WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior problems

  1. Dementia - behavior and sleep problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000029.htm Dementia - behavior and sleep problems To use the sharing ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. People with dementia , often have certain problems when it gets dark ...

  2. Problem behavior in Dutch preschoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Koot (Hans)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe present study was an attempt to contribute to the standardized assessment and the study of prevalence of problem behavior in children 2- to 3-years old by means of empirically derived rating scales. The basic questions were: 1. What are the psychometric characteristics of the Dutch v

  3. Elementary Teachers' Tolerance of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 46 teachers rated observable mild-to-moderate school-related problem behaviors in order to identify aspects of teacher tolerance specific to the elementary classroom. Findings indicated that behaviors least tolerated are other-directed or disruptive; self- or teacher-directed behaviors elicited less negative ratings. (RH)

  4. Treating Problem Behaviors Maintained by Negative Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio; Spooner, Fred

    1997-01-01

    Identifies four treatment techniques that may be applied when problem behavior is maintained by negative reinforcement: (1) functional communication training; (2) behavioral momentum; (3) differential reinforcement or an alternative escape behavior; and (4) errorless learning. Each of the techniques is defined, and applications and guidelines for…

  5. Teachers' Judgments of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1987-01-01

    After viewing videotaped vignettes of classroom situations, 155 teachers rated severity, tolerance, manageability, and contagion factors related to a target child. Ratings indicated significant multivariate differences between regular/special education teachers and disruptive/nondisruptive behaviors, with regular educators being less tolerant and…

  6. Indoor Tanning and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdasarov, Zhanna; Banerjee, Smita; Greene, Kathryn; Campo, Shelly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined factors predicting college students' use of tanning beds. Participants and Methods: Undergraduate students (N = 745) at a large Northeastern university participated in the study by answering a survey measuring tanning behavior and other psychosocial variables, including sensation seeking, self-esteem, tanning image…

  7. Behavioral problems in children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Novriska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that most often affects children. Most cases of epilepsy are found in developing countries. Children with epilepsy are at risk of behavioral disorders that can affect their quality of life. Studies on behavioral problems in children with epilepsy have been limited in Indonesia. Objective To compare behavioral disorders in children with epilepsy to those in normal children, and to assess for possible factors associated with the occurrence of behavioral disorders. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 47 children with epilepsy and 46 children without epilepsy, aged 3-16 years. Behavioral problems were screened with the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ, Indonesian version. Information about EEG description, medication, onset, and duration of epilepsy were obtained from medical records. Results Behavioral problems were found in 19.1% of children with epilepsy and only in 2.2 % of children without epilepsy (PR 8.8; 95%CI 1.16 to 66.77; P= 0.015. Significant differences were also found in the percentage of conduct problems and emotional disorders. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression revealed that the factors associated with behavioral disorders in children with epilepsy were uncontrolled epilepsy (PR 13.9; 95%CI 1.45 to 132.4; P=0.023 and focal EEG appearance (PR 19; 95%CI 1.71 to 214.43; P=0.017. We also found that uncontrolled epilepsy was a factor related to emotional (PR 6.7; 95%CI 1.66 to 26.76; P=0.007 and conduct problems (PR 6.1; 95%CI 1.35 to 27.29; P=0.019. Conclusion Uncontrolled epilepsy and focal EEG results are factors associated with increased risk of behavioral problems in children with epilepsy. Children with epilepsy should undergo behavioral disorder screening, followed by diagnosis confirmation and treatment. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:324-9.].

  8. Behavioral/Emotional Problems of Preschoolers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, L.A.; Achenbach, T.M.; Ivanova, M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested societal effects on caregiver/teacher ratings of behavioral/emotional problems for 10,521 preschoolers from 15 societies. Many societies had problem scale scores within a relatively narrow range, despite differences in language, culture, and other characteristics. The small age...

  9. Robot response behaviors to accommodate hearing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, Jered; Kim, Jaebok; Koster, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    One requirement that arises for a social (semi-autonomous telepresence) robot aimed at conversations with the elderly, is to accommodate hearing problems. In this paper we compare two approaches to this requirement; (1) moving closer, mimicking the leaning behavior commonly observed in elderly with

  10. Ant Foraging Behavior for Job Shop Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahad Diyana Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ant Colony Optimization (ACO is a new algorithm approach, inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants. It has frequently been applied to many optimization problems and one such problem is in solving the job shop problem (JSP. The JSP is a finite set of jobs processed on a finite set of machine where once a job initiates processing on a given machine, it must complete processing and uninterrupted. In solving the Job Shop Scheduling problem, the process is measure by the amount of time required in completing a job known as a makespan and minimizing the makespan is the main objective of this study. In this paper, we developed an ACO algorithm to minimize the makespan. A real set of problems from a metal company in Johor bahru, producing 20 parts with jobs involving the process of clinching, tapping and power press respectively. The result from this study shows that the proposed ACO heuristics managed to produce a god result in a short time.

  11. Mothers' night work and children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Crosby, Danielle A; Su, Jessica Houston

    2013-10-01

    Many mothers work in jobs with nonstandard schedules (i.e., schedules that involve work outside of the traditional 9-5, Monday through Friday schedule); this is particularly true for economically disadvantaged mothers. In the present article, we used longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (n = 2,367 mothers of children ages 3-5 years) to examine the associations between maternal nonstandard work and children's behavior problems, with a particular focus on mothers' night shift work. We employed 3 analytic strategies with various approaches to adjusting for observed and unobserved selection factors; these approaches provided an upper and lower bound on the true relationship between night shift work and children's behavior. Taken together, the results provide suggestive evidence for modest associations between exposure to maternal night shift work and higher levels of aggressive and anxious or depressed behavior in children compared with children whose mothers who are not working, those whose mothers work other types of nonstandard shifts, and, for aggressive behavior, those whose mothers work standard shifts.

  12. Health and problem behavior among people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E; Kennedy, Craig H

    2010-01-01

    Good health significantly improves a person's quality of life. However, people with intellectual disabilities disproportionately have more health problems than the general population. Further complicating the matter is that people with more severe disabilities often cannot verbalize health complications they are experiencing, which leads to health problems being undiagnosed and untreated. It is plausible these conditions can interact with reinforcement contingencies to maintain problem behavior because of the increased incidence of health problems among people with intellectual disabilities. This paper reviews common health problems influencing problem behavior and reinforcement processes. A clear implication of this review is the need for comprehensive functional assessments of problem behavior involving behavior analysts and health professionals.

  13. The Longitudinal Effects of Behavioral Problems on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Phuong Anna

    2012-01-01

    Students' behavior and emotional well being are instrumental for their success in the school setting. The present study examined the effects of behavioral problems on the academic performance of students three years later. The behavioral problems consisted of individual externalizing, internalizing, and inattentive behaviors. Next, this study…

  14. Behavioral Problem Children in the Schools; Recognition, Diagnosis, and Behavioral Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    Directed primarily for classroom teachers, school counselors, and school psychologists, the book considers the psychology of behavioral problem children and ways of coping with their behavior. Aspects of recognition and diagnosis discussed are the school and the behavioral problem child, causes and characteristics of behavior problems, detection…

  15. Problem Behavior and Romantic Relationships: Assortative Mating, Behavior Contagion, and Desistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Antisocial behavior and substance misuse are forms of problem behavior demonstrating considerable continuity over time. Accordingly, problem behavior influences interpersonal contexts across the life course, which may result in the replication of coercive interactions and a problem behavior lifestyle within romantic relationships. Furthermore,…

  16. Behavioral flexibility and problem solving in an invasive bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Corina J

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is considered an important trait for adapting to environmental change, but it is unclear what it is, how it works, and whether it is a problem solving ability. I investigated behavioral flexibility and problem solving experimentally in great-tailed grackles, an invasive bird species and thus a likely candidate for possessing behavioral flexibility. Grackles demonstrated behavioral flexibility in two contexts, the Aesop's Fable paradigm and a color association test. Contrary to predictions, behavioral flexibility did not correlate across contexts. Four out of 6 grackles exhibited efficient problem solving abilities, but problem solving efficiency did not appear to be directly linked with behavioral flexibility. Problem solving speed also did not significantly correlate with reversal learning scores, indicating that faster learners were not the most flexible. These results reveal how little we know about behavioral flexibility, and provide an immense opportunity for future research to explore how individuals and species can use behavior to react to changing environments.

  17. Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Scott D.; Newchok, Debra K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of differential negative reinforcement of other behavior (DNRO) on problem behavior evoked by music in a 7-year-old child with pervasive developmental disorder. Following an auditory stimulus assessment, DNRO was used to reduce problem behavior to near-zero levels. Results are discussed in terms of…

  18. Behaviorism: part of the problem or part of the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J G

    1978-01-01

    The form frequently taken by behavior-modification programs is analyzed in terms of the parent science, Behaviorism. Whereas Behaviorism assumes that behavior is the result of contingencies, and that lasting behavior change involves changing the contingencies that give rise to and support the behavior, most behavior-modification programs merely arrange special contingencies in a special environment to eliminate the "problem" behavior. Even when the problem behavior is as widespread as alcoholism and crime, behavior modifiers focus on "fixing" the alcoholic and the criminal, not on changing the societal contingencies that prevail outside the therapeutic environment and continue to produce alcoholics and criminals. The contingencies that shape this method of dealing with behavioral problems are also analyzed, and this analysis leads to a criticism of the current social structure as a behavior control system. Although applied behaviorists have frequently focused on fixing individuals, the science of Behaviorism provides the means to analyze the structures, the system, and the forms of societal control that produce the "problems".

  19. Utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Determined the utility of the Behavior Problem Checklist (BPC) with preschool children. Found the BPC sensitive in differentiating clinical from nonclinical groups. Findings suggest that the Behavior Problem Checklist, although not specifically designed to assess preschool age children, may be effective with this population. (Author)

  20. Preventing Problem Behaviors in Young Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivette, Kristine; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Morrier, Michael J.; Lambert, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Young children with disabilities acquire behavior problems as a result of many factors. When planning interventions, it is important to remember that all children may display stages of inappropriate behaviors at various times during their early development. In most cases, the problems are short-lived and typically improve with guidance and age.…

  1. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  2. Descriptive Analysis of Teachers' Responses to Problem Behavior Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Laura; Lerman, Dorothea C.

    2009-01-01

    The procedures described by Sloman et al. (2005) were extended to an analysis of teachers' responses to problem behavior after they had been taught to withhold potential sources of positive and negative reinforcement following instances of problem behavior. Results were consistent with those reported previously, suggesting that escape from child…

  3. Sleep and Behavioral Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Sohl, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for sleep disturbance and behavioral dysregulation. However, the relationships between these difficulties are not fully understood. The current study examined the relationships between specific types of sleep and behavioral problems among 81 children with ASD. Sleep problems were…

  4. Problem Behaviors Associated with 15q- Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David J.; Marston, Geoff

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-three caregivers of persons with Angelman syndrome completed the Aberrant Behavior checklist and Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior. Responses indicate that 15q- Angelman syndrome is associated with problems such as lack of speech, over activity, restlessness, and eating and sleeping problems. Inappropriate laughter was only reported…

  5. Computer Use and Behavior Problems in Twice-Exceptional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Elsworth, Miquela; Miley, Neal; Seckinger, Sean

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study investigated how engagement with computer games and TV exposure may affect behaviors of gifted students. We also compared behavioral and cognitive profiles of twice-exceptional students and children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gifted students were divided into those with behavioral problems and those…

  6. BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH MILD AND MODERATE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIKJ-IVANOVIKJ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Large number of children with intellectual disabilities encounters behavioral problems or show disharmonic behavior within the family, at school and in the community. Researches show that 30-50% of persons with intellectual disabilities have some behavioral problems. The behavior of children with intellectual disabilities depends on many factors: age of the child, level of intellectual disability, cognitive potentials, level of psycho-physical development, differentiation of emotions, communicative skills, social status and conditions of the environment (in the family and the wider community where the child lives. The influence of some of these factors has been analyzed by this research. There are many ins truments (questionnaires, scales that evaluate behavior of persons with intellectual disabilities, and reveal problems that these persons have in their psychosocial development and social life. This research used the AAMD Adaptive behavior Scale (part II and Scale for evaluating behavior of the child in school by authors Bojanin, Savanovikj.

  7. Psycho-cognitive behavioral problems in sleep disordered children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parvaneh Karimzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in childhood and adolescence. Sleep problems in early infants tend to be persistent and prominent in preschool and school-aged children. Chronic sleep disorders, especially in young children may lead to neurobehavioral problems and psycho-cognitive impairment. Sleep difficulties may be the result of underlying medical conditions, (breathing disorders) or psychological problems. Research studies have shown the association between sleep disorders and day time cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, poor school performance and inattention in children. Appropriate diagnosis and early management of sleep disorders in children lead to improvement of neurocognitive function and behavioral problems in these children.

  8. Enhancing Motivation for Overcoming Learning and Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Howard S.; Taylor, Linda

    1983-01-01

    The paper highlights motivation itself as a problem, suggests times when correction of the motivation problem should be the initial focus of intervention, and describes a framework and specific procedures for enhancing positive motivation and reducing avoidance as key aspects of correcting students' learning and behavior problems. (Author/MC)

  9. Functional analysis screening for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querim, Angie C; Iwata, Brian A; Roscoe, Eileen M; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin J; Ortega, Javier Virués; Hurl, Kylee E

    2013-01-01

    A common finding in previous research is that problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement continues to occur in the alone condition of a functional analysis (FA), whereas behavior maintained by social reinforcement typically is extinguished. Thus, the alone condition may represent an efficient screening procedure when maintenance by automatic reinforcement is suspected. We conducted a series of 5-min alone (or no-interaction) probes for 30 cases of problem behavior and compared initial predictions of maintenance or extinction to outcomes obtained in subsequent FAs. Results indicated that data from the screening procedure accurately predicted that problem behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement in 21 of 22 cases and by social reinforcement in 7 of 8 cases. Thus, results of the screening accurately predicted the function of problem behavior (social vs. automatic reinforcement) in 28 of 30 cases.

  10. Music taste groups and problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Juul; Bogt, Tom ter; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-

  11. Music Taste Groups and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; ter Bogt, Tom; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Cluster analysis on their music…

  12. Language ability predicts the development of behavior problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Isaac T; Bates, John E; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Coyne, Claire A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Van Hulle, Carol A

    2013-05-01

    Prior studies have suggested, but not fully established, that language ability is important for regulating attention and behavior. Language ability may have implications for understanding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorders, as well as subclinical problems. This article reports findings from two longitudinal studies to test (a) whether language ability has an independent effect on behavior problems, and (b) the direction of effect between language ability and behavior problems. In Study 1 (N = 585), language ability was measured annually from ages 7 to 13 years by language subtests of standardized academic achievement tests administered at the children's schools. Inattentive-hyperactive (I-H) and externalizing (EXT) problems were reported annually by teachers and mothers. In Study 2 (N = 11,506), language ability (receptive vocabulary) and mother-rated I-H and EXT problems were measured biannually from ages 4 to 12 years. Analyses in both studies showed that language ability predicted within-individual variability in the development of I-H and EXT problems over and above the effects of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and performance in other academic and intellectual domains (e.g., math, reading comprehension, reading recognition, and short-term memory [STM]). Even after controls for prior levels of behavior problems, language ability predicted later behavior problems more strongly than behavior problems predicted later language ability, suggesting that the direction of effect may be from language ability to behavior problems. The findings suggest that language ability may be a useful target for the prevention or even treatment of attention deficits and EXT problems in children.

  13. Families and Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Problem Behavior in Family Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M., Ed.; Dunlap, Glen, Ed.; Albin, Richard W., Ed.

    The 19 chapters of this volume address theory, research, and practice concerning positive behavior support with families of children and youth with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. The chapters are: (1) "Positive Behavior Support with Families" (Joseph Lucyshyn and others); (2) "Finding Positive Behavior Support One Piece at a…

  14. Adaptive Behavior and Problem Behavior in Young Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Laura J.; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares the adaptive behavior profile of 18 young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and a developmentally matched group of 19 children with developmental disabilities and examines the relationship between adaptive behavior and problem behaviors in WS. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales--Interview…

  15. The Link between Body Issues and Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, James R.; Hoover, John H.

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights the myriad behavioral and adjustment problems that flow from negative self-perceptions about body image in children and adolescents. These negative beliefs are often exacerbated by peer harassment. (Author/MKA)

  16. Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

  17. CONDUCTING FUNCTIONAL ANALYSES OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR VIA TELEHEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, David P.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Kopelman, Todd G.; Lindgren, Scott D.; Kuhle, Jennifer; Pelzel, Kelly E.; Waldron, Debra B.

    2017-01-01

    Behavior consultants conducted functional analyses (FAs) via telehealth with 20 young children with autism spectrum disorders between the ages of 29 and 80 months who displayed problem behavior and lived an average of 222 miles from the tertiary hospital that housed the behavior consultants. Participants’ parents conducted all procedures during weekly telehealth consultations in regional clinics located an average of 15 miles from the participants’ homes. Behavior consultants briefly trained parent assistants to provide on-site support for families during consultations. FAs completed within a multielement design identified environmental variables that maintained problem behavior for 18 of the 20 cases, and interrater agreement averaged over 90%. Results suggested that behavior analysts can conduct FAs effectively and efficiently via telehealth. PMID:24114083

  18. Functional Assessment of Problem Behaviors in Adults with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclawskyj, Theodosia R.; Kurtz, Patricia F.; O'Connor, Julia T.

    2004-01-01

    Functional assessment has significantly improved the success of behavioral treatment of problem behaviors in adults with mental retardation. Functional assessment methods (i.e., techniques that yield a hypothesis of functional relationships) include direct observation, interviews, and checklists. Functional analysis consists of empirical methods…

  19. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  20. Adolescent problem behavior in school : the role of peer networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, S.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a notable period during which a considerable share of students tends to engage in problem behavior in school. Students for example skip class, fail to do their best in school, or have serious arguments with their teachers. A student’s decision to engage in such behavior is not usually

  1. Emerging Themes in the Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward G.

    1994-01-01

    The successful application of functional analysis to problem behavior suggests the need to examine: additional functional properties of behavior involving social avoidance, biological reinforcement, and respondent conditioning; the role of context (including social factors and biological factors); and the multidimensional character of assessment…

  2. Mediation and moderation of divorce effects on children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems from age 5 to 15 years in relation to whether they had experienced a parental divorce. Children from divorced families had more behavior problems compared with a propensity-score-matched sample of children from intact families, according to both teachers and mothers. They exhibited more internalizing and externalizing problems at the first assessment after the parents' separation and at the last available assessment (age 11 years for teacher reports, or 15 years for mother reports). Divorce also predicted both short-term and long-term rank-order increases in behavior problems. Associations between divorce and child behavior problems were moderated by family income (assessed before the divorce) such that children from families with higher incomes prior to the separation had fewer internalizing problems than children from families with lower incomes prior to the separation. Higher levels of predivorce maternal sensitivity and child IQ also functioned as protective factors for children of divorce. Mediation analyses showed that children were more likely to exhibit behavior problems after the divorce if their postdivorce home environment was less supportive and stimulating, their mother was less sensitive and more depressed, and their household income was lower. We discuss avenues for intervention, particularly efforts to improve the quality of home environments in divorced families.

  3. Music Education Preservice Teachers' Confidence in Resolving Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Debra G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there would be a change in preservice teachers' (a) confidence concerning the resolution of behavior problems, (b) tactics for resolving them, (c) anticipation of problems, (d) fears about management issues, and (e) confidence in methodology and pedagogy over the time period of a one-semester…

  4. Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems: Schoolwide positive behavior support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Kincaid, Donald

    2005-01-01

    School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed schoolwide positive behavior support. In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis.

  5. REDUCING AMBIGUITY IN THE FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooker, Griffin W.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Borrero, Carrie S. W.; Frank-Crawford, Michelle A.; Roscoe, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Severe problem behavior (e.g., self-injury and aggression) remains among the most serious challenges for the habilitation of persons with intellectual disabilities and is a significant obstacle to community integration. The current standard of behavior analytic treatment for problem behavior in this population consists of a functional assessment and treatment model. Within that model, the first step is to assess the behavior–environment relations that give rise to and maintain problem behavior, a functional behavioral assessment. Conventional methods of assessing behavioral function include indirect, descriptive, and experimental assessments of problem behavior. Clinical investigators have produced a rich literature demonstrating the relative effectiveness for each method, but in clinical practice, each can produce ambiguous or difficult-to-interpret outcomes that may impede treatment development. This paper outlines potential sources of variability in assessment outcomes and then reviews the evidence on strategies for avoiding ambiguous outcomes and/or clarifying initially ambiguous results. The end result for each assessment method is a set of best practice guidelines, given the available evidence, for conducting the initial assessment. PMID:26236145

  6. Sexual behaviors in autism: problems of definition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, G M; Ruble, L A

    1999-04-01

    Surveys of sexual behavior in autism suggest a variety of behavioral expression. However, the course of sexual development in autism is unplotted, leaving questions about the normalcy of specific behaviors. Even less is known about deviations of sexual development and the incidence of paraphilias in this population. We explore the problems of definition of sexual behaviors and describe a case report that highlights the difficulties of management. An application of a testosterone-suppressing medication and its effect on sexual behavior are reported. After failure of behavioral and educational programs, leuprolide, an injectable antiandrogen, resulted in suppression of behaviors and retention of the participants' community placement. Follow-up for almost 3 years shows no abnormal physical effects. Dosage has been tapered over that period to a low but effective dose. Directions for research are discussed.

  7. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions.

  8. [Behavioral problems in children of Turkish guest workers in Vienna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalan, S; Fischer, P; Naske, R

    1993-12-01

    This paper describes the behaviour disturbances and emotional problems of Turkish immigrant children aged 9 to 13 years living in Vienna. The children's behaviour was rated with Rutter's scales and the relationship of the results to any language problems, the socioeconomic situation and the sociocultural background of the immigrant families was then analyzed. A consecutive series of 111 Turkish and 25 Austrian children were rated by their parents and by both Turkish- and German-speaking teachers. Psychiatric symptoms of the children's parents were assessed with the symptom checklist SCL-90. The prevalence of behavior problems did not differ between the Turkish and Austrian children, who were of similar social class. The most common symptoms were restlessness, overactivity, poor concentration and anxiety. Whereas socioeconomic and sociocultural factors did not influence the frequency or severity of behavior problems in the Turkish children, there was a highly significant relationship between behavior problems and problems with German or Turkish. Moreover, the children very frequently had problems with both languages. Therefore intervention strategies with such children should focus on the language problems.

  9. Unpacking Links between Fathers' Antisocial Behaviors and Children's Behavior Problems: Direct, Indirect, and Interactive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer; Lewin-Bizan, Selva

    2011-01-01

    Building upon previous evidence for the intergenerational transmission of antisocial behaviors, this research assessed and compared three models seeking to explain links between fathers' antisocial behaviors and children's behavior problems. A representative sample of children from low-income families (N = 261) was followed from age 3 through age…

  10. Convergent Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and Behavior Problems Inventory with People with Complex Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jennie; Powlitch, Stephanie; Furniss, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to replicate and extend Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). "The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity." "Research in Developmental Disabilities", 24, 391-404] by examining the convergent validity of the behavior problems…

  11. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Problems Inventory: Convergent and Divergent Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Aman, Michael G.; Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI) for assessing the maladaptive behavior of 226 adults, mostly with severe or profound mental retardation. Individuals with elevated BPI scores generally had higher ABC scores, however, the extent of covariation differed across subscales. (Contains…

  12. Dimensions of Peer Influences and Their Relationship to Adolescents' Aggression, Other Problem Behaviors and Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D; Thompson, Erin L; Mehari, Krista R

    2016-11-03

    Although peers are a major influence during adolescence, the relative importance of specific mechanisms of peer influence on the development of problem behavior is not well understood. This study investigated five domains of peer influence and their relationships to adolescents' problem and prosocial behaviors. Self-report and teacher ratings were obtained for 1787 (53 % female) urban middle school students. Peer pressure for fighting and friends' delinquent behavior were uniquely associated with aggression, drug use and delinquent behavior. Friends' prosocial behavior was uniquely associated with prosocial behavior. Friends' support for fighting and friends' support for nonviolence were not as clearly related to behavior. Findings were generally consistent across gender. This study highlights the importance of studying multiple aspects of peer influences on adolescents' behavior.

  13. Identifying Unbiased Items for Screening Preschoolers for Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studts, Christina R; Polaha, Jodi; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2016-10-25

    OBJECTIVE : Efficient identification and referral to behavioral services are crucial in addressing early-onset disruptive behavior problems. Existing screening instruments for preschoolers are not ideal for pediatric primary care settings serving diverse populations. Eighteen candidate items for a new brief screening instrument were examined to identify those exhibiting measurement bias (i.e., differential item functioning, DIF) by child characteristics. METHOD : Parents/guardians of preschool-aged children (N = 900) from four primary care settings completed two full-length behavioral rating scales. Items measuring disruptive behavior problems were tested for DIF by child race, sex, and socioeconomic status using two approaches: item response theory-based likelihood ratio tests and ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS : Of 18 items, eight were identified with statistically significant DIF by at least one method. CONCLUSIONS : The bias observed in 8 of 18 items made them undesirable for screening diverse populations of children. These items were excluded from the new brief screening tool.

  14. Precursor manic behavior in the assessment and treatment of episodic problem behavior for a woman with a dual diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marissa B; Baker, Jonathan C; Nuernberger, Jodi E; Vargo, Kristina K

    2013-01-01

    A functional analysis examined the relation between consequences that maintained episodic problem behavior (aggression, property destruction, and elopement) in the presence and absence of manic behaviors (MB). Results suggested that the presence of MB was correlated with the sensitivity of problem behavior to attention as a reinforcer during a functional analysis and that problem behaviors were maintained by attention. Noncontingent reinforcement was subsequently implemented and demonstrated to be effective in reducing problem behavior during the presence of manic behaviors.

  15. Language, motor skills and behavior problems in preschool years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mari Vaage

    2014-01-01

    Child language development is a complex process. This process cannot be understood without considering its relationship to other developmental domains. Language development in preschool years is associated with development of motor skills and behavior problems, and these associations are the focus of the current thesis. Despite a large number of studies examining the co-occurrence of such developmental delays and problems, few studies have examined the developmental relationship between these...

  16. Associations Between Behavioral Inhibition and Children's Social Problem Solving Behavior During Social Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Olga L; Henderson, Heather A; Degnan, Kathryn A; Penela, Elizabeth C; Fox, Nathan A

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined the associations between the early childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition and children's displays of social problem-solving (SPS) behavior during social exclusion. During toddlerhood (ages 2-3), maternal report and behavioral observations of behavioral inhibition were collected. At age 7, children's SPS behaviors were observed during a laboratory social exclusion task based on the commonly used Cyberball game. Results showed that behavioral inhibition was positively associated with displayed social withdrawal and negatively associated with assertive behavior during the observed social exclusion task at 7 years of age. These results add to our understanding of inhibited children's SPS behaviors during social exclusion and provide evidence for the associations between toddler temperament and children's social behavior during middle childhood.

  17. Advances in Preventing Childhood and Adolescent Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescent problem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution of…

  18. Perceived Neighborhood Characteristics and Problem Behavior among Disadvantaged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moren-Cross, Jennifer L.; Wright, Darlene R.; LaGory, Mark; Lanzi, Robin Gaines

    2006-01-01

    Using survey data from former Head Start children in the third grade from 15 sites across the nation (n = 576), this study examines the relationship between maternal subjective neighborhood attributions and their children's behavioral problems. Maternal perceptions of neighborhood characteristics were measured across five domains, including…

  19. Do Children's Behavior Problems Limit Poor Women's Labor Market Success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Ribar, David; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Economically disadvantaged mothers face numerous barriers to stable, quality employment opportunities. One barrier that has received limited attention in previous research is having a child with significant psychological or behavioral problems. Using a representative sample of low-income mothers and early adolescent children from the Three-City…

  20. Early Adolescent Romantic Partner Status, Peer Standing, and Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip; Malone, Patrick S.; Golonka, Megan; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a…

  1. The problem resident behavior guide: strategies for remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kelly; Quattromani, Erin; Aldeen, Amer

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the ACGME supplemented the core competencies with outcomes-based milestones for resident performance within the six competency domains. These milestones address the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experiences that a resident is expected to progress through during the course of training. Even prior to the initiation of the milestones, there was a paucity of EM literature addressing the remediation of problem resident behaviors and there remain few readily accessible tools to aid in the implementation of a remediation plan. The goal of the "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is to provide specific strategies for resident remediation based on deficiencies identified within the framework of the EM milestones. The "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is a written instructional manual that provides concrete examples of remediation strategies to address specific milestone deficiencies. The more than 200 strategies stem from the experiences of the authors who have professional experience at three different academic hospitals and emergency medicine residency programs, supplemented by recommendations from educational leaders as well as utilization of valuable education adjuncts, such as focused simulation exercises, lecture preparation, and themed ED shifts. Most recommendations require active participation by the resident with guidance by faculty to achieve the remediation expectations. The ACGME outcomes-based milestones aid in the identification of deficiencies with regards to resident performance without providing recommendations on remediation. The Problem Resident Behavior Guide can therefore have a significant impact by filling in this gap.

  2. A Genetic Study of Problem Behaviors in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.C.G. van den Oord (Edwin)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBehavioral/emotional problems are common among children of preschool and school age. Verhulst, and Koot (1992, p. 130) reviewed prevalence studies published since 1965. They reported a median prevalence rate for general psychiatric dysfunction in children and adolescents of l3%. This num

  3. How Digital Scaffolds in Games Direct Problem-Solving Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuen-Tsai; Wang, Dai-Yi; Chan, Hui-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Digital systems offer computational power and instant feedback. Game designers are using these features to create scaffolding tools to reduce player frustration. However, researchers are finding some unexpected effects of scaffolding on strategy development and problem-solving behaviors. We used a digital Sudoku game named "Professor Sudoku" to…

  4. Classroom Context and Teachers' Perceptions of Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-four elementary school teachers rated five behavior problems portrayed in videotaped vignettes in terms of severity, manageability, tolerance, and contagion. Only contagion yielded significant differences (stronger within the disruptive context), suggesting that teachers held the target child responsible for the classroom disorder.…

  5. Topographical and Functional Properties of Precursors to Severe Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmie, Tara A.; Iwata, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    A literature search identified 17 articles reporting data on 34 subjects who engaged in precursors to severe problem behavior, which we examined to identify topographical and functional characteristics. Unintelligible vocalization was the most common precursor to aggression (27%) and property destruction (29%), whereas self- or nondirected…

  6. Gender differences in behavioral problems and shool outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Obel, Carsten; Smith, Nina

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes gender differences in behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for approximately 6000 Danish children 10–12 years of age who were born in 1990–1992. The sample has been merged...

  7. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Parents and children completed measures that assessed children's behavior problems and depression. Children had experienced abuse, witnessed spouse abuse, experienced and witnessed abuse, or experienced no domestic violence. Reports of effects of domestic violence on children varied, depending on the type of violence and the person reporting it.…

  8. Future Orientation, Impulsivity, and Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Moderation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, based on a sample of 1,873 adolescents between 11.4 and 20.9 years of age from the first 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we investigated the longitudinal effects of future orientation on levels of and developmental changes in problem behaviors, while controlling for the effects by impulsivity;…

  9. Future Orientation, School Contexts, and Problem Behaviors: A Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pan; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The association between future orientation and problem behaviors has received extensive empirical attention; however, previous work has not considered school contextual influences on this link. Using a sample of N = 9,163 9th to 12th graders (51.0% females) from N = 85 high schools of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the…

  10. Developmental and behavioral problems in pediatric primary care : Early identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Mathilda

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the early identification of developmental and behavioral problems in pediatric primary care. The social environment is considered a fundamental determinant of early child development. In our study countries with generous redistributive policies had a better organization of ear

  11. Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Commemorative Giving Employment at AAP Advertise with AAP Advertising on AAP.org Advertising on AAP Journals & Publications AAP Mailing and eMail ... Help/Feedback a a a print email share Facebook Twitter Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low ...

  12. Disorganized Attachment and Inhibitory Capacity: Predicting Externalizing Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Gunilla; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin Cecilia; Thorell, Lisa B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether attachment insecurity, focusing on disorganized attachment, and the executive function (EF) component of inhibition, assessed at age 5, were longitudinally related to general externalizing problem behaviors as well as to specific symptoms of ADHD and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and…

  13. Diet and behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Høigaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15 − 0.55, p≤0.001. A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 − 7.42, p=0.03 and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 − 4.98, p=0.003, was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 − 0.87, p=0.03. All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.

  14. Dimensions of problem gambling behavior associated with purchasing sports lottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Zhang, James J; Wu, Yin; Li, Anmin; Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine the dimensions of problem gambling behaviors associated with purchasing sports lottery in China. This was accomplished through the development and validation of the Scale of Assessing Problem Gambling (SAPG). The SAPG was initially developed through a comprehensive qualitative research process. Research participants (N = 4,982) were Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets, who responded to a survey packet, representing a response rate of 91.4%. Data were split into two halves, one for conducting an EFA and the other for a CFA. A five-factor model with 19 items (Social Consequence, Financial Consequence, Harmful Behavior, Compulsive Disorder, and Depression Sign) showed good measurement properties to assess problem gambling of sports lottery consumers in China, including good fit to the data (RMSEA = 0.050, TLI = 0.978, and CFI = 0.922), convergent and discriminate validity, and reliability. Regression analyses revealed that except for Depression Sign, the SAPG factors were significantly (P lottery. This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of problem gambling associated with Chinese sports lottery. The developed scale may be adopted by researchers and practitioners to examine problem gambling behaviors and develop effective prevention and intervention procedures based on tangible evidence.

  15. Mapping the academic problem behaviors of adolescents with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Margaret H; Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M

    2014-12-01

    This study possessed 2 aims: (a) to develop and validate a clinician-friendly measure of academic problem behavior that is relevant to the assessment of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and (b) to better understand the cross-situational expression of academic problem behaviors displayed by these youth. Within a sample of 324 adolescents with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision diagnosed ADHD (age M = 13.07, SD = 1.47), parent, teacher, and adolescent self-report versions of the Adolescent Academic Problems Checklist (AAPC) were administered and compared. Item prevalence rates, factorial validity, interrater agreement, internal consistency, and concurrent validity were evaluated. Findings indicated the value of the parent and teacher AAPC as a psychometrically valid measure of academic problems in adolescents with ADHD. Parents and teachers offered unique perspectives on the academic functioning of adolescents with ADHD, indicating the complementary roles of these informants in the assessment process. According to parent and teacher reports, adolescents with ADHD displayed problematic academic behaviors in multiple daily tasks, with time management and planning deficits appearing most pervasive. Adolescents with ADHD display heterogeneous academic problems that warrant detailed assessment prior to treatment. As a result, the AAPC may be a useful tool for clinicians and school staff conducting targeted assessments with these youth.

  16. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  17. A Brief Measure of Children's Behavior Problems: The Behavior Rating Index for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffman, Arlene R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development of the Behavior Rating Index for Children (BRIC), a 13-item summated category partition scale that provides a prothetic measure of children's behavior problems. Evaluation of the BRIC with 600 referred and nonreferred children suggested adequate reliability and validity. (JAC)

  18. Problem Behavior and Urban, Low-Income Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M.; Schure, Marc B.; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Silverthorn, Naida; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth problem behaviors remain a public health issue. Youth in low-income, urban areas are particularly at risk for engaging in aggressive, violent, and disruptive behaviors. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a school-based social–emotional learning and health promotion program on problem behaviors and related attitudes among low-income, urban youth. Design A matched-pair, cluster RCT. Setting/participants Participants were drawn from 14 Chicago Public Schools over a 6-year period of program delivery with outcomes assessed for a cohort of youth followed from Grades 3 to 8. Data were collected from Fall 2004 to Spring 2010, and analyzed in Spring 2012. Intervention The Positive Action program includes a scoped and sequenced K–12 classroom curriculum with six components: self-concept, social and emotional positive actions for managing oneself responsibly, and positive actions directed toward physical and mental health, honesty, getting along with others, and continually improving oneself. The program also includes teacher, counselor, family, and community training as well as activities directed toward schoolwide climate development. Main outcome measures Youth reported on their normative beliefs in support of aggression and on their bullying, disruptive and violent behaviors; parents rated youths’ bullying behaviors and conduct problems; schoolwide data on disciplinary referrals and suspensions were obtained from school records. Results Multilevel growth-curve modeling analyses conducted on completion of the trial indicated that Positive Action mitigated increases over time in (1) youth reports of normative beliefs supporting aggressive behaviors and of engaging in disruptive behavior and bullying (girls only); and (2) parent reports of youth bullying behaviors (boys only). At study end-point, students in Positive Action schools also reported a lower rate of violence-related behavior than students in control schools. Schoolwide findings indicated

  19. Management strategies for problem behaviors in the patient with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, F W; Ravindran, V L; Stewart, J T

    1998-04-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral problems are present in most patients with dementia and are usually the clinician's main focus of management. Differential diagnosis of these problems can be challenging, but the effort is essential for planning appropriate therapy. Pharmacologic interventions are available for treatment of depression, agitation, aggression, psychotic symptoms, wandering, and sleep disorders. Given the less than favorable risk-benefit ratio of most psychotropic drugs in the population of older patients with dementia, the importance of nonpharmacologic strategies and limiting treatment goals should not be overlooked.

