Montreal, Quebec. Mothers completed the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MPSS) and a sociodemographic questionnaire that included questions on premature delivery and birth weight. Attachment behaviors were coded out of a videotaped free play sequence using the Preschool and Early School-Age Attachment Rating Scales (PARS). Analysis revealed high levels of clinical anxiety and depression, low social support and low attachment security. Significant mean differences and associations were found between anxiety, depression, social support, preterm delivery and child attachment. These results underscore the importance of screening for anxiety and depression early in the postnatal years, in order to prevent associated consequences such as child insecure attachment. Results also highlight the importance of building positive social networks, especially with immigrant populations.
Full Text Available HPV is classified into high-risk and low-risk types depending on its probability of leading to tumorigenesis. Many studies have shown that HPV infection, especially the infection caused by the high-risk type, is always related to prostate cancer, bladder cancer, penile cancer, testicular cancer, and other urinary system tumors. However, previous studies differed in sexual openness and racial genetic susceptibility of the study object, sample size, and experimental methods. Hence, the correlation between high-risk HPV infection and urinary system tumors remains controversial. The early open reading frame of the HPV genome is composed of E1–E7, among which E6 and E7 are the key transfer proteins. The combination of these proteins with oncogene and anti-oncogene may be one of the mechanisms leading to tumorigenesis.
Althoff, Meghan D; Theall, Katherine; Schmidt, Norine; Hembling, John; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Thompson, Michelle M; Muth, Stephen Q; Friedman, Samuel R; Kissinger, Patricia
The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the quantity and quality of social support networks of Latino immigrants living in a new receiving environment, and (2) determine the role such networks play in their HIV/STI risk behaviors, including substance use. Double incentivized convenience sampling was used to collect egocentric social support network data on 144 Latino immigrants. Latent class analysis was used for data reduction and to identify items best suited to measure quality and quantity of social support. Moderate and high quantity and quality of social support were protective of HIV/STI sexual risk behavior compared to low quantity and quality of support, after adjustment for gender, years in New Orleans and residing with family. Neither measure of social support was associated with binge drinking. The findings suggest that increased quantity and quality of social support decrease HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors but do not influence binge drinking. Interventions that improve the quantity and quality of social support are needed for Latino immigrants.
Full Text Available Adel F Almutairi,1,2 Mahmoud Salam,1,2 Samiyah Alanazi,1 Manal Alweldawi,1 Najad Alsomali,1 Najla Alotaibi1 1King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences, 2Science and Technology Unit, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Many studies have discovered a number of factors that can contribute to the risk of developing postpartum depression (PPD, including, but not limited to, life stressors, lack of social support, low economic status, and quality of the marital relationship. However, these studies were conducted in various countries with participants from different cultural backgrounds.Purpose: This study aimed to examine the impact of general help-seeking behavior (GHSB and partner support (PS on PPD among Saudi women in primary health care clinics in Riyadh city.Methods: Data were collected by using self-administered measures of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, General Help-Seeking Questionnaire (GHSQ, and Partner Support Scale (PSS. Frequency distribution was used to analyze the categorical data, and Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance were employed to compare the numerical data. Linear regression analysis was used to control for all confounders.Results: The findings showed that 9% and 28% of women had good and poor GHSB, respectively, 16% had poor PS, and 25.7% could be classified as probably depressed. Negative relationships between GHSB versus PPD and PS versus PPD were observed. Adjusting by mode of delivery and controlling for confounders in linear regression showed that women who underwent normal vaginal delivery, with higher para rates (β=0.250, t=2.063 and lower PS scores (β=-0.238, t=-2.038, were more likely to suffer higher depression scores (adj P=0.043 and adj P=0.045, respectively. Women who underwent cesarean-section, with postpartum duration ≥6 weeks (β=0.374, t=2.082, were more likely to
Behan, James W; Sutton, Adam; Wysong, Ashley
Skin cancer is the most common of human cancers and outnumbers all other types of cancer combined in the USA by over threefold. The majority of non-melanoma skin cancers are easily treated with surgery or locally destructive techniques performed under local anesthesia in the cost-effective outpatient setting. However, there is a subset of "high-risk" cases that prove challenging in terms of morbidity, mortality, adjuvant treatment required, as well as overall cost to the health care system. In our opinion, the term "high risk" when applied to skin cancer can mean one of three things: a high-risk tumor with aggressive histologic and/or clinical features with an elevated risk for local recurrence or regional/distant metastasis, a high-risk patient with the ongoing development of multiple skin cancers, and a high-risk patient based on immunosuppression. We have recently proposed classifying NMSC as a chronic disease in a certain subset of patients. Although no consensus definition exists for a chronic disease in medicine, there are three components that are present in most definitions: duration of at least 1 year, need for ongoing medical care, and functional impairment and/or alteration of activities of daily living (ADLs) and quality of life (QOL). Immunosuppression can refer to exogenous (organ or stem cell transplant patients,) or endogenous (HIV, leukemia, lymphoma, genodermatoses with DNA mismatch repair problems or other immunosuppression) causes. These patients are at risk for high-risk tumors and/or the development of multiple tumors.
Hoelscher Deanna M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of social support in promoting physical activity, little is known about the relative influence of the type or source of social support on adolescent girls' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. This study examined the associations of two types of social support (social participation in and social encouragement for physical activity and two social support sources (family and friends with self-reported daily minutes of physical activity and sedentary behavior among sixth-grade girls in Texas. Methods A secondary analysis of 718 sixth-grade girls between the ages of 10 to 14 was performed using cross-sectional baseline data from an osteoporosis prevention intervention study. Physical activity and sedentary behaviors (television-video viewing and computer-video game playing were assessed using 3 administrations of the Self-Administered Physical Activity Checklist; social support indicators were assessed with Likert-type items from a psychosocial questionnaire. Results In multiple linear regression analyses, friend physical activity participation (partial correlation coefficient (r = 0.10, p = .009 and friend (r = 0.12 and family encouragement (r = 0.11 (p Conclusion Findings lend support to the importance of social support for physical activity among adolescent girls but suggest that the source and type of social support may differ for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to assess the causal or reciprocal relation between the roles of friends and family in promoting physical activity and of family physical activity in decreasing sedentary behaviors among early adolescent girls.
Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze
Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.
