WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior modification

  1. Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Randolph M.

    2010-01-01

    In a perfect world, students would never talk back to school staff and never argue or fight with each other. They would complete all their assigned tasks, and disciplinary actions never would be needed. Unfortunately, people don't live in a perfect world. Student behavior is a daily concern. Teachers continue to refer students to the office as a…

  2. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  3. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  4. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  5. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines,

  6. Mechanisms of behavior modification in clinical behavioral medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyin; Su, Zhonghua; Ji, Feng; Zhu, Min; Bai, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Behavior modification, as the core of clinical behavioral medicine, is often used in clinical settings. We seek to summarize behavior modification techniques that are commonly used in clinical practice of behavioral medicine in China and discuss possible biobehavioral mechanisms. We reviewed common behavior modification techniques in clinical settings in China, and we reviewed studies that explored possible biobehavioral mechanisms. Commonly used clinical approaches of behavior modification in China include behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, health education, behavior management, behavioral relaxation training, stress management intervention, desensitization therapy, biofeedback therapy, and music therapy. These techniques have been applied in the clinical treatment of a variety of diseases, such as chronic diseases, psychosomatic diseases, and psychological disorders. The biobehavioral mechanisms of these techniques involve the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, neurobiochemistry, and neuroplasticity. Behavior modification techniques are commonly used in the treatment of a variety of somatic and psychological disorders in China. Multiple biobehavioral mechanisms are involved in successful behavior modification.

  7. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Because their prescription to birds is off-label, these drugs are considered appropriate only when a sound rationale can be provided for their use. This requires a (correct) behavioral diagnosis to be established. In addition, regular monitoring and follow-up are warranted to determine the efficacy of the treatment and evaluate the occurrence of potential adverse side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavior Modification Revisited: Practical Application for the Reading Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Deborah Odom; Lang, William Steve

    An informal study examined the impact of a simple behavior modification procedure on the reading habits of second and fifth grade students. Behavior modification theory was pared down to two rules ("reinforce proper behavior" and "reinforce anything close to proper behavior") so that no additional burdens would be placed on…

  9. Hypnotherapy: A Combined Approach Using Psychotherapy and Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Discusses use of hypnosis in traditional psychoanalysis, compares use of hypnosis in behavior modification therapy versus psychoanalysis, and presents a hypno-behavioral model which combines both approaches using hypnosis as the medium. (Author/NB)

  10. Behavior modification therapy in hyperactive children. Research and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, M L

    1979-09-01

    One hundred fifty-seven studies employing behavior modification in the management of hyperactive and disruptive children were reviewed. The studies were analyzed against standards of scientific validity. The review found: (1) behavior modification was effective in alleviating problem behaviors; (2) token programs were the most commonly used; (3) both positive reinforcement and punishment were effective; positive reinforcement, however, had the advantage of improving self-esteem; (4) behavioral problems occurring in the home most likely require a home-based program; (5) behavior modification and stimulant medication can be used simultaneously, often with additive effects; and (6) long-term benefits beyond one year have not been assessed.

  11. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  12. Behavior Modification: Basic Principles. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David L.; Axelrod, Saul

    2005-01-01

    This classic book presents the basic principles of behavior emphasizing the use of preventive techniques as well as consequences naturally available in the home, business, or school environment to change important behaviors. This book, and its companion piece, "Measurement of Behavior," represents more than 30 years of research and strategies in…

  13. On the genetic modification of psychology, personality, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzke, Alex B

    2012-12-01

    I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility.

  14. Behavior Modification in Special Education in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkey, Peter

    1977-01-01

    West German literature on educational behavior modification is summarized, and empirical studies of behavior modification intervention with special education students at the elementary level are surveyed. (SBH)

  15. Obesity Treatment: Environment and Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maryanne

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is commonly encountered in veterinary patients. Although there are various published dietary approaches to achieving weight loss, successful long-term prevention of weight regain has proven elusive. Adding environmental and behavioral treatment strategies to a weight loss plan may help the veterinary team, the pet, and the pet owner maximize the effectiveness of the program. Because the owner directly affects the environment and behavior of the pet undergoing a weight loss plan, treatment strategies with an emphasis on owner involvement is the focus of this review. Veterinary use of the 5 A's behavioral counseling approach with the pet owner is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modification of feeding circuits in the evolution of social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Eva K; O'Connell, Lauren A

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive trade-offs between foraging and social behavior intuitively explain many aspects of individual decision-making. Given the intimate connection between social behavior and feeding/foraging at the behavioral level, we propose that social behaviors are linked to foraging on a mechanistic level, and that modifications of feeding circuits are crucial in the evolution of complex social behaviors. In this Review, we first highlight the overlap between mechanisms underlying foraging and parental care and then expand this argument to consider the manipulation of feeding-related pathways in the evolution of other complex social behaviors. We include examples from diverse taxa to highlight that the independent evolution of complex social behaviors is a variation on the theme of feeding circuit modification. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. METHODS: The program...... development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5...

  18. Self-Concept Change in Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Victor L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Changes in self-concept as a function of behavioral treatment for test anxiety are investigated. Test-anxious subjects (N=72) were randomly assigned to systematic desensitization, relaxation-training only, or no-treatment control conditions. Results indicate that the desensitization and relaxation treatments were both effective in reducing test…

  19. Common sense behavior modification: a guide for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Debra F; Pike, Amy L

    2014-05-01

    Behavior problems are often given as a reason for pet relinquishment to shelters. When presented with any behavior problem, veterinarians should perform a thorough physical examination (including neurologic and orthopedic examination) and a minimum database, including a complete blood cell count, chemistry panel, and total T4 and free T4 by equilibrium dialysis if values are low to rule out any medical contributions. Veterinarians should be a source of information regarding management, safety, and basic behavior modification for common behavior problems. Additionally, various control devices offer pet owners the ability to better manage their pets in difficult situations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of Behavior Modification with L. D. Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Frank P.

    Reviewed was research on the application of operant conditioning techniques to the modification of the classroom behavior of learning disabled students. The methodology and results of the studies were examined and each study summarized. It was concluded that there was little common interpretation of the term "learning disabilities" and that all of…

  1. A Review of Different Behavior Modification Strategies Designed to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Steeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1–12 years. Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50% significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (−0.44 to −3.1 h/day and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  2. Behavior modification and pharmacotherapy for separation anxiety in a 2-year-old pointer cross

    OpenAIRE

    Lem, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Separation anxiety is a common behavioral problem in dogs. Treatment is based on developing a behavior modification protocol that gradually desensitizes and counter-conditions the dog to being left alone, by rewarding calm, relaxed behavior. Judicious use of pharmacotherapy can be a useful adjunct to a behavior modification program.

  3. Measurement and modification of the EEG and related behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterman, M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Electrophysiological changes in the sensorimotor pathways were found to accompany the effect of rhythmic EEG patterns in the sensorimotor cortex. Additionally, several striking behavioral changes were seen, including in particular an enhancement of sleep and an elevation of seizure threshold to epileptogenic agents. This raised the possibility that human seizure disorders might be influenced therapeutically by similar training. Our objective in human EEG feedback training became not only the facilitation of normal rhythmic patterns, but also the suppression of abnormal activity, thus requiring complex contingencies directed to the normalization of the sensorimotor EEG. To achieve this, a multicomponent frequency analysis was developed to extract and separate normal and abnormal elements of the EEG signal. Each of these elements was transduced to a specific component of a visual display system, and these were combined through logic circuits to present the subject with a symbolic display. Variable criteria provided for the gradual shaping of EEG elements towards the desired normal pattern. Some 50-70% of patients with poorly controlled seizure disorders experienced therapeutic benefits from this approach in our laboratory, and subsequently in many others. A more recent application of this approach to the modification of human brain function in our lab has been directed to the dichotomous problems of task overload and underload in the contemporary aviation environment. At least 70% of all aviation accidents have been attributed to the impact of these kinds of problems on crew performance. The use of EEG in this context has required many technical innovations and the application of the latest advances in EEG signal analysis. Our first goal has been the identification of relevant EEG characteristics. Additionally, we have developed a portable recording and analysis system for application in this context. Findings from laboratory and in-flight studies suggest that we

  4. Supportive intervention using a mobile phone in behavior modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareva, David H; Okada, Hiroki; Kitawaki, Tomoki; Oka, Hisao

    2009-04-01

    The authors previously developed a mobile ecological momentary assessment (EMA) system as a real-time data collection device using a mobile phone. In this study, a real-time advice function and real-time reporting function were added to the previous system as a supportive intervention. The improved system was found to work effectively and was applied to several clinical cases, including patients with depressive disorder, dizziness, smoking habit, and bronchial asthma. The average patient compliance rate was high (89%) without the real-time advice and higher (93%) with the advice. The trends in clinical data for patients using a mobile EMA with/without the new function were analyzed for up to several months. In the case of dizziness, an improving trend in its clinical data was observed after applying the real-time advice, and in the case of depressive disorder, a stabilizing trend was observed. The mobile EMA system with the real-time advice function could be useful as a supportive intervention in behavior modification and for motivating patients in self-management of their disease.

  5. Treating Retentive Encopresis: Dietary Modification and Behavioral Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Laura; Morgan, Sam B.

    1995-01-01

    A home-based contingency management program, consisting of diet modification, laxatives, correction for soiling accidents, stimulus control training, and positive reinforcement, was implemented for treatment of a 4-year-old encopretic male. The findings provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of dietary modification combined with behavior…

  6. A process model of voluntary travel behavior modification and effects of Travel Feedback Programs (TFPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Ayako

    2007-01-01

    This study tested an integrated process model of travel behavior modification. We used a model that combined the theory of planned behavior (TPB), norm activation theory (NAT), a theory of implementation intention, and theories of habit. To test the integrated model, we used panel data (n = 208) obtained before and after travel feedback programs (TFPs); the TFP is a communication program aimed at voluntary travel behavior modification, from automobile use to non-auto means of travel such as p...

  7. Beyond behavior modification: Benefits of social-emotional/self-regulation training for preschoolers with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Hart, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; Mage=5.16years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. During the summer between preschool and kindergarten, children were randomized to receive three newly developed intervention packages. The first and most cost effective intervention package was an 8-week School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP). Families randomized into the second and third intervention packages received not only the weekly SRPP, but children also attended two different versions of an intensive kindergarten summer readiness class (M-F, 8a.m.-5p.m.) that was part of an 8-week summer treatment program for pre-kindergarteners (STP-PreK). One version included the standard behavioral modification system and academic curriculum (STP-PreK) while the other additionally contained social-emotional and self-regulation training (STP-PreK Enhanced). Baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up data were collected on children's school readiness outcomes including parent, teacher, and objective assessment measures. Analyses using linear mixed models indicated that children's behavioral functioning significantly improved across all groups in a similar magnitude. Children in the STP-PreK Enhanced group, however, experienced greater growth across time in academic achievement, emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and executive functioning compared to children in the other groups. These findings suggest that while parent training is sufficient to address children's behavioral difficulties, an intensive summer program that goes beyond behavioral modification and academic preparation by targeting socio-emotional and self-regulation skills can have incremental benefits across multiple aspects of school readiness

  8. Cultural Context and Modification of Behavior Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

    2009-01-01

    Although social and cultural contexts act on each level of the multilevel ecologic model to affect cancer risk, health behavior, and cancer screening and promotion in health behavior research, people have yet to develop theories that sufficiently integrate the social and environmental context with group and individual behavior. The "Behavioral…

  9. Science and Human Behavior, dualism, and conceptual modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriff, G E

    2003-11-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior is in part an attempt to solve psychology's problem with mind-body dualism by revising our everyday mentalistic conceptual scheme. In the case of descriptive mentalism (the use of mentalistic terms to describe behavior), Skinner offers behavioral "translations." In contrast, Skinner rejects explanatory mentalism (the use of mental concepts to explain behavior) and suggests how to replace it with a behaviorist explanatory framework. For experiential mentalism, Skinner presents a theory of verbal behavior that integrates the use of mentalistic language in first-person reports of phenomenal experience into a scientific framework.

  10. Effect of Subliminal Stimulation of Symbiotic Fantasies on Behavior Modification Treatment of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Silverman, Lloyd H.

    1978-01-01

    Obese women were treated in behavior modification programs for overeating. Behavior programs were accompanied by subliminal stimulation and by symbiotic and control messages. The symbiotic condition gave evidence of enhancing weight loss. This finding supports the proposition that subliminal stimulation of symbiotic fantasies can enhance the…

  11. Maternal Behavior Modifications during Pretense and Their Long-Term Effects on Toddlers' Understanding of Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate the need to investigate the sources of toddlers' understanding of another person's pretense. The present study is a cultural and longitudinal extension of the work of Lillard and Witherington (2004), who claimed that mothers modify their behaviors during pretense and that the some of these behavior modifications help their…

  12. A Secure Behavior Modification Sensor System for Physical Activity Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Today, advances in wireless sensor networks are making it possible to capture large amounts of information about a person and their interaction within their home environment. However, what is missing is how to ensure the security of the collected data and its use to alter human behavior for positive benefit. In this research, exploration was…

  13. MODIFICATION OF SEA ANEMONE BEHAVIOR BY SYMBIOTIC ZOOXANTHELLAE: PHOTOTAXIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Vicki Buchsbaum

    1974-12-01

    The sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, with and without endosymbiotic zooxanthellae, was tested for evidence of phototactic behavior. Anemones with zooxanthellae always displayed phototaxis, either positive or negative depending on the experimental light intensity and the light intensity of the habitat from which the animals were taken. Anemones without zooxanthellae-even those that had previously harbored zooxanthellae and that were genetically identical clone-mates of phototactic individuals-never displayed phototaxis, appearing completely indifferent to light and shade. The results indicate that phototaxis in this sea anemone depends directly on the presence of its symbiotic algae. It is suggested that the flexible phototactic behavior of the anemone may play an important role in favorably regulating the amount of light to which the zooxanthellae are exposed.

  14. Attentional bias modification for addictive behaviors: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, W Miles; Fadardi, Javad S; Intriligator, James M; Klinger, Eric

    2014-06-01

    When a person has a goal of drinking alcohol or using another addictive substance, the person appears to be automatically distracted by stimuli related to the goal. Because the attentional bias might propel the person to use the substance, an intervention might help modify it. In this article, we discuss techniques that have been developed to help people overcome their attentional bias for alcohol, smoking-related stimuli, drugs, or unhealthy food. We also discuss how these techniques are being adapted for use on mobile devices. The latter would allow people with an addictive behavior to use the attentional training in privacy and as frequently as needed. The attentional training techniques discussed here appear to have several advantages. They are inexpensive, can be fun to use, and have flexibility in when, where, and how often they are used. The evidence so far also suggests that they are effective.

  15. On the Value of Nonremovable Reminders for Behavior Modification: An Application to Nail-Biting (Onychophagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koritzky, Gilly; Yechiam, Eldad

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of a novel behavior modification method for dysfunctional and impulsive habits, based on nonremovable reminders (NrRs). NrRs were implemented by having participants wear nonremovable wristbands designated to constantly remind them of their resolution to quit the targeted habit (nail-biting). Participants were…

  16. Behavior Modification for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: Treatments and Supports. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L., Ed.; Laud, Rinita B., Ed.; Matson, Michael L., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    In the last few decades, the field of dual diagnosis as applied to those with intellectual disabilities has boasted a monumental surge in assessment devices and treatment approaches. These relatively recent advances include those in the development of behavior modification principles and procedures that have had a dramatic impact on services for…

  17. Knowledge of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder of Behavior Modification Methods and Their Training Needs Accordingly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Raid Mousa Al-Shaik

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying knowledge of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder of behavior modification methods and their training needs accordingly. The sample of the study consisted of (98) parents in Jordan. A scale of behavior modification methods was constructed, and then validated. The results of the study showed that the…

  18. Biofouling behavior and performance of forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification in osmotic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Cheng, Qianxun; Tian, Qing; Yang, Bo; Chen, Qianyuan

    2016-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable interest for water and energy related applications in recent years. Biofouling behavior and performance of cellulose triacetate (CTA) forward osmosis membranes with bioinspired surface modification via polydopamine (PD) coating and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafting (PD-g-PEG) in a submerged osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) were investigated in this work. The modified membranes exhibited lower flux decline than the pristine one in OMBR, confirming that the bioinspired surface modification improved the antifouling ability of the CTA FO membrane. The result showed that the decline of membrane flux related to the increase of the salinity and MLSS concentration of the mixed liquid. It was concluded that the antifouling ability of modified membranes ascribed to the change of surface morphology in addition to the improvement of membrane hydrophilicity. The bioinspired surface modifications might improve the anti-adhesion for the biopolymers and biocake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavior Modification/Traditional Techniques for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Paul; Ryan, Joseph B.; Gunter, Philip L.; Denny, R. Kenton

    2012-01-01

    In addressing positive general education teaching practices for use with students with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the chapter emphasizes teacher behavior change research that has been informed by applied behavior analytic (ABA) principles. Its central theme is that general education teachers can access research…

  20. Designing the user interfaces of a behavior modification intervention for obesity & eating disorders prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2015-01-01

    The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.

  1. Effects of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification on the Social and Academic Behavior of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: The Moderating Role of Callous/Unemotional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Carrey, Normand J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; King, Sara; Andrade, Brendan F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether response to behavior modification with and without methylphenidate differed for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct problems (CP) depending on the presence of callous/unemotional (CU) traits. Participants were 37 children ages 7 to 12, including 19 with ADHD/CP-only and 18 with…

  2. The influence of a behavior modification interventional program on body mass index in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulabi, Tahereh; Khosh Niyat Nikoo, Mohsen; Amini, Fariba; Nazari, Hedayat; Mardani, Mahnaz

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight among children and adolescents is increasing rapidly. The present research was performed to determine the influence of a ''behavior modification'' program on body mass index (BMI) in obese public high school students in Iran. In this study, 152 adolescence and their parents were selected from 12 high schools of Khorram Abad from 2004 to 2006, and they were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control groups. The "behavior modification" interventional program consisted of nutritional education, modifying dietary habits, teaching exercise programs, teaching nutritional facts to the parents, and performing exercises 3 days a week. The height and weight as well as waist, hip, and wrist circumferences of the participants were measured before and after implementing the interventional program. BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. The adolescents and parents completed a nutrition knowledge questionnaire. Adolescents also completed the Beck's Depression Questionnaire. Adolescent's mean weight, BMI, and waist and hip circumferences decreased significantly after implementing the interventional program, in the intervention group (p≤0.001). In addition, the students' and parents' nutrition knowledge increased in the intervention group after implementing the interventional program (pbehavior modification'' interventional program is effective in reducing BMI in obese students, and therefore, school principals and planners can play an important role in controlling obesity by implementing this program via the students, their parents, and the school staff. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. [Review of the approach to exercise behavior modification from the viewpoint of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takuo; Kouta, Munetsugu; Shigemori, Kenta; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the approaches to behavior modification for exercise from the viewpoint of preventive medicine. Articles were searched according to the particular field of preventive medicine, i.e., primary prevention, secondary prevention, tertiary prevention, and other fields of prevention. In the field of primary prevention for elderly people living at home, many fall prevention programs were found to have been carried out. In these studies, various programs were found to be effective if the exercise proved to be sufficient. Although some approaches were observed to be based on the productive aging theory and social capital, the number of such studies was small. In the field of secondary prevention, illness and functional disorders are prevented from becoming worse. It is therefore important for each individual to exercise by himself/herself and also acquire sufficient self-monitoring skills. Social capital is useful for learning good exercise habits. In the field of tertiary prevention, although exercise therapy is effective for improving physical functions and preventing disease recurrence in patients with chronic disease, some patients nevertheless find it difficult to continue such an exercise therapy. The approaches to behavior modification were extremely effective for patients with chronic disease. In other fields of preventive medicine, daily exercises such stair climbing are effective methods for reducing the risk of chronic disease and such a behavior modification may lead to a considerable public health gain. In the future, further studies with a many lines of evidence should be performed, and approaches based on behavioral science should be established.

  4. Near-surface modifications for improved crack tolerant behavior of high strength alloys: trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettche, L.R.; Rath, B.B.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to examine the potential of surface modifications in improving the crack tolerant behavior of high strength alloys. Provides a critique of two of the most promising and versatile techniques: ion implantation and laser beam surface processing. Discusses crack tolerant properties; engineering characterization; publication trends and Department of Defense interests; and emergent surface modification techniques. Finds that the efficiency with which high strength alloys can be incorporated into a structure or component is dependent on the following crack tolerant properties: fracture toughness, fatigue resistance, sustained loading cracking resistance, fretting fatigue resistance, and hydrogen embrittlement resistance. Concludes that ion implantation and laser surface processing coupled with other advanced metallurgical procedures and fracture mechanic analyses provide the means to optimize both the bulk and surface controlled crack tolerant properties

  5. A Digital Framework to Support Providers and Patients in Diabetes Related Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Samina; Vallis, Michael; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Imran, Syed Ali; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-01-01

    We present Diabetes Web-Centric Information and Support Environment (D-WISE) that features: (a) Decision support tool to assist family physicians to administer Behavior Modification (BM) strategies to patients; and (b) Patient BM application that offers BM strategies and motivational interventions to engage patients. We take a knowledge management approach, using semantic web technologies, to model the social cognition theory constructs, Canadian diabetes guidelines and BM protocols used locally, in terms of a BM ontology that drives the BM decision support to physicians and BM strategy adherence monitoring and messaging to patients. We present the qualitative analysis of D-WISE usability by both physicians and patients.

  6. Beyond Behavioral Modification: Benefits of Socio-Emotional/Self-Regulation Training for Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A.; Hart, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; M[subscript age] = 5.16 years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically…

  7. A structural model of health behavior modification among patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goong, Hwasoo; Ryu, Seungmi; Xu, Lijuan

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to test a structural equation model in which social support, health beliefs, and stage of change predict the health behaviors of patients with cardiovascular disease. A cross-sectional correlational design was used. Using convenience sampling, a survey about social support, health belief, stage of change, and health behavior was completed by 314 adults with cardiovascular disease from outpatient clinics in 2 university hospitals in Korea. Data were analyzed using a structural equation model with the Analysis of Moment program. The participants were aged 53.44±13.19 years (mean±SD), and about 64% of them were male. The proposed model fit the data from the study well, explaining 19% and 60% of the variances in the stage of change and health behavior, respectively. The findings indicate that the performance of health behavior modification among the patients with cardiovascular disease can be explained by social support, health belief, and stage of change based on a health-belief and stage-of-change model. Further studies are warranted to confirm the efficacy of health-promoting strategies in initiating and maintaining the performance of health behaviors by providing social support from family and medical staff and enhancing health belief. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of compositional modifications on the sensitization behavior of Fe-Cr-Mn steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgemon, G.L.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Bell, G.E.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fe-Cr-Mn steels may possibly be used in conjuction with aqueous blankets or coolants in a fusion device. Therefore, standard chemical immersion (modified Strauss) tests were conducted to characterize the effects of compositional modifications on the thermal sensitization behavior of these steels. A good correlation among weight losses, intergranular corrosion, and cracking was found. The most effective means of decreasing their susceptibility was through reduction of the carbon concentration of these steels to 0.1%, but the sensitization resistance of Fe-Cr-Mn-0.1 C compositions was still inferior to type 304L and other similar stainless steels. Alloying additions that form stable carbides did not have a very significant influence on the sensitization behavior. (orig.)

  9. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo Ramos, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br, E-mail: mrmartin@usp.br [Laboratorio de Analise, Avaliacao e Gerenciamento de Risco (LabRisco/POLI/USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abe, Alfredo; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e, E-mail: ayabe@ipen.br, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixiera@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in a fuel performance code to evaluate the behavior of iron based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes. (author)

  10. Modification of fuel performance code to evaluate iron-based alloy behavior under LOCA scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Abe, Alfredo; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Gomes, Daniel de Souza; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e

    2017-01-01

    Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) has been studied since the Fukushima Daiichi accident in the research efforts to develop new materials which under accident scenarios could maintain the fuel rod integrity for a longer period compared to the cladding and fuel system usually utilized in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The efforts have been focused on new materials applied as cladding, then iron-base alloys appear as a possible candidate. The aim of this paper is to implement modifications in a fuel performance code to evaluate the behavior of iron based alloys under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. For this, initially the properties related to the thermal and mechanical behavior of iron-based alloys were obtained from the literature, appropriately adapted and introduced in the fuel performance code subroutines. The adopted approach was step by step modifications, where different versions of the code were created. The assessment of the implemented modification was carried out simulating an experiment available in the open literature (IFA-650.5) related to zirconium-based alloy fuel rods submitted to LOCA conditions. The obtained results for the iron-based alloy were compared to those obtained using the regular version of the fuel performance code for zircaloy-4. The obtained results have shown that the most important properties to be changed are those from the subroutines related to the mechanical properties of the cladding. The results obtained have shown that the burst is observed at a longer time for fuel rods with iron-based alloy, indicating the potentiality of this material to be used as cladding with ATF purposes. (author)

  11. The social control of behavior control: behavior modification, Individual Rights, and research ethics in America, 1971-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra

    2006-01-01

    In 1971, the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights began a three-year study to investigate the federal funding of all research involving behavior modification. During this period, operant programs of behavior change, particularly those implemented in closed institutions, were subjected to specific scrutiny. In this article, I outline a number of scientific and social factors that led to this investigation and discuss the study itself. I show how behavioral scientists, both individually and through their professional organizations, responded to this public scrutiny by (1) self-consciously altering their terminology and techniques; (2) considering the need to more effectively police their professional turf; and (3) confronting issues of ethics and values in their work. Finally, I link this episode to the formation of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, whose recommendations resulted in changes to the ethical regulation of federally funded human subjects research that persist to the present day. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Mindfulness and Modification Therapy for Behavioral Dysregulation: A Comparison Trial Focused on Substance Use and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wupperman, Peggilee; Cohen, Mia Gintoft; Haller, Deborah L; Flom, Peter; Litt, Lisa C; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2015-10-01

    Disorders of behavioral dysregulation often involve more than one dsyregulated behavior (e.g., drug abuse and aggression, alcohol abuse and gambling). The high co-occurrence suggests the need of a transdiagnostic treatment that can be customized to target multiple specific behaviors. The current pilot study compared a 20-week, individual transdiagnostic therapy (mindfulness and modification therapy [MMT]) versus treatment as usual (TAU) in targeting alcohol problems, drug use, physical aggression, and verbal aggression in self-referred women. Assessments were administered at baseline, post-intervention, and 2-month follow-up. Wilcoxon signed-ranked tests and multilevel modeling showed that MMT (n = 13) displayed (a) significant and large decreases in alcohol/drug use, physical aggression, and verbal aggression; (b) significantly greater decreases in alcohol/drug use and physical aggression than did TAU (n = 8); and (c) minimal-to-no deterioration of effects at follow-up. Both conditions showed significant decreases in verbal aggression, with no statistically significant difference between conditions. MMT also displayed greater improvements in mindfulness. Preliminary findings support the feasibility and efficacy of MMT in decreasing multiple dysregulated behaviors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Alternative Education: A Comparative Case Study of the Behavior Modification Programs of Two Upstate South Carolina Alternative Schools for Youth Who Exhibit Behavior That Is Disruptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scipio, Timothy Lamont

    2013-01-01

    This study examined behavior modification programs in schools designed to focus on discipline and that aim to reform disruptive behavior in students, usually over a limited period of time. This was a comparative case study of two type II alternative schools in the Upstate of South Carolina. The findings contributed to the research base regarding…

  14. Neutron-induced modifications on Hostaphan and Makrofol wettability and etching behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, D.; El-Saftawy, A.A.; Abd El Aal, S.A.; Fayez-Hassan, M.; Al-Abyad, M.; Mansour, N.A.; Seddik, U.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the nature of polymers used as nuclear detectors is crucial to enhance their behaviors. In this work, the induced modifications in wettability and etching properties of Hostaphan and Makrofol polymers irradiated by different fluences of thermal neutrons are investigated. The wetting properties are studied by contact angle technique which showed the spread out of various liquids over the irradiated polymers surfaces (wettability enhanced). This wetting behavior is attributed to the induced changes in surface free energy (SFE), morphology, roughness, structure, hardness, and chemistry. SFE values are calculated by three different models and found to increase after neutrons irradiation associated with differences depending on the used model. These differences result from the intermolecular interactions in the liquid/polymer system. Surface morphology and roughness of both polymers showed drastic changes after irradiation. Additionally, surface structure and hardness of pristine and irradiated polymers were discussed and correlated to the surface wettability improvements. The changes in surface chemistry are examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which indicate an increase in surface polarity due to the formation of polar groups. The irradiated polymers etching characteristics and activation energies are discussed as well. Lastly, it is evident that thermal neutrons show efficiency in improving surface wettability and etching properties of Hostaphan and Makrofol in a controlled way. - Highlights: • Neutrons radiation used to modify Hostaphan and Makrofol polymer wetting behavior. • Tailoring surface structure, topography and chemistry control its wettability. • Bulk etching rate and activation energy improved after neutrons irradiation.

  15. Effectiveness of a behavior modification program for older people with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnapiruk, Liwan; Wirojratana, Virapun; Meehatchai, Nitaya; Turale, Sue

    2014-06-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of a behavior modification program for diabetic control in Thai elders with uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes. Purposive sampling was used to select 30 elders from one community as an intervention group, and 30 from a neighboring community as a control group. The intervention group participated in a program of 12 weeks' duration involving activities related to group counseling, group discussion, and an empowerment process that enhanced appropriate consumption of healthy diet, medication taking, and exercise. Data were collected by interviews using a questionnaire to assess knowledge of diabetes, perceived self-efficacy, and diabetes control behavior, including fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, were examined at the baseline and three months thereafter. At program completion, the intervention group had significantly higher scores of knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors than those in the control group, but blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin were not significantly different. Although nurses can use aspects of this program to benefit elders with diabetes who require support and education, further research is required to provide improved health outcomes such as better glycemic control. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Electrophysiological brain indices of risk behavior modification induced by contingent feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías, Alberto; Torres, Miguel Angel; Catena, Andrés; Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions. This behavioral modification implied a higher demand on cognitive control, reflected in a larger amplitude of the N400 component. Moreover, the contingent feedback, being predictable and entailing more informative value, gave rise to smaller SPN and larger FRN scores when compared with non-contingent feedback. Taken together, these findings provide a new and complex insight into the neurophysiological basis of the influence of feedback contingency on the processing of decision-making under risk. We suggest that response feedback, when contingent upon the risky behavior, appears to improve the functionality of the brain mechanisms involved in decision-making and can be a powerful tool for reducing the tendency to choose risky options in risk-prone individuals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Modification V to the computer code, STRETCH, for predicting coated-particle behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, K.H.

    1975-04-01

    Several modifications have been made to the stress analysis code, STRETCH, in an attempt to improve agreement between the calculated and observed behavior of pyrocarbon-coated fuel particles during irradiation in a reactor environment. Specific areas of the code that have been modified are the neutron-induced densification model and the neutron-induced creep calculation. Also, the capability for modeling surface temperature variations has been added. HFIR Target experiments HT-12 through HT-15 have been simulated with the modified code, and the neutron-fluence vs particle-failure predictions compare favorably with the experimental results. Listings of the modified FORTRAN IV main source program and additional FORTRAN IV functions are provided along with instructions for supplying the additional input data. (U.S.)

  18. Behavior modification techniques used to prevent gestational diabetes: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; Morris, Heather; Nagle, Cate; Nankervis, Alison

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and obesity is increasing in developed countries, presenting significant challenges to acute care and public health. The aim of this study is to systematically review published controlled trials evaluating behavior modification interventions to prevent the development of GDM. Nine studies were identified involving such techniques as repetition of information, use of verbal and written educational information, goal setting, and planning, in addition to group and individual counseling sessions. Of the 3 trials with GDM incidence as a primary outcome, only 1 showed a significant reduction. GDM was a secondary outcome in 6 studies where the prevention of excessive gestational weight gain was the primary outcome and only 1 trial study determined an effective intervention. The small number of effective interventions highlights a significant gap in evidence to inform maternity health policy and practice.

  19. Behavior of restriction–modification systems as selfish mobile elements and their impact on genome evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2001-01-01

    Restriction–modification (RM) systems are composed of genes that encode a restriction enzyme and a modification methylase. RM systems sometimes behave as discrete units of life, like viruses and transposons. RM complexes attack invading DNA that has not been properly modified and thus may serve as a tool of defense for bacterial cells. However, any threat to their maintenance, such as a challenge by a competing genetic element (an incompatible plasmid or an allelic homologous stretch of DNA, for example) can lead to cell death through restriction breakage in the genome. This post-segregational or post-disturbance cell killing may provide the RM complexes (and any DNA linked with them) with a competitive advantage. There is evidence that they have undergone extensive horizontal transfer between genomes, as inferred from their sequence homology, codon usage bias and GC content difference. They are often linked with mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, viruses, transposons and integrons. The comparison of closely related bacterial genomes also suggests that, at times, RM genes themselves behave as mobile elements and cause genome rearrangements. Indeed some bacterial genomes that survived post-disturbance attack by an RM gene complex in the laboratory have experienced genome rearrangements. The avoidance of some restriction sites by bacterial genomes may result from selection by past restriction attacks. Both bacteriophages and bacteria also appear to use homologous recombination to cope with the selfish behavior of RM systems. RM systems compete with each other in several ways. One is competition for recognition sequences in post-segregational killing. Another is super-infection exclusion, that is, the killing of the cell carrying an RM system when it is infected with another RM system of the same regulatory specificity but of a different sequence specificity. The capacity of RM systems to act as selfish, mobile genetic elements may underlie the structure and

  20. Behavior of restriction-modification systems as selfish mobile elements and their impact on genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, I

    2001-09-15

    Restriction-modification (RM) systems are composed of genes that encode a restriction enzyme and a modification methylase. RM systems sometimes behave as discrete units of life, like viruses and transposons. RM complexes attack invading DNA that has not been properly modified and thus may serve as a tool of defense for bacterial cells. However, any threat to their maintenance, such as a challenge by a competing genetic element (an incompatible plasmid or an allelic homologous stretch of DNA, for example) can lead to cell death through restriction breakage in the genome. This post-segregational or post-disturbance cell killing may provide the RM complexes (and any DNA linked with them) with a competitive advantage. There is evidence that they have undergone extensive horizontal transfer between genomes, as inferred from their sequence homology, codon usage bias and GC content difference. They are often linked with mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, viruses, transposons and integrons. The comparison of closely related bacterial genomes also suggests that, at times, RM genes themselves behave as mobile elements and cause genome rearrangements. Indeed some bacterial genomes that survived post-disturbance attack by an RM gene complex in the laboratory have experienced genome rearrangements. The avoidance of some restriction sites by bacterial genomes may result from selection by past restriction attacks. Both bacteriophages and bacteria also appear to use homologous recombination to cope with the selfish behavior of RM systems. RM systems compete with each other in several ways. One is competition for recognition sequences in post-segregational killing. Another is super-infection exclusion, that is, the killing of the cell carrying an RM system when it is infected with another RM system of the same regulatory specificity but of a different sequence specificity. The capacity of RM systems to act as selfish, mobile genetic elements may underlie the structure and

  1. "The Knowledge of" Counselors in Balqa Governorate: Behavior Modification Strategies in Light of Some of the Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-basel, D-Nagham Mohammad Abu

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the extent of knowledge of counselor behavior modification strategies. The current study sample consisted of (80) mentor and guide, were selected randomly from among all workers enrolled in regular public schools in the Balqa governorate represented the community study for the academic year 2012-2013. The study…

  2. Modification of medullary respiratory-related discharge patterns by behaviors and states of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F C

    1992-02-07

    The modulatory influences of behaviors and states of arousal on bulbar respiratory-related unit (RRU) discharge patterns were studied in an unanesthetized, freely behaving guinea pig respiratory model system. When fully instrumented, this model system permits concurrent monitoring and recording of (i) single units from either Bötzinger complex or nucleus para-ambiguus; (ii) electrocorticogram; and, (iii) diaphragmatic EMG. In addition to being used in surveys of RRU discharge patterns in freely behaving states, the model system also offered a unique opportunity in investigating the effects of pentobarbital on RRU discharge patterns before, throughout the course of, and during recovery from anesthesia. In anesthetized preparations, a particular RRU discharge pattern (such as tonic, incrementing or decrementing) typically displayed little, if any notable variation. The most striking development following pentobarbital was a state of progressive bradypnea attributable to a significantly augmented RRU cycle duration, burst duration and an increase in the RRU spike frequencies during anesthesia. In freely behaving states, medullary RRU activities rarely adhered to a fixed, immutable discharge pattern. More specifically, the temporal organization (such as burst duration, cycle duration, and the extent of modulation of within-burst spike frequencies) of RRU discharge patterns regularly showed complex and striking variations, not only with states of arousal (sleep/wakefulness, anesthesia) but also with discrete alterations in electrocorticogram (ECoG) activities and a multitude of on-going behavioral repertoires such as volitional movement, postural modification, phonation, mastication, deglutition, sniffing/exploratory behavior, alerting/startle reflexes. Only during sleep, and on occasions when the animal assumed a motionless, resting posture, could burst patterns of relatively invariable periodicity and uniform temporal attributes be observed. RRU activities during

  3. Modification of severe violent and aggressive behavior among psychiatric inpatients through the use of a short-term token economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Soon; Lee, Kyunghee

    2012-12-01

    Meager research has been carried out to determine the effectiveness of the token economy among patients behaving violently in mental hospitals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the Short-Term Token Economy (STTE) on violent behavior among chronic psychiatric in-patients. A nonequivalent control group design method was utilized. Participants in an experimental group (n=22) and control group (n=22) took part in this study from January to April, 2008. Observation on aggressive behavior among male in-patients in one hospital as a baseline was made during the week before the behavior modification program and measurement of aggressive behavior was done using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS), which includes verbal attacks, property damage and physical attacks. The aggressive behavior scores of the experimental group decreased, those of the control group, scores showed an increase after the eight-week behavior modification program utilizing STTE. The results of the study indicate that STTE is effective in reducing the incidence of aggressive behavior among male in-patients in psychiatric hospitals. The outcome of this study should be helpful in reducing the use of coercive measures or psychoactive medication in controlling the violent behavior among in-patients in hospitals.

  4. Experimental modification of interpretation bias about animal fear in young children: effects on cognition, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Field, Andy P; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation biases toward or away from threat about ambiguous situations involving Australian marsupials. Children rapidly learned to select outcomes of ambiguous situations, which were congruent with their assigned condition. Furthermore, following positive modification, children's threat biases about novel ambiguous situations significantly decreased, whereas threat biases significantly increased after negative modification. In response to a stress-evoking behavioral avoidance test, positive modification attenuated behavioral avoidance compared to negative modification. However, no significant effects of bias modification on anxiety vulnerability or physiological responses to this stress-evoking Behavioral Avoidance Task were observed.

  5. Surface modification and fatigue behavior of nitinol for load bearing implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Sheldon A.

    Musculoskeletal disorders are recognized amongst the most significant human health problems that exist today. Even though considerable research and development has gone towards understanding musculoskeletal disorders, there is still lack of bone replacement materials that are appropriate for restoring lost structures and functions, particularly for load-bearing applications. Many materials on the market today, such as titanium and stainless steel, suffer from significantly higher modulus than natural bone and low bioactivity leading to stress shielding and implant loosening over longer time use. Nitinol (NiTi) is an equiatomic intermetallic compound of nickel and titanium whose unique biomechanical and biological properties contributed to its increasing use as a biomaterial. An innovative method for creating dense and porous net shape NiTi alloy parts has been developed to improve biological properties while maintaining comparable or better mechanical properties than commercial materials that are currently in use. Laser engineered net shaping (LENS(TM)) and surface electrochemistry modification was used to create dense/porous samples and micro textured surfaces on NiTi parts, respectively. Porous implants are known to promote cell adhesion and have a low elastic modulus, a combination that can significantly increase the life of an implant. However, porosity can significantly reduce the fatigue life of an implant, and very little work has been reported on the fatigue behavior of bulk porous metals, specifically on porous nitinol alloy. High-cycle rotating bending and compression-compression fatigue behavior of porous NiTi fabricated using LENS(TM) were studied. In cyclic compression loading, plastic strain increased with increasing porosity and it was evident that maximum strain was achieved during the first 50000 cycles and remained constant throughout the remaining loading. No failures were observed due to loading up to 150% of the yield strength. When subjected

  6. Intra-population variation in behavior modification by the acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus dirus: are differences mediated by host condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddigan, Sara C; Barkauskas, Rima T; Sparkes, Timothy C

    2014-11-01

    The acanthocephalan parasite Acanthocephalus dirus infects the freshwater isopod Caecidotea intermedius as an intermediate host before completing its life cycle in a fish. Male C. intermedius infected by A. dirus parasites are less likely to engage in mating behavior than uninfected males but there is a significant intra-population variation in the occurrence of this behavioral change. Previous studies on uninfected isopods have shown that glycogen content is a predictor of male mating behavior and we examined whether the intra-population variation in the mating behavior of infected male C. intermedius could be explained by this relationship. A field-based behavioral experiment was used to quantify intra-population variation in male mating behavior, which showed that 50% of infected males were responsive to females and 50% were not responsive. Biochemical analysis of responsive and non-responsive males revealed that glycogen content was a predictor of the mating behavior for uninfected males but was not a predictor of mating behavior for infected males. For infected males, parasite intensity was a predictor of mating behavior. Males that contained more A. dirus parasites were less likely to undergo modification of mating behavior. We propose that the intra-population variation in the mating behavior of infected C. intermedius identified in nature was not mediated by host condition.

  7. Oxidation and thermal shock behavior of thermal barrier coated 18/10CrNi alloy with coating modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guergen, Selim [Vocational School of Transportation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Diltemiz, Seyid Fehmi [Turkish Air Force1st Air Supply and Maintenance Center Command, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Kushan, Melih Cemal [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, substrates of 18/10CrNi alloy plates were initially sprayed with a Ni-21Cr-10Al-1Y bond coat and then with an yttria stabilized zirconia top coat by plasma spraying. Subsequently, plasma-sprayed Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were treated with two different modification methods, namely, vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing. The effects of modifications on the oxidation and thermal shock behavior of the coatings were evaluated. The effect of coat thickness on the bond strength of the coats was also investigated. Results showed enhancement of the oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance of TBCs following modifications. Although vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing exhibited comparable results as per oxidation resistance, the former generated the best improvement in the thermal shock resistance of the TBCs. Bond strength also decreased as coat thickness increased.

  8. Synthesis, crystallization behavior and surface modification of Ni-Cr-Si-Fe amorphous alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Akhter, J.I.; Rajput, M.U.; Mahmood, K.; Hussain, Z.; Hussain, S.; Rafiq, M.

    2011-01-01

    A quaternary Ni/sub 86/Cr/sub 7/Si/sub 4/Fe/sub 3/ amorphous alloy was synthesized by melt spinning technique. Surface modification was done by electron beam melting (EBM), neutron irradiation and gamma-rays. Microstructure of as cast, annealed and modified samples was examined by scanning electron microscope. Crystallization behavior was studied by annealing the samples in vacuum at different temperatures in the range 773-1073 K. Techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used for characterization. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was conducted at various heating rates in the range 10-40 K/min. Thermal parameters like glass transition temperature T/sub g/, crystallization temperature T/sub x/, supercooled liquid region delta T/sub x/ and reduced glass transition temperature T/sub rg/ were measured. The Ni/sub 86/Cr/sub 7/Si/sub 4/Fe/sub 3/ alloy exhibits wide supercooled liquid region of 60 K indicating good thermal stability. The activation energy was calculated to be 160 +- 4 kJ/mol using Kissinger and Ozawa equations respectively which indicates high resistance against crystallization. The XRD results of the samples annealed at 773 K, 923 K, 973 K and 1073 K/20 min show nucleation of Ni/sub 2/Cr/sub 3/ and NiCrFe crystalline phases. Vickers microhardness of the as cast ribbon was measured to be 680. About 30-50 % increase in hardness was achieved by applying EBM technique. (author)

  9. PREVIEW behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT: a study protocol for a psychological element of a multicenter project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kahlert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Losing excess body weight and preventing weight regain by changing lifestyle is a challenging but promising task to prevent the incidence of type-2 diabetes. To be successful, it is necessary to use evidence-based and theory-driven interventions, which also contribute to the science of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. Objective: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counselling approach. Methods: The program development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1 Summing-up the intervention goal(s, target group and the setting, (2 uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3 identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4 preparing for evaluation and (5 implementing the intervention and assuring quality. Results: PREMIT is based on a trans-theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major ‘product’ of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks and activities ordered by periods. PREMIT is constructed to help instructors guide participant’s behavior change. To ensure high fidelity and adherence of program-implementation across the eight intervention centers standardized operational procedures were defined and train-the-trainer workshops were held. In summary PREMIT is a theory-driven, evidence-based program carefully developed to change physical activity and dietary behaviors in pre

  10. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT): A Study Protocol for a Psychological Element of a Multicenter Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Losing excess body weight and preventing weight regain by changing lifestyle is a challenging but promising task to prevent the incidence of type-2 diabetes. To be successful, it is necessary to use evidence-based and theory-driven interventions, which also contribute to the science of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. The program development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5) implementing the intervention and assuring quality. PREMIT is based on a trans-theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major "product" of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks and activities ordered by periods. PREMIT is constructed to help instructors guide participants' behavior change. To ensure high fidelity and adherence of program-implementation across the eight intervention centers standardized operational procedures were defined and "train-the-trainer" workshops were held. In summary PREMIT is a theory-driven, evidence-based program carefully developed to change physical activity and dietary behaviors in pre-diabetic people.

  11. Prefrontal lobotomy on Evita was done for behavior/personality modification, not just for pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijensohn, Daniel E

    2015-07-01

    Eva Perón, best known as Evita, underwent a prefrontal lobotomy in 1952. Although the procedure was said to have been performed to relieve the pain of metastatic cancer, the author carried out a search for evidence that suggests that the procedure was prescribed to decrease violence and to modify Evita's behavior and personality, and not just for pain control. To further elucidate the circumstances surrounding the treatment of this well-known historic figure, the author reviewed the development of the procedure known as prefrontal lobotomy and its three main indications: management of psychiatric illness, control of intractable pain from terminal cancer, and mind control and behavior/personality modification. The role of pioneering neurosurgeons in the development of prefrontal lobotomy, particularly in Connecticut and at Yale University, was also studied, and the political and historical conditions in Argentina in 1952 and to the present were analyzed. Evita was the wife of Juan Perón, who was the supreme leader of the Peronist party as well as president of Argentina. In 1952, however, the Peronist government in Argentina was bicephalic because Evita led the left wing of the party and ran the Female Peronist Party and the Eva Perón Foundation. She was followed by a group of hardcore loyalists interested in accelerating the revolution. Evita was also suffering from metastatic cervical cancer, and her illness increased her anxiety and moved her to purchase weapons to start training workers' militias. Although the apparent purpose was to fight her husband's enemies, this was done without his knowledge. She delivered fiery political speeches and wrote incendiary documents that would have led to a fierce clash in the country at that time. Notwithstanding the disreputable connotation of conspiracy theories, evidence was found of a potentially sinister political conspiracy, led by General Perón, to quiet down his wife Evita and modify her behavior/personality to

  12. Modification and aging precipitation behavior of hypereutectic Al-21wt.%Si alloy treated by P+Ce combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Pei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the tested hypereutectic Al-21wt.%Si alloys were prepared by modifying the melt using different proportions of P and Ce, and then applying T6 heat treatment. The modification effects and mechanism of P+Ce complex modifier on the Si phase of hypereutectic Al-21wt.%Si alloy were studied, and the aging precipitation behavior after modification was characterized by means of tensile strength measurement, OM, SEM and TEM analysis. The results show that the massive primary silicon phase particles are significantly refined after modification, while the needle-like eutectic silicon crystals become fibrous and short. It was found that the mechanism of phosphorus modification on the primary silicon can be attributed to heterogeneous nucleation of AlP, while the modification mechanism of Ce can be explained by adsorbing-twinning theory. In the aged microstructure of the modified hypereutectic Al-21wt.%Si alloy, there existed some strengthening phases such as Al4Cu9, Al2Cu, AlCu3, and Al57Mn12. The P+Ce complex modifier not only affected the size of primary silicon and eutectic silicon, but also the aging behavior of alloys under the heat treatment process. When Al-21wt.%Si alloy was modified using 0.08%wt.P + 0.6wt.% Ce, the aging precipitates were dispersed uniformly in the alloy, and its mechanical properties at room and elevated temperatures are optimized (Rm = 287.6 MPa at RT, Rm = 210 MPa at 300 ℃.