  20. Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 and high school academic achievement: longitudinal latent variable modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Raykov, Tenko

    2011-02-28

    Previous studies documented long-run effects of behavior problems at the start of school on academic achievement. However, these studies did not examine whether the observed effects of early behavior problems are explained by more proximate behavior problems, given the tendency of children's behavior problems to persist. Latent variable modeling was applied to estimate the effects of behavior problems at ages 6 and 11 on academic achievement at age 17, using data from a longitudinal study (n=823). Behavior problems at ages 6 and 11, each stage independently of the other, predicted lower math and reading test scores at age 17, controlling for intelligence quotient (IQ), birth weight, maternal characteristics, family and community environment, and taking into account behavior problems at age 17. Behavior problems at the start of school, independent of later behavior problems, exert lingering effects on achievement by impeding the acquisition of cognitive skills that are the foundation for later academic progress.

  1. Increased Parent Reinforcement of Spontaneous Requests in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Effects on Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Rachel E.; Wehby, Joseph H.; King, Susannah M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of response classes in individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) and problem behavior have shown that mild problem behavior, precursor behavior, and mands or requests can occur as functionally equivalent to severe problem behavior in some individuals. Furthermore, participants in some studies chose to use functionally…

  2. Self-regulation assessment among preschoolers with externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Slavec, Janine; Ros, Rosmary; Garb, Leanna; Hart, Katie; Garcia, Alexis

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the construct validity and clinical utility of a brief self-regulation assessment (Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders, HTKS) among a clinical sample of children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 101 preschool children (72% male; Mage = 5.10 years; 79% Hispanic) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. Self-regulation measures included the HTKS task, 4 standardized subtests from the Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA), parent and teacher reports of children's executive functioning (EF), and children's self-regulation performance across a series of executive functioning classroom games conducted as part of a summer treatment camp. Additional outcomes included school readiness as measured by standardized achievement tests, and parent and teacher reports of kindergarten readiness and behavioral impairment related to academic functioning. Performance on the HTKS task was moderately correlated with children's performance on the standardized working memory tasks and observed self-regulation performance in the classroom. Low to moderate correlations were observed between performance on the HTKS task and parent report of children's EF difficulties, as well as parent and teacher reports of children's kindergarten readiness and behavioral impairment related to academic functioning. Moderate to high correlations were observed between performance on the HTKS task and standardized academic outcomes. These findings highlight the promise of the HTKS task as a brief, ecologically valid, and integrative EF task tapping into both behavioral and cognitive aspects of self-regulation that are important for children with EBP's success in school.

  3. Parenting Style and Child Behavior Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Margaret H.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the National Survey of Children were used to study the relationships between children's perceptions of parental support and control and measures of self-esteem and behavior problems over time. Data were collected in 1976 , when the children were aged 7-11; 1981, when the children were in their early to mid teens (age 12 to 16); and 1987, when the children were in their late teens and early 20s (age 17 to 22). Parenting measures , based on children's reports, were developed for each ...

  4. Eveningness as a risk for behavioral problems in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikanto, Ilona; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Kuula, Liisa; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri

    2017-01-01

    Circadian preference toward eveningness has been associated with increased risk for mental health problems both in early adolescence and in adulthood. However, in late adolescence, when circadian rhythm naturally shifts to later, its significance for mental health is not clear. Accordingly, we studied how circadian rhythm estimated both by self-reported chronotype and by actigraph-defined midpoint of sleep was associated with self-reported psychiatric problems based on Youth Self Report (YSR). The study builds on a community cohort born in 1998, Helsinki, Finland. At age 17 years (mean age = 16.9, SD = 0.1 years), 183 adolescents (65.6% of the invited) participated in the study. We used the shortened version of the Horne-Östberg morningness-eveningness Questionnaire to define the chronotype, and actigraphs to define the naturally occur circadian rhythm over a 4 to 17 days' period (mean nights N = 8.3, SD = 1.8). The Achenbach software was used to obtain T-score values for YSR psychiatric problem scales. The analyses were adjusted for important covariates including gender, socioeconomic status, body mass index, pubertal maturation, mother's licorice consumption during pregnancy, and actigraph-defined sleep duration and quality. Eveningness was associated with higher scores in rule-breaking behavior and conduct problems (as assessed either by midpoint of sleep or by self-reported chronotype, p-values adolescents, is also present in late adolescence when circadian rhythms shift toward evening.

  5. Beyond Behavioral Modification: Benefits of Socio-Emotional/Self-Regulation Training for Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Hart, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; M[subscript age] = 5.16 years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically…

  6. Increased parent reinforcement of spontaneous requests in children with autism spectrum disorder: effects on problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Rachel E; Wehby, Joseph H; King, Susannah M

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies of response classes in individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) and problem behavior have shown that mild problem behavior, precursor behavior, and mands or requests can occur as functionally equivalent to severe problem behavior in some individuals. Furthermore, participants in some studies chose to use functionally equivalent alternatives over severe problem behavior to produce the maintaining reinforcer. The present study added to this literature by having parents reinforce spontaneous requests functionally equivalent to problem behavior in their children with autism at home. First, parent-implemented functional analyses identified conditions associated with increased problem behavior and requests in two children with autism. Then, parents provided the maintaining reinforcer contingent on problem behavior alone or both problem behavior and requests in a withdrawal design. The treatment analysis indicated that the same reinforcer maintained child requests and problem behavior. In addition, when parents reinforced both requests and problem behavior, child participants demonstrated a preference for requests, thereby decreasing problem behavior. Implications of this relation for function-based treatment of problem behavior in children with autism are discussed.

  7. Relationships between child behavior problems and family functioning: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, N.M.C. van; Janssens, J.M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research examining the relationship between family functioning and child behavior problems. Focuses on parenting styles, intergenerational relationships, family structure, and family interaction patterns. Finds that child behavior problems are related to a lack of parental support, an imbala

  8. Maternal Expressed Emotion Predicts Children's Antisocial Behavior Problems: Using Monozygotic-Twin Differences to Identify Environmental Effects on Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morgan, Julia; Rutter,Michael; Taylor,Alan; Arseneault, Louise; Tully, Lucy; Jacobs, Catherine; Kim-Cohen, Julia

    2004-01-01

    If maternal expressed emotion is an environmental risk factor for children's antisocial behavior problems, it should account for behavioral differences between siblings growing up in the same family even after genetic influences on children's behavior problems are taken into account. This hypothesis was tested in the Environmental Risk…

  9. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  10. Early Attachment Organization with Both Parents and Future Behavior Problems: From Infancy to Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag

    2013-01-01

    Links between children's attachment security with mothers and fathers, assessed in Strange Situation with each parent at 15 months ("N" = 101), and their future behavior problems were examined. Mothers and fathers rated children's behavior problems, and children reported their own behavior problems at age 8 ("N" = 86). Teachers rated behavior…

  11. Parent and Teacher Perspectives about Problem Behavior in Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.; Lira, Ernesto N.; Li-Barber, Kirsten T.; Gallo, Frank J.; Brei, Natalie G.

    2015-01-01

    Problem behavior of 52 children with Williams syndrome ages 6 to 17 years old was examined based on both parent and teacher report. Generally good inter-rater agreement was found. Common areas of problem behavior based both on parent and teacher report included attention problems, anxiety difficulties, repetitive behaviors (e.g., obsessions,…

  12. Effects of Punishment and Response-Independent Attention on Severe Problem Behavior and Appropriate Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Shannon S.; Poe, Susannah G.; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2005-01-01

    Problem behavior can interfere with learning, the development of appropriate skills, and socialization in persons with developmental disabilities. In severe cases, problem behavior could result in life-threatening injury. For one 21-month-old participant diagnosed with autism engaging in severe problem behavior for whom reinforcement-based…

  13. The implications of different developmental patterns of disruptive behavior problems for school adjustment. Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormshak, E A; Bierman, K L

    1998-01-01

    Based upon developmental models of disruptive behavior problems, this study examined the hypothesis that the nature of a child's externalizing problems at home may be important in predicting the probability of and nature of school adjustment problems at school entry. Parent ratings were collected for a sample of 631 behaviorally disruptive children using the Child Behavior Checklist. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed differentiated ratings of oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home. Teacher and peer nominations assessed school adjustment at the end of first grade. As expected from a developmental perspective, aggressive behaviors indicated more severe dysfunction and were more likely to generalize to the school setting than were oppositional behaviors. Hyperactive/inattentive behaviors at home led to more classroom disruption than did aggressive or oppositional behaviors. Co-occurring patterns of oppositional/aggressive and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors were more common than were single-problem patterns, and were associated with broad dysfunction in the social and classroom contexts. The results were interpreted within a developmental framework, in which oppositional, aggressive, and hyperactive/inattentive behaviors may reflect distinct (as well as shared) developmental processes that have implications for the home-to-school generalization of behavior problems and subsequent school adjustment.

  14. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR; ADIBSERESHKI, Narges; Masome POURMOHAMADREZA-TAJRISHI; Samaneh HOSSEINZADEH

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were chosen and randomly divided into two ...

  15. Persistence during extinction: examining the effects of continuous and intermittent reinforcement on problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Jacquelyn M; Ahearn, William H; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Bancroft, Stacie; Dube, William V

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavioral persistence during extinction following continuous or intermittent reinforcement in the context of an analogue functional analysis of problem behavior. Participants were 4 children who had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder and who engaged in problem behavior maintained by social reinforcement. Experimental sessions included 4 successive 5-min components: no social interaction, continuous or intermittent reinforcement for problem behavior (alternating across sessions), extinction, and no social interaction. All participants' problem behavior was more persistent during extinction following continuous reinforcement, suggesting that behavior during extinction was affected by the preceding schedule of reinforcement.

  16. Problem Internet Overuse Behaviors in College Students: Readiness-to-Change and Receptivity to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; Li, Wen; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study explores college students' readiness-to-change and receptivity to treatment for problem Internet overuse behaviors. Focus groups were conducted with 27 college students who self-identified as Internet over-users, and had experienced biopsychosocial problems related to Internet overuse. Participants completed standardized questionnaires assessing their Internet use and sociodemographic forms. Focus groups explored readiness to change problem Internet overuse behaviors and receptivity to treatment. Similar to college students with other addictive behaviors, students with problem Internet overuse fall along a continuum vis-à-vis readiness-to-change their behaviors. Over half of the participants were receptive to treatment for their problem Internet overuse behaviors.

  17. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  18. TEMPERAMENT, FAMILY ENVIRONMENT, AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN WITH NEW-ONSET SEIZURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Katherine T.; Byars, Anna W.; deGrauw, Ton J.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Perkins, Susan M.; Dunn, David W.; Bates, John E.; Austin, Joan K.

    2007-01-01

    Children with epilepsy, even those with new-onset seizures, exhibit relatively high rates of behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among early temperament, family adaptive resources, and behavior problems in children with new-onset seizures. Our major goal was to test whether family adaptive resources moderated the relationship between early temperament dimensions and current behavior problems in 287 children with new-onset seizures. Two of the three temperament dimensions (difficultness and resistance to control) were positively correlated with total, internalizing, and externalizing behavior problems (all p < 0.0001). The third temperament dimension, unadaptability, was positively correlated with total and internalizing problems (p < 0.01). Family adaptive resources moderated the relationships between temperament and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at school. Children with a difficult early temperament who live in a family environment with low family mastery are at the greatest risk for behavior problems. PMID:17267291

  19. The Impact of Pubertal Timing and Parental Control on Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G.; Shapka, Jennifer D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among pubertal timing, parental control, and problem behaviors. There were 267 participants, whose ages ranged from 9 to 16 years. Both maternal and paternal psychological control predicted problem behaviors over and above the effects of behavioral control. For boys, early maturation and high levels of paternal…

  20. The Effects of Consequence Manipulation during Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoczak, Kathryn; Carr, James E.; Michael, Jack

    2007-01-01

    Two distinct analytic methods have been used to identify the function of problem behavior. The antecedent-behavior-consequence (ABC) method (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) includes the delivery of consequences for problem behavior. The AB method (Carr & Durand, 1985) does not include consequence delivery, instead relying…

  1. Persistence during Extinction: Examining the Effects of Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement on Problem Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Jacquelyn M.; Ahearn, William H; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Bancroft, Stacie; Dube, William V.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavioral persistence during extinction following continuous or intermittent reinforcement in the context of an analogue functional analysis of problem behavior. Participants were four children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder who engaged in problem behavior; and for whom functional analyses indicated sensitivity to social reinforcers. Experimental sessions included four successive 5-min components: No social interaction, continuous or intermittent reinforcement...

  2. Trauma Focused CBT for Children with Co-Occurring Trauma and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Berliner, Lucy; Mannarino, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood trauma impacts multiple domains of functioning including behavior. Traumatized children commonly have behavioral problems that therapists must effectively evaluate and manage in the context of providing trauma-focused treatment. This manuscript describes practical strategies for managing behavior problems in the context of…

  3. Anxiety, attention problems, hyperactivity, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne; Raspa, Melissa; Bann, Carla; Bishop, Ellen; Hessl, David; Sacco, Pat; Bailey, Donald B

    2014-01-01

    Behavior problems are a common challenge for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and constitute the primary clinical outcome domain in trials testing new FXS medications. However, little is known about the relationship between caregiver-reported behavior problems and co-occurring conditions such as anxiety and attention problems. In this study, 350 caregivers, each with at least one son or daughter with full-mutation FXS, rated one of their children with FXS using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Version (ABC-C); the Anxiety subscale of the Anxiety, Depression, and Mood Scale; and the Attention/Hyperactivity Items from the Symptom Inventories. In addition to examining family consequences of these behaviors, this study also sought to replicate psychometric findings for the ABC-C in FXS, to provide greater confidence for its use in clinical trials with this population. Psychometric properties and baseline ratings of problem behavior were consistent with other recent studies, further establishing the profile of problem behavior in FXS. Cross-sectional analyses suggest that selected dimensions of problem behavior, anxiety, and hyperactivity are age related; thus, age should serve as an important control in any studies of problem behavior in FXS. Measures of anxiety, attention, and hyperactivity were highly associated with behavior problems, suggesting that these factors at least coincide with problem behavior. However, these problems generally did not add substantially to variance in caregiver burden predicted by elevated behavior problems. The results provide further evidence of the incidence of problem behaviors and co-occurring conditions in FXS and the impact of these behaviors on the family.

  4. Beyond behavior modification: Benefits of social-emotional/self-regulation training for preschoolers with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Hart, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; Mage=5.16years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. During the summer between preschool and kindergarten, children were randomized to receive three newly developed intervention packages. The first and most cost effective intervention package was an 8-week School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP). Families randomized into the second and third intervention packages received not only the weekly SRPP, but children also attended two different versions of an intensive kindergarten summer readiness class (M-F, 8a.m.-5p.m.) that was part of an 8-week summer treatment program for pre-kindergarteners (STP-PreK). One version included the standard behavioral modification system and academic curriculum (STP-PreK) while the other additionally contained social-emotional and self-regulation training (STP-PreK Enhanced). Baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up data were collected on children's school readiness outcomes including parent, teacher, and objective assessment measures. Analyses using linear mixed models indicated that children's behavioral functioning significantly improved across all groups in a similar magnitude. Children in the STP-PreK Enhanced group, however, experienced greater growth across time in academic achievement, emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and executive functioning compared to children in the other groups. These findings suggest that while parent training is sufficient to address children's behavioral difficulties, an intensive summer program that goes beyond behavioral modification and academic preparation by targeting socio-emotional and self-regulation skills can have incremental benefits across multiple aspects of school readiness.

  5. Group Training for Parents of Children with Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Willie M.

    1986-01-01

    Ten mothers of children 8-12 with adjustment difficulties received group training in behavioral strategies and communication skills. After six weekly six-hour sessions, ratings on the Child Behavior Rating Scale and Family Adjustment Test indicated that the parents' children's perceptions of family functions, behavior, and adjustment were…

  6. Impact of social problem-solving training on aggressive boys: skill acquisition, behavior change, and generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevremont, D C; Foster, S L

    1993-02-01

    This study examined the impact of social problem-solving training on the behavior of five aggressive boys. Acquisition of problem-solving skills and changes in classroom behavior were evaluated using multiple-baseline designs within and across subjects. A generalization-programming procedure to promote the use of problem-solving skills in the natural environment was introduced across children in multiple-baseline fashion. Direct observation and behavior ratings were used to evaluate the treatment. Results indicated that each subject acquired the problem-solving skills at levels comparable to well-adjusted peers. Only one child showed behavioral improvement coincident with problem-solving skill acquisition. Three others showed moderate behavior change after the generalization-programming procedure was introduced. Only one child's gains on teacher ratings were maintained at the 6-month followup. The results suggest that cognitive-behavioral treatment of childrens' aggressive behavior may produce changes of limited magnitude and durability.

  7. Buffering the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; McKelvey, Lorraine M; Pemberton, Joy R; Mesman, Glenn R; Holmes, Khiela J; Bradley, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to examine how mothers' warmth can protect children from the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on children's externalizing behavior and, alternately, how harsh parenting can exacerbate the problem. We used data from 1,563 families eligible for Early Head Start and assessed when children were age 5 and again at age 11. We examined whether mothers' warmth or harsh parenting at age 5 moderated the effect of maternal alcohol problems on children's behavior problems at age 11. Results indicated that mothers' symptoms of alcohol problems when children were age 5 predicted greater externalizing behavior problems (aggression and rule breaking) when children were age 11. Aggression and rule-breaking behaviors, externalizing behaviors commonly associated with maternal alcohol problems, were lessened when mothers were warm and did not engage in harsh parenting techniques. Our findings highlight the importance of positive parenting techniques in high-risk families.

  8. Abolishing and establishing operation analyses of social attention as positive reinforcement for problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Molly A; Houchins-Juárez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L; Kennedy, Craig H

    2010-03-01

    Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition of an analogue functional analysis. The results showed establishing operation conditions increased problem behavior during tests and that abolishing operation conditions decreased problem behavior during tests.

  9. The relationships between problem characteristics, achievement-related behaviors, and academic achievement in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Sockalingam (Nachamma); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigated the influence of five problem characteristics on students' achievement-related classroom behaviors and academic achievement. Data from 5,949 polytechnic students in PBL curricula across 170 courses were analyzed by means of path analysis. The five problem characte

  10. Problematic Internet use and other risky behaviors in college students: an application of problem-behavior theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, Joseph Anthony; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2013-03-01

    Given the widespread use of the Internet, researchers have begun to examine the personal and social consequences associated with excessive online involvement. The present study examined college students' problematic Internet use (PIU) behaviors within the framework of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) problem-behavior theory. Its specific aim was to investigate the links between PIU with both internalizing (depression, social anxiety) and externalizing (substance use and other risky behaviors) problems. Relevant variables from the perceived environmental system, the personality system, and the behavioral system were entered in a canonical correlation analysis. The analysis yielded two distinct functions: the first function, titled traditional problem-behavior syndrome, characterized students who are impulsive, hold socially deviant attitudes and show a propensity to use tobacco and illicit drugs. The second function, titled problematic Internet-behavior syndrome, characterized students who are socially anxious, depressed, report conflictive family relations, and show a propensity toward PIU. Thus, PIU did not share the characteristics typically associated with the traditional problem-behavior syndrome consistent with problem-behavior theory, but showed correlates more consistent with internalizing rather than externalizing problems.

  11. Choice-making treatment of young children's severe behavior problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, S M; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Cooper, L J; K. A. Brown; Richman, D; McComas, J J; Frischmeyer, P; Millard, T

    1996-01-01

    The choice-making behavior of 5 young children with developmental disabilities who engaged in aberrant behavior was studied within a concurrent operants framework. Experimental analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers that maintained aberrant behavior, and functional communication training packages were implemented to teach the participants to gain reinforcement using mands. Next, a choice-making analysis, in which the participants chose one of two responses (either a mand or an altern...

  12. Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Preterm and Full-Term Children at School Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm children, compared with term children, are at increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems (EB-problems). Prevalences of EB-problems seem to vary with degree of prematurity and age at assessment. We therefore assessed individual stability of EB-problems in p

  13. Dissociative Disorders in Children: Behavioral Profiles and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical research has established a connection between childhood trauma and the development of dissociative disorders in adults. Pathological dissociation produces a range of symptoms and behaviors such as amnesias, rapid shifts in mood and behavior, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Many of these symptoms are misdiagnosed as attention,…

  14. Behavioral Treatment and Assessment of Childhood Cross-Gender Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekers, George A.; Lovaas, O. Ivar

    This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child. The clinical history of S paralleled the retrospective reports of adult transsexuals, including (a) cross-gender clothing preferences, (b) actual or imaginal use of cosmetic articles, (c) feminine behavior mannerisms, (d) aversion to masculine…

  15. Parenting Without Punishment: Making Problem Behavior Work for You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Details the concepts of reinforcement and punishment and their roles in parenting. Claims that responding only to a child's negative behavior is problematic. Disputes contrary opinions of reinforcement techniques and outlines the importance of teaching and reinforcing desirable behavior. Provides examples as illustrations. (RJM)

  16. Impacts of autistic behaviors, emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed that caregivers of children with mild/moderate autistic behavior problems perceived lower parenting stress than did those of children with no or severe problems. In addition, prosocial behaviors and conduct problems respectively predicted stress in the parent-child relationship and child-related stress. The findings can provide guidance in evaluations and interventions with a focus on mitigating parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism.

  17. Child and Family Predictors of Therapy Outcome for Children with Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Littlefield, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics of 106 children primarily referred for externalizing behavior problems and their families, and assessed the prediction of treatment outcome following a standardized short-term, cognitive behavioral group program. "Exploring Together" comprised a children's group (anger management, problem-solving and…

  18. A Model of Developing Communication Skills among Adolescents with Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novik, Natalia N.; Podgórecki, Józef

    2015-01-01

    The urgency of the problem under investigation is determined by the need to help the adolescents with behavioral problems to develop communication skills in the specific bilingual conditions in such regions as the Republic of Tatarstan where education should consider not only the specific skills of verbal behavior but also take into account the…

  19. A Follow-Up Study of Behavior Problems Associated with Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was completed by parents of 93 prepubertal children evaluated for sexual abuse and 80 nonabused children. Sexually abused children had significantly more behavior problems, including depression, aggression, sleep and somatic complaints, hyperactivity, and sexual problems. At four-month follow-up, children with…

  20. Using Additional Analyses to Clarify the Functions of Problem Behavior: An Analysis of Two Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Steven W.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Jowett, Erica S.; Newquist, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    Functional analyses (FA) have proven useful for identifying contingencies that influence problem behavior. Research has shown that some problem behavior may only occur in specific contexts or be influenced by multiple or idiosyncratic variables. When these contexts or sources of influence are not assessed in an FA, further assessment may be…

  1. Profiles of Observed Infant Anger Predict Preschool Behavior Problems: Moderation by Life Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Using both traditional composites and novel profiles of anger, we examined associations between infant anger and preschool behavior problems in a large, longitudinal data set (N = 966). We also tested the role of life stress as a moderator of the link between early anger and the development of behavior problems. Although traditional measures of…

  2. Monoamine Oxidase a Promoter Gene Associated with Problem Behavior in Adults with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E.; Srour, Ali; Hedges, Lora K.; Lightfoot, David A.; Phillips, John A., III; Blakely, Randy D.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2009-01-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter of the gene encoding monoamine oxidase A has been associated with problem behavior in various populations. We examined the association of MAOA alleles in adult males with intellectual/developmental disabilities with and without established histories of problem behavior. These data were compared with a…

  3. Response Persistence: The Effects of Stimulus Control on Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior in a Concurrent Operant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Jennifer J.

    2009-01-01

    In the context of instructional demands, compliance and problem behavior can be considered concurrent operants. Of applied interest is increasing one response (i.e., compliance) while decreasing the other (i.e., problem behavior). Strategic arrangement of reinforcement can alter response allocation accordingly. Such schedules can also influence…

  4. Quality of Rapport as a Setting Event for Problem Behavior: Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Carr, Edward G.

    2005-01-01

    Relationship quality (rapport) between people with developmental disabilities and their caregivers has long been suggested as an important variable influencing the likelihood of problem behavior. However, to date, the association between rapport and problem behavior has not been systematically investigated. The authors evaluated a multimethod…

  5. Unified Discipline: A School-Wide Approach for Managing Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard; Algozzine, Bob; Audette, Robert; Marr, Mary Beth; Ellis, Edward D., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article explains how to implement "unified discipline" as a school-wide approach to managing problem behavior, an approach designed to support educators in meeting the needs of students with emotional and behavioral problems in general education classrooms by establishing unified attitudes, expectations, correction procedures, and team roles.…

  6. Developmental Risk and Young Children's Regulatory Strategies: Predicting Behavior Problems at Age Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstein, Emily D.; Pedersen y Arbona, Anita; Crnic, Keith A.; Ryu, Ehri; Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Children with early developmental delays are at heightened risk for behavior problems and comorbid psychopathology. This study examined the trajectories of regulatory capabilities and their potentially mediating role in the development of behavior problems for children with and without early developmental delays. A sample of 231 children comprised…

  7. Foster Family Characteristics and Behavioral and Emotional Problems of Foster Children: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, John G.; Buehler, Cheryl

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the foster family characteristics that are thought to contribute to the behavioral and emotional problems of foster children. The review is shaped by an understanding of the personal and familial factors associated with children's problem behaviors. Factors include parenting, family home environment, family functioning,…

  8. Video Game Access, Parental Rules, and Problem Behavior: A Study of Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Mazurek, Micah O.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to…

  9. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems: A Transactional Relationship across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, Cameron L.; Green, Shulamite A.; Baker, Bruce L.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting stress and child behavior problems have been posited to have a transactional effect on each other across development. However, few studies have tested this model empirically. The authors investigated the relationship between parenting stress and child behavior problems from ages 3 to 9 years old among 237 children, 144 of whom were…

  10. Treatment of Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior with Procedural Variations of Differential Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidert, Pamela L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Dozier, Claudia L.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the assessment and treatment of 2 children with autism spectrum disorder whose problem behaviors (self-injury, aggression, and disruption) were multiply controlled. Results of functional analyses indicated that the children's problem behaviors were maintained by both positive reinforcement (attention) and negative reinforcement (escape…

  11. The Utility of a Brief Experimental Analysis for Problem Behavior Maintained by Escape from Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Shanholtzer, Alison; Mezhoudi, Nabil; Scherbak, Bailey; Kahng, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    Brief experimental analysis (BEA) is a useful tool for quickly evaluating intervention strategies for individuals with academic deficits and minor behavior problems. However, there is a lack of research investigating BEA for intervention strategies with individuals who emit severe problem behavior to avoid academic demands. For the current study,…

  12. The Analysis and Treatment of Problem Behavior Evoked by Auditory Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Sarah; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify specific stimuli associated with music that served as an establishing operation (EO) for the problem behavior of a 6-year-old child with a diagnosis of autism. Specific EOs for problem behavior evoked by auditory stimulation could be identified. A differential negative reinforcement procedure was implemented for…

  13. Parental Self-Esteem and Behavior Problems in Children: Similarities between Mothers and Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finken, Laura L.; Amato, Paul R.

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between parental self-esteem and behavior problems in children, using responses of 1,624 married couples from the National Survey of Families and Households. Results indicate that parent self-esteem is negatively associated with behavior problems in children, but none of the hypothesized moderating variables have a…

  14. Adolescents' use of care for behavioral and emotional problems: Types, trends, and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Reijneveld (Sijmen); P.A. Wiegersma (Auke); J. Ormel (Johan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W.A.M. Vollebergh (Wilma); D.E.M.C. Jansen (Daniëlle)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants,

  15. Adolescents' Use of Care for Behavioral and Emotional Problems : Types, Trends, and Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages 10

  16. Adventure Camp Programs, Self-Concept, and Their Effects on Behavioral Problem Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an adventure camp program on the self-concept of adolescents with behavioral problems. Subjects in the study included 61 randomly selected male and female adolescents ranging in age from 9 to 17 years with behavioral problems. The treatment group of 31 adolescents was randomly selected from a…

  17. Functional Communication Training in the Treatment of Problem Behavior Maintained by Access to Rituals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Camargo, Síglia; Machalicek, Wendy; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the assessment and treatment of problem behaviors related to rituals for children with autism. After functional analyses, we used a multiple-probe design to examine the effects of functional communication training (FCT) plus extinction and schedule thinning as a treatment package for problem behavior and appropriate…

  18. Psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, E.L.M.; Kroes, D.B.H.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Didden, H.C.M.; Rojahn, J.

    2014-01-01

    There are only a limited number of Dutch validated measurement instruments for measuring behavioral problems in people with a moderate to profound intellectual disability. In this study, the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01; Rojahn et al., 2001

  19. Brief Report: Association between Behavioral Features and Gastrointestinal Problems among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J.; Arneson, Carrie L.; Levy, Susan E.; Kirby, Russell S.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Durkin, Maureen S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports suggest certain behaviors among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may indicate underlying gastro-intestinal (GI) problems, and that the presence of these behaviors may help alert primary care providers to the need to evaluate a child with ASD for GI problems. The purpose of this population-based study of 487 children…

  20. Problem Behaviors Associated with Deletion Prader-Willi, Smith-Magenis, and Cri Du Chat Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David J.; Boer, Harm

    1998-01-01

    Problem behaviors of 38 individuals with Cri-du-Chat syndrome, 55 individuals with Prader Willi syndrome, and 21 individuals with Smith-Magenis syndrome were investigated. All three disorders were Associated with greater ratings of problem behaviors (besides eating abnormalities and sleep abnormalities) than comparison groups. (Author/CR)

  1. Parental Divorce, Marital Conflict and Children's Behavior Problems: A Comparison of Adopted and Biological Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2008-01-01

    We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…

  2. Interaction of adrenocortical activity and autonomic arousal on children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    The psychobiology of stress involves two major components, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Research has revealed the association between behavior problems and the psychobiology of stress, yet findings are inconsistent and few studies have addressed the moderate correlations between behavior problems. This study examines the individual and interactive effects of HPA and ANS on child behavior problems while taking into account the comorbidity of externalizing and internalizing problems. Four saliva samples were collected from each participant in a community sample (N = 429; aged 11-12 years; 50.49 % male), which were assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase, sAA (ANS). Children's behavior problems were assessed using parent-report and self-report versions of the Child Behavior Checklist. Latent variables were constructed to represent trait-like individual differences in cortisol and sAA. Low levels of HPA axis activity were associated with higher levels of both externalizing and internalizing problems, but only among children with low ANS arousal. The association between externalizing and internalizing problems diminished to non-significant after taking into account the influence of HPA axis activity and ANS arousal, which suggests that the psychobiology of stress explains a fair proportion of comorbidity of behavior problems. The findings support that interaction between HPA axis and ANS functioning has potential to clarify prior mixed findings and advance our understanding of the child behavior problems.

  3. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  4. The association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use in adolescents: the problem behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Weng, Chih-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to a) evaluate the association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use; b) based on problem behavior theory, explore whether Internet addiction, as well as problematic alcohol use, correlated with the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors among adolescents. A total of 2,114 high school students (1,204 male and 910 female) were recruited to complete the questionnaire assessing Internet addiction, problematic alcohol use, and associated psychosocial variables. The result revealed that Internet addiction was associated with problematic alcohol use. Besides, the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors is associated with Internet addiction as well as problematic alcohol use in adolescents. These results suggest Internet addiction might be included in the organization of problem behavior theory, and it is suggested that prevention and intervention can best be carried out when grouped with other problem behaviors.

  5. Infant Sleep Predicts Attention Regulation and Behavior Problems at 3-4 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Avi; De Marcas, Gali; Guri, Yael; Berger, Andrea; Tikotzky, Liat; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed the role of early sleep patterns in predicting attention regulation and behavior problems. Sleep of 43 infants was assessed using actigraphy at 12 months of age and then reassessed when the children were 3-4 years old. During this follow-up, their attention regulation and behavior problems were also assessed using a computerized test and parental reports. Lower quality of sleep in infancy significantly predicted compromised attention regulation and behavior problems. These findings underscore the need to identify and treat early sleep problems.

  6. Environmental Correlates of Gambling Behavior among College Students: A Partial Application of Problem Behavior Theory to Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M., Jr.; McCausland, Claudia; Whelan, James P.; Luellen, Jason; Meyers, Andrew W.; Studaway, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relation between gambling behavior among college students and the perceived environment, the component of problem behavior theory (Jessor & Jessor, 1977) that assesses the ways that youth perceive their parents and peers. Two hundred and thirty-three ethnically diverse undergraduates at a large urban public university…

  7. Impacts of Autistic Behaviors, Emotional and Behavioral Problems on Parenting Stress in Caregivers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Yen, Hsui-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Ying-Dar; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of autistic behaviors and individual emotional and behavioral problems on parenting stress in caregivers of children with autism. Caregivers were interviewed with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index Short Form. Results revealed…

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of Romanian Translations of the "Behavior Problems Inventory-01" and the "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircea, Camelia E.; Rojahn, Johannes; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of Romanian translations of the "Behavior Problems Inventory-01" ("BPI-01"; Rojahn, Matson, Lott, Esbensen, & Smalls, 2001) and the "Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form" ("NCBRF"; Aman, Tasse, Rojahn, & Hammer, 1996) were explored. Respondents completed the instruments for 115…

  9. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  10. Behavior Problems: Differences among Intellectually Disabled Adults with Co-Morbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems such as aggression, property destruction, stereotypy, self-injurious behavior, and other disruptive behavior are commonly observed among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy residing at state-run facilities. However, it is unknown how these populations differ on behavior…

  11. Factors Related to Social-Emotional Problem Behavior in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Esther O.; And Others

    Data on demographics, physical capability and social-emotional behavioral variables for 134 residents between the ages of 50 and 96 were collected in four nursing homes to examine the dimensions related to problem behaviors. Social-emotional behaviors related on six scales of reliabilities ranging from .90 to .74. The scales included depression,…

  12. Designing training programs for the development of emotional intelligence in adolescents with behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Degtyarev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, deviant behavior is considered as a combination of different manifestations of personality, leading eventually to its social desaptation. It is shown that an effective method of preventing deviant behavior is psychological training. Group training activity helps to solve the problems associated with the development of various behavioral skills, to provide psychological support, and can be used as a means of psychological work with teenagers with behavioral problems. We discuss the basic points required to effectively create and conduct training programs in general, as well as the challenges and opportunities of designing trainings in order to develop emotional intelligence as a method of prevention of deviant behavior

  13. Locus of control, problem-solving skills appraisal as predictors of waste prevention behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Karbalaei, S.; Abdollahi, A.; Talib, M.A.; Yaacob, S.N.; Ismail, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Given that waste generation is a devastating problem, it is necessary that we advance our knowledge about the etiology of waste prevention behaviors. Accordingly, this study sought to increase the existing literature of waste prevention behaviors by examining the relationships among the locus of control, problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, personal control style and participant’s age with waste prevention behaviors. Two hundred and forty participants (126 Women, and 114 men)...

  14. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoming

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1 describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2 examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. Methods The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ. Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Results Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54% reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p Conclusion In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.

  15. Pattern of Behavior Problems amongst the Urban Slum Dwellers Aged 6 to 18 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip S Jogdand

    2013-06-01

    Method and Material: Children in the age group of 6-18 years residing in the urban slum area, their parents interviewed with the help of predesigned, pretested proforma, the proforma was prepared after review of CBCL and ASEBA behavior checklist also consultation with clinical psychologist running own child guidance clinic at Miraj, Dist Sangli. Results: Our study reveals that prevalent behavior problem in children was educational difficulties; male preponderance was observed for educational difficulties antisocial problems and habit problems. Educational difficulties were observed amongst lower age group while antisocial problems were observed amongst higher age groups. Both were statistically significant. Conclusion: In present study the prevalence rate of behavior problem was observed was very high i.e. 49.67%. The educational difficulties and antisocial behavior problem were most commonly observed. It was found that psycho-somatic disorders and different type of eating disorders contributed the least. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 245-248

  16. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, Linda L; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L; Dansereau, Lynne M; Butner, Jonathan E; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Lester, Barry M

    2016-08-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (a) how these transactions originate, (b) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (c) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth to age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior.

