WorldWideScience

Sample records for behavior disorders

  1. [Addictive behavior disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Daiki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Kitabayashi, Yurinosuke; Tani, Naosuke; Fukui, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    "Addiction" used to remind anyone of the use or abuse of chemical substances. In recent years, however, researchers and clinicians have begun to classify other excessive behaviors including gambling, eating shopping and self-injury into the addictive behavior. Above all, pathological gambling and bulimia nervosa patients often make trouble for psychiatrists and psychologists, not only for their family. On the other hand, the neural substrata underlying substance dependence have been revealed. Especially, it is implicated that the mesolimbic neuron plays a crucial role on the reward system. The recent studies suggest that reduced activation of the reward system might be related to the addictive behaviors such as pathological gambling, binge eating and sexual behavior. Further biological researches about the addictive behavior would help our deeper understanding of its disorders. As to the pharmacotherapy, many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in treating the addictive behaviors.

  2. Behavior Disorders in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quay, Herbert C.

    1978-01-01

    The research findings of most studies on student behavior problems have shown that these behaviors can be reduced to four major clusters of interrelated characteristics--conduct disorder, personality disorder, inadequacy-immaturity and socialized delinquency. Discusses these behaviors and some research on behavior change. (Author/RK)

  3. Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ODD or CD, and well-planned classroom behavioral techniques in his mainstream classroom have been ineffective, this may lead to a decision to place him in a special classroom at school that is set up for more intensive behavior management. However, schools are mandated to educate your child ...

  4. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening themselves, other people or pets Damaging or destroying property Lying or stealing Not ...

  5. DEMOGRAPHY OF PEDIATRIC BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS

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    Z. Keihanidoust MD

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective :Behavioral disorders of children and adolescents have long been a subject of discussion among researchers of pedology,   psychology, medicine and psychiatry and are also a commonly encountered complaint of patients referring to the pediatric neurology out patient clinics. The main purpose of the present study is to survey some organic disorders, e.g. temporal lobe epilepsy (non convulsive seizures and to investigate the role of some trace element deficiencies, in particular iron deficiency on the development of behavioral disorders seen in children.Materials & Methods:In this study all patients referring to the Imam Khomeini pediatric neurology out patient clinic with the chief complaint of behavioral problems, between October 1996 and January 1998 were  enrolled; they were individually interviewed and underwent physical examinations, completing the relevant questionnaires.Results:Overall 139 patients (92boys and 47 girls were enrolled and the data were analyzed using SPSS and Harvard's graphic package. Analysis revealed that the most common behavioral disorders documented were: Sleep problems, in 38 patients (27.3%, Irritability in 37(26.6%, aggressiveness in 28 (20.1% staring in 27 (19.4%, altercation in 27(19.4%. Non psychiatric problem was seen in 77 patients (62.6%; neurological examinations in 36(25.9% revealed abnormal findings; 103 patients (74-8% had abnormal findings in other systems. 105 patients (76.6% had abnormal EEG and 72 of them (51.9% had abnormal findings in brain imaging. Iron deficiency was found in 88 (63.2% of the patients.Conclusion:According to these findings, treatment of organic disorders in patients with behavioral problems, can lead to partial or total control of their problems, which could otherwise result in major disturbances and disruptions in their own and in their family's lives.Key words:behavioral problems, EEG, Imaging, Iron deficiency

  6. DEMOGRAPHY OF PEDIATRIC BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Keihanidoust

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Behavioral disorders of children and adolescents have long been a subjectof discussion among researchers of pedology, psychology, medicine andpsychiatry and are also a commonly encountered complaint of patientsreferring to the pediatric neurology out patient clinics. The main purpose ofthe present study is to survey some organic disorders, e.g. temporal lobeepilepsy (non convulsive seizures and to investigate the role of some traceelement deficiencies, in particular iron deficiency on the development ofbehavioral disorders seen in children.Materials & Methods: In this study all patients referring to the Imam Khomeini pediatric neurologyout patient clinic with the chief complaint of behavioral problems, betweenOctober 1996 and January 1998 were enrolled; they were individuallyinterviewed and underwent physical examinations, completing the relevantquestionnaires.Results:Overall 139 patients (92boys and 47 girls were enrolled and the data wereanalyzed using SPSS and Harvard's graphic package. Analysis revealed thatthe most common behavioral disorders documented were: Sleep problems,in 38 patients (27.3%, Irritability in 37(26.6%, aggressiveness in 28 (20.1%staring in 27 (19.4%, altercation in 27(19.4%. Non psychiatric problem wasseen in 77 patients (62.6%; neurological examinations in 36(25.9% revealedabnormal findings; 103 patients (74-8% had abnormal findings in othersystems. 105 patients (76.6% had abnormal EEG and 72 of them (51.9%had abnormal findings in brain imaging. Iron deficiency was found in 88(63.2% of the patients.Conclusion:According to these findings, treatment of organic disorders in patients withbehavioral problems, can lead to partial or total control of their problems,which could otherwise result in major disturbances and disruptions in theirown and in their family's lives.