  13. Effect of Behavior Modification on Outcome in Early- to Moderate-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, Kunihiro; Makino, Hirofumi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Kusano, Eiji; Shibata, Takanori; Tomita, Kimio; Narita, Ichiei; Nishino, Tomoya; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Mitarai, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takashi; Nakamura, Teiji; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent changes in our understanding of the underlying cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the importance of lifestyle modification for preventing the progression of kidney dysfunction and complications has become obvious. In addition, effective cooperation between general physicians (GPs) and nephrologists is essential to ensure a better care system for CKD treatment. In this cluster-randomized study, we studied the effect of behavior modification on the outcome of early- to moderate-stage CKD. Stratified open cluster-randomized trial. A total of 489 GPs belonging to 49 local medical associations (clusters) in Japan. A total of 2,379 patients (1,195 in group A (standard intervention) and 1,184 in group B (advanced intervention)) aged between 40 and 74 years, who had CKD and were under consultation with GPs. All patients were managed in accordance with the current CKD guidelines. The group B clusters received three additional interventions: patients received both educational intervention for lifestyle modification and a CKD status letter, attempting to prevent their withdrawal from treatment, and the group B GPs received data sheets to facilitate reducing the gap between target and practice. The primary outcome measures were 1) the non-adherence rate of accepting continuous medical follow-up of the patients, 2) the collaboration rate between GPs and nephrologists, and 3) the progression of CKD. The rate of discontinuous clinical visits was significantly lower in group B (16.2% in group A vs. 11.5% in group B, p = 0.01). Significantly higher referral and co-treatment rates were observed in group B (pbehavior modification of CKD patients, namely, significantly lower discontinuous clinical visits, and behavior modification of both GPs and nephrologists, namely significantly higher referral and co-treatment rates, resulting in the retardation of CKD progression, especially in patients with proteinuric Stage 3 CKD. The University Hospital Medical Information

  14. The Effect of Vocal Hygiene and Behavior Modification Instruction on the Self-Reported Vocal Health Habits of Public School Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of vocal hygiene and behavior modification instruction on self-reported behaviors of music teachers. Subjects (N = 76) reported daily behaviors for eight weeks: water consumption, warm-up, talking over music/noise, vocal rest, nonverbal commands, and vocal problems. Subjects were in experimental group 1 or 2, or the…

  15. Expectancy, False Galvanic Skin Response Feedback, and Systematic Desensitization in the Modification of Phobic Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, John

    1975-01-01

    This study compared systematic desensitization and two pseudotherapy manipulations with and without false galvanic skin response feedback after every session suggesting improvement in the modification of intense snake and spider fear. The results indicated no consistent differences between the three treatment groups. (Author)

  16. Gender Differences in Workplace Deviant Behavior of University Teachers and Modification Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Muhammad Nadeem; Sarwar, Muhammad; Awan, Riffat-un-Nisa; Arif, Muhammad Irfan

    2011-01-01

    Any behavior that does not conform to social organizational norms is deviance. This study was conducted to test whether there is any difference in organizational deviance and interpersonal deviance behavior, deviance behavior of male-female university teachers. All teaching staff of the University of Sargodha was target population and for…

  17. Clinical and Ethical Implications for Teacher-Training in Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion-Meisels, Linda

    The ethical issues concerning the use of behavioral procedures are founded on concerns relating to behavioral control. One major recurring ethical issue is that of coercion. The focus of this paper centers on the question: Ought behavioral programs to be employed even when they might be against the volition of the participant? A theoretical and…

  18. Behavior Modification for Obesity: The Evaluation of Exercise, Contingency Management, and Program Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Stalonas, Peter M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated behavioral programs for obesity. Exercise and self-managed contingency components were compared using obese subjects who were evaluated after treatment and follow-up. Significant weight loss was observed at termination. The influence of exercise at follow-up was noticeable. Subjects engaged in behaviors, yet behaviors were not related…

  19. Risk perception, self-efficacy, trust for physician, depression, and behavior modification in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hissei; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Hayashi, Shin-U; Goto, Atsushi; Izumi, Kazuo; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    We evaluated the associations of risk perception, self-efficacy, and trust with two health promotion behaviors (food habits and exercise) and depressive mood. Diabetic patients aged between 40 and 64 ( n = 1195) were included in the analyses. Risk perception worsened behavioral changes in terms of food habits and depression, whereas self-efficacy and trust improved food habits, exercise, and depression; trust improved exercise and depression. In conclusion, self-efficacy and trust appear to be more beneficial than risk perception for positive behavioral changes and for improving depression in diabetic patients. However, their influence on behavioral changes may be different according to the types of behaviors.

  20. Effect of Behavior Modification on Outcome in Early- to Moderate-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Yamagata

    Full Text Available Owing to recent changes in our understanding of the underlying cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD, the importance of lifestyle modification for preventing the progression of kidney dysfunction and complications has become obvious. In addition, effective cooperation between general physicians (GPs and nephrologists is essential to ensure a better care system for CKD treatment. In this cluster-randomized study, we studied the effect of behavior modification on the outcome of early- to moderate-stage CKD.Stratified open cluster-randomized trial.A total of 489 GPs belonging to 49 local medical associations (clusters in Japan.A total of 2,379 patients (1,195 in group A (standard intervention and 1,184 in group B (advanced intervention aged between 40 and 74 years, who had CKD and were under consultation with GPs.All patients were managed in accordance with the current CKD guidelines. The group B clusters received three additional interventions: patients received both educational intervention for lifestyle modification and a CKD status letter, attempting to prevent their withdrawal from treatment, and the group B GPs received data sheets to facilitate reducing the gap between target and practice.The primary outcome measures were 1 the non-adherence rate of accepting continuous medical follow-up of the patients, 2 the collaboration rate between GPs and nephrologists, and 3 the progression of CKD.The rate of discontinuous clinical visits was significantly lower in group B (16.2% in group A vs. 11.5% in group B, p = 0.01. Significantly higher referral and co-treatment rates were observed in group B (p<0.01. The average eGFR deterioration rate tended to be lower in group B (group A: 2.6±5.8 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, group B: 2.4±5.1 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, p = 0.07. A significant difference in eGFR deterioration rate was observed in subjects with Stage 3 CKD (group A: 2.4±5.9 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, group B: 1.9±4.4 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, p = 0.03.Our care

  1. The effects of a pedometer-based behavioral modification program with telephone support on physical activity and sedentary behavior in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, Karlijn P; Deforche, Benedicte I; Ruige, Johannes B; Bouckaert, Jacques J; Tudor-Locke, Catrine E; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M

    2011-08-01

    Effectiveness of a behavioral modification program on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in diabetes patients. Ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. The 24-weeks intervention consisted of a face-to-face session, pedometer and seven telephone follow-ups. Mean selection criteria were 35-75 years; 25-35 kg/m(2); ≤ 12% HbA1c, treated for type 2 diabetes; no PA limitations. PA and sedentary behavior were measured by pedometer, accelerometer and questionnaire over the short- (24 weeks) and intermediate- (1 year) term. The intervention group increased their steps/day by 2744, their total PA by 23 min/day (pbehavior by 23 min/day (pbehavior (pbehavioral modification program with telephone support showed lasting positive effects on steps/day, PA and sedentary behavior. This study tested a convenient way to increase PA among type 2 diabetes patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavior Modification of Studying Through Study Skills Advice and Self-Control Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C. Steven

    1975-01-01

    Investigates the efficacy of two behavioral self-control procedures as additions to the typical treatment for college students' study behavior--study skills advice. Predicted self-monitoring would be an effective treatment addition to study skills advice and study skills advice would be superior to the control groups. Results supported…

  3. The behavior of various chemical forms of nickel in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry under different chemical modification approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Various organic and inorganic Ni forms were investigated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Experiments without chemical modification showed a wide range of characteristic mass values for Ni (from 6.7 to 29 pg) and the importance of interaction with graphite. With the aim of achieving signal unification of organic Ni forms, different ways of chemical modification were tested. Some rules that govern the behavior of Ni were found and confirmed a significant role of the organic component of the analyte molecule in the analytical process. The application of air as an internal furnace gas in the pyrolysis phase and the Pd modifier injected with the sample solution improved the signal of porphyrins, while the application of iodine and methyltrioctylammonium chloride was required for organic compounds containing oxygen-bound Ni atoms. The Ni signal was strongly diminished when an aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid was measured with the Pd modifier injected over the sample. Using the developed analytical methods, the range of characteristic mass values for various Ni forms totally dissolved in organic or aqueous solution was 6.5–7.9 pg. - Highlights: ► Some rules that govern behavior of organic Ni forms during GFAAS analysis were found. ► Interaction with graphite can significantly influence evaporation of porphyrins. ► Determination of Ni in form of porphyrins needs Pd organic modifier and air ashing. ► Determination of Ni in O-bound organic compounds needs pretreatment with I2+MTOACl. ► Chemical modification for GFAAS determination of Ni in HCl-containing solution.

  4. Surface modification of carbon/epoxy prepreg using oxygen plasma and its effect on the delamination resistance behavior of carbon/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.H.; Rhee, K.Y.; Kim, H.J.; Jung, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    It was shown in previous study that the fracture toughness of carbon/epoxy laminated composites could be significantly improved by modifying the surface of the prepreg using Ar + irradiation in an oxygen environment. In this study, the surface of carbon/epoxy prepreg was modified using an oxygen plasma to improve the delamination resistance behavior of carbon/epoxy laminated composites. The variation of the contact angle on the prepreg surface was determined as a function of the modification time, in order to determine the optimal modification time. An XPS analysis was conducted to investigate the chemical changes on the surface of the prepreg caused by the plasma modification. Mode I delamination resistance curves of the composites with and without surface modification were plotted as a function of the delamination increment. The results showed that the contact angle varied from ∼64 o to ∼47 o depending on the modification time and reached a minimum for a modification time of 30 min. The XPS analysis showed that the hydrophilic carbonyl C=O group was formed by the oxygen plasma modification. The results also showed that the delamination resistance behavior was significantly improved by the plasma modification of the prepreg. This improvement was caused by the better layer-to-layer adhesion as well as increased interfacial strength between the fibers and matrix

  5. The real-time control of planetary rovers through behavior modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David P.

    1991-01-01

    It is not yet clear of what type, and how much, intelligence is needed for a planetary rover to function semi-autonomously on a planetary surface. Current designs assume an advanced AI system that maintains a detailed map of its journeys and the surroundings, and that carefully calculates and tests every move in advance. To achieve these abilities, and because of the limitations of space-qualified electronics, the supporting rover is quite sizable, massing a large fraction of a ton, and requiring technology advances in everything from power to ground operations. An alternative approach is to use a behavior driven control scheme. Recent research has shown that many complex tasks may be achieved by programming a robot with a set of behaviors and activation or deactivating a subset of those behaviors as required by the specific situation in which the robot finds itself. Behavior control requires much less computation than is required by tradition AI planning techniques. The reduced computation requirements allows the entire rover to be scaled down as appropriate (only down-link communications and payload do not scale under these circumstances). The missions that can be handled by the real-time control and operation of a set of small, semi-autonomous, interacting, behavior-controlled planetary rovers are discussed.

  6. Effect of Ultrasonic Nano-Crystal Surface Modification (UNSM) on the Passivation Behavior of Aged 316L Stainless Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Young-Sik

    2017-06-27

    Stainless steels have good corrosion resistance in many environments but welding or aging can decrease their resistance. This work focused on the effect of aging time and ultrasonic nano-crystal surface modification on the passivation behavior of 316L stainless steel. In the case of slightly sensitized 316L stainless steel, increasing the aging time drastically decreased the pitting potential, increased the passive current density, and decreased the resistance of the passive film, even though aging did not form chromium carbide and a chromium depletion zone. This behavior is due to the micro-galvanic corrosion between the matrix and carbon segregated area, and this shows the importance of carbon segregation in grain boundaries to the pitting corrosion resistance of stainless steel, in addition to the formation of the chromium depletion zone. UNSM (Ultrasonic Nano Crystal Surface Modification)-treatment to the slightly sensitized 316L stainless steel increased the pitting potential, decreased the passive current density, and increased the resistance of the passive film. However, in the case of heavily sensitized 316L stainless steel, UNSM-treatment decreased the pitting potential, increased the passive current density, and decreased the resistance of the passive film. This behavior is due to the dual effects of the UNSM-treatment. That is, the UNSM-treatment reduced the carbon segregation, regardless of whether the stainless steel 316L was slightly or heavily sensitized. However, since this treatment made mechanical flaws in the outer surface in the case of the heavily sensitized stainless steel, UNSM-treatment may eliminate chromium carbide, and this flaw can be a pitting initiation site, and therefore decrease the pitting corrosion resistance.

  7. Modification of Anxious Behavior after Psychogenic Trauma and Treatment with Galanin Receptor Antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyudyno, V I; Tsikunov, S G; Abdurasulova, I N; Kusov, A G; Klimenko, V M

    2015-07-01

    Effects of blockage of central galanin receptors on anxiety manifestations were studied in rats with psychogenic trauma. Psychogenic trauma was modeled by exposure of a group of rats to the situation when the partner was killed by a predator. Antagonist of galanin receptors was intranasally administered before stress exposure. Animal behavior was evaluated using the elevated-plus maze test, free exploratory paradigm, and open-field test. Psychogenic trauma was followed by an increase in anxiety level and appearance of agitated behavior. Blockage of galanin receptors aggravated behavioral impairment, which manifested in the pathological anxious reactions - manifestations of hypervigilance and hyperawareness. The results suggest that endogenous pool of galanin is involved into prevention of excessive CNS response to stressful stimuli typical of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  8. Modification of Personal Hygiene and Grooming Behaviors with Contingency Contracting: A Brief Review and Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sarah J.; Kramer, Jack J.

    1990-01-01

    Presents discussion of basic components and characteristics of contingency contracts. Includes case study in which contingency contracting procedures were integrated within a behavioral consultation model used by a school psychologist consulting with a classroom teacher to modify personal hygiene of 12-year-old male. (Author/ABL)

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Modification Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…

  10. Behavior Modification of Aggressive Children in Child Welfare: Evaluation of a Combined Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…

  11. Gestational stress induces persistent depressive-like behavior and structural modifications within the postpartum nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Achikam; Sherer, Morgan; Leuner, Benedetta

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication following childbirth experienced by one in every five new mothers. Pregnancy stress enhances vulnerability to PPD and has also been shown to increase depressive-like behavior in postpartum rats. Thus, gestational stress may be an important translational risk factor that can be used to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying PPD. Here we examined the effects of gestational stress on depressive-like behavior during the early/mid and late postpartum periods and evaluated whether this was accompanied by altered structural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region that has been linked to PPD. We show that early/mid (PD8) postpartum female rats exhibited more depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test as compared to late postpartum females (PD22). However, two weeks of restraint stress during pregnancy increased depressive-like behavior regardless of postpartum timepoint. In addition, dendritic length, branching, and spine density on medium spiny neurons in the NAc shell were diminished in postpartum rats that experienced gestational stress although stress-induced reductions in spine density were evident only in early/mid postpartum females. In the NAc core, structural plasticity was not affected by gestational stress but late postpartum females exhibited lower spine density and reduced dendritic length. Overall, these data not only demonstrate structural changes in the NAc across the postpartum period, they also show that postpartum depressive-like behavior following exposure to gestational stress is associated with compromised structural plasticity in the NAc and thus may provide insight into the neural changes that could contribute to PPD. PMID:25359225

  12. Mediation and modification of genetic susceptibility to obesity by eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Clifton, Emma Ad; Day, Felix R; Clément, Karine; Brage, Soren; Forouhi, Nita G; Griffin, Simon J; Koudou, Yves Akoli; Pelloux, Véronique; Wareham, Nicholas J; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara; Ong, Ken K

    2017-10-01

    Background: Many genetic variants show highly robust associations with body mass index (BMI). However, the mechanisms through which genetic susceptibility to obesity operates are not well understood. Potentially modifiable mechanisms, including eating behaviors, are of particular interest to public health. Objective: Here we explore whether eating behaviors mediate or modify genetic susceptibility to obesity. Design: Genetic risk scores for BMI (BMI-GRSs) were calculated for 3515 and 2154 adults in the Fenland and EDEN (Etude des déterminants pré et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'enfant) population-based cohort studies, respectively. The eating behaviors-emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and cognitive restraint-were measured through the use of a validated questionnaire. The mediating effect of each eating behavior on the association between the BMI-GRS and measured BMI was assessed by using the Sobel test. In addition, we tested for interactions between each eating behavior and the BMI-GRS on BMI. Results: The association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was mediated by both emotional eating (EDEN: P- Sobel = 0.01; Fenland: P- Sobel = 0.02) and uncontrolled eating (EDEN: P- Sobel = 0.04; Fenland: P -Sobel = 0.0006) in both sexes combined. Cognitive restraint did not mediate this association ( P -Sobel > 0.10), except among EDEN women ( P -Sobel = 0.0009). Cognitive restraint modified the relation between the BMI-GRS and BMI among men (EDEN: P -interaction = 0.0001; Fenland: P -interaction = 0.04) and Fenland women ( P -interaction = 0.0004). By tertiles of cognitive restraint, the association between the BMI-GRS and BMI was strongest in the lowest tertile of cognitive restraint, and weakest in the highest tertile. Conclusions: Genetic susceptibility to obesity was partially mediated by the "appetitive" eating behavior traits (uncontrolled and emotional eating) and, in 3 of the 4 population groups studied, was modified by cognitive restraint

  13. Different effects of bisphenol-A on memory behavior and synaptic modification in intact and estrogen-deprived female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Gu, Ting; Shen, Qiaoqiao

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) has the capability of interfering with the effects of estrogens on modulating brain function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BPA on memory and synaptic modification in the hippocampus of female mice under different levels of cycling estrogen. BPA exposure (40, 400 μg/kg/day) for 8 weeks did not affect spatial memory and passive avoidance task of gonadally intact mice but improved ovariectomy (Ovx)-induced memory impairment, whereas co-exposure of BPA with estradiol benzoate (EB) diminished the rescue effect of EB on memory behavior of Ovx mice. The results of morphometric measurement showed that BPA positively modified the synaptic interface structure and increased the synaptic density of CA1 pyramidal cell in the hippocampus of Ovx females, but inhibited the enhancement of EB on synaptic modification and synaptogenesis of Ovx mice. Furthermore, BPA up-regulated synaptic proteins synapsin I and PSD-95 and NMDA receptor NR2B but inhibited EB-induced increase in PSD-95 and NR2B in the hippocampus of Ovx mice. These results suggest that BPA interfered with normal hormonal regulation in synaptic plasticity and memory of female mice as a potent estrogen mimetic and as a disruptor of estrogen under various concentrations of cycling estrogen. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations associated with aggressive behavior. Participants aged 18-33 years old were randomly assigned to either a single session of positive training (n = 40) aimed at increasing prosocial interpretations or negative training (n = 40) aimed at increasing hostile interpretations. The results revealed that the positive training resulted in an increase in prosocial interpretations while the negative training seemed to have no effect on interpretations. Importantly, in the positive condition, a positive change in interpretations was related to lower anger and verbal aggression scores after the training. In this condition, participants also reported an increase in happiness. In the negative training no such effects were found. However, the better participants performed on the negative training, the more their interpretations were changed in a negative direction and the more aggression they showed on the behavioral aggression task. Participants were healthy university students. Therefore, results should be confirmed within a clinical population. These findings provide support for the idea that this novel CBM-I paradigm can be used to modify interpretations, and suggests that these interpretations are related to mood and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of topographical and mechanical property alterations induced by oxygen plasma modification on stem cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Kulangara, Karina; Lam, Ruby T S; Dharmawan, Rena; Leong, Kam W

    2012-10-23

    Polymeric substrates intended for cell culture and tissue engineering are often surface-modified to facilitate cell attachment of most anchorage-dependent cell types. The modification alters the surface chemistry and possibly topography. However, scant attention has been paid to other surface property alterations. In studying oxygen plasma treatment of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we show that oxygen plasma treatment alters the surface chemistry and, consequently, the topography and elasticity of PDMS at the nanoscale level. The elasticity factor has the predominant effect, compared with the chemical and topographical factors, on cell adhesions of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The enhanced focal adhesions favor cell spreading and osteogenesis of hMSCs. Given the prevalent use of PDMS in biomedical device construction and cell culture experiments, this study highlights the importance of understanding how oxygen plasma treatment would impact subsequent cell-substrate interactions. It helps explain inconsistency in the literature and guides preparation of PDMS-based biomedical devices in the future.

  16. Drastic modification of the piezoresistive behavior of polymer nanocomposites by using conductive polymer coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar; Zhou, Jian; Lubineau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    We obtained highly conductive nanocomposites by adding conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to pristine insulating Polycarbonate. Because the PEDOT/PSS ensures efficient charge transfer both along and between the CNTs, we could attribute the improvement in electrical conductivity to coating. In addition to improving the electrical conductivity, the coating also modified the piezoresistive behavior of the nanocomposites compared to the material with pristine uncoated CNTs: whereas CNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited a very strong piezoresistive effect, PEDOT/PSS-coated MWCNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited very little piezoresistivity. We studied this change in piezoresistive behavior in detail by investigating various configurations of filler content. We investigated how this observation could be explained by changes in the microstructure and in the conduction mechanism in the interfacial regions between the nanofillers. Our study suggests that tailoring the piezoresistive response to specific application requirements is possible.

  17. Drastic modification of the piezoresistive behavior of polymer nanocomposites by using conductive polymer coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Ventura, Isaac Aguilar

    2015-07-21

    We obtained highly conductive nanocomposites by adding conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS)-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to pristine insulating Polycarbonate. Because the PEDOT/PSS ensures efficient charge transfer both along and between the CNTs, we could attribute the improvement in electrical conductivity to coating. In addition to improving the electrical conductivity, the coating also modified the piezoresistive behavior of the nanocomposites compared to the material with pristine uncoated CNTs: whereas CNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited a very strong piezoresistive effect, PEDOT/PSS-coated MWCNT/Polycarbonate samples exhibited very little piezoresistivity. We studied this change in piezoresistive behavior in detail by investigating various configurations of filler content. We investigated how this observation could be explained by changes in the microstructure and in the conduction mechanism in the interfacial regions between the nanofillers. Our study suggests that tailoring the piezoresistive response to specific application requirements is possible.

  18. Behaviors of Polymer Additives Under EHL and Influences of Interactions Between Additives on Friction Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, T.

    1984-01-01

    Polymer additives have become requisite for the formulation of multigrade engine oils. The behavior of polymethacrylate (PMA)-thickened oils as lubricants in concentrated contacts under nominal rolling and pure sliding conditions was investigated by conventional optical interferometry. The PMA thickened oils behaved differently from the base oil in the formation of elastohydrodynamic (EHL) films. The higher the elastohydrodynamic molecular weight of the PMA contained in the lubricant, the thinner was the oil film under EHL conditions. The film thickness of shear-degraded PMA-thickened oils was also investigated. The behavior of graphite particles dispersed in both the base oil and the PMA-thickened oil was studied under pure sliding by taking photomicrographs. Many kinds of additives are contained in lubricating oil and the interactions between additives are considered. The interactions of zinc-organodithiophosphates (ZDP) with other additives is discussed.

  19. Influence of nitriding atmosphere on the modification of surface titanium with focus on the behavior of blood platelets adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitoriano, J.O.; Alves, C.; Braz, D.C.; Camara, R.B.G.; Rocha, H.A.O.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the influence of surface modification of titanium on the adhesion of blood platelets, through techniques of adhesion and morphological analyzes. Discs of titanium grade II received different surface treatments with plasma of Ar + N_2 + H_2 and Ar + H_2, forming two experimental groups including only polished samples used as standard. Before and after treatment the samples were characterized according to topography, crystalline structure and wettability, using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and testing of sessile drop, respectively. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was applied on the modified surfaces in a culture plates. Images obtained by electron microscopy of adhered platelets were analyzed to verify the behavior of platelets in the different experimental conditions. (author)

  20. Behavioral and environmental modification of the genetic influence on body mass index: A twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Erin E.; Turkheimer, Eric; Strachan, Eric; Duncan, Glen E.

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has a strong genetic basis, with a heritability around 0.75, but is also influenced by numerous behavioral and environmental factors. Aspects of the built environment (e.g., environmental walkability) are hypothesized to influence obesity by directly affecting BMI, by facilitating or inhibiting behaviors such as physical activity that are related to BMI, or by suppressing genetic tendencies toward higher BMI. The present study investigated relative influences of physical activity and walkability on variance in BMI using 5,079 same-sex adult twin pairs (70% monozygotic, 65% female). High activity and walkability levels independently suppressed genetic variance in BMI. Estimating their effects simultaneously, however, suggested that the walkability effect was mediated by activity. The suppressive effect of activity on variance in BMI was present even with a tendency for low-BMI individuals to select into environments that require higher activity levels. Overall, our results point to community- or macro-level interventions that facilitate individual-level behaviors as a plausible approach to addressing the obesity epidemic among U.S. adults. PMID:25894925

  1. Effect of Cationic Surface Modification on the Rheological Behavior and Microstructure of Nanocrystalline Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the microstructure and rheological behavior of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC and cationically modified NCC (CNCC were comparatively studied. The resultant CNCC generally showed improved dispersion and higher thermal stability in comparison to the un-modified NCC. The rheological behavior demonstrated that the viscosity of the NCC suspension substantially decreased with the increasing shear rate (0.01–100 s−1, showing the typical characteristics of a pseudoplastic fluid. In contrast, the CNCC suspensions displayed a typical three-region behavior, regardless of changes in pH, temperature, and concentration. Moreover, the CNCC suspensions exhibited higher shear stress and viscosity at a given shear rate (0.01–100 s−1 than the NCC suspension. Meanwhile, the dynamic viscoelasticity measurements revealed that the CNCC suspensions possessed a higher elastic (G′ and loss modulus (G″ than NCC suspensions over the whole frequency range (0.1–500 rad·s−1, providing evidence that the surface cationization of NCC makes it prone to behave as a gel-like structure.

  2. MAP-IT: A Practical Tool for Planning Complex Behavior Modification Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Sylvia; Kanning, Martina; Lauer, Romy; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Health research often aims to prevent noncommunicable diseases and to improve individual and public health by discovering intervention strategies that are effective in changing behavior and/or environments that are detrimental to one's health. Ideally, findings from original research support practitioners in planning and implementing effective interventions. Unfortunately, interventions often fail to overcome the translational block between science and practice. They often ignore theoretical knowledge, overlook empirical evidence, and underrate the impact of the environment. Accordingly, sustainable changes in individual behavior and/or the environment are difficult to achieve. Developing theory-driven and evidence-based interventions in the real world is a complex task. Existing implementation frameworks and theories often do not meet the needs of health practitioners. The purpose of this article is to synthesize existing frameworks and to provide a tool, the Matrix Assisting Practitioner's Intervention Planning Tool (MAP-IT), that links research to practice and helps practitioners to design multicomponent interventions. In this article, we use physical activity of older adults as an example to explain the rationale of MAP-IT. In MAP-IT, individual as well as environmental mechanisms are listed and behavior change techniques are linked to these mechanisms and to intervention components. MAP-IT is theory-driven and evidence-based. It is time-saving and helpful for practitioners when planning complex interventions.

  3. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  4. Efficacy of dietary behavior modification for preserving cardiovascular health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Moira McAllister; Kannel, William Bernard

    2010-12-28

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol.

  5. Efficacy of Dietary Behavior Modification for Preserving Cardiovascular Health and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira McAllister Pryde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD and its predisposing risk factors are major lifestyle and behavioral determinants of longevity. Dietary lifestyle choices such as a heart healthy diet, regular exercise, a lean weight, moderate alcohol consumption, and smoking cessation have been shown to substantially reduce CVD and increase longevity. Recent research has shown that men and women who adhere to this lifestyle can substantially reduce their risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. The preventive benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle exceed those reported for using medication and procedures. Among the modifiable preventive measures, diet is of paramount importance, and recent data suggest some misconceptions and uncertainties that require reconsideration. These include commonly accepted recommendations about polyunsaturated fat intake, processed meat consumption, fish choices and preparation, transfatty acids, low carbohydrate diets, egg consumption, coffee, added sugar, soft drink beverages, glycemic load, chocolate, orange juice, nut consumption, vitamin D supplements, food portion size, and alcohol.

  6. MODIFICATION OF SEA ANEMONE BEHAVIOR BY SYMBIOTIC ZOOXANTHELLAE: EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Vicki Buchsbaum

    1974-12-01

    The pattern of expansion and contraction by the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima differs in individuals with or without endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. Anemones without zooxanthellae, found in dark habitats, do not regularly expand or contract under changes in light. Anemones with zooxanthellae expand in moderate light and contract in intense light or in darkness, with striking uniformity. However, this behavior does not always depend directly on the presence of zooxanthellae. Anemones that have previously had endosymbiotic zooxanthellae subsequently expand and contract with changes in light in the absence of these algae. Thus, conditioned responses may be involved. It is suggested that expansion and contraction of the anemones may play an important role in favorably regulating the amount of light to which their zooxanthellae are exposed.

  7. An expectancy-value theory approach to the long-term modification of smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R W; Deckner, C W; Mewborn, C R

    1978-04-01

    Despite the research interest in modifying smoking behavior, therapeutic treatments that can produce long-term cessation have not been demonstrated rigorously. A follow-up study of two attitude change experiments (N = 173) examined the effects of a fear appeal, that is, increasing smokers' awareness and appreciation of the highly noxious consequences of smoking. Although this familiar type of information may be an integral component of many smoking treatment programs, its long-term suppressive effect has not been demonstrated in well-controlled experiments. The results disclosed that 3 months and also 1 year after treatment, a high-fear manipulation had increased significantly the percentage of smokers who were able to stop smoking completely.

  8. Photochemical modification of diamond powder with sulfur functionalities and its behavior on gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Ohana, T; Hagiwara, Y; Tsubota, T

    2010-01-01

    A useful method of modifying the surface of diamond powders with sulfur-containing functionalities was developed by the use of the photolysis of elemental sulfur. The introduction of sulfur-containing functional groups on the diamond surfaces was confirmed by means of XPS, DRIFT and mass spectroscopy analyses. The sulfur-modified diamond powders exhibited surface-attachment behavior to gold surfaces through the sulfur-containing linkage. In brief, exposure of the modified diamond powders to gold colloids resulted in gold nanoparticles being attached to the diamond powders. Treatment of the modified diamond powders with gold thin film on Si substrate afforded alignment of surface-attached diamond powders through sulfur linkages by self-assembly.

  9. Mediators of physical activity change in a behavioral modification program for type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor-Locke Catrine E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported significant behavioral impact of physical activity interventions. However, few have examined changes in potential mediators of change preceding behavioral changes, resulting in a lack of information concerning how the intervention worked. Our purpose was to examine mediation effects of changes in psychosocial variables on changes in physical activity in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods Ninety-two patients (62 ± 9 years, 30, 0 ± 2.5 kg/m2, 69% males participated in a randomized controlled trial. The 24-week intervention was based on social-cognitive constructs and consisted of a face-to-face session, telephone follow-ups, and the use of a pedometer. Social-cognitive variables and physical activity (device-based and self-reported were collected at baseline, after the 24-week intervention and at one year post-baseline. PA was measured by pedometer, accelerometer and questionnaire. Results Post-intervention physical activity changes were mediated by coping with relapse, changes in social norm, and social modeling from family members (p ≤ 0.05. One-year physical activity changes were mediated by coping with relapse, changes in social support from family and self-efficacy towards physical activity barriers (p ≤ 0.05 Conclusions For patients with type 2 diabetes, initiatives to increase their physical activity could usefully focus on strategies for resuming regular patterns of activity, on engaging family social support and on building confidence about dealing with actual and perceived barriers to activity. Trial Registration NCT00903500, ClinicalTrials.gov.

  10. [Effects of applying behavior modification to improve HbA1C levels in a diabetic patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Chun; Huang, You-Rong; Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2010-04-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease. To prevent and delay complications, diabetic patients must adjust their lifestyle as part of a comprehensive approach to disease control. Diabetic patients must be able to self-manage their disease and establish healthy habits in their daily routine. In this study, prior to intervention, the subject was unable to control her diet, do exercise, check sugars properly or integrate disease management effectively into her daily routine. By applying self-regulation theory through the keeping of a diary for sugar and daily activity self-monitoring, she became able to self-assess the causes of poor disease control. Such further facilitated her setting goals and developing strategies to link her habits with disease management. When failing to achieve goals even after execution, she could consider the factors contributing to the failure and modify her behaviors, goals and/or strategies accordingly. We helped this patient learn behavior modification methods in order to achieve her goal of better HbA(1)C control. This case example may help clinical nursing educators move beyond the confines of the traditional one-way educational model to guide diabetic patients to achieve good sugar control. We hope our findings help many chronic disease sufferers achieve self-management objectives in order to assume greater self-care responsibilities.

  11. Effectiveness of audiovisual distraction in behavior modification during dental caries assessment and sealant placement in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, Kausar Sadia; El Batawi, Hisham Yehia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) distraction in behavior modification during dental caries assessment and sealant placement in children with autism spectrum disorder. This study was conducted on 28 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, aged 6.5-9.8 years. Children underwent one introductory (desensitization) appointment and three treatment sessions. During the introductory session, children had the procedures explained to them, they watched a movie projected on a screen while oral screening and assessment of cooperation level were carried out. In treatment session I, oral examination, charting, and dental x-rays were undertaken, whereas the children watched movies with or without video eyewear. During treatment sessions II/III, dental prophylaxis was carried out on upper and lower jaws in addition to the application of dental sealants on the right upper and lower and the left upper and lower permanent molars, respectively, while the children were distracted by cartoon movies using video eyewear. Changes in pulse oximeter and heart rate were recorded every 5 min. Independent samples t -test was used to assess the significance of changes in pulse and O 2 saturation levels during each visit. International Caries Detection and Assessment System-code 2 was found to be the most prevalent ( n = 58; 52%). A significant difference ( P behavior in the subjects. Video eyewear distraction proved an effective tool in managing children with autism spectrum disorder during noninvasive preventive dental procedures.

  12. Effect of chemical modification on behavior of various organic vanadium forms during analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2007-01-01

    The behavior of various organic V forms dissolved in xylene during analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was compared. The investigated analyte forms included compounds with vanadium at the oxidation state III, IV or V, as well as N, O or S atoms in molecules. Another group consisted of petroleum products containing naturally-occurring V species. Although the characteristic mass determined under different analytical conditions was in the very wide range from 11 up to 55 pg, some rules of V behavior were found. In the case of porphyrins and petroleum products, the application of Pd as a chemical modifier (xylene solution of Pd(II) acetylacetonate) seemed to be crucial. It was shown that Pd must be introduced to a furnace together with a sample. Pd injected and thermally pretreated before the sample injection was less effective for porphyrins and the petroleum products, but it increased signals of V compounds containing O as donor atom. The iodine pretreatment followed by the methyltrioctylammonium chloride (MTOACl) pretreatment was advantageous for these V forms. The air ashing in a graphite tube appeared to be important to improve decomposition of the petroleum products. No significant influence of the V oxidation state on the analytical signal was observed. The behavior of V contained in two Conostan oil standards, the single-element and the S21 multielement standard, was different in many situations. Probably, the joint action of other elements is responsible for this effect. In general, chemical modification was applied in the work for two reasons: to reduce the V volatility (in some cases losses at about 300 deg. C were observed) and to enhance the atomization efficiency. For routine analysis air ashing, modification by Pd introduced into the furnace together with the sample solution and petroleum products with known V content as standard is recommended. Using this procedure the characteristic mass varied from 16 to 19 pg for

  13. [Educational effectiveness of a group health education program in the workplace and an examination of educational methods to promote behavior modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Makoto; Odagiri, Keiichi; Suzuki, Naoko; Honda, Kumiko; Onoue, Kazue; Yamamoto, Makoto; Mizuta, Isagi; Uehara, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that health education programs carried out in the work place are useful for employees' health promotion. However, the effectiveness of group health education programs for workers as a population approach is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a group health education program in the workplace, and to investigate educational methods which support workers modifying their health behaviors. A total of 289 workers who received a group health education program in the manufacturing industry (mean age, 42.1 ± 11.3 years old; 175 males and 114 females) were enrolled in this study. The group health education program was carried out to educate the subjects about periodontitis, oral health actions and lifestyle behaviors to prevent oral diseases. Participants were required to fill out a self-administered questionnaire which included information about oral health knowledge, oral health actions, lifestyle behaviors and symptoms of periodontitis before, immediately after and one month after the education. We used McNemar's test for the paired comparison of questionnaire responses. The relation between acquiring knowledge about periodontitis and subjects' modification of oral health action, behavior modification and symptoms of periodontitis were examined using the chi-squared test. The relationships of knowledge retention about periodontitis, the modification of the oral health actions and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and eating between meals), were examined with participants' characteristics (i.e., age, gender and occupational category) using Fisher's exact test. Knowledge about periodontitis significantly improved immediately after receiving the health education, and this effect of education was evident one month later. However, not all of the knowledge was sufficiently retained one month after the education session. The proportion of participants undertaking desirable oral health actions

  14. Modification of the feeding behavior of dairy cows through live yeast supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, T J; Chevaux, E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the feeding behavior of dairy cows is modified through live yeast supplementation. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (2 primiparous and 10 multiparous) were individually exposed, in a replicated crossover design, to each of 2 treatment diets (over 35-d periods): (1) a control TMR and (2) a control TMR plus 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day of live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077; Levucell SC20; Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montreal, QC, Canada). Milk production, feeding, and rumination behavior were electronically monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for the last 6 d of each period for milk component analysis. Dry matter intake (28.3 kg/d), eating time (229.3 min/d), and rate (0.14 kg of dry matter/min) were similar between treatments. With yeast supplementation, meal criteria (minimum intermeal interval) were shorter (20.0 vs. 25.8 min), translating to cows tending to have more meals (9.0 vs. 7.8 meals/d), which tended to be smaller in size (3.4 vs. 3.8 kg/meal). Yeast-supplemented cows also tended to ruminate longer (570.3 vs. 544.9 min/d). Milk yield (45.8 kg/d) and efficiency of production (1.64 kg of milk/kg of dry matter intake) were similar between treatments. A tendency for higher milk fat percent (3.71 vs. 3.55%) and yield (1.70 vs. 1.63 kg/d) was observed when cows were supplemented with yeast. No differences in milk fatty acid composition were observed, with the exception of a tendency for a greater concentration of 18:2 cis-9,cis-12 fatty acid (2.71 vs. 2.48% of total fatty acids) with yeast supplementation. Yeast-supplemented cows had lower mean ruminal temperature (38.4 vs. 38.5 °C) and spent less time with rumen temperature above 39.0 °C (353.1 vs. 366.9 min/d), potentially indicating improved rumen pH conditions. Overall, the results show that live yeast supplementation tended to improve meal patterns and rumination, rumen

  15. Modification of boundary plasma behavior by Ion Bernstein Wave heating on HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoshen

    2002-01-01

    Cooperated with Fusion Research Center, the University of Texas at Austin, U.S.A. The boundary plasma behavior during Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) heating was investigated using Langmuir probe arrays on HT-7 tokamak. The particle confinement improvement of over a factor of 2 was observed in 30 MHz IBW heated plasma with RF power > 120 kW. The strong de-correlation effect of fluctuations resulted in that the turbulent particle flux dropped more than an order of magnitude. In IBW heated plasma, an additional inward E r and associated poloidal ExB flows were produced, which could account for the additional poloidal velocity in the electron diamagnetic direction in the scrape-of layer (SOL). Three-wave nonlinear phase coupling increased evidently and low frequency fluctuations (about 5 kHz) were generated, which dominated the boundary turbulence during IBW heating. The 5/2-D resonant layer was located in the plasma edge region, which is found to be the mechanism underlying these phenomena. (author)

  16. Sodium Silicate Behavior in Porous Media Applied for In-Depth Profile Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein A. Akhlaghi Amiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses alkaline sodium silicate (Na-silicate behavior in porous media. One of the advantages of the Na-silicate system is its water-like injectivity during the placement stage. Mixing Na-silicate with saline water results in metal silicate precipitation as well as immediate gelation. This work demonstrated that low salinity water (LSW, sea water diluted 25 times could be used as a pre-flush in flooding operations. A water override phenomenon was observed during gel formation which is caused by gravity segregation. Dynamic adsorption tests in the sand-packed tubes showed inconsiderable adsorbed silicon density (about 8.5 × 10−10 kg/cm3 for a solution with 33 mg/L silicon content, which is less than the estimated mono-layer adsorption density of 1.4 × 10−8 kg/cm3. Na-silicate enhanced water sweep efficiency after application in a dual-permeability sand-pack system, without leak off into the oil-bearing low permeability (LP zone. Field-scale numerical sensitivity studies in a layered reservoir demonstrated that higher permeability and viscosity contrasts and lower vertical/horizontal permeability ratio result in lower Na-silicate leakoff into the matrix. The length of the mixing zone between reservoir water and the injected Na-silicate solution, which is formed by low salinity pre-flush, acts as a buffer zone.

  17. Effectiveness of attentional bias modification and cognitive behavioral therapy on the reduction of pain intensity in patients with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Babai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT on the reduction of pain intensityin patients with chronic pain. This study was a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design with control group. All patients who referred to physiotherapy clinics for pain during 2015 were participated in the study. They completed the Brief Pain Inventory-short form (BPI-SF for assessing severity of pain. Attentional bias was evaluated using computerized Dot-Probe task. The patients with chronic pain were screened by diagnostic criteria of DSM-V; neurologic diagnosis, and interview. 36 people were selected and randomly divided to three groups computer-based ABM, CBT, and control (12 cases in each group. Group A was trained in 8 sessions-each 15 minutes with the modified computerized Dot-Probe task for attentional bias modification. Group B was trained in 11 sessions-each 45 minutes with CBT program of Turk and Ferry for the chronic pain treatment. And Placebo program was administered for group C in which they completed 8 classic DotProbe sessions. In the end, for the posttest (T2 the participants were tested to identify the changes in biased attention to the emotional stimuli using classing Dot-Probe tasks, and BPI questionnaire to evaluate the changes of severity of pain. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis(ANOVA. On the BPI-SF, CBT more reduced the pain intensitythan computer-based ABM.In addition ABM treatment is more effective in reduction of attentional bias.Both of treatments are effective but CBT is more effective than ABM in reduction of pain intensity.

  18. The behavior modification through the play of children aged 3-7 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Lamcja (Zeqaj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of theory, technique and common factors in psychotherapy has gained prominence since the 1990s. Previously, it was called eclecticism, but integration has become the preferred term to describe the blending of theory, technique and common factors (Norcross, 2005. In the past, eclecticism meant to choose from various theories and techniques a therapeutic strategy that appears best for a particular client (Schaefer, 2003, .308. However, Norcross (1987 explains eclecticism as a further integration through which various theories are applied on interactive and coordinated explanations of the therapy. Psychological disorders, especially in complex children and adolescents a multifaceted treatment approach is needed (Schaefer 2003. Indeed, many clients do not come with a clearly defined diagnosis, but rather several overlapping problems due to the co morbidity of issues (such as in the cases of complex trauma resulting in overlapping attention problems, along with phobias and sexualized behaviors. The clinicians trained in one theoretical and treatment approach are finding the “one size” cannot fit in all the presenting problems that are being faced today. Due to this multidimensional aspect the play child/play therapy calls for the unique demand that the therapist should wear a lot of different hats and should be skillful in changing from one therapeutic stance to another, in order to meet the needs of the child and of the various members in the child’s life (Coonerty, 1993. In one moment, the play therapist is intensively involved in deeply evocative and conflicted play therapy the child client. At that moment, the therapist needs to deal with the child’s internal struggles, setting limits and being an educator or mediator with the child, while in the next moment the therapist should be engaged with the role of a parent, or school psychologist, or classroom teacher to assess the child’s functioning

  19. Modification of boundary plasma behavior by Ion Bernstein Wave heating on the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.; Song, M.; Ling, B.L.; Li, C.F.; Li, J.

    2003-01-01

    The boundary plasma behavior during Ion Bernstein Wave heating was investigated using Langmuir probe arrays on the HT-7 tokamak. A distinct weak turbulence regime was reproducibly observed in the 30 MHz IBW heated plasmas with RF power larger than 120 kW, which resulted in a particle confinement improvement of a factor of 2. The strong suppression and decorrelation effect of fluctuations resulted in the turbulent particle flux dropping by more than an order of magnitude in the plasma boundary region. An additional inward radial electric field and associated poloidal ExB flows were produced, which could account for the additional poloidal velocity in the electron diamagnetic direction at some radial locations of the boundary plasma. The electrostatic fluctuations were nearly completely decorrelated in the high frequency region and only low frequency fluctuations remained. The poloidal correlation was considerably reduced in the high poloidal wave number region and only the fluctuations with long poloidal wavelength remained. Three-wave nonlinear phase coupling between the whole frequency domain and the very low frequency region increased significantly in both the plasma edge and the SOL. Quite low frequency fluctuations (about 5 kHz) were generated, which dominated the boundary turbulence during IBW heating. Detailed analyses suggested that, when an IBW with a frequency of 30 MHz was launched into a plasma with the toroidal magnetic field between 1.75 T and 2.0 T, the ion cyclotron resonant layer of 5/2.D was located in the plasma edge region. The poloidal ExB sheared flows generated by IBW near this layer due to a ponderomotive interaction were found to be the mechanism underlying these phenomena. (author)

  20. Modification in the thermo mechanical behavior of biodegradable polyesters submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mega, Veronica I; Fernandez, Victor; Eisenberg, Patricia; Hermida, Elida B

    2006-01-01

    The biopolymers poly(3- polyhydroxy butyrate) (PHB), poly(3-hydroxy butyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and their mixtures with other biodegradables like polycaprolactone (PCL) are materials that can be used in the production of food packaging and in bioabsorbable medical applications because of their good processability, suitable mechanical properties and complete degradation in different environments. Radiation γ is an appropriate method for the sterilization of food packaging. It offers good storage stability and high microbiological safety. This work proposes to study the effect of radiation γ on the mechanical and thermal properties of sheets of PHB, PHBV and of a PHB-based commercial biodegradable mixture. The samples standardized for traction tests were irradiated in air, at a constant dosage rate of 10 kGy/h. The range of absorbed doses was from 10 to 179 kGy. The possible structural changes were evaluated by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the mechanical properties were measured with a universal test machine. The ruling mechanism during the gamma irradiation of Biocycle 1000 (PHB), 1400-2 (PHB-PCL) and PHBV is chain scission. The decreased vitreous transition melting and crytallization temperatures of PHB and PHBV after increasing the dosage, are evidence of the reduction in average molecular weight due to this mechanism. A similar effect was observed in the mechanical properties of irradiated PHBV, Biocycle 1000 and 1400-2: decreased resistance to traction and in the percentage of elongation to fracture, while the tensile module remains almost constant. The tenacity of the Biocycle 1000 is reduced more than that for the PHBV, which is less crystalline; showing that the damage occurs mostly in the crystalline region. This behavior is repeated in the Biocycle 1400-2. For the doses used in food irradiation or in sterilization of food packaging (≤ 20

  1. Weight loss with naltrexone SR/bupropion SR combination therapy as an adjunct to behavior modification: the COR-BMOD trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 56-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial examined the efficacy and safety of naltrexone plus bupropion as an adjunct to intensive behavior modification (BMOD). A total of 793 participants (BMI = 36.5 +/- 4.2 kg/m(2)) was randomly assigned in a 1:3 ratio to: (i) placebo + BMOD (N = 202); or...