  17. Transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and problem behavior from early childhood to early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803

  18. Behavior Problems of Psychic Nature in Shelter - Reared Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmed Yuksel Halil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the etiology, the species and the prevalence of pathoethological processes of psychic nature in sheltered dogs. The analysis was performed on the mandatory necessity of establishing the type of the dog’s temperament, in relation to the owners’ proper approach towards the specific animal, as well as its successful primary and secondary socialisation. A neurotic dog may exhibit chronic anxiety, fear, hyperactivity, obsessive behavior, and inappropriate responses to stimuli. Truly psychotic dogs, however, are deranged. Their behavior is acute and unpredictable.

  19. Prediction of change in level of problem behavior among children of bipolar parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, M; Reichart, CG; Hillegers, MHJ; Nolen, WA; Van Os, J; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of familial loading, birth weight, and family problems on change in parent-reported problems across a 14-month period among children of bipolar parents. Method: Emotional and behavioral problems in a sample of 140 offspring of bipolar parents and familial loading

  20. Understanding College Students' Problems: Dysfunctional Thinking, Mental Health, and Maladaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, Jon T.; Pendleton, Shandrea

    2015-01-01

    Many college students experience mental health problems and engage in risky behavior. These problems perpetuate negative outcomes such as poor academic performance and health problems, which may ultimately result in dropping out of college. Maladaptive cognitions, such as criminogenic thinking, have been established as an important contributor to…

  1. How to Respond to Problem Behavior in Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    Deals with types of behavior that cannot be allowed among staff or campers in the camp community--use of drugs or alcohol, personal abuse, crime, violence, and sexual activity. Urges camp directors to develop a written policy spelling out standards, expectations, and sanctions. Suggests staff orientation strategies. (JHZ)

  2. Functional analysis and extinction of different behavior problems exhibited by the same individual.

    OpenAIRE

    Richman, D M; Wacker, D P; Asmus, J M; Casey, S D

    1998-01-01

    Specific extinction procedures were matched to the function of two target behaviors displayed by the same individual, with results indicating that the matched extinction procedure suppressed the behavior for which it was designed. One of the target behaviors was exposed to an irrelevant extinction procedure, which produced no beneficial effects. These results support previous research indicating the need to match extinction procedures to the function of problem behavior.

  3. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.

  4. Behavior problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities: an initial step towards prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, Petri J C M; du Bois, Marleen Grimbel; Graef, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    To develop prevention activities, an analysis is conducted of child and parent characteristics that occur significantly more often among children with a mild intellectual disability and behavior problems than among children with a mild intellectual disability and no behavior problems and their families. The sample consisted of 45 children attending schools for special education. Data were collected from the children, their parents, and their teachers. The instruments used are the Dutch version of the Parenting Stress Index, the Nijmegen Child-Rearing Situation Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for parents, teachers and children. On the basis of the results of parents on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the research sample was divided into one group of children with behavior problems and one group without behavior problems. Parents of the children with behavior problems were found to feel less competent, more socially isolated, less satisfied about their relationship with their partner, and indicate more negative life occurrences than the parents of the children without behavior problems. Characteristics in the area of adaptability, mood, distractibility/hyperactivity, demandingness, reinforcement of parents, and acceptability were found to contribute to the total stress in the child-parent relationship for those children with behavior problems and their parents. On the basis of these results prevention activities will be developed and tested on their effectiveness.

  5. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school.

  6. Influence of Classroom and School Climate on Teacher Perceptions of Student Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brennan, Lindsey M; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Furlong, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Reducing student problem behavior remains a leading concern for school staff, as disruptive and aggressive behavior interferes with student achievement and the school climate. However, the multi-systemic nature of schools makes it difficult for researchers and practitioners to identify factors influencing to students' behavior. The current study examined student problem behavior through an ecological lens by taking into account individual (e.g., gender, ethnicity, prosocial behavior), classroom (e.g., class size, average classroom behavior), and school-level factors (e.g., location, school climate). Using data from 37 elementary schools, 467 classrooms, and 8,750 students, a series of hierarchical linear models was tested. Multilevel analyses revealed that while individual student characteristics had the largest influence on problem behavior, average prosocial behavior and concentration problems of students within the classroom, as well as teacher perceptions of the school climate significantly related to how students behaved. These findings support the use of classroom-based intervention programs to reduce student problem behavior.

  7. Parenting Behavior and Adolescent Conduct Problems: Reciprocal and Mediational Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Chen, Rusan; Hand, Laura Shaffer; Haynie, Denise L.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between parenting practices and adolescent conduct problems and the mediation of these relationships by two parent-adolescent relationship variables, conflict and psychological autonomy. Autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) analyses were used to assess relationships over time between parent practices and…

  8. Personality Development and Problem Behavior in Russian Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R.; Akhmetova, Olga A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore child and adolescent personality in the Russian culture, addressing gender and age differences, and to examine personality and family effects on children's Internalizing and Externalizing problems. Parents of 1,640 Russian children aged 3-18 years completed the Inventory of Child Individual Differences…

  9. The Turner Syndrome: Cognitive Deficits, Affective Discrimination, and Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Elizabeth; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study attemped to link cognitive and social problems seen in girls with Turner syndrome by assessing the girls' ability to process affective cues. Seventeen 9- to 17-year-old girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome were compared to a matched control group on a task which required interpretation of affective intention from facial expression.…

  10. Joint Trajectories of Symptoms of Disruptive Behavior Problems and Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence and Adjustment Problems during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark; Dishion, Thomas J.; Reid, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The joint, longitudinal trajectories of symptoms of disruptive behavior problems and of depression were examined in a community sample drawn from neighborhoods with elevated rates of delinquency. Growth mixture modeling was applied to a 6 year transition period from childhood to adolescence, age 10 to 16 years, to identify latent classes of…

  11. Temperament and Common Disruptive Behavior Problems in Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Gremillion, Monica L; Roberts, Bethan

    2012-11-01

    The study evaluated trait associations with common Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), during an understudied developmental period: Preschool. Participants were 109 children ages 3 to 6 and their families. DBD symptoms were available via parent and teacher/caregiver report on the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale. Traits were measured using observational coding paradigms, and parent and examiner report on the Child Behavior Questionnaire and the California Q-Sort. The DBD groups exhibited significantly higher negative affect, higher surgency, and lower effortful control. Negative affect was associated with most DBD symptom domains; surgency and reactive control were associated with hyperactivity-impulsivity; and effortful control was associated with ADHD and inattention. Interactive effects between effortful control and negative affect and curvilinear associations of reactive control with DBD symptoms were evident. Temperament trait associations with DBD during preschool are similar to those seen during middle childhood. Extreme levels of temperament traits are associated with DBD as early as preschool.

  12. Light phase testing of social behaviors: not a problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rich repertoire of mouse social behaviors makes it possible to use mouse models to study neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits. The fact that mice are naturally nocturnal animals raises a critical question of whether behavioral experiments should be strictly conducted in the dark phase and whether light phase testing is a major methodologically mistake. Although mouse social tasks have been performed in both phases in different laboratories, there seems to be no general consensus on whether testing phase is a critical factor or not. A recent study from our group showed remarkably similar social scores obtained from inbred mice tested in the light and the dark phase, providing evidence that light phase testing could yield reliable results as robust as dark phase testing for the sociability test. Here we offer a comprehensive review on mouse social behaviors measured in light and dark phases and explain why it is reasonable to test laboratory mice in experimental social tasks in the light phase.

  13. The Behavior Problems Inventory-Short Form for individuals with intellectual disabilities: Part II: reliability and validity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rojahn, J.; Rowe, E.W.; Sharber, A.C.; Hastings, R.P.; Matson, J.L.; Didden, H.C.M.; Kroes, D.B.H.; Dumont, E.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01) is an informant-based behaviour rating instrument for intellectual disabilities (ID) with 49 items and three sub-scales: Self-injurious Behavior, Stereotyped Behavior and Aggressive/Destructive Behavior. The Behavior Problems Inventory-Short For

  14. Sexual behavior problems in preteen children: developmental, ecological, and behavioral correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, W N; Davies, W Hobart; Feher, Eleonora; Wright, John

    2003-06-01

    A large sample of 2-12 year old children (N = 2311) was studied to determine the relationship between three sexually intrusive behavior items (SIBs) measured by the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) and a range of developmental, ecological, and behavioral correlates. The variables studied included age, gender, race, family income, single parent status, maternal education, family sexual behaviors, physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence, social competence of the child, and three scales from the CBCL (Internalizing, Externalizing, and PTSD). Sexual abuse was not the primary predictor of SIB, but a model incorporating family adversity, modeling of coercive behavior, child behavior, and modeling of sexuality predicted a significant amount of variance.

  15. Parenting stress and children's problem behavior in China: the mediating role of parental psychological aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the mediating effect of parents' psychological aggression in the relationship between parenting stress and children's internalizing (anxiety/depression, withdrawal) and externalizing (aggression, delinquency) problem behaviors 1 year later. Using a sample of 311 intact 2-parent Chinese families with preschoolers, findings revealed that maternal parenting stress had direct effects on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior and indirect effects through maternal psychological aggression. However, neither direct nor indirect effects of fathers' parenting stress on children's internalizing and externalizing problem behavior were found. The findings highlight the importance of simultaneously studying the effects of both mothers' and fathers' parenting on their children within a family systems framework.

  16. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaidat F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  17. Negative Affectivity is Common to Pediatric Behavioral Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Behar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of youth in the United States experience mental illness; within these youth, comorbidity is considered the rule, not the exception. Rather than treat each disorder distinctly, recent research examines common psychopathological processes shaping various presenting problems to simultaneously target deficits and excesses. Contemporary research hypothesizes that negative affectivity pervades multiple psychiatric problems in youth. The present study sought to examine negative affectivity in an intent-to-treat sample of young patients presenting at an outpatient clinic in an academic medical center. Young patients (n=54 with internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, or both completed the Children’s Depression Inventory and the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders. MANOVA results indicated no significant difference between the groups. Additionally, no gender differences were found. Findings suggest negative affectivity is a core feature of psychopathology in general, and thus a valuable focus for transdiagnostic treatments.

  18. A Generalized Cauchy Distribution Framework for Problems Requiring Robust Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Rafael E.; Aysal, Tuncer C.; Barner, Kenneth E.

    2010-12-01

    Statistical modeling is at the heart of many engineering problems. The importance of statistical modeling emanates not only from the desire to accurately characterize stochastic events, but also from the fact that distributions are the central models utilized to derive sample processing theories and methods. The generalized Cauchy distribution (GCD) family has a closed-form pdf expression across the whole family as well as algebraic tails, which makes it suitable for modeling many real-life impulsive processes. This paper develops a GCD theory-based approach that allows challenging problems to be formulated in a robust fashion. Notably, the proposed framework subsumes generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) family-based developments, thereby guaranteeing performance improvements over traditional GCD-based problem formulation techniques. This robust framework can be adapted to a variety of applications in signal processing. As examples, we formulate four practical applications under this framework: (1) filtering for power line communications, (2) estimation in sensor networks with noisy channels, (3) reconstruction methods for compressed sensing, and (4) fuzzy clustering.

  19. A Generalized Cauchy Distribution Framework for Problems Requiring Robust Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo RafaelE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical modeling is at the heart of many engineering problems. The importance of statistical modeling emanates not only from the desire to accurately characterize stochastic events, but also from the fact that distributions are the central models utilized to derive sample processing theories and methods. The generalized Cauchy distribution (GCD family has a closed-form pdf expression across the whole family as well as algebraic tails, which makes it suitable for modeling many real-life impulsive processes. This paper develops a GCD theory-based approach that allows challenging problems to be formulated in a robust fashion. Notably, the proposed framework subsumes generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD family-based developments, thereby guaranteeing performance improvements over traditional GCD-based problem formulation techniques. This robust framework can be adapted to a variety of applications in signal processing. As examples, we formulate four practical applications under this framework: (1 filtering for power line communications, (2 estimation in sensor networks with noisy channels, (3 reconstruction methods for compressed sensing, and (4 fuzzy clustering.

  20. Relationships between feeding problems, behavioral characteristics and nutritional quality in children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L

    2014-09-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiqitious in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime behaviors and social, communication, and cognitive levels as well repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, sensory behaviors, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Finally, we examined whether feeding habits were predictive of nutritional adequacy. In this sample, we found strong associations between parent reported feeding habits and (1) repetitive and ritualistic behaviors, (2) sensory features, and (3) externalizing and internalizing behavior. There was a lack of association between feeding behaviors and the social and communication deficits of ASD and cognitive levels. Increases in the degree of problematic feeding behaviors predicted decrements in nutritional adequacy.

  1. Infant Neurobehavioral Dysregulation Related to Behavior Problems in Children with Prenatal Substance Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Liu, Jing; LaGasse, Linda L.; Seifer, Ronald; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test a developmental model of neurobehavioral dysregulation relating prenatal substance exposure to behavior problems at age 7. PATIENTS AND METHODS The sample included 360 cocaine-exposed and 480 unexposed children from lower to lower middle class families of which 78% were African American. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test models whereby prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances would result in neurobehavioral dysregulation in infancy, which would predict externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in early childhood. SEM models were developed for individual and combined parent and teacher report for externalizing, internalizing, and total problem scores on the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS The Goodness of Fit Statistics indicated that all of the models met criteria for adequate fit with 7 of the 9 models explaining 18 to 60% of the variance in behavior problems at age 7. The paths in the models indicate that there are direct effects of prenatal substance exposure on 7-year behavior problems as well as indirect effects, including neurobehavioral dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal substance exposure affects behavior problems at age 7 through two mechanisms. The direct pathway is consistent with a teratogenic effect. Indirect pathways suggest cascading effects where prenatal substance exposure results in neurobehavioral dysregulation manifesting as deviations in later behavioral expression. Developmental models provide an understanding of pathways that describe how prenatal substance exposure affects child outcome and have significant implications for early identification and prevention. PMID:19822596

  2. Working parents of children with behavioral problems: a study on the family-work interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B

    2011-05-01

    This study examines the process by which child behavioral problems are related to parents' well-being. We developed a family-work spillover model that was tested among 225 working parents. It was hypothesized that family-self conflict (FSC) mediates the relationship between child behavioral problems and parental strain, and that family-work conflict (FWC) mediates the relationship between parental strain and work engagement. Further, it was hypothesized that social support moderates the relationship between child behavioral problems and FSC. The results of (moderated) structural equation modeling supported the mediating role of FSC and FWC and the moderating role of social support. These findings suggest that the negative effects of raising a child with behavioral problems on parental well-being can be buffered by social support.

  3. The effects of variable-time versus contingent reinforcement delivery on problem behavior maintained by escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas Mevers, Joanna E; Fisher, Wayne W; Kelley, Michael E; Fredrick, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Results of previous research indicate that the delivery of positive reinforcement (e.g., food) for an appropriate, alternative target response (e.g., compliance) or delivery of food on a time-based schedule can decrease problem behavior reinforced by escape, even when problem behavior continues to produce negative reinforcement (e.g., Lalli et al., ; Lomas, Fisher, & Kelley, ). In this study, we compared the levels of both compliance and problem behavior when food and praise were delivered either contingent on compliance or on a time-based schedule. Results for 3 of the 4 participants showed that contingent delivery of preferred edible items and praise was more effective in both reducing problem behavior and increasing compliance compared to variable-time delivery of these same items. These findings are discussed in the context of motivating operations and competition between positive and negative reinforcement.

  4. Multidisciplinary behavioral treatment of defecation problems: a controlled study in children with anorectal malformations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyk, E.M. van; Wissink-Essink, M.; Brugman-Boezeman, A.T.M.; Oerlemans, H.M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Severijnen, R.S.V.M.; Festen, C.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The most frequent consequences of being born with an anorectal malformation (ARM) are problems with fecal continence and constipation, which can have various negative implications. In this prospective, controlled study the effect of multidisciplinary behavioral treatment dealing

  5. Adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer : effect on emotional and behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra, Harald J.; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea A.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined adolescents' emotional reactions to parental cancer and explored relationships between emotional reactions and adolescents' emotional/behavioral problems. METHODS: Two studies were performed: retrospective and prospective. A total of 221 adolescents (105 sons) of 138 patients

  6. CHILD VICTIMIZATION AND PARENTAL MONITORING AS MEDIATORS OF YOUTH PROBLEM BEHAVIORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela A; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Stein, Judith A

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the effects of family characteristics, parental monitoring, and victimization by adults on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse, delinquency, and risky sexual behaviors among 761 incarcerated juveniles. The majority of youth reported that other family members had substance abuse problems and criminal histories. These youth were frequently the victims of violence. Relationships between victimization, parental monitoring, and problem behaviors were examined using structural equation modeling. Monitoring was negatively related to all problem behaviors. However, type of maltreatment was related to specific problem behaviors. The effects of family substance abuse and family criminal involvement on outcomes were mediated by monitoring and maltreatment. The study underscores the need to provide family-focused and trauma-related interventions for juvenile offenders.

  7. Gender Differences in the Effects of Behavioral Problems on School Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Smith, Nina

    Behavioral problems are important determinants of school outcomes and later success in the labor market. We analyze whether behavioral problems affect girls and boys differently with respect to school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations of the Strength and Difficulties...... Questionnaire (SDQ) of about 6,000 children born in 1990-92 in a large region in Denmark. The sample is merged with register information on parents and students observed until the age of 19. We find significant and large negative coefficients of the externalizing behavioral indicators. The effects tend...... to be larger when based on parents' SDQ scores compared to teachers' SDQ scores. According to our estimations, the school outcomes for girls with abnormal externalizing behavior are not significantly different from those of boys with the same behavioral problems. A decomposition of the estimates indicates...

  8. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling.

  9. Weight Status and Behavioral Problems among Very Young Children in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Kagawa, Rose M. C.; Fernald, Lia C.H; Jere R. Behrman

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Our objective was to explore the association between weight status and behavioral problems in children before school age. We examined whether the association between weight status and behavioral problems varied by age and sex. Subjects/Methods This study used cross-sectional data from a nationally-representative sample of children and their families in Chile (N = 11,207). These children were selected using a cluster-stratified random sampling strategy. Data collection fo...

  10. Positive reinforcement as treatment for problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Steven W; Dozier, Claudia L

    2013-01-01

    Functional analyses (Iwata, Dorsey, Slifer, Bauman, & Richman, 1982/1994) have been useful in determining function-based treatments for problem behavior. Recently, however, researchers have evaluated the use of arbitrary reinforcers (e.g., positive reinforcers) to decrease problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement, particularly in the absence of extinction. We provide a brief review of recent research on this topic and discuss implications regarding mechanisms, practice, and future research directions.

  11. Family Material Hardship and Chinese Adolescents’ Problem Behaviors: A Moderated Mediation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wenqiang Sun; Dongping Li; Wei Zhang; Zhenzhou Bao; Yanhui Wang

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescent...

  12. Which unmet needs contribute to behavior problems in persons with advanced dementia?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Marx, Marcia S.; Thein, Khin; Regier, Natalie G.

    2015-01-01

    The Unmet Needs Model states that problem behaviors of people with dementia result from unmet needs stemming from a decreased ability to communicate those needs and to provide for oneself. The purpose of this study is to describe the unmet needs of persons with dementia exhibiting behavior problems. Eighty-nine residents from 6 Maryland nursing homes with dementia were assessed by research assistants and nursing assistants for their unmet needs using multiple assessment tools. Three unmet nee...

  13. Boundary behavior of Gleason's problem in hyperbolic harmonic Bergman spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; Guangbin

    2005-01-01

    [1]Choe, B. R., Koo, H., Yi, H., Gleason's problem for harmonic functions on Half-spaces, Integr. Equ. Oper.Theory., 2000, 36(3): 269-287.[2]Ren, G. B., Shi, J. H., Gleason's problem in weighted Bergman space on egg domains, Science in China, Ser. A,1998, 41(3): 225-231.[3]Zhu, K. H., The Bergman spaces, the Bloch spaces and Gleason's problem, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1988,309(1): 253-268.[4]Rudin, W., Function Theory in the Unit Ball of Cn, New York: Springer, 1980, 1-436.[5]Krantz, S., Function Theory in Several Complex Variables, New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1992, 1-437.[6]Geller, D., Some results in Hp-theory for the Heisenberg group, Duke Math. J., 1980, 47(2): 365-390.[7]Leutwiler, H., On a distance invariant under Mobius transformations in Rn, Ann. Acad. Sci. Fennice Series A I Mathematica, 1987, 12(1): 3-17.[8]Ahlfors, L. V., Mobius, Transformations in Several Dimensions, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1981,1-150.[9]Axler, S., Bourdon, P., Ramey, W., Harmonic Function Theory, New York: Springer, 1992, 1-231.[10]Coifman, R. R., Rochberg, R., Representation Theorems for Holomorphic and Harmonic Functions in Lp, Paris:Soc. Math. France, 1980, 11-66.[11]Miao, J., Reproducing kernels for harmonic Bergman spaces of the unit ball, Mh. Math., 1998, 125(1): 25-35.[12]Stroethoff, K., Harmonic Bergman spaces, in Holomorphic Spaces (eds. Axler, S., McCarthy, J. E., Sarason,D.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, 51-63.[13]Djrbashian, A. E., Shamoian, F. A., Topics in the Theory of Apα Spaces, Leipzig: Teubner, 1988, 1-199.[14]Erdely, A., Magnus, W., Oberhettinger, F. et al., Higher Transcendental Functions I, New York: McGraw-Hill,1953, 1-302.[15]Rainville, E. D., Special Functions, New York: Chelsea Publishing Co., 1971, 1-365.

  14. Overweight in preschool children behavioral problems and early risk factors /

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Bonaventura, Iris

    2016-01-01

    El sobrepès en la infància s'ha convertit en un problema de salut pública ja que està relacionat amb importants comorbiditats mèdiques i cada cop nens més petits tenen sobrepès. Objectius: Examinar de manera transversal i longitudinal les associacions entre problemes de conducta i el sobrepès, i identificar els factors de risc pel sobrepès. Mètode: Una mostra comunitària de n=622 nens de 3 anys va ser seguida fins als 5 anys, registrant anualment l'altura, el pes i la psicopatologia. Els segü...

  15. The association of parental temperament and character on their children’s behavior problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Parents have important roles in child rearing, but the influence of their personality on rearing practices and their impact on the behavior of children has received surprisingly little attention. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between parents’ personality and children’s problem behaviors.Materials and Methods. Participants consisted of 190 preschool outpatients (104 boys, 86 girls and their parents who visited traditional Korean pediatric clinics with minor physical symptoms as chief complaints. The personality profiles of the both parents were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and children’s behavior problems by the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5. Correlation and stepwise regression analysis were employed for the statistical analyses.Results. The temperament trait of Harm Avoidance and the character traits of Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence of the parents were significantly correlated with children’s problem behaviors. Character as well as temperament, played an important role in explaining children’s problem behaviors after age and gender of children were taken into account.Conclusion. The maturity of parents’ character appears to have a key role in reducing the risk of behavior problems in their children. Suggestions are made for parental education and future research.

  16. Pediatrician identification of child behavior problems: the roles of parenting factors and cross-practice differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert M; Wildman, Beth G; Langkamp, Diane; Duby, John C

    2012-06-01

    While most primary care pediatricians acknowledge the importance of identifying child behavior problems, fewer than 2% of children with a diagnosable psychological disorder are referred for mental health care in any given year. The present study examined the potential role of parental characteristics (parental affect, parenting style, and parenting self-efficacy) in pediatrician identification of child behavior problems, and determined whether these relationships differed across practices. Parents of 831 children between 2 and 16 years completed questionnaires regarding demographic information, their child's behavior, their affect, their parenting style, and their parenting self-efficacy. Pediatricians completed a brief questionnaire following visits in four community-based primary care practices in the Midwest. Logistic regressions controlling for child behavior and demographic predictors of pediatrician identification found that an authoritarian parenting style, in which parents yell or strongly negatively react to problem behavior, was negatively associated with likelihood of identification in the overall sample. However, the variables that were predictive of pediatrician identification differed depending on the specific practice. Parental characteristics can aid in understanding which children are likely to be identified by their pediatrician as having behavioral problems. The finding that practices differed on which variables were associated with pediatrician identification suggests the need to potentially individualize interventions to certain physicians and practices to improve identification of child behavior problems in primary care.

  17. The association of parental temperament and character on their children's behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Cloninger, C Robert; Park, Soo Hyun; Chae, Han

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Parents have important roles in child rearing, but the influence of their personality on rearing practices and their impact on the behavior of children has received surprisingly little attention. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between parents' personality and children's problem behaviors. Materials and Methods. Participants consisted of 190 preschool outpatients (104 boys, 86 girls) and their parents who visited traditional Korean pediatric clinics with minor physical symptoms as chief complaints. The personality profiles of the both parents were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and children's behavior problems by the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5. Correlation and stepwise regression analysis were employed for the statistical analyses. Results. The temperament trait of Harm Avoidance and the character traits of Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence of the parents were significantly correlated with children's problem behaviors. Character as well as temperament, played an important role in explaining children's problem behaviors after age and gender of children were taken into account. Conclusion. The maturity of parents' character appears to have a key role in reducing the risk of behavior problems in their children. Suggestions are made for parental education and future research.

  18. Locus of control, problem-solving skills appraisal as predictors of waste prevention behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbalaei, S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Given that waste generation is a devastating problem, it is necessary that we advance our knowledge about the etiology of waste prevention behaviors. Accordingly, this study sought to increase the existing literature of waste prevention behaviors by examining the relationships among the locus of control, problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, personal control style and participant’s age with waste prevention behaviors. Two hundred and forty participants (126 Women, and 114 men from Putra University (Universiti Putra Malaysia completed the Locus of Control of Behavior Scale, Waste Prevention Behaviors, Problem-Solving skills Appraisal and Socio-demographic questions. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM estimated individuals with internal personal control, effective problem-solving confidence, internal locus of control and approaching styles were more likely to pursue waste prevention behaviors. In addition, men were better than women at problem-solving confidence, approaching style, while women were better than men at internal locus of control, and personal control style. Therefore, these findings reinforce the importance of personality traits in waste prevention behaviors.

  19. Infant and toddler crying, sleeping and feeding problems and trajectories of dysregulated behavior across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsper, Catherine; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Infant and toddler regulatory problems (RPs) including crying, sleeping and feeding, are a frequent concern for parents and have been associated with negative behavioral outcomes in early and middle childhood. Uncertain is whether infant and toddler RPs predict stable, trait-like dysregulated behavior across childhood. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). RPs at 6, 15-18, & 24-30 months and childhood dysregulated behavior at 4, 7, 8, & 9.5 years were assessed using mother report. Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA) indicated that trajectories of childhood dysregulated behavior were stable over time. All single RPs (i.e., crying, sleeping & feeding problems) were significantly associated with childhood dysregulated behavior. For example, crying problems at 6 months after controlling for confounders (Odds Ratios; 95% Confidence Intervals): Moderate dysregulated behavior: OR = 1.50, 95% CI [1.09 to 2.06], high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.13, 95% CI [1.49 to 3.05] and very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.85, 95% CI [1.64 to 4.94]. Multiple RPs were especially strongly associated with dysregulated behavior. For example, the RP composite at 15-18 months: 1 RP, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 2.79, 95% CI [2.17 to 3.57], 2 RPs, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 3.46, 95% CI [2.38 to 5.01], 3 RPs, very high dysregulated behavior: OR = 12.57, 95% CI [6.38 to 24.74]. These findings suggest that RPs in infants and toddlers predict stable dysregulated behavior trajectories across childhood. Interventions for early RPs could help prevent the development of chronic, highly dysregulated behavior.

  20. Intervention Fidelity in Family-Based Prevention Counseling for Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Liddle, Howard A.; Singer, Alisa; Leckrone, Jodi

    2005-01-01

    This study examined fidelity in multidimensional family prevention (MDFP), a family-based prevention counseling model for adolescents at high risk for substance abuse and related behavior problems, in comparison to two empirically based treatments for adolescent drug abuse: multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  1. Types of Motivating Operations in Interventions with Problem Behavior: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo-Pinatella, David; Font-Roura, Josep; Planella-Morato, Joaquima; McGill, Peter; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Gine, Climent

    2013-01-01

    A motivating operation (MO) alters both the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer and the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that particular stimulus. This article reviews studies that have manipulated a MO during interventions with school-age participants with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. A…

  2. COMT Val158Met Genotype as a Risk Factor for Problem Behaviors in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, Matthew D.; Harder, Valerie S.; Althoff, Robert R.; Rettew, David C.; Ehli, Erik A.; Lengyel-Nelson, Timea; Davies, Gareth E.; Ayer, Lynsay; Sulman, Julie; Stanger, Catherine; Hudziak, James J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To test the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism and both aggressive behavior and attention problems in youth. We hypothesized that youth carrying a Met allele would have greater average aggressive behavior scores, and that youth exhibiting Val-homozygosity would have greater average…

  3. The Longitudinal Relation between Academic/Cognitive Skills and Externalizing Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Lindsay A.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Laws, Holly B.

    2013-01-01

    Existing research suggests that there is a relation between academic/cognitive deficits and externalizing behavior in young children, but the direction of this relation is unclear. The present study tested competing models of the relation between academic/cognitive functioning and behavior problems during early childhood. Participants were 221…

  4. "Tuning into Kids": Reducing Young Children's Behavior Problems Using an Emotion Coaching Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Sophie S.; Wilson, Katherine R.; Harley, Ann E.; Kehoe, Christiane; Efron, Daryl; Prior, Margot R.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a 6-session group parenting program, "Tuning into Kids" (TIK), as treatment for young children (aged 4.0-5.11 years) with behavior problems. TIK targets parent emotion socialization (parent emotion awareness, regulation and emotion coaching skills). Fifty-four parents, recruited via a child behavior clinic, were randomized…

  5. International comparisons of behavioral and emotional problems in preschool children: parents' reports from 24 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y;

    2011-01-01

    International comparisons were conducted of preschool children's behavioral and emotional problems as reported on the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1½-5 by parents in 24 societies (N = 19,850). Item ratings were aggregated into scores on syndromes; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...

  6. The Genetic Etiology of Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Asherson, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: To investigate links between inhibitory control (IC) and behavior problems in early childhood, as well as genetic and environmental covariances between these two constructs. Methods: Parent and laboratory ratings of IC and parent ratings of externalizing and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder behaviors were administered at 24…

  7. Evaluation of a Behavioral Treatment Package to Reduce Sleep Problems in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keith D.; Kuhn, Brett R.; DeHaai, Kristi A.; Wallace, Dustin P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioral treatment package to reduce chronic sleep problems in children with Angelman Syndrome. Participants were five children, 2-11 years-of-age. Parents maintained sleep diaries to record sleep and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Actigraphy was added to provide…

  8. Anger and Approach Motivation in Infancy: Relations to Early Childhood Inhibitory Control and Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A.; Hane, Amie Ashley; Xu, Qinmei; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    The relations among infant anger reactivity, approach behavior, and frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, and their relations to inhibitory control and behavior problems in early childhood were examined within the context of a longitudinal study of temperament. Two hundred nine infants' anger expressions to arm restraint were observed at 4…

  9. Mass Screening for Severe Problem Behavior among Infants and Toddlers in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosa; Leblanc, Judith; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Brady, Nancy; Butler, Merlin G.; Reese, R. Matthew; Richman, David M.; Peacock, Georgina; Foster, Jessica; Marquis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Severe behavior problems among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are a major barrier to integration in the community. Recent research suggests that these behaviors often begin very early in life and might be prevented by early identification and intervention (Rojahn, Schroeder, & Hoch, 2008). The current article…

  10. Genotype-Environment Correlations in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: Antisocial Behavioral Problems and Coercive Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Fulker, David; Rutter, Michael; Polmin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal study with adopted children to examine genotype-environment correlations for behavioral problems. Found that children genetically at risk for antisocial behavior were more likely to receive negative parenting from adoptive parents than children not genetically at risk. Most of the association between negative parenting and…

  11. Treatment Adherence, Competence, and Outcome in Individual and Family Therapy for Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Aaron; Henderson, Craig E.; Dauber, Sarah; Barajas, Priscilla C.; Fried, Adam; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of treatment adherence and therapist competence on treatment outcome in a controlled trial of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) for adolescent substance use and related behavior problems. Participants included 136 adolescents (62 CBT, 74 MDFT) assessed at intake,…

  12. Interpersonal Problem-Solving Capacity and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Kay Colby

    This investigation attempts to replicate previous studies by Spivak and Shure regarding the relationship between cognitive interpersonal problem-solving capacity and behavioral adjustment in 4-year-old children. Although Spivack and Shure's only measure of behavioral adjustment was teacher ratings (with the teachers aware of the purpose of the…

  13. The children's social behavior questionnaire for milder variants of PDD problems : Evaluation of the psychometric characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luteijn, Ellen; Luteijn, Frans; Jackson, S.; Volkmar, F; Minderaa, R

    2000-01-01

    The Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) contains items referring to behavior problems seen in children with milder variants of PDD. Data of large samples of children diagnosed as having high-functioning autism, PDDNOS, ADHD, and other child-psychiatric disorders were gathered. Besides th

  14. EMDR versus CBT for children with self-esteem and behavioral problems: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Wanders; M. Serra; A. de Jongh

    2008-01-01

    This study compared eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Twenty-six children (average age 10.4 years) with behavioral problems were randomly assigned to receive either 4 sessions of EMDR or CBT prior to usual treatment provided in outpatient a

  15. Preschool Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Problems as Predictors of (Pre)adolescent Disruptive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-12 and at age 13-15. ODD and ACD were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth Self-Report, preschool behavior was evaluated by the parental questionnaire 'How was your child as a pre...

  16. Do Personality Traits Moderate Relations Between Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Problem Behavior in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbe, Elien; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2016-06-01

    This research examined whether and how adolescents' personality traits moderate associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behaviors. On the basis of self-determination theory, we also examined the mediating role of psychological need frustration in the effects of psychologically controlling parenting. A cross-sectional study in two samples (N = 423 and 292; Mage = 12.43 and 15.74 years) was conducted. While in Sample 1 both mothers and adolescents provided reports of parenting and problem behavior, Sample 2 relied on adolescent-reported parenting and mother-reported problem behavior. Psychologically controlling parenting was related to internalizing and externalizing problems in both samples. Little systematic evidence was obtained for the moderating role of personality, with the exception of a moderating effect of Agreeableness. In both samples, psychological control was unrelated to externalizing problems among adolescents high on Agreeableness. Analyses of Sample 2 showed that associations between psychological control and problem behavior were mediated by psychological need frustration. Adolescent personality plays a modest role as a moderator of associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behavior. Frustration of adolescents' basic and universal psychological needs can account for the undermining effects of psychologically controlling parenting. Directions for future research are discussed.

  17. Antecedents and behavior-problem outcomes of parental monitoring and psychological control in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, G S; Laird, R D; Dodge, K A; Bates, J E; Criss, M M

    2001-01-01

    The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected at age 5 years were used to measure antecedent parenting (harsh/reactive, positive/proactive), family background (e.g., socioeconomic status), and mother-rated child behavior problems. Consistent with expectation, monitoring was anteceded by a proactive parenting style and by advantageous family-ecological characteristics, and psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and by mothers' earlier reports of child externalizing problems. Consistent with prior research, monitoring was associated with fewer delinquent behavior problems. Links between psychological control and adjustment were more complex: High levels of psychological control were associated with more delinquent problems for girls and for teens who were low in preadolescent delinquent problems, and with more anxiety/depression for girls and for teens who were high in preadolescent anxiety/depression.