Rodrigues, Sabrina Alessandra; Presotto, Anna Gabriella Camacho; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Nóbilo, Mauro Antônio Arruda; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz
This in vitro study investigated the role of welding techniques of implant-supported prostheses in the 2D and 3D marginal misfits of prosthetic frameworks, strain induced on the mini abutment, and detorque of prosthetic screws. The correlations between the analyzed variables were also investigated. Frameworks were cast in commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti). A marginal misfit of 200μm was simulated in the working models (control group) (n=20). The 2D marginal misfit was analyzed according to the single-screw test protocol using a precision optical microscope. The 3D marginal misfit was performed by X-ray microtomography. Strain gauge analysis was performed to investigate the strain induced on the mini abutment. A digital torque meter was used for analysis of the detorque and the mean value was calculated for each framework. Afterwards, the frameworks were divided into two experimental groups (n=10): Laser (L) and TIG (T). The welding techniques were performed according to the following parameters: L (390V/9ms); T (36A/60ms). The L and T groups were reevaluated according to the marginal misfit, strain, and detorque. The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD test and Person correlation analysis (α=0.05). Welding techniques statistically reduced the 2D and 3D marginal misfits of prosthetic frameworks (p0.05). Positive correlations were observed between 2D and 3D marginal misfit reading methods (r=0.943, pwelding techniques improved the biomechanical behavior of the implant-supported system. TIG can be an acceptable and affordable technique to reduce the misfit of 3-unit Ti frameworks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
West, Robert; Evans, Adam; Michie, Susan
To develop a reliable coding scheme for components of group-based behavioral support for smoking cessation, to establish the frequency of inclusion in English Stop-Smoking Service (SSS) treatment manuals of specific components, and to investigate the associations between inclusion of behavior change techniques (BCTs) and service success rates. A taxonomy of BCTs specific to group-based behavioral support was developed and reliability of use assessed. All English SSSs (n = 145) were contacted to request their group-support treatment manuals. BCTs included in the manuals were identified using this taxonomy. Associations between inclusion of specific BCTs and short-term (4-week) self-reported quit outcomes were assessed. Fourteen group-support BCTs were identified with >90% agreement between coders. One hundred and seven services responded to the request for group-support manuals of which 30 had suitable documents. On average, 7 BCTs were included in each manual. Two were positively associated with 4-week quit rates: "communicate group member identities" and a "betting game" (a financial deposit that is lost if a stop-smoking "buddy" relapses). It is possible to reliably code group-specific BCTs for smoking cessation. Fourteen such techniques are present in guideline documents of which 2 appear to be associated with higher short-term self-reported quit rates when included in treatment manuals of English SSSs.
Price, Sarah; Ferisin, Stephanie; Sharifi, Mona; Steinberg, David; Bennett, Gary; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Horan, Christine; Koziol, Renata; Marshall, Richard; Taveras, Elsie M
Text messaging is a promising means of intervening on an array of health issues among varied populations, but little has been published about the development of such interventions. The authors describe the development and implementation of an interactive text messaging campaign for parents to support behavior change among children in a childhood obesity randomized controlled trial. The authors invited 160 parents to participate in a text messaging intervention that provided behavior change support in conjunction with health coaching phone calls and mailed materials on behavioral goals. Throughout the 1-year intervention, the authors sent 1-2 text messages per week. The first asked how the child did with a target behavior the day before; parents who replied received an immediate feedback message tailored to their response. The second included a tip about how to work toward a behavioral goal. Baseline surveys indicate that text messaging is a common means of communication for parents, and many are willing to use text messaging to support behavior change for their child. Results at 1 year indicate a high level of engagement with the text messaging intervention, with nearly two thirds responding to 75% or more of the questions they were sent by text.
Delgado-Gomez, D; Baca-Garcia, E; Aguado, D; Courtet, P; Lopez-Castroman, J
Several Computerized Adaptive Tests (CATs) have been proposed to facilitate assessments in mental health. These tests are built in a standard way, disregarding useful and usually available information not included in the assessment scales that could increase the precision and utility of CATs, such as the history of suicide attempts. Using the items of a previously developed scale for suicidal risk, we compared the performance of a standard CAT and a decision tree in a support decision system to identify suicidal behavior. We included the history of past suicide attempts as a class for the separation of patients in the decision tree. The decision tree needed an average of four items to achieve a similar accuracy than a standard CAT with nine items. The accuracy of the decision tree, obtained after 25 cross-validations, was 81.4%. A shortened test adapted for the separation of suicidal and non-suicidal patients was developed. CATs can be very useful tools for the assessment of suicidal risk. However, standard CATs do not use all the information that is available. A decision tree can improve the precision of the assessment since they are constructed using a priori information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bruns, Eric J; Duong, Mylien T; Lyon, Aaron R; Pullmann, Michael D; Cook, Clayton R; Cheney, Douglas; McCauley, Elizabeth
The education sector offers compelling opportunities to address the shortcomings of traditional mental health delivery systems and to prevent and treat youth mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) problems. Recognizing that social and emotional wellness is intrinsically related to academic success, schools are moving to adopt multi-tier frameworks based on the public health model that provide a continuum of services to all children, including services to address both academic and MEB problems. In this article, we review the potential value of multi-tier frameworks in facilitating access to, and increasing the effectiveness of, mental health services in schools, and review the empirical support for school-based mental health interventions by tier. We go on to describe a community-academic partnership between the Seattle Public Schools and the University of Washington School Mental Health Assessment, Research, and Training (SMART) Center that exemplifies how multi-tier educational frameworks, research and evidence, and purposeful collaboration can combine to improve development and implementation of a range of school-based strategies focused on MEB needs of students. Finally, we present a set of 10 recommendations that may help guide other research and practice improvement efforts to address MEB problems in youth through effective school mental health programming. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bruns, Eric J.; Duong, Mylien T.; Lyon, Aaron R.; Pullmann, Michael D.; Cook, Clayton R.; Cheney, Douglas; McCauley, Elizabeth
The education sector offers compelling opportunities to address the shortcomings of traditional mental health delivery systems and to prevent and treat youth mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) problems. Recognizing that social and emotional wellness is intrinsically related to academic success, schools are moving to adopt multi-tier frameworks based on the public health model that provide a continuum of services to all children, including services to address both academic and MEB problems. In this paper, we review the potential value of multi-tier frameworks in facilitating access to, and increasing the effectiveness of, mental health services in schools and review the empirical support for school-based mental health interventions by tier. We go on to describe a community-academic partnership between the Seattle Public Schools and the University of Washington School Mental Health Assessment, Research, and Training (SMART) Center that exemplifies how multi-tier educational frameworks, research and evidence, and purposeful collaboration can combine to improve development and implementation of a range of school-based strategies focused on MEB needs of students. Finally, we present a set of 10 recommendations that may help guide other research and practice improvement efforts to address MEB problems in youth through effective school mental health programming. PMID:26963185
Crain, Tori L.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Bodner, Todd; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Moen, Phyllis; Lilienthal, Richard; Buxton, Orfeu M.