  2. The Single and Combined Effects of Multiple Intensities of Behavior Modification and Methylphenidate for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Arnold, Fran; Garefino, Allison; Keenan, Jenna K.; Onyango, Adia N.; Hoffman, Martin T.; Massetti, Greta M.; Robb, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    Currently behavior modification, stimulant medication, and combined treatments are supported as evidence-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in classroom settings. However, there has been little study of the relative effects of these two modalities and their combination in classrooms. Using a within-subject design, the…

  3. Investigating the Variables in a Mock Exam Study Session Designed to Improve Student Exam Performance in an Undergraduate Behavior Modification and Therapy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Wesley H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify components of an optional mock exam review session (e.g. requiring students to write answers, providing students grading keys for questions) responsible for improvements in student performance on application-based short-essay exams in an undergraduate behavior modification course. Both…

  4. Pharmacological evaluation of sedative and hypnotic effects of schizandrin through the modification of pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Mao, Xin; Liu, Aijing; Liu, Zhi; Li, Xiaolong; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2014-12-05

    The fruits of Schisandra chinensis have been recorded as an effective somnificant for the treatment of insomnia in some oriental countries pharmacopoeias. However, the mechanism of sedative and hypnotic effects of this kind of herb is still unclear. In the present study, schizandrin, which is the main component of Schisandra chinensis, was selected as a target compound to investigate possible mechanisms through behavioral pharmacology methods. The results showed that schizandrin possessed dose-dependent (5-45 mg/kg, i.p.) sedative effects on locomotion activity in normal mice, and produced a dose-dependent decrease in sleep latency and an increase in sleep duration in pentobarbital-treated mice; thus, itself did not induce sleep at higher dose which was used in this experiment (45 mg/kg, i.p.). It also can reverse the rodent models of insomnia induced by p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) and caffeine, which could exhibit a syne with 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) as well; therefore, the hypnotic effects of schizandrin were not inhibited by flumazenil (a specific gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A-BZD receptor antagonist). Altogether, these results indicated that schizandrin produces beneficial sedative and hypnotic bioactivity, which might be mediated by the modification of the serotonergic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [The effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention(PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Young-Ran; An, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Young-A; Woo, Hae-Young

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention(PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children. Thirty-two participants (BMI>or=85 percentile or relative obesity>or=10) were allocated to the PABM-intervention group and behavior modification only intervention group. The PABM-intervention was composed of exercise intervention consisting of 50 minutes of physical activity(Hip-hop dance & gym-based exercises) twice a week and the behavior modification intervention consisted of 50 minutes of instruction for modifying lifestyle habits(diet & exercise) once a week. Effectiveness of intervention was based on waist circumference, BP, HDL-cholesterol, TG, and fasting glucose before and after the intervention. The proportion of subjects with 1, 2, 3 or more metabolic risk factors were 28.1, 43.8, and 15.6%, respectively. After the 8-week intervention, waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly(p<.01) in the PABM group. This provides evidence that a PABM-intervention is effective in changing metabolic risk factors such as waist circumference, systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese elementary school children.

  6. Effect of goal attainment theory based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: Randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moonkyoung; Song, Rhayun; Jeong, Jin-Ok

    2017-06-01

    Effect of goal-attainment-theory-based education program on cardiovascular risks, behavioral modification, and quality of life among patients with first episode of acute myocardial infarction: randomized study BACKGROUND: The behavioral modification strategies should be explored at the time of admission to lead the maximum effect of cardiovascular risk management. This randomized study aimed to elucidate the effects of a nurse-led theory-based education program in individuals with a first episode of acute myocardial infarction on cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The study involved a convenience sample of 64 patients with acute myocardial infarction who were randomly assigned to either the education group or the control group. The goal-attainment-based education program was designed to set the mutually agreed goals of risk management and the behavioral modification strategies for achieving those goals. Those in the control group received routine management only. The participants in both groups were contacted at 6-8 weeks and at 6 months after discharge to measure outcome variables. Repeated measure ANOVA was conducted using SPSSWIN (version 20.0) to determine the significance of differences in outcome variables over 6 months between the groups. Both groups showed significant positive changes in cardiovascular risks, health behaviors, and quality of life over 6 months. The 2-year risk of cardiovascular disease was significantly reduced in both study groups, but with no significant interaction effect (F=2.01, p=0.142). The performance and maintenance of health behaviors (F=3.75, p=0.029) and the mental component of quality of life (F=4.03, p=0.020) were significantly better in the education group than the control group. Applying a goal-oriented education program at an early stage of hospital management improved and maintained blood glucose, health behaviors, and mental component of the quality of life up to six months in

  7. The effects of minor alloy modifications and heat treatment on the microstructure and creep rupture behavior of 2.25Cr-1Mo Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.A.; Chung, D.W.; Parker, E.R.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of alloy additions on the microstructure of simulated cooled and tempered 2.25Cr-1Mo steels have been studied using transmission electron microscopy. Carbide precipitation sequences have been identified in the modification 3Cr-1Mo-1Mn-1Ni and compared to those in 2.25Cr-1Mo steels modified with Mn and Ni and also with Ti, V and B. The influence of minor compositional changes on the creep rupture behavior of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel has been studied at 500 C, 560 C, and 600 C. The most significant effect of alloy modifications on creep properties resulted from additions of Mn and Cr. Preliminary studies show that 1% Mn and 0.5Mn + 1Ni + 0.75Cr additions significantly reduce creep strength at all three temperatures for tests up to 2000 hours duration. The 3Cr-1Mo-1Mn-1Ni steel showed improvements in rupture ductility at all temperatures when compared with the base 2.25Cr-1Mo steel and the manganese-nickel modifications. Plots of the Larson-Miller parameter for both these modifications lay within the scatter band for commercial 2.25Cr-1Mo steels

  8. Effects of luminance contrast and its modifications on fixation behavior during free viewing of images from different categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açik, Alper; Onat, Selim; Schumann, Frank; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; König, Peter

    2009-06-01

    During viewing of natural scenes, do low-level features guide attention, and if so, does this depend on higher-level features? To answer these questions, we studied the image category dependence of low-level feature modification effects. Subjects fixated contrast-modified regions often in natural scene images, while smaller but significant effects were observed for urban scenes and faces. Surprisingly, modifications in fractal images did not influence fixations. Further analysis revealed an inverse relationship between modification effects and higher-level, phase-dependent image features. We suggest that high- and mid-level features--such as edges, symmetries, and recursive patterns--guide attention if present. However, if the scene lacks such diagnostic properties, low-level features prevail. We posit a hierarchical framework, which combines aspects of bottom-up and top-down theories and is compatible with our data.

  9. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations

  10. Sustaining a "culture of silence" in the neonatal intensive care unit during nonemergency situations: a grounded theory on ensuring adherence to behavioral modification to reduce noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swathi, S; Ramesh, A; Nagapoornima, M; Fernandes, Lavina M; Jisina, C; Rao, P N Suman; Swarnarekha, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory explaining how the staff in a resource-limited neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a developing nation manage to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of a noise reduction protocol (NsRP) during nonemergency situations. The study was conducted after implementation of an NsRP in a level III NICU of south India. The normal routine of the NICU is highly dynamic because of various categories of staff conducting clinical rounds followed by care-giving activities. This is unpredictably interspersed with very noisy emergency management of neonates who suddenly fall sick. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 staff members of the NICU (20 staff nurses, six nursing aides, and 10 physicians). Group discussions were conducted with 20 staff nurses and six nursing aides. Data analysis was done in line with the reformulated grounded theory approach, which was based on inductive examination of textual information. The results of the analysis showed that the main concern was to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of the NsRP. This was addressed by using strategies to "sustain a culture of silence in NICU during nonemergency situations" (core category). The main strategies employed were building awareness momentum, causing awareness percolation, developing a sense of ownership, expansion of caring practices, evolution of adherence, and displaying performance indicators. The "culture of silence" reconditions the existing staff and conditions new staff members joining the NICU. During emergency situations, a "noisy culture" prevailed because of pragmatic neglect of behavioral modification when life support overrode all other concerns. In addition to this, the process of operant conditioning should be formally conducted once every 18 months. The results of this study may be adapted to create similar strategies and establish context specific NsRPs in NICUs with resource constraints.

  11. A single intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin in rats induces long-lasting modifications in behavior and brain protein levels of TNF-α and IL-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossù Paola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic inflammation might cause neuronal damage and sustain neurodegenerative diseases and behavior impairment, with the participation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-18. However, the potential contribution of these cytokines to behavioral impairment in the long-term period has not been fully investigated. Methods Wistar rats were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg or vehicle. After 7 days and 10 months, the animal behavior was evaluated by testing specific cognitive functions, as mnesic, discriminative, and attentional functions, as well as anxiety levels. Contextually, TNF-α and IL-18 protein levels were measured by ELISA in defined brain regions (that is, frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and hypothalamus. Results Behavioral testing demonstrated a specific and persistent cognitive impairment characterized by marked deficits in reacting to environment modifications, possibly linked to reduced motivational or attentional deficits. Concomitantly, LPS induced a TNF-α increase in the hippocampus and frontal cortex (from 7 days onward and cerebellum (only at 10 months. Interestingly, LPS treatment enhanced IL-18 expression in these same areas only at 10 months after injection. Conclusions Overall, these results indicate that the chronic neuroinflammatory network elicited by systemic inflammation involves a persistent participation of TNF-α accompanied by a differently regulated contribution of IL-18. This leads to speculation that, though with still unclear mechanisms, both cytokines might take part in long-lasting modifications of brain functions, including behavioral alteration.

  12. Suppression of Remodeling Behaviors with Arachidonic Acid Modification for Enhanced in vivo Antiatherogenic Efficacies of Lovastatin-loaded Discoidal Recombinant High Density Lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongliang; Zhang, Mengyuan; Liu, Lisha; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Wenli

    2015-10-01

    A series of in vitro evaluation in our previous studies had proved that arachidonic acid (AA) modification could suppress the remodeling behaviors of lovastatin-loaded discoidal reconstituted high density lipoprotein (LT-d-rHDL) by restraining the reactivity with lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) for reducing undesired drug leakage. This study focuses on the investigation of AA-modified LT-d-rHDL (AA-LT-d-rHDL) in atherosclerotic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit models to explore whether AA modification could enhance drug targeting delivery and improve antiatherogenic efficacies in vivo. After pharmacokinetics of AA-LT-d-rHDL modified with different AA amount were investigated in atherosclerotic NZW rabbits, atherosclerotic lesions targeting property was assessed by ex vivo imaging of aortic tree and drug distribution. Furthermore, their antiatherogenic efficacies were elaborately evaluated and compared by typical biochemical indices. With AA modification amount augmenting, circulation time of AA-LT-d-rHDL was prolonged, and drug accumulation in the target locus was increased, eventually the significant appreciation in antiatherogenic efficacies were further supported by lower level of bad cholesterol, decreased atherosclerotic lesions areas and mean intima-media thickness (MIT), markedly attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression and macrophage infiltration. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that AA-LT-d-rHDL could enhance drug accumulation in atherosclerotic lesion and impede atherosclerosis progression more effectively.

  13. Effect of surface modification by nitrogen ion implantation on the electrochemical and cellular behaviors of super-elastic NiTi shape memory alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki-Ghaleh, H; Khalil-Allafi, J; Sadeghpour-Motlagh, M; Shakeri, M S; Masoudfar, S; Farrokhi, A; Beygi Khosrowshahi, Y; Nadernezhad, A; Siadati, M H; Javidi, M; Shakiba, M; Aghaie, E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to enhance the biological behavior of NiTi shape memory alloy while preserving its super-elastic behavior in order to facilitate its compatibility for application in human body. The surfaces of NiTi samples were bombarded by three different nitrogen doses. Small-angle X-ray diffraction was employed for evaluating the generated phases on the bombarded surfaces. The electrochemical behaviors of the bare and surface-modified NiTi samples were studied in simulated body fluid (SBF) using electrochemical impedance and potentio-dynamic polarization tests. Ni ion release during a 2-month period of service in the SBF environment was evaluated using atomic absorption spectrometry. The cellular behavior of nitrogen-modified samples was studied using fibroblast cells. Furthermore, the effect of surface modification on super-elasticity was investigated by tensile test. The results showed the improvement of both corrosion and biological behaviors of the modified NiTi samples. However, no significant change in the super-elasticity was observed. Samples modified at 1.4E18 ion cm(-2) showed the highest corrosion resistance and the lowest Ni ion release.

  14. Can't See the Wood for the Litter: Evaluation of Litter Behavior Modification in a Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Bonigk, Isabel; Benkowitz, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated elementary school children's (n = 171) litter behavior during guided forest tours following two different treatments. Four classes received a verbal appeal not to litter in the forest, while another four classes received both a verbal appeal and a demonstration of the desired litter behavior (picking up litter, putting it…

  15. The role of community health nurses in behavioral modification of parents of children with behavioral disorders in primary schools in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaghani, Abdollah Rezaei; Ershadi, Kobra; Pahlavanzadeh, Saeid; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Mental health is of great importance in childhood and the foundation of personality of every individual is laid during this period. Moreover, behavioral problems are common in children, and a lot of the individual, familial, and social disorders originate from the fact that these problems are not treated at the right time. More important is that the behavioral problems of children are rooted in the behavior and upbringing of parents. Therefore, we carried out the present study to investigate the role of community health nurses in modifying the behavior of parents whose children have behavioral problems. This research was a pre- and post-training quasi-experimental study. The study was carried out with the participation of the parents of 44 first-grade primary school children with reported behavioral problems. The instrument used in the study was a self-made questionnaire. The data was analyzed by SPSS software, using descriptive and inferential statistical methods (t-test and repeated ANOVA). The mean scores of parents' behavior before, immediately after, and one month after training exhibited a significant difference in both fathers and mothers (p = 0.04 in fathers and p parents led to a change in their behavior towards children, it is advisable to prepare and implement such programs.

  16. Toxic cocaine- and convulsant-induced modification of forced swimming behaviors and their interaction with ethanol: comparison with immobilization stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Tamaki; Yamamoto, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Keiichi

    2002-01-01

    Background Swimming behaviors in the forced swimming test have been reported to be depressed by stressors. Since toxic convulsion-inducing drugs related to dopamine [cocaine (COC)], benzodiazepine [methyl 6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-carboxylate (DMCM)], γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) [bicuculline (BIC)], and glutamate [N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)] receptors can function as stressors, the present study compared their effects on the forced swimming behaviors with the effects of immobilization stress (IM) in rats. Their interactions with ethanol (EtOH), the most frequently coabused drug with COC which also induces convulsions as withdrawal symptoms but interferes with the convulsions caused by other drugs, were also investigated. Results Similar to the IM (10 min) group, depressed swimming behaviors (attenuated time until immobility and activity counts) were observed in the BIC (5 mg/kg IP) and DMCM (10 mg/kg IP) groups at the 5 h time point, after which no toxic behavioral symptoms were observed. However, they were normalized to the control levels at the 12 h point, with or without EtOH (1.5 g/kg IP). In the COC (60 mg/kg IP) and NMDA (200 mg/kg IP) groups, the depression occurred late (12 h point), and was normalized by the EtOH cotreatment. At the 5 h point, the COC treatment enhanced the swimming behaviors above the control level. Conclusions Although the physiological stress (IM), BIC, and DMCM also depressed the swimming behaviors, a delayed occurrence and EtOH-induced recovery of depressed swimming were observed only in the COC and NMDA groups. This might be correlated with the previously-reported delayed responses of DA and NMDA neurons rather than direct effects of the drugs, which could be suppressed by EtOH. Furthermore, the characteristic psychostimulant effects of COC seemed to be correlated with an early enhancement of swimming behaviors. PMID:12425723

  17. Acylation Modification of Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin Using Succinic Anhydride and Its Effects on Enzymatic Degradation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The degradation rate of tissue engineering scaffolds should match the regeneration rate of new tissues. Controlling the degradation behavior of silk fibroin is an important subject for silk-based tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin was successfully modified with succinic anhydride and then characterized by zeta potential, ninhydrin method, and FTIR. In vitro, three-dimensional scaffolds prepared with modified silk fibroin were incubated in collagenase IA solution for 18 days to evaluate the impact of acylation on the degradation behavior. The results demonstrated that the degradation rate of modified silk fibroin scaffolds was more rapid than unmodified ones. The content of the β-sheet structure in silk fibroin obviously decreased after acylation, resulting in a high degradation rate. Above all, the degradation behavior of silk fibroin scaffolds could be regulated by acylation to match the requirements of various tissues regeneration.

  18. Modification of the Feline-Ality™ Assessment and the Ability to Predict Adopted Cats’ Behaviors in Their New Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Emily; Gramann, Shannon; Drain, Natasha; Dolan, Emily; Slater, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary While millions of cats enter animal shelters every year, only 11.5% of pet cats are obtained from a shelter in the United States. Previous research has indicated that unrealistic expectations set by adopters can increase the chances of an adopted cat returning to the shelter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was designed to provide adopters with accurate information about an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. This research explored the ability of the modified Feline-ality™ assessment when done one day after the cat entered the shelter. Our modified version was predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Abstract It is estimated that 2.5 million cats enter animal shelters in the United States every year and as few as 20% leave the shelter alive. Of those adopted, the greatest risk to post-adoption human animal bond is unrealistic expectations set by the adopter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was developed to provide adopters with an accurate assessment of an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. However, the original Feline-ality™ required a three-day hold time to collect cat behaviors on a data card, which was challenging for some shelters. This research involved creating a survey to determine in-home feline behavior post adoption and explored the predictive ability of the in-shelter assessment without the data card. Our results show that the original Feline-ality™ assessment and our modified version were predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Our modified version also decreased hold time for cats to one day. Shelters interested in increasing cat adoptions, decreasing length of stay and improving the adoption experience can now implement the modified version for future feline adoption success. PMID:26479138

  19. A Case Report of Dissociative Neurosis (Depersonalization Disorder) in an Adolescent Treated with Family Therapy and Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of behavioral procedures as part of systems-oriented family therapy for the treatment of an adolescent girl's functional blackouts. Treatment successfully eliminated blackouts without directly addressing clear psychosexual issues. Discusses the case in terms of conceptualizing etiology and treatments and advocates working with…

  20. Modification of the Feline-Ality™ Assessment and the Ability to Predict Adopted Cats’ Behaviors in Their New Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Weiss

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 2.5 million cats enter animal shelters in the United States every year and as few as 20% leave the shelter alive. Of those adopted, the greatest risk to post-adoption human animal bond is unrealistic expectations set by the adopter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was developed to provide adopters with an accurate assessment of an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. However, the original Feline-ality™ required a three-day hold time to collect cat behaviors on a data card, which was challenging for some shelters. This research involved creating a survey to determine in-home feline behavior post adoption and explored the predictive ability of the in-shelter assessment without the data card. Our results show that the original Feline-ality™ assessment and our modified version were predictive of feline behavior post adoption. Our modified version also decreased hold time for cats to one day. Shelters interested in increasing cat adoptions, decreasing length of stay and improving the adoption experience can now implement the modified version for future feline adoption success.

  1. The influence of a behavior modification interventional program on body mass index in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Toulabi

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: The ‘‘behavior modification’’ interventional program is effective in reducing BMI in obese students, and therefore, school principals and planners can play an important role in controlling obesity by implementing this program via the students, their parents, and the school staff.

  2. Application of the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel to Understand Physicians' Behaviors and Behavior Change in Using Temporary Work Modifications for Return to Work: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horppu, Ritva; Martimo, K P; MacEachen, E; Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2018-03-01

    Purpose Applying the theoretical domains framework (TDF) and the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) to understand physicians' behaviors and behavior change in using temporary work modifications (TWMs) for return to work (RTW). Methods Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 15 occupational physicians (OPs). Responses were coded using the TDF and the BCW. Results Key behaviors related to applying TWMs were initiating the process with the employee, making recommendations to the workplace, and following up the process. OP behaviors were influenced by several factors related to personal capability and motivation, and opportunities provided by the physical and social environment. Capability comprised relevant knowledge and skills related to applying TWMs, remembering to initiate TWMS and monitor the process, and being accustomed to reflective practice. Opportunity comprised physical resources (e.g., time, predefined procedures, and availability of modified work at companies), and social pressure from stakeholders. Motivation comprised conceptions of a proper OP role, confidence to carry out TWMs, personal RTW-related goals, beliefs about the outcomes of one's actions, feedback received from earlier cases, and feelings related to applying TWMs. OPs' perceived means to target these identified factors were linked to the following BCW intervention functions: education, training, persuasion, environmental restructuring, and enablement. The results suggest that at least these functions should be considered when designing future interventions. Conclusions Our study illustrates how theoretical frameworks TDF and BCW can be utilized in a RTW context to understand which determinants of physicians' behavior need to be targeted, and how, to promote desired behaviors.

  3. Fouling behavior of poly(ether)sulfone ultrafiltration membrane during concentration of whey proteins: Effect of hydrophilic modification using atmospheric pressure argon jet plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damar Huner, Irem; Gulec, Haci Ali

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of hydrophilic surface modification via atmospheric pressure jet plasma (ApJPls) on the fouling propensity of polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes during concentration of whey proteins. The distance from nozzle to substrate surface of 30mm and the exposure period of 5 times were determined as the most effective parameters enabling an increase in ΔG iwi value of the plain membrane from (-) 14.92±0.89mJ/m 2 to (+) 17.57±0.67mJ/m 2 . Maximum hydrophilicity and minimum surface roughness achieved by argon plasma action resulted in better antifouling behavior, while the hydraulic permeability and the initial permeate flux were decreased sharply due to the plasma-induced surface cross-linking. A quite steady state flux was obtained throughout the UF with the ApJPls modified PES membrane. The contribution of R frev to R t , which was 94% for the UF through the plain membrane, decreased to 43% after the plasma treatment. The overall results of this study highlighted the ApJPls modification decreased the fouling propensity of PES membrane without affecting the original protein rejection capability and improved the recovery of initial permeate flux after chemical cleaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sandaly O S; Pacheco, Fabio J; Zapata, Gimena M J; Garcia, Julieta M E; Previale, Carlos A; Cura, Héctor E; Craig, Winston J

    2016-07-09

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis.

  5. Modification of the effects of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine on exploratory behavior in rats by monoamine oxidase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Adam L.; Buell, Mahalah R.; Masten, Virginia L.; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE The hallucinogenic tea known as ayahuasca is made from a combination of psychoactive plants that contribute the active components N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and 5-methoxy-DMT (5-MeO-DMT), as well as the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (MAOIs) harmine and harmaline for oral activity. OBJECTIVE The present study examined the effects of 5-MeO-DMT in combination with MAOIs in rats using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM), which enables analyses of patterns of locomotor activity and exploration. Interaction studies using the serotonin (5-HT)1A antagonist WAY-100635 (1.0 mg/kg) and the 5-HT2A antagonist MDL 11,939 (1.0 mg/kg) were also performed to assess the respective contributions of these receptors to the behavioral effects of 5-MeO-DMT in MAOI-treated animals. RESULTS 5-MeO-DMT (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg) decreased locomotor activity and investigatory behavior. In rats pretreated with a behaviorally inactive dose of harmaline (0.1 mg/kg), 1.0 mg/kg 5-MeO-DMT had biphasic effects on locomotor activity, initially reducing locomotion and then increasing activity as time progressed. The ability of harmaline to shift 5-MeO-DMT to a biphasic locomotor pattern was shared by the selective MAOA inhibitor clorgyline, whereas the selective MAOB inhibitor (−)-deprenyl was ineffective. The late hyperactivity induced by the combination of 1.0 mg/kg 5-MeO-DMT and 0.3 mg/kg clorgyline was blocked by pretreatment with MDL 11,939. Pretreatment with WAY-100635 failed to attenuate either the early hypoactivity or the late hyperactivity. CONCLUSIONS The ability of harmaline to modify the behavioral effects of 5-MeO-DMT is mediated by inhibition of MAOA. Further, 5-HT2A receptors are responsible for the late hyperactivity induced by 5-MeO-DMT in the presence of MAOA inhibitors. PMID:18604652

  6. Effect of Bi modification treatment on microstructure, tensile properties, and fracture behavior of cast Al-Mg2Si metal matrix composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bi has a good modification effect on the hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy, and the morphology of eutectic Si changes from coarse acicular to fine fibrous. Based on the similarity between Mg2Si and Si phases in crystalline structure and crystallization process, the present study investigated the effects of different concentrations of Bi on the microstructure, tensile properties, and fracture behavior of cast Al-15wt.%Mg2Si in-situ metal matrix composite. The results show that the addition of the proper amount of Bi has a significant modification effect on both primary and eutectic Mg2Si in the Al-15wt.%Mg2Si composite. With an increase in Bi content from 0 to 1wt.%, the morphology of the primary Mg2Si is changed from irregular or dendritic to polyhedral shape; and its average particle size is significantly decreased from 70 to 6 μm. Moreover, the morphology of the eutectic Mg2Si phase is altered from flake-like to very short fibrous or dot-like. When the Bi addition exceeds 4.0wt.%, the primary Mg2Si becomes coarse again. However, the eutectic Mg2Si still exhibits the modified morphology. Tensile tests reveal that the Bi addition can improve the tensile strength and ductility of the material. Compared with those of the unmodified composite, the ultimate tensile strength and percentage elongation after fracture with 1.0wt.% Bi increase 51.2% and 100%, respectively. At the same time, the Bi addition changes the fracture behavior from brittle to ductile.

  7. How Compliance Measures, Behavior Modification, and Continuous Quality Improvement Led to Routine HIV Screening in an Emergency Department in Brooklyn, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Jermel Kyri; Sanchez, Travis H; Brown, Emily H; Thompson, Gina; Sanchez, Christina; Fils-Aime, Stephany; Maria, Jose

    2016-01-01

    New York State adopted a new HIV testing law in 2010 requiring medical providers to offer an HIV test to all eligible patients aged 13-64 years during emergency room or ambulatory care visits. Since then, Wyckoff Heights Medical Center (WHMC) in Brooklyn, New York, began implementing routine HIV screening organization-wide using a compliance, behavior-modification, and continuous quality-improvement process. WHMC first implemented HIV screening in the emergency department (ED) and evaluated progress with the following monthly indicators: HIV tests offered, HIV tests accepted, HIV tests ordered (starting in December 2013), HIV tests administered, positive HIV tests, and linkage to HIV care. Compliance with the delivery of HIV testing was determined by the proportion of patients who, after accepting a test, received one. During August 2013 through July 2014, of 57,852 eligible patients seen in the WHMC ED, a total of 31,423 (54.3%) were offered an HIV test. Of those, 8,229 (26.2%) patients accepted a test. Of those, 6,114 (74.3%) underwent a test. A total of 26 of the 6,114 patients tested (0.4%) had a positive test, and 24 of the 26 HIV-positive patients were linked to HIV medical care. By July 2014, the monthly proportion of patients offered a test was 62%; the proportion of those offered a test who had a test ordered was 98%, and the proportion of those with a test ordered who were tested was 81%. Testing compliance increased substantially at the WHMC ED, from 77% in December 2013 to >98% in July 2014. Using compliance-monitoring, behavior-modification, and continuous quality-improvement processes produced substantial increases in offers and HIV test completion. WHMC is replicating this approach across departments, and other hospitals implementing routine HIV screening programs should consider this approach as well.

  8. Modification of the Feline-Ality™ Assessment and the Ability to Predict Adopted Cats’ Behaviors in Their New Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Emily; Gramann, Shannon; Drain, Natasha; Dolan, Emily; Slater, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary While millions of cats enter animal shelters every year, only 11.5% of pet cats are obtained from a shelter in the United States. Previous research has indicated that unrealistic expectations set by adopters can increase the chances of an adopted cat returning to the shelter. The ASPCA®’s Meet Your Match® Feline-ality™ adoption program was designed to provide adopters with accurate information about an adult cat’s future behavior in the home. This research explored the ability ...

  9. Behavioral, psycho-physiological and salivary cortisol modifications after short-term alprazolam treatment in patients with recent myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneti, Carlo; Giusti, Mariarosa; Boem, Adriano; Luisi, Michele

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the behavioral and physiological effects of the central nervous system depressant alprazolam on a group of cardiac patients. Immediately after hospital discharge, the Crown and Crisp Experiential Index (CCEI) was administered, the salivary cortisol was detected and a psycho-physiological profile was recorded in 52 subjects who had suffered from myocardial infarction. Half of the subjects represented the experimental group and the remaining 26 individuals acted as a control group not undergoing treatment. The benzodiazepine alprazolam (0.25 mg) was administered twice daily to the treated group only. With the exception of the administration of the drug, all recruited subjects underwent the same clinical evaluation. The CCEI data of the treated group showed significant decreases for the following scales: free floating anxiety (p anxiety (p < 0.01), somatic complaints (p < 0.05), and depression (p < 0.01). In the same group, with regard to the physiological parameters, the skin conductance response significantly decreased during the baseline phase (p < 0.01), and almost all parameters showed decreased values during mental stress test administration. Cortisol levels also decreased during the recovery phase of the psycho-physiological profile assessment. Alprazolam seems to be able to reduce sympathetic discharge and some stress-related behavioral and physiological responses. This could be of benefit for selected cardiac patients for whom increases in sympathetic tone may constitute a risk factor.

  10. Sex-dependent modification by chronic caffeine of acute methamphetamine effects on anxiety-related behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert N; Hamilton, Jennifer J

    2018-06-01

    For fourteen days, male and female PVG/c hooded rats were provided continuously with either pure drinking water, or water containing caffeine in a quantity approximating a daily dose of 31.1 mg/kg. Then at intervals of 3 days, they were administered 1, 2 mg/kg methamphetamine (MA) or saline before being tested for anxiety-related behavior in a zero maze or a light/dark box, or their short-term spatial memory was assessed in a Y maze following introduction of a novel brightness change in one of the arms. Each rat experienced each type of apparatus with the same acute MA or saline treatment while still exposed to chronic caffeine or pure drinking water. While chronic caffeine on its own did not affect any behavioral measure, acute MA was anxiolytic for male rats suggested by increased entries and occupancy of zero-maze enclosed areas, and decreased emergence latencies and increased entries into the light/dark-box light compartment. Females were less affected than males by MA in both types of apparatus unless they also consumed caffeine. For male rats, choices of the Y-maze novel arm were affected by neither caffeine nor MA, but for females provided with unadulterated water, such choices were reduced by 1 mg/kg MA but increased for those exposed to caffeine, thereby suggesting either impaired or improved memory respectively. However, changes in anxiety could also explain these results. Overall, results generated in the three types of apparatus supported potentiation by caffeine of any effects of MA on anxiety for females only. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modification of tribology and high-temperature behavior of Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb intermetallic alloy by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiubo; Wang Huaming

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the tribology and high-temperature oxidation properties of the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb intermetallic alloy simultaneously, mixed NiCr-Cr 3 C 2 precursor powders had been investigated for laser cladding treatment to modify wear and high-temperature oxidation resistance of the material. The alloy samples were pre-placed with NiCr-80, 50 and 20%Cr 3 C 2 (wt.%), respectively, and laser treated at the same parameters, i.e., laser output power 2.8 kW, beam scanning speed 2.0 mm/s, beam dimension 1 mm x 18 mm. The treated samples underwent tests of microhardness, wear and high-temperature oxidation. The results showed that laser cladding with different constitution of mixed precursor NiCr-Cr 3 C 2 powders improved surface hardness in all cases. Laser cladding with NiCr-50%Cr 3 C 2 resulted in the best modification of tribology and high-temperature oxidation behavior. X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analyses indicated that the formation of reinforced Cr 7 C 3 , TiC and both continuous and dense Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 oxide scales were supposed to be responsible for the modification of the relevant properties. As a result, the present work had laid beneficial surface engineering foundation for TiAl alloy applied as future light weight and high-temperature structural candidate materials

  12. A cross-bridge based model of force depression: Can a single modification address both transient and steady-state behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, David T; Herzog, Walter

    2016-03-21

    Force depression (FD), the reduction of isometric force following active shortening, is a phenomenon of skeletal muscle that has received significant attention in biomechanical and physiological literature, yet the mechanisms underlying FD remain unknown. Recent experiments identified a slower rate of force redevelopment with increasing amounts of steady-state FD, suggesting that FD may be caused, at least in part, by a decrease in cross-bridge binding rate (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Koppes et al., 2014). Herein, we develop a cross-bridge based model of FD in which the binding rate function, f, decreases with the mechanical work performed during shortening. This modification incorporates a direct relationship between steady-state FD and muscle mechanical work (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Herzog et al., 2000; Kosterina et al., 2008), and is consistent with a proposed mechanism attributing FD to stress-induced inhibition of cross-bridge attachments (Herzog, 1998; Maréchal and Plaghki, 1979). Thus, for an increase in mechanical work, the model should predict a slower force redevelopment (decreased attachment rate) to a more depressed steady-state force (fewer attached cross-bridges), and a reduction in contractile element stiffness (Ford et al., 1981). We hypothesized that since this modification affects the cross-bridge kinetics, a corresponding model would be able to account for both transient and steady-state FD behaviors. Comparisons to prior experiments (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Herzog et al., 2000; Kosterina et al., 2008) show that both steady-state and transient aspects of FD, as well as the relationship of FD with respect to speed and amplitude of shortening, are well captured by this model. Thus, this relatively simple cross-bridge based model of FD lends support to a mechanism involving the inhibition of cross-bridge binding, and indicates that cross-bridge kinetics may play a critical role in FD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of micro-environment modification and polymer type on the in-vitro dissolution behavior and in-vivo performance of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Pan, Baoliang

    2017-06-15

    This study investigates the effects of micro-environment modification and polymer type on the in-vitro dissolution behavior and in-vivo performance of micro-environment pH modifying solid dispersions (pH M -SD) for the poorly water-soluble model drug Toltrazuril (TOL). Various pH M -SDs were prepared using Ca(OH) 2 as a pH-modifier in hydrophilic polymers, including polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000), polyvinylpyrrolidone k30 (PVPk30) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Based on the results of physicochemical characterizations and in-vitro dissolution testing, the representative ternary (Ca(OH) 2 :TOL:PEG6000/HPMC/PVPk30=1:8:24, w/w/w) and binary (TOL:PVPk30=1:3, w/w) solid dispersions were selected and optimized to perform in-vivo pharmacokinetic study. The micro-environment pH modification improved the in-vitro water-solubility and in-vivo bioavailability of parent drug TOL. Furthermore, the addition of alkalizers not only enhanced the release and absorption of prototype drug, but also promoted the generation of active metabolites, including toltrazuril sulfoxide (TOLSO) and toltrazuril sulfone (TOLSO 2 ). The in-vitro dissolution profiles and in-vivo absorption, distribution and metabolism behaviors of the pH M -SDs varied with polymer type. Moreover, in-vivo bioavailability of three active pharmaceutical ingredients increased with an increase in in-vitro dissolution rates of the drug from the pH M -SDs prepared with various polymers. Therefore, a non-sink in-vitro dissolution method can be used to predict the in-vivo performance of pH M -SDs formulated with various polymers with trend consistency. In-vitro and in-vivo screening procedures revealed that the pH M -SD composed of Ca(OH) 2 , TOL and PVPk30 at a weight ratio of 1:8:24, of which the safety was adequately proved via histopathological examination, may be a promising candidate for providing better clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effect of Bronchodilation and Exercise Training with Behavior Modification on Exercise Tolerance and Downstream Effects on Symptoms and Physical Activity in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troosters, Thierry; Maltais, François; Leidy, Nancy; Lavoie, Kim L; Sedeno, Maria; Janssens, Wim; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Erzen, Damijan; De Sousa, Dorothy; Korducki, Lawrence; Hamilton, Alan; Bourbeau, Jean

    2018-04-17

    Bronchodilation and exercise training (ExT) improve exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, behavior modification is required to impact on daily physical activity (PA). To assess whether tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, would improve exercise endurance time (EET) and PA compared with placebo in patients participating in a self-management behavior-modification (SMBM) program. A 12-week, randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in patients with COPD (PHYSACTO®; NCT02085161). All patients were enrolled into SMBM and randomized 1:1:1:1 to once-daily placebo, tiotropium 5 µg, tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg, or tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg plus 8 weeks ExT. EET, measured by endurance shuttle walk test after 8 weeks, was the primary endpoint. Additional endpoints assessed downstream effects on PA (measured via accelerometry), and activity-related dyspnea and difficulty (using validated patient-reported questionnaires). SMBM + tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, significantly improved EET at Week 8 versus SMBM + placebo (treatment ratio versus placebo: with ExT 1.46 [95% CI: 1.20, 1.78]; P=0.0002; without ExT 1.29 [1.06, 1.57]; P=0.0109). No significant increases in steps per day from baseline were observed over SMBM + placebo at Week 12 (increase of 1,098) when other therapies were added. Adding tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, to SMBM reduced activity-related dyspnea versus placebo, while adding tiotropium/olodaterol + ExT reduced activity-related difficulty. Tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, improved EET in patients with COPD taking part in an SMBM program. Combination bronchodilation, ±ExT, did not provide additional increases in objective PA compared with SMBM alone, but did reduce physical activity-related dyspnea and difficulty. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT02085161.

  15. Effect of cerium on structure modifications of a hybrid sol–gel coating, its mechanical properties and anti-corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambon, Jean-Baptiste; Esteban, Julien; Ansart, Florence; Bonino, Jean-Pierre; Turq, Viviane; Santagneli, S.H.; Santilli, C.V.; Pulcinelli, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New sol–gel routes to replace chromates for corrosion protection of aluminum. ► Effect of cerium concentration on the microstructure of xerogel. ► Electrochemical and mechanical performances of hybrid coating with different cerium contents. ► Good correlation between the different results with an optimal cerium content of 0.01 M. -- Abstract: An organic–inorganic hybrid coating was developed to improve the corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy AA 2024-T3. Organic and inorganic coatings derived from glycidoxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and aluminum tri-sec-butoxide Al(O s Bu) 3 , with different cerium contents, were deposited onto aluminum by dip-coating process. Corrosion resistance and mechanical properties were investigated by electrochemical impedance measurements and nano-indentation respectively. An optimal cerium concentration of 0.01 M was evidenced. To correlate and explain the hybrid coating performances in relation to the cerium content, NMR experiments were performed. It has been shown that when the cerium concentration in the hybrid is higher than 0.01 M there are important modifications in the hybrid structure that account for the mechanical properties and anti-corrosion behavior of the sol–gel coating.

  16. Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive intake of food, especially palatable and energy-dense carbohydrates and fats, is largely responsible for the growing incidence of obesity worldwide. Although there are a number of candidate antiobesity drugs, only a few of them have been proven able to inhibit appetite for palatable foods without the concurrent reduction in regular food consumption. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships between homeostatic and hedonic food intake control mechanisms in promoting overeating with palatable foods and assess the potential usefulness of systemically administered pharmaceuticals that impinge on the endogenous cannabinoid, opioid, aminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic systems in the modification of food preference behavior. Also, certain dietary supplements with the potency to reduce specifically palatable food intake are presented. Based on human and animal studies, we indicate the most promising therapies and agents that influence the effectiveness of appetite-modifying drugs. It should be stressed, however, that most of the data included in our review come from preclinical studies; therefore, further investigations aimed at confirming the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned medications in the treatment of obese humans are necessary.

  17. A systematic study of mechanical properties, corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of AZ31B Mg alloy after ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoning; Qin, Haifeng; Gao, Hongyu; Mankoci, Steven; Zhang, Ruixia; Zhou, Xianfeng; Ren, Zhencheng; Doll, Gary L; Martini, Ashlie; Sahai, Nita; Dong, Yalin; Ye, Chang

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium alloys have tremendous potential for biomedical applications due to their good biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and degradability, but can be limited by their poor mechanical properties and fast corrosion in the physiological environment. In this study, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM), a recently developed surface processing technique that utilizes ultrasonic impacts to induce plastic strain on metal surfaces, was applied to an AZ31B magnesium (Mg) alloy. The mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility of the alloy after UNSM treatment were studied systematically. Significant improvement in hardness, yield stress and wear resistance was achieved after the UNSM treatment. In addition, the corrosion behavior of UNSM-treated AZ31B was not compromised compared with the untreated samples, as demonstrated by the weight loss and released element concentrations of Mg and Al after immersion in alpha-minimum essential medium (α-MEM) for 24h. The in vitro biocompatibility of the AZ31B Mg alloys toward adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) before and after UNSM processing was also evaluated using a cell culture study. Comparable cell attachments were achieved between the two groups. These studies showed that UNSM could significantly improve the mechanical properties of Mg alloys without compromising their corrosion rate and biocompatibility in vitro. These findings suggest that UNSM is a promising method to treat biodegradable Mg alloys for orthopaedic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of modifications in mineralized collagen fibril and extra-fibrillar matrix material properties on submicroscale mechanical behavior of cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaohui; Ural, Ani

    2018-06-01

    A key length scale of interest in assessing the fracture resistance of bone is the submicroscale which is composed of mineralized collagen fibrils (MCF) and extra-fibrillar matrix (EFM). Although the processes through which the submicroscale constituents of bone contribute to the fracture resistance in bone have been identified, the extent of the modifications in submicroscale mechanical response due to the changes in individual properties of MCFs and EFM has not been determined. As a result, this study aims to quantify the influence of individual MCF and EFM material property modifications on the mechanical behavior (elastic modulus, ultimate strength, and resistance to failure) of bone at the submicroscale using a novel finite element modeling approach that incorporate 3D networks of MCFs with three different orientations as well as explicit representation of EFM. The models were evaluated under tensile loading in transverse (representing MCF separation) and longitudinal (representing MCF rupture) directions. The results showed that the apparent elastic modulus at the submicroscale under both loading directions for all orientations was only affected by the change in the elastic modulus of MCFs. MCF separation and rupture strengths were mainly dependent on the ultimate strength of EFM and MCFs, respectively, with minimal influence of other material properties. The extent of damage during MCF separation increased with increasing ultimate strength of EFM and decreased with increasing fracture energy of EFM with minimal contribution from elastic modulus of MCFs. For MCF rupture, there was an almost one-to-one linear relationship between the percent change in fracture energy of MCFs and the percent change in the apparent submicroscale fracture energy. The ultimate strength and elastic modulus of MCFs had moderate to limited influence on the MCF rupture fracture energy. The results of this study quantified the extent of changes that may be seen in the energy

  19. Mechanisms of metabonomic for a gateway drug: nicotine priming enhances behavioral response to cocaine with modification in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Li

    Full Text Available Nicotine, one of the most commonly used drugs, has become a major concern because tobacco serves as a gateway drug and is linked to illicit drug abuse, such as cocaine and marijuana. However, previous studies mainly focused on certain genes or neurotransmitters which have already been known to participate in drug addiction, lacking endogenous metabolic profiling in a global view. To further explore the mechanism by which nicotine modifies the response to cocaine, we developed two conditioned place preference (CPP models in mice. In threshold dose model, mice were pretreated with nicotine, followed by cocaine treatment at the dose of 2 mg/kg, a threshold dose of cocaine to induce CPP in mice. In high-dose model, mice were only treated with 20 mg/kg cocaine, which induced a significant CPP. (1H nuclear magnetic resonance based on metabonomics was used to investigate metabolic profiles of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and striatum. We found that nicotine pretreatment dramatically increased CPP induced by 2 mg/kg cocaine, which was similar to 20 mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP. Interestingly, metabolic profiles showed considerable overlap between these two models. These overlapped metabolites mainly included neurotransmitters as well as the molecules participating in energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Our results show that the reinforcing effect of nicotine on behavioral response to cocaine may attribute to the modification of some specific metabolites in NAc and striatum, thus creating a favorable metabolic environment for enhancing conditioned rewarding effect of cocaine. Our findings provide an insight into the effect of cigarette smoking on cocaine dependence and the underlying mechanism.

  20. Effect of Combined Systematized Behavioral Modification Education Program With Desmopressin in Patients With Nocturia: A Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, and Parallel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yong Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aims of this study were to investigate the efficacy of combining the systematized behavioral modification program (SBMP with desmopressin therapy and to compare this with desmopressin monotherapy in the treatment of nocturnal polyuria (NPU. Methods Patients were randomized at 8 centers to receive desmopressin monotherapy (group A or combination therapy, comprising desmopressin and the SBMP (group B. Nocturia was defined as an average of 2 or more nightly voids. The primary endpoint was a change in the mean number of nocturnal voids from baseline during the 3-month treatment period. The secondary endpoints were changes in the bladder diary parameters and questionnaires scores, and improvements in self-perception for nocturia. Results A total of 200 patients were screened and 76 were excluded from the study, because they failed the screening process. A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive treatment, with group A comprising 68 patients and group B comprising 56 patients. The patients' characteristics were similar between the groups. Nocturnal voids showed a greater decline in group B (-1.5 compared with group A (-1.2, a difference that was not statistically significant. Significant differences were observed between groups A and B with respect to the NPU index (0.37 vs. 0.29, P=0.028, the change in the maximal bladder capacity (-41.3 mL vs. 13.3 mL, P<0.001, and the rate of patients lost to follow up (10.3% [7/68] vs. 0% [0/56], P=0.016. Self-perception for nocturia significantly improved in both groups. Conclusions Combination treatment did not have any additional benefits in relation to reducing nocturnal voids in patients with NPU; however, combination therapy is helpful because it increases the maximal bladder capacity and decreases the NPI. Furthermore, combination therapy increased the persistence of desmopressin in patients with NPU.

  1. Low-temperature oxidizing plasma surface modification and composite polymer thin-film fabrication techniques for tailoring the composition and behavior of polymer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Brendan D.