  18. Does Teaching Problem-Solving Skills Matter? An Evaluation of Problem-Solving Skills Training for the Treatment of Social and Behavioral Problems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Bryan B.; Peacock, Gretchen Gimpel

    2010-01-01

    Problem-solving skills training (PSST) has been proposed as a potentially effective addition to behavioral parent training (PT). However, it is not clear whether PSST specifically increases the benefits provided by PT. In this study, PT + PSST was compared to PT + nondirective therapy in a sample of 26 families. All parents received PT. Following…

  19. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.C. Robbers (Sylvana); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); A.C. Huizink (Anja); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt (Toos); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Bartels (Meike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than chi

  20. Parent-reported problem behavior among children with sensory disabilities attending elementary regular schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, B; Grietens, H

    2004-01-01

    Parent-reported problem behaviors of 94 children with visual and auditory disabilities, attending elementary regular schools, were compared with problems reported in a general population sample of nondisabled children. Both samples were matched by means of a pairwise matching procedure, taking into

  1. Where Is the Syndrome? Examining Co-Occurrence among Multiple Problem Behaviors in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined co-occurrence among a wide range of adolescent problem behaviors: alcohol, smoking, marijuana, hard drugs, sexual activity, major and minor delinquency, direct and indirect aggression, and gambling. Using a large self-report survey of high school students, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the problem syndrome…

  2. Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents with Difficult-To-Treat Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij, Marieke; van de Griendt, Erik-Jonas; Kaptein, Ad A.; van Essen-Zandvliet, Liesbeth; Duiverman, Eric; Geenen, Rinie

    2011-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to quantify behavioral problems in clinically treated children and adolescents with asthma and to examine the association of these problems and quality of life with difficult-to-treat asthma. Methods. Clinical patients with difficult-to-treat asthma (n = 31) and

  3. Narrative Therapy and Non-Suicidal-Self-Injurious Behavior: Externalizing the Problem and Internalizing Personal Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rachel M.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an intervention, the externalization of client problems, which can be used to address non-suicidal-self-injurious behavior. Specific externalization techniques are discussed, including naming the problem, letter writing, and drawing. A case application and implications for practice are presented.

  4. Attachment Style, Home-Leaving Age and Behavioral Problems among Residential Care Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Sommerfeld, Eliane

    2007-01-01

    In a prospective study, the attachment style, home-leaving age, length of time in residential care, and behavioral problems among Israeli residential care children (N=68), were studied. Data analyses showed that children removed from their homes at a later age suffered from higher levels of anxiety, depression and social problems compared to…

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Training of Problem-Solving and Impulse-Control with Delinquent Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hains, Anthony A.; Hains, Ann Higgins

    1988-01-01

    Examined cognitive-behavioral training procedures designed to enhance social problem-solving and impulse-control skills of delinquent adolescents. Explored multiple baseline design across subjects and tasks and an alternating-treatments design. Presented two different forms of hypothetical social problems to subjects (N=5). Results indicated…

  6. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  7. Effects of Team-Initiated Problem Solving on Decision Making by Schoolwide Behavior Support Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Anne W.; Horner, Robert H.; Newton, J. Stephen; Algozzine, Robert F.; Algozzine, Kate M.; Frank, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the problem-solving practices of school teams engaged in implementing and improving schoolwide behavior support implementation. A multiple baseline design across 4 elementary school teams was used to assess the effects of the Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) training program (1 day of team training plus 2 coached…

  8. Determining the Presence of a Problem: Comparing Two Approaches for Detecting Youth Behavioral Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphaus, R. W.; DiStefano, Christine; Dowdy, Erin; Eklund, Katie; Dunn, Alnita Rettig

    2010-01-01

    Universal screening has been routinely advised for determining the presence of problems for initiating problem-solving processes and models. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two screener development methods on the validity of score inferences for two teacher screeners of child behavioral and emotional risk. The reliability and…

  9. Behavioral and emotional problems reported by parents of children ages 6 to 16 in 31 societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, L.; Achenbach, T.; Ivanova, M.Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared parents' ratings of behavioral and emotional problems on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) for general population samples of children ages 6 to 16 from 31 societies (N = 55,508). Effect sizes for society ranged from .03 to .14. Effect...... sizes for gender were ≤ .01, with girls generally scoring higher on Internalizing problems and boys generally scoring higher on Externalizing problems. Effect sizes for age were ≤ .01 and varied across types of problems. Total Problems scores for 19 of 31 societies were within 1 SD of the overall mean...... of 22.5. Bisociety correlations for mean item scores averaged .74. The findings indicate that parents' reports of children's problems were similar in many ways across highly diverse societies. Nonetheless, effect sizes for society were larger than those for gender and age, indicating the need to take...

  10. Mental Illness, Behavior Problems, and Social Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straccia, Claudio; Baggio, Stéphanie; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the behavioral characteristics of adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychopathology and social behavior among adults with DS compared to adults with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). Thirty-four adults with DS were individually matched with 34…

  11. Preadolescent behavior problems after prenatal cocaine exposure: Relationship between teacher and caretaker ratings (Maternal Lifestyle Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Henrietta S.; Bann, Carla; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Lester, Barry; LaGasse, Linda; Hammond, Jane; Whitaker, Toni; Das, Abhik; Tan, Sylvia; Higgins, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Background We previously reported an association between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and childhood behavior problems as observed by the parent or caretaker. However, these behavior problems may not manifest in a structured environment, such as a school setting. Objective We determined whether there is an association between PCE and school behavior problems and whether ratings of behavior problems from the teacher differ from those noted by the parent or caretaker. Methods The Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multicenter study, enrolled 1388 children with and without PCE at one month of age for longitudinal assessment. Teachers masked to prenatal drug exposure status completed the Teacher Report Form (TRF/6-18) when children were 7, 9, and 11 years old. We also administered the Child Behavior Checklist-parent report (CBCL) to the parent/caretaker at same ages and then at 13 years. We performed latent growth curve modeling to determine whether high PCE will predict externalizing, internalizing, total behavior, and attention problems at 7 years of age and whether changes in problems' scores over time differ between those exposed and non-exposed from both teacher and parent report. Besides levels of PCE as predictors, we controlled for the following covariates, namely: site, child characteristics (gender and other prenatal drug exposures), family level influences (maternal age, depression and psychological symptomatology, continuing drug use, exposure to domestic violence, home environment, and socioeconomic status), and community level factors (neighborhood and community violence). Results The mean behavior problem T scores from the teacher report were significantly higher than ratings by the parent or caretaker. Latent growth curve modeling revealed a significant relationship between intercepts of problem T scores from teacher and parent ratings; i.e., children that were rated poorly by teachers were also rated poorly by their parent/caretaker or vice versa. After

  12. An Indirect Examination of the Function of Problem Behavior Associated with Fragile X Syndrome and Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are associated with a number of specific topographies of problem behavior. Very few studies have examined the function served by problem behavior in these groups. Using the Questions About Behavioral Function scale Matson and Vollmer (User's guide: questions about behavioral function…

  13. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene–environment interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Robbers, Sylvana; van Oort, Floor; Huizink, Anja; Verhulst, Frank; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Boomsma, Dorret; Bartels, Meike

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with married parents, and that externalizing problems in girls precede and predict later parental divorce. The aim of the current study was to investigate as to whether genetic and environmen...

  14. Some results on the asymptotic behavior for hyperbolic problems in cylindrical domains becoming unbounded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesmia, Senoussi

    2008-05-01

    We study here the asymptotic behavior of the solution of a hyperbolic problem defined on a cylindrical domain when l-->[infinity]. We show that, under very general assumptions, the solution of this problem converges faster than any power of towards the solution of another hyperbolic problem, defined on [0,T]×[omega], in any bounded subdomain. We give both necessary and sufficient conditions for this convergence to occur.

  15. Aggressive Behavior among Israeli Elementary School Students and Associated Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Tammie; Rahav, Giora; Moldawsky, Ayala

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify aggression patterns among students, compare teachers' and students' reports on aggressiveness, and examine whether emotional and behavioral problems and self-control intercorrelate with aggression and can explain it among students. The study investigated 363 students aged 8 to 11 years and their 12 homeroom teachers in…

  16. [Brief strategic family therapy: an empirically-validated intervention for reducing adolescent behavior problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Michael S; Horigian, Viviana E; Szapocznik, José

    2008-01-01

    Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is an empirically-supported treatment for children and adolescents with behavior problems and substance use problems. For three decades, the efficacy and effectiveness of BSFT has been established through the results of rigorous clinical trials studies conducted at the University of Miami's Center for Family Studies. BSFT is based on family systems approaches, most notably the work of Salvador Minuchin and Jay Haley, but has been refined to meet the pressing needs of youth with behavior problems. BSFT theory and interventions cover four broad domains: joining with family members and the family system, assessing problematic family interactions, creating a motivational context for change, and restructuring family interactions.

  17. A comparison of positive and negative reinforcement for compliance to treat problem behavior maintained by escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Sarah K; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has shown that problem behavior maintained by escape can be treated using positive reinforcement. In the current study, we directly compared functional (escape) and nonfunctional (edible) reinforcers in the treatment of escape-maintained problem behavior for 5 subjects. In the first treatment, compliance produced a break from instructions. In the second treatment, compliance produced a small edible item. Neither treatment included escape extinction. Results suggested that the delivery of a positive reinforcer for compliance was effective for treating escape-maintained problem behavior for all 5 subjects, and the delivery of escape for compliance was ineffective for 3 of the 5 subjects. Implications and future directions related to the use of positive reinforcers in the treatment of escape behavior are discussed.

  18. "Tuning into Kids": reducing young children's behavior problems using an emotion coaching parenting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Sophie S; Wilson, Katherine R; Harley, Ann E; Kehoe, Christiane; Efron, Daryl; Prior, Margot R

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated a 6-session group parenting program, Tuning into Kids (TIK), as treatment for young children (aged 4.0-5.11 years) with behavior problems. TIK targets parent emotion socialization (parent emotion awareness, regulation and emotion coaching skills). Fifty-four parents, recruited via a child behavior clinic, were randomized into intervention (TIK) or waitlist (clinical treatment as usual). Parents reported emotion awareness/regulation, emotion coaching, empathy and child behavior (pre-intervention, post-intervention, 6-month follow-up); teachers reported child behavior and observers rated parent-child emotion coaching and child emotion knowledge (pre-intervention, follow-up). Data were analyzed using growth curve modeling and ANCOVA. Parents in both conditions reported less emotional dismissiveness and reduced child behavior problems; in the intervention group, parents also reported greater empathy and had improved observed emotion coaching skills; their children had greater emotion knowledge and reduced teacher-reported behavior problems. TIK appears to be a promising addition to treatment for child behavior problems.

  19. Integrating Behavioral Health and Primary Care for Comorbid Behavioral and Medical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Arthritis; Asthma; Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; Diabetes; Heart Failure; Hypertension; Anxiety; Chronic Pain; Depression; Fibromyalgia; Insomnia; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Problem Drinking; Substance Use Disorder

  20. Preadoption adversity and long-term clinical-range behavior problems in adopted Chinese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A; Kim, Eun Sook

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we report findings on the role of preadoption adversity on long-term clinical-range problems in adopted Chinese girls. Four waves (2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011) of problem behavior data on 1,223 adopted Chinese girls (M = 4.86 years, SD = 2.82 in 2005) were collected from the adoptive mothers with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). At Wave 1 (2005), data on the following indicators of preadoption adversity was collected: age at adoption, physical signs/symptoms (e.g., sores) of preadoption adversity, developmental delays at arrival, refusal/avoidance behaviors and crying/clinging behaviors toward adoptive parents during the first 3 weeks of adoption. We found that the percentage of clinical-range internalizing problems was 11.1%, 16.5%, 11.3%, and 16.1% at Wave 1, Wave 2, Wave 3, and Wave 4, respectively; the corresponding percentage of clinical-range externalizing problems was 8.4%, 10.5%, 8.4% and 9.9% respectively; and the corresponding percentage of clinical-range total CBCL problems was 9.3%, 13.0%, 9.8% and 12.6% respectively. Analyses with Mplus showed that controlling for demographic variables, indicators of preadoption adversity, except age at adoption, increased the odds for clinical-range behavior problems. Longitudinal path models revealed that controlling for demographic variables and the children's adjustment status in the previous wave, refusal/avoidance remained significant in predicting clinical-range internalizing, externalizing and total CBCL problems at Wave 2, delays at arrival and signs/symptoms were significant in predicting clinical-range internalizing problems at Wave 3. Overall, adoptees with clinical-range CBCL problems in earlier waves were 9-28 times as likely to show clinical-range CBCL problems in subsequent waves.

  1. Harsh discipline and behavior problems: the moderating effects of cortisol and alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Rudo-Hutt, Anna S; Glenn, Andrea L; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies link harsh discipline to adjustment problems in youth, yet not all individuals exposed to harsh discipline develop behavior problems. Contemporary theory suggests that this relationship could be moderated by individual differences in environmentally sensitive biological systems. This study investigated whether the interaction between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal moderated the link between harsh discipline and behavior problems. Three saliva samples were collected on a single day from 425 inner city youth (50% male, age 11-12 years, 80% African American) and were later assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase (ANS). Problem behavior was assessed by self- and parent-report using the Child Behavior Checklist. Youth also reported the level of harsh discipline that they experienced. Harsh discipline was positively associated with externalizing and internalizing problems only when there were asymmetrical profiles of HPA activity and ANS arousal. This pattern was evident for boys but not girls. Findings are discussed in relation to prevailing theories suggesting that biological susceptibility translates adversity into risk for behavior problems.

  2. Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Afghan Refugees and War-Zone Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Babapour-Kheiroddin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Wars' stress and violence can have tremendous effects on children's and adolescents' health and general well being; it may result in patterns of bio-psychosocial problems. The goal of this study was to compare emotional and behavioral problems in Afghan refugees and war-zone adolescents. "n Method: One hundred and eighty high school students (90 students in the refugee group and 90 in the war-zone group in Harat were included in this research. All participants completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR. War zone and refugee adolescents were compared based on their scores on different scales of behavioral and emotional problems. "n Results: War-zone adolescents scored significantly higher on Anxious/Depression, Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Attention Problems, and Internalizing Problems scales than refugee adolescents. In this study, no significant difference was found between the two groups on Social Problems, Thought Problems, Delinquent Behavior, Aggressive Behavior, and Externalizing scales. "nConclusion: Findings revealed that although asylum is not an ideal condition for children's and adolescents' psychological development and prosperity, it can have a protective role in comparison with war zone's circumstances. Further investigation is needed, however, to elucidate the lack of significant differences in externalizing scales among war zone and refugee adolescents

  3. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children.

  4. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqiang; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79) and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver), we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors.

  5. Family material hardship and chinese adolescents' problem behaviors: a moderated mediation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Sun

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined a moderated mediation model using the risk and resilience framework. Specifically, the impact of family material hardship on adolescent problem behaviors was examined in a Chinese sample; we used the family stress model framework to investigate parental depression and negative parenting as potential mediators of the relation between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. In addition, based on resilience theory, we investigated adolescents' resilience as a potential protective factor in the development of their internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants included 1,419 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.38 years, SD = 1.79 and their primary caregivers. After controlling for covariates (age, gender, location of family residence, and primary caregiver, we found that parental depression and negative parenting mediated the association between family material hardship and adolescents' problem behaviors. Furthermore, the adolescent resilience moderated the relationship between negative parenting and internalizing problems in a protective-stabilizing pattern; in addition, a protective-reactive pattern also emerged when adolescent resilience was examined as a moderator of the relationship between negative parenting and externalizing problems. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of risk and resilience in youth development. Moreover, the findings have important implications for the prevention of adolescent problem behaviors.

  6. Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women.

  7. Emotional flooding and hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mence, Melanie; Hawes, David J; Wedgwood, Lucinda; Morgan, Susan; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Hunt, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between negative parenting practices and dysfunction in parents' cognitive processing of child affect cues in families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems. This dysfunction comprised a bias toward the misclassification of child affect as anger (affect appraisal bias) and parents' proneness to emotional flooding (Gottman, 1991, 1993). Participants were families of toddlers (n = 82; 53% male; aged 18-48 months) referred to a tertiary-level health service for the treatment of disruptive behavior problems. Affect appraisal bias was indexed in terms of the discrepancy between rates of child anger coded from video recordings of parent-child interactions and rates of child anger estimated by parents immediately after these interactions. Parenting practices and emotional flooding were assessed using the Parenting Scale and the Parental Flooding Scale. Both hostile and overreactive discipline were positively associated with severity of disruptive behavior problems, however only hostile discipline was associated with the biased appraisal of child affect and emotional flooding. Emotional flooding was found to be a unique predictor of hostile discipline, independent of covariates including the severity of disruptive behavior problems. Variance in hostile discipline was further explained by the interaction between emotional flooding and affect appraisal bias. Emotional flooding appears to be particularly proximal to hostile discipline in the families of toddlers with disruptive behavior problems, consistent with evidence previously reported for nonclinical families.

  8. The role of parent psychopathology in the development of preschool children with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls, 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multiethnic children. Every dimension of mothers' and fathers' psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children's externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. These findings suggest that most types of mothers' and fathers' self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered.

  9. Parenting Stress Related to Behavioral Problems and Disease Severity in Children with Problematic Severe Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkleij, Marieke; van de Griendt, Erik-Jonas; Colland, Vivian; van Loey, Nancy; Beelen, Anita; Geenen, Rinie

    2015-09-01

    Our study examined parenting stress and its association with behavioral problems and disease severity in children with problematic severe asthma. Research participants were 93 children (mean age 13.4 ± 2.7 years) and their parents (86 mothers, 59 fathers). As compared to reference groups analyzed in previous research, scores on the Parenting Stress Index in mothers and fathers of the children with problematic severe asthma were low. Higher parenting stress was associated with higher levels of internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in children (Child Behavior Checklist). Higher parenting stress in mothers was also associated with higher airway inflammation (FeNO). Thus, although parenting stress was suggested to be low in this group, higher parenting stress, especially in the mother, is associated with more airway inflammation and greater child behavioral problems. This indicates the importance of focusing care in this group on all possible sources of problems, i.e., disease exacerbations and behavioral problems in the child as well as parenting stress.

  10. SEPARATE AND COMBINED EFFECTS OF VISUAL SCHEDULES AND EXTINCTION PLUS DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT ON PROBLEM BEHAVIOR OCCASIONED BY TRANSITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Melissa B; Lerman, Dorothea C; Hovanetz, Alyson N

    2009-01-01

    The separate and combined effects of visual schedules and extinction plus differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) were evaluated to decrease transition-related problem behavior of 2 children diagnosed with autism. Visual schedules alone were ineffective in reducing problem behavior when transitioning from preferred to nonpreferred activities. Problem behavior decreased for both participants when extinction and DRO were introduced, regardless of whether visual schedules were also used.

  11. Identification of developmentally appropriate screening items for disruptive behavior problems in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studts, Christina R; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2013-08-01

    Screening preschool-aged children for disruptive behavior disorders is a key step in early intervention. The study goal was to identify screening items with excellent measurement properties at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems within the developmental context of preschool-aged children. Parents/caregivers of preschool-aged children (N = 900) were recruited from four pediatric primary care settings. Participants (mean age = 31, SD = 8) were predominantly female (87 %), either white (55 %) or African-American (42 %), and biological parents (88 %) of the target children. In this cross-sectional survey, participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and two parent-report behavioral rating scales: the PSC-17 and the BPI. Item response theory analyses provided item parameter estimates and information functions for 18 externalizing subscale items, revealing their quality of measurement along the continuum of disruptive behaviors in preschool-aged children. Of 18 investigated items, 5 items measured only low levels of disruptive behaviors among preschool-aged children. The remaining 13 items measured sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems (i.e., >1.5 SD); however, 5 of these items offered less information, suggesting unreliable measurement. The remaining 8 items had high discrimination and difficulty parameters, offering considerable measurement information at sub-clinical to clinical levels of disruptive behavior problems. Behaviors measured by the 8 selected parent-report items were consistent with those identified in recent efforts to distinguish developmentally typical misbehaviors from clinically concerning behaviors among preschool-aged children. These items may have clinical utility in screening young children for disruptive behavior disorders.

  12. PREDICTING THE CHANGE OF CHILD’S BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS: SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC AND MATERNAL PARENTING STRESS FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Viduoliene

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: evaluate 1 whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2 the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3 which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990 and Child Behavior Checklist 1.5−5 years (Achenbach, Rescorla, 2000 questionnaires. Findings: Child’s externalizing problems decreased within 12 months period. There were no effects of child’s age, gender and age*gender interaction on externalizing problems change within 12 months period. Higher initial level and more negative change within 12 months period of maternal parenting stress related to child characteristics, more stressful events in family life predicted the increase of child’s externalizing problems. Research limitations/implications: maternal parenting stress and child’s externalizing problems are related and may influence each other simultaneously. Child’s externalizing problems decrease within one year period in overall 2−5 years old children group. The change of child’s aggressive behavior and hyperactivity, distractibility should be evaluated individually, separately from each other. Practical implications: maternal parenting stress and child’s behavior problems are closely related to each other, it may be meaningful organize intervention for mothers in order to prevent child’s externalizing problems increase. Keywords: maternal parenting stress, externalizing problems, childhood, toddlerhood, longitudinal research. Research type: research paper.

  13. Trajectories of Indonesian adolescents' religiosity, problem behavior, and friends' religiosity: covariation and sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Doran C; Christ, Sharon; Lu, Ting; Purwono, Urip

    2014-01-01

    Changes in religiosity, problem behavior, and their friends' religiosity over a 2-year period were assessed in a sample of five hundred and fifty-nine 15-year-old Indonesian Muslim adolescents. Adolescents self-reported their religiosity, problem behavior, and friendships; the religiosity of mutual friends came from friends' self-reports. A parallel process analysis of growth curves showed that adolescents' religiosity trajectories covaried with both problem behavior and friends' religiosity. Using a cross-lagged model in which prior levels were controlled, religiosity at 10th and 11th grades predicted friends' religiosity 1 year later, suggesting that adolescents select friends of similar religiosity. This study provides evidence that religion is intertwined with other aspects of adolescent development and illustrates the importance of contextualizing adolescent religiosity within an ecological framework.

  14. Preschool behavioral and social-cognitive problems as predictors of (pre)adolescent disruptive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emond, Alice; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes preschool social understanding and difficult behaviors (hot temper, disobedience, bossiness and bullying) as predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and aggressive conduct disorder (ACD) in a Dutch population sample of (pre)adolescents (N = 1943), measured at age 10-

  15. Rating Problem Behaviors in Outpatients with Mental Retardation: Use of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    1991-01-01

    Parent and teacher ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist with an outpatient sample of 110 children, adolescents, and young adults with mental retardation found that the 5-factor structure of both parent and teacher data corresponded very well with the 5 factors originally obtained from staff ratings of mentally retarded inpatients. (Author/DB)

  16. Maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems: a fixed effects regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Ystrom, Eivind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Torgersen, Leila

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, the aims of the current study were to examine associations between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems, taking both observed and unobserved confounding factors into account by employing fixed effects regression models. Postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use (defined as drinking alcohol 4 or more times a week, or drinking 7 units or more per alcohol use episode) and toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed when the toddlers were aged 18 and 36 months. Maternal psychopathology, civil status and negative life events last year were included as time-variant covariates. Maternal heavy alcohol use was associated with toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (p < 0.001) in the population when examined with generalized estimating equation models. The associations disappeared when observed and unobserved sources of confounding were taken into account in the fixed effects models [(p = 0.909 for externalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.021), p = 0.928 for internalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.023)], with an even further reduction of the estimates with the inclusion of time-variant confounders. No causal effect was found between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems. Increased levels of behavior problems among toddlers of heavy drinking mothers should therefore be attributed to other adverse characteristics associated with these mothers, toddlers and families. This should be taken into account when interventions aimed at at-risk families identified by maternal heavy alcohol use are planned and conducted.

  17. USE OF VIDEOGAMES AND COMPUTER GAMES: INFLUENCES ON ATTENTION, MEMORY, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND PROBLEMS BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Harold Germán Rodríguez Celis; Marithza Sandoval Escobar

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the relationship between video and computergames use on attention, memory, academic performance and problemsbehavior in school children in Bogotá. Memory and attention were assessedusing a set of different scales of ENI Battery (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky-Solís, 2007). For Academic performance, school newsletters were used.Behavioral problems were assessed through the CBCL / 6 -18 questionnaire(Child Behavior Checklist) of (Achenbach & Edelbrock, ...

  18. Using an Emic lens to understand how Latino families cope with dementia behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rachel M; Hinton, Ladson; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Tzuang, Marian; Tran, Cindy; Valle, Ramón

    2015-08-01

    Focus group data collected for a larger project to develop a fotonovela for Latino caregivers was used to conduct a meaning-centered thematic analysis in order to elicit Latino family caregiver perspectives on how behavior problems occurring in the context of dementia are perceived and managed. A sample of 42 Spanish-speaking Latino caregivers were recruited from organizations affiliated with the Alzheimer's Association near San Diego, California. Caregivers were queried on challenging behaviors, coping strategies, as well as other daily challenges. Focus group sessions were conducted in Spanish, translated and transcribed into English, and analyzed using qualitative, grounded anthropological methods. In addition to a range of behavior problems, five indigenous approaches to managing challenging behaviors were identified: acceptance, love, patience, adaptability, and establishing routines of care. Additionally, participants identified persistent challenges which deter effective coping. These include: issues with providers, problems with family members, limited knowledge of resources, emotional distress, and financial strain. To our knowledge, this is one of the few qualitative studies to report indigenous coping strategies for dementia behavioral problems. These findings have the potential to inform culturally-tailored intervention.

  19. Child fear reactivity and sex as moderators of links between parenting and preschool behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A; Scaramella, Laura V

    2015-11-01

    Reduced supportive parenting and elevated negative parenting behaviors increase risks for maladaptive social adjustment during early childhood (e.g., Campbell, Shaw, & Gilliom, 2000). However, the magnitude of these risks may vary according to children's individual characteristics, such as sex and temperament. The current study examines whether children's sex and fear reactivity moderate the associations between mothers' observed parenting and children's behavior problems 1 year later. The sample consists of 151 predominantly African American, low-income families with one sibling who is approximately 2 years old and the closest aged older sibling who is approximately 4 years old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate that fear distress (i.e., fearfulness) moderated associations between mothers' observed negative parenting and children's increased behavior problems, such that only those children with mean or higher observed fear distress scores showed increased behavior problems when exposed to mother's negative parenting. Child sex moderated associations between fear approach reactivity (i.e., fearlessness) and mothers' observed supportive parenting. Specifically, low fear approach combined with supportive parenting was associated with fewer behavior problems for boys only. Implications of these findings for preventive intervention are discussed.

  20. Evaluation of Group Intervention for Mothers/Caretakers of Kindergarten Children with Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative parental practices may influence the onset and maintenance of externalizing behavior problems, and positive parenting seem to improve children's social skills and reduce behavior problems. The objective of the present study was to describe the effects of an intervention designed to foster parents' social skills related to upbringing practices in order to reduce externalizing problems in children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirteen mothers and two care taker grandmothers took part in the study with an average of four participants per group. To assess intervention effects, we used a repeated measure design with control, pre, and post intervention assessments. Instruments used were: (a An interview schedule that evaluates the social interactions between parents and children functionally, considering each pair of child¿s and parent's behaviors as context for one another; (b A Social Skills Inventory; (c Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Intervention was effective in improving parent general social skills, decreasing negative parental practices and decreasing child behavior problems.

  1. Executive dysfunction and the relation with behavioral problems in children with 47,XXY and 47,XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, S; Swaab, H

    2015-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that having an extra X chromosome is associated with abnormal structure and function of brain areas in the frontal lobe, which is crucially involved in executive functioning. However, there is little of knowledge of the type and severity of executive dysfunction, and the impact on emotional and behavioral problems. The present study aims to provide in this. In total, 40 children (23 boys with 47,XXY and 17 girls with 47,XXX) with an extra X chromosome and 100 non-clinical controls (47 boys and 53 girls) participated in the study. The participants were 9-18 years old. Processing speed and executive functioning were assessed using the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Testbattery (ANT) and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Problems in emotional and behavioral functioning were assessed with the Childhood Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Children with an extra X chromosome showed deficits in inhibition, mental flexibility, sustained attention and visual working memory. Parental report showed high levels of everyday manifestations of executive dysfunction. More severe inhibition difficulties were associated with higher levels of thought problems, aggression and rule breaking behavior. Boys and girls with an extra X chromosome could not be differentiated based on severity of executive dysfunction, however, girls had lower information processing speed than boys. These findings suggest that executive dysfunction may be part of the phenotype of children with an extra X chromosome, impacting the ability to function adequately in everyday life. Furthermore, children with impairments in inhibition may have more problems in regulating their thinking, emotions and behavior.

  2. Gambling behavior and problem gambling reflecting social transition and traumatic childhood events among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    to study gambling behavior and problem gambling among Greenland Inuit in relation to the ongoing social transition and traumatic events during childhood. Design, settings and participants: A large representative cross-sectional study among Greenland Inuit (n=2189). Data was collected among adults (18......+) in 9 towns and 13 villages in Greenland from 2005-2010. Measurements: Problem gambling, gambling behavior and traumatic childhood events were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. The lie/bet screen was used to identify past year and lifetime problem gambling. Social transition...... was measured as place of residence and a combination of residence, education and occupation. Findings: The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16% among men and 10% among women (p

  3. Gambling Behavior and Problem Gambling Reflecting Social Transition and Traumatic Childhood Events Among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    gambling behavior and problem gambling among Greenland Inuit in relation to the ongoing social transition and traumatic events during childhood. A large representative cross-sectional study was conducted among Greenland Inuit (n = 2,189). Data was collected among adults (18+) in 9 towns and 13 villages...... in Greenland from 2005 to 2010. Problem gambling, gambling behavior and traumatic childhood events were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. The lie/bet screen was used to identify past year and lifetime problem gambling. Social transition was measured as place of residence and a combination...... of residence, education and occupation. The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16 % among men and 10 % among women (p ...

  4. An Exploratory Research on Deviant Behaviors of Problem Patrons in Taiwan’s Public Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-May Sheih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patrons of public libraries are more diverse and complex than those of other types of libraries, implying potentially more unexpected and difficult situations. Negative emotions such as frustration and anxiety are generated among librarians when they must handle problem patrons, an effort that may influence the work efficiency of librarians and their physical and mental health. This study conducted a semi-structured in-depth interview, using public service librarians in Taiwan as subjects, to explore the categories of problem patrons and their behavioral characteristics. According to the results, the behavioral characteristics of problem patrons can be divided into 6 categories: interfering with others, violating library regulations, influencing library works, improperly using resources and facilities, breaking laws, and exhibiting a psychological disorder as well as violating social norms. On the basis of the research results, this study offers suggestions for future reference when public libraries must handle problem patrons.

  5. Mothers' parenting and child sex differences in behavior problems among African American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Melissa A; Scaramella, Laura V

    2013-10-01

    Sex differences in rates of behavior problems, including internalizing and externalizing problems, begin to emerge during early childhood. These sex differences may occur because mothers parent their sons and daughters differently, or because the impact of parenting on behavior problems is different for boys and girls. In this study, we examined whether associations between observations of mothers' positive and negative parenting and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors vary as a function of child sex. The sample consisted of 137 African American low-income families with one sibling approximately 2 years old and the closest-aged older sibling who was approximately 4 years old. Results from fixed-effects within-family models indicate clear sex differences regardless of child age. Mothers were observed to use less positive parenting with sons than with daughters. Higher levels of observed negative parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for boys, whereas lower levels of positive parenting were linked to more externalizing behaviors for girls. No child sex differences emerged regarding associations between observed positive and negative parenting and internalizing behaviors.

  6. Video game access, parental rules, and problem behavior: a study of boys with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Mazurek, Micah O

    2014-07-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to 18 years of age). Parents of these children reported on (1) whether they had specific rules regulating their child's video game use, (2) whether their child had in-room access to a variety of screen-based media devices (television, computer, and video game console), and (3) their child's oppositional behaviors. Multivariate regression models showed that in-room access to a video game console predicted oppositional behavior while controlling for in-room access to other media devices (computer and television) and relevant variables (e.g. average number of video game hours played per day). Additionally, the association between in-room access to a video game console and oppositional behavior was particularly large when parents reported no rules on their child's video game use. The current findings indicate that both access and parental rules regarding video games warrant future experimental and longitudinal research as they relate to problem behavior in boys with autism spectrum disorder.

  7. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  8. Child externalizing behavior problems linked to genetic and non-genetic variation in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Michael F; Smith Slep, Amy M; Heyman, Richard E; Bretz, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    The association of environmental and genetic variation in caries with child externalizing behavior problems (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and defiance) was studied in a sample of 239 pairs of 3- to 8-year-old impoverished Brazilian twins. It was hypothesized that externalizing problems would show a stronger positive association with environmental than genetic variation in caries. Univariate twin models were estimated to parse variation in caries into three components: additive genetic (A), shared environment (C) and non-shared environment/error (E). Age-adjusted associations between externalizing problems and each variance component were tested. Contrary to the hypothesis, modest but very consistent negative associations were found between externalizing problems and both genetic and environmental variation in caries. Mutans streptococci and sweetness preference did not explain the negative associations of caries and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems in non-medicated children were associated with less dental decay that could be explained by both genetic and environmental factors.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of an intervention for infants’ behavioral sleep problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Wendy A.; Hutton, Eileen; Brant, Rollin F.; Collet, Jean Paul; Gregg, Kathy; Saunders, Roy; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Gafni, Amiram; Triolet, Kathy; Tse, Lillian; Bhagat, Radhika; Wooldridge, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Infant behavioral sleep problems are common, with potential negative consequences. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess effects of a sleep intervention comprising a two-hour group teaching session and four support calls over 2 weeks. Our primary outcomes were reduced numbers of nightly wakes or parent report of sleep problem severity. Secondary outcomes included improvement in parental depression, fatigue, sleep, and parent cognitions about infant sleep. Methods Two...

  10. Young children's self-reported emotional, behavioral, and peer problems: the Berkeley Puppet Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringoot, Ank P; Jansen, Pauline W; Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Measelle, Jeffrey R; van der Ende, Jan; Raat, Hein; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-12-01

    Adult observers are typically the only informants on emotional and behavioral problems in young children. Although additional information can be provided by child self-report, few validated, structured instruments are available to obtain self-report from young children. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) has been developed to obtain structured self-reports on multiple domains of mental health and social well-being. This study was the 1st to evaluate the psychometric properties of the BPI in a large sample. We studied 8 a priori scales of the interview in a Dutch community sample of 6,375 children ages 5-7 years. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we demonstrated adequate fit (Tucker-Lewis index = .90; comparative fit index = .90; root-mean-square error of approximation = .03) of a multidimensional model with 50 items loading on 8 latent factors (Depression, Separation Anxiety, Overanxious, Oppositional Defiant, Overt Hostility, Conduct Problems, Bullied by Peers, and Peer Acceptance/Rejection). This model was invariant across gender. Children reported anxiety-related problems more frequently than depressive problems, behavioral problems, or difficulties in peer relations. Reliability analyses showed that 3 broadband scales designated as Internalizing, Externalizing, and Peer Relations were homogeneous constructs (αs = .68-.79). Higher scores on most BPI scales were associated with lower maternal education, lower family income, and non-Western ethnicity. Boys reported more behavioral and peer relation problems, whereas girls reported more emotional problems. The findings indicate that young children from socioeconomically and demographically diverse backgrounds are capable of providing valid, multidimensional information on their emotional, behavioral, and peer relation problems using the BPI. Young children's self-report is a promising addition to existing assessment tools.

  11. Coparenting Moderates the Association between Firstborn Children's Temperament and Problem Behavior across the Transition to Siblinghood

    OpenAIRE

    Kolak, Amy M.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of individual (i.e., negative reactivity) and environmental (i.e., coparenting) characteristics in predicting firstborns’ adjustment after a sibling's birth were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborn children from 241 families participated in a family freeplay to assess coparenting interactions before the birth of the second child and parents completed questionnaires on children's temperamental characteristics and behavior problems. Children's externalizing problems signi...

  12. Asymptotic behavior of elliptic boundary-value problems with some small coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senoussi Guesmia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the asymptotic behavior of the solutions to elliptic boundary-value problems where some coefficients become negligible on a cylindrical part of the domain. We show that the dimension of the space can be reduced and find estimates of the rate of convergence. Some applications to elliptic boundary-value problems on domains becoming unbounded are also considered.

  13. Medication and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavior Problems: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Handen, Benjamin; Arnold, L. Eugene; Johnson, Cynthia; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Bearss, Karen; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Ramadan, Yaser; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Lecavalier, Luc; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Mulick, James A.; Hall, Kristy L.; Dziura, James; Ritz, Louise; Trollinger, Stacie; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Many children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) have serious, functionally impairing behavioral problems. We tested whether combined treatment (COMB) with risperidone and parent training (PT) in behavior management is superior to medication alone (MED) in improving severe behavioral problems in children with PDDs. Method:…

  14. Separate and Combined Effects of Visual Schedules and Extinction Plus Differential Reinforcement on Problem Behavior Occasioned by Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Melissa B.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hovanetz, Alyson N.