Although critical to health and well-being, relatively little research has been conducted in the organizational literature on linkages between the work-family interface and sleep. Drawing on Conservation of Resources theory, we use a sample of 623 information technology workers to examine the relationships between work-family conflict, family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and sleep quality and quantity. Validated wrist actigraphy methods were used to collect objective sleep quality and quantity data over a one week period of time, and survey methods were used to collect information on self-reported work-family conflict, FSSB, and sleep quality and quantity. Results demonstrated that the combination of predictors (i.e., work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, FSSB) was significantly related to both objective and self-report measures of sleep quantity and quality. Future research should further examine the work-family interface to sleep link and make use of interventions targeting the work-family interface as a means for improving sleep health. PMID:24730425
Green, Beth L; Furrer, Carrie; McAllister, Carol
The importance of supportive relationships for new parents has been the focus of both research and parenting interventions. Attachment style, typically viewed as a relatively stable trait reflecting one's comfort in social relationships, as well as social support, or one's perception of the social context, have both been found to be important for fostering engaged, involved parenting. Less is known, however, about how these variables work together to influence parenting behavior, especially in families at higher risk for negative child outcomes. Data were collected from 152 urban, predominantly African American, low-income parents when their children were 14 and 36 months of age. Results suggest that parents with more social support show greater increases in the frequency of positive parent-child activities over time, but that this effect is mediated by mothers' attachment style, specifically, their level of anxious/ambivalent attachment. Mothers with more social support tended to be less anxious/ambivalent about close relationships, and this in turn led to increases over time in the frequency of parent-child interactions. Mothers' tendency to avoid close relationships, however, while correlated with social support, was unrelated to changes in parenting behavior. Implications of these findings for program development, parenting, and the malleability of attachment style based on social context are discussed.
Almutairi, Adel F; Salam, Mahmoud; Alanazi, Samiyah; Alweldawi, Manal; Alsomali, Najad; Alotaibi, Najla
Many studies have discovered a number of factors that can contribute to the risk of developing postpartum depression (PPD), including, but not limited to, life stressors, lack of social support, low economic status, and quality of the marital relationship. However, these studies were conducted in various countries with participants from different cultural backgrounds. This study aimed to examine the impact of general help-seeking behavior (GHSB) and partner support (PS) on PPD among Saudi women in primary health care clinics in Riyadh city. Data were collected by using self-administered measures of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), General Help-Seeking Questionnaire (GHSQ), and Partner Support Scale (PSS). Frequency distribution was used to analyze the categorical data, and Student's t -test and one-way analysis of variance were employed to compare the numerical data. Linear regression analysis was used to control for all confounders. The findings showed that 9% and 28% of women had good and poor GHSB, respectively, 16% had poor PS, and 25.7% could be classified as probably depressed. Negative relationships between GHSB versus PPD and PS versus PPD were observed. Adjusting by mode of delivery and controlling for confounders in linear regression showed that women who underwent normal vaginal delivery, with higher para rates ( β =0.250, t =2.063) and lower PS scores ( β =-0.238, t =-2.038), were more likely to suffer higher depression scores (adj P =0.043 and adj P =0.045, respectively). Women who underwent cesarean-section, with postpartum duration ≥6 weeks ( β =0.374, t =2.082), were more likely to suffer higher depression scores (adj P =0.045) compared to those with <6 weeks of postpartum duration. The prevalence of PPD among the study participants was high, especially among higher para women who underwent normal delivery and women ≥6 weeks post cesarean-section, in comparison with the results in other studies. PPD is reduced by enhancing
Niederwieser, Tobias; Kociolek, Patrick; Klaus, David
An Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is necessary for humans to survive in the hostile environment of space. As future missions move beyond Earth orbit for extended durations, reclaiming human metabolic waste streams for recycled use becomes increasingly important. Historically, these functions have been accomplished using a variety of physical and chemical processes with limited recycling capabilities. In contrast, biological systems can also be incorporated into a spacecraft to essentially mimic the balance of photosynthesis and respiration that occurs in Earth's ecosystem, along with increasing the reuse of biomass throughout the food chain. In particular, algal photobioreactors that use Chlorella vulgaris have been identified as potential multifunctional components for use as part of such a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, a connection between the biological research examining C. vulgaris behavior and the engineered spacecraft cabin environmental conditions has not yet been thoroughly established. This review article characterizes the ranges of prior and expected cabin parameters (e.g. temperature, lighting, carbon dioxide, pH, oxygen, pressure, growth media, contamination, gravity, and radiation) and reviews algal metabolic response (e.g. growth rate, composition, carbon dioxide fixation rates, and oxygen evolution rates) to changes in those parameters that have been reported in prior space research and from related Earth-based experimental observations. Based on our findings, it appears that C. vulgaris offers many promising advantages for use in a BLSS. Typical atmospheric conditions found in spacecraft such as elevated carbon dioxide levels are, in fact, beneficial for algal cultivation. Other spacecraft cabin parameters, however, introduce unique environmental factors, such as reduced total pressure with elevated oxygen concentration, increased radiation, and altered gravity, whose effects on the biological responses
Theodore J Mansfield
Full Text Available Health impact assessment (HIA has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as active transportation, which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2 minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1 minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 minutes of daily walking time for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59 premature deaths potentially could be
Mansfield, Theodore J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald
Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as "active transportation"), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9-23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5-6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5-38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15-59) premature deaths potentially could be avoided if the entire
Mansfield, Theodore J.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald
Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as “active transportation”), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59) premature deaths potentially could
Hammer, Leslie B.; Kossek, Ellen E.; Anger, W. Kent; Bodner, Todd; Zimmerman, Kristi L.
Drawing on a conceptual model integrating research on training, work-family interventions, and social support, we conducted a quasi-experimental field study to assess the impact of a supervisory training and self-monitoring intervention designed to increase supervisors' use of family supportive supervisor behaviors. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed, nine months apart, by 239 employees at six intervention (N = 117) and six control (N = 122) grocery store sites. Thirty-nine supervisors in the six intervention sites received the training consisting of one hour of self-paced computer-based training, one hour of face-to-face group training, followed by instructions for behavioral self-monitoring (recording the frequency of supportive behaviors) to support on-the-job transfer. Results demonstrated a disordinal interaction for the effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee job satisfaction, turnover intentions and physical health. In particular, for these outcomes, positive training effects were observed for employees with high family-to-work conflict, while negative training effects were observed for employees with low family-to-work conflict. These moderation effects were mediated by the interactive effect of training and family-to-work conflict on employee perceptions of family-supportive supervisor behaviors. Implications of our findings for future work-family intervention development and evaluation are discussed. PMID:20853943
Children with communication disorders may express frustrations through challenging behaviors such as aggressive behaviors and social withdrawal. Challenging behaviors may lead to difficulties with building social competencies including emotional regulation and peer engagement. Individualized planning of functional goals for children with…
Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa
This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…
Connolly, Stuart J; Camm, A John; Halperin, Jonathan L
Dronedarone restores sinus rhythm and reduces hospitalization or death in intermittent atrial fibrillation. It also lowers heart rate and blood pressure and has antiadrenergic and potential ventricular antiarrhythmic effects. We hypothesized that dronedarone would reduce major vascular events...... in high-risk permanent atrial fibrillation....
Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung
Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. To reduce the socioeconomic burden related to gastric cancer, it is very important to identify and manage high risk group for gastric cancer. In this review, we describe the general risk factors for gastric cancer and define high risk group for gastric cancer. We discuss strategies for the effective management of patients for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Therefore, the accurate selection of individuals with AG and IM may be a key strategy for the prevention and/or early detection of gastric cancer. Although endoscopic evaluation using enhanced technologies such as narrow band imaging-magnification, the serum pepsinogen test, Helicobacter pylori serology, and trefoil factor 3 have been evaluated, a gold standard method to accurately select individuals with AG and IM has not emerged. In terms of managing patients at high risk of gastric cancer, it remains uncertain whether H. pylori eradication reverses and/or prevents the progression of AG and IM. Although endoscopic surveillance in high risk patients is expected to be beneficial, further prospective studies in large populations are needed to determine the optimal surveillance interval. PMID:25547086
Full Text Available The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98; wakeboarding (n=30; snowboarding (n=30; scuba diving (n=22; alpinism (n=20; paragliding (n=17. The control group included 54 men not involved in sports. Polish version of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-IV of Zuckerman was applied.Results show, that high risk sports males are featured by stronger need of sensations in comparison to control group and this concerned all but one aspect of sensation seeking variable. The only exception was the need of intellectual stimulation. Except from the thrill and adventure seeking dimension, type of sport may also be an important determinant of sensation seeking. Men practising snowboard and wakeboard presented stronger need for sensations, especially in the dimension of experience seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Sport experience (number of jumps in parachuting did not differentiate the level of sensation seeking among investigated parachutists. Population of sport high risk male takers was not homogeneous, and therefore in future research one should analyse specific sports (or events in a certain sport separately.
Sædder, Eva Aggerholm; Lisby, Marianne; Nielsen, Lars Peter
Medication errors (MEs) are preventable and can result in patient harm and increased expenses in the healthcare system in terms of hospitalization, prolonged hospitalizations and even death. We aimed to develop a screening tool to detect acutely admitted patients at low or high risk of MEs...
MetS) in high-risk individuals attending 30 internal medicine clinics in Amman, Jordan, and also to evaluate the various factors associated with increased risk of MetS among them. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out ...
Overgaard, M.; Juul Christensen, J.; Johansen, H.; Nybo-Rasmussen, A.; Brincker, H.; Kooy, P. van der; Frederiksen, P.L.; Laursen, F.; Panduro, J.; Soerensen, N.E.; Gadeberg, C.C.; Hjelm-Hansen, M.; Overgaard, J.; West Andersen, K.; Zedeler, K.
All pre- and postmenopausal high-risk breast cancer patients in the protocols DBCG 77 of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group received postmastectomy irradiation before randomization to either adjuvant systemic therapy or no such treatment. The actuarial loco-regional recurrence rate at 9 years was 6-17%, with the lowest rate in patients who also received additional adjuvant chemotherapy or tamoxifen. In a subsequent study (DBCG 82) the role of postmastectomy irradiation together with systemic treatment was evaluated in high-risk patients. Pre- and menopausal patients were randomized to postmastectomy irradiation+CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil), CMF alone or CMF+TAM (tamoxifen). Postmenopausal patients were randomized to postmastectomy irradiation+TAM, TAM or CMF+TAM. At 4 years the loco-regional recurrence rate was significantly lower in the irradiated patients (5-7% vs. 23-33%). Further, disease-free survival was significantly improved in both pre- and postmenopausal irradiated patients compared with those who had only systemic treatment. At present, there are no significant differences between survival in the treatment groups. Thus, adjuvant systemic treatment alone (chemotherapy and/or tamoxifen) did not prevent loco-regional recurrences in high-risk patients after mastectomy and axillary lymph node sampling. However, a longer observation time is necessary to evaluate the consequence of primary optimal loco-regional tumour control in high-risk breast cancer patients with respect to survival. (orig.)
Slack, Kelley; Noe, Raymond; Weaver, Sallie
Research examining teams working in high-risk operations has been lacking. The present symposium showcases research on team training that helps to optimize team performance in environments characterized by life or death situations arising spontaneously after long periods of mundane activity by pulling experts from diverse areas of industry: space flight, health care, and medical simulation.
Mueck, Krislynn M; Kao, Lillian S
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a significant healthcare quality issue, resulting in increased morbidity, disability, length of stay, resource utilization, and costs. Identification of high-risk patients may improve pre-operative counseling, inform resource utilization, and allow modifications in peri-operative management to optimize outcomes. Review of the pertinent English-language literature. High-risk surgical patients may be identified on the basis of individual risk factors or combinations of factors. In particular, statistical models and risk calculators may be useful in predicting infectious risks, both in general and for SSIs. These models differ in the number of variables; inclusion of pre-operative, intra-operative, or post-operative variables; ease of calculation; and specificity for particular procedures. Furthermore, the models differ in their accuracy in stratifying risk. Biomarkers may be a promising way to identify patients at high risk of infectious complications. Although multiple strategies exist for identifying surgical patients at high risk for SSIs, no one strategy is superior for all patients. Further efforts are necessary to determine if risk stratification in combination with risk modification can reduce SSIs in these patient populations.
Østergaard, Lauge; Valeur, Nana; Ihlemann, Nikolaj
Aims: Patients with prior infective endocarditis (IE), a prosthetic heart valve, or a cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) are considered to be at high risk of IE by guidelines. However, knowledge is sparse on the relative risk of IE between these three groups and compared controls. Methods...
Jabbehdari, Sayena; Rafii, Alireza Baradaran; Yazdanpanah, Ghasem; Hamrah, Pedram; Holland, Edward J; Djalilian, Ali R
In this article, we review the indications and latest management of high-risk penetrating keratoplasty. Despite the immune-privilege status of the cornea, immune-mediated graft rejection still remains the leading cause of corneal graft failure. This is particularly a problem in the high-risk graft recipients, namely patients with previous graft failure due to rejection and those with inflamed and vascularized corneal beds. A number of strategies including both local and systemic immunosuppression are currently used to increase the success rate of high-risk corneal grafts. Moreover, in cases of limbal stem cell deficiency, limbal stem cells transplantation is employed. Corticosteroids are still the top medication for prevention and treatment in cases of corneal graft rejection. Single and combined administration of immunosuppressive agents e.g. tacrolimus, cyclosporine and mycophenolate are promising adjunctive therapies for prolonging graft survival. In the future, cellular and molecular therapies should allow us to achieve immunologic tolerance even in high-risk grafts.
A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed and applied to spiked and natural paneer samples to detect Listeria monocytogenes, a high risk food pathogen. The sensitivity of the assay on L. monocytogenes spiked paneer samples was 104 cells prior to enrichment, was improved to 103 cells after 4 h ...
Hansen, Rikke Dyhr; Christensen, Anne Francke; Olesen, Jes
variants (less than five), while other studies found several possible variants. Not all of them were genome wide significant. Four studies performed follow-up analyses in unrelated cases and controls and calculated odds ratios that supported an association between detected variants and risk of disease. Studies of 11 diseases identified rare variants that segregated fully or to a large degree with the disease in the pedigrees. It is possible to find rare high risk variants for common complex diseases through a family-based approach. One study using a family approach and NGS to find rare variants in migraine has already been published but with strong limitations. More studies are under way.