    This dissertation examines methods for modifying the composition and behavior of polymer material surfaces. This is accomplished using (1) low-temperature low-density oxidizing plasmas to etch and implant new functionality on polymers, and (2) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) techniques to fabricate composite polymer materials. Emphases are placed on the structure of modified polymer surfaces, the evolution of polymer surfaces after treatment, and the species responsible for modifying polymers during plasma processing. H2O vapor plasma modification of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and 75A polyurethane (PU) was examined to further our understanding of polymer surface reorganization leading to hydrophobic recovery. Water contact angles (wCA) measurements showed that PP and PS were the most susceptible to hydrophobic recovery, while PC and HDPE were the most stable. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed a significant quantity of polar functional groups on the surface of all treated polymer samples. Shifts in the C1s binding energies (BE) with sample age were measured on PP and PS, revealing that surface reorganization was responsible for hydrophobic recovery on these materials. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to rule out the intrinsic thermal properties as the cause of reorganization and hydrophobic recovery on HDPE, LDPE, and PP. The different contributions that polymer cross-linking and chain scission mechanisms make to polymer aging effects are considered. The H2O plasma treatment technique was extended to the modification of 0.2 microm and 3.0 microm track-etched polycarbonate (PC-TE) and track-etched polyethylene terephthalate (PET-TE) membranes with the goal of permanently increasing the hydrophilicity of the membrane surfaces. Contact angle measurements on freshly treated and aged samples confirmed the wettability of the

  2. Exploratory study of the effects of wing-leading-edge modifications on the stall/spin behavior of a light general aviation airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Configurations with full-span and segmented leading-edge flaps and full-span and segmented leading-edge droop were tested. Studies were conducted with wind-tunnel models, with an outdoor radio-controlled model, and with a full-scale airplane. Results show that wing-leading-edge modifications can produce large effects on stall/spin characteristics, particularly on spin resistance. One outboard wing-leading-edge modification tested significantly improved lateral stability at stall, spin resistance, and developed spin characteristics.

  3. Sustaining a “culture of silence” in the neonatal intensive care unit during nonemergency situations: A grounded theory on ensuring adherence to behavioral modification to reduce noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Swathi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory explaining how the staff in a resource-limited neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of a developing nation manage to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of a noise reduction protocol (NsRP during nonemergency situations. The study was conducted after implementation of an NsRP in a level III NICU of south India. The normal routine of the NICU is highly dynamic because of various categories of staff conducting clinical rounds followed by care-giving activities. This is unpredictably interspersed with very noisy emergency management of neonates who suddenly fall sick. In-depth interviews were conducted with 36 staff members of the NICU (20 staff nurses, six nursing aides, and 10 physicians. Group discussions were conducted with 20 staff nurses and six nursing aides. Data analysis was done in line with the reformulated grounded theory approach, which was based on inductive examination of textual information. The results of the analysis showed that the main concern was to ensure adherence to behavioral modification components of the NsRP. This was addressed by using strategies to “sustain a culture of silence in NICU during nonemergency situations” (core category. The main strategies employed were building awareness momentum, causing awareness percolation, developing a sense of ownership, expansion of caring practices, evolution of adherence, and displaying performance indicators. The “culture of silence” reconditions the existing staff and conditions new staff members joining the NICU. During emergency situations, a “noisy culture” prevailed because of pragmatic neglect of behavioral modification when life support overrode all other concerns. In addition to this, the process of operant conditioning should be formally conducted once every 18 months. The results of this study may be adapted to create similar strategies and establish context specific NsRPs in NICUs

  4. Investigating the sorption behavior of cadmium from aqueous solution by potassium permanganate-modified biochar: quantify mechanism and evaluate the modification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zixi; Zhang, Qian; Li, Meng; Niu, Dongyuan; Sang, Wenjiao; Verpoort, Francis

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a KMnO 4 -modified-biochar-based composite material with manganese oxide produced at 600 °C was fabricated to investigate the sorption mechanism of Cd(II) and to comprehensively evaluate the effect of the modification on biochar properties. Cd(II) adsorption mechanisms were mainly controlled by interaction with minerals, complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups, and cation-π interaction. The sorption capacity was significantly reduced after a deash treatment of biochar, almost shrunk by 3 and 3.5 times for pristine biochar (PBC) and modified biochar (MBC). For deashed PBC, oxygen-containing functional groups were the main contributor toward Cd(II) adsorption while interaction with minerals was significantly compromised and became negligible. The sorption capacity was also apparently decreased after the deash treatment of MBC; however, for deashed MBC, interaction with minerals still was the main contributor to the sorption ability, which could be attributed to the mechanism of interaction of Cd(II) with loaded MnO x on biochar. Cation-π interaction in MBC was notably enhanced compared to PBC due to the oxidation of KMnO 4 on biomass. Also, sorption performance by oxygen-containing functional groups was also enhanced. Hence, the modification by KMnO 4 has a significant effect on the Cd(II) sorption performance of biochar.

  5. Perceptual Modification of the Built Environment to Influence Behavior Associated with Physical Activity: Quasi-Experimental Field Studies of a Stair Banister Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Rich; Capio, Catherine; Poolton, Jamie; Uiga, Liis

    2018-06-01

    Re-engineering the built environment to influence behaviors associated with physical activity potentially provides an opportunity to promote healthier lifestyles at a population level. Here we present evidence from two quasi-experimental field studies in which we tested a novel, yet deceptively simple, intervention designed to alter perception of, and walking behavior associated with, stairs in an urban area. Our objectives were to examine whether adjusting a stair banister has an influence on perceptions of stair steepness or on walking behavior when approaching the stairs. In study 1, we asked participants (n = 143) to visually estimate the steepness of a set of stairs viewed from the top, when the stair banister was adjusted so that it converged with or diverged from the stairs (± 1.91°) or remained neutral (± 0°). In study 2, the walking behavior of participants (n = 36) was filmed as they approached the stairs to descend, unaware of whether the banister converged, diverged, or was neutral. In study 1, participants estimated the stairs to be steeper if the banister diverged from, rather than converged with, the stairs. The effect was greater when participants were unaware of the adjustment. In study 2, walking speed was significantly slower when the banister diverged from, rather than converged with, the stairs. These findings encourage us to speculate about the potential to economically re-engineer features of the built environment to provide opportunities for action (affordances) that invite physical activity behavior or even promote safer navigation of the environment.

  6. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  7. Influence of nitriding atmosphere on the modification of surface titanium with focus on the behavior of blood platelets adhesion; Influencia da atmosfera nitretante na modificacao de superficies de titanio com enfase no comportamento de adesao de plaquetas sanguineas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitoriano, J.O.; Alves, C. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), RN (Brazil); Braz, D.C.; Camara, R.B.G.; Rocha, H.A.O., E-mail: clodomiro.jr@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the influence of surface modification of titanium on the adhesion of blood platelets, through techniques of adhesion and morphological analyzes. Discs of titanium grade II received different surface treatments with plasma of Ar + N{sub 2} + H{sub 2} and Ar + H{sub 2}, forming two experimental groups including only polished samples used as standard. Before and after treatment the samples were characterized according to topography, crystalline structure and wettability, using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and testing of sessile drop, respectively. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was applied on the modified surfaces in a culture plates. Images obtained by electron microscopy of adhered platelets were analyzed to verify the behavior of platelets in the different experimental conditions. (author)

  8. Identifying similar and different factors effecting long-term cardiac exercise rehabilitation behavior modification between New Zealand and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Stephanie; Lark, Sally; Fallows, Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) programs are the most cost-effective measure for reducing morbidity associated with Coronary Vascular Disease (CVD). To be more effective there is a need to understand what influences the maintenance of healthy behaviors. This study identifies similar and different influences in CR of the United Kingdom (UK) and New Zealand (NZ). A retrospective study. Participants had previously been discharged from CR for 6 to 12+ months within the UK (n = 22) and NZ (n = 21). Participant's attended a focus group. Discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed then thematically analyzed. The CR programs were observed over 2 months to enable comment on findings relating to 'theory in practice.' Similar positive patient experiences influencing behavior between groups and countries were; support, education, positive attitude, and motivation. Companionship and exercising alongside people with similar health problems was the major determinant for positive exercise behavior. Barriers to maintaining exercise included; physical disabilities, time constraints, and weather conditions. NZ participants were more affected by external factors (eg, opportunity, access, and time). Both CR programs were successful in facilitating the maintenance of healthy lifestyles. Exercising with other cardiac patients for support in a structured environment was the strongest influence in maintaining healthy lifestyles beyond CR programs.

  9. Escitalopram or novel herbal mixture treatments during or following exposure to stress reduce anxiety-like behavior through corticosterone and BDNF modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Doron

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a major public health concern worldwide. Studies indicate that repeated exposure to adverse experiences early in life can lead to anxiety disorders in adulthood. Current treatments for anxiety disorders are characterized by a low success rate and are associated with a wide variety of side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of a novel herbal treatment, in comparison to treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram. We recently demonstrated the anxiolytic effects of these treatments in BALB mice previously exposed to one week of stress. In the present study, ICR mice were exposed to post natal maternal separation and to 4 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress in adolescence, and treated during or following exposure to stress with the novel herbal treatment or with escitalopram. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in the elevated plus maze. Blood corticosterone levels were evaluated using radioimmunoassay. Brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that (1 exposure to stress in childhood and adolescence increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood; (2 the herbal treatment reduced anxiety-like behavior, both when treated during or following exposure to stress; (3 blood corticosterone levels were reduced following treatment with the herbal treatment or escitalopram, when treated during or following exposure to stress; (4 brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus of mice treated with the herbal treatment or escitalopram were increased, when treated either during or following exposure to stress. This study expands our previous findings and further points to the proposed herbal compound's potential to be highly efficacious in treating anxiety disorders in humans.

  10. Evaluation of an osteoporosis and fall risk intervention program for community-dwelling elderly. A quasi-experimental study of behavioral modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn Kronhed, Ann-Charlotte; Blomberg, Carina; Löfman, Owe; Timpka, Toomas; Möller, Margareta

    2006-06-01

    Osteoporosis and fall fractures are increasing problems amongst the elderly. The aim of this study was to explore whether combined population-based and individual interventions directed at risk factors for osteoporosis and falls result in behavioral changes in an elderly population. A quasi-experimental design was used for the study. Persons aged >or=65 years were randomly selected in the intervention and control community. An intervention program was managed from the primary health care center and delivered to the community. Health education was designed to increase awareness of risk factors for the development of osteoporosis and falling. Questionnaires about lifestyle, health, previous fractures, safety behavior and physical activity level were distributed at baseline in 1989 and at the follow-ups in 1992 and 1994 in both communities. There was a difference of 17.7% between the dual intervention (receiving both population-based and individual interventions) and the control samples regarding the self-reported use of shoe/cane spikes, and a difference of 20.5% regarding the reported "moderate level" of physical activity in 1994. There was an increase in the number of participants in the dual intervention sample who, at baseline, had not reported equipping their homes with non-slip mats and removing loose rugs but who did report these changes in 1994. The increase in the reported use of shoe/cane spikes in the dual intervention sample was observed mainly for the period 1992-1994. A public health intervention model, including both population-based and individual interventions, can contribute to behavioral changes in the prevention of falls and changed physical activity patterns amongst elderly people.

  11. Comprehensive study of the abrasive wear and slurry erosion behavior of an expanded system of high chromium cast iron and microstructural modification for enhanced wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Reinaldo Javier

    HCCIs by microstructural modification through addition of strong carbide-forming elements to produce eutectic microstructures reinforced with in-situ formed foreign carbides. Very promising results have been obtained in lab, which demonstrates that the approach is feasible and effective in tailoring HCCIs for improved performance.

  12. Effectiveness of nurse-led patient-centered care behavioral risk modification on secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Yan; Choi, Kai-Chow; Ho, Ka-Ming; Yu, Sau-Fung

    2018-04-22

    Despite establishment of advocacies centered on using patient-centered care to improve disease-related behavioral changes and health outcomes, studies have seldom discussed incorporation of patient-centered care concept in the design of secondary cardiac prevention. This review aimed to identify, appraise, and examine existing evidence on the effectiveness of nurse-led patient-centered care for secondary cardiac prevention in patients with coronary heart disease. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials focusing on nurse-led patient-centered care for secondary cardiac prevention was conducted. Primary outcomes were behavioral risks (e.g. smoking, physical activity), secondary outcomes were clinically relevant physiological parameters (e.g. body weight, blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipoproteins), health-related quality of life, mortality, and self efficacy. Twenty-three English and seven Chinese electronic databases were searched to identify the trials. The studies' eligibility and methodological quality were assessed by two reviewers independently according to the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Statistical heterogeneities of the included studies were assessed by Higgins I2 and quantitative pooling was performed when studies showed sufficient comparability. 15 articles on 12 randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Methodological quality of the included studies was fair. Based on the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tool for experimental studies, the included studies had met a mean of six criteria out the ten in this appraisal tool. The meta-analyses of the included studies revealed that nurse-led patient-centered care had significantly improved patients' smoking habits, adherence toward physical activity advices, and total cholesterol level with medical regime optimization, in short- to medium-term. The intervention was also favorable in improving the patients' health-related quality of life in several domains of

  13. Attack of the S. Mutans!: a stereoscopic-3D multiplayer direct-manipulation behavior-modification serious game for improving oral health in pre-teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Ari; Rose, Howard; Kollin, Joel; Moss, William

    2011-03-01

    Attack! of the S. Mutans is a multi-player game designed to harness the immersion and appeal possible with wide-fieldof- view stereoscopic 3D to combat the tooth decay epidemic. Tooth decay is one of the leading causes of school absences and costs more than $100B annually in the U.S. In 2008 the authors received a grant from the National Institutes of Health to build a science museum exhibit that included a suite of serious games involving the behaviors and bacteria that cause cavities. The centerpiece is an adventure game where five simultaneous players use modified Wii controllers to battle biofilms and bacteria while immersed in environments generated within a 11-foot stereoscopic WUXGA display. The authors describe the system and interface used in this prototype application and some of the ways they attempted to use the power of immersion and the appeal of S3D revolution to change health attitudes and self-care habits.

  14. Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; El-Aidi, Ahmed Amro; Ali, Mohamed Mostafa; Attia, Yasser Mahmoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Stress is any condition that impairs the balance of the organism physiologically or psychologically. The response to stress involves several neurohormonal consequences. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its release is increased by stress that predisposes to excitotoxicity in the brain. Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate glutamatergic receptors antagonist and has shown beneficial effect on cognitive function especially in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the work was to investigate memantine effect on memory and behavior in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress with the evaluation of serum markers of stress and the expression of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity. Forty-two male rats were divided into seven groups (six rats/group): control, acute restraint stress, acute restraint stress with Memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint stress with Memantine and Memantine groups (two subgroups as positive control). Spatial working memory and behavior were assessed by performance in Y-maze. We evaluated serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor, interleukin-6 and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our results revealed that Memantine improved spatial working memory in repeated stress, decreased serum level of stress markers and modified the hippocampal synaptic plasticity markers in both patterns of stress exposure; in ARS, Memantine upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulated the expression of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and in repeated restraint stress, it upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and downregulated calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression.

  15. Influence of surface modification on the apatite formation and corrosion behavior of Ti and Ti-15Mo alloy for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasikumar, Y. [Department of Chemistry, CEG Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Rajendran, N., E-mail: nrajendran@annauniv.edu [Department of Chemistry, CEG Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Commercially pure Ti and Ti-15Mo specimens were subjected to alkali-hydrogen peroxide and subsequent heat treatment to produce a nanoporous titanate gel layer with anatase phase. The surface morphology of the untreated, alkali-hydrogen peroxide treated and alkali-hydrogen peroxide heat treated specimens before and after 7 days of immersion in simulated body fluid was characterized using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The formation of nanoporous titanate gel layer and the growth of apatite layer over the surface modified specimens after 7 days of immersion in simulated body fluid were confirmed. Further, the electrochemical corrosion behavior of all the specimens was examined using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic techniques. - Highlights: ► Simple thermochemical process for Cp-Ti and Ti-15Mo alloy. ► Formation of nanoporous titanate layer on surface facilitate apatite formation. ► Hydroxyapatite coated sample exhibited improved corrosion resistance.

  16. Surface Modification of NiTi Alloy via Cathodic Plasma Electrolytic Deposition and its Effect on Ni Ion Release and Osteoblast Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ying; Cai Kaiyong; Yang Weihu; Liu Peng

    2013-01-01

    To reduce Ni ion release and improve biocompatibility of NiTi alloy, the cathodic plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED) technique was used to fabricate ceramic coating onto a NiTi alloy surface. The formation of a coating with a rough and micro-textured surface was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry test showed that the formed coating significantly reduced the release of Ni ions from the NiTi alloy in simulated body fluid. The influence of CPED treated NiTi substrates on the biological behaviors of osteoblasts, including cell adhesion, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation function (alkaline phosphatase), was investigated in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining of nuclei revealed that the CPED treated NiTi alloy was favorable for cell growth. Osteoblasts on CPED modified NiTi alloy showed greater cell viability than those for the native NiTi substrate after 4 and 7 days cultures. More importantly, osteoblasts cultured onto a modified NiTi sample displayed significantly higher differentiation levels of alkaline phosphatase. The results suggested that surface functionalization of NiTi alloy with ceramic coating via the CPED technique was beneficial for cell proliferation and differentiation. The approach presented here is useful for NiTi implants to enhance bone osteointegration and reduce Ni ion release in vitro

  17. Surface Modification of NiTi Alloy via Cathodic Plasma Electrolytic Deposition and its Effect on Ni Ion Release and Osteoblast Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Cai, Kaiyong; Yang, Weihu; Liu, Peng

    2013-07-01

    To reduce Ni ion release and improve biocompatibility of NiTi alloy, the cathodic plasma electrolytic deposition (CPED) technique was used to fabricate ceramic coating onto a NiTi alloy surface. The formation of a coating with a rough and micro-textured surface was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry test showed that the formed coating significantly reduced the release of Ni ions from the NiTi alloy in simulated body fluid. The influence of CPED treated NiTi substrates on the biological behaviors of osteoblasts, including cell adhesion, cell viability, and osteogenic differentiation function (alkaline phosphatase), was investigated in vitro. Immunofluorescence staining of nuclei revealed that the CPED treated NiTi alloy was favorable for cell growth. Osteoblasts on CPED modified NiTi alloy showed greater cell viability than those for the native NiTi substrate after 4 and 7 days cultures. More importantly, osteoblasts cultured onto a modified NiTi sample displayed significantly higher differentiation levels of alkaline phosphatase. The results suggested that surface functionalization of NiTi alloy with ceramic coating via the CPED technique was beneficial for cell proliferation and differentiation. The approach presented here is useful for NiTi implants to enhance bone osseointegration and reduce Ni ion release in vitro.

  18. Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, N; Misra, A; Shah, P; Gulati, S

    2010-04-01

    To study the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention model of nutrition and lifestyle education on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian-Indian adolescents in North India. Two schools matched for student strength and middle socioeconomic strata were randomly allocated to intervention and control group. Changes in nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, lifestyle practices, food frequency and body image of eleventh-grade students (15-17 years) in both schools were tested using a validated questionnaire. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were made using standard methods. Segmental body composition analysis was carried out using an 8-electrode multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method of body fat estimation. At 6 months follow-up, significant improvement in several domains of knowledge was observed in intervention children (n=99; males=60; females=39) as compared with control school children (n=102; males=61; females=41). In the intervention group, significantly lower proportion of children consumed aerated drinks (15.1%; Phabits and lifestyle practices, and resulted in beneficial changes in anthropometric and biochemical profiles of the Asian Indian adolescents. This model should be applied on countrywide basis to prevent obesity and diabetes.

  19. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  20. The management of modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.

    1992-01-01

    Description of the management methods of modifications at EDF. To maintain safety standards of the nuclear power station the 'Direction de l'Equipment' and the 'Direction du Parc en Exploitation' have jointly fixed the modalities of management for all modifications and recorded them in a 'Practical Guide'

  1. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  2. The computational nature of memory modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Monfils, Marie-H; Norman, Kenneth A; Niv, Yael

    2017-03-15

    Retrieving a memory can modify its influence on subsequent behavior. We develop a computational theory of memory modification, according to which modification of a memory trace occurs through classical associative learning, but which memory trace is eligible for modification depends on a structure learning mechanism that discovers the units of association by segmenting the stream of experience into statistically distinct clusters (latent causes). New memories are formed when the structure learning mechanism infers that a new latent cause underlies current sensory observations. By the same token, old memories are modified when old and new sensory observations are inferred to have been generated by the same latent cause. We derive this framework from probabilistic principles, and present a computational implementation. Simulations demonstrate that our model can reproduce the major experimental findings from studies of memory modification in the Pavlovian conditioning literature.

  3. The computational nature of memory modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Monfils, Marie-H; Norman, Kenneth A; Niv, Yael

    2017-01-01

    Retrieving a memory can modify its influence on subsequent behavior. We develop a computational theory of memory modification, according to which modification of a memory trace occurs through classical associative learning, but which memory trace is eligible for modification depends on a structure learning mechanism that discovers the units of association by segmenting the stream of experience into statistically distinct clusters (latent causes). New memories are formed when the structure learning mechanism infers that a new latent cause underlies current sensory observations. By the same token, old memories are modified when old and new sensory observations are inferred to have been generated by the same latent cause. We derive this framework from probabilistic principles, and present a computational implementation. Simulations demonstrate that our model can reproduce the major experimental findings from studies of memory modification in the Pavlovian conditioning literature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23763.001 PMID:28294944

  4. Behavior Modification Through Covert Semantic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Hamid; Vanian, Daniel

    1971-01-01

    Results support the hypothesized relationship between meaning and phobia. Semantic desensitization techniques based on counter conditioning of meaning were significantly effective in altering the semantic value of the word from unpleasantness to neutrality. (Author)

  5. Behavior Modification: A Patient and Physician's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Primack, Craig

    2017-03-01

    This article, co-authored by a patient affected by obesity and an obesity medicine specialist, discusses the patient's experience of living with the disease and using many different weight loss approaches until finding a lifestyle program that was appropriate for her metabolism. The physician discusses the scientific basis of insulin resistance, and why the chosen lifestyle program worked so well for this individual.

  6. Modifications to POISSON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    At MSU we have used the POISSON family of programs extensively for magnetic field calculations. In the presently super-saturated computer situation, reducing the run time for the program is imperative. Thus, a series of modifications have been made to POISSON to speed up convergence. Two of the modifications aim at having the first guess solution as close as possible to the final solution. The other two aim at increasing the convergence rate. In this discussion, a working knowledge of POISSON is assumed. The amount of new code and expected time saving for each modification is discussed

  7. Behavioral management of the obese patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite countless diets, exercise regimens, drugs, and behavior modification strategies, the prevalence of obesity continues its relentless increase in both developed and developing nations. Although many necessary components to treat obesity have been identified, behavior modification remains the b...

  8. Accommodating for plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirich, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    Modification to a nuclear power plant may have different causes: 1) new instructions by the authorities; 2) changes of the marginal conditions on the construction site; 3) progress in the technological development. - Examples from different plants are supposed to demonstrate how such changes influence the planning or the construction and how they are integrated in the process of preparation. A distinction can be made between modifications before the completion of the submission of the order, during the phase of preparatory planning and during the construction phase. Of great importance are especially modifications made after the beginning of the construction works, since, in general, there is little scope for technical modifications and since consequences for the time schedule are to be expected. (orig.) [de

  9. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and stiffness matrices) andaor modal parameters, in order to acquire some ... For the above reasons, another modification approach is presented here ... The data necessary to solve the direct problem are dynamic behaviour of the original.

  10. Pragmatic Graph Rewriting Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia

    1999-01-01

    We present new pragmatic constructs for easing programming in visual graph rewriting programming languages. The first is a modification to the rewriting process for nodes the host graph, where nodes specified as 'Once Only' in the LHS of a rewrite match at most once with a corresponding node in the host graph. This reduces the previously common use of tags to indicate the progress of matching in the graph. The second modification controls the application of LHS graphs, where those specified a...

  11. Medium Modifications of Hadrons in Photon Induced Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schadmand, S.

    2004-01-01

    Indications for in-medium modifications of hadron properties are reported from photoabsorption and meson production experiments. Strong medium modifications are observed in inclusive photoabsorption experiments and theoretical models investigate the in-medium dynamics of baryon resonances and their coupling to mesons. Recent experiments study the in-medium behavior of scalar and vector mesons where theoretical models expect in-medium modifications of the meson spectral functions that might be connected to partial restoration of chiral symmetry

  12. Modification of JRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    1978-01-01

    This report gives an outline of some of the main modifications carried out around the Reactor Core on the Research Reactor JRR-2, at the Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. The JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973, to improve it in heavy water leakage from the metal packing between core tank and support ring, corrosion of the lower shielding plug, and fault in the control-rod mechanism. Main modifications were a standing seal weld at the support ring to stop heavy water leakage, replacement of the reactor top shield and improvement of the helium system. The control-rod assemblies and the refueling devices were replaced by the newly designed ones also. In addition to the modification plan, the irradiated air exhaust system was improved to reduce radioactive argon gas release through the stack. Works were completed successfully in September 1975. But a light water leakage occurred at the stand pipe below the light water tank on November 11, 1975, which was repaired in about 4 months. When considering the operation of above 5,000 hours after the modification, however, the quality of the modification work may be said to be quite satisfactory. The present report in which works to the completion are described may be valuable as a record of reactor modification which is a new experience at JAERI. (auth.)

  13. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... substrate concentration (30-40% dry matter (DM)) and high enzyme activity (750-2250 BE units (BEU)/g sample). Starches from various botanical sources, representing a broad range of properties, were used as substrates. The effects of the used conditions on the BE-reaction were evaluated by characterization...

  14. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  15. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Radiation modification of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial and radiation chemical processes of material modification based on cross-linking of polymers as a result of radiation are considered. Among them are production of cables and rods with irradiated modified insulation, production of hardened and thermo-shrinkaging polymer products (films, tubes, fashioned products), production of radiation cross-linked polyethylene foam, technology of radiation vulcanization of elastomers. Attention is paid to radiation plants on the basis of γ-sources and electron acceleratos as well as to radiation conditions

  17. Biomaterials modification by ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Yi Zhongzhen; Zhang Xu; Wu Yuguang

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam technology is one of best ways for the modification of biomaterials. The results of ion beam modification of biomaterials are given. The method and results of improved biocompatibility are indicated by ion beam technology. The future development of ion beam modification of biomaterials is discussed

  18. Cigar Product Modification Among High School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapl, Erika S; Koopman Gonzalez, Sarah J; Cofie, Leslie; Yoder, Laura D; Frank, Jean; Sterling, Kymberle L

    2018-02-07

    Prevalence of cigar use has been increasing among youth. Research indicates that youth are modifying cigar products either by "freaking" (ie, removing the filter paper) or "blunting" (removing the tobacco and supplementing or replacing with marijuana), yet little is known about youth who engage in this behavior. Thus, this study examines demographic and concurrent substance use behaviors of youth who modify cigars. Data from the 2013 Cuyahoga County Youth Risk Behavior survey were examined (n = 16 855). The survey collected data on demographics, cigar product use, cigar modification behaviors, and current cigarette, hookah and marijuana use. Responses to cigar product use items were used to create a composite to classify youth in one of eight unique user categories. Univariate and bivariate statistics were calculated using SPSS complex samples procedures. Overall, 15.2% reported current cigar product use, 11.0% reported current freaking, and 18.5% reported current blunt use; taken together, 25.3% of respondents reported any current use of a cigar product. When examined by user category, of those who endorsed any cigar product use, cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars use only was most endorsed (26.3%), followed by Blunt only (25.2%) and all three (ie, cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars, freaking, and blunting; 17.4%). A substantial proportion of high school youth who report using cigar products are modifying them in some way, with nearly half freaking and nearly two-thirds blunting. Given the FDA Center for Tobacco products recent extension of its regulatory authority to include cigar products, it is imperative to understand more about the prevalence of and reasons for cigar modification behaviors. Although the FDA has recently enacted regulatory authority over cigar products, little is known about cigar product modification. This is the first study to concurrently examine two unique cigar modification behaviors, "freaking" (ie, removing the filter paper) and

  19. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  20. Muonic X-ray intensities in phosphorus- and selenium modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeser, K.; Robert-Tissot, B.; Schaller, L.A.; Schellenberg, L.; Schneuwly, H.

    1979-01-01

    Muonic X-ray intensity measurements have been performed at SIN on allotropic modifications of phosphorus (white, red and black) and of selenium (red and black). Structure effects have been found in the intensity ratios of the K-series between amorphous and crystalline modifications of the same element. The effect in the higher series (Se) is less pronounced. On the other hand, the two crystalline phosphorus modifications (red and black) show the same intensity behavior. The root-mean-square radii 2 >sup(1/2) of phosphorus and (natural) selenium were found to be 3.187(3) fm and 4.138(1) fm respectively. (Auth.)

  1. Enzymatic Modification of Sphingomyelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due to its major role in maintaining the water-retaining properties of the epidermis, ceramide is of great commercial potential in cosmetic and pharmaceuticals such as hair and skin care products. Currently, chemical synthesis of ceramide is a costly process, and developments of alternative cost......-efficient, high yield production methods are of great interest. In the present study, the potential of producing ceramide through the enzymatic hydrolysis of sphingomyelin have been studied. sphingomyelin is a ubiquitous membrane-lipid and rich in dairy products or by-products. It has been verified...... that sphingomyelin modification gives a feasible approach to the potential production of ceramide. The reaction system has been improved through system evaluation and the optimization of several important factors, and phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens shows higher activity towards the hydrolysis reaction...

  2. Do multiple body modifications alter pain threshold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamotová, A; Hrabák, P; Hříbek, P; Rokyta, R

    2017-12-30

    In recent years, epidemiological data has shown an increasing number of young people who deliberately self-injure. There have also been parallel increases in the number of people with tattoos and those who voluntarily undergo painful procedures associated with piercing, scarification, and tattooing. People with self-injury behaviors often say that they do not feel the pain. However, there is no information regarding pain perception in those that visit tattoo parlors and piercing studios compared to those who don't. The aim of this study was to compare nociceptive sensitivity in four groups of subjects (n=105, mean age 26 years, 48 women and 57 men) with different motivations to experience pain (i.e., with and without multiple body modifications) in two different situations; (1) in controlled, emotionally neutral conditions, and (2) at a "Hell Party" (HP), an event organized by a piercing and tattoo parlor, with a main event featuring a public demonstration of painful techniques (burn scars, hanging on hooks, etc.). Pain thresholds of the fingers of the hand were measured using a thermal stimulator and mechanical algometer. In HP participants, information about alcohol intake, self-harming behavior, and psychiatric history were used in the analysis as intervening variables. Individuals with body modifications as well as without body modifications had higher thermal pain thresholds at Hell Party, compared to thresholds measured at control neutral conditions. No such differences were found relative to mechanical pain thresholds. Increased pain threshold in all HP participants, irrespectively of body modification, cannot be simply explained by a decrease in the sensory component of pain; instead, we found that the environment significantly influenced the cognitive and affective component of pain.

  3. Preparation of RF-(VM-SiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu Nanocomposites, and Use Thereof for the Modification of Glass and Filter Paper Surfaces: Creation of a Glass Thermoresponsive Switching Behavior and an Efficient Separation Paper Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Sawada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomeric silica/alkyl-modified cellulose (AM-Cellu nanocomposites [RF-(CH2-CHSiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu; n = 2, 3; RF = CF(CF3OC3F7] were prepared by the sol-gel reactions of the corresponding oligomer [RF-(CH2-CHSi(OMe3n-RF] in the presence of AM-Cellu. The nanocomposites thus obtained were applied to the surface modification of glass to exhibit a highly oleophobic/superhydrophilic characteristic on the modified surface at 20 °C. Interestingly, a temperature dependence of contact angle values of dodecane and water was observed on the modified surface at 20~70 °C, and the dodecane contact angle values were found to decrease with increasing the temperatures from 20 to 70 °C to provide from highly oleophobic to superoleophilic characteristics on the surface. On the other hand, the increase of the water contact angle values was observed with the increase in the temperatures under similar conditions to supply superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic characteristics on the modified surface. The corresponding nanocomposites were also applied to the surface modification of the filter paper under similar conditions to afford a superoleophilic/superhydrophobic characteristic on the surface. It was demonstrated that the modified filter paper is effective for the separation membrane for W/O emulsion to isolate the transparent colorless oil.

  4. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  5. Listener Responses According to Stuttering Self-Acknowledgment and Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjae; Manning, Walter H.

    2010-01-01

    Given the well-documented understanding that stuttering behavior elicits stereotypically negative responses from listeners, two experiments explored the equivocal results of earlier investigations concerning the potential for self-acknowledgment and modification of stuttering to elicit positive responses from naive (unfamiliar with stuttering)…

  6. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study shows that as many as half of the matrix ... the dynamicist's analytical modelling skill which would appear both in the numerator as. Figure 2. ..... Brandon J A 1990 Strategies for structural dynamic modification (New York: John Wiley).

  7. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  8. Standard approach to plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecredy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Organizational and management approaches to the design, installation, and turnover of nuclear plant modifications have changed dramatically in the last 10 to 15 yr. In response to these changes, organizational and individual responsibilities have been defined and management systems have been established at Rochester Gas and Electric (RG and E) Corporation to ensure that high-quality plant modifications are installed in a timely manner that satisfies user needs at minimal cost

  9. Influence of enzymatic reactions on the electrochemical behavior of EN X2CrNiMo17-11-2 (AISI 316L) stainless steel in bio-corrosion: role of interfacial processes on the modification of the passive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landoulsi, J.

    2008-01-01

    The outstanding corrosion behavior of stainless steels (SS) results from the presence of thin oxide layer (some nanometers). In non sterile aqueous media, stainless steels may exhibit a non stable behavior resulting from interactions between microbial species and passive film. In fact, microorganisms can be deeply involved in the corrosion processes usually reported as Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC). They can induce the initiation or the acceleration of this phenomenon and they do so when organized in bio-films. From the electrochemical point of view, stainless steels showed an increase of the free corrosion potential (Ecorr) attributed to the bio-film settlement. The Eco' ennoblement was broadly reported in seawater and seems to be confirmed in fresh water according to recent findings. A considerable progress in the comprehension of MIC processes was related to the role of extracellular species, essentially enzymes. Many enzymatic reactions occurring in bio-films consist on using oxygen as electron acceptor to generate hydrogen peroxide and related species. The aim of this work is to understand the mechanisms involved in the electrochemical behavior of stainless steel according to an enzymatic approach in medium simulating fresh water. To this end, glucose oxidase was chosen to globalize aerobic activities of bio-films. Electrochemical measurements in situ and surface analysis allow the comprehension of the role and the nature of interfacial processes. Surface characterization was performed with the help of a new quantitative utilization of XPS analysis and AFM. Results show a significant evolution in term of morphology (surface organization), (ii) chemical composition (passive layer, adsorbed organic species) and (iii) chemical reaction (oxidation, dissolution, effect of enzyme). Finally, a new enzymatic system is proposed to mimic specific physicochemical conditions at the SS / bio-film interface, in particular enzymatic generation of oxidant species in

  10. Effects of Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 Modification on the Relaxor Behavior and Piezoelectricity of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zenghui; Wu, Hua; Paterson, Alisa; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2017-10-01

    Relaxor lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-based materials exhibit complex structures and unusual properties that have been puzzling researchers for decades. In this paper, a new ternary solid solution of Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 -Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 (PMN-PT-BZN) is prepared in the form of ceramics, and the effects of the incorporation of BZN into the PMN-PT binary system are investigated. The crystal structure favors a pseudocubic symmetry and the relaxor properties are enhanced as the concentration of BZN increases. The relaxor behavior and the related phase transformations are studied by dielectric spectroscopy. A phase diagram mapping out the characteristic temperatures and various states is established. Interestingly, the piezoelectricity of the PMN-PT ceramics is significantly enhanced by the BZN substitution, with an optimal value of d 33 reaching 826 pC/N for 0.96[0.7Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.3PbTiO 3 ]-0.04Bi(Zn 2/3 Nb 1/3 )O 3 . This paper provides a better understanding of the relaxor ferroelectric behavior, and unveils a new relaxor-based ternary system as piezoelectric materials potentially useful for electromechanical transducer applications.

  11. Modification of dendritic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; del Angel, Alma Rosa; Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    Since 1890 Ramón y Cajal strongly defended the theory that dendrites and their processes and spines had a function of not just nutrient transport to the cell body, but they had an important conductive role in neural impulse transmission. He extensively discussed and supported this theory in the Volume 1 of his extraordinary book Textura del Sistema Nervioso del Hombre y de los Vertebrados. Also, Don Santiago significantly contributed to a detailed description of the various neural components of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex during development. Extensive investigation has been done in the last Century related to the functional role of these complex brain regions, and their association with learning, memory and some limbic functions. Likewise, the organization and expression of neuropsychological qualities such as memory, exploratory behavior and spatial orientation, among others, depend on the integrity and adequate functional activity of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. It is known that brain serotonin synthesis and release depend directly and proportionally on the availability of its precursor, tryptophan (TRY). By using a chronic TRY restriction model in rats, we studied their place learning ability in correlation with the dendritic spine density of pyramidal neurons in field CA1 of the hippocampus during postnatal development. We have also reported alterations in the maturation pattern of the ability for spontaneous alternation and task performance evaluating short-term memory, as well as adverse effects on the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal CA1 field pyramidal neurons and on the dendritic arborization and the number of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons from the third layer of the prefrontal cortex using the same model of TRY restriction. The findings obtained in these studies employing a modified Golgi method, can be interpreted as a trans-synaptic plastic response due to understimulation of serotoninergic receptors located in the

  12. Modification of Ti6Al4V implant surfaces by biocompatible TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid layers prepared via sol-gel dip coating: Structural characterization, mechanical and corrosion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Giovanardi, Roberto; Veronesi, Paolo [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vivarelli 10, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    Surface modification of metallic implants is a promising strategy to improve tissue tolerance, osseointegration and corrosion resistance of them. In the present work, bioactive and biocompatible organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using a sol-gel dip coating route. They consist of an inorganic TiO{sub 2} matrix in which different percentages of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, were incorporated. The coatings were used to modify the surface of Ti6Al4V substrates in order to improve their wear and corrosion resistance. The chemical structure of the coatings was analyzed by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Coating microstructure, mechanical properties and ability to inhibit the corrosion of the substrates were evaluated as a function of the PCL amount. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the polymer allows to obtain crack-free coatings, but when high percentages were added uncoated areas appear. Nano-indentation tests revealed that, as expected, surface hardness and elastic modulus decrease as the percentage of polymeric matrix increases, but scratch testing demonstrated that the coatings are effective in preventing scratching of the underlying metallic substrate, at least for PCL contents up to 20 wt%. The electrochemical tests (polarization curves acquired in order to evaluate the corrosion resistance) allowed to asses that the coatings have a significant effect in term of corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) but they do not significantly affect the passivation process that titanium undergoes in contact with the test solution used (modified Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline or DPBS). - Highlights: • Bioactive TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid coatings on Ti6Al4V were prepared via sol-gel dip coating. • Hybrid coatings are crack-free but when 50 wt% PCL was added, uncoated areas appear. • Coating hardness and elastic modulus decrease as the PCL percentage

  13. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  14. Plasma polymerization surface modification of Carbon black and its effect in elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, T.; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Talma, Auke; Ooij, W.J.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification of carbon black by plasma polymerization was aimed to reduce its surface energy in order to compatibilize the filler with various elastomers. A fullerenic carbon black was used for the modification process. Thermogravimetric analysis, wetting behavior with liquids of known

  15. Epigenetic Modifications and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the most debilitating chronic complications, but despite extensive research in the field, the exact mechanism(s responsible for how retina is damaged in diabetes remains ambiguous. Many metabolic pathways have been implicated in its development, and genes associated with these pathways are altered. Diabetic environment also facilitates epigenetics modifications, which can alter the gene expression without permanent changes in DNA sequence. The role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy is now an emerging area, and recent work has shown that genes encoding mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 are epigenetically modified, activates of epigenetic modification enzymes, histone lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1, and DNA methyltransferase are increased, and the micro RNAs responsible for regulating nuclear transcriptional factor and VEGF are upregulated. With the growing evidence of epigenetic modifications in diabetic retinopathy, better understanding of these modifications has potential to identify novel targets to inhibit this devastating disease. Fortunately, the inhibitors and mimics targeted towards histone modification, DNA methylation, and miRNAs are now being tried for cancer and other chronic diseases, and better understanding of the role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy will open the door for their possible use in combating this blinding disease.

  16. The surface modification of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremlett, C.

    2000-03-01

    Polymers have ideal bulk properties for many applications. However, adhesion to many polymers is poor without surface pretreatment. This can result, for example, in peeling paint and printing, adhesive joint failure and bio-incompatibility. In applications such as painting, printing, adhesive bonding and biocompatibility, various cleaning or surface chemical modifications may be employed. A commodity polymer where pretreatment is sometimes needed is polystyrene. This project investigated, in detail, the effects of a novel method of modification namely mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), as a mode of surface modification on polystyrene and a comparison was made with other polymers. The resulting modification was investigated using a range of surface analysis techniques to obtain complementary information. These included, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angles, static secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, chemical derivatization, scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and composite lap shear joint testing. It has been shown that MEO modifies the surface of polystyrene introduced oxygen mainly as hydroxyl groups, and a small number of carbonyl groups, that are positioned only on the backbone hydrocarbon chain. This modification improved adhesion, was stable and samples could be stored in aqueous media. The resulting hydroxylation was further derivatized using an amino acid to provide a specialised surface. This was very different from the multiple oxygen functionalities introduced in the comparison studies by UV/ozone and plasma treatments. (author)

  17. Drug Addiction and DNA Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amber N; Feng, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex disorder which can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Research has shown that epigenetic modifications can translate environmental signals into changes in gene expression, suggesting that epigenetic changes may underlie the causes and possibly treatment of substance use disorders. This chapter will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA, which include DNA methylation and several recently defined additional DNA epigenetic changes. We will discuss the functions of DNA modifications and methods for detecting them, followed by a description of the research investigating the function and consequences of drug-induced changes in DNA methylation patterns. Understanding these epigenetic changes may provide us translational tools for the diagnosis and treatment of addiction in the future.

  18. Minimal modification to tribimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaogang; Zee, A.

    2011-01-01

    We explore some ways of minimally modifying the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal, characterized by introducing at most one mixing angle and a CP violating phase thus extending our earlier work. One minimal modification, motivated to some extent by group theoretic considerations, is a simple case with the elements V α2 of the second column in the mixing matrix equal to 1/√(3). Modifications by keeping one of the columns or one of the rows unchanged from tribimaximal mixing all belong to the class of minimal modification. Some of the cases have interesting experimentally testable consequences. In particular, the T2K and MINOS collaborations have recently reported indications of a nonzero θ 13 . For the cases we consider, the new data sharply constrain the CP violating phase angle δ, with δ close to 0 (in some cases) and π disfavored.

  19. DNA modification by alkylating compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglyakova, E.E.

    1985-09-01

    Results are given for research on the physico-chemical properties of alkylating compounds - nitroso alkyl ureas (NAU) which possess a broad spectrum of biological activity, such as mutagenic, carcinogenic, and anti-tumor action that is due to the alkylation and carbamoylation of DNA as well as other cellular components. Identified chemical products of NAU interaction with DNA and its components are cited. Structural conversions of a DNA macromolecule resulting from its chemical modification are examined. NAU are used to discuss possible biological consequences of DNA modification. 148 references.

  20. Corrosion principles and surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter examines the important strategies provided by the newer ideas of corrosion science and engineering that surface modification techniques must utilize to help prevent corrosion, especially the most damaging kind of aqueous corrosion, localized corrosion. Provides a brief introduction to the principles underlying the phenomenon of corrosion in order to use them to discuss surface modification strategies to combat corrosion. Discusses the electrochemistry of corrosion; the thermodynamics of corrosion; the kinetics of corrosion; thermodynamic strategies; and kinetic strategies (formation of more protective passive films; resistance to breakdown; ductility; repassivation)

  1. The NEDD8 modification pathway in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus eSchwechheimer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available NEDD8, in plants and yeasts also known as RELATED TO UBIQUITIN (RUB, is an evolutionarily conserved 76 amino acid protein highly related to ubiquitin. Like ubiquitin, NEDD8 can be conjugated to and deconjugated from target proteins, but unlike ubiquitin, NEDD8 has not been reported to form chains similar to the different polymeric ubiquitin chains that have a role in a diverse set of cellular processes. NEDD8-modification is best known as a posttranslational modification of the cullin subunits of cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases. In this context, structural analyses have revealed that neddylation induces a conformation change of the cullin that brings the ubiquitylation substrates into proximity of the interacting E2 conjugating enzyme. In turn, NEDD8 deconjugation destabilizes the cullin RING ligase complex allowing for the exchange of substrate recognition subunits via the exchange factor CAND1. In plants, components of the neddylation and deneddylation pathway were identified based on mutants with defects in auxin and light responses and the characterization of these mutants has been instrumental for the elucidation of the neddylation pathway. More recently, there has been evidence from animal and plant systems that NEDD8 conjugation may also regulate the behavior or fate of non-cullin substrates in a number of ways. Here, the current knowledge on NEDD8 processing, conjugation and deconjugation is presented, where applicable, in the context of specific signaling pathways from plants.

  2. Heavy flavored jet modification in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084335

    2016-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy-flavor-tagged jets (from charm and bottom quarks) in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In this talk, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, using the high statistics pp, pPb and PbPb data taken in 2011 and 2013. Finally, we also will present a proposal for c-jet tagging methodology to be used for the upcoming hi...

  3. Spatial and Temporal Effects in Protein Post-translational Modification Distributions in the Developing Mouse Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Edwards, Gregory J; Schwämmle, Veit

    2014-01-01

    Protein post-translational modification (PTM) is a powerful way to modify the behavior of cellular proteins and thereby cellular behavior. Multiple recent studies of evolutionary trends have shown that certain pairs of protein post-translational modifications tend to occur closer to each other than...... for observations of increasingly frequent and diverse protein modification in cell biology. In this study, we use mass spectrometry and proteomic strategies to present biological data showing spatiotemporal PTM co-localization across multiple PTM categories, which display changes over development of the brain...

  4. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available the treatment with fluorinated or silicon compounds)1-4 and by enhancing the surface roughness with a fractal structure5-8. Cotton, a cellulose-based material, that is greatly hydrophilic, is more benefited when made hydrophobic. Modification of cotton...

  5. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchesini G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Riccardo Dalle Grave1, Simona Calugi1, Elena Centis2, Rebecca Marzocchi2, Marwan El Ghoch1, Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating & Weight Disorder, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda (VR, Italy; 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases & Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.Keywords: metabolic syndrome, obesity, lifestyle modification, cognitive behavior therapy

  6. Effect of tooth profile modification on wear in internal gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunalioglu, M. S.; Tuc, B.

    2018-05-01

    Internal gears are often used in the automotive industry when two gears are required to rotate in the same direction. Tooth shapes, slippage speeds at the beginning and end of meshing are different according to the external gears. Manufacturing of internal gears is more difficult than external gears. Thus, it is necessary to determine the working conditions and wear behavior of internal gears carefully. The profile modification method in terms of strength and surface tension of the gear mechanism are performed in order to increase the load-carrying capability. In this study, profile modification method was performed in the internal gears to reduce the wear on the teeth. For this purpose, the wear of the internal gears was theoretically investigated by adapting the Archard wear equation to the internal gears. Closed circuit power circulation system was designed and manufactured to experimentally investigate the wear in internal gears. With this system, wear tests of gears made of St 50 material without profile modification and different profile modifications were made and the results were compared. Experimental study was performed in the same loading and cycle time conditions to validate the theoretical results and it was seen that the results are compatible. According to the experimental results, it is seen that in the internal gears, when profile modification done the wear is decreased in the teeth tip region.