    2009-01-01

    The separate and combined effects of visual schedules and extinction plus differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) were evaluated to decrease transition-related problem behavior of 2 children diagnosed with autism. Visual schedules alone were ineffective in reducing problem behavior when transitioning from preferred to nonpreferred…

  15. Therapist adherence and organizational effects on change in youth behavior problems one year after multisystemic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Carter, Rickey E; Chapman, Jason E; Sheidow, Ashli J

    2008-09-01

    The current study investigated the relations among therapist adherence to an evidence-based treatment for youth with serious antisocial behavior (i.e., Multisystemic Therapy), organizational climate and structure, and improvement in youth behavior problems one-year post treatment. Participants were 1979 youth and families treated by 429 therapists across 45 provider organizations in North America. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) results showed therapist adherence predicted improvement in youth behavior. Two structure variables and one climate variable predicted changes in youth behavior, and the climate variable also predicted therapist adherence. No statistical support for formal mediation of organizational effects through adherence was found, though examination of changes in parameter estimates suggest a possible interplay of organizational climate with adherence and youth behavior change.

  16. Building Local Capacity for Training and Coaching Data-Based Problem Solving with Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, J. Stephen; Algozzine, Bob; Algozzine, Kate; Horner, Robert H.; Todd, Anne W.

    2011-01-01

    Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Teams use data to guide decisions about student social and academic behavior problems. In previous evaluation and research efforts, the authors taught team members to use Team-Initiated Problem Solving, a model that embeds data-based decision making into a broader problem-solving framework. In this study,…

  17. Sexual initiation and emotional/behavioral problems in Taiwanese adolescents: a multivariate response profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chia-Hua; Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Yen-Tyng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Wei J

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relations of adolescent sexual experiences (particularly early initiation) to a spectrum of emotional/behavioral problems and to probe possible gender difference in such relationships. The 10th (N = 8,842) and 12th (N = 10,083) grade students, aged 16-19 years, participating in national surveys in 2005 and 2006 in Taiwan were included for this study. A self-administered web-based questionnaire was designed to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, sexual experience, substance use, and the Youth Self-Report Form. For the sexually experienced adolescents, their sexual initiation was classified as early initiation (initiation (16-19 years). Gender-specific multivariate response profile regression was used to examine the relationship between sexual experience and the behavioral syndromes. Externalizing problems, including Rule-breaking Behavior and Aggressive Behavior, were strongly associated with sexual initiation in adolescence; the magnitude of the association increased for earlier sexual initiation, especially for females. As to internalizing problems, the connection was rather heterogeneous. The scores on some syndromes, such as Somatic Complaints and Anxious/Depressed, were higher only for females with early or non-early sexual initiation whereas the score on Withdrawn, along with Social Problems that is neither internalizing nor externalizing, was lower for the sexually experienced adolescents than for the sexually inexperienced ones. We concluded that earlier sexual initiation was associated with a wider range of behavioral problems in adolescents for both genders, yet the increased risk with emotional problems was predominately found in females.

  18. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Chastang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren.In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ completed by the parents.ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI= 1.36-2.17, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood.Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  19. Generalized Compliance Training: A Direct Instruction Program for Managing Severe Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Geoffrey; And Others

    Five case studies illustrate the use of generalized compliance training with students who have severe behavior problems. Based on extinction and generalization processes, the approach consists of five phases: (1) assessment to determine the nature and severity of noncompliance; (2)initial instruction demonstrating the consequences of compliance…

  20. Problems reported by parents of children in multiple cultures: the Child Behavior Checklist syndrome constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons); T.M. Achenbach (Thomas); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare syndromes of parent-reported problems for children in 12 cultures. METHOD: Child Behavior Checklists were analyzed for 13,697 children and adolescents, ages 6 through 17 years, from general population sampl

  1. A Developmental Study of the Relationship Among Irrational Beliefs, Behavior Problems, and Neuroticism in Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Anthony; Erickson, Marilyn T.

    Rational-Emotive Therapy states that maladaptive behaviors and emotional problems are the result of certain irrational beliefs that people hold and a number of empirical investigations with adult subjects have supported this claim. To determine whether the relationship between irrationality and psychological adjustment holds for adolescents, one…

  2. Social Problem-Solving and Mild Intellectual Disabilities : Relations With Externalizing Behavior and Therapeutic Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Wijnroks, Lex; Vermeer, Adri; Matthys, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Relations among externalizing behavior, therapeutic context (community care vs. residential care), and social problem-solving by children with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intelligence were examined. Participants were 186 children (12 to 14 years of age) who responded to a video-base

  3. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION IS MORE CLOSELY RELATED TO LEARNING-DIFFICULTIES THAN TO BEHAVIORAL-PROBLEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HADDERSALGRA, M; TOUWEN, BCL

    1992-01-01

    In a group of 570 nine-year-old children (315 boys and 255 girls) without an overtly handicapping neurological condition, relationships were studied between the presence of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) on the one hand and cognitive and behavioral problems on the other hand. The aim of the st

  4. Academic Instruction or Behavioral Control: An Experimental Study of Teacher Responses to Classroom Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natriello, Gary; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    An examination of teachers' responses to questionnaires identifying sixteen classroom academic and social behavior problems revealed different reactions to each type. A system was developed to measure the responses which were coded in terms of the extent to which they evidenced the presentation of standards or evidenced warmth. Teachers presented…

  5. Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems, Peer Affiliations, and Bullying Involvement across the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Motoca, Luci M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Hall, Cristin M.

    2015-01-01

    Continuity and change in children's involvement in bullying was examined across the transition to middle school in relation to externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in fifth grade and peer affiliations in fifth and sixth grades. The sample consisted of 533 students (223 boys, 310 girls) with 72% European American, 25% African American,…

  6. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Problems: Effects of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2-18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1…

  7. Independence and Interplay between Maternal and Child Risk Factors for Preschool Problem Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the independence and interplay between cognitive risk factors (poor executive function/emotion understanding) and maternal risk factors (low education/high depression) for preschool problem behaviors, indexed by multi-measure, multi-informant (mother/teacher/ researcher) ratings. A socio-economically diverse sample of 235…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Chronic Maltreatment on Children's Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, L.S.; Lemelin, J.P.; Lacharite, C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present longitudinal study was to examine the links between chronicity of maltreatment and child behavioral and emotional problems. Method: Forty-nine maltreated children (32 victims of continuous, or chronic, maltreatment; 17 victims of transitory maltreatment) and their mothers were evaluated in their homes three times…

  9. Assessment and Treatment of Severe Behavior Problems Using Choice-Making Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jay W.; Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.; Barretto, Anjali; Rankin, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Choice-making produces were used to identify response-reinforcer relations during assessment and treatment phases with two children (ages 4-6) with pervasive development disorders who displayed severe behavioral problems. Results were used to develop preliminary treatment packages in which access to positive reinforcement was contingent on…

  10. Parenting Behavior as Mediator and Moderator of the Association between Marital Problems and Adolescent Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming; Conger, Rand D.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the mediating and moderating effects of parenting behavior on the relation between marital problems and adolescent maladjustment. Extending earlier studies by using a prospective, longitudinal research design and multi-informant methods, this study of 451 adolescents and their families from the Iowa Youth and Families…

  11. Family Functioning and Child Problem Behavior: a longitudinal study among referred children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.P. Mathijssen (Jolanda)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractFrom several theoretical perspectives as well as in psychotherapeutic practice it is assumed that family characteristics have a causal influence on the course of emotional and / or behavioral problems of children and adolescents (e.g., Boszonneny-Nagy & Sparke, 1973; Dadds, 1995; Hetheri

  12. Executive Cognitive Functions and Impulsivity as Correlates of Risk Taking and Problem Behavior in Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura; Giannetta, Joan M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Farah, Martha; Hurt, Hallam

    2009-01-01

    Initiation of drug use and other risky behavior in preadolescence is associated with poor developmental outcomes. In this research, we examine models that ascribe the trajectory to (a) weak executive cognitive function (ECF), (b) early manifestation of externalizing problems, or (c) heightened levels of trait impulsivity. We test the explanatory…

  13. Relationships between Feeding Problems, Behavioral Characteristics and Nutritional Quality in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Turner, Kylan; Stewart, Patricia A.; Schmidt, Brianne; Shui, Amy; Macklin, Eric; Reynolds, Anne; James, Jill; Johnson, Susan L.; Manning Courtney, Patty; Hyman, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have co-occurring feeding problems. However, there is limited knowledge about how these feeding habits are related to other behavioral characteristics ubiquitous in ASD. In a relatively large sample of 256 children with ASD, ages 2-11, we examined the relationships between feeding and mealtime…

  14. Behavior of solution set for bilevel generalized mixed equilibrium problems in topological vector spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁协平

    2014-01-01

    A new bilevel generalized mixed equilibrium problem (BGMEP) is introduced and studied in topological vector spaces. By using a minimax inequality, the existence of solutions and the behavior of solution set for the BGMEP are studied under quite mild conditions. These results are new and generalize some recent results in this field.

  15. Emotional and behavioral problems in children of parents recently diagnosed with cancer : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Annemieke; Huizinga, Gea A.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Van Der Graaf, Winette Ta; Donofrio, Stacey; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette Ehm

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the prevalence of problems in children within four months after a parent's cancer diagnosis (T1) and six (T2) and twelve months (T3) afterwards. Sixty-nine ill parents and 57 spouses completed the Child Behavior Checklist for 57 primary school (aged 4-11 years) and 66 adolescent chi

  16. Emotional and behavioral problems in children of parents recently diagnosed with cancer : a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Huizinga, G.A.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Gazendam-Donofrio, S.M.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of problems in children within four months after a parent's cancer diagnosis (T1) and six (T2) and twelve months (T3) afterwards. Sixty-nine ill parents and 57 spouses completed the Child Behavior Checklist for 57 primary school (aged 4-11 years) and 66 adolescent

  17. Problem behavior of individuals with down syndrome in a nationwide cohort assessed in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M.; Fekkes, M.; Wouwe, J.P. van; Detmar, S.B.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Verkerk, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess problem behavior in adolescents with Down syndrome and examine the association with sex and severity of intellectual disability. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional data of a Dutch nationwide cohort of Down syndrome children aged 16-19 years were collected using a written parental que

  18. Single Parenthood, Achievement, and Problem Behavior in White, Black, and Hispanic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciuti, Henry N.

    2004-01-01

    The author investigated whether adverse effects of single parenthood not observed in 6-7-year-old NLSY (National Longitudinal Study of Youth) children might emerge when they reached 12-13 years of age. Outcomes included mathematics, reading, vocabulary scores, and behavior problem ratings. Little or no evidence of systematic negative effects…

  19. Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems, Peer Affiliations, and Bullying Involvement across the Transition to Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Motoca, Luci M.; Leung, Man-Chi; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Hall, Cristin M.

    2015-01-01

    Continuity and change in children's involvement in bullying was examined across the transition to middle school in relation to externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in fifth grade and peer affiliations in fifth and sixth grades. The sample consisted of 533 students (223 boys, 310 girls) with 72% European American, 25% African…

  20. Movement disorders in adults with intellectual disability and behavioral problems associated with use of antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheifes, A.; Walraven, S.; Stolker, J.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Tenback, D.E.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Heerdink, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic drugs are prescribed to approximately 30% to 40% of adults with intellectual disability (ID) and behavioral problems despite lack of evidence of effectiveness and potential adverse effects, including movement disorders. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the prevale

  1. Externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of cannabis use : the TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korhonen, T.; van Leeuwen, A.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors Of Subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ag

  2. Perceived Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Stress, and Maternal Depressive Symptoms among Prenatal Methamphetamine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Brandi D.; Newman, Elana; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine parenting stress, maternal depressive symptoms, and perceived child behavior problems among mothers who used methamphetamine (MA) during pregnancy. Participants were a subsample (n = 212; 75 exposed, 137 comparison) of biological mothers who had continuous custody of their child from birth to 36 months.…

  3. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links with Internalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Seifer, Ronald; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McWilliams, Melissa A.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early adversity is linked to methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, "NR3C1," which is a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Yet no prior work has considered the contribution of methylation of "NR3C1" to emerging behavior problems and psychopathology in…

  4. Abolishing and Establishing Operation Analyses of Social Attention as Positive Reinforcement for Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Molly A.; Houchins-Juarez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2010-01-01

    Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition…

  5. Prospective Associations among Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms, Interpersonal Problems, and Aggressive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We…

  6. Prediction of Childhood Behavior Problems over a Four-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, David J.; And Others

    Path analysis was used to discover predictors of personality, school conduct, and distractibility-hyperactivity problems in this 4-year longitudinal study of 173 rural children. While previous studies had shown that children's behavior disorders are related to sex of child, family disruption, IQ, Bender-Gestalt Test scores, and socioeconomic…

  7. A Study of Student Classroom Behavior and Self-Perception as It Relates to Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shymansky, James A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Investigated were relationships between student self perception and actual classroom behavior in problem solving situations of 201 elementary students. Results indicated students with positive self concept were more independent from teachers and peers. Dependance upon others by low self esteem students is more evident in higher grades. (SL)

  8. Classroom quality at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children's social skills and behavior problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Mokrova, Irina L.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Garrett-Peters, Patricia T.

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the continuity in the quality of classroom environments as children transition from preschool into elementary school, this study examined the associations between classroom quality in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children's social skills and behavior problems in kindergarten and

  9. Social problem solving in adolescents with suicidal behavior: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speckens, A.E.M.; Hawton, K.

    2005-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on deficiencies in problem solving as a vulnerability factor for suicidal behavior in general and hence a target for treatment in suicide attempters. In view of the uncertainty of evidence for this in adolescents we conducted a systematic review of the international rese

  10. Anger/Frustration, Task Persistence, and Conduct Problems in Childhood: A Behavioral Genetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in conduct problems arise in part from proneness to anger/frustration and poor self-regulation of behavior. However, the genetic and environmental etiology of these connections is not known. Method: Using a twin design, we examined genetic and environmental covariation underlying the well-documented correlations…

  11. Distinctiveness of Adolescent and Emerging Adult Romantic Relationship Features in Predicting Externalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Goncy, Elizabeth A.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Romantic relationship involvement has repeatedly been associated with the incidence of externalizing behavior problems, but little is known about the nature and developmental significance of this relation. The current study extends previous research by investigating whether and through what processes romantic relationships distinctively predict…

  12. Development of a Problem-Focused Behavioral Screener Linked to Evidence-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brian; Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Amy M.; Fabiano, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the factor structure, reliability and validity of a novel school-based screening instrument for academic and disruptive behavior problems commonly experienced by children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants included 39 classroom teachers from two public school districts in the…

  13. Video Game Use and Problem Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Engelhardt, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have strong preferences for screen-based media, particularly video games. Although problematic video game use has been associated with behavior problems among typically developing children, the relationship between these variables has not been previously examined among children with ASD. The current…

  14. Executive Function and Behavioral Problems in Students with Visual Impairments at Mainstream and Special Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, Vera; Hintermair, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, executive function of school-aged children with visual impairments (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) is examined in the context of behavioral problems and communicative competence. Methods: Teachers assessed the executive function of a sample of 226 visually impaired students from mainstream schools and…

  15. Childhood Behavior Problems Linked to Sexual Risk Taking in Young Adulthood: A Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramrakha, Sandhya; Bell, Melanie L.; Paul, Charlotte; Dickson, Nigel; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study whether behavioral and emotional problems during childhood predicted early sexual debut, risky sex at age 21 years, and sexually transmitted infections up to age 21 years. Some possible mediational pathways were also explored. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (n =…

  16. Psychosocial Treatment Efficacy for Disruptive Behavior Problems in Very Young Children: A Meta-Analytic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Chow, Candice; Chan, Priscilla T.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Wilson, Lianna A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Service use trends showing increased off-label prescribing in very young children and reduced psychotherapy use raise concerns about quality of care for early disruptive behavior problems. Meta-analysis can empirically clarify best practices and guide clinical decision making by providing a quantitative synthesis of a body of…

  17. Contribution of Teacher Ratings of Behavioral Characteristics to the Prediction of Divergent Thinking and Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtz, John C.; Shaning, Dennis J.

    1982-01-01

    Predicted divergent thinking and problem-solving performance of elementary school students from teachers' ratings of students' affective/behavioral characteristics, and from intelligence test scores. Found teachers' ratings of sensitivity to beauty, risk taking, awareness of impulses, and humor were the most frequent significant predictors in…

  18. Comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in long-term care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Zuidema, S.U.; Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The IPA Taskforce on Mental Health Issues in Long-Term Care Homes seeks to improve mental health care in long-term care (LTC) homes. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations on comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in order to further stimulate countri

  19. Comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in long-term care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Zuidema, Sytse U; Leontjevas, Roeslan; Gerritsen, Debby L

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The IPA Taskforce on Mental Health Issues in Long-Term Care Homes seeks to improve mental health care in long-term care (LTC) homes. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations on comprehensive assessment of depression and behavioral problems in order to further stimulate countri

  20. Use of Analog Functional Analysis in Assessing the Function of Mealtime Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Peter A.; Scotti, Joseph R.

    2001-01-01

    This study applied the methodology of an analog experimental (functional) analysis of behavior to the specific interaction between parents and three children with mental retardation exhibiting food refusal and related mealtime problems. Analog results were highly consistent with other forms of functional assessment data, including interviews,…

  1. Externalizing Behavior Problems and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors of Cannabis Use: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Tellervo; van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ages 10-12 [T1]) and at two follow-up assessments…

  2. Parent-child relationships and dyadic friendship experiences as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n=182; M age=12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesize

  3. Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…

  4. Sensory-Based Intervention for Children with Behavioral Problems: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Yunus, Farahiyah; Liu, Karen P.; Bissett, Michelle; Penkala, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Sensory-based intervention is a common approach used to address behavioral problems in children. Types of sensory-based intervention for children and details of the intervention effectiveness have not been systematically examined. This review examined the effectiveness and ideal types of sensory-based interventions for children with behavioral…

  5. The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) on Depression: The Role of Problem-Solving Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Yu; Jordan, Catheleen; Thompson, Sanna

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Many studies have confirmed the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as a treatment for depression. However, the mechanism of CBT for depression reduction is still not well understood. This study explored the mechanism of CBT from the perspective of individuals' problem-solving appraisal. Method: A one-group pretest-posttest…

  6. Case Management as a Significant Component of Usual Care Psychotherapy for Youth with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoffness, Rachel; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Roesch, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Youth with disruptive behavior problems (DBPs) represent the majority of youth served in usual care (UC) psychotherapy, and are at high risk for maladaptive outcomes. Little is known about UC psychotherapeutic strategies utilized with this population. Researchers and clinicians suggest that case management (CM) is a major activity occurring in…

  7. Therapists' Attitudes Towards Psychotherapeutic Strategies in Community-Based Psychotherapy with Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Garland, Ann F.; Taylor, Robin; Zoffness, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about what individual treatment strategies therapists providing usual care psychotherapy consider the most valuable to their practice. The Therapeutic Strategies Survey (TSS) assesses therapists' attitudes about the value of 27 individual treatment strategies in their practice with children with disruptive behavior problems in community-based outpatient psychotherapy. Findings indicate that therapists from multiple professional disciplines highly value many individual psychoth...

  8. Information Management and Behavior Problems: Is Concealing Misbehavior Necessarily a Sign of Trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether adolescents' strategic management of information about their misbehavior was associated with behavior problems and whether the associations were moderated by parental trust or adolescent authority beliefs. Data were provided by 218 mother-adolescent dyads. Adolescents (49% female; M age = 12 years) reported…

  9. Parental Depression and Child Behavior Problems: A Pilot Study Examining Pathways of Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yangmu; Neece, Cameron L.; Parker, Kathleen H.

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have higher rates of depressive symptoms than parents of typically developing children and parents of children with other developmental disorders. Parental depressive symptoms are strongly associated with problem behaviors in children; however, the mechanisms through which parental…

  10. Integrative Consensus: A Systematic Approach to Integrating Comprehensive Assessment Data for Young Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shernoff, Elisa S.; Hill, Carri; Danis, Barbara; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive assessments that include parents and teachers are essential when assessing young children vulnerable to emotional and behavioral problems given the multiple systems and contexts that influence and support optimal development (U. Bronfenbrenner & P. A. Morris, 2006; M. J. Guralnick, 2011). However, more data complicate clinical…

  11. Parenting Stress Related to Behavioral Problems and Disease Severity in Children with Problematic Severe Asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkleij, Marieke; van de Griendt, E-J.; Colland, V.; Van Loey, N.E.E.; Beelen, A.; Geenen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Our study examined parenting stress and its association with behavioral problems and disease severity in children with problematic severe asthma. Research participants were 93 children (mean age 13.4 ± 2.7 years) and their parents (86 mothers, 59 fathers). As compared to reference groups analyzed in

  12. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  13. Parent-Reported Homework Problems in the MTA Study: Evidence for Sustained Improvement with Behavioral Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Flowers, Amanda M.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Kotkin, Ronald; Simpson, Stephen; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Jensen, Peter S.; Abikoff, Howard; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wells, Karen C.; Hechtman, Lily

    2010-01-01

    Parent-report of child homework problems was examined as a treatment outcome variable in the MTA-Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine children ages 7.0 to 9.9 were randomly assigned to either medication management, behavioral treatment, combination treatment, or…

  14. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

  15. Pathways of self-reported problem behaviors from adolescence into adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B. Hofstra (Marijke); J. van der Ende (Jan); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The authors determined the impact of different pathways of psychopathological development on adult outcome in subjects followed from ages 11-18 to ages 21-28. METHOD: Problem behaviors of subjects from a general population sample were assessed through the You

  16. Behavior Problems in Toddlers with and without Developmental Delays: Comparison of Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Casey A.; Carrasco, Jennifer M.; Mattek, Ryan J.; Fox, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an in-home parent management program for toddlers with behavior problems and developmental delays by comparing outcomes for a group of toddlers with developmental delays (n = 27) and a group of toddlers without developmental delays (n = 27). The majority of children lived in single…

  17. Pathways to Problem Behaviors: Chaotic Homes, Parent and Child Effortful Control, and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Reiser, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Guided by Belsky's and Eisenberg, Cumberland, and Spinrad's heuristic models, we tested a process model with hypothesized paths from parents' effortful control (EC) and family chaos to indices of parenting to children's EC, and finally children's externalizing problem behavior. Parents reported on all constructs and children (N = 188; M age = 9.55…

  18. Temperament as a Moderator of the Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Allison; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Shigeto, Aya; Wong, Maria S.

    2012-01-01

    Parental depressive symptomatology has consistently been linked to child maladjustment, but these effects are not universal. This investigation examined the role of child temperament as a moderator of the effects of parental depression on behavior problems in five-year-old children. Parents reported on their own depressive symptoms, and both…

  19. Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports and fidelity of implementation on problem behavior in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, K B; Fenning, P; Kato, M McGrath; McIntosh, K

    2014-06-01

    High school is an important time in the educational career of students. It is also a time when adolescents face many behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges. Current statistics about the behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges faced by adolescents, and the impact on society through incarceration and dropout, have prompted high schools to direct their attention toward keeping students engaged and reducing high-risk behavioral challenges. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS) on the levels of individual student problem behaviors during a 3-year effectiveness trial without random assignment to condition. Participants were 36,653 students in 12 high schools. Eight schools implemented SW-PBIS, and four schools served as comparison schools. Results of a multilevel latent growth model showed statistically significant decreases in student office discipline referrals in SW-PBIS schools, with increases in comparison schools, when controlling for enrollment and percent of students receiving free or reduced price meals. In addition, as fidelity of implementation increased, office discipline referrals significantly decreased. Results are discussed in terms of effectiveness of a SW-PBIS approach in high schools and considerations to enhance fidelity of implementation.

  20. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  1. Visual Support in Children with Autism Spectrum Development as a Tool for Changing Problem Behavior

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    olpakova L.O.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data of observations made in a group of 10 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 5-8 years experiencing behavioral problems and difficulties with communication and social interaction. A behavioral intervention was carried out in the group basing on the principles of applied behavioral analysis (ABA. Following the primary test and with accordance to the parents’ requests, a team of specialists worked over the period of six months attempting to change problem behaviors and to compensate for academic deficiencies in the children. Each day the specialists along with the parents collected data and introduced necessary corrections into the intervention plans. Since all children in the group could barely understand speech and had much difficulty with communication, one of the core methods employed in the work was visual support which became a basic element in every technique applied. Applying visual supports in education settings as well as at home contributed much to the compensation of the difficulties related to speech understanding and helped decrease the level of anxiety in the children, which, in turn, resulted in an apparent decline in problem behavior and faster progress in the acquisition of academic skills.

  2. Exact behavior of singular solutions to Protter's problem with lower order terms

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    Aleksey Nikolov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For the (2+1-D wave equation Protter formulated (1952 some boundary value problems which are three-dimensional analogues of the Darboux problems on the plane. Protter studied these problems in a 3-D domain, bounded by two characteristic cones and by a planar region. Now it is well known that, for an infinite number of smooth functions in the right-hand side, these problems do not have classical solutions, because of the strong power-type singularity which appears in the generalized solution. In the present paper we consider the wave equation involving lower order terms and obtain new a priori estimates describing the exact behavior of singular solutions of the third boundary value problem. According to the new estimates their singularity is of the same order as in case of the wave equation without lower order terms.

  3. The motivating operation and negatively reinforced problem behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter; Oliver, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The concept of motivational operations exerts an increasing influence on the understanding and assessment of problem behavior in people with intellectual and developmental disability. In this systematic review of 59 methodologically robust studies of the influence of motivational operations in negative reinforcement paradigms in this population, we identify themes related to situational and biological variables that have implications for assessment, intervention, and further research. There is now good evidence that motivational operations of differing origins influence negatively reinforced problem behavior, and that these might be subject to manipulation to facilitate favorable outcomes. There is also good evidence that some biological variables warrant consideration in assessment procedures as they predispose the person's behavior to be influenced by specific motivational operations. The implications for assessment and intervention are made explicit with reference to variables that are open to manipulation or that require further research and conceptualization within causal models.

  4. Emotion socialization and internalizing behavior problems in diverse youth: A bidirectional relationship across childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Naomi V; Chavira, Denise A; Baker, Bruce L

    2017-03-01

    Mothers' and fathers' emotion socialization (ES) practices have been widely associated with child socioemotional outcomes. To extend this research, we examined the bidirectional relationship between parent ES practices (supportive and non-supportive parenting) and internalizing behavior problems in children of Anglo and Latino parents. Participants were 182 mothers and 162 fathers and their children with or without intellectual disability (ID). We compared the stability of mother and father ES practices across child ages 4-8. We utilized cross-lagged panel modeling to examine the bidirectional relationship between parents' ES and child internalizing behavior problems. Emotion socialization practices differed across time by parent gender, with mothers displaying higher levels of supportive parenting and lower levels of non-supportive parenting than fathers. Cross-lagged panel models revealed differential relationships between child internalizing behaviors and emotion socialization practices by parent gender and by ethnicity. Implications for intervening with culturally diverse families of children with ID are discussed.

  5. The social competence and behavioral problem substrate of new- and recent-onset childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almane, Dace; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce P

    2014-02-01

    This study examined patterns of syndrome-specific problems in behavior and competence in children with new- or recent-onset epilepsy compared with healthy controls. Research participants consisted of 205 children aged 8-18, including youth with recent-onset epilepsy (n=125, 64 localization-related epilepsy [LRE] and 61 idiopathic generalized epilepsy [IGE]) and healthy first-degree cousin controls (n=80). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for children aged 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Dependent variables included Total Competence, Total Problems, Total Internalizing, Total Externalizing, and Other Problems scales. Comparisons of children with LRE and IGE with healthy controls were examined followed by comparisons of healthy controls with those having specific epilepsy syndromes of LRE (BECTS, Frontal/Temporal Lobe, and Focal NOS) and IGE (Absence, Juvenile Myoclonic, and IGE NOS). Children with LRE and/or IGE differed significantly (pcompetence (Total Competence including School and Social). Similarly, children with specific syndromes of LRE and IGE differed significantly (pcompetence (Total Competence including School). Only on the Thought Problems scale were there syndrome differences. In conclusion, children with recent-onset epilepsy present with significant behavioral problems and lower competence compared with controls, with little syndrome specificity whether defined broadly (LRE and IGE) or narrowly (specific syndromes of LRE and IGE).

  6. Impact of Residential Greenness on Preschool Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Problems

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    Birute Balseviciene

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of the proximity to city parks and the influence of residential greenness on children’s emotional and behavioral problems. This cross-sectional study included 1,468 mothers of children (ages 4 to 6 who were residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. The mothers and their children were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The mothers reported on their parenting stress and their children’s mental health. Residential greenness was characterized as an average of the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI in a 300 m buffer around each home address, and the proximity to city parks was defined as the distance from the subject’s residence to the nearest park. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association among the residence distances from city parks, greenness and children’s mental health problems. Farther residential distance from city parks was associated with worse mental health (except for the emotional problems subscale in children whose mothers had a lower education level. More residential greenness was associated with worse mental health (more conditional problems and less prosocial behavior in children whose mothers had a higher education level. These relationships have important implications for the prevention of emotional and behavioral problems in children.

  7. Parental separation and children's behavioral/emotional problems: the impact of parental representations and family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Perren, Sonja; Groeben, Maureen; von Klitzing, Kai

    2010-03-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examine whether the effect of parental separation on kindergarten children's behavioral/emotional problems varies according to the level of family conflict, and children's parental representations. One hundred and eighty seven children were assessed at ages 5 and 6. Family conflict was assessed using parents' ratings. Children's parental representations were assessed using a story-stem task. A multiinformant approach (parent, teacher, child) was employed to assess children's behavioral/emotional problems. Bivariate results showed that separation, family conflict, and negative parental representations were associated with children's behavioral/emotional problems. However, in multivariate analyses, when controlling for gender and symptoms at age 5, we found that children of separated parents who showed negative parental representations had a significantly greater increase in conduct problems between 5 and 6 than all other children. In terms of emotional symptoms and hyperactivity, symptoms at 5 and (for hyperactivity only) gender were the only predictors for symptoms 1 year later. Our results suggest that kindergarten children's representations of parent-child relationships moderate the impact of parental separation on the development of conduct problems, and underline play and narration as a possible route to access the thoughts and feelings of young children faced with parental separation.

  8. Infant Temperament and High Risk Environment Relate to Behavior Problems and Language in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derauf, Chris; LaGasse, Linda; Smith, Lynne; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne; Lin, Hai; Lester, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined the role that easy infant temperament and cumulative environmental risk play in predicting cognitive, language and behavioral outcomes in 3 year-old children at high social risk. Methods Subjects were 412 mother-infant dyads, recruited at birth, participating in a longitudinal study examining the effects of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) on child development. This analysis includes a subsample (n=290) of the study with a completed 3 year visit. Temperament was assessed by the Infant Behavior Questionnaire at 12 mos. Factor analysis from well-validated measures generated “easy” and “difficult” temperament profiles, and a profile for high risk environment. Caretaker receptive vocabulary served as a proxy for IQ. Outcomes at 3 years included motor and mental development, behavior problems, and language. Linear regression and hierarchical linear modeling examined the effects of temperament, high risk environment and caregiver receptive language on outcomes adjusting for maternal drug use, demographic, and socioeconomic covariates. Results Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were lower in children with easy temperament and higher with increased environmental risk. Easy temperament attenuated behavioral problems only in the setting of lower environmental risk. Caregiver receptive language was associated with lower internalizing scores High risk environment and temperament factors were not related to cognitive or motor outcomes. Prenatal MA exposure was not associated with 3 year-old outcomes, nor did it alter the protective effects of an easier temperament on child behavior. Conclusions Children growing up in adverse social environments had increased behavioral problems and compromised language development. Conversely, an easy temperament acts as a protective factor for social-emotional development and could be related to resilience. PMID:21200329

  9. Adolescents' use of care for behavioral and emotional problems: types, trends, and determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijmen A Reijneveld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: While adolescents use various types of care for behavioral and emotional problems, evidence on age trends and determinants per type is scarce. We aimed to assess use of care by adolescents because of behavioral and emotional problems, overall and by type, and its determinants, for ages 10-19 years. METHODS: We obtained longitudinal data on 2,230 adolescents during ages 10-19 from four measurements regarding use of general care and specialized care (youth social care and mental healthcare in the preceding 6 months, the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Youth Self-Report, and child and family characteristics. We analyzed data by multilevel logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall rates of use increased from 20.1% at age 10/11 to 32.2% at age 19: general care was used most. At age 10/11 use was higher among boys, at age 19 among girls. Use of general care increased for both genders, whereas use of specialized care increased among girls but decreased among boys. This differential change was associated with CBCL externalizing and internalizing problems, school problems, family socioeconomic status, and parental divorce. Preceding CBCL problems predicted more use: most for mental health care and least for general care. Moreover, general care was used more frequently by low and medium socioeconomic status families, with odds ratios (95%-confidence intervals: 1.52 (1.23;1.88 and 1.40 (1.17;1.67; youth social care in case of parental divorce, 2.07 (1.36;3.17; and of special education, 2.66 (1.78;3.95; and mental healthcare in case of special education, 2.66 (1.60;4.51. DISCUSSION: Adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems use general care most frequently. Overall use increases with age. Determinants of use vary per type.

  10. Social Network Centrality and Leadership Status: Links with Problem Behaviors and Tests of Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Costanzo, Philip R; Grimes, Christina; Putallaz, Martha; Miller, Shari; Malone, Patrick S

    2009-01-01

    Seventh-grade students (N = 324) completed social cognitive maps to identify peer groups and peer group leaders, sociometric nominations to describe their peers' behaviors, and questionnaires to assess their own behaviors. Peer group members resembled one another in levels of direct and indirect aggression and substance use; girls' cliques were more behaviorally homogenous than were boys' cliques. On average, leaders (especially if they were boys) were perceived as engaging in more problem behaviors than were nonleaders. In girls' cliques, peripheral group members were more similar to their group leader on indirect aggression than were girls who were more central to the clique. Peer leaders perceived themselves as being more able to influence peers but did not differ from nonleaders in their perceived susceptibility to peer influence. The findings contribute to our understanding of processes through which influence may occur in adolescent peer groups.

  11. Caregiver preference for reinforcement-based interventions for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Anne M; Fritz, Jennifer N; Roath, Christopher T; Rothe, Brittany R; Gourley, Denise A

    2016-06-01

    Social validity of behavioral interventions typically is assessed with indirect methods or by determining preferences of the individuals who receive treatment, and direct observation of caregiver preference rarely is described. In this study, preferences of 5 caregivers were determined via a concurrent-chains procedure. Caregivers were neurotypical, and children had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Caregivers were taught to implement noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and the caregivers selected interventions to implement during sessions with the child after they had demonstrated proficiency in implementing the interventions. Three caregivers preferred DRA, 1 caregiver preferred differential reinforcement procedures, and 1 caregiver did not exhibit a preference. Direct observation of implementation in concurrent-chains procedures may allow the identification of interventions that are implemented with sufficient integrity and preferred by caregivers.

  12. Environmental adversity and children's early trajectories of problem behavior: The role of harsh parental discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily

    2017-03-01

    This study was performed to examine the role of harsh parental discipline in mediating and moderating the effects of environmental adversity (family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events) on emotional and behavioral problems across early-to-middle childhood. The sample included 16,916 children (48% female; 24% non-White) from the U.K.'s Millennium Cohort Study. We analyzed trajectories of conduct, hyperactivity, and emotional problems, measured at ages 3, 5, and 7 years, using growth curve models. Harsh parental discipline was measured at these ages with parent-reported items on the frequency of using the physical and verbal discipline tactics of smacking, shouting at, and "telling off" the child. As expected, family socioeconomic disadvantage and adverse life events were significantly associated with emotional and behavioral problems. Harsh parental discipline was related to children's trajectories of problems, and it moderated, but did not explain, the effect of environmental risk on these trajectories. High-risk children experiencing harsh parental discipline had the highest levels of conduct problems and hyperactivity across the study period. In addition, harsh parental discipline predicted an increase in emotional symptoms over time in high-risk children, unseen in their counterparts experiencing low levels of harsh parental discipline. However, children in low-risk families were also negatively affected by harsh parental discipline concurrently and over time. In conclusion, harsh parental discipline predicted emotional and behavioral problems in high- and low-risk children and moderated the effects of family poverty and adversity on these problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  14. Macroeconomic environment during infancy as a possible risk factor for adolescent behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Balasubramanian, Natarajan; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Economic difficulties at the individual level can lead to a number of behavioral problems, including substance abuse and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVE To examine the influence of a nationwide adverse economic environment during infancy, specifically, the high unemployment rates during and after the 1980 and 1981-1982 recessions, on rates of subsequent adolescent substance use and delinquent behaviors. DESIGN We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and estimated logit regressions to examine the effect of changes in unemployment rates during infancy on the incidence of adolescent behavioral problems, controlling for known youth, family, and environmental risk factors. SETTING Adolescents living in the United States in 1997. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of 8984 adolescents born from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 1984. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Probability of engaging in substance use (marijuana, smoking, alcohol, and hard [ie, illegal] drugs) and delinquent behaviors (arrest, handgun use, gang affiliation, petty and major theft, property destruction, and assaultive behavior). RESULTS Exposure to a 1% deviation from mean regional unemployment rates at the age of 1 year was associated with an increase in the odds ratios of engaging in marijuana use (1.09 [95% CI, 1.04-1.14]), smoking (1.07 [1.03-1.11]), alcohol use (1.06 [1.02-1.10]), arrest (1.17 [1.09-1.25]), gang affiliation (1.09 [1.00-1.19]), and petty (1.06 [1.01-1.10]) and major theft (1.11 [1.05-1.18]). No significant associations were noted with use of hard drugs, property destruction, and assaultive behavior. CONCLUSIONS The macroeconomic environment during infancy can have serious long-term effects on substance use and delinquent behavior. These potential long-term effects can play an important role in policy making for adolescent mental health care.