  7. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  8. Behavioral management of night eating disorders

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    Berner LA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Berner,1 Kelly C Allison2 1Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Night eating syndrome (NES is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat. As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. Keywords: night eating syndrome, cognitive-behavioral treatment, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss, behavior therapy

  9. Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior

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    Catherine Salmon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated the relation between Slow Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior. Surprisingly, however, the relation between Female Intrasexual Competitiveness (competition for mates and competition for status and Disordered Eating Behavior was completely spurious, with executive functions serving as a common cause underlying the inhibition of both Disordered Eating Behavior and Female Intrasexual Competitiveness. The protective function of Slow Life History Strategy with respect to Disordered Eating Behavior apparently resides in a higher degree of Behavioral Regulation, a type of Executive Function. The enhanced Behavioral Regulation or self-control, of individuals with a Slow Life History Strategy is also protective against hazardously escalated levels of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness.

  10. Family history of idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Postuma, Ronald B; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi;

    2013-01-01

    To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort.......To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort....

  11. Behavioral Management of Feeding Disorders of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Alan H

    2015-01-01

    Feeding disorders, characterized by suboptimal intake and/or lack of age-appropriate eating habits, are common and may be seen in up to 45% of children. Feeding disorders are a significant concern to both the affected families and to the providers who treat them. Fortunately, there are well-established behavioral treatments which have been shown to be highly efficacious. This article provides an overview of behavioral assessment and treatment of pediatric feeding disorders, provides guidance in treatment planning, and provides information which may be useful in considering if additional psychological consultation may be beneficial.

  12. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  13. Disordered Money Behaviors: Development of the Klontz Money Behavior Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Klontz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.

  14. Behavioral and psychophysiological markers of disordered attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsky, A.F.

    1987-10-01

    Behavioral and psychophysiological assays provide the most sensitive indication of whether a presumed neurotoxin has a deleterious effect on the nervous system. The effects of lead on the nervous system are strongly suggestive that this agent can produce disturbances in attention; moreover, there are clinical reports of such effects. The action of lead is also manifest in behaviors described as ''hyperactive,'' or reflecting ''minimal brain damage.'' The core symptom in both disorders is probably impairment in attention. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-III) of the American Psychiatric Association uses the term Attention Deficit Disorder to replace such terms as hyperactivity and minimal brain damage. Prior studies of the behavioral toxicity of lead may have used inadequate or incomplete assays of attention; this could in part account for the variability in outcomes. Recent research on attention suggests that it is a complex behavior consisting of a number of elements or components, each of which may be in part dependent upon a different region of the central nervous system. Behavioral assays should examine the components of attentive behavior using tests which are sensitive to the different elements. It is recommended that psychophysiological assays (using cognitive event-related potentials), although more difficult and costly to implement, be used as well. These assays may provide a more dynamic view of altered information processing in the brain and help to localize and characterize the behavioral impairment. 50 references.

  15. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    , and sexual dysfunction. Our results show that compared to control subjects with a similar overall age and sex distribution, patients with iRBD experience significantly more problems with gastrointestinal, urinary, and cardiovascular functioning. The most prominent differences in severity of autonomic......Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...

  16. Behavioral variability and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nicole M; Thompson, Rachel H

    2015-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior is a diagnostic characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To the extent that the behavior of individuals with ASD can be conceptualized as problems of invariance, our understanding of environmental variables that influence restricted and repetitive behavior may be informed by the basic and applied literature on response variability. The purposes of this paper are (a) to describe how restricted and repetitive behavior can be conceptualized as problems of invariance, (b) to consider the implications of a lack of varied responding for individuals with ASD, (c) to review relevant basic and applied research on response variability, (d) to present methods to address invariant responding for individuals with ASD, and (e) to suggest areas for future research.