  7. Thermal desorption and surface modification of He+ implanted into tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhang; Yoshida, N.; Iwakiri, H.; Xu Zengyu

    2004-01-01

    Tungsten divertor plates in fusion reactors will be subject to helium bombardment. Helium retention and thermal desorption is a concerned issue in controlling helium ash. In the present study, fluence dependence of thermal desorption behavior of helium in tungsten was studied at different irradiation temperatures and ion energies. Results showed that helium desorption could start at ∼400 K with increasing fluence, while no noticeable peaks were detected at low fluence. Total helium desorption reached a saturation value at high fluence range, which was not sensitive to irradiation temperature or ion energy for the conditions evaluated. Surface modifications caused by either ion irradiation or thermal desorption were observed by SEM. The relationship of surface modifications and helium desorption behavior was discussed. Some special features of elevated irradiation temperature and lower ion energy were also indicated

  8. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    An historical overview of the main advances in the understanding of bombardment-induced surface topography is presented. The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment modification of surfaces and consequent structural, electronic and compositional changes are described. Descriptions of plasma and ion-beam sputtering-induced film formation, primary ion-beam deposition, dual beam techniques, cluster of molecule ion-beam deposition, and modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition are presented. A detailed account is given of the analytical and computational modelling of topography from the viewpoint of first erosion theory. Finally, an account of the possible application and/or importance of textured surfaces in technologies and/or experimental techniques not considered in previous chapters is presented. refs.; figs.; tabs

  9. Epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Judes, Gaelle; Pajon, Amaury; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in France. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetics modifications are involved in the development and progression of this disease. Epigenetic events are the main cause in gene regulation and the three most epigenetic mechanisms studied include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. In this review, we summarized epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer. Epigenetic drugs that inhibit DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation might be able to reactivate silenced gene expression in prostate cancer. However, further understanding of interactions of these enzymes and their effects on transcription regulation in prostate cancer is needed and has become a priority in biomedical research. In this study, we summed up epigenetic changes with emphasis on pharmacologic epigenetic target agents.

  10. Exploring oxidative modifications of tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houée-Lévin, C; Bobrowski, K; Horakova, L

    2015-01-01

    residues are oxidised in vivo with impact on cellular homeostasis and redox signalling pathways. A notable example is tyrosine, which can undergo a number of oxidative post-translational modifications to form 3-hydroxy-tyrosine, tyrosine crosslinks, 3-nitrotyrosine and halogenated tyrosine, with different...... effects on cellular functions. Tyrosine oxidation has been studied extensively in vitro, and this has generated detailed information about the molecular mechanisms that may occur in vivo. An important aspect of studying tyrosine oxidation both in vitro and in biological systems is the ability to monitor...... residues modified and the nature of the modification. These approaches have helped understanding of the consequences of tyrosine oxidation in biological systems, especially its effects on cell signalling and cell dysfunction, linking to roles in disease. There is mounting evidence that tyrosine oxidation...

  11. Long-term stable surface modification of DLC coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotzmann Gaby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of coatings based on diamond like carbon (DLC for medical applications was established during the last years. Main advantages of these coatings are its high hardness, good wear and friction behavior and its biocompatibility. Using low-energy electron-beam treatment, we addressed the surface modification of DLC coatings. The aim was to generate new biofunctional surface characteristics that are long-term stable.

  12. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70 degrees and 90 degrees)

  13. On topological modifications of Newton's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratos, E.G.; Leontaris, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent cosmological data for very large distances challenge the validity of the standard cosmological model. Motivated by the observed spatial flatness the accelerating expansion and the various anisotropies with preferred axes in the universe we examine the consequences of the simple hypothesis that the three-dimensional space has a global R 2 × S 1 topology. We take the radius of the compactification to be the observed cosmological scale beyond which the accelerated expansion starts. We derive the induced corrections to the Newton's gravitational potential and we find that for distances smaller than the S 1 radius the leading 1/r-term is corrected by convergent power series of multipole form in the polar angle making explicit the induced anisotropy by the compactified third dimension. On the other hand, for distances larger than the compactification scale the asymptotic behavior of the potential exhibits a logarithmic dependence with exponentially small corrections. The change of Newton's force from 1/r 2 to 1/r behavior implies a weakening of the deceleration for the expanding universe. Such topologies can also be created locally by standard Newtonian axially symmetric mass distributions with periodicity along the symmetry axis. In such cases we can use our results to obtain measurable modifications of Newtonian orbits for small distances and flat rotation spectra, for large distances at the galactic level

  14. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    Ion bombardment-induced modification of surfaces may be considered one of the significant scientific and technological developments of the last two decades. The understanding acquired concerning the underlying mechanisms of several phenomena occurring during ion-surface interactions has led to applications within different modern technologies. These include microelectronics, surface acoustical and optical technologies, solar energy conversion, thin film technology, ion implantation metallurgy, nuclear track technology, thermonuclear fusion, vacuum technology, cold welding technology, biomedicine (implantology). It has become clear that information on many relevant advances, regarding ion bombardment modification of surfaces is dispersed among journals involving fields sometimes not clearly related. This may result, in some cases, in a loss of the type of interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, which has proved to be so fruitful for the advancement of science and technology. This book has been planned in an attempt to collect at least some of today's relevant information about the experimental and theoretical knowledge related to surface modification and its application to technology. (Auth.)

  15. Histone modifications: Cycling with chromosomal replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thon, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications tend to be lost during chromosome duplication. Several recent studies suggest that the RNA interference pathway becomes active during the weakened transcriptional repression occurring at centromeres in S phase, resulting in the re-establishment of histone modifications...

  16. BIOCHAR MODIFICATION, THERMAL STABILITY AND TOXICITY OF PRODUCTS MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana FRIEDRICHOVÁ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is a product obtained from processing of waste biomass. The main application of biochar is in soil and environment remediation. Some new applications of this carbonaceous material take advantage of its adsorption capacity use it as a heterogeneous catalyst for energy storage and conversion etc. This contribution describes thermal stability of the original biochar. It discusses biochar modified by chemical and physical methods including a new compound of biochar-graphene oxide. The purpose of the modifications is to increase its active surface to introduce active functional groups into the carbon structure of biochar in relation to fire safety and toxicity of those products.

  17. Modification of ferromagnetic nanostripe dynamic behavior by edge defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Zhao, Chunwang; Li, Yulian

    2018-03-01

    The dynamic spectra of ferromagnetic nanostripes with different edge defects are investigated using the three-dimensional object-oriented micromagnetic framework code. Two main resonance peaks are found in nanostripes due to nonuniformity of the static magnetization patterns. The higher peak can be identified by the precession of magnetization in the middle part of the nanostripes. The lower one can be identified by the sample end part. The values of two precession frequencies and linewidths can be modified using the edge defect to tune the magnetization of different parts of samples, which is important and useful in magnetic storage devices.

  18. Behavior Modification in the Classroom: An Abstract Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Barbara, Comp.

    An annotated selective bibliography of documents on operation conditioning which are found in the ERIC microfiche collection and in journal literature is presented. Abstracts of these documents were taken from Research in Education (RIE) and Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE). Included are published and unpublished studies focusing on…

  19. Effects of Modification of Cognitive Style on Creative Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Vivian

    1970-01-01

    Suggests that training can increase the preference for more complex types of art, that such training will transfer to music, and that verbal originality will also increase. Bibliography and tables. (RW)

  20. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  1. Epigenetic modifications and diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marpadga A. Reddy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major complication associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Conventional therapeutic strategies are not fully efficacious in the treatment of DN, suggesting an incomplete understanding of the gene regulation mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Furthermore, evidence from clinical trials has demonstrated a “metabolic memory” of prior exposure to hyperglycemia that continues to persist despite subsequent glycemic control. This remains a major challenge in the treatment of DN and other vascular complications. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, nucleosomal histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs control gene expression through regulation of chromatin structure and function and post-transcriptional mechanisms without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Emerging evidence indicates that multiple factors involved in the etiology of diabetes can alter epigenetic mechanisms and regulate the susceptibility to diabetes complications. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of histone lysine methylation in the regulation of key fibrotic and inflammatory genes related to diabetes complications including DN. Interestingly, histone lysine methylation persisted in vascular cells even after withdrawal from the diabetic milieu, demonstrating a potential role of epigenetic modifications in metabolic memory. Rapid advances in high-throughput technologies in the fields of genomics and epigenomics can lead to the identification of genome-wide alterations in key epigenetic modifications in vascular and renal cells in diabetes. Altogether, these findings can lead to the identification of potential predictive biomarkers and development of novel epigenetic therapies for diabetes and its associated complications.

  2. Modification Propagation in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouronte, Mary Luz; Vargas, María Luisa; Moyano, Luis Gregorio; Algarra, Francisco Javier García; Del Pozo, Luis Salvador

    To keep up with rapidly changing conditions, business systems and their associated networks are growing increasingly intricate as never before. By doing this, network management and operation costs not only rise, but are difficult even to measure. This fact must be regarded as a major constraint to system optimization initiatives, as well as a setback to derived economic benefits. In this work we introduce a simple model in order to estimate the relative cost associated to modification propagation in complex architectures. Our model can be used to anticipate costs caused by network evolution, as well as for planning and evaluating future architecture development while providing benefit optimization.

  3. Laser surface modification of PEEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveiro, A., E-mail: ariveiro@uvigo.es [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo ETSII, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Escuela Naval Militar, Plaza de Espana 2, 36920 Marin (Spain); Soto, R.; Comesana, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Val, J. del; Quintero, F.; Lusquinos, F.; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo ETSII, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone) was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adequate processing conditions to improve wettability, roughness, and cell adhesion characteristics are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A design of experiments (DOE) methodology was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV (355 nm) radiation is the most promising laser radiation for improving the adhesive surface properties of PEEK. - Abstract: Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties, which make it attractive for the field of reconstructive surgery. Nevertheless, this material has a poor interfacial biocompatibility due to its large chemical stability which induces poor adhesive bonding properties. The possibilities of enhancing the PEEK adhesive properties by laser treatments have been explored in the past. This paper presents a systematic approach to discern the role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK under three laser wavelengths ({lambda} = 1064, 532, and 355 nm) with the aim to determine the most adequate processing conditions to increase the roughness and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants. Overall results show that the ultraviolet ({lambda} = 355 nm) laser radiation is the most suitable one to enhance surface wettability of PEEK.

  4. Creating a Strategy for Progress: A Contextual Behavioral Science Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Hayes, Steven C.; Levin, Michael E.; Muto, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Behavior analysis is a field dedicated to the development and application of behavioral principles to the understanding and modification of the psychological actions of organisms. As such, behavior analysis was committed from the beginning to a comprehensive account of behavior, stretching from animal learning to complex human behavior. Despite…

  5. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Dalle Grave; Simona Calugi; Elena Centis; et al

    2010-01-01

    Riccardo Dalle Grave1, Simona Calugi1, Elena Centis2, Rebecca Marzocchi2, Marwan El Ghoch1, Giulio Marchesini21Department of Eating & Weight Disorder, Villa Garda Hospital, Garda (VR), Italy; 2Unit of Metabolic Diseases & Clinical Dietetics, Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification t...

  6. Response of Elk to Habitat Modification Near Natural Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Fred; Fox, Autumn; Harju, Seth M.; Dzialak, Matthew R.; Hayden-Wing, Larry D.; Winstead, Jeffrey B.

    2012-11-01

    Elk (Cervus elaphus) are known to shift habitat use in response to environmental modifications, including those associated with various forms of energy development. The specific behavioral responses underlying these trends, however, have not been effectively studied. To investigate such effects, we examined elk response to habitat alteration near natural gas wells in Las Animas County, Colorado, USA in 2008-2010. We created 10 1-ha openings in forests adjacent to 10 operating natural gas wells by removing standing timber in 2008, with concomitant establishment of 10 1-ha control sites adjacent to the same wells. On each site, we estimated elk use, indexed by pellet density, before and after timber removal. Concurrently, we measured plant production and cover, nutritional quality, species composition and biomass removed by elk and other large herbivores. Species richness and diversity, graminoid and forb cover, and graminoid and forb biomass increased on cut sites following tree removal. Differences were greater in 2010 than in 2009, and elk and deer removed more plant biomass in 2010 than 2009. Elk use of cut sites was 37 % lower than control sites in 2009, but 46 % higher in 2010. The initially lower use of cut sites may be attributable to lack of winter forage on these sites caused by timber removal and associated surface modification. The increased use of cut sites in 2010 suggested that elk possessed the behavioral capacity, over time, to exploit enhanced forage resources in the proximity of habitat modifications and human activity associated with maintenance of operating natural gas wells.

  7. Corrosion and surface modification on biocompatible metals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, R I M; Harun, W S W; Samykano, M; Lah, N A C; Ghani, S A C; Tarlochan, F; Raza, M R

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion prevention in biomaterials has become crucial particularly to overcome inflammation and allergic reactions caused by the biomaterials' implants towards the human body. When these metal implants contacted with fluidic environments such as bloodstream and tissue of the body, most of them became mutually highly antagonistic and subsequently promotes corrosion. Biocompatible implants are typically made up of metallic, ceramic, composite and polymers. The present paper specifically focuses on biocompatible metals which favorably used as implants such as 316L stainless steel, cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, pure titanium and titanium-based alloys. This article also takes a close look at the effect of corrosion towards the implant and human body and the mechanism to improve it. Due to this corrosion delinquent, several surface modification techniques have been used to improve the corrosion behavior of biocompatible metals such as deposition of the coating, development of passivation oxide layer and ion beam surface modification. Apart from that, surface texturing methods such as plasma spraying, chemical etching, blasting, electropolishing, and laser treatment which used to improve corrosion behavior are also discussed in detail. Introduction of surface modifications to biocompatible metals is considered as a "best solution" so far to enhanced corrosion resistance performance; besides achieving superior biocompatibility and promoting osseointegration of biocompatible metals and alloys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Lifestyle modification in the management of the metabolic syndrome: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Centis, Elena; Marzocchi, Rebecca; El Ghoch, Marwan; Marchesini, Giulio

    2010-11-02

    Lifestyle modification based on behavior therapy is the most important and effective strategy to manage the metabolic syndrome. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioral and cognitive strategies. The intervention may be delivered face-to-face or in groups, or in groups combined with individual sessions. The main challenge of treatment is helping patients maintain healthy behavior changes in the long term. In the last few years, several strategies have been evaluated to improve the long-term effect of lifestyle modification. Promising results have been achieved by combining lifestyle modification with pharmacotherapy, using meals replacement, setting higher physical activity goals, and long-term care. The key role of cognitive processes in the success/failure of weight loss and maintenance suggests that new cognitive procedures and strategies should be included in the traditional lifestyle modification interventions, in order to help patients build a mind-set favoring long-term lifestyle changes. These new strategies raise optimistic expectations for an effective treatment of metabolic syndrome with lifestyle modifications, provided public health programs to change the environment where patients live support them.

  9. Ammonia modification for flotation separation of polycarbonate and polystyrene waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Qing; Wang, Hui; Gu, Guo-Hua; Lin, Qing-Quan; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Huang, Luo-Luo; Zhao, Jun-Yao

    2016-05-01

    A promising method, ammonia modification, was developed for flotation separation of polycarbonate (PC) and polystyrene (PS) waste plastics. Ammonia modification has little effect on flotation behavior of PS, while it changes significantly that of PC. The PC recovery in the floated product drops from 100% to 3.17% when modification time is 13min and then rises to 100% after longer modification. The mechanism of ammonia modification was studied by contact angle, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Contact angle of PC indicates the decline of PC recovery in the floated product is ascribed to an increase in surface wettability. FT-IR and XPS spectra suggest that ammonia modification causes chemical reactions occurred on PC surface. Flotation behavior of ammonia-modified PC and PS was investigated with respect to flotation time, frother concentration and particle sizes. Flotation separation of PC and PS waste plastics was conducted based on the flotation behavior of single plastic. PC and PS mixtures with different particle sizes are separated efficiently, implying that the technology possesses superior applicability to particle sizes of plastics. The purity of PS and PC is up to 99.53% and 98.21%, respectively, and the recovery of PS and PC is larger than 92.06%. A reliable, cheap and effective process is proposed for separation of PC and PS waste plastics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Workplace deviance: strategies for modifying employee behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulich, Marcia; Tourigny, Louise

    2004-01-01

    More than ever, today's health care employees must perform their jobs as efficiently and effectively as possible. Job performance must integrate both technical and necessary soft skills. Workplace deviant behaviors are counterproductive to good job performance. Various deviant behaviors are examined. Areas and strategies of managerial intervention are reviewed which will enable the prevention or modification of undesired employee behaviors.

  11. Surface Modification for Microreactor Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Torbicz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, methods of surface modification of different supports, i.e. glass andpolymeric beads for enzyme immobilisation are described. The developed method ofenzyme immobilisation is based on Schiff’s base formation between the amino groups onthe enzyme surface and the aldehyde groups on the chemically modified surface of thesupports. The surface of silicon modified by APTS and GOPS with immobilised enzymewas characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM, time-of-flight secondary ion massspectroscopy (ToF-SIMS and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The supports withimmobilised enzyme (urease were also tested in combination with microreactors fabricatedin silicon and Perspex, operating in a flow-through system. For microreactors filled withurease immobilised on glass beads (Sigma and on polymeric beads (PAN, a very high andstable signal (pH change was obtained. The developed method of urease immobilisationcan be stated to be very effective.

  12. Ion beam modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, C.J.; Sugden, S.; Ing, J.; Bridwell, L.B.; Wang, Y.Q.

    1993-01-01

    The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms. (Author)

  13. Soy protein modification: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy protein products such as flour, concentrates and isolates are used in food formulation because of their functionality, nutritional value and low cost. To obtain their optimal nutritive and functional properties as well as desirable flavor different treatments are used. Soybean proteins can be modified by physical, chemical and enzymatic treatments. Different thermal treatments are most commonly used, while the most appropriate way of modifying soy proteins from the standpoint of safety is their limited proteolysis. These treatments cause physical and chemical changes that affect their functional properties. This review discusses three principal methods used for modification of soy protein products, their effects on dominant soy protein properties and some biologically active compounds.

  14. Laser surface modification of boronickelized medium carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowska, Aneta; Pertek, Aleksandra; Kulka, Michał; Klimek, Leszek

    2015-11-01

    A two-step process was applied to produce the multicomponent boride layers. Boronickelizing consisted of nickel plating and diffusion boriding. Two different methods of heat treatment of boronickelized C45 steel were used: a typical through-hardening, and a laser surface modification with remelting. Microstructure and some mechanical properties of these layers were examined. Microstructural characterization was studied using optical microscope, Scanning Electron Microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction and X-ray diffraction. The laser modification improved wear resistance, cohesion as well as low-cycle fatigue of the boronickelized layer. Compressive stresses, occurring after laser remelting, could be the reason for the advantageous mechanical behavior of the layer.

  15. Surface modification on silicon with chitosan and biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue Xiaoying; Cui Wei; Huang Yan; Zhao Yi; Wang Zhigong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chitosan modification of silicon (Si) on protein adsorption, cell adhesion and cell proliferation. Chitosan was first immobilized on the Si surface through a (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) bridge. The surface was then characterized by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The amount of protein adsorbed on the native Si and chitosan-modified Si surface was evaluated by a modified Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) protein assay. The adhesion and proliferation behavior of L-929 and pc12 cells were then assessed by microscopy and methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT) tests. The results showed that the chitosan modification could resist protein adsorption and inhibit the adhesion and proliferation of two kinds of cells on Si.

  16. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M., E-mail: mar@sbi.aau.dk [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Afshari, A. [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Successful surface modification procedures on aluminium samples were performed involving formation of the layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. • The groups of surfaces with hydrophobic behavior were found to follow the Wenzel model. • A transition from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's regime was observed due to changing of the surface roughness upon mechanical polishing in aluminium samples. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface

  17. TWO MODIFICATIONS OF SCALERS FOR RATE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, T. S.; Gordon, B. E.

    1964-04-15

    Two simple modifications to nuclear scalers have been developed. The first involves an automatic stepping switch which permits a single scaler to be actuated by up to four Geiger counters in sequence and to record the time to reach a preset count for each. The second modification is designed to pick a pulse off a conventional scaler when a preset count has been reached and to use the pulse to actuate a recorder. Both modifications considerably extend the utility of conventional scalers.

  18. Modification of metallic corrosion by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    This review will consider some of the properties of surface alloys, formed by ion implantation, which are effective in modifying corrosion behaviour. Examples will be given of the modification of the corrosion behaviour of pure metals, steels and other engineering alloys, resulting from implantation with metals and metalloids. Emphasis will be given to the modification of anodic processes produced by ion implantation since a review will be given elsewhere in the proceedings concerning the modification of cathodic processes. (orig.)

  19. Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Matthias; Jensen, Ole N

    2003-01-01

    Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now...... systematically applied to protein populations. The combination of function- or structure-based purification of modified 'subproteomes', such as phosphorylated proteins or modified membrane proteins, with mass spectrometry is proving particularly successful. To map modification sites in molecular detail, novel...

  20. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicka, Kamila; Siemion, Przemysław; Kurcok, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation ...

  1. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  2. Infections associated with body modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Sai-Yin Wong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus, and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures.

  3. Surface charging, discharging and chemical modification at a sliding contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Kusano, Yukihiro; Morgen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic charging, discharging, and consequent surface modification induced by sliding dissimilar surfaces have been studied. The surface-charge related phenomena were monitored by using a home-built capacitive, non-contact electrical probe, and the surface chemistry was studied by X...... are also able to comment on the behavior and the charge decay time in the ambient air-like condition, once the sliding contact is discontinued. XPS analysis showed a marginal deoxidation effect on the polyester disks due to the charging and discharging of the surfaces. Moreover, these XPS results clearly...

  4. Quality planning for major plant design modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulee, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the approach and activities undertaken by Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE and G's) nuclear quality assurance (QA) department to support major plant design modifications conducted during refueling outages at Salem Generating Station. It includes the planning and implementation of quality plans developed to provide both QA and quality control (QC) coverage of modification performed by contracted service organizations

  5. Modification of the perturbative QCD towards confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Modification of the low momentum behaviour of the perturbative SU(2) gauge theory is proposed. The modification is closely related (although not equivalent) to a nonstandard choice of boundary condition for the Euclidean 2-point gluonic Green function. In the resulting theory already single graphs lead to the confining potential between heavy, static quarks, V(r) = ar 2 for r → infinity. (author)

  6. 75 FR 41529 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... application of existing mandatory safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of petitions for modification of existing...

  7. 75 FR 29784 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... application of existing mandatory safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of petitions for modification of existing...

  8. 75 FR 34486 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... application of existing mandatory safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of petitions for modification of existing...

  9. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Most real-world databases record time-varying information. In such databases, the notion of ??the current time,?? or NOW, occurs naturally and prominently. For example, when capturing the past states of a relation using begin and end time columns, tuples that are part of the current state have some...... past time as their begin time and NOW as their end time. While the semantics of such variable databases has been described in detail and is well understood, the modification of variable databases remains unexplored. This paper defines the semantics of modifications involving the variable NOW. More...... specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW...

  10. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...... the guidelines. The importance of exploratory analysis and an iterative approach in developing accident modification functions is stressed. The example shows that strict compliance with all the guidelines may be difficult, but represents a level of stringency that should be strived for. Currently the main...

  11. Application of radiation technology in starch modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huiyuan; Peng Zhigang; Ding Zhongmin; Lu Jiajiu

    2007-01-01

    In order to commercialize the radiation modification of starch, corn starch was irradiated with different dose of 60 Co gamma radiations. Some basic physical and chemical properties of the resulted modified starch paste were measured with emphasis on the viscosity stability and tensile strength. The results indicate that irradiation of corn starch with a dose of 4-10 kGy can decrease its viscosity to 5-14 mPa·s, and the tensile strength can meet the standard set up for textile paste. In comparison with chemical modification for starch, radiation modification is simpler in technology, more convenient in operation, more stable in modification quality, and easier to control. The mechanism of radiation modification of starch was also discussed. (authors)

  12. Modifications to the INSPECT model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, S [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Sims, H E [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The prediction of iodine behaviour in the containment of a PWR following a loss of coolant accident requires a reliable model of the chemistry of iodine in aqueous solution. The INSPECT model, which was developed several years ago, contains a large number of the relevant chemical reactions of iodine and water radiation chemistry. Since the reactions set was first assembled, however, new data on rate constants and mechanisms have become available. In addition, the application of the model to various small-scale experiments has revealed problems in the modelling of some reactions, leading to an under-prediction of the iodine volatility at high pH, although the experiments have demonstrated that the high pH volatility remains satisfactory low. This paper describes the modifications which have been made to the INSPECT model to take account of new data and to improve the modelling where appropriate. The main changes which have been made to the reaction set are as follows: - The rate constants and activation energies for the reactions describing the radiolysis of water have been updated in with recent assessments, and the temperature dependence of the G value for the primary species have been accordance taken into account, - The mechanism and rates of I{sub 2} hydrolysis have been modified in accordance with the latest assessments of this reaction, - The mechanism for the reaction of I{sub 2} with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been changed to a form which produces a more realistic pH dependence under neutral and alkaline conditions, - An addition mechanism for the disproportionation of the O{sub 2} ion has been included, reflecting experimental observations that this reaction has a significant first-order component under all but the purest conditions, - Atomic I is treated as a volatile species, with a partition coefficient of 1.9 at 298 K. (Abstract Truncated)

  13. Surface modifications of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, C M

    2008-06-01

    Dental implant surface technologies have been evolving rapidly to enhance a more rapid bone formation on their surface and hold a potential to increase the predictability of expedited implant therapy. While implant outcomes have become highly predictable, there are sites and conditions that result in elevated implant loss. This paper reviews the impact of macro-retentive features which includes approaches to surface oxide modification, thread design, press-fit and sintered-bead technologies to increase predictability of outcomes. Implant designs that lead to controlled lateral compression of the bone can improve primary stability as long as the stress does not exceed the localized yield strength of the cortical bone. Some implant designs have reduced crestal bone loss by use of multiple cutting threads that are closely spaced, smoothed on the tip but designed to create a hoop-stress stability of the implant as it is completely seated in the osteotomy. Following the placement of the implant, there is a predictable sequence of bone turnover and replacement at the interface that allows the newly formed bone to adapt to microscopic roughness on the implant surface, and on some surfaces, a nanotopography (<10(-9) m scale) that has been shown to preferably influence the formation of bone. Newly emerging studies show that bone cells are exquisitely sensitive to these topographical features and will upregulate the expression of bone related genes for new bone formation when grown on these surfaces. We live in an exciting time of rapid changes in the modalities we can offer patients for tooth replacement therapy. Given this, it is our responsibility to be critical when claims are made, incorporate into our practice what is proven and worthwhile, and to continue to support and provide the best patient care possible.

  14. Modification of the colony tower for the Rio Blanco detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.; Freeman, S.A.; Honda, K.K.; Lee, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Supplemental structural bracing was designed and installed for the 180-ft-tall Colony Tower, an experimental oil shale processing retort structure, in anticipation of its lateral response to the Rio Blanco detonation. The tower is a steel structure with both horizontal and vertical diagonal bracing. Data obtained from the earlier Project Rulison detonation indicated that an evaluation study was necessary. Design criteria that would provide an adequate margin of safety were developed based on predicted Rio Blanco ground motion. The evaluation of the unmodified structure showed that several bracing members would be subjected to forces exceeding their yield strength, and some would reach a level at which failure could occur. Further analyses were made with assumed modified bracing members. A final scheme for modified vertical bracing was established and installed. After modification, the response of the tower during the Rio Blanco detonation was measured by instruments on the ground and at various locations on the tower, and no evidence of damage was discovered. The modification of the Colony Tower and the procedures used to determine these modifications show the usefulness of current ground motion and structural response prediction technology for forecasting dynamic behavior of important structures subjected to ground motion from underground nuclear explosions. (auth)

  15. Characterization and modification of selected bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liqing

    Bioplastics are becoming increasingly prominent mainly due to the growing environmental pollutions caused by non-biodegradable plastics. Polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV), the major copolymer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) family, was biosynthesized (by mixed microbial culture fed with fermented diary manure) and characterized. The monomeric composition (HV% ~ 40%) was determined by GC-MS and NMR. ESI-MSn and NMR analyses showed these PHBVs had random co-monomeric sequence distribution; meantime, they showed characteristic properties (crystallinity, single melting, and tensile properties) as studied by DSC and DMA. The homopolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), usually shows interesting properties such as high crystallinity and multiple melting behaviors. The effect of thermal history, such as crystallization (isothermal (temepratures = 80 to 140 °C) and nonisothermal (cooling rates = 2 to 50 °C/min)) and melting (heating rates = 5 to 50 °C/min), on the multiple melting behavior of PHB has been studied using conventional and temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) techniques. Results showed PHB multiple melting was ascribed to the melting-recrystallization-remelting mechanism and its crystallization kinetics varied with crystallization temperatures and cooling rates. The brittleness and poor melt strength properties of the bioplastics PHB and poly L-lactic acid (PLLA) were imporved by two strategies: (i) to modify polymer structures by cross-linking, (ii) to introduce an external component by grafting, which were initiated by dicumyl peroxide (DCP) via reactive extrusion, have been developed. In method (i), rheological measurements showed cross-linked PHB and PLLA (0.25 to 1 wt% DCP) separately had higher melting strength than their linear polymers due to the formation of long chain branching. Their brittleness was reduced because smaller crystal sizes were observed by hot-stage polarized microscope (HS-POM), meanwhile the reduction of crystallinity was

  16. Modification of transparent materials with ultrashort laser pulses: What is energetically and mechanically meaningful?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakova, Nadezhda M., E-mail: nadezhda.bulgakova@hilase.cz [HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics ASCR, Za Radnicí 828, 25241 Dolní Břežany (Czech Republic); Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS, 1 Lavrentyev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zhukov, Vladimir P. [Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS, 6 Lavrentyev Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 Karl Marx Ave., 630073, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sonina, Svetlana V. [Novosibirsk State University, 1 Koptuga Ave., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Meshcheryakov, Yuri P. [Design and Technology Branch of Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics SB RAS, Tereshkovoi street 29, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-21

    A comprehensive analysis of laser-induced modification of bulk glass by single ultrashort laser pulses is presented which is based on combination of optical Maxwell-based modeling with thermoelastoplastic simulations of post-irradiation behavior of matter. A controversial question on free electron density generated inside bulk glass by ultrashort laser pulses in modification regimes is addressed on energy balance grounds. Spatiotemporal dynamics of laser beam propagation in fused silica have been elucidated for the regimes used for direct laser writing in bulk glass. 3D thermoelastoplastic modeling of material relocation dynamics under laser-induced stresses has been performed up to the microsecond timescale when all motions in the material decay. The final modification structure is found to be imprinted into material matrix already at sub-nanosecond timescale. Modeling results agree well with available experimental data on laser light transmission through the sample and the final modification structure.

  17. Modification of Sr on 4004 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Erjun; Cao, Guojian; Feng, Yicheng; Wang, Liping; Wang, Guojun; Lv, Xinyu

    2013-05-01

    As a brazing foil, 4004 Al alloy has good welding performance. However, the high Si content decreases the plasticity of the alloy. To improve the plasticity of 4004 Al alloy and subsequently improve the productivity of 4004 Al foil or 434 composite foil, 4004 Al alloy was modified by Al-10%Sr master alloy. Modification effects of an additional amount of Sr, modification temperature, and holding time on 4004 aluminum alloy were studied by orthogonal design. The results showed that the greatest impact parameter of 4004 aluminum alloy modification was the additional amount of Sr, followed by holding time and modification temperature. The optimum modification parameters obtained by orthogonal design were as follows: Sr addition of 0.04%, holding time of 60 min, and modification temperature of 760°C. The effect of Sr addition on modification was analyzed in detail based on orthogonal results. With increasing of Sr addition, elongation of 4004 alloy increased at first, and decreased after reaching the maximum value.

  18. Influence of enzymatic reactions on the electrochemical behavior of EN X2CrNiMo17-11-2 (AISI 316L) stainless steel in bio-corrosion: role of interfacial processes on the modification of the passive layer; Influence des reactions enzymatiques sur le comportement electrochimique de l'acier inoxydable ENX2CrNiMo17-11-2 (AISI 316L) en biocorrosion: role des processus interfaciaux sur la modification du film passif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landoulsi, J

    2008-01-15

    The outstanding corrosion behavior of stainless steels (SS) results from the presence of thin oxide layer (some nanometers). In non sterile aqueous media, stainless steels may exhibit a non stable behavior resulting from interactions between microbial species and passive film. In fact, microorganisms can be deeply involved in the corrosion processes usually reported as Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC). They can induce the initiation or the acceleration of this phenomenon and they do so when organized in bio-films. From the electrochemical point of view, stainless steels showed an increase of the free corrosion potential (Ecorr) attributed to the bio-film settlement. The Eco' ennoblement was broadly reported in seawater and seems to be confirmed in fresh water according to recent findings. A considerable progress in the comprehension of MIC processes was related to the role of extracellular species, essentially enzymes. Many enzymatic reactions occurring in bio-films consist on using oxygen as electron acceptor to generate hydrogen peroxide and related species. The aim of this work is to understand the mechanisms involved in the electrochemical behavior of stainless steel according to an enzymatic approach in medium simulating fresh water. To this end, glucose oxidase was chosen to globalize aerobic activities of bio-films. Electrochemical measurements in situ and surface analysis allow the comprehension of the role and the nature of interfacial processes. Surface characterization was performed with the help of a new quantitative utilization of XPS analysis and AFM. Results show a significant evolution in term of morphology (surface organization), (ii) chemical composition (passive layer, adsorbed organic species) and (iii) chemical reaction (oxidation, dissolution, effect of enzyme). Finally, a new enzymatic system is proposed to mimic specific physicochemical conditions at the SS / bio-film interface, in particular enzymatic generation of oxidant species

  19. Epigenetic Modifications: Therapeutic Potential in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sachan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications and alterations in chromatin structure and function contribute to the cumulative changes observed as normal cells undergo malignant transformation. These modifications and enzymes (DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and demethylases related to them have been deeply studied to develop new drugs, epigenome-targeted therapies and new diagnostic tools. Epigenetic modifiers aim to restore normal epigenetic modification patterns through the inhibition of epigenetic modifier enzymes. Four of them (azacitidine, decitabine, vorinostat and romidepsin are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This article provides an overview about the known functional roles of epigenetic enzymes in cancer development.

  20. Long-lasting antifog plasma modification of transparent plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mundo, Rosa; d'Agostino, Riccardo; Palumbo, Fabio

    2014-10-08

    Antifog surfaces are necessary for any application requiring optical efficiency of transparent materials. Surface modification methods aimed toward increasing solid surface energy, even when supposed to be permanent, in fact result in a nondurable effect due to the instability in air of highly hydrophilic surfaces. We propose the strategy of combining a hydrophilic chemistry with a nanotextured topography, to tailor a long-lasting antifog modification on commercial transparent plastics. In particular, we investigated a two-step process consisting of self-masked plasma etching followed by plasma deposition of a silicon-based film. We show that the deposition of the silicon-based coatings on the flat (pristine) substrates allows a continuous variation of wettability from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic, due to a continuous reduction of carbon-containing groups, as assessed by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. By depositing these different coatings on previously nanotextured substrates, the surface wettability behavior is changed consistently, as well as the condensation phenomenon in terms of microdroplets/liquid film appearance. This variation is correlated with advancing and receding water contact angle features of the surfaces. More importantly, in the case of the superhydrophilic coating, though its surface energy decreases with time, when a nanotextured surface underlies it, the wetting behavior is maintained durably superhydrophilic, thus durably antifog.

  1. Clinical effectiveness of attentional bias modification training in abstinent alcoholic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, T.M.; Bruin, de M.; Lux, I.F.M.; Goertz, A.G.; Kerkhof, van D.H.A.T.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    A new training to decrease attentional bias (attentional bias modification training, ABM) was tested in a randomized controlled experimental study with alcohol-dependent patients as an addition to cognitive behavioral therapy. In alcohol dependence, attentional bias has been associated with severity

  2. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  3. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  4. Modifications of the Weibull distribution: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almalki, Saad J.; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the Weibull distribution is the most popular and the most widely used distribution in reliability and in analysis of lifetime data. Unfortunately, its hazard function cannot exhibit non-monotonic shapes like the bathtub shape or the unimodal shape. Since 1958, the Weibull distribution has been modified by many researchers to allow for non-monotonic hazard functions. This paper gives an extensive review of some discrete and continuous versions of the modifications of the Weibull distribution. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review of known discrete modifications and generalizations of the Weibull distribution. • A comprehensive review of known continuous modifications and generalizations of the Weibull distribution. • Over 110 references on modifications/generalizations of the Weibull distribution. • More than 55% of the cited references appeared in the last 5 years

  5. ENDF/B-5 modifications 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, P.K.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes the modifications made to the ENDF/B-5 evaluated neutron data files in 1986. The new versions of the files are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section upon request, costfree, on magnetic tape. (author)

  6. Chemical modification and characterization of quaternized polysulfones.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) using polysulfones is described. The modification process of polysulfones involves two steps: Firstly, by introducing chloromethyl groups followed by quaternization reaction...

  7. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  8. 75 FR 3253 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... face equipment; maintenance) and 30 CFR 18.35 (Portable trailing cables and cords). Modification...) Limit the speed of the machine to 10 miles per hour (MPH) by permanently blocking out any gear that...

  9. Covalent Surface Modifications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavia Sanders, Adriana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); O' Bryan, Greg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A report meant to document the chemistries investigated by the author for covalent surface modification of CNTs. Oxidation, cycloaddition, and radical reactions were explored to determine their success at covalently altering the CNT surface. Characterization through infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis was performed in order to determine the success of the chemistries employed. This report is not exhaustive and was performed for CNT surface modification exploration as it pertains to the "Next Gen" project.

  10. Surface modification of recording electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iaci Miranda Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne Polyurethanes (PUs are a family of polymers that contains urethane linkages synthesized in an aqueous environment and are thus free of organic solvents. Recently, waterborne PUs have been extensively studied for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility. The present work investigates the following: (1 the impact on electrical performance of electrode materials (platinum and silicon modified chemically by a layer of waterborne PU, and (2 the behavior of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat cardiomyocytes when in contact with an electrode surface. Diisocyanate and poly(caprolactone diol were the main reagents for producing PUs. The electrochemical impedance of the electrode/electrolyte interface was accessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The cellular viability, proliferation, and morphology changes were investigated using an MTT assay. Cardiomyocyte adherence was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained surface was uniform, flat, and transparent. The film showed good adhesion, and no peeling was detected. The electrochemical impedance decreased over time and was influenced by the ionic permeability of the PU layer. The five samples did not show cytotoxicity when in contact with neonatal rat cells.

  11. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  12. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  13. The effect of halloysite modification combined with in situ matrix modifications on the structure and properties of polypropylene/halloysite nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Khunova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various modifications/intercalations of halloysite and the combination of these modifications with in situ PP matrix modification was investigated with respect to the structure and properties of the polypropylene/halloysite nanocomposites. Hexadecyl-tri-methyl-ammonium-bromide (HEDA, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and urea were used as the intercalators/modifiers. The best intercalation was found for urea, although an unexpected insignificant impact on the mechanical properties also resulted as a consequence of the urea polarity and the significant decrease in PP crystallinity. However, the simultaneous application of 4,4!-diphenylmethylene dimaleinimide (DBMI brought about an increase in the mechanical behavior by increasing the halloysite/PP affinity as a result of in situ matrix modification. This effect was further supported by coupling between the PP and halloysite (HNT in the system containing urea-intercalated HNT. This can be explained by the occurrence of a urea-supported reaction between the imide ring of DBMI and the OH groups of the HNT, which resulted in the best mechanical behaviors achieved in this study.

  14. Sequence tagging reveals unexpected modifications in toxicoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Codreanu, Simona G.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Collins, Ben C.; Pennington, Stephen R.; Gallagher, William M.; Tabb, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicoproteomic samples are rich in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Identifying these modifications via standard database searching can incur significant performance penalties. Here we describe the latest developments in TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify modified peptides in toxicoproteomic data sets. TagRecon identifies known modifications more effectively than the MyriMatch database search engine. TagRecon outperformed state of the art software in recognizing unanticipated modifications from LTQ, Orbitrap, and QTOF data sets. We developed user-friendly software for detecting persistent mass shifts from samples. We follow a three-step strategy for detecting unanticipated PTMs in samples. First, we identify the proteins present in the sample with a standard database search. Next, identified proteins are interrogated for unexpected PTMs with a sequence tag-based search. Finally, additional evidence is gathered for the detected mass shifts with a refinement search. Application of this technology on toxicoproteomic data sets revealed unintended cross-reactions between proteins and sample processing reagents. Twenty five proteins in rat liver showed signs of oxidative stress when exposed to potentially toxic drugs. These results demonstrate the value of mining toxicoproteomic data sets for modifications. PMID:21214251

  15. Modifications at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications at operating nuclear power plants offer the structural engineer many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear power plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of some areas in operating nuclear power plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outrage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement problems that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear power plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common ''fire drills,'' but controlled enough to ensure technically correct designs and to minimize the expenditure of man-hours and the resulting engineering cost

  16. A study of laser surface modification of polymers: A comparison in air and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marla, Deepak; Andersen, Sebastian A.; Zhang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Laser surface modification is a technique to modify polymer surfaces for various applications. In our earlier work [Physics Procedia, 83:211–217, 2016], we showed that when the laser surface modification process was carried out in water instead of air, the obtained surface characteristics were...... research. The observed images of laser modified surfaces suggest that a hemispherical hump is formed in the case of water at lower laser fluences that breakup with an increase in fluence. Such a behavior was not observed when the process was carried out in air. We explain this phenomenon by simulating...

  17. Induction of surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene with proton ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, I S; Kim, H R; Choi, Y J; Park, H S [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of the death in the USA and developed countries. More than 570,000 artery bypass graft surgeries per USA are performed each year, though percutaneous devices have abounded in extreme cases. Based on the surgery follow-ups, large diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) (>5 mm) are clinically employed with good results but its clinical applications in smaller vessels is still problematic due to thrombosis and neointima formation. Achievement of high patency grafts has been to some extent achieved by numerous methods of surface modification techniques, but its results are less than its initial hopes. As examples, endothelial cells coated on the luminal surface of ePTFE has demonstrated limited success after recirculation. Surface modifications of PTFE film with either argon ion beam or UV light from Xe-excimer lamp were reported to increase its interaction with vascular endothelial cell. Surface modification of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)[PLGA] is also very important in tissue engineering, in where induction of its initial high cellular adhesion and spreading is a critical step for development of tissue engineering medical products. We previously reported tissue engineering of the hybrid ePTFE scaffold by seeding smooth muscle cells and subsequently evaluation of its tissue regeneration behaviors and stabilities with circulation of pulsatile flow. To improve its tissue engineering more quickly, we here performed surface modification of ePTFE and porous PLGA scaffold and evaluated its subsequent chemical and biological properties after treating its surface with low energy ion beams. The porous ePTFE was prepared in a round shape (diameter = 1 cm) and dried after organic solvent extraction for ion beam treatment. Another porous PLGA layers (d = 1 cm, t = 1 cm with approximately 92% porosity) were fabricated and treated its surface by irradiating low energy either nitrogen or argon ion beams (1 keV, 1x1015 ions

  18. Induction of surface modification of polytetrafluoroethylene with proton ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, I. S.; Kim, H. R.; Choi, Y. J.; Park, H. S.

    2007-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of the death in the USA and developed countries. More than 570,000 artery bypass graft surgeries per USA are performed each year, though percutaneous devices have abounded in extreme cases. Based on the surgery follow-ups, large diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) (>5 mm) are clinically employed with good results but its clinical applications in smaller vessels is still problematic due to thrombosis and neointima formation. Achievement of high patency grafts has been to some extent achieved by numerous methods of surface modification techniques, but its results are less than its initial hopes. As examples, endothelial cells coated on the luminal surface of ePTFE has demonstrated limited success after recirculation. Surface modifications of PTFE film with either argon ion beam or UV light from Xe-excimer lamp were reported to increase its interaction with vascular endothelial cell. Surface modification of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)[PLGA] is also very important in tissue engineering, in where induction of its initial high cellular adhesion and spreading is a critical step for development of tissue engineering medical products. We previously reported tissue engineering of the hybrid ePTFE scaffold by seeding smooth muscle cells and subsequently evaluation of its tissue regeneration behaviors and stabilities with circulation of pulsatile flow. To improve its tissue engineering more quickly, we here performed surface modification of ePTFE and porous PLGA scaffold and evaluated its subsequent chemical and biological properties after treating its surface with low energy ion beams. The porous ePTFE was prepared in a round shape (diameter = 1 cm) and dried after organic solvent extraction for ion beam treatment. Another porous PLGA layers (d = 1 cm, t = 1 cm with approximately 92% porosity) were fabricated and treated its surface by irradiating low energy either nitrogen or argon ion beams (1 keV, 1x1015 ions

  19. Proposed Modification of the Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    After discussion at TREF on 29 October 2003, the Management proposes in this document a modification affecting one of the general principles of the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), decided by the Council in December 1996 and introduced in April 1997. This modification would authorise the Director-General, in exceptional cases, as indicated in section 3 below, and, with the staff member's consent, to cancel his or her participation in the PRP and to reinstate the staff member in his or her original contractual situation. No modifications to the Staff Rules and Regulations are required. The proposal set out in section 3 of the present document is submitted by the Management, after consultation of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund, for recommendation by the Finance Committee to the Council and for approval by the Council, to enter into force as of 1 January 2004.

  20. Identification and Interrogation of Combinatorial Histone Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Karch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone proteins are dynamically modified to mediate a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurs through the recruitment of non-histone proteins to chromatin by specific combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs. Mass spectrometry has emerged as an essential tool to discover and quantify histone PTMs both within and between samples in an unbiased manner. Developments in mass spectrometry that allow for characterization of large histone peptides or intact protein has made it possible to determine which modifications occur simultaneously on a single histone polypeptide. A variety of techniques from biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical biology have been employed to determine the biological relevance of discovered combinatorial codes. This review first describes advancements in the field of mass spectrometry that have facilitated histone PTM analysis and then covers notable approaches to probe the biological relevance of these modifications in their nucleosomal context.

  1. Three Sisters Dam modifications and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courage, L.J.R. [Monenco AGRA Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Recent modifications and maintenance carried out at the Three Sisters Dam, in the Alberta Rockies south of the town of Canmore, were described. A detailed account was given of the dam`s geological setting, its abnormally high leakage through the foundation and its sinkhole activity. Results of studies aimed at finding the cause of leakage and sinkhole occurrences were reviewed. Modifications made to the dam since 1951 were detailed, as were modifications to handle probable maximum flood levels. Three approaches for estimating failure probabilities after identification of failure modes were described. The overall conclusion was that based on constant leakage, no settlement in the dam, penstocks, or the powerhouse since construction, the Three Sisters Dam was stable. 1 ref.

  2. Nanofibrillated Cellulose Surface Modification: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC has increased notably over recent decades. This bio-based nanomaterial has been used essentially in bionanocomposites or in paper thanks to its high mechanical reinforcement ability or barrier property respectively. Its nano-scale dimensions and its capacity to form a strong entangled nanoporous network have encouraged the emergence of new high-value applications. It is worth noting that chemical surface modification of this material can be a key factor to achieve a better compatibility with matrices. In order to increase the compatibility in different matrices or to add new functions, surface chemical modification of NFC appears to be the prior choice to conserve its intrinsic nanofibre properties. In this review, the authors have proposed for the first time an overview of all chemical grafting strategies used to date on nanofibrillated cellulose with focus on surface modification such as physical adsorption, molecular grafting or polymer grafting.