  15. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.

  16. It takes more than one for parenting: How do maternal temperament and child's conduct problems relate to maternal parenting behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-10-01

    The current study examined how individual differences in maternal temperament and child problem behaviors correlate with observed maternal positivity and negativity toward the child. The sample consisted of 153 mothers of 3-to-7 year old children. Mothers reported their own temperament (surgency, orienting sensitivity, effortful control and negative affect) and their children's problem behaviors. Maternal behavior was videotaped in a set of structured interaction tasks with the child during a lab visit. Results indicated that children's problem behaviors were related to less maternal positivity and more negativity. In addition, observed maternal negativity was associated with less maternal effortful control and more negative affect. In contrast, maternal temperament was unrelated to observed maternal positivity toward the child. Furthermore, maternal temperament was related to mothers' positivity and negativity but only for children high in problem behaviors. The findings implicate that child problem behaviors may interact with maternal temperament in explaining variance in caregiving positivity and negativity.

  17. Emotional And Behavioral Problems of Single Parent Vs. Two Parent Children: Imam Khomeini Charity

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    A Hajebi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this survey is to compare the emotional and behavioral problems of children with only one parent versus those from two-parent families. We analyzed behavioral problems such as aggression, delinquency and socialization issues, as well as emotional problems such as depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints.Methods: Using a multi-stage cluster sampling, 10 of the 20 geographic regions covered by Imam Khomeini Charity were selected. Using systematic random sampling, 460 families with children aged 4-18 years were selected. All children were evaluated using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL to determine behavioral and emotional problems. Logistic regression tests were conducted to measure the effects variables, including age, gender, number of parents in the family, psychiatric history of each child and history of parental psychiatric treatment, on the internalizing, externalizing and total CBCL scores. A cut-off score of 64 was used to convert raw scores.Results: No differences were observed in CBCL subscales between single-parent children vs. children of two-parent families.Conclusion: Regarding the two-parent families among the study population, the results could not be generalized. As these families have qualified for assistance, the father cannot manage the family because of his disability, such as physical or mental problems. This minimizes the effect of having a father in a two-parent family, rendering them similar to single-parent families. Thus, differences were not observed between the two types of families. Further studies are necessary to compare single-parent families with two-parent families among the community.

  18. Integrating Best Practices in Positive Behavior Support and Clinical Psychology for a Child with Autism and Anxiety-Related Problem Behavior: A Clinical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Vanessa; Law, Kimberley C. Y.; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This clinical case study investigated the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention for a child with autism and anxiety-related problem behavior that integrated components of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with positive behavior support (PBS). One child with autism and his family participated. The dependent variable was the number of steps…

  19. Prevalence of behavior problems and associated factors in preschool children from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia M. dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To identify the prevalence of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among preschoolers from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil, and their associations with maternal mental health and family characteristics.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study of 349 children aged 49 to 72 months, randomly selected from 20,000 households representing the range of socioeconomic and environmental conditions in Salvador. In 1999, we assessed sociodemographic variables and family environment characteristics. In 2001, we used the Child Behavior Checklist to measure and describe the frequencies of behavior problems. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analysis to estimate associations between family and maternal factors and prevalence of behavior problems.Results:The overall prevalence of behavior problems was 23.5%. The prevalence of internalizing problems was 9.7%, and that of externalizing problems, 25.2%. Behavior problems were associated with several maternal mental health variables, namely: presence of at least one psychiatric diagnosis (odds radio [OR] 3.01, 95%CI 1.75-5.18, anxiety disorder (OR 2.06, 95%CI 1.20-3.46, affective disorder (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.21-3.65, and mental health disorders due to use of psychoactive substances (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.18-4.55.Conclusion:The observed prevalence of child behavior problems fell within the range reported in previous studies. Maternal mental health is an important risk factor for behavior problems in preschool-aged children.

  20. Gender Differences in the Effects of Behavioral Problems on School Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Janni; Smith, Nina

    This study analyzes gender differences in the relationships between behavioral problems and school outcomes. The study is based on teacher and parent evaluations using the SDQ questionnaire at the age of 10-12 years of about 6,000 Danish children born in 1990-92. The sample is merged with extensive...... register information on parental background and student outcomes. We find a large negative association between the externalizing behavioral indicators and school outcomes. However, very little of the gender difference in average Reading and Math test scores can be attributed to gender differences...

  1. Soft Drinks Consumption is Associated with Behavior Problems in 5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F; Solnick, Sara; Hemenway, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine soda consumption and aggressive behaviors, attention problems, and withdrawn behavior among five-year-old children. Study design The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study is a prospective birth cohort study that follows a sample of mother-child pairs from 20 large cities in the US. Mothers reported children’s behaviors using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at age 5 and were asked to report how many servings of soda the child drinks on a typical day. Results In the sample of 2929 children, 52% were boys, 51% were African-American 43% consumed at least one serving of soda per day and 4% consumed 4 or more servings per day. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic factors, consuming one (Beta 0.7 95% CI 0.1,1.4), two (Beta 1.8 95%CI 0.8,2.7), three (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.6,3.4) or four or more (Beta 4.7 95%CI 3.2,6.2) servings was associated with a higher aggressive behavior score compared with consuming no soda. Furthermore, those who consumed four or more (Beta 1.7 95%CI 1.0,2.4) soda servings had higher scores on the attention problems subscale. Higher withdrawn behavior scores were noted among those consuming two (Beta 1.0 95%CI 0.3,1.8), or four or more (Beta 2.0 95%CI 0.8,3.1) soda servings compared with those who consumed no soda. Conclusion We note an association between soda consumption and negative behavior among very young children; future studies should explore potential mechanisms that could explain this association. PMID:23968739

  2. Long-time behavior of a Hele-Shaw type problem in random media

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    We study the long-time behavior of an exterior Hele-Shaw problem in random media with a free boundary velocity that depends on position in dimensions $n \\geq 2$. A natural rescaling of solutions that is compatible with the evolution of the free boundary leads to homogenization of the free boundary velocity. By studying a limit obstacle problem for a Hele-Shaw system with a point source, we are able to show uniform convergence of the rescaled solution to a self-similar limit profile and we deduce that the rescaled free boundary uniformly approaches a sphere.

  3. Who shall be served? Issues in screening for emotional and behavioral problems in school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinherz, H; Gordon, A L; Morris, K M; Anastas, J W

    1983-12-01

    The major issues involved in the design and implementation of effective school screening programs are addressed, using data from a longitudinal study following over 500 children from preschool through third grade. The article identifies early characteristics of children that are related to later behavioral and emotional problems, assesses the accuracy of a comprehensive screening procedure for identifying such problems, and compares two models using preschool and kindergarten data. Characteristics of children missed by the models are presented, and labeling issues are addressed. Implications for future screening efforts, policy, and research are discussed.

  4. Problems that Class Teachers Faced in the Classroom Related to Undesired Behaviors and Their Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ÇETİN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim this study is to determine the undesired behaviors of students that class teachers faced in the classroom and their solutions. The sample of the study consists of 37 class teachers working in the provinces of Gumushane, Canakkale, Erzurum, Istanbul, Tekirdag, Kocaeli, Kutahya, Bursa, Samsun, Eskisehir, and Mus in Turkey in the fall term of 2011-2012 academic year. As a result, the undesired behaviors of students that teachers faced in the classroom have been determined as not obeying the class rules, swearing, talking without permission, shyness, hyperactivity and lack of attention, and problems caused by watching violent TV programs (such as threatening. Solutions to these problems have been stated as: punishments and awards, warning, ignoring, behaving more sincerely towards students, including students by means of activities, guidance service, giving assignment, making students sit in front of the class, and playing games.

  5. USE OF VIDEOGAMES AND COMPUTER GAMES: INFLUENCES ON ATTENTION, MEMORY, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND PROBLEMS BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Germán Rodríguez Celis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify the relationship between video and computergames use on attention, memory, academic performance and problemsbehavior in school children in Bogotá. Memory and attention were assessedusing a set of different scales of ENI Battery (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky-Solís, 2007. For Academic performance, school newsletters were used.Behavioral problems were assessed through the CBCL / 6 -18 questionnaire(Child Behavior Checklist of (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983. 123 children and99 parents were enrolled in 2 factorial design experimental studies. The resultsdid not support the hypothesis of a significant change in memory tests, orintra-subject selective visual and hearing attention. However, these variablesshowed significant differences among children exposed to habitual videogamesconsumption. No differences were found between the level of regular videogames consumption in school children and academic performance variables orbehavioral problems.

  6. Foster Parent Intervention Engagement Moderating Child Behavior Problems and Placement Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarmo, David S; Chamberlain, Patricia; Leve, Leslie D; Price, Joe

    2009-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors conduct a within intervention group analysis to test whether caregiver engagement (e.g., participation, homework completion, openness to ideas, apparent satisfaction) in a group-based intervention moderates risk factors for foster child outcomes in a state-supported randomized trial of caregiver parent training. METHODS: The intervention is delivered in 16 weekly sessions by trained leaders. Outcomes are pre-post change in problem behaviors and negative placements. RESULTS: Analysis of 337 caregivers nested within 59 parent groups show caregiver engagement moderates number of prior placements on increases in child problem behaviors, and moderates risk of negative placement disruption for Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Variance in parent group process affects program effectiveness. Implications for practice and increasing effective engagement are discussed.

  7. Using an emic lens to understand how Latino families cope with dementia behavioral problems

    OpenAIRE

    TURNER, Rachel M.; Hinton, Ladson; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Tzuang, Marian; Tran, Cindy; Valle, Ramó n

    2015-01-01

    Focus group data collected for a larger project to develop a fotonovela for Latino caregivers was used to conduct a meaning-centered thematic analysis in order to elicit Latino family caregiver perspectives on how behavior problems occurring in the context of dementia are perceived and managed. A sample of 42 Spanish-speaking Latino caregivers were recruited from organizations affiliated with the Alzheimer's Association near San Diego, California. Caregivers were queried on challenging behavi...

  8. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and ...

  9. Are Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional and Behavioral Problems Transient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Guyer, Amanda E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the persistence of parent-reported social-emotional and behavioral problems in infants and toddlers. Method: The sample comprised 1,082 children ascertained from birth records. Children were 12 to 40 months old in year 1 (1998-1999) and 23 to 48 months old in year 2 (1999-2000). Eighty percent participated in year 1 and 91%…

  10. Revisiting the Meaning of Emotional Overinvolvement in Early Development: Prospective Relations with Child Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Emotional overinvolvement (EOI) in parents’ Five Minute Speech Samples (FMSS; Magaña-Amato, 1993) is thought to measure overconcern and enmeshment with one’s child. Although related to maladaptive outcomes in studies of adult children, FMSS EOI evidences varied relations with behavior problems in studies with young children. These mixed findings may indicate that certain FMSS EOI criteria reflect inappropriate and excessive involvement with adult children, but do not indicate maladaptive proc...

  11. Peso Problems, Bubbles, and Risk in the Empirical Assessment of Exchange-Rate Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Obstfeld

    1987-01-01

    One of the most puzzling aspects of the post-1973 floating exchange rate system has been the apparently inefficient predictive performance of forward exchange rates. This paper explores some aspects of each of three leading explanations of forward-rate behavior. The paper first develops a simple rational-expectations model of the "peso problem" that generates some key empirical regularities of the foreign exchange market: seemingly predictable and conditionally heteroskedastic forward forecas...

  12. Prevention of behavior problems for children in foster care: outcomes and mediation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Price, Joe; Leve, Leslie D; Laurent, Heidemarie; Landsverk, John A; Reid, John B

    2008-03-01

    Parent training for foster parents is mandated by federal law and supported by state statues in nearly all states; however, little is known about the efficacy of that training, and recent reviews underscore that the most widely used curricula in the child welfare system (CWS) have virtually no empirical support (Grimm, Youth Law News, April-June:3-29, 2003). On the other hand, numerous theoretically based, developmentally sensitive parent training interventions have been found to be effective in experimental clinical and prevention intervention trials (e.g., Kazdin and Wassell, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39:414-420, 2000; McMahon and Forehand, Helping the noncompliant child, Guilford Press, New York, USA, 2003; Patterson and Forgatch, Parents and adolescents: I. Living together, Castalia Publishing, Eugene, OR, USA, 1987; Webster-Stratton et al., Journal of Clinical Child Pyschology Psychiatry, 42:943-952, 2001). One of these, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC; Chamberlain, Treating chronic juvenile offenders: Advances made through the Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care model, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2003), has been used with foster parents of youth referred from juvenile justice. The effectiveness of a universal intervention, KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) based on MTFC (but less intensive) was tested in a universal randomized trial with 700 foster and kinship parents in the San Diego County CWS. The goal of the intervention was to reduce child problem behaviors through strengthening foster parents' skills. The trial was designed to examine effects on both child behavior and parenting practices, allowing for specific assessment of the extent to which improvements in child behavior were mediated by the parenting practices targeted in the intervention. Child behavior problems were reduced significantly more in the intervention condition than in the

  13. Food Selectivity, Mealtime Behavior Problems, Spousal Stress, and Family Food Choices in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, C.; Hubbard, K.; Anderson, S. E.; Mick, E.; Must, A.; Bandini, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mealtime behavior problems and family stress occur frequently among families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown whether food selectivity is an associated factor. The associations of high food selectivity with mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and influence on family members were assessed among 53…

  14. Childhood Behavior Problems as They Relate to a Dynamic Model of Psycho-Social Development. Volume 2, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, James W.

    The paper relates the development of childhood behavior problems to a developmental theory of the acquisition of psycho-social skills in children. The influence of Eric Erikson (1950) on the ideas expressed is acknowledged. It is stated that each of the major types of behavior problems (withdrawal, impulsivity, dependence) results from a major…

  15. The Drift toward Problem Behavior during the Transition to Adolescence: The Contributions of Youth Disclosure, Parenting, and Older Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Snyder, James; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2012-01-01

    Prospective associations of mothers' parenting processes, youth disclosure, and youth problem behavior were examined in a longitudinal design following 244 adolescent sibling dyads over a 3-year period. For both siblings, authoritative parenting was positively associated with youth disclosure and was negatively related to problem behavior, and…

  16. Some Effects of Noncontingent Positive Reinforcement on Multiply Controlled Problem Behavior and Compliance in a Demand Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Kahng, SungWoo; Hausman, Nicole L.

    2008-01-01

    Functional analysis suggested that the problem behavior of an 8-year-old girl with autism was maintained by escape from demands and access to edible items. Noncontingent delivery of an edible item was sufficient to increase compliance and reduce the rate of problem behavior without the use of escape extinction in a demand context. Leaner and…

  17. The Relationship between Parenting Stress, Parental Intelligence and Child Behavior Problems in a Study of Korean Preschool Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Yoon

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between Korean mothers' parenting stress and parental intelligence, and child behavior problems as well as the mediation effects of parental intelligence, which tested the association between parenting stress and child behavior problems. A sample of 436 typically developing children and their mothers…

  18. The Effects of Variable-Time Delivery of Food Items and Praise on Problem Behavior Reinforced by Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, Joanna E.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Kelley, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research indicates that reinforcement of an appropriate response (e.g., compliance) can produce concomitant reductions in problem behavior reinforced by escape when problem behavior continues to produce negative reinforcement (e.g., Lalli et al., 1999). These effects may be due to a preference for positive over negative reinforcement or to…

  19. The Effects of Highlighting on the Math Computation Performance and Off-Task Behavior of Students with Attention Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kercood, Suneeta; Grskovic, Janice A.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of color highlighting during a math computation task on performance accuracy and behavior of students with attention problems. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, three students solved math computation problems on worksheets with and without highlighting. Off-task behavior recorded from videotape…

  20. Sleep, Cognition, and Behavioral Problems in School-Age Children: A Century of Research Meta-Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, Rebecca G.; Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Clear associations of sleep, cognitive performance, and behavioral problems have been demonstrated in meta-analyses of studies in adults. This meta-analysis is the first to systematically summarize all relevant studies reporting on sleep, cognition, and behavioral problems in healthy school-age children (5-12 years old) and incorporates 86 studies…

  1. The Teacher-Student Relationship as a Developmental Context for Children with Internalizing or Externalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jean A.; Grant, Sycarah; Morlock, Larissa

    2008-01-01

    Children with significant behavior problems are at risk for poor school adaptation and a host of deleterious school outcomes. Given the time children spend in school, there is a need to better understand the normative contexts and processes within schools that may enhance the positive adaptation of children with significant behavior problems. This…

  2. Assessing the Possibility of Leadership Education as Psychosocial-Based Problem Behavior Prevention for Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine theoretical connections between adolescent leadership education and problem behavior prevention. Both the problem behavior prevention literature and the leadership education literature were reviewed for studies pertaining to the development of psychosocial traits. In the leadership education literature this…

  3. Prevention des Toxicomanies Aupres des Filles avec des Problemes de Comportement: Effets a Court Terme (Prevention of Drug Addiction in Girls with Behavior Problems: Short-Term Effects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article, written in French, describes and evaluates the first phase of a program to prevent drug addiction among 110 fifth-grade girls with behavior problems in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Evaluation of the instructional program showed positive results for student knowledge level, attitudes, and behaviors and supported program continuation…

  4. Associations between family structure change and child behavior problems: the moderating effect of family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca M; Claessens, Amy; Markowitz, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated conditions under which family structure matters most for child well-being. Using data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 3,936), a national sample of U.S. families, it was estimated how changes in family structure related to changes in children's behavior between age 3 and 12 separately by household income level to determine whether associations depended on families' resources. Early changes in family structure, particularly from a two-biological-parent to single-parent family, predicted increases in behavior problems more than later changes, and movements into single and stepparent families mattered more for children of higher versus lower income parents. Results suggest that for children of higher income parents, moving into a stepfamily may improve, not undermine, behavior.

  5. A pilot study of a primary prevention curriculum to address preschool behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie; Reed, George

    2013-10-01

    Behavior problems among preschool children are common. They are important targets for intervention because early externalizing problems and self-regulation issues tend to persist without appropriate attention, and can affect later mental health and school achievement outcomes. However, few preschool curricula addressing social and emotional development exist, and evidence for effects are mixed. In this study, the Second Step Pre/Kindergarten Social and Emotional Learning curriculum was adapted and tested in a small cluster randomized pilot study of community preschool classrooms to determine if it could improve outcomes in: (1) individual children's teacher-rated behavior problems and prosocial skills; (2) classroom climate (classroom interactions and two measures of disruptive behavior); and (3) teacher interaction skills. Year 1 outcomes were modest and were accounted for by baseline differences. In Year 2, classroom climate, measured by independent observers, differed significantly in intervention classrooms, largely because of declines in control classrooms, and there was some evidence for better teacher interaction skills in intervention classrooms. The pattern of effects suggests important impacts on classroom quality worth investigating in a larger study. Both fidelity and implementation rates, as well as positive teacher responses to the curriculum, indicate potential for widespread adoption.

  6. Internet addiction and physical and psychosocial behavior problems among rural secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Kamer; Yurt, Seher; Bulduk, Serap; Atagöz, Sinem

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine secondary school students' levels of Internet addiction and the physical and psychosocial behavior problems they face while using the Internet. This descriptive study was conducted in three state secondary schools in a rural area in the western part of Turkey. This study's sample consisted of 549 students who agreed to participate, with the consent of their families, and who had an Internet connection at home. The data were evaluated using t-tests and variance analyses. In this study the students' score of Internet addiction was at medium level (mean addiction score 44.51 ± 17.90). There were significant differences between the students' Internet addiction scores and the presence of physical behavior problems (going to bed late, skipping meals, eating meals in front of the computer) and psychosocial behavior problems (suffering from conditions such as restlessness, anger, heart palpitations, or tremors when they could not connect to the Internet, decreased relationships with family and friends, feelings of anger, arguing with parents, and finding life boring and empty without an Internet connection).

  7. Reciprocal Relations Between Student-Teacher Relationship and Children's Behavioral Problems: Moderation by Child-Care Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Věra; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In this Norwegian study, bidirectional relations between children's behavior problems and child-teacher conflict and closeness were examined, and the possibility of moderation of these associations by child-care group size was tested. Eight hundred and nineteen 4-year-old children were followed up in first grade. Results revealed reciprocal effects linking child-teacher conflict and behavior problems. Effects of child-teacher closeness on later behavior problems were moderated by group size: For children in small groups only (i.e., ≤ 15 children), greater closeness predicted reduced behavior problems in first grade. In consequence, stability of behavior problems was greater in larger than in smaller groups. Results are discussed in light of regulatory mechanisms and social learning theory, with possible implications for organization of child care.

  8. The effects of variable-time delivery of food items and praise on problem behavior reinforced by escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, Joanna E; Fisher, Wayne W; Kelley, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Prior research indicates that reinforcement of an appropriate response (e.g., compliance) can produce concomitant reductions in problem behavior reinforced by escape when problem behavior continues to produce negative reinforcement (e.g., Lalli et al., 1999). These effects may be due to a preference for positive over negative reinforcement or to positive reinforcement acting as an abolishing operation, rendering demands less aversive and escape from demands less effective as negative reinforcement. In the current investigation, we delivered a preferred food item and praise on a variable-time 15-s schedule while providing escape for problem behavior on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule in a demand condition for 3 participants with problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Results for all 3 participants showed that variable-time delivery of preferred edible items reduced problem behavior even though escape continued to be available for these responses. These findings are discussed in the context of motivating operations.

  9. Psychological maltreatment, emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents: The mediating role of resilience and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Gökmen

    2016-02-01

    In this study, structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating role of resilience and self-esteem in the relationships between psychological maltreatment-emotional problems and psychological maltreatment-behavioral problems in adolescents. Participants were 937 adolescents from different high schools in Turkey. The sample included 502 female (53.6%) and 435 male (46.4%) students, 14-19 years old (mean age=16.51, SD=1.15). Results indicated that psychological maltreatment was negatively correlated with resilience and self-esteem, and positively correlated with behavioral problems and emotional problems. Resilience and self-esteem also predicted behavioral problems and emotional problems. Finally, psychological maltreatment predicted emotional and behavioral problems mediated by resilience and self-esteem. Resilience and self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between psychological maltreatment-behavioral and psychological maltreatment-emotional problems in adolescents. Thus, resilience and self-esteem appear to play a protective role in emotional problems and behavioral problems in psychologically maltreated individuals. Implications are discussed and suggestions for psychological counselors and other mental health professionals are presented.

  10. Behavioral sleep problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Kate; Sciberras, Emma; Mensah, Fiona K; Hiscock, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral sleep problems are common in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as are internalizing and externalizing comorbidities. The prevalence of these difficulties and the extent to which they co-exist in children with ADHD could inform clinical practice, but remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the association between sleep problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities in children with ADHD. Children aged 5-13 years were recruited from 21 pediatric practices across Victoria, Australia (N = 392). Internalizing and externalizing comorbidities (none, internalizing, externalizing, co-occurring) were assessed by the telephone-administered Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children IV/Parent version. Sleep problem severity was assessed by primary caregiver report (no, mild, moderate or severe problem). Moderate/severe sleep problems were confirmed using International Classification of Sleep Disorders. Seven specific sleep problem domains (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night waking, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness) were assessed using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using adjusted logistic and linear regression models. Compared to children without comorbidities, children with co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities were more likely to have moderate/severe sleep problems (adjusted OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.2; 4.5, p = 0.009) and problematic sleep across six of seven sleep domains. Children with either comorbidity alone were not at risk of moderate/severe sleep problems, but at the sleep domain level, children with internalizing alone had more sleep anxiety, and those with externalizing alone had less night waking. In conclusion, children with ADHD experiencing co-occurring internalizing and externalizing comorbidities are at an increased risk of sleep problems.

  11. Using Background Music to Reduce Problem Behavior during Assessment with an Adolescent Who Is Blind with Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Marcie N.; Oshlag, Rebecca; Kennelly, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Children who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) commonly engage in stereotypic behaviors such as rocking and repetitive hand movements to gain sensory stimulation produced by the behavior (Gourgey, 1998; Rapp, 2004; Warren, 1984). A means of quickly and easily reducing problem behaviors is important to maximize…

  12. Work experience and drinking behavior: alienation, occupational status, workplace drinking subculture and problem drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M J; Yang, M S; Kawachi, I

    2001-07-01

    This study explored the association between alienating job conditions and problem drinking within the context of occupational status and workplace drinking subculture. From December 1994 to March 1995, a questionnaire survey was implemented in the manufactory sector in southern Taiwan. Within the questionnaire, any perceived self-estrangement, powerlessness and social isolation that the individual experienced in his work were measured as the alienating job conditions, and any negative physical, psychological and social consequences the individual experienced during the previous month were considered as affecting problem drinking. Of the 1117 subjects, 668 (61.8%) reported imbibing one or more drinks during the preceding month; the average daily alcohol consumption being 0.2+/-0.9 drinks. In addition, 188 (16.8%) subjects reported having experienced drinking-related problems in the preceding month. Workers with low occupational status were more likely to become problem drinkers when they felt comparatively self-estranged in their work. Further, those with a family history including any habitual drinker or those under more encouraging workplace drinking subculture were more likely to have drinking-related problems. For the prevention of problem-related drinking behavior, the workplace should be considered as the focus of our future intervention and management program.

  13. Placement into foster care and the interplay of urbanicity, child behavior problems, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P; Wildfire, Judy; Green, Rebecca L

    2006-07-01

    Child welfare involvement is related to involvement with poverty, but the dimensions of that relationship have not been fully explored. Data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being were used to test the relationship between poverty indicators and placement into foster care. Poverty, ages of children, urban or nonurban settings, and the presence of mental health disorders interact to contribute to placement decisions. In urban areas, poverty is strongly associated with involvement with child welfare services, but children's mental health problems are not. In nonurban areas, children's mental health problems are a far greater contributor to child welfare involvement than poverty. Implications for understanding the dual functions of child welfare placements are provided. Child welfare services continue to address the needs of families with children with substantial behavioral problems--yet, federal child welfare policy includes no recognition of this important role.

  14. Family income dynamics, early childhood education and care, and early child behavior problems in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and internalizing problems (from ages 18 to 36 months), particularly for lower income children. For internalizing problems, ECEC buffered the effect of income-to-needs changes. These findings lend further support to the potential benefits of ECEC for children from lower income families.

  15. Use of differential reinforcement to reduce behavior problems in adults with intellectual disabilities: a methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Monali; Benson, Betsey A

    2011-01-01

    The least-restrictive-alternative guideline for providing treatment emphasizes the use of non-aversive procedures to reduce maladaptive behaviors in individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Differential reinforcement (DR) is an excellent example of such a non-aversive, reinforcement based behavioral intervention. The purpose of this literature review was to summarize and provide a methodological analysis of studies, conducted between 1980 and 2009, using a DR contingency to reduce problem behaviors in adults with ID. A total of 31 studies were located that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 15 reported DR to be an effective intervention when used independently. Of the remaining, 10 studies found DR to be useful as part of a treatment package, and six found a DR contingency used independently to be ineffective, and only observed treatment effects when an aversive component was added. Very few studies assessed the use of DR in older adults and in individuals with mild ID; these reflect areas of future research. A methodological analysis found that several studies did not report information on key methodological variables; for example, conducting a functional analysis and a stimulus preference assessment to guide choice of treatment and reinforcers, thinning very dense DR schedules, assessing collateral behaviors, generalization of behavior change across settings and implementers, and following up treatment outcomes over time. The overall positive findings about the effectiveness of DR are encouraging; however, more methodologically robust studies would serve to make such findings more conclusive and practically relevant for implementation in natural settings for adults with ID.

  16. Emotion-recognition abilities and behavior problem dimensions in preschoolers: evidence for a specific role for childhood hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronaki, Georgia; Garner, Matthew; Hadwin, Julie A; Thompson, Margaret J J; Chin, Cheryl Y; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2015-01-01

    Facial emotion-recognition difficulties have been reported in school-aged children with behavior problems; little is known, however, about either this association in preschool children or with regard to vocal emotion recognition. The current study explored the association between facial and vocal emotion recognition and behavior problems in a sample of 3 to 6-year-old children. A sample of 57 children enriched for risk of behavior problems (41 were recruited from the general population while 16 had been referred for behavior problems to local clinics) were each presented with a series of vocal and facial stimuli expressing different emotions (i.e., angry, happy, and sad) of low and high intensity. Parents rated children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Vocal and facial emotion recognition accuracy was negatively correlated with externalizing but not internalizing behavior problems independent of emotion type. The effects with the externalizing domain were independently associated with hyperactivity rather than conduct problems. The results highlight the importance of using vocal as well as facial stimuli when studying the relationship between emotion-recognition and behavior problems. Future studies should test the hypothesis that difficulties in responding to adult instructions and commands seen in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be due to deficits in the processing of vocal emotions.

  17. Characteristic, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems of Street Adolescent in Bandung October–December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Nurfitriani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Street adolescents were psychosocial problem that increased in number each year and was worsened by their low-moral subculture-value that could cause them more vulnerable in having emotional and behavioral problems. This study aims to describe the characteristics, emotional and behavioral problems of the street adolescent in Bandung. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out in October–December 2012. From 22 shelters in Bandung, two shelters (RPA GANK and Pesantren Kolong Nurul Hayat were selected and organized into 4 areas: Cihampelas, ‘Samsat’, Laswi Street and Kiaracondong. A hundred-seven street adolescents aged 11 to 16 years were participated in this study. They were divided into small groups and filled in the sociodemographic questionnaire and the Indonesian version of standardized Strength and Difficulty Questionnaires (SDQ. Only 100 questionnaires were filled in completely. Data were analyzed using frequency tabulation and bar chart Results: Sixty-five percent were boys, 53% were aged 11–13 years, and 53% were students, 76% related to more than one sibling, still lived with their families (81%, and had parents. Their parents had low educational background, had job, and implemented authoritative parenting pattern (41%. In becoming street adolescent, 63% were caused by their own motivation, 81% were children on street, and 55% had lived in the street more than 5 years. Approximately 27% of street adolescents were rated as abnormal on the total difficulty score. Conclusion: Street adolescent in Bandung still have emotional and behavioral problems, which mostly were boys, in the early adolescence stage, school student, had more than one sibling, permissive parenting pattern, and lived in the street for more than 5 years.

  18. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: A study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Eslami

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire and interrelations among them based on Jessor′s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory. Methods: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. Results: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The a range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. Conclusions: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents.

  19. A Review of Intervention Programs to Prevent and Treat Behavioral Problems in Young Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Christie L M

    2013-12-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at higher risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems than children in the general population. Effective prevention and treatment programs are necessary to reduce the burden of behavioral problems in this population. The current review identified 17 controlled trials of nine intervention programs for young children with developmental disabilities, with parent training the most common type of intervention in this population. Nearly all studies demonstrated medium to large intervention effects on child behavior post-intervention. Preliminary evidence suggests interventions developed for the general population can be effective for children with developmental disabilities and their families. A greater emphasis on the prevention of behavior problems in young children with developmental disabilities prior to the onset of significant symptoms or clinical disorders is needed. Multi-component interventions may be more efficacious for child behavior problems and yield greater benefits for parent and family adjustment. Recommendations for future research directions are provided.

  20. Associations between fifth graders' gender atypical problem behavior and peer relationships: a short-term longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochel, Karen P; Miller, Cindy Faith; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Ladd, Gary W; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2012-08-01

    An accruing body of evidence supports associations between self-perceived gender typicality and peer relationship difficulties; however, researchers have yet to evaluate peers' perceptions of problem behaviors to gain insight into the social correlates of gender typicality. A short-term longitudinal study was conducted to evaluate associations between gender atypical problem behavior and subsequent peer relational difficulties for 2,076 fifth graders (M age= 10.27; 53% female). Peer nomination methodology was used to assess participants' classroom peer relationships, problem behaviors, and social-emotional characteristics. Findings showed that youth characterized by gender atypical, compared to gender typical, problem behavior (withdrawn boys/aggressive girls vs. withdrawn girls/aggressive boys, respectively) evidenced higher levels of subsequent peer difficulties; moreover, participation in a mutual friendship was associated with decreased risk for peer relationship maladjustment, particularly among youth characterized by gender atypical problem behavior. Results further revealed that, compared to friendless youth, friended youth earned higher prosocial and peer liking scores and, for withdrawn youth, lower emotional sensitivity scores. The present research contributes to our understanding of the potential short-term consequences of youth's gender atypical problem behavior. Findings underscore the need for supplemental conceptualizations of gender typicality as well as multifaceted interventions designed to promote the acceptance of gender nonnormativity, support the development of adaptive peer relationships, and reduce the occurrence of problem behaviors.

  1. Emotion understanding, parent mental state language, and behavior problems in internationally adopted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R; Youssef, Adriana; Frenn, Kristin A; Wiik, Kristen; Garvin, Melissa C; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-05-01

    Internationally adopted postinstitutionalized (PI) children are at risk for lower levels of emotion understanding. This study examined how postadoption parenting influences emotion understanding and whether lower levels of emotion understanding are associated with behavior problems. Emotion understanding and parent mental state language were assessed in 3-year-old internationally adopted PI children (N = 25), and comparison groups of children internationally adopted from foster care (N = 25) and nonadopted (NA) children (N = 36). At 5.5-year follow-up, PI children had lower levels of emotion understanding than NA children, a group difference not explained by language. In the total sample, parent mental state language at age 3 years predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding after controlling for child language ability. The association of parent mental state language and 5.5-year emotion understanding was moderated by adoption status, such that parent mental state language predicted 5.5-year emotion understanding for the internationally adopted children, but not for the NA children. While postadoption experience does not erase negative effects of early deprivation on emotion understanding, results suggest that parents can promote emotion understanding development through mental state talk. At 5.5 years, PI children had more internalizing and externalizing problems than NA children, and these behavioral problems related to lower levels of emotion understanding.

  2. Relations among mothers' expressivity, children's effortful control, and their problem behaviors: a four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Reiser, Mark; Cumberland, Amanda; Losoya, Sandra H; Liew, Jeffrey

    2006-08-01

    Longitudinal relations between mothers' expressivity, children's effortful control, and their problem behaviors were examined when children (N = 181) were 6.5-10 years old (T2) and again 2 (T3) and 4 (T4) years later. Mothers reported on their expression of positive and negative dominant emotion. Mothers and teachers reported on children's effortful control and externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors. In structural equation models, variables exhibited consistency over time. Further, the relation between mothers' expressivity (positive minus negative dominant emotion) at T2 and children's externalizing problems at T4 was mediated by T3 effortful control. The same process of mediation was significant for teacher- but not mother-reported internalizing problems. The results provide one explanation for how emotion-related socializing behaviors influence children's problem behaviors.

  3. Maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and toddler behavior problems: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Ystrom, Eivind; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S; Torgersen, Leila

    2014-10-01

    Maternal risk drinking may be a risk factor for child behavior problems even if the mother has discontinued this behavior. Whether pre-pregnancy risk drinking is an independent predictor of child behavior problems, or whether a potential effect may be explained by maternal alcohol use during and after pregnancy or other adverse maternal characteristics, is not known. Employing data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), longitudinal associations between maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and behavior problems in toddlers aged 18 and 36 months were examined. Included in the study was mothers answering MoBa questionnaires when the child was 18 (N = 56,682) and 36 months (N = 46,756), and who had responded to questions regarding pre-pregnancy risk drinking at gestation week 17/18, using the screening instrument T-ACE. Toddler behavior problems were measured with items from Child Behavior Checklist. Associations were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression, controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use, as well as other relevant covariates. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking was associated with child behavior problems at 18 and 36 months, even after controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use. Maternal ADHD and anxiety and depression were the only covariates that had any substantial impact on the associations. When all covariates were included in the model, the associations were weak for internalizing behavior problems and non-significant for externalizing behavior problems. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking may predict early development of behavior problems in the offspring. This increased risk may be due to other adverse maternal characteristics associated with risk drinking, in particular co-occurring maternal psychopathology.