  17. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder . Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...Manoach. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder We...Introduction: Although restricted , repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a highly disabling core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), they

  18. ADHD with Comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder: Discrete or Nondistinct Disruptive Behavior Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F.; Doerfler, Leonard A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Method: Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male…

  19. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and suicidal behavior in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Daniel; Lawrence, Ryan; Parekh, Amrita; Galfalvy, Hanga; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Brent, David A; Mann, J John; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A

    2017-02-01

    The relationship of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) to suicidal behavior is understudied. The modest body of existing research suggests that NPD is protective against low-lethality suicide attempts, but is associated with high lethality attempts. Mood-disordered patients (N = 657) received structured interviews including Axis I and II diagnosis and standardized clinical measures. Following chi-square and t-tests, a logistical regression model was constructed to identify predictors of suicide attempt. While there was no bivariate relationship of NPD on suicide attempt, in the logistic regression patients with NPD were 2.4 times less likely to make a suicide attempt (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.19 - 0.88; p < 0.05), compared with non-NPD patients and controlling for possible confounding variables. NPD was not associated with attempt lethality. NPD patients were more likely to be male, to have a substance use disorder, and to have high aggression and hostility scores. Limitations include that the sample consists of only mood-disordered patients, a modest sample size of NPD, and the data are cross-sectional. The multivariate protective effect of NPD on suicide attempt is consistent with most previous research. The lower impulsivity of NPD patients and less severe personality pathology relative to other personality disorders may contribute to this effect. No relationship of NPD to attempt lethality was found, contradicting other research, but perhaps reflecting differences between study samples. Future studies should oversample NPD patients and include suicide death as an outcome. Clinical implications include discussion of individualized suicide risk assessment with NPD patients.

  20. [Orthorexia nervosa. A new eating behavior disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Zamora, M L; Bote Bonaechea, B; García Sánchez, F; Ríos Rial, B

    2005-01-01

    New eating behavior disorders such as bigorexia (muscle dysmorphia) and orthorexia are appearing in developed countries. These disorders have not been officially recognized so that they are not classified as independent entities. The term orthorexia comes from the Greek word orthos (straight, proper) and orexia (appetite). It is characterized by the pathological obsession for biologically pure food, which leads to important dietary restrictions. Orthorexic patients exclude foods from their diets that they consider to be impure because they have herbicides, pesticides or artificial substances and they worry in excess about the techniques and materials used in the food elaboration. This obsession leads to loss of social relationships and affective dissatisfactions which, in turn, favors obsessive concern about food. In orthorexia, that patient initially wants to improve his/her health, treat a disease or lose weight. Finally, the diet becomes the most important part of their lives. We present a clinical case that responds to the characteristics of orthorexia. The differential diagnosis with chronic delusional disorder, anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder is carried out.

  1. Depersonalization disorder and self-injurious behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, D; Stein, D J; Hollander, E

    1995-01-01

    Depersonalization is a subjective sense of unreality regarding various aspects of the self, experienced as disconnectedness from one's own body, mentations, feelings, or actions. When episodes of depersonalization are recurrent or persistent and lead to distress or dysfunction, the diagnosis of depersonalization disorder is made. Certain similarities in phenomenology, comorbidity, neurochemistry, and treatment response suggest a relationship to the obsessive-compulsive spectrum. However, depersonalization is a very poorly studied condition, and any conclusions must be viewed tentatively. Self-injurious behaviors are defined as intentionally self-inflicted bodily injuries without lethal intent. Basic categories are briefly described. Subsequently, the phenomenology and biology of both impulsive and compulsive self-injurious behaviors, and their relationship to the obsessive-compulsive spectrum, are discussed.

  2. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  3. Neuroimaging findings in disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rosalind H; Clanton, Roberta L; Rogers, Jack C; De Brito, Stéphane A

    2015-08-01

    Decades of research have shown that youths with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) are a heterogeneous population. Over the past 20 years, researchers have distinguished youths with DBD as those displaying high (DBD/HCU) versus low (DBD/LCU) callous-unemotional (CU) traits. These traits include flat affect and reduced empathy and remorse, and are associated with more severe, varied, and persistent patterns of antisocial behavior and aggression. Conduct problems in youths with HCU and LCU are thought to reflect distinct causal vulnerabilities, with antisocial behavior in youths with DBD/HCU reflecting a predominantly genetic etiology, while antisocial behavior in youths with DBD/LCU is associated primarily with environmental influences. Here we selectively review recent functional (fMRI) and structural (sMRI) magnetic resonance imaging research on DBD, focusing particularly on the role of CU traits. First, fMRI studies examining the neural correlates of affective stimuli, emotional face processing, empathy, theory of mind, morality, and decision-making in DBD are discussed. This is followed by a review of the studies investigating brain structure and structural connectivity in DBD. Next, we highlight the need to further investigate females and the role of sex differences in this population. We conclude the review by identifying potential clinical implications of this research.