  3. Characteristic measurements of JRR-2 after modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973, to improve it in heavy water leakage from the metal packing between core tank and support ring, corrosion of the lower shielding plug, and fault in the control-rod mechanism. Modification was on a standing seal to stop heavy water leakage at the support ring, replacement of the reactor top shield, replacement of the control-rod mechanism, improvement of the helium system, improvement of the irradiated air system to reduce radioactive argon gas release from the stack. Works were completed in September 1975. Functional tests and characteristic measurements then followed, to show good results of the modification. Described are; modification, critical experiments, calibration of the control rods, reactor thermal power, measurements of the neutron flux distribution, core heavy water flow distribution, heavy water decomposition rate, helium leak rate and tritium concentration in the thermal shielding light water, radioactive argon gas release from the stack, and effect of the reactor top shield. (auth.)

  4. An efficient immunodetection method for histone modifications in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic-Can, Geovanny; Hernández-Castellano, Sara; Kú-González, Angela; Loyola-Vargas, Víctor M; De-la-Peña, Clelia

    2013-12-16

    Epigenetic mechanisms can be highly dynamic, but the cross-talk among them and with the genome is still poorly understood. Many of these mechanisms work at different places in the cell and at different times of organism development. Covalent histone modifications are one of the most complex and studied epigenetic mechanisms involved in cellular reprogramming and development in plants. Therefore, the knowledge of the spatial distribution of histone methylation in different tissues is important to understand their behavior on specific cells. Based on the importance of epigenetic marks for biology, we present a simplified, inexpensive and efficient protocol for in situ immunolocalization on different tissues such as flowers, buds, callus, somatic embryo and meristematic tissue from several plants of agronomical and biological importance. Here, we fully describe all the steps to perform the localization of histone modifications. Using this method, we were able to visualize the distribution of H3K4me3 and H3K9me2 without loss of histological integrity of tissues from several plants, including Agave tequilana, Capsicum chinense, Coffea canephora and Cedrela odorata, as well as Arabidopsis thaliana. There are many protocols to study chromatin modifications; however, most of them are expensive, difficult and require sophisticated equipment. Here, we provide an efficient protocol for in situ localization of histone methylation that dispenses with the use of expensive and sensitive enzymes. The present method can be used to investigate the cellular distribution and localization of a wide array of proteins, which could help to clarify the biological role that they play at specific times and places in different tissues of various plant species.

  5. Disassembling and modification of RA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarizzo, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the partial disassembling and modification of RA-3, called the Modernization Project. It comprises all the technical and administrative steps directly related with this task. The improvement of RA-3 is a result of the lack of 90% enriched uranium obliging a change over to 20% enriched uranium. This brought about design modifications both in fuel elements and the reactor. The presentation of documents for the licensing authority as well as are detailed separately. The modernization project was divided in 25 tasks: 1) changing fuel element support table, 2) changing heat exchanger, 3) repairing of cooling towers, 4) repairing of primary circuit valves, 5) repairing of irradiation channels, 6) construction of a new sampler, 7) changing tangential channel, 8) cleaning and disassembling of reactor (inside), 9) changing continuous demineralizer (ion exchange column), 10) detection of failure in fuel elements, 11) modification of nuclear instrumentation, 12) modification of conventional instrumentation, 13) modification of electrical system, 14) changing telemanipulators, 15) construction of mechanism bridge, 16) changing a primary circuit valve when the heat exchanger is changed too, 17) painting ground floor, hall floor, and pump room floor with epoxy resin levelling, 18) installation of fire alarm system, 19) radioactive liquid discharge, 20) modification of secondary circuit (This task involves: a) installation of a third secondary pump, b) extension of this piping, c) installation of two 12 inch valves to the present cooling towers pools independent, d) installation of filtering system), 21) optimization hot water bed, 22) changing detector support table, 23) removal, decontamination and reinstallation of shielding, 25) changing pneumatic system

  6. Dopamine Signaling in reward-related behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DA mesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural reward such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specifi...

  7. X-ray studies on piroxicam modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reck, G.; Bannier, G.; Hoehne, E.

    1988-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam, 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-car-boxamide-1,1-dioxide, crystallizes in three different forms, two anhydrates and one monohydrate. Crystal structure analyses of the monohydrate and one of the anhydrate were carried out by Bordner et al. and Kojic-Prodic et al., respectively. The results of the analysis of the third piroxicam modification and of an independently performed structure determination of the monohydrate are reported. Molecular structures and hydrogen bonding of all modifications are discussed. (author)

  8. Histone modifications in response to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Mohammed; Saksouk, Nehme; Cote, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The packaging of the eukaryotic genome into highly condensed chromatin makes it inaccessible to the factors required for gene transcription, DNA replication, recombination and repair. Eukaryotes have developed intricate mechanisms to overcome this repressive barrier imposed by chromatin. Histone modifying enzymes and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes play key roles here as they regulate many nuclear processes by altering the chromatin structure. Significantly, these activities are integral to the process of DNA repair where histone modifications act as signals and landing platforms for various repair proteins. This review summarizes the recent developments in our understanding of histone modifications and their role in the maintenance of genome integrity

  9. Chromatin proteins and modifications as drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, Kristian; Dhanak, Dashyant

    2013-01-01

    A plethora of groundbreaking studies have demonstrated the importance of chromatin-associated proteins and post-translational modifications of histones, proteins and DNA (so-called epigenetic modifications) for transcriptional control and normal development. Disruption of epigenetic control...... is a frequent event in disease, and the first epigenetic-based therapies for cancer treatment have been approved. A generation of new classes of potent and specific inhibitors for several chromatin-associated proteins have shown promise in preclinical trials. Although the biology of epigenetic regulation...

  10. Modification to the lower hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1989-01-01

    The main modifications which have to be done to the Lower Hybrid system are related in the change of the plasma shape in front of the grill mouth. In effect, the theoretical coupling efficiency of the LHCD grill depends only upon the density at the grill mouth and upon the launched wave index. In order to minimize the number of modifications to the launcher it is proposed to modify the length of the vacuum waveguides connecting the multijunctions to the vacuum windows. To obtain the new poloidal contour, it is proposed to recover the L1 multijunctions and to remachine their mouth. (U.K.)

  11. EG and G electron linac modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, N.J.; Detch, J.L.; Kocimski, S.M.; Sawyer, C.R.; Hudson, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The electron linear accelerator at EG and G/EM, Santa Barbara Operations, installed in 1963, has been subsequently modified to produce short, intense beam pulses used in the test, calibration and development of many types of fast radiation detectors and systems. The first practical use of the single RF pulse operation, now used in many accelerators, was demonstrated on this accelerator in the late 60s. A major three-year modification, to replace obsolete equipment and bring all the subsystems up to the current state of the art, has increased the beam intensity, stability and reliability. These modifications are discussed

  12. Attention bias modification in specific fears: Spiders versus snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xijia; Ikani, Nessa; Barth, Anja; Rengers, Lea; Becker, Eni; Rinck, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Attention Bias Modification (ABM) is used to manipulate attention biases in anxiety disorders. It has been successful in reducing attention biases and anxious symptoms in social anxiety and generalized anxiety, but not yet in specific fears and phobias. We designed a new version of the dot-probe training task, aiming to train fearful participants' attention away from or towards pictures of threatening stimuli. Moreover, we studied whether the training also affected participants' avoidance behavior and their physical arousal upon being confronted with a real threat object. In Experiment 1, students with fear of spiders were trained. We found that the attention manipulation was successful, but the training failed to affect behavior or arousal. In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used on snake-fearful students. Again, attention was trained in the expected directions. Moreover, participants whose attention had been trained away from snakes showed lower physiological arousal upon being confronted with a real snake. The study involved healthy students with normal distribution of the fear of spider/snake. Future research with clinical sample could help with determining the generalizability of the current findings. The effect of ABM on specific phobia is still in question. The finding in the present study suggested the possibility to alter attentional bias with a dot-probe task with general positive stimuli and this training could even affect the behavior while encountering a real threat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Socioeconomic differences in adolescent health-related behavior differ by gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitel, Lukas y; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    BACKGROUND: Many studies of adolescent health-related behaviors have assessed the effects of gender and parental socioeconomic position (SEP) but not their mutual modification. We investigated socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviors among Slovak adolescents and the potential

  14. MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES AND BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION IN HEALTH CARE ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Miljkovic

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available All health care organizations deal with proposed actions for achievement of goals with the best use of human resources. In that respect, close attention must be paid to motivation of individuals by means of initiative, rewards, leadership, and organizational context within which the work is being organized. The goal is to develop organizational processes and workplace environment that will help them to show the expected results. Motivation is the process of initiation, an activity aimed at achieving specific goals. Employees who do not have clear goals or have no goals at all work slowly, execute given tasks poorly, show lack of interest and complete fewer tasks than the employees who have clear and challenging goals. Employees with clearly defined goals are energetic and more productive. Behavior modification includes the use of four means to achieve this goal, known as intervention strategies. These strategies are: positive incentive, negative incentive, punishment and lack of reaction.

  15. Managerial Behaviors of Elementary School Teachers and Student On-Task Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jane McCarthy

    The classroom management techniques of elementary school teachers were observed to determine their effectiveness in promoting desirable on-task behavior on the part of pupils. Seven approaches to class management were used as a framework for observation--authoritarian, behavior modification, common sense, group process, instructional emphasis,…

  16. Covalent modification and exfoliation of graphene oxide using ferrocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, M. B.; Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Sundarayya, Y.; Govindaraju, T.

    2010-09-01

    Large scale preparation of single-layer graphene and graphene oxide is of great importance due to their potential applications. We report a simple room temperature method for the exfoliation of graphene oxide using covalent modification of graphene oxide with ferrocene to obtain single-layer graphene oxide sheets. The samples were characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, AFM, EDAX, FT-IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. HRTEM micrograph of the covalently modified graphene oxide showed increased interlayer spacing of ~2.4 nm due to ferrocene intercalation. The presence of single-layer graphene oxide sheets were confirmed by AFM studies. The covalently modified ferrocene-graphene oxide composite showed interesting magnetic behavior.Large scale preparation of single-layer graphene and graphene oxide is of great importance due to their potential applications. We report a simple room temperature method for the exfoliation of graphene oxide using covalent modification of graphene oxide with ferrocene to obtain single-layer graphene oxide sheets. The samples were characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, AFM, EDAX, FT-IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. HRTEM micrograph of the covalently modified graphene oxide showed increased interlayer spacing of ~2.4 nm due to ferrocene intercalation. The presence of single-layer graphene oxide sheets were confirmed by AFM studies. The covalently modified ferrocene-graphene oxide composite showed interesting magnetic behavior. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Magnetic data; AFM images; TEM micrographs; and Mössbauer spectroscopic data. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00024h

  17. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-09

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.

  18. Similarity Arguments in the Genetic Modification Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In the ethical debate on genetic modification (GM), it is common to encounter the claim that some anti-GM argument would also apply an established, ethically accepted technology, and that the anti-GM argument is therefore unsuccessful. The paper discusses whether this argumentative strategy, the ...

  19. A Logic of Modification and Creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, MCL (modification and creation logic) is presented, a variant of quantified dynamic logic (QDL) with enhanced expressivity. In MCL, functions and predicates can be modified by actions f := λx.t and p := λx.φ, respectively, and new objects can be created by the action Create. This

  20. Surface Modification Of Implants For Bone Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the methods of surface modification methods for AISAI 316 L steel and Ti6Al4V ELI titanium alloy, dedicated to complex design implants used in bone surgery. Results of structural tests have been presented along with those evaluating the physicochemical properties of the formed surface layers. Clinical feasibility of the surface layers has also been evaluated.

  1. [Advances in microbial genome reduction and modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2013-08-01

    Microbial genome reduction and modification are important strategies for constructing cellular chassis used for synthetic biology. This article summarized the essential genes and the methods to identify them in microorganisms, compared various strategies for microbial genome reduction, and analyzed the characteristics of some microorganisms with the minimized genome. This review shows the important role of genome reduction in constructing cellular chassis.

  2. 7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ecological and economic values to the United States. ... the program so long as the modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for... of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no additional cost to the...

  3. Oxidative Modification of Tryptophan-Containing Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jonas; Christensen, Pia Katrine; Nielsen, Mathias T

    2018-01-01

    We herein present a broadly useful method for the chemoselective modification of a wide range of tryptophan-containing peptides. Exposing a tryptophan-containing peptide to 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) resulted in a selective cyclodehydration between the peptide backbone...

  4. Debye screening modifications in ponderomotive effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Subbarao, D.

    1979-01-01

    The effective Debye screening length is shown to be increased in the presence of a high-power electromagnetic wave. The consequent modifications in ponderomotive redistributive effects and strong violations of charge neutrality have been shown to be in agreement with recent laser-plasma experiments

  5. Cooling tower modification for intermittent operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midkiff, W.S.

    1975-03-01

    One of the cooling towers at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is being operated intermittently. The cooling tower has been modified to restrict air flow and to keep the tower from drying out. The modifications are relatively inexpensive, simple to operate, and have proved effective. (U.S.)

  6. The Pomeranchuk theorem and its modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Saly, R.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the various modifications and improvements of the Pomeranchuk theorem and also of related statements is given. The present status of the Pomeranchuk relation based on dispersion relation is discussed. Numerous problems related to the Pomeranchuk theorem and some answers to these problems are collected in a clear table

  7. Alignment modification for pencil eye shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.D.; Pla, M.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate alignment of pencil beam eye shields to protect the lens of the eye may be made easier by means of a simple modification of existing apparatus. This involves drilling a small hole through the center of the shield to isolate the rayline directed to the lens and fabricating a suitable plug for this hole

  8. Protein covalent modification by biologically active quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV J. GASIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The avarone/avarol quinone/hydroquinone couple shows considerable antitumor activity. In this work, covalent modification of b-lactoglobulin by avarone and its derivatives as well as by the synthetic steroidal quinone 2,5(10-estradiene-1,4,17-trione and its derivatives were studied. The techniques for studying chemical modification of b-lactoglobulin by quinones were: UV/Vis spectrophotometry, SDS PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. SDS PAGE results suggest that polymerization of the protein occurs. It could be seen that the protein of 18 kD gives the bands of 20 kD, 36 kD, 40 kD, 45 kD, 64 kD and 128 kD depending on modification agent. The shift of the pI of the protein (5.4 upon modification toward lower values (from pI 5.0 to 5.3 indicated that lysine amino groups are the principal site of the reaction of b-lactoglobulin with the quinones.

  9. Proposal for a modification of SPICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobeldijk, C.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Griffioen, A.C.; D'Ippolito, D.A.

    1978-10-01

    Results and conclusions of recent experimental and theoretical screw-pinch research at Jutphaas are summarized. Based on these conclusions a modification of the toroidal vacuum chamber and the conducting shell of SPICA is proposed. The physics objectives of the modified experiment (SPICA II) as well as the planning are described. More detailed information can be obtained from the appendices. (Auth.)

  10. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 2. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification - The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007. Mitradas M Panicker. General Article Volume 13 Issue 2 February 2008 pp 172-180 ...

  11. Histone modifications and nuclear architecture: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártová, Eva; Kroupová, Jana; Harničarová, Andrea; Galiová-Šustáčková, Gabriela; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 8 (2008), s. 711-721 ISSN 0722-186X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/06/0978; GA MŠk(CZ) LC535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : histones * histone modifications * nuclear architecture Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  12. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  13. 14 CFR 1274.938 - Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL... the term of this agreement and in the interest of achieving program objectives, the parties may agree... agreement. Any changes to this agreement will be accomplished by a written bilateral modification. [End of...

  14. Albumin modification and fragmentation in renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadio, Carlo; Tognotti, Danika; Donadio, Elena

    2012-02-18

    Albumin is the most important antioxidant substance in plasma and performs many physiological functions. Furthermore, albumin is the major carrier of endogenous molecules and exogenous ligands. This paper reviews the importance of post-translational modifications of albumin and fragments thereof in patients with renal disease. First, current views and controversies on renal handling of proteins, mainly albumin, will be discussed. Post-translational modifications, namely the fragmentation of albumin found with proteomic techniques in nephrotic patients, diabetics, and ESRD patients will be presented and discussed. It is reasonable to hypothesize that proteolytic fragmentation of serum albumin is due to a higher susceptibility to proteases, induced by oxidative stress. The clinical relevance of the fragmentation of albumin has not yet been established. These modifications could affect some physiological functions of albumin and have a patho-physiological role in uremic syndrome. Proteomic analysis of serum allows the identification of over-expressed proteins and can detect post-translational modifications of serum proteins, hitherto hidden, using standard laboratory techniques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural dynamic modification using additive damping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modification ... to a system changes its mass, stiffness and damping. Thus ... due to the phase difference between stress ' and strain or 'a И E1 З iE2 for direct strain.

  16. Radiation modification of glass fiber - reinforced plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allayarov, S.R.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Lesnichaya, V.A.; Ol'khov, Yu.A.; Belov, G.P.; Dixon, D.A.; Kispert, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    Modification of glass fiber - reinforced plastics (GFRPs) by gamma-irradiation has been researched to receipt of polymeric composite materials. They were produced by the film - technology method and the cheapest thermoplastics (polythene, polyamide were used as polymeric matrixes for their manufacture. GFRPs were irradiated with Co 60 gamma-rays from a Gammatok-100 source in air and in vacuum. The strength properties of GFRPs and initial polymeric matrixes were investigated before and after radiolysis. Molecular - topological structure of the polymeric matrixes were tested by the method of thermomechanical spectroscopy. The strength properties of GFRPs depend on a parity of speeds of structural (physical) and chemical modification of the polymeric matrixes. These two processes proceed simultaneously. The structural modification includes physical transformation of polymers at preservation of their chemical structure. Covalent bonds between various macromolecules or between macromolecules and surface of fiberglasses are formed at the chemical modification of polymeric matrixes induced by radiation. Action of ionizing radiation on the used polymeric matrix results to its structurization (polythene) or to destruction (polyamide). Increasing of durability of GFRPs containing polythene is caused by formation of the optimum molecular topological structure of the polymeric matrix. (authors)

  17. The ethics of molecular memory modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Katrina; Fisher, Carl E

    2015-07-01

    Novel molecular interventions have recently shown the potential to erase, enhance and alter specific long-term memories. Unique features of this form of memory modification call for a close examination of its possible applications. While there have been discussions of the ethics of memory modification in the literature, molecular memory modification (MMM) can provide special insights. Previously raised ethical concerns regarding memory enhancement, such as safety issues, the 'duty to remember', selfhood and personal identity, require re-evaluation in light of MMM. As a technology that exploits the brain's updating processes, MMM helps correct the common misconception that memory is a static entity by demonstrating how memory is plastic and subject to revision even in the absence of external manipulation. Furthermore, while putatively safer than other speculative technologies because of its high specificity, MMM raises notable safety issues, including potential insidious effects on the agent's emotions and personal identity. Nonetheless, MMM possesses characteristics of a more permissible form of modification, not only because it is theoretically safer, but because its unique mechanism of action requires a heightened level of cooperation from the agent. Discussions of memory modification must consider the specific mechanisms of action, which can alter the weight and relevance of various ethical concerns. MMM also highlights the need for conceptual accuracy regarding the term 'enhancement'; this umbrella term will have to be differentiated as new technologies are applied to a widening array of purposes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES... having jurisdiction at the mine where such equipment is to be operated stating the modifications which...

  19. Diagonal chromatography to study plant protein modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Alan; Tsiatsiani, Liana; Jacques, Silke; Stes, Elisabeth; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank; Goormachtig, Sofie; Gevaert, Kris

    2016-08-01

    An interesting asset of diagonal chromatography, which we have introduced for contemporary proteome research, is its high versatility concerning proteomic applications. Indeed, the peptide modification or sorting step that is required between consecutive peptide separations can easily be altered and thereby allows for the enrichment of specific, though different types of peptides. Here, we focus on the application of diagonal chromatography for the study of modifications of plant proteins. In particular, we show how diagonal chromatography allows for studying proteins processed by proteases, protein ubiquitination, and the oxidation of protein-bound methionines. We discuss the actual sorting steps needed for each of these applications and the obtained results. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

  1. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1 enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2 the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3 synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy.

  2. Chemical modifications and reactions in DNA nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    such as hydrocarbons or steroids have been introduced to change the surface properties of DNA origami structures, either to protect the DNA nanostructure or to dock it into membranes and other hydrophobic surfaces. DNA nanostructures have also been used to control covalent chemical reactions. This article provides......DNA nanotechnology has the power to form self-assembled and well-defined nanostructures, such as DNA origami, where the relative positions of each atom are known with subnanometer precision. Our ability to synthesize oligonucleotides with chemical modifications in almost any desired position...... provides rich opportunity to incorporate molecules, biomolecules, and a variety of nanomaterials in specific positions on DNA nanostructures. Several standard modifications for oligonucleotides are available commercially, such as dyes, biotin, and chemical handles, and such modified oligonucleotides can...

  3. Modification of plastic by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalager, P.

    1974-01-01

    Very few of the modifications of plastic materials have got industrial status. Nearly all of the succesful industrial irradiations processes are performed with polyethylene. Irradiated polyethylene has been used in industries and products such as wire, cables, foams and heat shrinkable products, i.e. films, tubings and molded parts. Also the irradiation of finished products, i.e. improvement on a thermoplastic material into thermosetting material, has been developed in this field. (M.S.)

  4. Tipping the balance by manipulating posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Christopher A.; Orth, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Summary Bacteria use a variety of mechanisms during infection to ensure their survival including the delivery of virulence factors via a type III secretion system into the infected cell. The factors exhibit diverse activities that in many cases mimic eukaryotic mechanisms used by the host to defend against infection. Herein we describe a class of effectors that use posttranslational modifications, some reversible and others irreversible, to manipulate host signaling systems to subvert the host response. PMID:20071215

  5. Screening vector field modifications of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Delvas Fróes, André Luís; Mota, David F.

    2013-01-01

    A screening mechanism for conformal vector–tensor modifications of general relativity is proposed. The conformal factor depends on the norm of the vector field and makes the field to vanish in high dense regions, whereas drives it to a non-null value in low density environments. Such process occurs due to a spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism and gives rise to both the screening of fifth forces as well as Lorentz violations. The cosmology and local constraints are also computed

  6. Dietary modification of human macular pigment density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B R; Johnson, E J; Russell, R M; Krinsky, N I; Yeum, K J; Edwards, R B; Snodderly, D M

    1997-08-01

    The retinal carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) that form the macular pigment (MP) may help to prevent neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MP density in the retina could be raised by increasing dietary intake of L and Z from foods. Macular pigment was measured psychophysically for 13 subjects. Serum concentrations of L, Z, and beta-carotene were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven subjects modified their usual daily diets by adding 60 g of spinach (10.8 mg L, 0.3 mg Z, 5 mg beta-carotene) and ten also added 150 g of corn (0.3 mg Z, 0.4 mg L); two other subjects were given only corn. Dietary modification lasted up to 15 weeks. For the subjects fed spinach or spinach and corn, three types of responses to dietary modification were identified: Eight "retinal responders" had increases in serum L (mean, 33%; SD, 22%) and in MP density (mean, 19%; SD, 11%); two "retinal nonresponders" showed substantial increases in serum L (mean, 31%) but not in MP density (mean, -11%); one "serum and retinal nonresponder" showed no changes in serum L, Z, or beta-carotene and no change in MP density. For the two subjects given only corn, serum L changed little (+11%, -6%), but in one subject serum Z increased (70%) and MP density increased (25%). Increases in MP density were obtained within 4 weeks of dietary modification for most, but not all, subjects. When MP density increased with dietary modification, it remained elevated for at least several months after resuming an unmodified diet. Augmentation of MP for both experimental and clinical investigation appears to be feasible for many persons.

  7. Repair-modification of radiodamaged genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, P.; Institute of Experimental Medicine, Rome; Eremenko, T.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that through repair-modification, the modified base 5mC may have facilitated the divergent evolution of coding (hypomethylated exon) and uncoding (hypermethylated promoter and intron) sequences in eukaryotic genes. The radioinduced repair patches appearing in regions lacking 5mC are fully reconstructed by excision-repair, whereas those appearing in regions containing 5mC are incompletely reconstructed by this conventional mechanism. Such a second class of repair patches may, however, become fully reconstructed, in the S phase, by repair-modification. In fact, while DNA polymerase β - which is a key enzyme of excision-repair - is active through the whole interphase. DNA methylase - which is responsible for post-synthetic DNA modification - is essentially active in S. Uncoupling of these two enzyme systems, outside S, might explain why in unsynchronised cells repair patches of non-replicating strands are hypomethylated when compared with specific methylation of replicating strands. In other words, excision-repair would always be able to re-establish the primary ATGC language of both damaged unmethylated and methylated regions, while repair-modification would be able to re-establish the modified ATGC(5mC) language of the damaged methylated regions, only in S, but not in G 1 or G 2 . In these two phases, when DNA methylation is inversely correlated with pre-mRNA transcription (as in the case of many tissue-specific genes), such demethylation might induce a silent transcriptional unit to become active. (Author)

  8. Surface Modification of Mg and Mg Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Turhan, Can Metehan

    2012-01-01

    Progressively, the well explored and studied mechanical properties of a bulk metal are compared with the corrosion behaviour obtained from its surface, which enables promising improvements in desired applications. An example is magnesium metal: where, by developing new types of surface modifications by understanding its inconsistent corrosion behaviour, it would be possible to apply this engineering metal safely as a biocompatible metal, in addition to its widely used application areas such a...

  9. Modifications to the control program HASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, M.; Dall'Olio, L.; Mareso, T.; Ricci, F.

    1973-01-01

    Modification to HASP version 3, level 0, a control program for an electronic computer, was described with the purpose of solving some operative and managing problems not solved by the standard version for the IBM 360/75 computer. The application and utilization of these facilities require a deep knowledge of the HASP II design, version 3, level 0, 360D-05.1.014

  10. The modification of the Rossendorf Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehre, G.; Hieronymus, W.; Kampf, T.; Ringel, V.; Robbander, W.

    1990-01-01

    The Rossendorf Research Reactor is of the WWR-SM type. It is a heterogeneous water moderated and cooled tank reactor with a thermal power of 10 MW, which was in operation from 1957 to 1986. It was shut down in 1987 for comprehensive modifications to increase its safety and to improve the efficiency of irradiation and experimentals. The modifications will be implemented in two steps. The first one to be finished in 1989 comprises: 1) the replacement of the reactor tank and its components, the reactor cooling system, the ventilation system and the electric power installation; 2) the construction of a new reactor control room and of filtering equipment; 3) the renewal of process instrumentation and control engineering equipment for reactor operation, equipment for radiation protection monitoring, and reactor operation and safety documentation. The second step, to be implemented in the nineties, is to comprise: 1) the enlargement of the capacity for storage of spent fuel; 2) the modernization of reactor operations by computer-aided control; 3) the installation of an automated measuring systems for accident and environmental monitoring. Two objects of the modification, the replacement of the reactor tank and the design of a new and safer one as well as the increase of the redundancy of the core emergency cooling system are described in detail. For the tank replacement the exposure data are also given. Furthermore, the licensing procedures based on national ordinances and standards as well as on international standards and recommendations and the mutual responsibilities and activities of the licensing authority and of the reactor manager are presented. Finally, the present state of the modifications and the schedule up to the reactor recommissioning and test operation at full power is outlined

  11. Magnetic field modification of optical magnetic dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armelles, Gaspar; Caballero, Blanca; Cebollada, Alfonso; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Meneses-Rodríguez, David

    2015-03-11

    Acting on optical magnetic dipoles opens novel routes to govern light-matter interaction. We demonstrate magnetic field modification of the magnetic dipolar moment characteristic of resonant nanoholes in thin magnetoplasmonic films. This is experimentally shown through the demonstration of the magneto-optical analogue of Babinet's principle, where mirror imaged MO spectral dependencies are obtained for two complementary magnetoplasmonic systems: holes in a perforated metallic layer and a layer of disks on a substrate.

  12. MODIFICATION OF PAPERMAKING GRADE FILLERS: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of fillers in paper products can provide cost and energy savings, improved paper properties, increased productivities, and specifically desired paper functionalities. There are many problems associated with the use of fillers, such as unsuitability of calcium carbonate fillers in acid papermaking, negative effects of filler loading on paper strength, sizing, and retention, and tendencies of fillers to cause abrasion and dusting. In order to solve these problems and to make better use of fillers, many methods have been proposed, among which filler modification has been a hot topic. The available technologies of filler modification mainly include modification with inorganic substances, modification with natural polymers or their derivatives, modification with water-soluble synthetic polymers, modification with surfactants, modification with polymer latexes, hydrophobic modification, cationic modification, surface nano-structuring, physical modification by compressing, calcination or grinding, and modification for use in functional papers. The methods of filler modification can provide improved acid tolerant and optical properties of fillers, enhanced fiber-filler bonding, improved filler retention and filler sizabilities, alleviated filler abrasiveness, improved filler dispersability, and functionalization of filled papers. Filler modification has been an indispensable way to accelerate the development of high filler technology in papermaking, which is likely to create additional benefits to papermaking industry in the future.

  13. Chemical modification of hybrid nanostructures (POSS for application as lubricant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Luvison

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS are hybrid structures type RSiO15n, with n organic groups R. These molecules can be easily functionalized by simply changing the chemical constitution of the organic groups. In this work, chemical modification of POSS-NH2 was performed by amidation reaction with butyric acid at elevated temperature, 160°C. The formation of the amide group is evinced by the appearance of NH angular deformation band at 1540 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra. Approximately 40% of the amino groups reacted, according to titration results. The formation of the amide groups resulted in a shift of the glass transition temperature (Tg from -36.9°C to -25.6°C for the modified-POSS sample. Both POSS-NH2 and modified-POSS samples exhibited similar thermal degradation pattern. Analysis of the pairs distribution function (PDF has determined that the hybrid nanoparticles are separated by a periodic distance of approximately 1.32 nm. POSS-NH2 and modified-POSS exhibit newtonian behavior, which will range from 10-1 s-1 and 1000 s-1. The viscosity decreased with increasing temperature, a typical behavior of liquid lubricants.

  14. Reproductive cloning combined with genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, C

    2005-11-01

    Although there is widespread opposition to reproductive cloning, some have argued that its use by infertile couples to have genetically related children would be ethically justifiable. Others have suggested that lesbian or gay couples might wish to use cloning to have genetically related children. Most of the main objections to human reproductive cloning are based on the child's lack of unique nuclear DNA. In the future, it may be possible safely to create children using cloning combined with genetic modifications, so that they have unique nuclear DNA. The genetic modifications could be aimed at giving such children genetic characteristics of both members of the couple concerned. Thus, cloning combined with genetic modification could be appealing to infertile, lesbian, or gay couples who seek genetically related children who have genetic characteristics of both members. In such scenarios, the various objections to human reproductive cloning that are based on the lack of genetic uniqueness would no longer be applicable. The author argues that it would be ethically justifiable for such couples to create children in this manner, assuming these techniques could be used safely.

  15. On P values and effect modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin

    2017-12-01

    A crucial element of evidence-based healthcare is the sound understanding and use of statistics. As part of instilling sound statistical knowledge and practice, it seems useful to highlight instances of unsound statistical reasoning or practice, not merely in captious or vitriolic spirit, but rather, to use such error as a springboard for edification by giving tangibility to the concepts at hand and highlighting the importance of avoiding such error. This article aims to provide an instructive overview of two key statistical concepts: effect modification and P values. A recent article published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology on side effects related to statin therapy offers a notable example of errors in understanding effect modification and P values, and although not so critical as to entirely invalidate the article, the errors still demand considerable scrutiny and correction. In doing so, this article serves as an instructive overview of the statistical concepts of effect modification and P values. Judicious handling of statistics is imperative to avoid muddying their utility. This article contributes to the body of literature aiming to improve the use of statistics, which in turn will help facilitate evidence appraisal, synthesis, translation, and application.

  16. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  18. Behavioral economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin F.

    2014-01-01

    Economics, like behavioral psychology, is a science of behavior, albeit highly organized human behavior. The value of economic concepts for behavioral psychology rests on (1) their empirical validity when tested in the laboratory with individual subjects and (2) their uniqueness when compared to established behavioral concepts. Several fundamental concepts are introduced and illustrated by reference to experimental data: open and closed economies, elastic and inelastic demand, and substitutio...

  19. Modification of Material Surface Using Plasma-Enhanced Ion Beams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bystritskii, V

    1998-01-01

    ...) Technology for Materials Surface Modification. Following second year programmatic plan, formulated in the conclusion of the 1-st year report we focused our effort on study of aluminum alloys modification (Al2024, 6061, 7075...

  20. Exploring the diversity of protein modifications: special bacterial phosphorylation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Grangeasse, Christophe; Turgay, Kürşad

    2016-01-01

    Protein modifications not only affect protein homeostasis but can also establish new cellular protein functions and are important components of complex cellular signal sensing and transduction networks. Among these post-translational modifications, protein phosphorylation represents the one that ...

  1. Tribological effects of polymer surface modification through plastic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tribological effects of polymer surface modification through plastic deformation. K O Low K J Wong ... In this regard, a surface modification technique through plastic deformation has been implemented. ... Bulletin of Materials Science | News.

  2. Nuclear Plant Modification in a Risk-Informed Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, Raymond H.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines a specific nuclear power plant modification performed in a risk-informed regulatory environment. It quantifies both the permanent and temporary effects of the modification, and performs a cost-benefit evaluation. (authors)

  3. Implementation of Lifestyle Modification Program Focusing on Physical Activity and Dietary Habits in a Large Group, Community-Based Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Falcon, Ashley; Arheart, Kris; Stasi, Selina; Portacio, Francia; Stepanenko, Bryan; Lan, Mary L.; Castruccio-Prince, Catarina; Nackenson, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programs improve several health-related behaviors, including physical activity (PA) and nutrition. However, few of these programs have been expanded to impact a large number of individuals in one setting at one time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether a PA- and nutrition-based lifestyle…

  4. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to be...

  5. MODIFICATION OF SURFACE KONDENSITSIONNYH AEROSOLS WELDING AND METALLURGICHESKIH PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ennan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of surface kondensitsionnyh aerosols (KA which formation when heat treatment metals (process of weld, foundry processes with application chlorosilanes are suggested. Adsorbtion vapor of water on modification powders KA decreases and changes in varies from modifier and conditions modification are setted.

  6. 23 CFR 630.110 - Modification of original agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification of original agreement. 630.110 Section 630... OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Project Authorization and Agreements § 630.110 Modification of original agreement. (a) When changes are needed to the original project agreement, a modification of agreement shall...

  7. Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2010-05-01

    An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface Modifications in Adhesion and Wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Jonathan

    Advances in surface modification are changing the world. Changing surface properties of bulk materials with nanometer scale coatings enables inventions ranging from the familiar non-stick frying pan to advanced composite aircraft. Nanometer or monolayer coatings used to modify a surface affect the macro-scale properties of a system; for example, composite adhesive joints between the fuselage and internal frame of Boeing's 787 Dreamliner play a vital role in the structural stability of the aircraft. This dissertation focuses on a collection of surface modification techniques that are used in the areas of adhesion and wetting. Adhesive joints are rapidly replacing the familiar bolt and rivet assemblies used by the aerospace and automotive industries. This transition is fueled by the incorporation of composite materials into aircraft and high performance road vehicles. Adhesive joints have several advantages over the traditional rivet, including, significant weight reduction and efficient stress transfer between bonded materials. As fuel costs continue to rise, the weight reduction is accelerating this transition. Traditional surface pretreatments designed to improve the adhesion of polymeric materials to metallic surfaces are extremely toxic. Replacement adhesive technologies must be compatible with the environment without sacrificing adhesive performance. Silane-coupling agents have emerged as ideal surface modifications for improving composite joint strength. As these coatings are generally applied as very thin layers (coatings using the buckling instability formed between two materials of a large elastic mismatch. The elastic modulus is found to effectively predict the joint strength of an epoxy/aluminum joint that has been reinforced with silane coupling agents. This buckling technique is extended to investigate the effects of chemical composition on the elastic modulus. Finally, the effect of macro-scale roughness on silane-reinforced joints is investigated

  9. Efficient reanalysis of structures by a direct modification method. [local stiffness modifications of large structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibstein, A. I.; Kalev, I.; Pipano, A.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the local stiffness modifications of large structures is described. It enables structural modifications without an a priori definition of the changes in the original structure and without loss of efficiency due to multiple loading conditions. The solution procedure, implemented in NASTRAN, involved the decomposed stiffness matrix and the displacement vectors of the original structure. It solves the modified structure exactly, irrespective of the magnitude of the stiffness changes. In order to investigate the efficiency of the present procedure and to test its applicability within a design environment, several real and large structures were solved. The results of the efficiency studies indicate that the break-even point of the procedure varies between 8% and 60% stiffness modifications, depending upon the structure's characteristics and the options employed.

  10. Modifications of Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Moshin, P.Yu

    2003-12-04

    We propose a modification of the Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization to realize a superalgebra of generating operators isomorphic to the massless limit of the corresponding superalgebra of the osp(1,2) covariant formalism. The modified scheme ensures the compatibility of the superalgebra of generating operators with extended BRST symmetry without imposing restrictions eliminating superfield components from the quantum action. The formalism coincides with the Sp(2) covariant superfield scheme and with the massless limit of the osp(1,2) covariant quantization in particular cases of gauge-fixing and solutions of the quantum master equations.

  11. Ultrasonic Recovery and Modification of Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkhu, Kamaljit; Manasseh, Richard; Mawson, Raymond; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    There are two general classes of effects that sound, and ultrasound in particular, can have on a fluid. First, very significant modifications to the nature of food and food ingredients can be due to the phenomena of bubble acoustics and cavitation. The applied sound oscillates bubbles in the fluid, creating intense forces at microscopic scales thus driving chemical changes. Second, the sound itself can cause the fluid to flow vigorously, both on a large scale and on a microscopic scale; furthermore, the sound can cause particles in the fluid to move relative to the fluid. These streaming phenomena can redistribute materials within food and food ingredients at both microscopic and macroscopic scales.

  12. In medium modification of nucleon electromagnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, F.; Rakhimov, A.; Yakhsiev, U.

    1997-01-01

    Since nucleons are composite objects, their internal structure is expected to be changed by nuclear environment. A Skyrme like Lagrangian is proposed to consider such effects, namely the modification of electromagnetic (EM) properties of the nucleon. The static properties and EM form factors were obtained. It was shown that the charge radius of the nucleon increased in medium and the mass and axial coupling constant are reduced. The enhancement of magnetic moment of proton is smaller than that obtained in non-topological soliton model.Obtained results may be useful in electron nucleus scattering analysis.(A.A.D.)

  13. Dynamic Binary Modification Tools, Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hazelwood, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic binary modification tools form a software layer between a running application and the underlying operating system, providing the powerful opportunity to inspect and potentially modify every user-level guest application instruction that executes. Toolkits built upon this technology have enabled computer architects to build powerful simulators and emulators for design-space exploration, compiler writers to analyze and debug the code generated by their compilers, software developers to fully explore the features, bottlenecks, and performance of their software, and even end-users to extend

  14. ASPOD modifications of 1993-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer J. (Editor); Fogarty, Paul W.; Muller, Matthew; Martucci, Thomas A., III; Williams, Daniel; Rowney, David A.

    1994-01-01

    ASPOD, Autonomous Space Processors for Orbital Debris, provides a unique way of collecting the space debris that has built up over the past 37 years. For the past several years, ASPOD has gone through several different modifications. This year's concentrations were on the solar cutting array, the solar tracker, the earth based main frame/tilt table, the controls for the two robotic arms, and accurate autocad drawings of ASPOD. This final report contains the reports written by the students who worked on the ASPOD project this year.

  15. EG and G electron linac modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, N.J.; Detch, J.L.; Kocimski, S.M.; Sawyer, C.R.; Hudson, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    A three-year modification of the EG and G electron linac has been performed to replace obsolete equipment and bring all subsystems up to the current state of the art. Components and subsystems were designed, constructed, and tested off-line to minimize interruption of experiments. The configuration of the modified linac is shown schematically, and performance characteristics are give. Each subsystem is described, including: the electron gun; solenoid focusing system; subharmonic bunchers; accelerating system; RF system; klystron modulators and power supplies; control system; beam handling system; vacuum system; and beam current monitors. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Medium modifications of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, T. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)]. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp

    2005-11-28

    We use the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model as an effective quark theory to investigate the medium modifications of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. By using the equation of state of nuclear matter derived in this model, we discuss the results based on the naive quark-scalar diquark picture, the effects of finite diquark size, and the meson cloud around the constituent quarks. We apply this description to the longitudinal response function for quasielastic electron scattering. RPA correlations, based on the nucleon-nucleon interaction derived in the same model, are also taken into account in the calculation of the response function.

  17. Structure modification of particle track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, H.B.; Gemende, B.; Heinrich, B.

    1991-01-01

    Three different structure modifications were studied in order to improve the flux and dirt loading capacity of particle track membranes without affecting their retention characteristic. Divergent irradiation is a very effective tool for decreasing the number of multiple pores and increasing the porosity up to 20 per cent. The technique leads to a remarkable but not efficient enhancement of the surface porosity. Improved surface porosity produced by a double irradiation technique turns out to be very effective with respect to the filtration performance. (author)

  18. Modification-specific proteomics: strategies for characterization of post-translational modifications using enrichment techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yingming; Jensen, Ole N

    2009-01-01

    More than 300 different types of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been described, many of which are known to have pivotal roles in cellular physiology and disease. Nevertheless, only a handful of PTMs have been extensively investigated at the proteome level. Knowledge of protein...... substrates and their PTM sites is key to dissection of PTM-mediated cellular processes. The past several years have seen a tremendous progress in developing MS-based proteomics technologies for global PTM analysis, including numerous studies of yeast and other microbes. Modification-specific enrichment...

  19. Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is always more effective to positively reinforce desired behaviors and to teach children alternative behaviors rather ... he is angry, but instead to express his feelings through words. It’s important for him to learn ...

  20. Behaviorally inadequate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to situationism in psychology, behavior is primarily influenced by external situational factors rather than internal traits or motivations such as virtues. Environmental ethicists wish to promote pro-environmental behaviors capable of providing adequate protection for the environment...

  1. A Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective on Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichenbaum, Donald

    1980-01-01

    The first purpose of this editorial is to indicate a parallel trend in two disparate areas of research: information processing and cognitive-behavior modification (CBM). The second purpose is to highlight the role that affect plays in intellectual functioning, noting implications following the assessment of intelligence. (Author/RD)

  2. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  3. Value-impact assessment of safety-related modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, W.M.C.; Dinnie, K.S.; Gordon, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Like other nuclear utilities, Ontario Hydro, as part of its risk management activities, continually assesses the safety of its nuclear operations. In addition, new regulatory requirements are being applied to the older nuclear power plants. Both of these result in proposed plant modifications designed to reduce the risk to the public. However, modifications to an operating plant can have serious economic effects, and the resources, both financial and personnel, required for the implementation of these modifications are limited. Thus, all potential benefits and effects of a proposed modification must be thoroughly investigated to judge whether the modification is beneficial. Ontario Hydro has begun to use comprehensive value-impact assessments, utilizing plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), as tools to provide an informed basis for judgments on the benefit of safety-related modifications. The results from value-impact assessments can also be used to prioritize the implementation of these modifications

  4. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  5. Electron beam induced modification of grafted polyamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timus, D.M.; Brasoveanu, M.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Popov, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that irradiation, when applied on its own or in combination with other physical and chemical treatments, can manifest in radiation damage to materials. Radiation processing technology focuses upon producing favourable modification of materials through use of relatively high dose and dose rates. Current interest is in modifying the thermal and electrical properties of textured polymers in an effort to improve safety and wear comfort of clothing. No less important is the production of textiles which are safe to use, both in homes and offices. Present investigations provide additional data in support of findings which show that polyamides, a particular class of textured polymer, are amenable to radiation processing. Accelerated electron beam irradiation of sheets of polyamide fibre results in induced grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acids. The degree of grafting is critically dependent upon irradiation dose and the extent of monomers dilution. Of particular importance is the high correlation which is found between degree of grafting and a decrease in the softening rate of the modified polyamide. A systematic modification of electrical conductivity is also observed. (author)

  6. Oxidative modification of ferritin induced by methylglyoxal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ho An

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal (MG was identified as an intermediate innon-enzymatic glycation and increased levels were reported inpatients with diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effects ofMG on the modification of ferritin. When ferritin wasincubated with MG, covalent crosslinking of the proteinincreased in a time- and MG dose-dependent manner.Reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers, N-acetyl-L-cysteineand thiourea suppressed the MG-mediated ferritinmodification. The formation of dityrosine was observed inMG-mediated ferritin aggregates and ROS scavengers inhibitedthe formation of dityrosine. During the reaction betweenferritin and MG, the generation of ROS was increased as afunction of incubation time. These results suggest that ROSmay play a role in the modification of ferritin by MG. Thereaction between ferritin and MG led to the release of ironions from the protein. Ferritin exposure to MG resulted in aloss of arginine, histidine and lysine residues. It was assumedthat oxidative damage to ferritin caused by MG may induce anincrease in the iron content in cells, which is deleterious tocells. This mechanism, in part, may provide an explanation orthe deterioration of organs under diabetic conditions. [BMBreports 2012; 45(3: 147-152

  7. Excimer laser surface modification: Process and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hirvonen, J.P. [Technical Research Institute, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.

    1992-12-01

    Surface modification can improve materials for structural, tribological, and corrosion applications. Excimer laser light has been shown to provide a rapid means of modifying surfaces through heat treating, surface zone refining, and mixing. Laser pulses at modest power levels can easily melt the surfaces of many materials. Mixing within the molten layer or with the gas ambient may occur, if thermodynamically allowed, followed by rapid solidification. The high temperatures allow the system to overcome kinetic barriers found in some ion mixing experiments. Alternatively, surface zone refinement may result from repeated melting-solidification cycles. Ultraviolet laser light couples energy efficiently to the surface of metallic and ceramic materials. The nature of the modification that follows depends on the properties of the surface and substrate materials. Alloying from both gas and predeposited layer sources has been observed in metals, semiconductors, and ceramics as has surface enrichment of Cr by zone refinement of stainless steel. Rapid solidification after melting often results in the formation of nonequilibrium phases, including amorphous materials. Improved surface properties, including tribology and corrosion resistance, are observed in these materials.