  4. Problem based learning and involvement in off campus organization enhance students’ critical participation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Lestari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim Developing students’ critical thinking and critical participation in solving patients’ as well as a community’s problem should become the concern of medical education. This study aimed to identify several factors related to medical students’ critical participation behavior.Methods The subjects consisted of students of Sultan Agung Medical School (Unissula, year entry 2005, 2006, and 2007. Critical participation behavior was assessed using modified EMI: Critical Thinking Disposition Assessment. Relative risks (RR were calculated using Cox regression analysis with constant time.Results 64,6% (388 out of 600 of the students participated in this study. Those who were involved in PBL for two and three years, rather than one year, had twice as high good critical thinking behavior [adjusted relative risk (RR = 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.37–3.14; and RR = 2.33; 95% CI = 155–3.49, respectively.] Students who were more involved in off-campus organizations had a good critical participation behavior; 75% higher than those who were not involved in off-campus organizations (RR = 1.75; 95% CI = 0.99–3.11.Conclusion Besides involving in PBL learning approach, students should be motivated to be involved in off-campus organizations in order to improve their critical participation behavior (Med J Indones 2009;18:215-20Key words: critical participation behavior, PBL, off-campus organization

  5. Adolescent Gambling Behavior: A Prevalence Study and Examination of the Correlates Associated with Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    1998-01-01

    Eight-hundred and seventeen adolescent high school students in the Montreal region completed the DSM-IV-J gambling screen along with a questionnaire devised by the authors inquiring about their gambling behavior, including items assessing the types of activities in which they engage, frequency of involvement, reasons for gambling, and their cognitive perceptions of gambling activities. The results indicate that, in general, 80.2% of students reported having gambled during the previous year, with 35.1% gambling a minimum of once per week. Adolescents reported participating in gambling behavior more often than any other addictive behavior, including cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and illicit drug use. The mean age of onset of gambling behavior for the sample was 11.5 years. The rate of pathological gambling was 4.7% as measured by the DSM-IV-J. Pathological gamblers were more likely to have parents with gambling problems and to be engaging in illegal activities than non-pathological gamblers. Gender differences were evident, with males engaging in gambling activities more than females. Differences in game preferences were found, with males more attracted to sports lottery tickets and sports pool betting and females more attracted to lottery tickets and bingo. Gambling awareness and prevention issues are addressed.

  6. Tuning in to teens: Improving parental responses to anger and reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Harley, Ann E

    2015-07-01

    Parent emotion socialization plays an important role in shaping emotional and behavioral development during adolescence. The Tuning in to Teens (TINT) program aims to improve parents' responses to young people's emotions with a focus on teaching emotion coaching. This study examined the efficacy of the TINT program in improving emotion socialization practices in parents and whether this reduced family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. Schools were randomized into intervention and control conditions and 225 primary caregiving parents and 224 youth took part in the study. Self-report data was collected from parents and youth during the young person's final year of elementary school and again in their first year of secondary school. Multilevel analyses showed significant improvements in parent's impulse control difficulties and emotion socialization, as well as significant reductions in family conflict and youth externalizing difficulties. This study provides support for the TINT program in reducing youth externalizing behavior problems.

  7. Are parenting behaviors associated with child sleep problems during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Maria C; Bastiani, Jessica; Williams, Lauren K

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is a recognized common side effect in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although associated with treatment factors such as hospitalization and corticosteroids, sleep problems may also be influenced by modifiable environmental factors such as parenting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine sleep problems in children undergoing treatment for ALL compared to healthy children and whether parenting practices are associated with sleep difficulties. Parents of 73 children aged 2-6 years who were (1) in the maintenance phase of ALL treatment (ALL group, n = 43) or (2) had no major medical illness (healthy control group, n = 30) participated in the study. Parents completed questionnaires measuring their child's sleep behavior and their own parenting practices. Parents of children undergoing ALL treatment reported significantly more child sleep problems; 48% of children with ALL compared to 23% of healthy children had clinical levels of sleep disturbance. Parents of the ALL group also reported significantly more lax parenting practices and strategies associated with their child's sleep including co-sleeping, comforting activities, and offering food and drink in the bedroom. Results of multivariate regression analysis indicated that, after controlling for illness status, parent-child co-sleeping was significantly associated with child sleep difficulties. Strategies employed by parents during ALL treatment may be a potential modifiable intervention target that could result in improved child sleep behaviors. Future research aimed at developing and testing parenting interventions aimed to improve child sleep in the context of oncology treatment is warranted.

  8. A typology of time-scale mismatches and behavioral interventions to diagnose and solve conservation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robyn S.; Hardisty, David J.; Epanchin-Niell, Rebecca S.; Runge, Michael C.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Urban, Dean L.; Maguire, Lynn A.; Hastings, Alan; Mumby, Peter J.; Peters, Debra P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological systems often operate on time scales significantly longer or shorter than the time scales typical of human decision making, which causes substantial difficulty for conservation and management in socioecological systems. For example, invasive species may move faster than humans can diagnose problems and initiate solutions, and climate systems may exhibit long-term inertia and short-term fluctuations that obscure learning about the efficacy of management efforts in many ecological systems. We adopted a management-decision framework that distinguishes decision makers within public institutions from individual actors within the social system, calls attention to the ways socioecological systems respond to decision makers’ actions, and notes institutional learning that accrues from observing these responses. We used this framework, along with insights from bedeviling conservation problems, to create a typology that identifies problematic time-scale mismatches occurring between individual decision makers in public institutions and between individual actors in the social or ecological system. We also considered solutions that involve modifying human perception and behavior at the individual level as a means of resolving these problematic mismatches. The potential solutions are derived from the behavioral economics and psychology literature on temporal challenges in decision making, such as the human tendency to discount future outcomes at irrationally high rates. These solutions range from framing environmental decisions to enhance the salience of long-term consequences, to using structured decision processes that make time scales of actions and consequences more explicit, to structural solutions aimed at altering the consequences of short-sighted behavior to make it less appealing. Additional application of these tools and long-term evaluation measures that assess not just behavioral changes but also associated changes in ecological systems are needed.

  9. Aggressive behavior, related conduct problems, and variation in genes affecting dopamine turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L; De Young, Colin G; Eastman, Maria; Getchell, Marya; Haeffel, Gerald J; Klinteberg, Britt af; Koposov, Roman A; Oreland, Lars; Pakstis, Andrew J; Ponomarev, Oleg A; Ruchkin, Vladislav V; Singh, Jay P; Yrigollen, Carolyn M

    2010-01-01

    A number of dopamine-related genes have been implicated in the etiology of violent behavior and conduct problems. Of these genes, the ones that code for the enzymes that influence the turnover of dopamine (DA) have received the most attention. In this study, we investigated 12 genetic polymorphisms in four genes involved with DA functioning (COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and DbetaH) in 179 incarcerated male Russian adolescents and two groups of matched controls: boys without criminal records referred to by their teachers as (a) "troubled-behavior-free" boys, n=182; and (b) "troubled-behavior" boys, n=60. The participants were classified as (1) being incarcerated or not, (2) having the DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) or not, and (3) having committed violent or nonviolent crimes (for the incarcerated individuals only). The findings indicate that, although no single genetic variant in any of the four genes differentiated individuals in the investigated groups, various linear combinations (i.e., haplotypes) and nonlinear combinations (i.e., interactions between variants within and across genes) of genetic variants resulted in informative and robust classifications for two of the three groupings. These combinations of genetic variants differentiated individuals in incarceration vs. nonincarcerated and CD vs. no-CD groups; no informative combinations were established consistently for the grouping by crime within the incarcerated individuals. This study underscores the importance of considering multiple rather than single markers within candidate genes and their additive and interactive combinations, both with themselves and with nongenetic indicators, while attempting to understand the genetic background of such complex behaviors as serious conduct problems.

  10. Spanish Validation of the Problem Behaviors Assessment-Short (PBA-s) for Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Idiago, Jesús M; Floriach, Misericordia; Mareca, Cèlia; Salvador, Raymond; López-Sendón, José Luis; Mañanés, Verónica; Cubo, Esther; Mariscal, Natividad; Muñoz, Esteban; Santacruz, Pilar; Noguera, María F; Vivancos, Laura; Roy, Pedro; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Sarró, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    A prospective, observational multicenter study was carried out assessing neuropsychiatric symptoms in a sample of 117 subjects in order to validate the Spanish version of the Problem Behaviors Assessment-Short (PBA-s). The psychometric properties of this version were analyzed. Inter- and intra-rater reliability were good: the mean weighted Cohen's kappa was 0.90 for severity scores and 0.93 for frequency scores. Four factors accounting for 56% of the total variance were identified after an exploratory factor analysis: apathy, irritability, depression, and perseveration. The PBA-s correlates strongly with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, demonstrating its accuracy for assessing neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Huntington's disease.

  11. Therapists' attitudes towards psychotherapeutic strategies in community-based psychotherapy with children with disruptive behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Garland, Ann F; Taylor, Robin; Zoffness, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about what individual treatment strategies therapists providing usual care psychotherapy consider the most valuable to their practice. The Therapeutic Strategies Survey (TSS) assesses therapists' attitudes about the value of 27 individual treatment strategies in their practice with children with disruptive behavior problems in community-based outpatient psychotherapy. Findings indicate that therapists from multiple professional disciplines highly value many individual psychotherapeutic strategies, and consider strategies common to a majority of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for this population at least as important as strategies not emphasized in EBPs. Implications for developing therapist training and implementation of EBPs are discussed.

  12. BELIEFS OF TEACHERS ABOUT BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN STUDENTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Gavia P.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hermeneutic research study conducted with seventeen primary regular and special education teachers to examine their beliefs about intellectual disabilities and behavior problems. Teachers beliefs about the influence that the context has the proliferation of conduct and disability issues is unveiled. It is an approach to the theoretical reference from beliefs, teachers in regular and special education, they have in common that their beliefs about intellectual disabilities are circumscribed or based on his work experience, rather than in references up-to-date intellectual disability. On the other hand found that teachers, based their beliefs on behavioural problems in the characteristics that have been observed through the experience with his students. Finally the strategies and style for setting the order were also based on their beliefs, elementary and special education teachers were using corrective strategies, although the latter also used cognitive strategies.

  13. Large time behavior for solutions of nonlinear parabolic problems with sign-changing measure data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Petitta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $Omegasubseteq mathbb{R}^N$ a bounded open set, $Ngeq 2$, and let $p>1$; in this paper we study the asymptotic behavior with respect to the time variable $t$ of the entropy solution of nonlinear parabolic problems whose model is $$displaylines{ u_{t}(x,t-Delta_{p} u(x,t=mu quad hbox{in } Omegaimes(0,infty,cr u(x,0=u_{0}(x quad hbox{in } Omega, }$$ where $u_0 in L^{1}(Omega$, and $muin mathcal{M}_{0}(Q$ is a measure with bounded variation over $Q=Omegaimes(0,infty$ which does not charge the sets of zero $p$-capacity; moreover we consider $mu$ that does not depend on time. In particular, we prove that solutions of such problems converge to stationary solutions.

  14. The Association Between Childhood Seizures and Later Childhood Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings From a Nationally Representative Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, Symon M.; Newton, Charles R.J.C.; Prince, Martin J.; Das-Munshi, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Emotional/behavioral disorders are often comorbid with childhood epilepsy, but both may be predicted by social disadvantage and fetal risk indicators (FRIs). We used data from a British birth cohort, to assess the association of epilepsy, single unprovoked seizures, and febrile seizures with the later development of emotional/behavioral problems. Methods A total of 17,416 children in the 1958 British birth cohort were followed up until age 16 years. Logistic and modified Poisson regression models were used to determine a) the association of social disadvantage at birth and FRI with epilepsy, single unprovoked seizures, and febrile seizures at 7 years, and emotional/behavioral disorders in later childhood, and (ii) the association of childhood seizures by age 7 years with emotional/behavioral disorders in later childhood, after accounting for social disadvantage and FRI. Results Higher scores on FRI and social disadvantage were associated with emotional/behavioral problems at 7, 11, and 16 years, but not with seizure disorders at age 7 years. Epilepsy was associated with emotional/behavioral problems at 7 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29–4.84), 11 years (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.04–3.81), and 16 years (OR = 5.47, 95% CI = 1.65–18.08), whereas single unprovoked seizures were associated with emotional/behavioral problems at 16 years (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.02–2.01), after adjustment for FRI and social disadvantage. Febrile convulsions were not associated with increased risk for emotional/behavioral problems. Conclusions Emotional/behavioral problems in children are related to an earlier diagnosis of epilepsy and single unprovoked seizures after accounting for social disadvantage and FRI, whereas febrile convulsions are not associated with emotional/behavioral problems. PMID:26894324

  15. The association between emotional and behavioral problems and gastrointestinal symptoms among children with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A; Schreiber, Dana R; Olino, Thomas M; Minshew, Nancy J

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores ≥ 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, and multiple internalizing and externalizing problems. The majority (61%) of children had at least one reported gastrointestinal symptom. Emotional and behavioral problems were also common but with a high degree of variability. Children with and without gastrointestinal problems did not differ in autism symptom severity, adaptive behavior, or total internalizing or externalizing problem scores. However, participants with gastrointestinal problems had significantly higher levels of affective problems. This finding is consistent with a small body of research noting a relationship between gastrointestinal problems, irritability, and mood problems in autism spectrum disorder. More research to identify the mechanisms underlying this relationship in autism spectrum disorder is warranted. Future research should include a medical assessment of gastrointestinal concerns, longitudinal design, and participants with a range of autism spectrum disorder severity in order to clarify the directionality of this relationship and to identify factors that may impact heterogeneity in the behavioral manifestation of gastrointestinal concerns.

  16. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents : Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship.

  17. Mechanisms linking violence exposure and school engagement among african american adolescents: examining the roles of psychological problem behaviors and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Neilands, Torsten B; Hunnicutt, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13-19 years) completed questionnaires that assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth.

  18. The interaction between self-regulation and motivation prospectively predicting problem behavior in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jessica D; Colder, Craig R; Trucco, Elisa M; Speidel, Carolyn; Hawk, Larry W; Lengua, Liliana J; Das Eiden, Rina; Wieczorek, William

    2013-01-01

    A large literature suggests associations between self-regulation and motivation and adolescent problem behavior; however, this research has mostly pitted these constructs against one another or tested them in isolation. Following recent neural-systems based theories (e.g., Ernst & Fudge, 2009 ), the present study investigated the interactions between self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation prospectively predicting delinquency and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. The community sample included 387 adolescents aged 11 to 13 years old (55% female; 17% minority). Laboratory tasks were used to assess self-regulation and approach and avoidance motivation, and adolescent self-reports were used to measure depressive symptoms and delinquency. Analyses suggested that low levels of approach motivation were associated with high levels of depressive symptoms, but only at high levels of self-regulation (p = .01). High levels of approach were associated with high levels of rule breaking, but only at low levels of self-regulation (p theories that posit integration of motivational and self-regulatory individual differences via moderational models to understand adolescent problem behavior.

  19. Prevention of problem behavior by teaching functional communication and self-control skills to preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Kevin C; Hanley, Gregory P

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the preschool life skills program (PLS; Hanley, Heal, Tiger, & Ingvarsson, 2007) on the acquisition and maintenance of functional communication and self-control skills, as well as its effect on problem behavior, of small groups of preschoolers at risk for school failure. Six children were taught to request teacher attention, teacher assistance, and preferred materials, and to tolerate delays to and denial of those events during child-led, small-group activities. Teaching strategies included instruction, modeling, role play, and differential reinforcement. Six additional children randomly assigned to similarly sized control groups participated in small-group activities but did not experience the PLS program. Within-subject and between-groups designs showed that the PLS teaching procedures were functionally related to the improvements and maintenance of the skills and prevention of problem behavior. Stakeholder responses on a social acceptability questionnaire indicated that they were satisfied with the form of the targeted social skills, the improvements in the children's performance, and the teaching strategies.

  20. Multimodal Analysis of Estimated and Observed Social Competence in Preschoolers With/Without Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Pereira Dias

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social skills compete with behavior problems, and the combination of these aspects may cause differences in social competence. This study was aimed at assessing the differences and similarities in the social competence of 26 preschoolers resulting from: (1 groups which they belonged to, being one with social skills and three with behavior problems (internalizing, externalizing and mixed; (2 types of assessment, considering the estimates of mothers and teachers, as well as direct observation in a structured situation; (3 structured situations as demands for five categories of social skills. Children’s performance in each situation was assessed by judges and estimated by mothers and teachers. There was a similarity in the social competence estimated by mothers, teachers and in the performance observed. Only the teachers distinguished the groups (higher social competence in the group with social skills and lower in the internalizing and mixed groups. Assertiveness demands differentiated the groups. The methodological aspects were discussed, as well as the clinical and educational potential of the structured situations to promote social skills.

  1. Cascading peer dynamics underlying the progression from problem behavior to violence in early to late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Myers, Michael W

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the peer dynamics linking early adolescent problem behavior, school marginalization, and low academic performance to multiple indices of late adolescent violence (arrests, parent report, and youth report) in an ethnically diverse sample of 998 males and females. A cascade model was proposed in which early adolescent risk factors assessed at age 11 to 12 predict gang involvement at age 13 to 14, which in turn, predicts deviancy training with friends at age 16 to 17, which then predicts violence by age 18 to 19. Each construct in the model was assessed with multiple measures and methods. Structural equation modeling revealed that the cascade model fit the data well, with problem behavior, school marginalization, and low academic performance significantly predicting gang involvement 2 years later. Gang involvement, in turn, predicted deviancy training with a friend, which predicted violence. The best fitting model included an indirect and direct path between early adolescent gang involvement and later violence. These findings suggest the need to carefully consider peer clustering into gangs in efforts to prevent individual and aggregate levels of violence, especially in youths who may be disengaged, marginalized, or academically unsuccessful in the public school context.

  2. A COMPARISON OF VARIOUS FORMS OF REINFORCEMENT WITH AND WITHOUT EXTINCTION AS TREATMENT FOR ESCAPE-MAINTAINED PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Stacy L

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation compared the effects of reinforcing compliance with either positive or negative reinforcement for a participant who displayed escape-maintained problem behavior. The results indicated that positive reinforcement in the form of a highly preferred edible or leisure item produced higher levels of compliance and lower levels of problem behavior when compared to negative reinforcement in the form of escape from demands. In addition, an extinction procedure was unnecessary...

  3. Effects of noncontingent reinforcement on problem behavior and stimulus engagement: the role of satiation, extinction, and alternative reinforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Hagopian, L P; Crockett, J L; M. Stone; DeLeon, I G; Bowman, L G

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the effects of noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with and without extinction on problem behavior and stimulus engagement (consumption of reinforcement) of 4 participants. Reductions in problem behavior using NCR have frequently been attributed to both satiation of the reinforcer and extinction. In the current study, aspects of the NCR treatment effects were difficult to explain based solely on either a satiation or an extinction account. Specifically, it was found that sti...

  4. Some effects of noncontingent positive reinforcement on multiply controlled problem behavior and compliance in a demand context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Einar T; Kahng, Sungwoo; Hausman, Nicole L

    2008-01-01

    Functional analysis suggested that the problem behavior of an 8-year-old girl with autism was maintained by escape from demands and access to edible items. Noncontingent delivery of an edible item was sufficient to increase compliance and reduce the rate of problem behavior without the use of escape extinction in a demand context. Leaner and richer schedules of noncontingent reinforcement were equally effective, and there were minimal differences between noncontingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement of compliance.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF VARIABLE-TIME DELIVERY OF FOOD ITEMS AND PRAISE ON PROBLEM BEHAVIOR REINFORCED BY ESCAPE

    OpenAIRE

    Lomas, Joanna E; Fisher, Wayne W.; Kelley, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Prior research indicates that reinforcement of an appropriate response (e.g., compliance) can produce concomitant reductions in problem behavior reinforced by escape when problem behavior continues to produce negative reinforcement (e.g., Lalli et al., 1999). These effects may be due to a preference for positive over negative reinforcement or to positive reinforcement acting as an abolishing operation, rendering demands less aversive and escape from demands less effective as negative reinforc...

  6. Is Parenting the Mediator of Change in Behavioral Parent Training for Externalizing Problems of Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Lafko, Nicole; Parent, Justin; Burt, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Change in parenting behavior is theorized to be the mediator accounting for change in child and adolescent externalizing problems in behavioral parent training (BPT). The purpose of this review is to examine this assumption in BPT prevention and intervention programs. Eight intervention and 17 prevention studies were identified as meeting all criteria or all but one criterion for testing mediation. Parenting behaviors were classified as positive, negative, discipline, monitoring/supervision, or a composite measure. Forty-five percent of the tests performed across studies to test mediation supported parenting as a mediator. A composite measure of parenting and discipline received the most support, whereas monitoring/supervision was rarely examined. More support for the mediating role of parenting emerged for prevention than intervention studies and when meeting all criteria for testing mediation was not required. Although the findings do not call BPT into question as an efficacious treatment, they do suggest more attention should be focused on examining parenting as a putative mediator in BPT. PMID:25455625

  7. Therapist perception of treatment outcome: Evaluating treatment outcomes among youth with antisocial behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandal, Brent R; Foster, Sharon L; Chapman, Jason E; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Brennan, Patricia A; Whitmore, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-01

    Effective evaluation of treatment requires the use of measurement tools producing reliable scores that can be used to make valid decisions about the outcomes of interest. Therapist-rated treatment outcome scores that are obtained within the context of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) could provide clinicians and researchers with data that are easily accessible and complimentary to existing instrumentation. We examined the psychometric properties of scores from the Therapist Perception of Treatment Outcome: Youth Antisocial Behavior (TPTO:YAB), an instrument developed to assess therapist judgments of treatment success among families participating in an EST, Multisystemic Therapy (MST), for youth with antisocial behavior problems. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of MST. The initial 20-item TPTO:YAB was completed by therapists of 111 families at midtreatment and 163 families at treatment termination. Rasch model dimensionality analyses provided evidence for 2 dimensions reflecting youth- and caregiver-related aspects of treatment outcome, although a bifactor analyses suggested that these dimensions reflected a single more general construct. Rasch analyses were also used to assess item and rating scale characteristics and refine the number of items. These analyses suggested items performed similarly across time and that scores reflect treatment outcome in similar ways at mid and posttreatment. Multilevel and zero-order analyses provided evidence for the validity of TPTO:YAB scores. TPTO:YAB scores were moderately correlated with scores of youth and caregiver behaviors targeted in treatment, adding support to its use as a treatment outcome measurement instrument.

  8. Gender-related pathways for behavior problems in the offspring of alcoholic fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado E.F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine gender differences in the influence of paternal alcoholism on children's social-emotional development and to determine whether paternal alcoholism is associated with a greater number of externalizing symptoms in the male offspring. From the Mannheim Study of Risk Children, an ongoing longitudinal study of a high-risk population, the developmental data of 219 children [193 (95 boys and 98 girls of non-alcoholic fathers, non-COAs, and 26 (14 boys, 12 girls of alcoholic fathers, COAs] were analyzed from birth to the age of 11 years. Paternal alcoholism was defined according to the ICD-10 categories of alcohol dependence and harmful use. Socio-demographic data, cognitive development, number and severity of behavior problems, and gender-related differences in the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using standardized instruments (IQ tests, Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire and diagnostic interviews. The general linear model analysis revealed a significant overall effect of paternal alcoholism on the number of child psychiatric problems (F = 21.872, d.f. = 1.217, P < 0.001. Beginning at age 2, significantly higher numbers of externalizing symptoms were observed among COAs. In female COAs, a pattern similar to that of the male COAs emerged, with the predominance of delinquent and aggressive behavior. Unlike male COAs, females showed an increase of internalizing symptoms up to age 11 years. Of these, somatic complaints revealed the strongest discriminating effect in 11-year-old females. Children of alcoholic fathers are at high risk for psychopathology. Gender-related differences seem to exist and may contribute to different phenotypes during development from early childhood to adolescence.

  9. The Relation between Fathers' and Children's Communication Skills and Children's Behavior Problems: A Study of Head Start Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias Aquiles

    2000-01-01

    Examined relation between fathers' and children's communicative skills and child behavior problems early and late in the Head Start school year. Found that the structural models for externalizing and internalizing behavior confirmed the hypothesis that father communication was linked to child communication skills and child communication was linked…

  10. The development of children's problem behaviors: A twin-singlton comparison and the influence of parental divorce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.C. Robbers (Sylvana)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractTwin-family studies have largely contributed to our understanding of the etiology of behavioral and emotional problems in childhood. From these studies we learned that almost every behavioral or psychological trait is ‘heritable’ to some extent. We also learned that both nature and nurtu

  11. Brief Report: Fathers' and Mothers' Ratings of Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Hastings, Richard P.; Petalas, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Debate is ongoing about whether typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at greater risk of behavioral or emotional problems than siblings of children without ASD. Most data on behavior is provided by mothers, and we do not know whether fathers' reports differ. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire…

  12. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory L.; Huber, Heartley B.; Carter, Erik W.; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137…

  13. Effectiveness of Leisure Time Activities Program on Social Skills and Behavioral Problems in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eratay, Emine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of leisure time activities program in individuals with intellectual disabilities in terms of developing social skills and reducing behavioral problems. Social skills assessment scale, behavioral assessment form for children and young adults, and teacher's report forms were used in the…

  14. Association between Physical Environment of Secondary Schools and Student Problem Behavior: A National Study, 2000-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines various aspects of school physical characteristics relating to problem behavior among students. We hypothesize that an attractive physical environment will be associated with less truancy, cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use, whereas a negative physical environment will be associated with higher levels of these behaviors.…

  15. Treating young children's disruptive behavior problems: dissemination of an evidence- based parent management training program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of young children’s disruptive behavior problems are persistent, highly prevalent, and a serious public health concern. If left untreated, these behaviors can lead to serious difficulties in broad areas of child and family functioning, and economically impact the wider society. Therefore

  16. Mediating effects of teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and emotional/behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Jiyoon; Oh, Insoo

    2016-11-01

    The current study examined the mediating effects of the teacher and peer relationships between parental abuse/neglect and a child's emotional/behavioral problems. A total of 2070 student surveys from the panel of the Korean Child Youth Panel Study (KCYPS) were analyzed by path analysis. The key findings of this study are outlined below. Firstly, parental physical and emotional abuse and neglect had significant effects on children's problems. The direct effect of parental abuse on emotional/behavioral problems was higher than the direct effect of parental neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Secondly, the teacher relationship partially mediated the effects of the parental abuse/neglect on emotional/behavioral problems. Thirdly, the peer relationship also partially mediated the effects of parental abuse/neglect on children's emotional/behavioral problems. The indirect effect of parental neglect via teacher relationships and peer relationships was stronger than the indirect effect of parental abuse. This study is significant in that it identified that parental abuse/neglect was mediated by the teacher and peer relationship, thereby suggesting an implication for effective intervention with children who have suffered abuse and neglect. In terms of the teacher and peer relationship, understanding the influence of parental abuse and neglect on children's problems was discussed, and the limitations and recommendations for future study were suggested.

  17. Behavioral problems and depressive symptomatology as predictors of child-to-parent violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun Ibabe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of complaints filed by parents against their children nationwide has increased dramatically, particularly since 2005. The aim of this study was to examine whether young offenders who had been charged for violence against their parents presented different psychological problems from youngsters charged with other types of offence and non-offenders. Data from 231 adolescents of both sexes aged 14 to 18 years and living in the Basque Country (Spain were analyzed. Of these, 106 were offenders and the rest were from a community sample. Some of the offenders had been charged with child-to-parent violence (n = 59, while the rest of them had not (n = 47. Offenders who had assaulted or abused their parents presented more behavior problems outside home and more characteristics associated with depressive symptomatology than offenders of other types or non-offenders. Certain psychological problems in adolescents could precipitate family conflict situations and leave parents unable to control their children. Findings highlight the need for offenders charged with child-to-parent violence to receive individual psychological therapy.

  18. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  19. Influence of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Behavior Problems in Early Childhood: A Three-Generation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Klein, Daniel N.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the influence of parental and grandparental major depressive disorder (MDD) on behavior problems in children. The results conclude that MDD in parents and grandparents may result in high levels of incorporation problems of MDD in children but don't indicate additional risk.

  20. The relation of emotion recognition and social behavioral problems in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Maraike; Aarnoudse, Cecilia; Boon, Maartje; Veenstra, Wencke

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) often show cognitive and behavioral problems (Martin et al., 2011). Huijbregts et al. (2010) investigated cognitive problems in children with NF1 focusing on social information processing. They found that bottom-up as well as top-down processes

  1. The dopamine receptor D4 gene and familial loading interact with perceived parenting in predicting externalizing behavior problems in early adolescence: the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, R.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Although externalizing behavior problems show in general a high stability over time, the course of externalizing behavior problems may vary from individual to individual. Our main goal was to investigate the predictive role of parenting on externalizing behavior problems. In addition, we investigate

  2. The dopamine receptor D4 gene and familial loading interact with perceived parenting in predicting externalizing behavior problems in early adolescence : The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, Rianne; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    Although externalizing behavior problems show in general a high stability over time, the course of externalizing behavior problems may vary from individual to individual. Our main goal was to investigate the predictive role of parenting on externalizing behavior problems. In addition, we investigate

  3. Prenatal methamphetamine exposure, home environment, and primary caregiver risk factors predict child behavioral problems at 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Jean; LaGasse, Linda; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; DellaGrotta, Sheri; Roberts, Mary; Dansereau, Lynne; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective association between prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure and child behavioral problems at 5 years while also examining the home environment at 30 months and several primary caregiver (PC) risk factors. Participants were 97 MA-exposed and 117 comparison children and their PCs enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle Study. Hypotheses were that child behaviors would be adversely impacted by (a) prenatal MA exposure, (b) home environments that provided less developmental stimulation and emotional responsiveness to the child, and (c) the presence of PC psychological symptoms and other risk factors. Prenatal MA exposure was associated with child externalizing behavioral problems at 5 years. Home environments that were more conducive to meeting children's developmental and emotional needs were associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Independent of prenatal MA exposure, PC parenting stress and psychological symptoms were associated with increased child behavioral problems. Findings suggest prenatal MA exposure may contribute to externalizing behavioral problems in early childhood and the importance of considering possible vulnerabilities related to prenatal MA exposure in the context of the child's caregiving environment.

  4. Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rudmin, Floyd Webster

    2004-02-01

    A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured interview on child-rearing were used as instruments. As would be expected from a developmental perspective, elevated scores of child behavior problems were associated with lower levels of parental cuddling and with higher levels of physical punishment. Family demographics such as low maternal age and single parenthood were also associated with more behavioral problems. Girls seemed to be more strongly influenced by child-rearing factors than boys. Subgroup analyses suggested that for harsh treatment, patterns of correlations differed between Sami and Norwegian groups, especially for boys. A positive correlation between physical punishment and externalizing problems emerged for Norwegian boys, but not for Sami boys. Teasing/ridiculing was positively correlated with internalizing problems for Norwegian boys, but inversely correlated for Sami boys. These findings emphasize the importance of taking the child's cultural context and gender into account when assessing parenting influences on behavioral problems in children.

  5. Essential processes for cognitive behavioral clinical supervision: Agenda setting, problem-solving, and formative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Ballantyne, Elena C; Scallion, Laura M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical supervision should be a proactive and considered endeavor, not a reactive one. To that end, supervisors should choose supervision processes that are driven by theory, best available research, and clinical experience. These processes should be aimed at helping trainees develop as clinicians. We highlight 3 supervision processes we believe should be used at each supervision meeting: agenda setting, encouraging trainee problem-solving, and formative feedback. Although these are primarily cognitive-behavioral skills, they can be helpful in combination with other supervision models. We provide example dialogue from supervision exchanges, and discuss theoretical and research support for these processes. Using these processes not only encourages trainee development but also models for them how to use the same processes and approaches with clients.

  6. Behavior Problems Among Adolescents Exposed to Family and Community Violence in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with youth outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examined the relationship of youth exposure to family and community violence—parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression—with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 youth-mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between youth exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression. With growing evidence concerning the detrimental effect of violence on youth’s well-being, these findings highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the various kinds of violence youth are exposed to within the family and community and the concomitant need to reduce multiple forms of violence.

  7. Behavior Problems Among Adolescents Exposed to Family and Community Violence in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with youth outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examined the relationship of youth exposure to family and community violence-parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression-with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 youth-mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between youth exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression. With growing evidence concerning the detrimental effect of violence on youth's well-being, these findings highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the various kinds of violence youth are exposed to within the family and community and the concomitant need to reduce multiple forms of violence.

  8. Sleep in high-functioning children with autism: longitudinal developmental change and associations with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Tamara; Cornish, Kim; Conduit, Russell; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but longitudinal trajectories are poorly defined. This study measured sleep disturbance at baseline and 1 year later examining change over time and associated problem behaviors. Participants were 84 gender-matched children, aged between 7 and 12 years at baseline; 46 children were diagnosed with ASD, and 38 were typically developing (TYP) children. Parent reports on a range of scales were collected. The ASD group had more sleep disturbance than the TYP group. Sleep disturbance decreased over the year in children with ASD, but not in TYP children. Reduced sleep disturbance was associated with improved social ability. Sleep disturbance at baseline predicted later anxiety. Findings indicated different trajectories of sleep disturbance in ASD, and the implications are discussed.

  9. Affective Teacher—Student Relationships and Students’ Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This meta-analysis of 57 primary studies with 73,933 students shows strong links between affective teacherstudent relationships (TSRs and students’ externalizing behavior problems (EBPs. Moreover, students’ culture, age, gender, and the report types of EBPs moderated these effects. The negative correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students’ EBPs was stronger (a among Western students than Eastern ones, (b for students in the lower grades of primary school than for other students, (c when rated by teachers or parents than by students or peers, and (d among females than among males. In contrast, the positive correlation between negative indicators of affective TSRs and students’ EBPs was stronger (a among Eastern students than Western ones, (b for students in the higher grades of primary school than for other students, and (c when rated by students or peers than by teachers or parents.

  10. Affective Teacher-Student Relationships and Students' Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hao; Cui, Yunhuo; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis of 57 primary studies with 73,933 students shows strong links between affective teacher-student relationships (TSRs) and students' externalizing behavior problems (EBPs). Moreover, students' culture, age, gender, and the report types of EBPs moderated these effects. The negative correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs was stronger (a) among Western students than Eastern ones, (b) for students in the lower grades of primary school than for other students, (c) when rated by teachers or parents than by students or peers, and (d) among females than among males. In contrast, the positive correlation between negative indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs was stronger (a) among Eastern students than Western ones, (b) for students in the higher grades of primary school than for other students, and

  11. Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekini Shehu

    2010-01-01

    real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.

  12. Maternal education preferences moderate the effects of mandatory employment and education programs on child positive and problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8-10 years, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program but only when mothers had strong preferences for education.

  13. Excessive infant crying doubles the risk of mood and behavioral problems at age 5: evidence for mediation by maternal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarius, Laetitia Joanna Clara Antonia; Strieder, Thea G A; Loomans, Eva M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Gemke, Reinoud J; van Eijsden, Manon

    2017-03-01

    The onset of behavioral problems starts in early life. This study examined whether excessive infant crying (maternal ratings) is a determinant of emotional and behavioral problems at age 5-6 years. In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, a large prospective, observational, population-based multiethnic birth cohort, excessive infant crying (crying for three or more hours per 24 h day over the past week) during the 13th week after birth (range 11-25 weeks, SD 2 weeks), maternal burden of infant care and maternal aggressive behavior (either angry speaking, or physical aggression) was assessed using a questionnaire. Children's behavioral and emotional problems at the age of 5-6 were assessed by Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), by the subscale of generalized anxiety of the preschool anxiety scale (PAS), and by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Inclusion criterion was singleton birth. Exclusion criteria were preterm born babies or congenital disorders. Among 3389 children, excessive infant crying (n = 102) was associated with a twofold increased risk of the overall problem behavior, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and mood problems at the age of 5-6 [ORs between 1.75 (95 % CI 1.09-2.81) and 2.12 (95 % CI 1.30-3.46)]. This association was mediated by maternal burden of infant care (change in odds' ratio 1-17 %) and maternal aggressive behavior (change in odds' ratio 4-10 %). There was no effect modification by the child's gender or maternal parity. Excessive infant crying was not associated with general anxiety problems. Excessive infant crying doubles the risk of behavioral, hyperactivity, and mood problems at the age of 5-6, as reported by their mother. Maternal burden of infant care partially mediates the association between excessive crying and behavioral and mood problems. Special care for mothers with a high burden of care for their excessive crying infant, notwithstanding their own good

  14. Transitions Into Food Insecurity Associated With Behavioral Problems And Worse Overall Health Among Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Denney, Justin T

    2015-11-01

    Children living in food-insecure households face myriad challenges to their well-being. The Great Recession of December 2007-June 2009 increased food insecurity to the highest levels ever measured in the United States. Using nationally representative data from the period 2010-12 for 6,300 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11, with household incomes below 300 percent of the federal poverty level and a dynamic measure of food insecurity transitions, we assessed the impact of transitions into and out of household food insecurity on the academic achievement, behavioral problems, and health status of young children. We found negligible impacts of food insecurity transitions on academic achievement in first grade. However, we found consistent negative impacts of the transitions on teachers' reports of children's externalizing behaviors, self-control, and interpersonal skills and on parents' reports of children's overall health status. Taken together, our findings underline the importance of food security for children's healthy development.