  4. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  5. Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders in ICD-11

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    Jon E. Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category, as this is how most clinicians see these behaviors, and as this may optimize clinical utility. The descriptions of these disorders should largely mirror those in DSM-5, given the evidence from recent field surveys. The recommendations regarding ICD-11 and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders should promote the global identification and treatment of these conditions in primary care settings.

  6. Disorder effect on the traffic flow behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2008-08-01

    The effects of some disorders, on the traffic flow behavior, are studied numerically. Especially, the effect of mixture of vehicles of different velocities and/or lengths, the effects of different drivers reactions, the position and the extraction rate of off-ramp in the free way. Using a generalized optimal velocity model, for a mixture of fast and slow vehicles, we have investigated the effect of delay times τ f and τ s on the fundamental diagram. It is Found that the small delay times have almost no effect, while, for sufficiently large delay time τ s , the current profile displays qualitatively five different forms, depending on τ f , τ s and the fractions f f and f s of the fast and slow cars, respectively. The velocity (current) exhibits first-order transitions at low and/or high densities, from freely moving phase to the congested state, and from congested state to a jamming one, respectively. The minimal current appears in intermediate values of τ s . Furthermore there exist, a critical value of τ f above which the meta-stability and hysteresis appear. The effects of disorder due to drivers behaviors have been introduced through a random delay time τ allowing the car to reach its optimal velocity traffic flow models with open boundaries. In the absence of the variation of the delay time Δτ, it is found that the transition from unstable to meta-stable and from meta-stable to stable state occur under the effect of the injecting and the extracting rate probabilities α and β respectively. Moreover, the perturbation of the traffic flow behavior due to the off-ramp has been studied using numerical simulations in the one dimensional cellular automaton traffic flow model with open boundaries. When the off-ramp is located between two critical positions i c1 and i c2 the current remains constant (plateau) for β0 c1 < β0 < β0 c2, and the density undergoes two successive first order transitions: from high density to plateau current phase and from average

  7. School Counselors Serving Students with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    School counselors are in a prime position to collaborate with school and community stakeholders to both prevent and respond to the challenges experienced and exhibited by students with one or more disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In this article, the DBDs discussed include conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive…

  8. Morbidities in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Mayer, Geert; Ju, Yo-El

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD, RBD without any obvious comorbid major neurological disease), is strongly associated with numerous comorbid conditions. The most prominent is that with neurodegenerative disorders, especially synuclein-mediated disorders, above al...

  9. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A;

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...... for REM sleep behavior disorder....

  10. Mental and Behavioral Disorders among People with Congenital Deafblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The population of people with congenital deafblindness faces challenges concerning communication and mobility. Due to the significance of the sensory loss it is difficult to diagnose mental and behavioral disorders. This article investigates the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders among 95 congenitally deafblind adults. Seventy-four…

  11. A High School Behavior Disorder Program Focused on Mainstreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennock, Therese M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The Oak Park and River Forest High School (Oak Park, Illinois) Behavior Disordered Program Continuum has attempted mainstreaming of behavior-disordered students in a systematic, gradual manner. This paper describes the program, defines the role of support personnel and the unique role of the mainstream facilitator, and presents mainstreaming…

  12. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-01-01

    The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presen...

  13. Association Between Childhood Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Evelyn; Low, Nancy C P; Dugas, Erika; Karp, Igor; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and disruptive behavior disorders in 605 children participating in a population-based cohort study. Nineteen percent of children snored (sometimes or often) and 10% had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms. Thirteen percent had an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms and 5-9% had behavioral problems or a conduct disorder. Snoring or OSA symptoms were associated with a twofold difference in the odds of ADHD diagnosis or symptoms. OSA symptoms were associated with a threefold to fourfold difference in the odds of behavioral problems or conduct disorder. Clinicians should consider inquiring about SDB in children with disruptive behavior disorders and should also consider disruptive behavior disorders as potential sequelae of SDB.