  8. Electron beam modification of vanadium dioxide oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, Maksim; Velichko, Andrey; Putrolaynen, Vadim; Perminov, Valentin; Pergament, Alexander [Petrozavodsk State University, Petrozavodsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The paper presents the results of a study of electron-beam modification (EBM) of VO{sub 2}-switch I-V curve threshold parameters and the self-oscillation frequency of a circuit containing such a switching device. EBM in vacuum is reversible and the parameters are restored when exposed to air at pressure of 150 Pa. At EBM with a dose of 3 C cm{sup -2}, the voltages of switching-on (V{sub th}) and off (V{sub h}), as well as the OFF-state resistance R{sub off}, decrease down to 50% of the initial values, and the oscillation frequency increases by 30% at a dose of 0.7 C cm{sup -2}. Features of physics of EBM of an oscillator are outlined considering the contribution of the metal and semiconductor phases of the switching channel. Controlled modification allows EBM forming of switches with preset parameters. Also, it might be used in artificial oscillatory neural networks for pattern recognition based on frequency shift keying. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. STIFFNESS MODIFICATION OF COTTON IN CHITOSAN TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOS Juan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin, and among their most important aspects highlights its applications in a lot of industrial sectors due to its intrinsic properties, especially in the textile sector. In the last years, chitosan is widely used in the cotton and wool finishing processes due to its bond between them and its properties as an antifungical and antimicrobial properties. In this paper three different molecular weight chitosan are used in the finishing process of cotton to evaluate its influence in the surface properties modification. In order to evaluate the effect of the treatment with chitosan, flexural stiffness test is performed in warp and weft direction, and then the total value is calculated. The cotton fabric is treated with 5 g/L of different types of chitosan in an impregnation bath. This study shows the extent of surface properties modification of the cotton provided by three types of chitosan treatment. The results show that all types of chitosan modify the cotton flexural rigidity properties but the one which modifies it in a relevant manner is chitosan originated from shrimps. Chitosan, textile, flexural stiffnes, chitin, cotton.

  10. Posttranslational Modifications and the Immunogenicity of Biotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Jefferis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whilst the amino acid sequence of a protein is determined by its gene sequence, the final structure and function are determined by posttranslational modifications (PTMs, including quality control (QC in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and during passage through the Golgi apparatus. These processes are species and cell specific and challenge the biopharmaceutical industry when developing a production platform for the generation of recombinant biologic therapeutics. Proteins and glycoproteins are also subject to chemical modifications (CMs both in vivo and in vitro. The individual is naturally tolerant to molecular forms of self-molecules but nonself variants can provoke an immune response with the generation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA; aggregated forms can exhibit enhanced immunogenicity and QC procedures are developed to avoid or remove them. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics (mAbs are a special case because their purpose is to bind the target, with the formation of immune complexes (ICs, a particular form of aggregate. Such ICs may be removed by phagocytic cells that have antigen presenting capacity. These considerations may frustrate the possibility of ameliorating the immunogenicity of mAbs by rigorous exclusion of aggregates from drug product. Alternate strategies for inducing immunosuppression or tolerance are discussed.

  11. Amalyse modifications during production and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Connie

    a-Amylases are a family of enzymes which catalyse the hydrolysis of a-D-(1,4) glucosidic linkages in starch and related compounds. a-Amylases are some of the most important industrial enzymes and they are used in a number of different industries one of these being the detergent industry. The comm......a-Amylases are a family of enzymes which catalyse the hydrolysis of a-D-(1,4) glucosidic linkages in starch and related compounds. a-Amylases are some of the most important industrial enzymes and they are used in a number of different industries one of these being the detergent industry......I value can be identified when analysing the final enzyme product, hereby indicating that the protein is modified. The purpose of the present Ph.D. project is to identify differences between the multiple forms of a-amylase derived from the same gene and determine if or how these various modifications...... affect the activity and wash performance. The focus of the present project is on a-amylases fromBacillus species used in the detergent industry. The thesis begins with an introduction to Bacillus a-amylases, modifications which could cause the multiple forms varying in pI value and mass spectrometry (MS...

  12. Possible End to an Endless Quest? Cognitive Bias Modification for Excessive Multiplayer Online Gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitz, Sharon; Nagar, Maayan

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive biases have previously been recognized as key mechanisms that contribute to the development, maintenance, and relapse of addictive behaviors. The same mechanisms have been recently found in problematic computer gaming. The present study aims to investigate whether excessive massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers (EG) demonstrate an approach bias toward game-related cues compared to neutral stimuli; to test whether these automatic action tendencies can be implicitly modified in a single session training; and to test whether this training affects game urges and game-seeking behavior. EG (n=38) were randomly assigned to a condition in which they were implicitly trained to avoid or to approach gaming cues by pushing or pulling a joystick, using a computerized intervention (cognitive bias modification via the Approach Avoidance Task). EG demonstrated an approach bias for gaming cues compared with neutral, movie cues. Single session training significantly decreased automatic action tendencies to approach gaming cues. These effects occurred outside subjective awareness. Furthermore, approach bias retraining reduced subjective urges and intentions to play, as well as decreased game-seeking behavior. Retraining automatic processes may be beneficial in changing addictive impulses in EG. Yet, large-scale trials and long-term follow-up are warranted. The results extend the application of cognitive bias modification from substance use disorders to behavioral addictions, and specifically to Internet gaming disorder. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  13. [Effects of a coaching program on comprehensive lifestyle modification for women with gestational diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jung Mi; Lee, Jong Kyung

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using a Coaching Program on Comprehensive Lifestyle Modification with pregnant women who have gestational diabetes. The research design for this study was a non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental study. Pregnant women with gestational diabetes were recruited from D women's hospital located in Gyeonggi Province from April to October, 2013. Participants in this study were 34 for the control group and 34 for the experimental group. The experimental group participated in the Coaching Program on Comprehensive Lifestyle Modification. The program consisted of education, small group coaching and telephone coaching over 4weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 21.0 program. There were significant improvements in self-care behavior, and decreases in depression, fasting blood sugar and HbA1C in the experimental group compared to the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups for knowledge of gestational diabetes mellitus. The Coaching Program on Comprehensive Lifestyle Modification used in this study was found to be effective in improving self-care behavior and reducing depression, fasting blood sugar and HbA1C, and is recommended for use in clinical practice as an effective nursing intervention for pregnant women with gestational diabetes.

  14. Tuning electron transport through a single molecular junction by bridge modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiao-Fei; Qiu, Qi; Luo, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of controlling electron transport in a single molecular junction represents the ultimate goal of molecular electronics. Here, we report that the modification of bridging group makes it possible to improve the performance and obtain new functions in a single cross-conjugated molecular junction, designed from a recently synthesized bipolar molecule bithiophene naphthalene diimide. Our first principles results show that the bipolar characteristic remains after the molecule was modified and sandwiched between two metal electrodes. Rectifying is the intrinsic characteristic of the molecular junction and its performance can be enhanced by replacing the saturated bridging group with an unsaturated group. A further improvement of the rectifying and a robust negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior can be achieved by the modification of unsaturated bridge. It is revealed that the modification can induce a deviation angle about 4° between the donor and the acceptor π-conjugations, making it possible to enhance the communication between the two π systems. Meanwhile, the low energy frontier orbitals of the junction can move close to the Fermi level and encounter in energy at certain biases, thus a transport channel with a considerable transmission can be formed near the Fermi level only at a narrow bias regime, resulting in the improvement of rectifying and the robust NDR behavior. This finding could be useful for the design of single molecular devices.

  15. Activated Carbon Preparation and Modification for Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhe

    Butanol is considered a promising, infrastructure-compatible biofuel. Butanol has a higher energy content than ethanol and can be used in conventional gas engines without modifications. Unfortunately, the fermentation pathway for butanol production is restricted by its toxicity to the microbial strains used in the process. Butanol is toxic to the microbes, and this can slow fermentation rates and reduce butanol yields. Gas stripping technology can efficiently remove butanol from the fermentation broth as it is produced, thereby decreasing its inhibitory effects. Traditional butanol separation heavily depends on the energy intensive distillation method. One of the main issues in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation is that butanol concentrations in the fermentation broth are low, ranging from 1 to 1.2 percent in weight, because of its toxicity to the microorganisms. Therefore distillation of butanol is even worse than distillation of corn ethanol. Even new separation methods, such as solid- extraction methods involve adding substances, such as polymer resin and zeolite or activated carbon, to biobutanol fermentatioon broth did not achieve energy efficient separation of butanol due to low adsorption selectivity and fouling in broth. Gas-stripping - condensation is another new butanol recovery method, however, the butanol in gas-stripping stream is too low to be condensed without using expensive and energy intensive liquid nitrogen. Adsorption can then be used to recover butanol from the vapor phase. Activated carbon (AC) samples and zeolite were investigated for their butanol vapor adsorption capacities. Commercial activated carbon was modified via hydrothermal H2O2 treatment, and the specific surface area and oxygen-containing functional groups of activated carbon were tested before and after treatment. Hydrothermal H2O 2 modification increased the surface oxygen content, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, micropore volume, and total pore volume of active carbon

  16. Surface modification of polyethylene by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin O, E.

    2003-01-01

    The products made of polyethylene (PE) go from construction materials, electric insulating until packing material. The films for bags and pack occupy 83.6% of the distribution of the market of PE approximately. The enormous quantity of PE that is generated by its indiscriminate use brings as consequence a deterioration to the atmosphere, due to the long life that they present as waste. This work is a study on the modification of low density polyethylene films. In this type of thin materials, the changes in the surface meet with largely on the conformation of the rest of the material. To induce changes that modify the surface of PE, plasmas were used with reactive atmospheres of air, oxygen and nitrogen. The experimentation that was carries out went to introduce the PE to a cylindrical reactor where it was generated the plasma of air, oxygen and nitrogen to different times of exposure. After having carried out the exposure to the plasma, it was found that in the polyethylene it modifies their morphology, crystallinity, hydrophobicity, composition and electric conductivity. The analytical techniques that were used to characterize later to the polyethylene of being in contact with the plasma were: X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Infrared spectroscopy, Electric conductivity, Angle of contact and finally Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. The content of this work it is presented in five chapters: In the chapter 1 there are presented some general concepts of plasma and of the one polymer in study PE. In the chapter 2 it is made a general revision on modification of surfaces, as well as the properties that were modified in polymeric materials that were exposed to plasma in previous works. In the chapter 3 the experimental part and the conditions used are described in the modification of the PE. Also in this chapter a brief description it is made of the used characterization techniques. The results and discussion are presented in the chapter 4. These results

  17. Restricting Factors at Modification of Parameters of Associative Engineering Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, László

    Advancements in product development have reached full integration of engineering activities and processes in product lifecycle management (PLM) systems. PLM systems are based on high-level modeling, simulation and data management. Despite significant development of modeling in PLM systems, a strong demand was recognized for improved decision assistance in product development. Decision assistance can be improved by application of methods from the area of computer intelligence. In order for a product development company to stay competitive, it is important for its modeling system to be relied on local even personal knowledge. The authors analyzed current PLM systems for shortcomings and possibilities for extended intelligence at decision-making during product development. They propose methods in order to increase suitability of current modeling systems to accommodate knowledge based IT at definition of sets of parameters of modeled objects and in the management of frequent changes of modeled objects. In the center of the proposed methodology, constrained parameters act as restricting factors at definition and modification of parameters of associative engineering objects. Paper starts with an outlook to modeling in current engineering systems and preliminary results by the authors. Following this, groups of essential information as handled by he proposed modeling are summarized and procedures for processing of that groups of information are detailed. Next, management of chains of changes along chains of associa-tive product objects and a new style of decision assistance in modeling systems are explained. Changes are created or verified by behavior analysis. Finally, behavior analysis, human intent combination, product data view creation, and change management are discussed as the proposed integrated and coordinated methodology for enhanced support of decision-making in product development.

  18. Applied behavior analysis: behavior management of children with autism spectrum disorders in dental environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Purnima; Ikkanda, Zachary

    2011-03-01

    There are a limited number of studies addressing behavior management techniques and procedural modifications that dentists can use to treat people with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The authors conducted a search of the dental and behavioral analytic literature to identify management techniques that address problem behaviors exhibited by children with ASDs in dental and other health-related environments. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science in which procedures are based on the principles of behavior through systematic experimentation. Clinicians have used ABA procedures successfully to modify socially significant behaviors of people with ASD. Basic behavior management techniques currently used in dentistry may not encourage people with cognitive and behavioral disabilities, such as ASD, to tolerate simple in-office dental procedures consistently. Instead, dental care providers often are required to use advanced behavior management techniques to complete simple in-office procedures such as prophylaxis, sealant placement and obtaining radiographs. ABA procedures can be integrated in the dental environment to manage problem behaviors often exhibited by children with an ASD. The authors found no evidence-based procedural modifications that address the behavioral characteristics and problematic behaviors of children with an ASD in a dental environment. Further research in this area should be conducted. Knowledge and in-depth understanding of behavioral principles is essential when a dentist is concerned with modifying behaviors. Using ABA procedures can help dentists manage problem behaviors effectively and systematically when performing routine dental treatment. Being knowledgeable about each patient's behavioral characteristics and the parents' level of involvement is important in the successful integration of the procedures and reduction of in-office time.

  19. Modification of Indirect Solar Dryer for Simplicia Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, C. W.; Indarti, S.

    2018-03-01

    Simplicia is natural ingredient for herbal medicine that has been subjected to drying only. This study aims to develop an appropriate drying equipment to produce dried leaves of sambung nyawa (Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr.) or also called “longevity spinach”. Typical indirect solar drier was modified to be able to process more fresh leaves in order to speed up the production. The modification was done using double solar collector and wind powered ventilation. The double solar collector was applied in order to collect more solar energy for larger dimension of drying chamber, while the wind-ventilator was installed to provide forced convection of hot air flow inside the dryer. The drying kinetic including the drying constants were investigated using three common thin layer drying equations to model the drying behavior of the leaves. The moisture ratio (MR) depletion with respect to the drying time (t) of the leaves can be well represented by equation of MR=1.1732exp(-0.0993.t)-0.1732exp(-17.3871.t).

  20. Direct modification of silicon surface by nanosecond laser interference lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dapeng [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Wang, Zuobin, E-mail: wangz@cust.edu.cn [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Zhang, Ziang [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); Yue, Yong [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Li, Dayou [JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom); Maple, Carsten [JR3CN and CNM (Changchun University of Science and Technology), Changchun 130022 (China); JR3CN and IRAC (University of Bedfordshire), Luton LU1 3JU (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Periodic and quasi-periodic structures on silicon surface have numerous significant applications in photoelectronics and surface engineering. A number of technologies have been developed to fabricate the structures in various research fields. In this work, we take the strategy of direct nanosecond laser interference lithography technology, and focus on the silicon material to create different well-defined surface structures based on theoretical analysis of the formation of laser interference patterns. Two, three and four-beam laser interference systems were set up to fabricate the grating, regular triangle and square structures on silicon surfaces, respectively. From the AFM micrographs, the critical features of structures have a dependence on laser fluences. For a relative low laser fluence, grating and dot structures formed with bumps due to the Marangoni Effect. With the increase of laser fluences, melt and evaporation behaviors can be responsible for the laser modification. By properly selecting the process parameters, well-defined grating and dot structures can been achieved. It can be demonstrated that direct laser interference lithography is a facile and efficient technology with the advantage of a single process procedure over macroscale areas for the fabrication of micro and nano structures.

  1. Modification of the Strength Anisotropy in an Austenitic ODS Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. K.; Jang, J.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, C. B.; Bae, C. S.; Kim, D. H.

    2007-01-01

    Among many candidate alloys for Gen IV reactors, the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy is widely considered as a good candidate material for the in-reactor component, like cladding tube. The ODS alloy is well known due to its good high temperature strength, and excellent irradiation resistance. For the previous two decades in the nuclear community, the ODS alloy developments have been mostly focused on the ferritic martensitic (F-M) steel-based ones. On the other hand, the austenitic stainless steels (e.g. 316L or 316LN) have been used as a structural material due to its good high temperature strength and a good compatibility with a media. However, the austenitic stainless steel showed unfavorable characteristics in the dimensional stability under neutron irradiation and cracking behavior with the media. It is thus expected that the austenitic ODS steels restrain the dimension stability under neutron irradiation. However, the ODS alloys usually reveal the anisotropic characteristic in mechanical strength in the hoop and longitudinal directions, which is attributed to the grain morphology strongly developed parallel to the rolling direction with a high aspect ratio. This study focuses on a modification of the strength anisotropy of an austenitic ODS alloy by a recrystallization heat treatment

  2. Ghost condensation and a consistent IR modification of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkani Hamed, N.; Cheng, H.S.; Luty, M.A.; Mukohyama, S.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a theoretically consistent modification of gravity in the infrared, which is compatible with all current experimental observations. This is an analog of Higgs mechanism in general relativity, and can be thought of as arising from ghost condensation-a background where a scalar field φhas a constant velocity, = M 2 . The ghost condensate is a new kind of fluid that can fill the universe, which has the same equation of state, ρ = -p, as a cosmological constant, and can hence drive de Sitter expansion of the universe. However, unlike a cosmological constant, it is a physical fluid with a physical scalar excitation, which can be described by a systematic effective field theory at low energies. The excitation has an unusual low-energy dispersion relation ω 2 ∼ k 4 /M 2 . If coupled to matter directly, it gives rise to small Lorentz-violating effects and a new long-range 1/r 2 spin dependent force. In the ghost condensate, the energy that gravitates is not the same as the particle physics energy, leading to the possibility of both sources that can gravitate and antigravitate. The Newtonian potential is modified with an oscillatory behavior starting at the distance scale M Pl /M 2 and the time scale M Pl 2 /M 3 . This theory opens up a number of new avenues for attacking cosmological problems, including inflation, dark matter and dark energy. (author)

  3. Performance Modification of Asphalt Binders using Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to improve the performance of asphalt binders to minimize stress cracking that occurs at low temperatures and plastic deformation at high temperatures. Importation of used asphalt-polymers from abroad, leads to an increase in the total construction cost as compared to the cost if the used polymers were of local origin. The main objective of this research was to modify locally produced asphalt. Ten polymers were identified as potential asphalt modifiers based on their physical properties and chemical composition. After preliminary laboratory evaluation for the melting point of these polymers, five polymers were selected for local asphalt modification. In the initial stage, required mixing time was decided based on the relation between shear loss modulus and mixing time .The optimum polymer content was selected based on Superpave binder performance grade specifications.The suitability of improvement was verified through the evaluation of permanent deformation and fatigue behavior of laboratory prepared asphalt concrete mixes. The results indicated that the rheological properties of the modified binders improved significantly with sufficient polymer content (3%. The aging properties of the modified binders were found to be dependent on the type of polymer.The fatigue life and resistance to permanent deformation were significantly improved due to enhanced binder rheological properties.  Thus, local asphalts can be modified using thermoplastic polymers.

  4. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  5. A modification of the Oersted experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, Dimitar G [Sliven Engineering and Pedagogical Faculty, Sofia Technical University, 59 Burgasko Shosse Blvd, 8800 Sliven (Bulgaria)], E-mail: dgstoyanov@abv.bg

    2009-05-15

    The paper describes a simple set-up of the Oersted experiment. A planar coil of wires has been used to deflect vigorously the magnetic needle (more than 80 angular degrees) when a current of up to 1 A flows along it. Based on theoretical analysis the torque on the magnetic field is analytically expressed taking into account the inhomogeneity of the field and the needle shape. This modification of the Oersted experiment can be used as an easily-made and low-cost set-up or a laboratory workshop at the undergraduate level. Moreover, a procedure to measure the Earth's magnetic component is implied and implemented and its magnitude has been estimated following the same steps.

  6. Controller modification applied for active fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focusing on active fault detection (AFD) for parametric faults in closed-loop systems. This auxiliary input applied for the fault detection will also disturb the external output and consequently reduce the performance of the controller. Therefore, only small auxiliary inputs are used...... with the result that the detection and isolation time can be long. In this paper it will be shown, that this problem can be handled by using a modification of the feedback controller. By applying the YJBK-parameterization (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) for the controller, it is possible to modify...... the frequency for the auxiliary input is selected. This gives that it is possible to apply an auxiliary input with a reduced amplitude. An example is included to show the results....

  7. Modification of graphene by ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukowska, Hanna; Akcoeltekin, Sevilay; El Kharrazi, Mourad; Schleberger, Marika [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Duisburg (Germany); Osmani, Orkhan [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Duisburg (Germany); Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Fachbereich Physik, Gottlieb-Daimler-Strasse, Gebaeude 47, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Ion irradiation can be used to modify surfaces on the nanometer scale. We investigate graphene on different insulator (SrTiO{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and semiconductor (SiO{sub 2}) substrates. The bombardment of those target surfaces with swift heavy ions under grazing angle of incidence creates chains of nanodots on the substrate and folds graphene to typical origami-like structures. The shape of the folded graphene seems to depend on the length of the tracks. The length can be controlled by the angle of incidence. From the analysis of atomic force microscopy measurements, we classify the different types of modifications, with the aim to determine the relationship between chain length and origami shape. Further more we want to develop a theoretical understanding of the physical processes leading to the folding.

  8. Autoantibodies to Posttranslational Modifications in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burska, Agata N.; Hunt, Laura; Strollo, Rocky; Ryan, Brent J.; Vital, Ed; Nissim, Ahuva; Winyard, Paul G.; Emery, Paul; Ponchel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Autoantibodies have been associated with human pathologies for a long time, particularly with autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Rheumatoid factor (RF) is known since the late 1930s to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The discovery of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in the last century has changed this and other posttranslational modifications (PTM) relevant to RA have since been described. Such PTM introduce neoepitopes in proteins that can generate novel autoantibody specificities. The recent recognition of these novel specificities in RA provides a unique opportunity to understand human B-cell development in vivo. In this paper, we will review the three of the main classes of PTMs already associated with RA: citrullination, carbamylation, and oxidation. With the advancement of research methodologies it should be expected that other autoantibodies against PTM proteins could be discovered in patients with autoimmune diseases. Many of such autoantibodies may provide significant biomarker potential. PMID:24782594

  9. Surface modification of metals by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1988-01-01

    Ion implantation in metals has attracted the attention as a useful technology for the formation of new metastable alloys and compounds in metal surface layers without thermal equilibrium. Current studies of metal surface modification by ion implantation with high fluences have expanded from basic research areas and to industrial applications for the improvement of life time of tools. Many results suggest that the high fluence implantation produces the new surface layers with un-expected microscopic characteristics and macroscopic properties due to implant particles, radiation damage, sputtering, and knock-on doping. In this report, the composition, structure and chemical bonding state in surface layers of iron, iron-based alloy and aluminum sheets implanted with high fluences have been investigated by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tribological properties such as hardness, friction and wear are introduced. (author)

  10. Modification of Food Systems by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Carrillo-Lopez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the mechanism, operation, and recent potential applications of ultrasound in various food systems, as well as the physical and chemical effects of ultrasound treatments on the conservation and modification of different groups of food. Acoustic energy has been recognized as an emerging technology with great potential for applications in the food industry. The phenomenon of acoustic cavitation, which modifies the physical, chemical, and functional properties of food, can be used to improve existing processes and to develop new ones. The combination of ultrasonic energy with a sanitizing agent can improve the effect of microbial reduction in foods and, thereby, their quality. Finally, it is concluded that the use of ultrasound in food is a very promising area of research; however, more research is still needed before applying this technology in a wider range of industrial sectors.

  11. Machining, joining and modifications of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in mechanical and materials engineering applied to the machining, joining and modification of modern engineering materials. The contributions cover the classical fields of casting, forming and injection moulding as representative manufacturing methods, whereas additive manufacturing methods (rapid prototyping and laser sintering) are treated as more innovative and recent technologies that are paving the way for the manufacturing of shapes and features that traditional methods are unable to deliver. The book also explores water jet cutting as an innovative cutting technology that avoids the heat build-up typical of classical mechanical cutting. It introduces readers to laser cutting as an alternative technology for the separation of materials, and to classical bonding and friction stir welding approaches in the context of joining technologies. In many cases, forming and machining technologies require additional post-treatment to achieve the required level of surface quali...

  12. Genetic modification of stem cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M Ian; Tang, Yao Liang

    2008-01-14

    Gene modification of cells prior to their transplantation, especially stem cells, enhances their survival and increases their function in cell therapy. Like the Trojan horse, the gene-modified cell has to gain entrance inside the host's walls and survive and deliver its transgene products. Using cellular, molecular and gene manipulation techniques the transplanted cell can be protected in a hostile environment from immune rejection, inflammation, hypoxia and apoptosis. Genetic engineering to modify cells involves constructing modules of functional gene sequences. They can be simple reporter genes or complex cassettes with gene switches, cell specific promoters and multiple transgenes. We discuss methods to deliver and construct gene cassettes with viral and non-viral delivery, siRNA, and conditional Cre/Lox P. We review the current uses of gene-modified stem cells in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurological diseases, (including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and spinal cord injury repair), bone defects, hemophilia, and cancer.

  13. Genetic modification of cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi; Drobinskaya, Irina; Kolossov, Eugen; Chen, Chunguang; Linn, Thomas

    2008-01-14

    Progress in gene therapy has produced promising results that translate experimental research into clinical treatment. Gene modification has been extensively employed in cell transplantation. The main barrier is an effective gene delivery system. Several viral vectors were utilized in end-stage differentiated cells. Recently, successful applications were described with adenovirus-associated vectors. As an alternative, embryonic stem cell- and stem cell-like systems were established for generation of tissue-specified gene-modified cells. Owing to the feasibility for genetic manipulations and the self-renewing potency of these cells they can be used in a way enabling large-scale in vitro production. This approach offers the establishment of in vitro cell culture systems that will deliver sufficient amounts of highly purified, immunoautologous cells suitable for application in regenerative medicine. In this review, the current technology of gene delivery systems to cells is recapitulated and the latest developments for cell transplantation are discussed.

  14. Materials Modification Under Ion Irradiation: JANNUS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serruys, Y.; Trocellier, P.; Ruault, M.-O.; Henry, S.; Kaietasov, O.; Trouslard, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    JANNUS (Joint Accelerators for Nano-Science and Nuclear Simulation) is a project designed to study the modification of materials using multiple ion beams and in-situ TEM observation. It will be a unique facility in Europe for the study of irradiation effects, the simulation of material damage due to irradiation and in particular of combined effects. The project is also intended to bring together experimental and modelling teams for a mutual fertilisation of their activities. It will also contribute to the teaching of particle-matter interactions and their applications. JANNUS will be composed of three accelerators with a common experimental chamber and of two accelerators coupled to a 200 kV TEM

  15. FRX-C Large Source Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.; Yavornik, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The FRX-C Large Source Modification (LSM) consists of a larger discharge tube and a larger radius coil connected to the existing FRX-C collector plates and capacitor banks. The objectives of LSM are to (1) study the size dependences of processes governing FRC formation and poloidal flux trapping in order to improve the design of larger field-reversed theta pinch devices, (2) increase the parameter s (number of local ion gyroradii between the field null and separatrix) to seek access to predicted new regimes of improved confinement and possible instability, (3) search for evidence of internal tilt instability at higher values of s where the mode is predicted to grow more rapidly, and (4) observe the effect of s and larger size on FRC confinement. In this paper we will discuss the construction of LSM, the experimental plan, and preliminary experimental results

  16. Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are intricate structures with remarkable properties, widely used in almost every aspect of our life. Cell walls consist largely of complex polysaccharides and there is often a need for chemical and biochemical processing before industrial use. There is an increasing demand...... for sustainable processes that replace chemical treatments with white biotechnology. Plants can contribute significantly to this sustainable process by producing plant or microbialenzymes in planta that are necessary for plant cell wall modification or total degradation. This will give rise to superior food...... fibres, hydrocolloids, paper,textile, animal feeds or biofuels. Classical microbial-based fermentation systems could in the future face serious competition from plant-based expression systems for enzyme production. Plant expressed enzymes can either be targeted to specific cellular compartments...

  17. Fault diagnosis based on controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop systems will be considered in this paper. A major problem is that a feedback controller will in general reduce the effects from variations in the systems including parametric faults on the controlled output from the system. Parametric...... faults can be detected and isolated using active methods, where an auxiliary input is applied. Using active methods for the diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop systems, the amplitude of the applied auxiliary input need to be increased to be able to detect and isolate the faults in a reasonable......-parameterization (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) for the controller, it is possible to modify the feedback controller with a minor effect on the closed-loop performance in the fault-free case and at the same time optimize the detection and isolation in a faulty case. Controller modification in connection...

  18. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Saavedra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  19. A study of microbial profile modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, J.H.; Lee, H.O.

    1995-12-31

    A microbial profile modification method using spores was investigated. A halotolerant, spore-forming, biopolymer-producing mesophile was used in Berea cores with a specifically formulated nutrient package to reduce the permeability of the rock. The degree of permeability reduction varied widely depending on the stimulation protocols used. The incubation period had a significant impact on permeability reduction, and there appeared to be an optimum incubation time for maximum permeability reduction. The reduction persisted for many PV of brine injection and appeared very stable. For our microbes used in this study, the permeability reduction was about the same when the NaCl concentration was above 2 wt% in the range from 0 wt% to 10 wt%.

  20. Functionalization and modification of carbon nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diachkova, Tatyana P.; Tkachev, Alexey G.; Orlova, Nataliya V.; Orlov, Andrej Yu. [Tambov State Technical University, Tambov (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Some regularities of covalent functionalization multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by oxygen- containing groups were studied. The resulting materials were characterized by electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of the degree of functionalization of MWCNTs from the process conditions was stated. The advantages of the gas phase to the liquid phase oxidation were shown. The effect of pristine and functionalized MWCNTs on the properties of composites with polysulfone was studied. Pristine and functionalized MWCNTs were modified with polyaniline. The effect of the method and degree of pre-functionalization of carbon nanotubes on the regularities of the oxidative polymerization of aniline and the properties of the obtained materials was shown. Key words: multiwalled carbon nanotubes, functionalization, modification, oxidation, composites, polyaniline.

  1. Cell Signalling Through Covalent Modification and Allostery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Louise N.

    Phosphorylation plays essential roles in nearly every aspect of cell life. Protein kinases catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate of ATP to a serine, threonine or tyrosine residue in protein substrates. This covalent modification allows activation or inhibition of enzyme activity, creates recognition sites for other proteins and promotes order/disorder or disorder/order transitions. These properties regulate ­signalling pathways and cellular processes that mediate metabolism, transcription, cell cycle progression, differentiation, cytoskeleton arrangement and cell movement, apoptosis, intercellular communication, and neuronal and immunological functions. In this lecture I shall review the structural consequences of protein phosphorylation using our work on glycogen phosphorylase and the cell cycle cyclin dependent protein kinases as illustrations. Regulation of protein phosphorylation may be disrupted in the diseased state and protein kinases have become high profile targets for drug development. To date there are 11 compounds that have been approved for clinical use in the treatment of cancer.

  2. Sleep modifications in acute transient global amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Mazza, Marianna; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Frisullo, Giovanni; Marano, Giuseppe; Morosetti, Roberta; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Vollono, Catello; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2013-09-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary memory loss characterized by an abrupt onset of antero-grade and retrograde amnesia, totally reversible. Since sleep plays a major role in memory consolidation, and in the storage of memory-related traces into the brain cortex, the aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate changes in sleep macro-structure in TGA; (2) to assess modifications in sleep micro-structure in TGA, with particular reference to the arousal EEG and to cyclic alternating pattern (CAP); (3) to compare sleep parameters in TGA patients with a control group of patients with acute ischemic events ("minor stroke" or transient ischemic attack [TIA]) clinically and neuroradiologically "similar" to the TGA. TGA GROUP: 17 patients, (8 men and 9 women, 60.2 ± 12.5 years). Stroke or TIA (SoT) group: 17 patients hospitalized in the Stroke Unit for recent onset of minor stroke or TIA with hemispheric localization; healthy controls (HC) group: 17 healthy volunteers, matched for age and sex. Patients and controls underwent full-night polysomnography. In the multivariate analysis (conditions TGA, SoT, and HC) a significant effect of the condition was observed for sleep efficiency index, number of awakenings longer 1 min, REM latency, CAP time, and CAP rate. TGA and SoT differed only for CAP time and CAP rate, which were lower in the TGA group. Microstructural modification associated with tga could be consequent to: (1) hippocampal dysfunction and memory impairment; (2) impairment of arousal-related structures (in particular, cholinergic pathways); (3) emotional distress.

  3. Safety of modifications at nuclear power plants - the role of minor modifications and human and organisational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Operating experience repeatedly shows that changes and modifications at nuclear power plants (NPPs) may lead to safety significant events. At the same time, modifications are necessary to ensure a safe and economic functioning of the NPPs. To ensure safety in all plant configurations it is important that modification processes are given proper attention both by the utilities and the regulators. The operability, maintainability and testability of every modification should be thoroughly assessed from different points of view to ensure that no safety problems are introduced. The OECD/NEA Committee on Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has recently addressed the issue of modifications by organising a 'Workshop on Modifications at Nuclear Power Plants Operating Experience, Safety Significance and Role of Human Factors'. This workshop was undertaken as a joint effort of the Working Group on Operating Experience (WGOE) and the Special Experts Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF), and it was held at the OECD Headquarters in Paris on October 6 to 8, 2003. The initiative to organise the workshop was taken by the WGOE and the SEGHOF based on findings from events and incidents due to modifications at nuclear power plants in the world and weaknesses experienced in modification processes. During the workshop, the WGOE focused on the theme of 'Minor Modifications and their Safety Significance', while the SEGHOF focused on the topic 'Human and Organisational Factors in NPP Modifications'. This report is based on material collected before the workshop, the workshop proceedings, discussions of the group of experts responsible for the arrangement of the workshop, and additional material collected by a consultant. The workshop was preceded by extensive preparations, which included collection of national surveys in response to questionnaires on modifications at the NPPs. Not all of these surveys were available at the workshop, but their findings have now been included

  4. Cognitive-behavioral play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, S M

    1998-03-01

    Discusses cognitive-behavioral play therapy (CBPT), a developmentally sensitive treatment for young children that relies on flexibility, decreased expectation for verbalizations by the child, and increased reliance on experiential approaches. The development of CBPT for preschool-age children provides a relatively unique adaptation of cognitive therapy as it was originally developed for adults. CBPT typically contains a modeling component through which adaptive coping skills are demonstrated. Through the use of play, cognitive change is communicated indirectly, and more adaptive behaviors can be introduced to the child. Modeling is tailored for use with many specific cognitive and behavioral interventions. Generalization and response prevention are important features of CBPT. With minor modifications, many of the principles of cognitive therapy, as delineated for use with adults, are applicable to young children. Case examples are presented to highlight the application of CBPT. Although CBPT has a sound therapeutic base and utilizes proven techniques, more rigorous empirical scrutiny is needed.

  5. Modification of Salmonella Lipopolysaccharides Prevents the Outer Membrane Penetration of Novobiocin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Thatyane M.; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Andreev, Konstantin; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Gidalevitz, David

    2015-12-01

    Small hydrophilic antibiotics traverse the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria through porin channels. Large lipophilic agents traverse the outer membrane through its bilayer, containing a majority of lipopolysaccharides in its outer leaflet. Genes controlled by the two-component regulatory system PhoPQ modify lipopolysaccharides. We isolate lipopolysaccharides from isogenic mutants of Salmonella sp., one lacking the modification, the other fully modified. These lipopolysaccharides were reconstituted asmonolayers at the air-water interface, and their properties, aswell as their interaction with a large lipophilic drug, novobiocin, was studied. X-ray reflectivity showed that the drug penetrated the monolayer of the unmodified lipopolysaccharides reaching the hydrophobic region,butwas prevented fromthis penetration intothemodified lipopolysaccharides.Results correlatewith behavior of bacterial cells, which become resistant to antibiotics after PhoPQ-regulated modifications. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction showed that novobiocin produced a striking increase in crystalline coherence length, and the size of the near-crystalline domains.

  6. Profile modification computations for LHCD experiments on PBX-M using the TSC/LSC model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Ignat, D.W.; Jardin, S.C.; Okabayashi, M.; Sun, Y.C.

    1996-01-01

    The TSC-LSC computational model of the dynamics of lower hybrid current drive has been exercised extensively in comparison with data from a Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M) discharge where the measured q(0) attained values slightly above unity. Several significant, but plausible, assumptions had to be introduced to keep the computation from behaving pathologically over time, producing singular profiles of plasma current density and q. Addition of a heuristic current diffusion estimate, or more exactly, a smoothing of the rf-driven current with a diffusion-like equation, greatly improved the behavior of the computation, and brought theory and measurement into reasonable agreement. The model was then extended to longer pulse lengths and higher powers to investigate performance to be expected in future PBX-M current profile modification experiments. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Molecular modification of highly degenerate semiconductor as an active electrode to enhance the performance of supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundinamani, S. P.; Rabinal, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Highly conducting antimony doped tin oxide (SnO2:Sb) films are electrografted with suitable organic molecules to study their electrolytic behavior. A series of organic molecules, such as heptanethiol, dodecanethiol and octadecanethiol are bonded to electrode surfaces. Electrolytic capacitors were formed on both unmodified and chemically modified electrodes using KCl and H2SO4 as electrolytes. This molecular modification significantly enhances the current levels in cyclic voltammograms, and there is a clear shift in oxidation/reduction peaks of these capacitors with scan rate. The results obey Randles-Sevcik relation, which indicates that there is enhancement of ionic diffusion at the electrode-electrolyte interface. There is a large enhancement in the values of specific capacitance (almost by 104 times) after the chemical modification. These measurements show that Faradaic reactions are responsible for charge storage/discharge process in these capacitors. Hence, the molecularly modified electrodes can be a good choice to increase the specific capacitance.

  8. Modification of the original color of the Eucalyptus grandis wood by heat treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilei Aparecida Garcia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the modification of original color of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden wood after heat-treatment. Wood samples were heat-treated under different temperatures (180, 200, 215 and 230ºC and time conditions (15 minutes, 2 and 4 hours. Color analysis were performed on the CIE L*a*b* system by using a Color Eye XTH-X-Rite 200d spectrophotometer. All heat treatments promoted an alteration of the original color of wood. Heat-treated woods presented lower L* (lightness values than untreated wood (control, characterizing the wood darkness, mainly for more severe conditions of temperature and time. Chromatic coordinates (a* and b* showed different behaviors depending on the temperature-time combination. The modification of the original color of the wood allowed the creation of new color patterns, which can add greater value to the studied wood.

  9. Modification of transition's factor in the compact surface-potential-based MOSFET model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevkić Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of an important transition's factor which enables continual behavior of the surface potential in entire useful range of MOSFET operation is presented. The various modifications have been made in order to obtain an accurate and computationally efficient compact MOSFET model. The best results have been achieved by introducing the generalized logistic function (GL in fitting of considered factor. The smoothness and speed of the transition of the surface potential from the depletion to the strong inversion region can be controlled in this way. The results of the explicit model with this GL functional form for transition's factor have been verified extensively with the numerical data. A great agreement was found for a wide range of substrate doping and oxide thickness. Moreover, the proposed approach can be also applied on the case where quantum mechanical effects play important role in inversion mode.

  10. A modification of the token economy for nonresponsive youth in family-style residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Clinton E; Nash, Heather M; Handwerk, Michael L; Friman, Patrick C

    2004-05-01

    Out-of-home treatment for youth with conduct problems is increasing rapidly in this country. Most programs for these youth deliver treatment in a group format and commonly employ some version of a token economy. Despite widespread evidence of effectiveness, a substantial minority of treated youth fail to respond. Participants for this study were 3 youth who were nonresponsive to treatment provided in a family-style residential care program with a comprehensive token economy. Our approach to the "nonresponse" of these youth involved modifications of the frequency and immediacy of their access to the backup rewards earned with tokens. We evaluated the effects of the modifications with a treatment-withdrawal experimental design. Dependent measures included two indices of youth response to treatment: intense behavioral episodes and backup rewards earned. Results showed substantial improvement among these indices during treatment conditions.

  11. b-jet tagged nuclear modification factors in heavy ion collisions with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy-flavor-tagged jets in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In this talk, we present the b-jet spectra and the first measurement of the nuclear modification factors as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, using the high statistics pp, pPb and PbPb data taken in 2011 and 2013.

  12. Surface modification of ceramics. Ceramics no hyomen kaishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hioki, T. (Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-07-05

    Surface modification of ceramics and some study results using in implantation in surface modification are introduced. The mechanical properties (strength, fracture toughness, flaw resistance) of ceramics was improved and crack was repaired using surface modification by ion implantation. It is predicted that friction and wear properties are considerably affected because the hardness of ceramics is changed by ion implantation. Cementing and metalization are effective as methods for interface modification and the improvement of the adhesion power of the interface between metal and ceramic is their example. It was revealed that the improvement of mechanical properties of ceramics was achieved if appropriate surface modification was carried out. The market of ceramics mechanical parts is still small, therefore, the present situation is that the field of activities for surface modification of ceramics is also narrow. However, it is thought that in future, ceramics use may be promoted surely in the field like medicine and mechatronics. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Mapping Base Modifications in DNA by Transverse-Current Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jose R.; Skachkov, Dmitry; Massey, Steven E.; Kalitsov, Alan; Velev, Julian P.

    2018-02-01

    Sequencing DNA modifications and lesions, such as methylation of cytosine and oxidation of guanine, is even more important and challenging than sequencing the genome itself. The traditional methods for detecting DNA modifications are either insensitive to these modifications or require additional processing steps to identify a particular type of modification. Transverse-current sequencing in nanopores can potentially identify the canonical bases and base modifications in the same run. In this work, we demonstrate that the most common DNA epigenetic modifications and lesions can be detected with any predefined accuracy based on their tunneling current signature. Our results are based on simulations of the nanopore tunneling current through DNA molecules, calculated using nonequilibrium electron-transport methodology within an effective multiorbital model derived from first-principles calculations, followed by a base-calling algorithm accounting for neighbor current-current correlations. This methodology can be integrated with existing experimental techniques to improve base-calling fidelity.

  14. Functional Modification of Thioether Groups in Peptides, Polypeptides, and Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, TJ

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in the modification of methionine and other thioether-containing residues in peptides, polypeptides, and proteins are reviewed. Properties and potential applications of the resulting functionalized products are also discussed. While much of this work is focused on natural Met residues, modifications at other side-chain residues have also emerged as new thioether-containing amino acids have been incorporated into peptidic materials. Functional modification of thioether-cont...

  15. Modification of JRR-4 based on safety evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Hironobu; Nakajima, Teruo; Funayama, Yoshiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    Since the first criticality was achieved on January 28, 1965, JRR-4 has been operated safely until on January 12, 1996. The modification of JRR-4 was planned according to the framework of reduced enrichment on research reactor program. The modification was designed based on the several national safety guides. JRR-4 has some modifications of facilities to satisfy the guides and guides criteria. (author)

  16. Pnp gene modification for improved xylose utilization in Zymomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Perry G G; Qi, Min; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V; Yang, Jianjun

    2014-12-16

    The endogenous pnp gene encoding polynucleotide phosphorylase in the Zymomonas genome was identified as a target for modification to provide improved xylose utilizing cells for ethanol production. The cells are in addition genetically modified to have increased expression of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) activity, as compared to cells without this genetic modification, and are not limited in xylose isomerase activity in the absence of the pnp modification.

  17. Functional Modification of Thioether Groups in Peptides, Polypeptides, and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Timothy J

    2017-03-15

    Recent developments in the modification of methionine and other thioether-containing residues in peptides, polypeptides, and proteins are reviewed. Properties and potential applications of the resulting functionalized products are also discussed. While much of this work is focused on natural Met residues, modifications at other side-chain residues have also emerged as new thioether-containing amino acids have been incorporated into peptidic materials. Functional modification of thioether-containing amino acids has many advantages and is a complementary methodology to the widely utilized methods for modification at cysteine residues.

  18. Fabrication and Modification of Nanoporous Silicon Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mauro; Liu, Xuewu

    2010-01-01

    Silicon-based nanoporous particles as biodegradable drug carriers are advantageous in permeation, controlled release, and targeting. The use of biodegradable nanoporous silicon and silicon dioxide, with proper surface treatments, allows sustained drug release within the target site over a period of days, or even weeks, due to selective surface coating. A variety of surface treatment protocols are available for silicon-based particles to be stabilized, functionalized, or modified as required. Coated polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains showed the effective depression of both plasma protein adsorption and cell attachment to the modified surfaces, as well as the advantage of long circulating. Porous silicon particles are micromachined by lithography. Compared to the synthesis route of the nanomaterials, the advantages include: (1) the capability to make different shapes, not only spherical particles but also square, rectangular, or ellipse cross sections, etc.; (2) the capability for very precise dimension control; (3) the capacity for porosity and pore profile control; and (4) allowance of complex surface modification. The particle patterns as small as 60 nm can be fabricated using the state-of-the-art photolithography. The pores in silicon can be fabricated by exposing the silicon in an HF/ethanol solution and then subjecting the pores to an electrical current. The size and shape of the pores inside silicon can be adjusted by the doping of the silicon, electrical current application, the composition of the electrolyte solution, and etching time. The surface of the silicon particles can be modified by many means to provide targeted delivery and on-site permanence for extended release. Multiple active agents can be co-loaded into the particles. Because the surface modification of particles can be done on wafers before the mechanical release, asymmetrical surface modification is feasible. Starting from silicon wafers, a treatment, such as KOH dipping or reactive ion

  19. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  20. Proposal for modification to forward module design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, S.; Taylor, G.

    2000-01-01

    Concern for the baseline forward module thermal and mechanical viability has led to a proposed modification to the design described here. In view of the tight schedule to finalise the module design, proposed changes are constrained so that calculations and proto typing can be carried out without major changes to the key elements in the module. The following constraints were considered in the process of this work: 1. The hybrid contributes the bulk of the power to be removed from the module. 2. The temperature and its variation across the detector are the key specifications for the cooling design of the module. The hybrid temperature may impact via (secondary) convection and radiation heating, but its operation temperature is not assumed to be the major constraint. 3. The forward hybrid design is well advanced and represents a large effort that should be preserved. 4. The overall design of the module, in particular overall dimensions and placement of precision mounting points is well advanced. Assembly jigs based upon these dimensions are also advanced. The following problems are addressed by the current proposal: 1. The constraint of the small cooling point required to cool both the hybrid and the detector in the baseline is considered a serious limitation demanding high performance in the design and implementation of this contact in the baseline. 2. The small surface area of this contact is critical. Concerns that distortions of the block or relative distortions in the module between the detector and the hybrid, might further reduce the critical effective contact area, as well as possibly causing other problems, give further impetus to the proposed design modification. 3. Thermo-mechanical stress due to the cooling points at both ends of the module. 4. Lack of support of the hybrid near to the cable connectors. 5. Close proximity of the cooling pipe to the front-end electronics and the wire bonds. The proposal involves extending the hybrid substrate with two

  1. Behaviorism: part of the problem or part of the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J G

    1978-01-01

    The form frequently taken by behavior-modification programs is analyzed in terms of the parent science, Behaviorism. Whereas Behaviorism assumes that behavior is the result of contingencies, and that lasting behavior change involves changing the contingencies that give rise to and support the behavior, most behavior-modification programs merely arrange special contingencies in a special environment to eliminate the "problem" behavior. Even when the problem behavior is as widespread as alcoholism and crime, behavior modifiers focus on "fixing" the alcoholic and the criminal, not on changing the societal contingencies that prevail outside the therapeutic environment and continue to produce alcoholics and criminals. The contingencies that shape this method of dealing with behavioral problems are also analyzed, and this analysis leads to a criticism of the current social structure as a behavior control system. Although applied behaviorists have frequently focused on fixing individuals, the science of Behaviorism provides the means to analyze the structures, the system, and the forms of societal control that produce the "problems". PMID:649524

  2. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P.C.; Miserque, F.; Thomé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings

  3. Attentional bias modification encourages healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2014-01-01

    The continual exposure to unhealthy food cues in the environment encourages poor dietary habits, in particular consuming too much fat and sugar, and not enough fruit and vegetables. According to Berridge's (2009) model of food reward, unhealthy eating is a behavioural response to biased attentional processing. The present study used an established attentional bias modification paradigm to discourage the consumption of unhealthy food and instead promote healthy eating. Participants were 146 undergraduate women who were randomly assigned to two groups: one was trained to direct their attention toward pictures of healthy food ('attend healthy' group) and the other toward unhealthy food ('attend unhealthy' group). It was found that participants trained to attend to healthy food cues demonstrated an increased attentional bias for such cues and ate relatively more of the healthy than unhealthy snacks compared to the 'attend unhealthy' group. Theoretically, the results support the postulated link between biased attentional processing and consumption (Berridge, 2009). At a practical level, they offer potential scope for interventions that focus on eating well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Restriction-modification systems in Mycoplasma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brocchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction and Modification (R-M systems are present in all Mycoplasma species sequenced so far. The presence of these genes poses barriers to gene transfer and could protect the cell against phage infections. The number and types of R-M genes between different Mycoplasma species are variable, which is characteristic of a polymorphism. The majority of the CDSs code for Type III R-M systems and particularly for methyltransferase enzymes, which suggests that functions other than the protection against the invasion of heterologous DNA may exist. A possible function of these enzymes could be the protection against the invasion of other but similar R-M systems. In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J, three of the putative methyltransferase genes were clustered in a region forming a genomic island. Many R-M CDSs were mapped in the vicinity of transposable elements suggesting an association between these genes and reinforcing the idea of R-M systems as mobile selfish DNA. Also, many R-M genes present repeats within their coding sequences, indicating that their expression is under the control of phase variation mechanisms. Altogether, these data suggest that R-M systems are a remarkable characteristic of Mycoplasma species and are probably involved in the adaptation of these bacteria to different environmental conditions.