  15. Oral health status, dental anxiety, and behavior-management problems in children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Najafpour, Ebrahim; Erfanparast, Leila; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Tamjid-Shabestari, Shabnam; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2016-02-01

    Mental disorders have been shown to affect children's oral health. This study was carried out to investigate the oral health status, dental anxiety (DA), and behavior-management problems (BMPs) during dental treatment in 6- to 9-yr-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study and control groups included 40 children with ODD/ADHD and 80 normal children, respectively. All participants received an amalgam restoration. During the procedure, the children's behavior was assessed using the Frankl Rating Scale and the Verbal Skill Scale. Parents rated their children's DA using the parental version of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental subscale (CFSS-DS). Comorbid anxiety disorders were assessed using the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed using the gingival index and the decayed, missing, and filled teeth score for permanent (DMFT) and primary (dmft) teeth. The findings showed that DA and BMPs were significantly higher in children with ODD/ADHD than in the controls. Furthermore, the frequency of DA and BMPs was higher in children with both ODD/ADHD and a comorbid anxiety disorder than in those without comorbid anxiety disorder. Children with ODD/ADHD had significantly higher DMFT/dmft scores than those in the control group, whereas the difference in gingival index was not statistically significant. In conclusion, children with ODD/ADHD had higher levels of DA, BMP and poorer oral health status.

  16. Psychosocial deprivation, executive functions and the emergence of socio-emotional behavior problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Martin McDermott

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Early psychosocial deprivation can negatively impact the development of executive functions (EF. Here we explore the impact of early psychosocial deprivation on behavioral and physiological measures (i.e. event-related potentials; ERPs of two facets of EF, inhibitory control and response monitoring, and their associations with internalizing and externalizing outcomes in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP; Zeanah et al., 2003. This project focuses on two groups of children placed in institutions shortly after birth and then randomly assigned in infancy to either a foster care intervention or to remain in their current institutional setting. A group of community controls was recruited for comparison. The current study assesses these children at 8-years of age examining the effects of early adversity, the potential effects of the intervention on EF and the role of EF skills in socio-emotional outcomes. Results reveal exposure to early psychosocial deprivation was associated with impaired inhibitory control on a flanker task. Children in the foster care intervention exhibited stronger response monitoring compared to children who remained in the institution on the error-related positivity (Pe. Moreover, among children in the foster care intervention those who exhibited stronger error-related negativity (ERN responses had lower levels of socio-emotional behavior problems. Overall, these data identify specific aspects of EF that contribute to adaptive and maladaptive socio-emotional outcomes among children experiencing early psychosocial deprivation.

  17. The impact of classroom aggression on the development of aggressive behavior problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Duane E; Bierman, Karen L

    2006-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to elementary classrooms characterized by high levels of student aggression may contribute to the development of child aggressive behavior problems. To explore this process in more detail, this study followed a longitudinal sample of 4,907 children and examined demographic factors associated with exposure to high-aggression classrooms, including school context factors (school size, student poverty levels, and rural vs. urban location) and child ethnicity (African American, European American). The developmental impact of different temporal patterns of exposure (e.g., primacy, recency, chronicity) to high-aggression classrooms was evaluated on child aggression. Analyses revealed that African American children attending large, urban schools that served socioeconomically disadvantaged students were more likely than other students to be exposed to high-aggressive classroom contexts. Hierarchical regressions demonstrated cumulative effects for temporal exposure, whereby children with multiple years of exposure showed higher levels of aggressive behavior after 3 years than children with primacy, less recent, and less chronic exposure, controlling for initial levels of aggression. Implications are discussed for developmental research and preventive interventions.

  18. The effects of fixed-time reinforcement schedules on problem behavior of children with emotional and behavioral disorders in a day-treatment classroom setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Karina; O'Neill, Robert E

    2006-01-01

    The current study assessed the effects of fixed-time reinforcement schedules on problem behavior of students with emotional-behavioral disorders in a clinical day-treatment classroom setting. Three elementary-aged students with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems participated in the study. Initial functional assessments indicated that social attention was the maintaining reinforcer for their verbally disruptive behavior. Baseline phases were alternated with phases in which attention was provided on fixed-time schedules in the context of an ABAB design. The results indicated that the provision of attention on fixed-time schedules substantially reduced the participants' rate of verbal disruptions. These decreases were maintained during initial thinning of the schedules. The results provide one of the first examples that such an intervention can be successfully implemented in a classroom setting.

  19. Breastfeeding and Active Bonding Protects against Children’s Internalizing Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghong Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is associated with numerous health benefits to offspring and mothers and may improve maternal-infant bonding. Ample evidence suggests breastfeeding can improve child neurodevelopment, but more research is needed to establish whether breastfeeding is linked to the development of child psychopathology. This paper aims to explore the effects of both breastfeeding and mother-child interactions on child behavioral outcomes at a later age. Children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study (N = 1267, at age six years old were assessed, along with their parents. Children who were breastfed exclusively for a period of time in the presence of active bonding were compared to those who were breastfed in the absence of active bonding as well as to children who were not exclusively breastfed, with or without active bonding. Results from ANOVA and GLM, using SPSS20, indicate that children who were breastfed and whose mothers actively engaged with them displayed the lowest risk of internalizing problems (mean = 10.01, SD = 7.21, while those who were neither exclusively breastfed nor exposed to active bonding had the least protection against later internalizing problems (mean = 12.79, SD = 8.14. The effect of breastfeeding on internalizing pathology likely represents a biosocial and holistic effect of physiological, and nutritive, and maternal-infant bonding benefits.

  20. Harsh, inconsistent parental discipline and romantic relationships: mediating processes of behavioral problems and ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surjadi, Florensia F; Lorenz, Frederick O; Conger, Rand D; Wickrama, K A S

    2013-10-01

    According to the Development of Early Adult Romantic Relationships (DEARR) model (Bryant, C. M., & Conger, R. D. [2002]. Conger, R. D., Cui, M., Bryant, C. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr. [2000] interactional characteristics in the family of origin influence early adult romantic relationships by promoting or inhibiting the development of interpersonal competencies that contribute to relationship success in young adulthood. The present study uses the DEARR model as a general framework to help examine the long-term link between parental discipline practices in adolescence and young adult's interactions in the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Using prospective data from 288 target participants, their families, and their romantic partner, beginning when the targets were adolescents and continuing up to the fifth year of their marital or cohabiting relationships, we found empirical support for the DEARR model. Parental discipline practices in adolescence were associated with romantic relationship quality during the early years of marriage or cohabitation through processes in late adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, harsh and inconsistent discipline practices were associated with greater attitudinal ambivalence toward parents in adolescence. Inconsistent discipline was also associated with higher risks of externalizing problems during late adolescence years. Externalizing problems and ambivalence toward parents predicted poorer relationship quality through aggressive behaviors and ambivalence toward a romantic partner during the early years of marriage or cohabitation. Implications for practitioners working with couples and families are discussed.

  1. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Yu-Min; Cheng, Jen-Wen; Liu, Tai-Ling; Huang, Tzu-Yu; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Pinchen; Chou, Wen-Jiun

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this intervention study were to examine the effects of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) based on the modified Coping Cat Program on improving anxiety symptoms and behavioral problems in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and parenting stress perceived by their mothers. A total of 24 children with anxiety disorders in the treatment group completed the 17-session individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program, and 26 children in the control group received the treatment as usual intervention. The Taiwanese version of the MASC (MASC-T), the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) and the Chinese version of the Parenting Stress Index (C-PSI) were applied to assess the severities of anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress, respectively. The effects of CBT on improving anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems and parenting stress were examined by using linear mixed-effect model with maximum likelihood estimation. The results indicated that the CBT significantly improved the severities of MASC-T Physical Symptoms and Social Anxiety subscales, CBCL/6-18 DSM-oriented Anxiety Problem subscale, and C-PSI Child domains Mood and Adaptability subscales. Individual CBT based on the modified Coping Cat Program can potentially improve anxiety symptoms in Taiwanese children with anxiety disorders and some child domains of parenting stress perceived by their mothers.

  2. Sibling relationship patterns and their associations with child competence and problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Kirsten L; Vermande, Marjolijn

    2014-08-01

    The present study is the first to examine patterns in sibling relationship quality and the associations of these patterns with internalizing and externalizing problem behavior, as well as self-perceived competence, in middle childhood. Self-report questionnaires (e.g., Sibling Relationship Questionnaire, Self-Perception Profile for Children, Youth Self Report) were administered among 1,670 Dutch children (Mage = 11.40 years, SD = .83) attending 51 different Dutch schools. Three sibling relationship clusters were found: a conflictual cluster (low on warmth, high on conflict), an affect-intense cluster (above average on warmth and conflict), and a harmonious cluster (high on warmth, low on conflict). Sister pairs were underrepresented in the conflictual cluster and overrepresented in the harmonious cluster. Children with conflictual sibling relationships reported significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems, and lower academic and social competence and global self-worth, than children with harmonious sibling relationships. Children with affect-intense sibling relationships reported less aggression and better social competence than children with conflictual sibling relationships. Our findings indicate that it is fruitful to combine indices of sibling warmth and conflict to examine sibling relationship types. Relationship types differed significantly concerning internalizing and externalizing problems, but also concerning self-perceived competence. These findings extend our knowledge about sibling relationship types and their impact on different aspects of child adjustment. Whereas harmonious sibling relationships are the most beneficial for adjustment, sibling conflict mainly has a negative effect on adjustment in combination with lack of sibling warmth. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  3. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents With Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory L; Huber, Heartley B; Carter, Erik W; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2016-07-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137 adolescents with severe disabilities from the vantage point of both special educators and parents. We sought to identify areas of potential intervention need, explore factors associated with social skill and problem behavior ratings, and examine the extent to which teachers and parents converged in their assessments of these needs. Our findings indicate teachers and parents of high school students with severe disabilities rated social skills as considerably below average and problem behaviors as above average. In addition, lower social skills ratings were evident for students with greater support needs, lower levels of overall adaptive behavior, and a special education label of autism. We found moderate consistency in the degree to which teachers and parents aligned in their assessments of both social skills and problem behavior. We offer recommendations for assessment and intervention focused on strengthening the social competence of adolescents with severe disabilities within secondary school classrooms, as well as promising avenues for future research.

  4. Prevention of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Longitudinal Impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the longitudinal impact of a curriculum-based positive youth development program, entitled the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes, on adolescent problem behavior in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, six waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools (n = 3,797 at Wave 1 in which students participated in the Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n = 4,049 at Wave 1. At each wave, students responded to questions asking about their current problem behaviors, including delinquency and use of different types of drugs, and their intentions of engaging in such behaviors in the future. Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that the participants displayed lower levels of substance abuse and delinquent behavior than did the control students. Participants who regarded the program to be helpful also showed lower levels of problem behavior than did the control students. The present findings suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in preventing adolescent problem behavior in the junior secondary school years.

  5. The assessment of recalled parental rearing behavior and its relationship to life satisfaction and interpersonal problems: a general population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental rearing behavior is a significant etiological factor for the vulnerability of psychopathology and has been an issue of clinical research for a long time. For this scope instruments are important who asses economically recalled parental rearing behavior in a clinical practice. Therefore, a short German instrument for the assessment of the recalled parental rearing behavior Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten (FEE was psychometrically evaluated [Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior]. Methods This questionnaire was evaluated in a representative population sample (N = 2.948 in Germany which included 44.2% male and 55.8% female persons with a mean age of M = 47.35 (SD = 17.10, range = 18–92. For the content evaluation of the FEE the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (FLZ and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP was filled out by the participants. Results The FEE scales yielded a good to satisfactory internal consistency and split-half reliability. Its three factors (rejection/punishment, emotional warmth, control/overprotection correlated positively with most of the areas of life satisfaction. Furthermore, positive associations between interpersonal problems and parental rejection and control could be identified. Conclusion The FEE is a short, reliable and valid instrument that can be applied in the clinical practice. In addition, the data proved an association between recalled parental rearing behavior, life satisfaction and interpersonal problems conform to the literature. Finally, specific problems with the retrospective assessment of parental rearing behavior were addressed as well.

  6. Prevention of adolescent problem behavior: longitudinal impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2011-03-07

    The present study attempts to examine the longitudinal impact of a curriculum-based positive youth development program, entitled the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes), on adolescent problem behavior in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, six waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools (n = 3,797 at Wave 1) in which students participated in the Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n = 4,049 at Wave 1). At each wave, students responded to questions asking about their current problem behaviors, including delinquency and use of different types of drugs, and their intentions of engaging in such behaviors in the future. Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that the participants displayed lower levels of substance abuse and delinquent behavior than did the control students. Participants who regarded the program to be helpful also showed lower levels of problem behavior than did the control students. The present findings suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in preventing adolescent problem behavior in the junior secondary school years.

  7. Behavioral Problems in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Controlled Study to Examine the Risk of Psychopathology in a Chronic Pediatric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanara, Elham; Raeeskarami, Seyed-Reza

    2016-01-01

    Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are prone to the problems that can delay their psychosocial development; however, the existing literature has not reached a consensus on the psychological problems related to JIA. A total of 51 children and adolescents with JIA and 75 healthy controls aged 6 to 18 years were examined using the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL). Our results represented that 70 percent of JIA group reached “borderline clinical” range or “clinical” range in internalizing problems, while this percentage in the control group was 18 percent. In addition, our results indicated that JIA group has gotten significantly higher scores (more than twofold) in externalizing behaviors compared to control group. Furthermore, children with JIA showed higher rate of anxiety/depression, withdrawal/depression, somatic complaints, rule breaking behaviors, and aggressive behaviors as well as thought and social problems compared to control group (p < 0.001). As a conclusion, children and adolescents with JIA compared to healthy controls may show higher rate of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Furthermore, our novel findings on externalizing, social, and thought problems in JIA warrant further investigation on affected children who may be at greater risk of future psychopathologies. PMID:27656678

  8. A randomized controlled trial of the impact of a teacher classroom management program on the classroom behavior of children with and without behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, Judy; Martin-Forbes, Pam; Daley, David; Williams, Margiad Elen

    2013-10-01

    This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management (TCM; Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2002) program to assess whether training teachers in IY-TCM principles improve teacher behavior, whether any observed improvements impact pupil behavior classroom-wide, and whether these effects can be demonstrated with children at risk of developing conduct problems. Six intervention and six control classrooms comprising 12 teachers and 107 children (aged 3 to 7years) were recruited. Children were screened for high or low behavior problems using the cut-off points of the teacher-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). The primary outcome measure was independent classroom observations using the Teacher-Pupil Observation Tool (Martin et al., 2010). Multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the intervention on teacher, classroom, and child behavior. Results showed a significant reduction in classroom off-task behavior (d=0.53), teacher negatives to target children (d=0.36), target child negatives towards the teacher (d=0.42), and target child off-task behavior (d=0.48). These preliminary results demonstrate the potential impact of IY-TCM on both teacher and child behavior.

  9. Problems in the Application of Behavior Modification Principles for Teaching Job-Required Behaviors to Disadvantaged Manpower Trainees. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifer, Irwin; And Others

    In its attempts to apply behavior modification principles to teaching job-required behaviors to manpower trainees, the Mobilization for Youth-Experimental Manpower Laboratory (MFY-EML), has mounted a number of reinforcement-based Neighborhood Youth Corps training programs. The nature, magnitude and scheduling of reinforcers, the nature of the…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Specific Phobias with a Child Demonstrating Severe Problem Behavior and Developmental Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Kurtz, Patricia F.; Gardner, Andrew W.; Carman, Nicole B.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral treatments (CBTs) are widely used for anxiety disorders in typically developing children; however, there has been no previous attempt to administer CBT for specific phobia (in this case study, one-session treatment) to developmentally or intellectually disabled children. This case study integrates both cognitive-behavioral and…

  11. Adoptive Parent Hostility and Children's Peer Behavior Problems: Examining the Role of Genetically Informed Child Attributes on Adoptive Parent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Kit K.; Harold, Gordon T.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Gaysina, Darya; Barrett, Doug; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Socially disruptive behavior during peer interactions in early childhood is detrimental to children's social, emotional, and academic development. Few studies have investigated the developmental underpinnings of children's socially disruptive behavior using genetically sensitive research designs that allow examination of parent-on-child and…

  12. Child neglect and the development of externalizing behavior problems: associations with maternal drug dependence and neighborhood crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Jody Todd; Oshri, Assaf; Lynch, Michael; Herzog, Margaret; Wortel, Sanne

    2013-02-01

    Given the high prevalence of child neglect among maltreatment subtypes, and its association with exposure to additional environmental adversity, understanding the processes that potentiate child neglect and link neglect to subsequent child externalizing psychopathology may shed light on key targets for preventive intervention. Among 170 urban low-income children (ages 4-9) and their mothers, this 5-year prospective study examined the effects of early neglect severity and maternal substance abuse, as well as neighborhood crime, on children's later externalizing behavior problems. Severity of child neglect (up to age 6 years) mediated the relation between maternal drug dependence diagnosis (MDDD), determined at children's age of 4 years, and children's externalizing behavior problems at age 9. Rates of neighborhood crime mediated the link between presence of child neglect and children's externalizing behavior problems. The roles of MDDD, child neglect, and community violence in the development of child psychopathology are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention.

  13. A comparison of children with and without learning disabilities on social problem-solving skill, school behavior, and family background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, P A; Weissberg, R P; Guare, J; Liebenstein, N L

    1990-02-01

    The study compared 86 children with learning disabilities (LD) with 86 matched children without learning disabilities (NLD) on three domains of variables: social problem-solving skill, teacher-rated school behavior and competence, and family background. The children with LD and the NLD group differed on variables in all three domains. More specifically, the children with LD were able to generate fewer alternatives for solving social problem situations, showed less tolerance for frustration and less adaptive assertiveness, and had more overall classroom behavior problems and less personal and social competence in a variety of areas as rated by teachers. Children having LD also showed more family background difficulties (e.g., lack of educational stimulation at home, economic difficulties). The findings suggest the need for greater attention to social and behavioral remediation for children with LD and greater involvement of their families, in addition to the cognitive and academic remediation emphasized in existing curricula for children with LD.

  14. Adjustment problems in the family and school contexts, attitude towards authority, and violent behavior at school in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo; Estévez Lopez, Estefania; Emler, Nicholas P

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed the role of different but interrelated variables in the family and school contexts in relation to problems of violent behavior at school during adolescence. Participants were 1,068 students aged 11 to 16 (47% male) drawn from secondary schools in the Valencian Community (Spain). Statistical analyses were carried out using structural equation modeling. The model accounted for 32% of the variance in school violence. Results showed a direct association between quality of communication with father and teacher's expectations of the student with the adolescent's involvement in violent behavior at school. Moreover, findings showed indirect paths by which adolescents' self-concept (family and school domains), acceptance by peers, and attitude toward authority, seemed to be influenced by the quality of interactions with parent and teachers, and also were closely associated with violent behavior at school. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research on adolescent psychosocial adjustment and behavioral problems at school.

  15. Are Men's Reproductive Health Problems and Sexual Behavior Predictors of Welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoo, Emmanuel O; Oni, Gholahan A; Ajayi, Mofoluwake P; Idowu, Adenike E; Fadayomi, Theophilus O; Omideyi, Adekunbi K

    2015-07-31

    The study examined men's reproductive health problems and sexual behavior and their implications for men's welfare in Nigeria. It used the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data set of 2013. The analysis used only male recode files, representing 17,359 males. The dependent variable is the computed wealth index, which was selected as proxy for welfare condition. Analysis involved univariate and multivariate levels. The findings indicated that 49.3% of the respondents currently have more than one sexual partner. The total lifetime sexual partner index identifies 70.2% of the men interviewed have had at least two sexual partners in their lifetime. It revealed that men who experience reproductive health challenges, such as sexually transmitted infections and genital ulcer, are 44% and 93%, respectively, less likely to enjoy good welfare condition. It also indicated that men in urban area are 7.256 times more likely to enjoy good welfare condition compared with their rural counterparts. There is a negative association between total lifetime sexual partnerships and exposure to good welfare. The study concludes that social workers, marriage counselors, other health personnel, and policy makers need to focus on the practice of multiple sexual partnership and reproductive health diseases as major determinants of men's welfare. The authors suggest that the index of welfare should include reproductive health issues and indicators of sexual behavior. Also, there is need for the establishment of specialized reproductive health care services and centers that are accessible to all men for effective servicing of reproductive health needs of men in the country.

  16. Tracking Teachers' Behavior to Concurrently Decrease Punishment Use with and Problem Behavior in a Child with Autism while Decreasing the Child's Frequency of Negative Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambolin, Krista; Fabrizio, Michael; Ferris, Kelly; Barclay, Suzanne; Carrier, Dana

    2007-01-01

    Intervening with children's problem behavior can be tricky business. Adding punishment procedures into a child's intervention plan can not only add to the trickiness but also switch the attention of on-line staff members away from what should be the goal of any intervention for misbehavior--preventing the misbehavior and teaching functionally…

  17. Development process of an assessment tool for disruptive behavior problems in cross-cultural settings: the Disruptive Behavior International Scale - Nepal version (DBIS-N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Matthew D; Ghimire, Lajina; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Haroz, Emily; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Systematic processes are needed to develop valid measurement instruments for disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) in cross-cultural settings. We employed a four-step process in Nepal to identify and select items for a culturally valid assessment instrument: 1) We extracted items from validated scales and local free-list interviews. 2) Parents, teachers, and peers (n=30) rated the perceived relevance and importance of behavior problems. 3) Highly rated items were piloted with children (n=60) in Nepal. 4) We evaluated internal consistency of the final scale. We identified 49 symptoms from 11 scales, and 39 behavior problems from free-list interviews (n=72). After dropping items for low ratings of relevance and severity and for poor item-test correlation, low frequency, and/or poor acceptability in pilot testing, 16 items remained for the Disruptive Behavior International Scale-Nepali version (DBIS-N). The final scale had good internal consistency (α=0.86). A 4-step systematic approach to scale development including local participation yielded an internally consistent scale that included culturally relevant behavior problems.

  18. Assessing personality features and their relations with behavioral problems in adolescents: Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire and Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Chih, Yi-Chien; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Yang, Hao-Jan; Chen, Wei J

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the applicability for adolescents of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), which was originally designed for adults, as compared to the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (JEPQ). The study also evaluates their inter-relationship and associations with various behavioral problems as reported by parents using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). In a representative community sample of 905 adolescents, the results of internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and factor analysis showed that both the Harm Avoidance (HA) and the Novelty Seeking (NS) scales of the TPQ have sound construct validity, although the Reward Dependence (RD) scale has less so. The intercorrelation and factor analysis of the two questionnaires showed that the TPQ and the JEPQ are not simply alternative descriptions of the same construct of personality. In their associations with various behavioral problems, the scales of the TPQ are relatively more specifically associated with behavioral problems than the scales of the JEPQ. Our results provide empirical support for the applicability of the NS and the HA scales of the TPQ in adolescents, particularly in relation to behavioral problems.

  19. Comparing an Emotion- and a Behavior-Focused Parenting Program as Part of a Multsystemic Intervention for Child Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs.

  20. Family Violence and Children's Behavior Problems: Independent Contributions of Intimate Partner and Child-Directed Physical Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C; Barnett, Melissa A; Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2014-10-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 581 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities, the current study sought to investigate the longitudinal associations among father-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and child-directed physical aggression perpetrated by the mother. The unique contributions of each of these types of family violence on children's behavioral problems at school entry were also examined. Results confirm bidirectional associations between father-perpetrated IPV and maternal physical aggression directed toward the child, and indicate that both types of physical aggression contribute to child behavior problems at school entry.

  1. Problem solving moderates the effects of life event stress and chronic stress on suicidal behaviors in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Kelly E; Green, Kelly L; Pettit, Jeremy W; Monteith, Lindsey L; Garza, Monica J; Venta, Amanda

    2009-12-01

    The present study examined the unique and interactive effects of stress and problem-solving skills on suicidal behaviors among 102 inpatient adolescents. As expected, life event stress and chronic stress each significantly predicted suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Problem solving significantly predicted suicidal ideation, but not suicide attempt. Problem solving moderated the associations between life event stress and suicidal behaviors, as well as between chronic stress and suicidal ideation, but not chronic stress and suicide attempt. At high levels of stress, adolescents with poor problem-solving skills experienced elevated suicidal ideation and were at greater risk of making a nonfatal suicide attempt. The interactive effects decreased to non-significance after controlling for depressive symptoms and hopelessness. Clinical implications are discussed.

  2. Effortful Control, Behavior Problems and Peer Relations: What Predicts Academic Adjustment in Kindergarteners from Low-income Families?

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L.; Morris, Michael D. S.; Robinson, Lara R.; Myers, Sonya S.; Aucoin, Katherine J.; Keyes, Angela W.; Terranova, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of effortful control, behavior problems, and peer relations in the academic adjustment of 74 kindergarten children from primarily low-income families using a short-term longitudinal design. Teachers completed standardized measures of children’s effortful control, internalizing and externalizing problems, school readiness, and academic skills. Children participated in a sociometric interview to assess peer relations. Research Findings: Correlational analyses indica...

  3. Do Deviant Peer Associations Mediate the Contributions of Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior During Early Adolescence? A 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, David L.; Silverthorn, Naida

    2004-01-01

    We investigated deviant peer associations as a mediator of the influences of general and peer-oriented self-esteem on problem behavior using data from a 2-year longitudinal study of 350 young adolescents. Measures of problem behavior included substance use (alcohol use, smoking) and antisocial behavior (fighting, stealing). Using latent growth…

  4. Uniqueness and Asymptotic Behavior of Positive Solutions for a Fractional-Order Integral Boundary Value Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a model arising from porous media, electromagnetic, and signal processing of wireless communication system -tαx(t=f(t,x(t,x'(t,x”(t,…,x(n-2(t,  0behavior of positive solutions to the singular nonlocal integral boundary value problem for fractional differential equation are obtained. Our analysis relies on Schauder's fixed-point theorem and upper and lower solution method.

  5. Examination of Aggression and Self Injury in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Devon; Hallett, Victoria; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Arnold, L. Eugene; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Lecavalier, Luc; Handen, Benjamin; Swiezy, Naomi; Johnson, Cynthia; Bearss, Karen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Scahill, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis This study identified subtypes of aggression in a sample of 206 children (174 boys, 32 girls) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in two risperidone trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network. The classification of aggression subtypes was based on a review of brief narratives documented at baseline. The narratives were derived from a parent interview about the child’s two most pressing problems. Five subtypes of aggression emerged: hot aggression only, cold aggression only, self-injurious behavior (SIB) only, aggression and SIB, and non-aggressive. The aggression and SIB group had the highest proportion of children with IQ below 70. Children in the hot aggression group were slightly younger and had higher scores on the ABC-Irritability subscale than the non-aggression group. The SIB only group had the highest ABC-Irritability score. All groups showed a high rate of positive response to risperidone with no differences across subtypes. These study findings extend our understanding of aggression in ASD and may be useful to guide further study on biological mechanisms and individualized treatment in ASD. PMID:24231167

  6. The effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety on sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Jeremy S; Carper, Matthew M; Elkins, R Meredith; Comer, Jonathan S; Pincus, Donna B; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (a) whether sleep related problems (SRPs) improved following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with anxiety disorders, (b) whether variables that may link anxiety and SRPs (e.g., pre-sleep arousal, family accommodation, sleep hygiene) changed during treatment, and (c) whether such changes predicted SRPs at posttreatment. Youth were diagnosed with anxiety at pretreatment and received weekly CBT that targeted their principal anxiety diagnosis at one of two specialty clinics (N=69 completers, Mage=10.86). Results indicated that parent-reported SRPs improved from pre- to post-treatment and that treatment responders with regard to anxiety yielded greater SRP improvements than nonresponders. Parent report of bedtime resistance and sleep anxiety showed significant improvements. Youth reported lower rates of SRPs compared to their parents and did not demonstrate pre- to post-treatment changes in SRPs. Pre-sleep arousal and family accommodation decreased over treatment but did not predict lower SRPs at posttreatment. Higher accommodation was correlated with greater SRPs. Sleep hygiene evidenced no change and did not mediate links between accommodation and posttreatment SRPs.

  7. Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Their Mothers’ Labor Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Richard PhD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been documented that about 20% of children and adolescents suffer from a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder in the United States. The high prevalence of children’s emotional and behavioral problems (EBP might have a negative effect on their mothers’ labor market outcomes because children with EBP require additional time for treatment. However, these children may require additional financial resources, which might promote mothers’ labor supply. Previous studies have only considered chronic conditions in analyzing the impact of children’s health on parental work activities. Moreover, most of these studies have not accounted for endogeneity in children’s health. This article estimates the effects of children’s EBP on their mothers’ labor supply by family structure while accounting for endogeneity in children’s health. We used the 1997 and 2002 Child Development Supplements (CDS to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID. We used probit and bivariate probit models to estimate mothers’ probability of employment, and tobit and instrumental variable tobit models to estimate the effects of children’s EBP on their mothers’ work hours. Findings show negative effects of children’s EBP on their married mothers’ employment and on their single mothers’ work hours.

  8. Positive Youth Development, Life Satisfaction and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents in Intact and Non-Intact Families in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tan Lei Shek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether Chinese adolescents living in intact and non-intact families differed in their positive development, life satisfaction, and risk behavior. A total of 3,328 Secondary 1 students responded to measures of positive youth development (such as resilience and psychosocial competencies, life satisfaction, and risk behavior (substance abuse, delinquency, Internet addiction, consumption of pornographic materials, self-harm, and behavioral intention to engage in problem behavior. Findings revealed that adolescents growing up in intact families reported higher levels of positive developmental outcomes and life satisfaction as compared with adolescents from non-intact families. Adolescents in non-intact families also reported higher levels of risk behaviors than those growing up in intact families.

  9. Gene-Environment Interaction in Teacher-Rated Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behavior in 7- to 12-Year-Old Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internalizing and externalizing problem behavior at school can have major consequences for a child and is predictive for disorders later in life. Teacher ratings are important to assess internalizing and externalizing problems at school. Genetic epidemiological studies on teacher-rated problem behavior are relatively scarce and the…

  10. Parental Knowledge of Behavioral Principles Following Training to Address Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kylan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the challenges that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, sleep problems in children present significant challenges for the entire family. Research studies on behavioral interventions to…

  11. Identification of emotional and behavioral problems by teachers in children with developmental coordination disorder in the school community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Flapper, Boudien C T; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence on the co-occurrence of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and psychosocial problems mainly concerns parent-reported information, but rarely includes teacher information. The aim of this study was (1) to investigate the teachers' identification of emotional and behavioral problems in children with DCD and (2) to examine the performance of the teacher version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-T) compared with the Teacher Report Form (TRF) in children with DCD. We assessed primary school children (202 boys, 200 girls, range 4-10.8 years, mean age 7.2 years) for DCD following the DSM IV-TR criteria. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured with the TRF (n=327) and the SDQ-T (n=361). DCD was established in 23 (5.7%) children, 16 boys and 7 girls (mean age 7.0 years). Children with DCD had a higher proportion of clinical scores on both the TRF Total Problem Scale (TRF TPS) and SDQ-T Total Difficulties Score (SDQ-T TDS). Children with DCD had increased odds on the TRF domains Thought (odds ratio, OR: 5.39), Externalizing (OR: 4.12) and Internalizing (OR: 4.42) problems, and on all SDQ-T-domains and Total Difficulties score (OR: 7.30). In the DCD group the SDQ-T TDS correlated strongly (Spearman's rho 0.80) with the TRF TPS and demonstrated a moderate agreement (Cohen's Kappa 0.53). In conclusion, teachers identified significantly more emotional and behavioral problems in children with DCD compared with their peers. The SDQ-T showed moderate agreement with the TRF in identifying emotional and behavioral problems in children with DCD.

  12. Configurations of Adolescents' Peer Experiences : Associations With Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Parental Problem Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Meeus, Wim; Verhulst, Frank C.; Veenstra, Rene; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents' peer experiences embrace behavior, relationship quality, status, and victimization, but studies that account for multiple dimensions are rare. Using latent profile modeling and measures of peer behavior, relationship quality, peer status, and victimization assessed from 1,677 adolescent

  13. The Parental Concerns Questionnaire: A Brief Screening Instrument for Potentially Severe Behavior Problems in Infants and Toddlers At-Risk for Developmental Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Stephen R; Rojahn, Johannes; An, Xiaozhu; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; Leblanc, Judith

    2014-04-01

    The Parental Concerns Questionnaire (PCQ) was designed as a parent-interview screening instrument for young children with developmental concerns at risk for potentially severe behavior problems (SBDs). Parents of 262 young children (4 to 48 months) answered to the 15 dichotomous PCQ items interviewed by trained staff. Cluster analysis for items revealed three item clusters, which we labeled Developmental/Social (8 items), Biomedical (3 items), and Behavior Problems (3 items). This paper discussed primarily the Behavior Problems cluster, with items referring to self-injurious, aggressive, and destructive behaviors. Parents' concerns about behavior problems were high, with item-endorsements of the Behavior Problems cluster ranging from 41.8 % to 68.8 %. The Behavior Problems cluster was significantly correlated with all three subscales of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01), with select subscales of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and with the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) providing some evidence for concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity data were computed for the three PCQ items as well as for the cluster score in comparison with the BPI-01, ABC, and RBS-R showing strong sensitivity. The PCQ Behavior Problems cluster is a useful screening checklist with high sensitivity for potential SBDs in young children at-risk for developmental delays.

  14. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joreintje D Mackenbach

    Full Text Available Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.

  15. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Ringoot, Ank P; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Jansen, Pauline W; Tiemeier, Henning W

    2014-01-01

    Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately.

  16. Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on behavioral problems in children: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, I.; Speetjens, P.; Smit, F.; de Wolff, M.; Tavecchio, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Triple P Positive Parenting Program is a multilevel parenting program to prevent and offer treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of Triple P Level 4 interventions in the management of behav

  17. Associations between Problem Behaviors and Early Vocabulary Skills among Hispanic Dual-Language Learners in Pre-K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Soares, Denise A.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Zhu, Leina; Davis, Heather S.; Kwok, Oi-man; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Saenz, Laura M.; Resendez, Nora M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relations between problem behaviors and early learning outcomes among 138 children in dual-language pre-K programs who were identified at the beginning of the school year to be at risk for difficulties in early language and literacy development. Children's expressive and receptive vocabulary, listening comprehension, and…

  18. The effectiveness of parent management training—oregon model in clinically referred children with externalizing behavior problems in the netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Jill; Vink, G.; Muris, Peter; de Ruiter, Corine

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of parent management training—Oregon model (PMTO) as a treatment for children with externalizing behavior problems in The Netherlands. Clinically referred children (N = 146) aged 4–11 years and their parents were partly randomized to either PMTO (n = 91)

  19. Neural rhythms of change: Long-term improvement after successful treatment in children with disruptive behavior problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, S.; Liao, V.; Liu, Z.X.; Granic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Neural changes were investigated for children with disruptive behavior problems one year after a treatment program ended. Thirty-nine children and their parents visited the research lab before, after, and a year after treatment ended. During those lab visits, electroencephalography (EEG) was recorde

  20. New Approaches to Studying Problem Behaviors: A Comparison of Methods for Modeling Longitudinal, Categorical Adolescent Drinking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Betsy J.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Conger, Rand D.

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing problem-behavior trajectories can be difficult. The data are generally categorical and often quite skewed, violating distributional assumptions of standard normal-theory statistical models. In this article, the authors present several currently available modeling options, all of which make appropriate distributional assumptions for the…