  14. The Worry Behaviors Inventory : Assessing the behavioral avoidance associated with generalized anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahoney, Alison E J; Hobbs, Megan J; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D; Sunderland, Matthew; Andrews, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding behavioral avoidance associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has implications for the classification, theoretical conceptualization, and clinical management of the disorder. This study describes the development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of a self-re

  15. Developing 'integrative' zebrafish models of behavioral and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michael; Yang, Ester; Neelkantan, Nikhil; Mikhaylova, Alina; Arnold, Raymond; Poudel, Manoj K; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the pathophysiological overlap between metabolic and mental disorders has received increased recognition. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular model organism for translational biomedical research due to their genetic tractability, low cost, quick reproductive cycle, and ease of behavioral, pharmacological or genetic manipulation. High homology to mammalian physiology and the availability of well-developed assays also make the zebrafish an attractive organism for studying human disorders. Zebrafish neurobehavioral and endocrine phenotypes show promise for the use of zebrafish in studies of stress, obesity and related behavioral and metabolic disorders. Here, we discuss the parallels between zebrafish and other model species in stress and obesity physiology, as well as outline the available zebrafish models of weight gain, metabolic deficits, feeding, stress, anxiety and related behavioral disorders. Overall, zebrafish demonstrate a strong potential for modeling human behavioral and metabolic disorders, and their comorbidity.

  16. Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Joane; Marchand, Andre; Dugas, Michel J.; Letarte, Andree

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for comorbid panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by combining treatment strategies for both disorders. A single-case, multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Three participants with primary PDA and secondary…

  17. Avoidance, Safety Behavior, And Reassurance Seeking In Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beesdo-Baum, K.; Jenjahn, E.; Höfler, M.; Lüken, U.; Becker, E.S.; Hoyer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The behavioral symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) are not well characterized. This study examines behavioral symptoms in patients with GAD compared to healthy participants, their change during behavioral therapy, and their role for predicting short- and long-term outcome. Meth

  18. Psycho-cognitive behavioral problems in sleep disordered children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parvaneh Karimzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in childhood and adolescence. Sleep problems in early infants tend to be persistent and prominent in preschool and school-aged children. Chronic sleep disorders, especially in young children may lead to neurobehavioral problems and psycho-cognitive impairment. Sleep difficulties may be the result of underlying medical conditions, (breathing disorders) or psychological problems. Research studies have shown the association between sleep disorders and day time cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, poor school performance and inattention in children. Appropriate diagnosis and early management of sleep disorders in children lead to improvement of neurocognitive function and behavioral problems in these children.

  19. Environmental contaminants as origins of disordered behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1978-01-01

    Behavioral toxicology studies the behavioral effects of contaminants, such as heavy metals, in environmental and occupational settings. A classic example of metal poisoning with behavioral effects is Pink Disease, or acrodynia, due to mercurous chloride intoxication in children. Thalidomide is a more prominent example. Behavioral changes, unlike tangible consequences of pollution, are difficult to perceive as dangers and to correct. Other examples of environmental pollutants causing behavioral symptoms upon intoxication are polybrominated biphenyls, lead, mercury, methylmercury, and a variety of food additives. Sensitivity to food colors and flavors is suspected to be the cause of behavioral abnormalities in children now labeled as hyperactive or hyperkinetic. (ERB)

  20. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie Ae; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have...... of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism....

  1. Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.

  2. Themes and Dimensions of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustian, April L.; Cuenca-Sanchez, Yojanna

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are one of the most underserved populations in today's schools (Kauffman, Mock, & Simpson, 2011). Many of these students also have additional disabilities in conjunction with an EBD identification, such as Learning Disabilities (LD), Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), Attention Deficit…

  3. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  4. Associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Wall, Melanie; Shim, Jin Joo; Bruening, Meg; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-12-01

    Dieting, unhealthy weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors are common among adolescents: friends are a probable source of influence on these behaviors. The present study uses data provided by nominated friends to examine associations between friends' disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors and participants' own behaviors in a diverse sample of American youth. Male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.4) completed surveys and identified their friends from a class roster; friends' survey data were then linked to each participant. Participants (N = 2126) who had at least one nominated friend were included in the analytic sample. Independent variables were created using the same weight control and muscle-enhancing behaviors reported by nominated friends, and were used in logistic regression models to test associations between participants' and their friends' behaviors, stratified by gender. Results indicated that dieting, disordered eating and muscle-enhancing behaviors were common in this sample, and selected friends' behaviors were associated with the same behaviors in participants. For example, girls whose friends reported extreme weight control behaviors had significantly greater odds of using these behaviors than girls whose friends did not report these same behaviors (OR = 2.39). This research suggests that friends' weight- and shape-related behaviors are a feature of social relationships, and is the first report demonstrating these associations for muscle-enhancing behaviors. Capitalizing on the social element may be important to the development of increasingly effective intervention and prevention programs.