  5. FRX-C/T large source modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Chrien, R.E.; Yavornik, E.J.; Armstrong, W.T.; Hugrass, W.; Linford, R.K.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Siemon, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    FRC experiments on FRX-C/T during the past two years have been devoted to translation studies and, more recently, to formation studies in situ. The interest in the latter became stronger as FRX-D was proposed. It is intended that, in summer 1985, FRX-C/T be modified with a larger coil that would be essentially a half-scale prototype of FRX-D. This would allow studies of flux trapping with increased size and with the associated enhanced axial dynamics. The results from these formation studies, with and without some improved formation techniques, may influence the design of the FRX-D source in a major way. In addition, this FRX-C/T Large Source Modification may allow the study of FRC's with somewhat increased values of anti s, in the range 2-3. This may be sufficient to reach a new stability regime where the predicted internal tilt mode may occur. Finally, the larger coil size should yield improved FRC confinement times by about 50%, and may allow with a minimum of plasma decompression the study of FRC's with x/sub s/ in the range 0.6-0.7 in possible future translation experiments

  6. Electrochemical surface modification of titanium in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyo-Han; Ramaswamy, Narayanan

    2009-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys have good biocompatibility with body cells and tissues and are widely used for implant applications. However, clinical procedures place more stringent and tough requirements on the titanium surface necessitating artificial surface treatments. Among the many methods of titanium surface modification, electrochemical techniques are simple and cheap. Anodic oxidation is the anodic electrochemical technique while electrophoretic and cathodic depositions are the cathodic electrochemical techniques. By anodic oxidation it is possible to obtain desired roughness, porosity and chemical composition of the oxide. Anodic oxidation at high voltages can improve the crystallinity of the oxide. The chief advantage of this technique is doping of the coating of the bath constituents and incorporation of these elements improves the properties of the oxide. Electrophoretic deposition uses hydroxyapatite (HA) powders dispersed in a suitable solvent at a particular pH. Under these operating conditions these particles acquire positive charge and coatings are obtained on the cathodic titanium by applying an external electric field. These coatings require a post-sintering treatment to improve the coating properties. Cathodic deposition is another type of electrochemical method where HA is formed in situ from an electrolyte containing calcium and phosphate ions. It is also possible to alter structure and/or chemistry of the obtained deposit. Nano-grained HA has higher surface energy and greater biological activity and therefore emphasis is being laid to produce these coatings by cathodic deposition.

  7. Crystal modifications and dissolution rate of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Lim Yee; Sze, Huan Wen; Rajendran, Adhiyaman; Adinarayana, Gorajana; Dua, Kamal; Garg, Sanjay

    2011-12-01

    Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with low aqueous solubility which exhibits polymorphism. The present study was carried out to develop polymorphs of piroxicam with enhanced solubility and dissolution rate by the crystal modification technique using different solvent mixtures prepared with PEG 4000 and PVP K30. Physicochemical characteristics of the modified crystal forms of piroxicam were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry, FT-IR spectrophotometry and differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution and solubility profiles of each modified crystal form were studied and compared with pure piroxicam. Solvent evaporation method (method I) produced both needle and cubic shaped crystals. Slow crystallization from ethanol with addition of PEG 4000 or PVP K30 at room temperature (method II) produced cubic crystal forms. Needle forms produced by method I improved dissolution but not solubility. Cubic crystals produced by method I had a dissolution profile similar to that of untreated piroxicam but showed better solubility than untreated piroxicam. Cubic shaped crystals produced by method II showed improved dissolution, without a significant change in solubility. Based on the XRPD results, modified piroxicam crystals obtained by method I from acetone/benzene were cube shaped, which correlates well with the FTIR spectrum; modified needle forms obtained from ethanol/methanol and ethanol/acetone showed a slight shift of FTIR peak that may be attributed to differences in the internal structure or conformation.

  8. Evaluation and modification of existing CETP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavisha; Shah, A R

    2013-07-01

    For the development of small and medium scale industries in various Gujarat industrial development corporation (GIDC) areas and in clusters of industrial areas, the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) has always been found advantageous in view of cost of treatment, operation and maintenance and disposal of residues being produced. In small scale industrial units due to market requirement, product changes and quantity enhancement are taking place. Due to such changes, the effluent characteristics are continuously changing which affects performance of CETP. Hence it has been found necessary to study continuously the performance, evaluation and modification in the working of the CETP. This paper contains a case study of one of the existing CETP near Baroda which is facing the problem of disposal of treated effluent in which the important parameters like COD, BOD, Suspended Solid, NH3-N and oil and grease were analyzed. Based on the characterization of wastewater, the various treatability studies were carried out on CETP wastewater. To comply with disposal standard prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, various treatments in form of ammonia stripping, coagulation and flocculation, biological treatment, filtration and chlorination are suggested.

  9. Structural modifications of spinels under radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin, A.

    2010-12-01

    This work is devoted to the study of spinel structure materials under radiation. For that purpose, samples of polycrystalline ZnAl 2 O 4 and monocrystalline MgAl 2 O 4 were irradiated by different heavy ions with different energies. Samples of ZnAl 2 O 4 were studied par electron transmission microscopy, and by grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis. Samples of MgAl 2 O 4 were studied by optical spectroscopy. Most of the results concern amorphization and crystalline structure modification of ZnAl 2 O 4 especially the inversion. We were able to determine a stopping power threshold for amorphization, between 11 keV/nm and 12 keV/nm, and also the amorphization process, which is a multiple impacts process. We studied the evolution of the amorphous phase by TEM and showed a nano-patterning phenomenon. Concerning the inversion, we determined that it did happen by a single impact process, and the saturation value did not reach the random cation distribution value. Inversion and amorphization have different, but close, stopping power threshold. However, amorphization seems to be conditioned by a pre-damage of the material which consists in inversion. (author)

  10. Prognostic implications of 2005 Gleason grade modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Brasso, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    ,890 men assessed with the modified Gleason classification, diagnosed between 2003 and 2007, underwent primary RP. Histopathology was reported according to the Gleason Grading Groups (GGG): GGG1 = Gleason score (GS) 6, GGG2 = GS 7(3 + 4), GGG3 = GS 7(4 + 3), GGG4 = GS 8 and GGG5 = GS 9-10. Cumulative...... incidence and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess difference in BCR. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of BCR was lower using the modified compared to the original classification: GGG2 (16% vs. 23%), GGG3 (21% vs. 35%) and GGG4 (18% vs. 34%), respectively. Risk......OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the 2005 modification of the Gleason classification on risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe), 2,574 men assessed with the original Gleason classification and 1...

  11. Histone modifications influence mediator interactions with chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yongqiang; Bjornsdottir, Gudrun; Liu, Zhongle; Quan, Amy; Costanzo, Michael; Dávila López, Marcela; Westholm, Jakub Orzechowski; Ronne, Hans; Boone, Charles; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Myers, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The Mediator complex transmits activation signals from DNA bound transcription factors to the core transcription machinery. Genome wide localization studies have demonstrated that Mediator occupancy not only correlates with high levels of transcription, but that the complex also is present at transcriptionally silenced locations. We provide evidence that Mediator localization is guided by an interaction with histone tails, and that this interaction is regulated by their post-translational modifications. A quantitative, high-density genetic interaction map revealed links between Mediator components and factors affecting chromatin structure, especially histone deacetylases. Peptide binding assays demonstrated that pure wild-type Mediator forms stable complexes with the tails of Histone H3 and H4. These binding assays also showed Mediator—histone H4 peptide interactions are specifically inhibited by acetylation of the histone H4 lysine 16, a residue critical in transcriptional silencing. Finally, these findings were validated by tiling array analysis that revealed a broad correlation between Mediator and nucleosome occupancy in vivo, but a negative correlation between Mediator and nucleosomes acetylated at histone H4 lysine 16. Our studies show that chromatin structure and the acetylation state of histones are intimately connected to Mediator localization. PMID:21742760

  12. Mobilome and genetic modification of bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, S; Mayo, B; Álvarez-Martín, P

    2013-06-01

    Until recently, proper development of molecular studies in Bifidobacterium species has been hampered by growth difficulties, because of their exigent nutritive requirements, oxygen sensitivity and lack of efficient genetic tools. These studies, however, are critical to uncover the cross-talk between bifidobacteria and their hosts' cells and to prove unequivocally the supposed beneficial effects provided through the endogenous bifidobacterial populations or after ingestion as probiotics. The genome sequencing projects of different bifidobacterial strains have provided a wealth of genetic data that will be of much help in deciphering the molecular basis of the physiological properties of bifidobacteria. To this end, the purposeful development of stable cloning and expression vectors based on robust replicons - either from temperate phages or resident plasmids - is still needed. This review addresses the current knowledge on the mobile genetic elements of bifidobacteria (prophages, plasmids and transposons) and summarises the different types of vectors already available, together with the transformation procedures for introducing DNA into the cells. It also covers recent molecular studies performed with such vectors and incipient results on the genetic modification of these organisms, establishing the basis that would allow the use of bifidobacteria for future biotechnological applications.

  13. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumano S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrinooscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function b1 is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact suggests that a new hadronic phenomenon should exist in the tensor-polarized deuteron at high energies, and it will be experimentally investigated at JLab from the end of 2010’s.

  14. Active hippocampal networks undergo spontaneous synaptic modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Tsukamoto-Yasui

    Full Text Available The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic connectivity without any external (or artificial stimuli. Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity. In the course of generating spontaneous activity, individual neurons acquired bidirectional long-lasting synaptic modification. The spontaneous synaptic plasticity depended on a rise in intracellular calcium concentrations of postsynaptic cells, but not on NMDA receptor activity. The direction and amount of the plasticity varied depending on slow oscillation patterns and synapse locations, and thus, they were diverse in a network. Once this global synaptic refinement occurred, the same neurons now displayed different patterns of spontaneous activity, which in turn exhibited different levels of synaptic plasticity. Thus, active networks continuously update their internal states through ongoing synaptic plasticity. With computational simulations, we suggest that with this slow oscillation-induced plasticity, a recurrent network converges on a more specific state, compared to that with spike timing-dependent plasticity alone.

  15. Modification of polymer blends by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuchowska, D.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    1999-01-01

    Modification of polymers, especially of polyolefin-elastomer blends (e. g. ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer, ethylene propylene copolymer, ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer etc.), by irradiation with a beam of fast electrons is discussed. Irradiation of polymer blends usually results in enhanced interactions between the constituents, caused among other things, by grafting induced at the polymer interphase. As a result, mechanical properties are affected to an extent depending on the proportion and type of constituent polymers, stabilizer content and radiation dose. Breaking strength (σ) relative elongation at break (ε) and melt flow rate (MFR), were examined for a triblock styrene/butadiene/styrene (SBS) copolymer, polypropylene (PP), and a PP-SBS blend (50:50 by wt.). In PP, the content of the crystal phase was determined. Irradiation was found to make SBS crosslink, as a result, σ rose by 25% and ε remained unaffected. PP was found to become degraded upon irradiation (MFR rose as much as 16 times), thereby σ and ε decreased considerably. In pure PP, the content of the crystal phase was found to increase. The variations of σ and ε in the irradiated PP-SBS blend follow a tendency similar to that in the SBS copolymer examined. This fact suggests the SBS copolymer to have a decisive effect on the macroscopic properties of the PP-SBS blend. (author)

  16. Novel concepts in modification of radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bump, E.A.; Palayoor, S.T.; Lai, L.L.; Cerce, B.A.; Langley, R.E.; Coleman, C.N.; Braunhut, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether biological effects of radiation, such as apoptosis, that differ from classical clonogenic cell killing, can be modified with agents that would not be expected to modify classical clonogenic cell killing. This would expand the range of potential modifiers of radiation therapy. EL4 murine lymphoma cell apoptosis was determined by electrophoretic analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation. DNA was extracted 24 h after irradiation or addition of inducing agents. Modifiers of radiation-induced apoptosis were added immediately after irradiation. The effects of radiation on wounded endothelial monolayers were studied by scraping a line across the monolayer 30 min after irradiation. Cell detachment was used as an endpoint to determine the protective effect of prolonged exposure to retinol prior to irradiation. EL4 cell apoptosis can be induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or the glutathione oxidant SR-4077. Radiation-induced EL4 cell apoptosis can be inhibited with 3-aminobenzamide, an agent that sensitizes cells to classical clonogenic cell killing. Radiation-induced endothelial cell detachment from confluent monolayers can be modified by pretreatment with retinol. These results raise the possibility that radiation could induce apoptosis by an oxidative stress mechanism that is different from that involved in classical clonogenic cell killing. These and other recent findings encourage the notion that differential modification of classical clonogenic cell killing and other important endpoints of radiation action may be possible. 47 refs., 3 figs

  17. Catalytic modification of cellulose and hemicellulose - Sugarefine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repo, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland),Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry], email: timo.repo@helsinki.fi

    2012-07-01

    The main goal of the project is to develop catalytic methods for the modification of lignocellulose-based saccharides in the biorefineries. The products of these reactions could be used for example as biofuel components, raw materials for the chemical industry, solvents and precursors for biopolymers. The catalyst development aims at creating efficient, selective and green catalytic methods for profitable use in biorefineries. The project is divided in three work packages: In WP1 (Catalytic dehydration of cellulose) the aim is at developing non-toxic, efficient methods for the catalytic dehydration of cellulose the target molecule being here 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). 5-HMF is an interesting platform chemical for the production of fuel additives, solvents and polymers. In WP2 (Catalytic reduction), the objective of the catalytic reduction studies is to produce commercially interesting monofunctional chemicals, such as 1-butanol or 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF). In WP3 (Catalytic oxidation), the research focuses on developing a green and efficient oxidation method for producing acids. Whereas acetic and formic acids are bulk chemicals, diacids such as glucaric and xylaric acids are valuable specialty chemicals for detergent, polymer and food production.

  18. The Teacher's Encyclopedia of Behavior Management: 100 Problems/500 Plans for Grades K-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprick, Randall S.; Howard, Lisa M.

    This reference is intended to provide teachers with a wide variety of intervention plans for responding to behavior, discipline, and motivation problems. While most interventions are based on behavioral research, others are derived from counseling, Adlerian psychology, social learning theory, and cognitive/behavior modification approaches. An…

  19. Aggression and Tantrums in Children with Autism: A Review of Behavioral Treatments and Maintaining Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    Aggression and tantrums are common co-occurring problems with autism. Fortunately, positive developments in the treatment of these challenging and stigmatizing behaviors have been made recently with psychologically-based interventions. Evidence-based methods employ behavior modification, which is also often described as applied behavior analysis…

  20. Treatment Fidelity: Special Educators' Perceptions of Measures Used to Monitor the Implementation of Behavior Intervention Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 requires empirically based interventions to be used when treating chronic problem behaviors. The fundamental part of behavior modification is the ability to demonstrate that behavior change occurred due to the intervention. This can only be accomplished when the intervention is…

  1. Calculation about a modification to the toroidal magnetic field of the Tokamak Novillo. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez A, E.; Melendez L, L.; Colunga S, S.; Valencia A, R.; Lopez C, R.; Gaytan G, E.

    1991-07-01

    The charged particles that constitute the plasma in the tokamaks are located in magnetic fields that determine its behavior. The poloidal magnetic field of the plasma current and the toroidal magnetic field of the tokamak possess relatively big gradients, which produce drifts on these particles. These drifts are largely the cause of the continuous lost of particles and of energy of the confinement region. In this work the results of numerical calculations of a modification to the 'traditional' toroidal magnetic field that one waits it diminishes the drifts by gradient and improve the confinement properties of the tokamaks. (Author)

  2. Laser surface modification of polyethersulfone films: effect of laser wavelength on biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazokian, H; Jelvani, S; Mollabashi, M; Barzin, J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper laser ablation of polyethersulfone (PES) films regarding to the change in biocompatibility of the surface is investigated at 3 different wavelengths of 193nm (ArF), 248 nm (KrF) and 308 nm (XeCl). The optimum laser fluence and number of pulses for the improvement of the surface biocompatibility is found by examination of the surface behavior in contact with platelets and fibroblasts cells at 3 wavelengths. These biological modifications are explained by alteration of the surface morphology and chemistry following irradiation. The results show that the KrF laser is the best choice for treatment of PES in biological applications.

  3. Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A.; McKenzie, D.H.

    1981-12-01

    To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.

  4. Copolymer Synthesis and Characterization by Post-Polymerization Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Casey James

    This PhD thesis examines the physical behavior of surface-grafted polymer assemblies (SGPAs) derived from post-polymerization modification (PPM) reactions in aqueous and vapor enriched environments, and offers an alternative method of creating SGPAs using a PPM approach. SGPAs comprise typically polymer chains grafted covalently to solid substrates. These assemblies show promise in a number of applications and technologies due to the stability imparted by the covalent graft and ability to modify interfacial properties and stability. SGPAs also offer a set of rich physics to explore in fundamental investigations as a result of confining macromolecules to a solid substrate. PPM reactions (also called polymer analogous reactions) apply small molecule organic chemistry reactions to the repeat units of polymer chains in order to generate new chemistries. By applying a PPM strategy to SGPAs, a wide variety of functional groups can be introduced into a small number of well-studied and well-behaved model polymer systems. This approach offers the advantage of holding constant other properties of the SGPA (e.g., molecular weight, MW, and grafting density, sigma) to isolate the effect of chemistry on physical behavior. Using a combination of PPM and fabrication methods that facilitate the formation of SPGAs with position-dependent gradual variation of sigma on flat impenetrable substrate, the influence of polymer chemistry and sigma is examined on the stability of weak polyelectrolyte brushes in aqueous environments at different pH levels. Degrafting of polymer chains in SGPAs exhibits a complex dependence on side chain chemistry, sigma, pH and the charge fraction (alpha) within the brush. Results of these experiments support a proposed mechanism of degrafting, wherein extension of the grafted chains away from the substrate generates tension along the polymer backbone, which activates the grafting chemistry for hydrolysis. The implications of these findings are important in

  5. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and...

  6. 14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director, Airports, Service, or the Regional Director concerned may, on individual...

  7. Comparison of several innovative bridge cable surface modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos T.

    Over the last two decades, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modifications on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheathing that is installed for the protection of inner cable strands or wires. The modifications are based on research undertaken predominantly in Europe...

  8. Chemical mechanisms of histone lysine and arginine modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Brian C.; Denu, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Histone lysine and arginine residues are subject to a wide array of post-translational modifications including methylation, citrullination, acetylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation. The combinatorial action of these modifications regulates critical DNA processes including replication, repair, and transcription. In addition, enzymes that modify histone lysine and arginine residues have been correlated with a variety of human diseases including arthritis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, an...

  9. Posttranslational Modification Biology of Glutamate Receptors and Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min eMao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational covalent modifications of glutamate receptors remain a hot topic. Early studies have established that this family of receptors, including almost all ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes, undergoes active phosphorylation at serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues on their intracellular domains. Recent evidence identifies several glutamate receptor subtypes to be direct substrates for palmitoylation at cysteine residues. Other modifications such as ubiquitination and sumoylation at lysine residues also occur to certain glutamate receptors. These modifications are dynamic and reversible in nature and are regulatable by changing synaptic inputs. The regulated modifications significantly impact the receptor in many ways, including interrelated changes in biochemistry (synthesis, subunit assembling and protein-protein interactions, subcellular redistribution (trafficking, endocytosis, synaptic delivery and clustering, and physiology, usually associated with changes in synaptic plasticity. Glutamate receptors are enriched in the striatum and cooperate closely with dopamine to regulate striatal signaling. Emerging evidence shows that modification processes of striatal glutamate receptors are sensitive to addictive drugs, such as psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamines. Altered modifications are believed to be directly linked to enduring receptor/synaptic plasticity and drug-seeking. This review summarizes several major types of modifications of glutamate receptors and analyzes the role of these modifications in striatal signaling and in the pathogenesis of psychostimulant addiction.

  10. ZT-40M system design, modification, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    ZT-40 is a reversed field pinch experiment which had been operated as originally designed, with a ceramic discharge tube until November 1980. At that time, the experiment was shut down for major modifications. This paper will describe these modifications in general and discuss in detail the design of the energy system

  11. Cuba: Juragua NPP. Upgrades. Modifications and improvements. Annex 5A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales Aguilera, H.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with upgrades - modifications and improvements. Planning for resumption of work at Juragua NPP is under way, and a strategic plan of upgrades and modifications has been prepared. The proposed improvements were categorized, reviewed by the regulatory body and generally approved. This annex outlines the format of the plan. (author)

  12. 12 CFR 725.21 - Modification of agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modification of agreements. 725.21 Section 725.21 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.21 Modification of agreements. The...

  13. Assessment of lifestyle modification measures and their effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: life style modification measures are essential in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. This study compared the effect of lifestyle modification measures on adult type 2 diabetes patients who were on hypoglycemic and lifestyle measures and those on hypoglycemic alone. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study ...

  14. Ball with hair: modular functionalization of highly stable G-quadruplex DNA nano-scaffolds through N2-guanine modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2017-06-20

    Functionalized nanoparticles have seen valuable applications, particularly in the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents in biological systems. However, the manufacturing of such nano-scale systems with the consistency required for biological application can be challenging, as variation in size and shape have large influences in nanoparticle behavior in vivo. We report on the development of a versatile nano-scaffold based on the modular functionalization of a DNA G-quadruplex. DNA sequences are functionalized in a modular fashion using well-established phosphoramidite chemical synthesis with nucleotides containing modification of the amino (N2) position of the guanine base. In physiological conditions, these sequences fold into well-defined G-quadruplex structures. The resulting DNA nano-scaffolds are thermally stable, consistent in size, and functionalized in a manner that allows for control over the density and relative orientation of functional chemistries on the nano-scaffold surface. Various chemistries including small modifications (N2-methyl-guanine), bulky aromatic modifications (N2-benzyl-guanine), and long chain-like modifications (N2-6-amino-hexyl-guanine) are tested and are found to be generally compatible with G-quadruplex formation. Furthermore, these modifications stabilize the G-quadruplex scaffold by 2.0-13.3 °C per modification in the melting temperature, with concurrent modifications producing extremely stable nano-scaffolds. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by functionalizing nano-scaffolds for use within the biotin-avidin conjugation approach. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. Safety improvement plant modifications at Forsmark 3, 1986-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellander, M. [Kaernkraftsaekerhet och utbildning, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1998-10-01

    All important plant modifications implemented in safety-related equipment or software at Forsmark 3 are compiled in this report. The report covers the period from the start of commercial operation in 1985 up to and including 1995. The plant modifications, which were carried out by different suppliers during the guarantee period, are not included in the report since they have not been administered by the Forsmark organisation. The report contains references to relevant modification notices and to files and file divider numbers. These data refer to the Safety Department central archives. The report is based on Forsmark 3 Technical Specifications (STF) which means that Chapter 3 is divided into the same sections as in the STF. Modifications, which cannot be directly attributed to any specific STF chapter, and major modifications are described separately

  16. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Chu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM. This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.. Perspectives of further research are also discussed.

  17. Investigating MCTS Modifications in General Video Game Playing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenberg, Frederik; Andersen, Kasper; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    -style video games. This paper investigates of how well these modifications perform in general video game playing using the general video game AI (GVG-AI) framework and introduces a new MCTS modification called UCT reverse penalty that penalizes the MCTS controller for exploring recently visited children......While Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) methods have shown promise in a variety of different board games, more complex video games still present significant challenges. Recently, several modifications to the core MCTS algorithm have been proposed with the hope to increase its effectiveness on arcade....... The results of our experiments show that a combination of two MCTS modifications can improve the performance of the vanilla MCTS controller, but the effectiveness of the modifications highly depends on the particular game being played....

  18. Behavioral finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapor Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss some general principles of behavioral finance Behavioral finance is the dynamic and promising field of research that mergers concepts from financial economics and cognitive psychology in attempt to better understand systematic biases in decision-making process of financial agents. While the standard academic finance emphasizes theories such as modern portfolio theory and the efficient market hypothesis, the behavioral finance investigates the psychological and sociological issues that impact the decision-making process of individuals, groups and organizations. Most of the research behind behavioral finance has been empirical in nature, concentrating on what people do and why. The research has shown that people do not always act rationally, nor they fully utilise all information available to them.

  19. Behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    This brief entry presents the mediating-moderating variable model as a conceptual framework for understanding behavior change in regard to physical activity/exercise and adiposity. The ideas are applied to real world situations....

  20. Integrated traffic conflict model for estimating crash modification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdah, Usama; Saccomanno, Frank; Persaud, Bhagwant

    2014-10-01

    Crash modification factors (CMFs) for road safety treatments are usually obtained through observational models based on reported crashes. Observational Bayesian before-and-after methods have been applied to obtain more precise estimates of CMFs by accounting for the regression-to-the-mean bias inherent in naive methods. However, sufficient crash data reported over an extended period of time are needed to provide reliable estimates of treatment effects, a requirement that can be a challenge for certain types of treatment. In addition, these studies require that sites analyzed actually receive the treatment to which the CMF pertains. Another key issue with observational approaches is that they are not causal in nature, and as such, cannot provide a sound "behavioral" rationale for the treatment effect. Surrogate safety measures based on high risk vehicle interactions and traffic conflicts have been proposed to address this issue by providing a more "causal perspective" on lack of safety for different road and traffic conditions. The traffic conflict approach has been criticized, however, for lacking a formal link to observed and verified crashes, a difficulty that this paper attempts to resolve by presenting and investigating an alternative approach for estimating CMFs using simulated conflicts that are linked formally to observed crashes. The integrated CMF estimates are compared to estimates from an empirical Bayes (EB) crash-based before-and-after analysis for the same sample of treatment sites. The treatment considered involves changing left turn signal priority at Toronto signalized intersections from permissive to protected-permissive. The results are promising in that the proposed integrated method yields CMFs that closely match those obtained from the crash-based EB before-and-after analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Observation of suprathermal electron fluxes during ionospheric modification experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fejer, J.A.; Sulzer, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    The temporal behavior of backscatter by ionospheric Langmuir waves was observed with the 430-MHz radar at Arecibo while a powerful HF wave was cycled 2 s on, 3 s off. The time resolution was 0.1 s. Late at night, in the absence of photoelectrons, using an HF equivalent radiated power of 80 MW at 3.175 MHz, the initial enhancement of about 6% above system noise of the backscattered power with Doppler shifts between -3.75 and -3.85 MHz was reached about 0.25 s after switching on the HF transmitter. In the following second the enhancement gradually decreased to about 3% and remained there until switching off. During the late afternoon, in the presence of photoelectrons, using the same HF power at 5.1 MHz, an initial enhancement by 25% of the backscattered power with Doppler shifts between -5.25 and -5.35 MHz appeared within less than 0.1 s after switching on the HF transmitter. The incoherent backscatter by Langmuir waves enhanced by photoelectrons was already above system noise by a factor greatly in excess of 10 before switching on the HF transmitter; the 25% enhancement thus corresponds to an enhancement greatly in excess of 250% above system noise. The enhancement drops to less than one tenth of its original value in less than a second. The nighttime effect is attributed to multiple acceleration of electrons from the high-energy tail of the Maxwellian distribution. The daytime effect is believed to be due to a modification in the distribution function of photoelectrons

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Modification of the Quasi-Low-Dimensional Compound KMo 4O 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujachary, K. V.; Greenblatt, D. M.; Jones, E. B.; McCarroll, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Prismatic single crystals, up to 3 mm in length, of a third modification of KMo4O6 have been prepared by electrolysis of a melt with a high ratio of K2MoO4 to MoO3. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the structure conforms more closely than the other two modifications to that reported originally for NaMo4O6. When current is passed parallel to the tetragonal c axis (i.e., parallel to the trans-edge-sharing chains of Mo6 octahedra) the compound displays metallic conductivity down to 100 K, where a broad transition to semiconducting behavior occurs. If the current is passed perpendicular to the c axis the conductivity is approximately a factor of 5 lower. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on a randomly oriented collection of crystals showed Pauli paramagnetic behavior with a small Curie tail at low temperatures.

  3. Modification of unilateral otolith responses following spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew H; Schönfeld, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to resolve the issue of spaceflight-induced, adaptive modification of the otolith system by measuring unilateral otolith responses in a pre- versus post-flight design. The study represents the first comprehensive approach to examining unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times preflight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation, utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll, designated as utriculo-ocular response (UOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP). The findings demonstrate a general increase in interlabyrinth asymmetry of otolith responses on landing day relative to preflight baseline, with subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in asymmetry was consistent for the utricle tests (SVV and UOR) while apparently stronger for SVV. A similar asymmetry was observed during cVEMP testing. In addition, the results provide initial evidence of a dominant labyrinth. The findings require reconsideration of the otolith asymmetry hypothesis; in general, on landing day, the response from one labyrinth was equivalent to preflight values, while the other showed considerable discrepancy. The finding that one otolith response can return to one-g level within hours after re-entry while the other takes considerably longer demonstrates the importance of considering the otolith response as a result of both peripheral and associated central neural processing.

  4. Hemostatic Modifications of the Bentall Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Corte, Alessandro; Baldascino, Francesco; La Marca, Francesca; Scardone, Michelangelo; Nappi, Gianantonio; Cefarelli, Mariano; De Santo, Luca S.; Pepino, Paolo; Cotrufo, Maurizio; De Feo, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Bleeding is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality rates after the Bentall operation. This study reports our recent experience with composite aortic root replacement via a slightly modified button-Bentall operation. Fifty-six consecutive patients underwent a Bentall operation on an elective basis from January 2008 through December 2009. In all cases, we used 2 modifications: we imbricated the pledgeted 2-0 polyester interrupted U stitches of the proximal suture line, and at that same suture line we sealed with fibrin glue the possible sources of oozing. The series featured high proportions of associated procedures (25%) and reoperations (23%). The mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 166 ± 50 and 113 ± 27 min, respectively. No case of operative or hospital (30-day) death was observed. Postoperative drainage amounted to 705 mL (median) on the first postoperative day and 377 mL (mean) on the second. Surgical re-exploration for bleeding was needed in only 1 patient (1.8%). Postoperative acute kidney injury was observed in 5 patients, neurologic complications in 3, and respiratory insufficiency requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation in another 3. Both respiratory and renal complications were significantly associated with greater consumption of blood products (P=0.03 and P=0.001, respectively). We conclude that the combined use of imbricated proximal suture-line stitches and subsequent fibrin-sealant spraying were associated with no deaths and with low rates of bleeding and other adverse postoperative sequelae in our 2-year experience with the Bentall operation in an elective series of patients characterized by a difficult mixture of prognoses. PMID:22740732

  5. Dopamine signaling in reward-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DA mesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural reward such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specific genetic manipulations have improved our understanding of DA signaling in the reward circuit, and provided a means to identify the neural substrates of complex behaviors such as drug addiction and eating disorders. This review focuses on the role of the DA system in drug addiction and food motivation, with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors.

  6. Dopamine Signaling in reward-related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja-Hyun eBaik

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA regulates emotional and motivational behavior through the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. Changes in DAmesolimbic neurotransmission have been found to modify behavioral responses to various environmental stimuli associated with reward behaviors. Psychostimulants, drugs of abuse, and natural rewards such as food can cause substantial synaptic modifications to the mesolimbic DA system. Recent studies using optogenetics and DREADDs, together with neuron-specific or circuit-specific genetic manipulations have improved our understanding of DA signaling in the reward circuit, and provided a means to identify the neural substrates of complex behaviors such as drug addiction and eating disorders. This review focuses on the role of the DA system in drug addiction and food motivation, with an overview of the role of D1 and D2 receptors in the control of reward-associated behaviors.

  7. Gender Affirmation and Body Modification Among Transgender Persons in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo-Romero, Rodrigo A; Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Poppen, Paul J

    This paper examined structural, social, and personal characteristics that shape the processes of gender affirmation and body modification among transgender persons (assigned male at birth) in Bogotá, Colombia. Qualitative data from life-history interviews (N=14) and a focus group (N=11) explored research questions concerning the ways in which the internal psychological and external contextual processes influence individuals' decisions and behaviors concerning hormonal treatment, injections, or surgery. Research questions concerning practices and consequences of treatment performed without medical supervision were addressed through qualitative data, as well as quantitative data from 58 transgender participants. Findings indicated variation in ways participants conceptualized gender (e.g., binary or fluid), but an increased feminine presentation was a strong personal desire expressed by many and often encouraged by romantic partners and transgender friends. Transgender individuals within participants' social networks were frequently instrumental not only in providing information about hormones and contouring injections, but also in carrying out procedures-sometimes with negative consequences. Body modification procedures occurred primarily outside the health care system, due to limited access to or awareness of medical care, societal stigma, social norms within the transgender community, and personal decision-making. Public health approaches to protect the health of transgender persons undergoing body modification were suggested.

  8. Surface modification of malachite with ethanediamine and its effect on sulfidization flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qicheng; Zhao, Wenjuan; Wen, Shuming

    2018-04-01

    Ethanediamine was used to modify the mineral surface of malachite to improve its sulfidization and flotation behavior. The activation mechanism was investigated by adsorption experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and zeta potential measurements. Microflotation experiments showed that the flotation recovery of malachite was enhanced after the pretreatment of the mineral particles with ethanediamine prior to the addition of Na2S. Adsorption tests revealed that numerous sulfide ion species in the pulp solution were transferred onto the mineral surface through the formation of more copper sulfide species. This finding was confirmed by the results of the XPS measurements. Ethanediamine modification not only increased the contents of copper sulfide species on the malachite surface but also enhanced the reactivity of the sulfidization products. During sulfidization, Cu(II) species on the mineral surface were reduced into Cu(I) species, and the percentages of S22- and Sn2- relative to the total S increased after modification, resulting in increased surface hydrophobicity. The results of zeta potential measurements showed that the ethanediamine-modified mineral surface adsorbed with more sulfide ion species was advantageous to the attachment of xanthate species, thereby improving malachite floatability. The proposed ethanediamine modification followed by sulfidization xanthate flotation exhibits potential for industrial application.

  9. Modifications on the behaviour of AISI 304 stainless steel submitted to creep caused by intermediate treatment of annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, L.F.P.; Monteiro, S.N.

    1982-01-01

    Type AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel samples which have been previously creep deformed at 750 0 C, were annealed at 1100 0 C. The effects of this heat treatment in the mechanical behavior of this material when retested in creep were investigated. The results were analysed by taking into account the structural modifications observed and the controlling mechanisms which operate during the deformation and fracture occurring in the creep process. (Author) [pt

  10. Translation of lifestyle modification programs focused on physical activity and dietary habits delivered in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutenberg, Mark; Stanzilis, Katie; Falcon, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    Lifestyle modification programs (LMPs) can provide individuals with behavioral skills to sustain long-term changes to their physical activity (PA) levels and dietary habits. Yet, there is much work to be done in the translation of these programs to community settings. This review identified LMPs that focused on changing both PA and dietary behaviors and examined common features and barriers faced in their translation to community settings. A search of multiple online databases was conducted to identify LMPs that included participants over the age of 18 who enrolled in LMPs, offered in community settings, and had the goal of improving both PA and dietary behaviors. Data were extracted on participant demographics, study design characteristics, and study outcome variables including changes in PA, dietary habits, body weight, and clinical outcomes. We identified 27 studies that met inclusion criteria. Despite high levels of retention and adherence to the interventions, varying levels of success were observed in increasing PA levels, improving dietary habits, reducing body weight, and improving clinic outcomes. LMPs addressing issues of PA and dietary habits can be successfully implemented in a community setting. However, inconsistent reporting of key components in the translation of these studies (participant recruitment, utilization of behavioral strategies) may limit their replication and advancement of future programs. Future efforts should better address issues such as identifying barriers to participation and program implementation, utilization of community resources, and evaluating changes across multiple health behaviors.

  11. Surface modification of polyester biomaterials for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yanpeng; Cui Fuzhai

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces play an important role in a biological system for most biological reactions occurring at surfaces and interfaces. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering is to create perfect surfaces which can provoke specific cellular responses and direct new tissue regeneration. The improvement in biocompatibility of biomaterials for tissue engineering by directed surface modification is an important contribution to biomaterials development. Among many biomaterials used for tissue engineering, polyesters have been well documented for their excellent biodegradability, biocompatibility and nontoxicity. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites on the surface of polyesters have greatly limited their further application in the tissue engineering field. Therefore, how to introduce functional groups or molecules to polyester surfaces, which ideally adjust cell/tissue biological functions, becomes more and more important. In this review, recent advances in polyester surface modification and their applications are reviewed. The development of new technologies or methods used to modify polyester surfaces for developing their biocompatibility is introduced. The results of polyester surface modifications by surface morphological modification, surface chemical group/charge modification, surface biomacromolecule modification and so on are reported in detail. Modified surface properties of polyesters directly related to in vitro/vivo biological performances are presented as well, such as protein adsorption, cell attachment and growth and tissue response. Lastly, the prospect of polyester surface modification is discussed, especially the current conception of biomimetic and molecular recognition. (topical review)

  12. Modification of irrational ideas and test anxiety through rational stage directed hypnotherapy [RSDH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, G E; Tosi, D J

    1983-05-01

    Examined the effects of four treatment conditions on the modification of Irrational Ideas and test anxiety in female nursing students. The treatments were Rational Stage Directed Hypnotherapy, a cognitive behavioral approach that utilized hypnosis and vivid-emotive-imagery, a hypnosis-only treatment, a placebo condition, and a no-treatment control. The 48 Ss were assigned randomly to one of these treatment groups, which met for 1 hour per week for 6 consecutive weeks with in-vivo homework assignments also utilized. Statistically significant treatment effects on cognitive, affective, behavioral, and physiological measures were noted for both the RSDH and hypnosis group at the posttest and at a 2-month follow-up. Post-hoc analyses revealed the RSDH treatment group to be significantly more effective than the hypnosis only group on both the post- and follow-up tests. The placebo and control groups showed no significant effects either at post-treatment or at follow-up.

  13. Brain potentials predict learning, transmission and modification of an artificial symbolic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumaca, Massimo; Baggio, G.

    2016-01-01

    capacity account for aspects of ‘variation’ observed in symbolic behavior and symbolic systems. We addressed this issue in the domain of auditory processing.We conducted a combined behavioral and EEG study on 2 successive days. On day 1, participants listened to standard and deviant five-tone sequences......: as in previous oddball studies, an mismatch negativity (MMN) was elicited by deviant tones. On day 2, participants learned an artificial signaling system from a trained confederate of the experimenters in a coordination game in which five-tone sequences were associated to affective meanings (emotion......-laden pictures of human faces). In a subsequent game with identical structure, participants transmitted and occasionally changed the signaling system learned during the first game. TheMMNlatency from day 1 predicted learning, transmission and structural modification of signaling systems on day 2. Our study...

  14. Differential effects of cocaine on histone posttranslational modifications in identified populations of striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, Emmanuelle; Heiman, Myriam; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Guermonprez, Pierre; Cheng, Shuk Kei; Nairn, Angus C; Greengard, Paul; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2013-06-04

    Drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, induce changes in gene expression and epigenetic marks including alterations in histone posttranslational modifications in striatal neurons. These changes are thought to participate in physiological memory mechanisms and to be critical for long-term behavioral alterations. However, the striatum is composed of multiple cell types, including two distinct populations of medium-sized spiny neurons, and little is known concerning the cell-type specificity of epigenetic modifications. To address this question we used bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice, which express EGFP fused to the N-terminus of the large subunit ribosomal protein L10a driven by the D1 or D2 dopamine receptor (D1R, D2R) promoter, respectively. Fluorescence in nucleoli was used to sort nuclei from D1R- or D2R-expressing neurons and to quantify by flow cytometry the cocaine-induced changes in histone acetylation and methylation specifically in these two types of nuclei. The two populations of medium-sized spiny neurons displayed different patterns of histone modifications 15 min or 24 h after a single injection of cocaine or 24 h after seven daily injections. In particular, acetylation of histone 3 on Lys 14 and of histone 4 on Lys 5 and 12, and methylation of histone 3 on Lys 9 exhibited distinct and persistent changes in the two cell types. Our data provide insights into the differential epigenetic responses to cocaine in D1R- and D2R-positive neurons and their potential regulation, which may participate in the persistent effects of cocaine in these neurons. The method described should have general utility for studying nuclear modifications in different types of neuronal or nonneuronal cell types.

  15. Functional significance of O-GlcNAc modification in regulating neuronal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hongik; Rhim, Hyewhon

    2018-03-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) covalently modify proteins and diversify protein functions. Along with protein phosphorylation, another common PTM is the addition of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to serine and/or threonine residues. O-GlcNAc modification is similar to phosphorylation in that it occurs to serine and threonine residues and cycles on and off with a similar time scale. However, a striking difference is that the addition and removal of the O-GlcNAc moiety on all substrates are mediated by the two enzymes regardless of proteins, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), respectively. O-GlcNAcylation can interact or potentially compete with phosphorylation on serine and threonine residues, and thus serves as an important molecular mechanism to modulate protein functions and activation. However, it has been challenging to address the role of O-GlcNAc modification in regulating protein functions at the molecular level due to the lack of convenient tools to determine the sites and degrees of O-GlcNAcylation. Studies in this field have only begun to expand significantly thanks to the recent advances in detection and manipulation methods such as quantitative proteomics and highly selective small-molecule inhibitors for OGT and OGA. Interestingly, multiple brain regions, especially hippocampus, express high levels of both OGT and OGA, and a number of neuron-specific proteins have been reported to undergo O-GlcNAcylation. This review aims to discuss the recent updates concerning the impacts of O-GlcNAc modification on neuronal functions at multiple levels ranging from intrinsic neuronal properties to synaptic plasticity and animal behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    Statistical density modification can make use of local patterns of density found in protein structures to improve crystallographic phases. A method for improving crystallographic phases is presented that is based on the preferential occurrence of certain local patterns of electron density in macromolecular electron-density maps. The method focuses on the relationship between the value of electron density at a point in the map and the pattern of density surrounding this point. Patterns of density that can be superimposed by rotation about the central point are considered equivalent. Standard templates are created from experimental or model electron-density maps by clustering and averaging local patterns of electron density. The clustering is based on correlation coefficients after rotation to maximize the correlation. Experimental or model maps are also used to create histograms relating the value of electron density at the central point to the correlation coefficient of the density surrounding this point with each member of the set of standard patterns. These histograms are then used to estimate the electron density at each point in a new experimental electron-density map using the pattern of electron density at points surrounding that point and the correlation coefficient of this density to each of the set of standard templates, again after rotation to maximize the correlation. The method is strengthened by excluding any information from the point in question from both the templates and the local pattern of density in the calculation. A function based on the origin of the Patterson function is used to remove information about the electron density at the point in question from nearby electron density. This allows an estimation of the electron density at each point in a map, using only information from other points in the process. The resulting estimates of electron density are shown to have errors that are nearly independent of the errors in the original map using

  17. Human errors related to maintenance and modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Pyy, P.; Reiman, L.

    1998-01-01

    about weakness in audits made by the operating organisation and in tests relating to plant operation. The number of plant-specific maintenance records used as input material was high and the findings were discussed thoroughly with the plant maintenance personnel. The results indicated that instrumentation is more prone to human error than the rest of maintenance. Most errors stem from refuelling outage periods and about a half of them were identified during the same outage they were committed. Plant modifications are a significant source of common cause failures. The number of dependent errors could be reduced by improved co-ordination and auditing, post-installation checking, training and start-up testing programmes. (orig.)

  18. Galileon as a local modification of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolis, Alberto; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Trincherini, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    In the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model, the 'self-accelerating' solution is plagued by a ghost instability, which makes the solution untenable. This fact, as well as all interesting departures from general relativity (GR), are fully captured by a four-dimensional effective Lagrangian, valid at distances smaller than the present Hubble scale. The 4D effective theory involves a relativistic scalar π, universally coupled to matter and with peculiar derivative self-interactions. In this paper, we study the connection between self-acceleration and the presence of ghosts for a quite generic class of theories that modify gravity in the infrared. These theories are defined as those that at distances shorter than cosmological, reduce to a certain generalization of the DGP 4D effective theory. We argue that for infrared modifications of GR locally due to a universally coupled scalar, our generalization is the only one that allows for a robust implementation of the Vainshtein effect--the decoupling of the scalar from matter in gravitationally bound systems--necessary to recover agreement with solar-system tests. Our generalization involves an internal Galilean invariance, under which π's gradient shifts by a constant. This symmetry constrains the structure of the π Lagrangian so much so that in 4D there exist only five terms that can yield sizable nonlinearities without introducing ghosts. We show that for such theories in fact there are ''self-accelerating'' de Sitter solutions with no ghostlike instabilities. In the presence of compact sources, these solutions can support spherically symmetric, Vainshtein-like nonlinear perturbations that are also stable against small fluctuations. We investigate a possible infrared completion of these theories at scales of order of the Hubble horizon, and larger. There are however some features of our theories that may constitute a problem at the theoretical or phenomenological level: the presence of superluminal excitations; the

  19. Dietary modification of brain function: effects on neuroendocrine and psychological determinants of mental health- and stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waladkhani, A R; Hellhammer, J

    2008-01-01

    Stress is associated with both psychological and biological adaptation. Chronic stress, however, impairs adaptation, and may finally lead to illness, in part through unhealthy changes in nutritional behavior. This chapter shows how physiological and psychological stress responses are affected by different food ingredients, and how stress affects health behavior, for example food choice. It becomes obvious that nutrition is closely linked to food choice and that food ingredients affect a broad range of neuroendocrine and related psychological processes, which regulate adaptation to chronic stress. Thus, dietary modification may become a valuable tool to modify the susceptibility to stress and stress-related disorders.

  20. POSTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS OF P53: UPSTREAM SIGNALING PATHWAYS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,C.W.APPELLA,E.

    2003-10-23

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is posttranslational modified at >20 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the upstream signaling pathways whose activation in response to various genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses result in p53 posttranslational modifications.