DE Marzo, Vincenzo; D'Amario, Domenico; Galli, Mattia; Vergallo, Rocco; Porto, Italo
Before the percutaneous spread, the mortality rate of patients with coronary heart disease not suitable for cardiac surgery was markedly high. This limit has been progressively exceeded with the advent of minimally invasive approaches, which, although was initially intended exclusively for low risk patients, was then employed in complex patients often too compromised to undergo cardiac surgery. Given to the rising of high-risk population, due to an increase of patients with multiple chronic conditions linked to the best care offered, we are witnessing an expansion of the high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) population. Despite defining what high-risk is remains still unclear, all proposed definitions of high-risk PCI combine features related to three clinical areas: 1) patient risk factors and comorbidities (incorporating those which preclude surgical or percutaneous revascularization such as diabetes, COPD, CKD, lung disease, frailty, advanced age); 2) location of the disease and complexity of coronary anatomy (including multi-vessel disease, left main disease, CTO, bifurcations); 3) hemodynamic clinical status (ventricular dysfunction, concomitant valvular disease or unstable characteristics). Since cardiologists have ascertained the encouraging results in terms of efficacy and rewards compared to the low-risks patients, the important role of treating high-risk patients is becoming more and more relevant to the point that current guidelines have now changed the appropriateness of percutaneous interventions indications. Considering the complexity in managing higher-risk patients with coronary artery disease, the next step to ensure the best care for this type of patients is to create a team-based model of cooperation in order to properly establish the right treatment for the right patient.
Hoert, Jennifer; Herd, Ann M; Hambrick, Marion
The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between leadership support for health promotion and job stress, wellness program participation, and health behaviors. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Four worksites with a range of wellness programs were selected for this study. Participants in this study were employees (n = 618) at 4 organizations (bank, private university, wholesale supplier, and public university) in the southeastern United States, each offering an employee wellness program. Response rates in each organization ranged from 3% to 34%. Leadership support for health promotion was measured with the Leading by Example instrument. Employee participation in wellness activities, job stress, and health behaviors were measured with multi-item scales. Correlation/regression analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the relationships among the scaled variables. Employees reporting higher levels of leadership support for health promotion also reported higher levels of wellness activity participation, lower job stress, and greater levels of health behavior ( P = .001). To ascertain the amount of variance in health behaviors accounted for by the other variables in the study, a hierarchical regression analysis revealed a statistically significant model (model F 7,523 = 27.28; P = .001), with leadership support for health promotion (β = .19, t = 4.39, P = .001), wellness activity participation (β = .28, t = 6.95, P stress (β = -.27, t = -6.75, P ≤ .001) found to be significant predictors of health behaviors in the model. Exploratory regression analyses by organization revealed the focal variables as significant model predictors for only the 2 larger organizations with well-established wellness programs. Results from the study suggest that employees' perceptions of organizational leadership support for health promotion are related to their participation in wellness activities, perceived job stress levels, and health behaviors.
Lecomte, T; Corbière, M; Lysaker, P H
Supported employment programs are highly effective in helping people with severe mental illness obtain competitive jobs quickly. However, job tenure is often a problem for many. Of the various obstacles to job tenure documented, dysfunctional beliefs regarding the workplace and one's own abilities has been proposed as a therapeutic target. The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) to describe the development and the content of a novel group cognitive behavioral intervention designed to increase job tenure for people receiving supported employment services; (2) to present the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention; and (3) to investigate some preliminary data regarding employment outcomes. A group CBT intervention offered during 8 sessions over the course of one month, in order to respect the rapid job search principle of IPS (individual placement and support), was developed. The content was tailored to facilitate the learning of skills specific to the workplace, such as recognizing and managing one's stressors at work, determining and modifying dysfunctional thoughts (e.g. not jumping to conclusions, finding alternatives, seeking facts), overcoming obstacles (e.g. problem solving), improving one's self-esteem as a worker (recognizing strengths and qualities), dealing with criticism, using positive assertiveness, finding coping strategies (for symptoms and stress) to use at work, negotiating work accommodations and overcoming stigma. A trial is currently underway, with half the participants receiving supported employment as well as CBT-SE and the other half receiving only supported employment. A subsample of the first 24 participants having completed the 12-month follow-up were used for the analyses, including 12 having received at least 3 sessions out of the 8 group sessions and 12 receiving only supported employment. Feasibility and acceptability were determined by the group therapists' feedback, the participants' feedback as well as attendance to
Freund, Tobias; Peters-Klimm, Frank; Boyd, Cynthia M.
Background: Patients with multiple chronic conditions are at high risk of potentially avoidable hospital admissions, which may be reduced by care coordination and self-management support. Medical assistants are an increasingly available resource for patient care in primary care practices. Objective......: To determine whether protocol-based care management delivered by medical assistants improves patient care in patients at high risk of future hospitalization in primary care. Design: Two-year cluster randomized clinical trial. Setting: 115 primary care practices in Germany. Patients: 2,076 patients with type 2......, and monitoring delivered by medical assistants with usual care. Measurements: All-cause hospitalizations at 12 months (primary outcome) and quality of life scores (Short Form 12 Health Questionnaire [SF-12] and the Euroqol instrument [EQ-5D]). Results: Included patients had, on average, four co-occurring chronic...
Kühl, J Tobias; Hove, Jens D; Kristensen, Thomas S
OBJECTIVES: To test if cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) can be used in the triage of patients at high risk of coronary artery disease. DESIGN: The diagnostic value of 64-detector CCTA was evaluated in 400 patients presenting with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction using...... invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference method. The relation between the severity of disease by CCTA and a combined endpoint of death, re-hospitalization due to new myocardial infarction, or symptom-driven coronary revascularization was assessed. RESULTS: CCTA detects significant (>50...... in patients with high likelihood of coronary artery disease and could, in theory, be used to triage high risk patients. As many obstacles remain, including logistical and safety issues, our study does not support the use of CCTA as an additional diagnostic test before ICA in an all-comer NSTEMI population....
(General Practitioner) setting as in the acute setting. Supporting this use is a very strong prognostic value of the natriuretic peptides. This has been shown in as well heart failure as acute coronary syndromes, but also in the general population and in high-risk groups as patients with diabetes......, hypertension and coronary artery disease. This has of course raised interest for the use of the natriuretic peptides as a risk marker and for screening for heart failure with reduced systolic function in these populations. In symptomatic persons and in high risk populations, the natriuretic peptides have...... demonstrated a high sensitivity for ruling out the disease, if the right decision limits are choosen. Thus the number of normal echocardiographies can be reduced. More recently, the use in screening asymptomatic persons for left ventricular systolic dysfunction has gained more interest. In the unselected...
Zhao, N-N; Zeng, K-X; Wang, Y-L; Sheng, P-J; Tang, C-Z; Xiao, P; Liu, X-W
To investigate the prevalence rate of nutritional risk in high-risk stroke groups in community, analyze its influencing factors, and analyze and compare the relationship between nutritional risk or malnutrition assessed by different nutritional evaluation methods and cognitive function, so as to provide the basis and guidance for clinical nutritional assessment and support. A cross-sectional survey was performed for 1196 cases in high-risk stroke groups in community from December 2015 to January 2017. At the same time, the nutritional status of patients was evaluated using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and MNA-short form (MNA-SF), and the cognitive status of patients was evaluated using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Moreover, the relevant influencing factors of nutritional risk and MMSE score were analyzed and compared. High-risk stroke groups in community suffered from a high risk of malnutrition. MNA-SF had a higher specificity and lower false positive rate than MNA. Nutritional risk occurred more easily in high-risk stroke groups in community with a history of diabetes mellitus, less physical exercise or light manual labor, daily use of multiple drugs, and higher age. Those with a higher nutritional risk were more prone to cognitive impairment. High-risk stroke groups in community, complicated with hyperhomocysteinemia, daily use of three or more kinds of prescription drugs, and a previous history of stroke, were accompanied by cognitive impairment easily. MNA-SF can be used for the nutritional screening of high-risk stroke groups in community. For the high-risk stroke groups in community, the rational nutritional diet should be publicized, blood sugar should be controlled in a scientific manner and physical exercise should be moderately increased.
Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mitchell, Mary M.; Leaf, Philip J.
Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school…
Full Text Available Background. The CDC recommends persons at high-risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%, but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines individual/attitudinal-, social-, and structural-level factors associated with past-year HIV testing among heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV. Methods. Participants were African American/Black and Hispanic heterosexual adults (N=2307 residing in an urban area with both high poverty and HIV prevalence rates. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS in 2012-2015 and completed a computerized structured assessment battery covering background factors, multi-level putative facilitators of HIV testing, and HIV testing history. Separate logistic regression analysis for males and females identified factors associated with past-year HIV testing.Results. Participants were mostly male (58%, African American/Black (75%, and 39 years old on average (SD = 12.06 years. Lifetime homelessness (54% and incarceration (62% were common. Half reported past-year HIV testing (50% and 37% engaged in regular, annual HIV testing. Facilitators of HIV testing common to both genders included sexually transmitted infection (STI testing or STI diagnosis, peer norms supporting HIV testing, and HIV testing access. Among women, access to general medical care and extreme poverty further predicted HIV testing, while recent drug use reduced the odds of past-year HIV testing. Among men, past-year HIV testing was also associated with lifetime incarceration and substance use treatment.Conclusions. The present study identified gaps in rates of HIV testing among heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV, and both common and
Zhang, Zhiquan; Shi, Jun; Huang, Weimin, E-mail: email@example.com
In this paper, a kind of didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) layer membranes was supported on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). We studied the ion channel behavior of the supported bilayer lipid membrane by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SCEM) in tris(2,2′-bipyridine) ruthenium(II) solution. Perchlorate anion was used as a presence of stimulus and ruthenium(II) complex cations as the probing ions for the measurement of SECM, the lipid membrane channel was opened and exhibited the behavior of distinct SECM positive feedback curve. The channel was in a closed state in the absence of perchlorate anions while reflected the behavior of SECM negative feedback curve. The rates of electron transfer reaction in the lipid membranes surface were detected and it was dependant on the potential of SECM. - Highlights: • The rates of electron transfer reaction in the lipid membranes surface were detected. • Dynamic investigations of ion-channel behavior of supported bilayer lipid membranes by scanning electrochemical microscopy • A novel way to explore the interaction between molecules and supported bilayer lipid membranes.
Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Slot, Pauline L.; van Aken, Marcel A G; Dubas, Judith S.
Research Findings: Drawing from a Dutch sample of 113 Dutch children (M age = 37 months, SD = 3.5) from 37 early care and education classrooms (19 child care centers and 18 preschools), this study examined whether the relation between classroom emotional and behavioral support and children’s
Waileruny, Hulawa Theresia
Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menguji Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction dan Organizational Citizenship Behavior pada PT. Bank Maluku Cabang Utama Kota Ambon. Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 103 orang karyawan PT. Bank Maluku Cabang Utama Kota Ambon. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif, data penelitian diperoleh melalui kuesioner penelitian yang telah diisi oleh responden. Metode pengolahan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan validitas, relia...
Full Text Available Urban trees are more about people than trees. Urban trees programs need public support and engagement, from the intentions to support to implement actions in supporting the programs. Built upon the theory of planned behavior and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, this study uses Beijing as a case study to investigate how subjective norm (cognition of urban trees, attitude (benefits residents’ believe urban trees can provide, and perceived behavioral control (the believed ability of what residents can do affect intention and its transformation into implemented of supporting action. A total of 800 residents were interviewed in 2016 and asked about their opinion of neighborhood trees, park trees, and historical trees, and analyzed, respectively. The results show that subjective norm has a significant positive effect on intentions pertaining to historical and neighborhood trees. Attitudes influence intentions, but its overall influence is much lower than that of the subjective norm, indicating that residents are more likely to be influenced by external factors. The perceived behavioral control has the strongest effect among the three, suggesting the importance of public participation in strengthening intention. The transformation from intention to behavior seems relatively small, especially regarding neighborhood trees, suggesting that perceptions and participation need to be strengthened.
Strating, Mathilde M.H.; van Schuur, Wijbrandt H.; Suurmeijer, Theo P.B.M.
The aim of this exploratory study was to test the applicability of a model derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior on self-management. In this model social support from the partner, attitude and self-efficacy are determinants of intention, and intention and self-efficacy are determinants of
Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Ozdemir, Sevgi Bayram; Leung, Christy Y. Y.
The present study examined the mediating role of perceived parental warmth and support in predicting Chinese Malaysian adolescents' filial behaviors from their age, perceived parental investments, and positive filial emotions toward their parents. The effects of these predictors were examined separately for mothers and fathers. Participants…
Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Sierens, Eline; Goossens, Luc; Soenens, Bart; Dochy, Filip; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Aelterman, Nathalie; Haerens, Leen; Beyers, Wim
Grounded in self-determination theory, the aim of this study was (a) to examine naturally occurring configurations of perceived teacher autonomy support and clear expectations (i.e., a central aspect of teacher structure), and (b) to investigate associations with academic motivation, self-regulated learning, and problem behavior. Based on…
Haroz, Emily E.; Murray, Laura K.; Bolton, Paul; Betancourt, Theresa; Bass, Judith K.
We investigated relations between prosocial behavior, perceived social support, and improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms over 6 months among 102 Acholi adolescent (14-17 years, 58% female adolescents) survivors of war and displacement in Northern Uganda. Adolescents were assessed using a locally developed screener. Regression analyses…
Ecker, Andrew Joseph
Approximately 20% of youth in the U.S. are experiencing a mental health challenge; a rate that is said to increase by more than 50% by 2020. Schools are the largest provider of mental health services to youth, yet two of schools' most efficacious evidence-based systems, Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and school mental health…
Smolkowski, Keith; Strycker, Lisa; Ward, Bryce
This study evaluated the scale-up of a Safe & Civil Schools "Foundations: Establishing Positive Discipline Policies" positive behavioral interventions and supports initiative through 4 years of "real-world" implementation in a large urban school district. The study extends results from a previous randomized controlled trial…
Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Rapee, Ronald M.
While a plethora of cognitive behavioral empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are available for treating child and adolescent anxiety and depressive disorders, research has shown that these are not as effective when implemented in routine practice settings. Research is now indicating that is partly due to ineffective EST training methods,…
King, Elizabeth K.; Johnson, Amy V.; Cassidy, Deborah J.; Wang, Yudan C.; Lower, Joanna K.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.
The current study examined associations among teachers' financial well-being, including teachers' wages and their perceptions of their ability to pay for basic expenses, and teachers' work time supports, including teachers' paid planning time, vacation days, and sick days, and children's positive emotional expressions and behaviors in preschool…
Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Slot, Pauline L.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dubas, Judith S.
Research Findings: Drawing from a Dutch sample of 113 Dutch children (M age = 37 months, SD = 3.5) from 37 early care and education classrooms (19 child care centers and 18 preschools), this study examined whether the relation between classroom emotional and behavioral support and children's observed social integration and positive mood in a play…
Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly
This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…
Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon
Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…
Merritt, Eileen G.; Wanless, Shannon B.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Cameron, Claire; Peugh, James L.
The present observational study used hierarchical linear modeling to examine predictors of children's social and self-regulatory outcomes in first-grade classrooms. Specifically, goals were the following: (1) to explore relations between emotionally supportive teacher-child interactions and children's social behaviors (aggression with peers,…
Lazaridou, Asimina; Kim, Jieun; Cahalan, Christine M; Loggia, Marco L; Franceschelli, Olivia; Berna, Chantal; Schur, Peter; Napadow, Vitaly; Edwards, Robert R
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic, common pain disorder characterized by hyperalgesia. A key mechanism by which cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) fosters improvement in pain outcomes is via reductions in hyperalgesia and pain-related catastrophizing, a dysfunctional set of cognitive-emotional processes. However, the neural underpinnings of these CBT effects are unclear. Our aim was to assess CBT's effects on the brain circuitry underlying hyperalgesia in FM patients, and to explore the role of treatment-associated reduction in catastrophizing as a contributor to normalization of pain-relevant brain circuitry and clinical improvement. In total, 16 high-catastrophizing FM patients were enrolled in the study and randomized to 4 weeks of individual treatment with either CBT or a Fibromyalgia Education (control) condition. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans evaluated functional connectivity between key pain-processing brain regions at baseline and posttreatment. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Catastrophizing correlated with increased resting state functional connectivity between S1 and anterior insula. The CBT group showed larger reductions (compared with the education group) in catastrophizing at posttreatment (PCBT produced significant reductions in both pain and catastrophizing at the 6-month follow-up (PCBT group also showed reduced resting state connectivity between S1 and anterior/medial insula at posttreatment; these reductions in resting state connectivity were associated with concurrent treatment-related reductions in catastrophizing. The results add to the growing support for the clinically important associations between S1-insula connectivity, clinical pain, and catastrophizing, and suggest that CBT may, in part via reductions in catastrophizing, help to normalize pain-related brain responses in FM.
Haakma, Ineke; Janssen, Marleen; Minnaert, Alexander
Introduction: Research has indicated that need-supportive learning environments positively influence students' motivation. According to self-determination theory, a need-supportive learning environment is one in which teachers provide structure, autonomy support, and involvement, and thereby support their students' psychological needs for…
Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Keshav Janakiprasad; Benegal, Vivek
Offspring with family history of alcoholism are considered to be at high risk for alcoholism. The present study sought to expand our understanding of cognitive and behavioural dispositions associated with executive control and self-regulation in alcohol naïve offspring with and without family history of alcoholism. Sample comprised of alcohol naive offspring in two groups: (i) at high risk (n = 34) and (ii) at low risk for alcoholism (n = 34). Both groups were matched on age (+/-1 year), education (+/-1 year) and gender. Measures used were: Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Family Interview for Genetic Studies, Socio-demographic Data Sheet, Annett's Handedness Questionnaire, Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale-version 11, Digit Span Test, Spatial Span Test, Tower of London, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Game of Dice Task (GDT). Results showed that alcohol naive offspring at high risk for alcoholism reported significantly high impulsivity and demonstrated significant differences on executive functions and decision making tasks. Correlation analysis revealed that high impulsivity was significantly associated with poor performance on explicit decision making task (GDT) and executive function task (WCST). There was no significant correlation between two decision making tasks (IGT and GDT) in both groups and performance on IGT was not significantly associated with impulsivity and executive functions. The present study indicates cognitive and behavioural dispositions in alcohol naive offspring at high risk for alcoholism and support the sub-optimal balance between reflective and impulsive system responsible for addiction. Furthermore, present study supports separability between two different types of decision making tasks. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Villain, Marie; Sibon, Igor; Renou, Pauline; Poli, Mathilde; Swendsen, Joel
To investigate whether social contact and support received during hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke predict depression and daily life functioning three months later. Prospective observational study using Ecological Momentary Assessments to evaluate the number of social contacts as well as social support received from family, friends and medical staff within 24 hours following admission for stroke. Patients also monitored depression symptoms and behavior in real-time and in daily life contexts three months later. A university hospital acute stroke unit. Thirty-four mild ischemic stroke patients. None. One-day Ecological Momentary Assessments immediately following stroke collected information concerning perceived social support, number of social contacts and depression symptoms. Ecological Momentary Assessments was repeated three months later and addressed depression levels as well as activities of daily living, such as working, cooking, shopping and housework. The number of social interactions received at hospitalization did not predict three-month outcomes. However, a better quality of moral support from friends and family immediately after stroke was associated with decreases in later depression levels ( p = 0.041) and increases in activities of daily living ( p = 0.011). Material support from friends and family was associated with increases in activities of daily living ( p = 0.012). No effect was observed for support received from medical staff. Patient perceptions of better support quality, and not quantity, immediately following mild stroke, are associated with better behavioral and emotional outcomes three months later.
High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pathological through the reactive to the calculative. Later, the proactive culture can evolve towards the generative organisation, an alternative description of the high reliability organisation. The current status of health care is reviewed, arguing that it has a much higher level of accidents and has a reactive culture, lagging behind both high risk industries studied in both attitude and systematic management of patient risks.
Cannon, R B; Schmidt, J V; Cambardella, B; Browne, S E
Childbearing employees are well served by the occupational health nurse who promotes optimal preconceptual and pregnancy health practices, uses community resources, and maintains current knowledge about high risk pregnancy prevention and care. These broad goals of care can lead to decreased absenteeism, healthier and happier employees, and more positive outcomes of pregnancy. For employees with high risk pregnancies, the role of the occupational health nurse includes, but is not limited to, facilitating awareness with the employer, making suggestions for adjusting working conditions, making frequent assessments of the employee's needs, and communicating with prenatal health care providers. Occupational health nurses should never underestimate their role and potential influence on the mother, and on her significant other, for a positive outcome of her pregnancy.
Jønsson, Line Rokkedal; Ingelsrud, Lina Holm; Tengberg, Line Toft
BACKGROUND: Acute high-risk abdominal (AHA) surgery is associated with high mortality, multiple postoperative complications and prolonged hospital stay. Further development of strategies for enhanced recovery programs following AHA surgery is needed. The aim of this study was to describe physical...... are primarily fatigue and abdominal pain. Further studies investigating strategies for early mobilization and barriers to mobilization in the immediate postoperative period after AHA surgery are needed.......BACKGROUND: Acute high-risk abdominal (AHA) surgery is associated with high mortality, multiple postoperative complications and prolonged hospital stay. Further development of strategies for enhanced recovery programs following AHA surgery is needed. The aim of this study was to describe physical...... performance and barriers to independent mobilization among patients who received AHA surgery (postoperative days [POD] 1-7). METHODS: Patients undergoing AHA surgery were consecutively enrolled from a university hospital in Denmark. In the first postoperative week, all patients were evaluated daily...
Afridi, S.P.; Khan, A.; Waheed, I.
This study was conducted to identify the presence of high risk factors in carcinoma esophagus from February, 1992 to August, 1995 at Surgical unit 1, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Karachi. In all 37 patients, 22 males and 15 females, were included in the study through outpatient department, surgical emergency and those referred from other cities of the country. All patients were cachectic. Diagnosis was made by detailed history, examination and laboratory investigations. Diagnosis was confirmed on barium swallow and endoscopic biopsy. Highest number of patients were in their 6th decade of life. History of snuff inhalation and opium was present in 2.7% cases each. Lower 3rd of the esophagus was affected in 62.16% middle third in 21.62% and upper third in 16.21% cases. Smoking, pan chewing, naswar eating and snuff inhalation were identified as high risk factors among patients of carcinoma esophagus. (author)
Woodard, E.D.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Janus, J.; Logan, W.; Dean, P.
A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammograpy was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening
Malla, Ramesh B.; Anandakumar, Ganesh
Long-term human mission to space, such as living in International Space Station (ISS), Lunar, and Martian bases, and travel to Mars, must m ake use of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) to generate and recycle critical life supporting elements like oxygen and water. Oxygen Gen eration Assembly (OGA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA), critical c omponents of ALSS, make use of series of granular material packed beds for generation and recycling of oxygen and water. Several granular m aterials can be used for generation, recycling, processing and recovery of oxygen and water. For example, they may include soft bed media, e.g. ion exchange resins for oxygen generation assembly and hard bed media such as, activated alumina, magchem (Magnesium oxide) and activa ted carbon to remove organic species like ethanol, methanol, and urea from wastewater in Water recovery/processing assembly. These beds are generally packed using a plate-spring mechanism to provide sufficien t compaction to the bed media throughout the course of operation. This paper presents results from an experimental study of a full-scale, 3 8.1 cm (15 inches) long and 3.7 cm (1.44 inches) diameter. activated alumina bed enclosed in a cylinder determining its force-displacement behavior, friction mobilizing force, and axial normal stress distribu tion under various axially applied loads and at different levels of packing. It is observed that force-displacement behavior is non-linear for low compaction level and becomes linear with increase in compaction of the bed media. Axial normal stress distribution along the length of the bed media decreased non-linearly with increase in depth from the loading end of the granular media. This paper also presents experimental results on the amount of particulates generated corresponding to various compaction levels. Particulates generated from each of the tests were measured using standard US sieves. It was found that the p articulates and the overall displacement of
Rodriguez, Aymee; Peralta, Jose L.; Fernandez, Manuel
The paper shows how we have conceived and designed the quality assurance system for the site selection process of an area for sitting the facility of high risk in correspondence with the approved methodology. The results obtained in the implementation of the system have permitted the satisfactory performance of each one the expected stage, defining the most favorable sectors in order to continue the studies of the repository site for the disposal of low and intermedium. (author)
Ormseth, Sarah R; Wellisch, David K; Aréchiga, Adam E; Draper, Taylor L
The research about follow-up patterns of women attending high-risk breast-cancer clinics is sparse. This study sought to profile daughters of breast-cancer patients who are likely to return versus those unlikely to return for follow-up care in a high-risk clinic. Our investigation included 131 patients attending the UCLA Revlon Breast Center High Risk Clinic. Predictor variables included age, computed breast-cancer risk, participants' perceived personal risk, clinically significant depressive symptomatology (CES-D score ≥ 16), current level of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and survival status of participants' mothers (survived or passed away from breast cancer). A greater likelihood of reattendance was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.07, p = 0.004), computed breast-cancer risk (AOR = 1.10, p = 0.017), absence of depressive symptomatology (AOR = 0.25, p = 0.009), past psychiatric diagnosis (AOR = 3.14, p = 0.029), and maternal loss to breast cancer (AOR = 2.59, p = 0.034). Also, an interaction was found between mother's survival and perceived risk (p = 0.019), such that reattendance was associated with higher perceived risk among participants whose mothers survived (AOR = 1.04, p = 0.002), but not those whose mothers died (AOR = 0.99, p = 0.685). Furthermore, a nonlinear inverted "U" relationship was observed between state anxiety and reattendance (p = 0.037); participants with moderate anxiety were more likely to reattend than those with low or high anxiety levels. Demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors were found to be independently associated with reattendance to a high-risk breast-cancer clinic. Explication of the profiles of women who may or may not reattend may serve to inform the development and implementation of interventions to increase the likelihood of follow-up care.
Sundi, Debasish; Jeong, Byong Chang; Lee, Seung Bae; Han, Misop
Prostate cancer has a high prevalence and a rising incidence in many parts of the world. Although many screen-detected prostate cancers may be indolent, prostate cancer remains a major contributor to mortality in men. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of localized prostate cancer with lethal potential are of great importance. High-risk, localized prostate cancer has multiple definitions. Treatment options that should be individualized to each patient include observation, radi...
Pisani, Francesco; Spagnoli, Carlotta
Due to the increasing number of surviving preterm newborns and to the recognition of therapeutic hypothermia as the current gold standard in newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, there has been a growing interest in the implementation of brain monitoring tools in newborns at high risk for neurological disorders. Among the most frequent neurological conditions and presentations in the neonatal period, neonatal seizures and neonatal status epilepticus, paroxysmal non-epileptic motor p...
Butz, Arlene M.; Walker, Jennifer; Land, Cassia Lewis; Vibbert, Carrie; Winkelstein, Marilyn
Few child asthma studies address the specific content and techniques needed to enhance child communication during asthma preventive care visits. This study examined the content of child and parent communications regarding their asthma management during a medical encounter with their primary care provider (PCP). The majority of parents and children required prompting to communicate symptom information to the PCP during the clinic visit. Some high-risk families may require an asthma advocate to...