  5. Disordered eating behaviors in university students in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Nayeong; Tam, Duong Minh; Viet, Nguyen Kim; Scheib, Peter; Wirsching, Michael; Zeeck, Almut

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine disordered eating behaviors in university students in Vietnam. Methods A total of 244 female university students participated, and 203 data could be analyzed. The Body Mass Index, the SCOFF screening questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 were used to explore disordered eating behaviors. Results 45.3% of the participants were underweight, 53.2% were normal weight and 1.5% were overweight. 48.8% of students reported two or more yes-resp...

  6. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Laura D.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Randomized clinical trials indicate that approximately two-thirds of children treated with CBT will be free of their primary diagnosis at posttreatment. Although several CBT treatment packages have been investigated in youth with diverse anxiety disorders, common core components have been identified. A comprehensive assessment, development of a good therapeutic relationship and working alliance, cognitive restructuring, repeated exposure with reduction of avoidance behavior, and skills training comprise the core procedures for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. PMID:21440852

  7. Dissociative Disorders in Children: Behavioral Profiles and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical research has established a connection between childhood trauma and the development of dissociative disorders in adults. Pathological dissociation produces a range of symptoms and behaviors such as amnesias, rapid shifts in mood and behavior, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Many of these symptoms are misdiagnosed as attention,…

  8. Social Skills Training and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kathryn J.

    2012-01-01

    There is a large body of literature suggesting that students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) lack appropriate social skills, including deficits in building and maintaining interpersonal relationships, prosocial behaviors (e.g., sharing, helping, cooperation), and self-management strategies. While the literature shows small to modest…

  9. A Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Approach for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Hayward, Laura C.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Dimaite, Ruta

    2010-01-01

    Although body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been described in the literature for more than a century, there has been only a limited focus on the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for BDD. Our case report provides a detailed description of a course of cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for an individual with BDD. The patient was…

  10. Sleep and Behavioral Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Sohl, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for sleep disturbance and behavioral dysregulation. However, the relationships between these difficulties are not fully understood. The current study examined the relationships between specific types of sleep and behavioral problems among 81 children with ASD. Sleep problems were…

  11. Personal identities and disordered eating behaviors in Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen; Ronis, David L

    2010-08-01

    Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz's (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict higher eating disorder scores and effects are mediated through the fat self-definition. Characteristics of personal identities may influence internalization of cultural values related to weight. Interventions focused on overall identity may prevent eating disorders in Latinas.

  12. [Pertinence of the addiction concept in eating behavior disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcos, M; Girardon, N; Nezelof, S; Bizouard, P; Venisse, J L; Loas, G; Lang, F; Halfon, O; Flament, M; Jeammet, P

    2000-10-01

    From a psychodynamic perspective, dependence disorders, irrespective of the object of addiction, can be seen as the expression of the subject's neurobiological, psychopathological, cultural and social vulnerability. Since vulnerability strengthens and reorganizes the personality, it can drive these subjects to perpetuate pathological behaviors. In this light, behavior disorders belong to the field of addiction diseases, especially considering that the underlying psychopathological structures are close to those observed in addiction, that depression plays a central role, and that their development into toxic addictive behavior (drugs, alcohol, psychotrope) is frequent.

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Social Anxiety Disorder: Current Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Fistikci

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapy is still one of the most important treatment modalities in social anxiety disorder with a high level of evidence. However, some patients do not fully benefit from these therapies and this fact leads to ongoing search for new approaches. This paper reviews use of cognitive behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder studies and discusses related updated concepts. The frequent use of computer-assisted therapy for most of recent studies was found noteworthy. Recent studies regarding social anxiety disorder focused on concepts such as attention bias, biased information processing, attention training, judgment biases, internet-based cognitive behavioral therapies and social mishap exposure. Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy seemed to be a good option for people who were unable to access face to face treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 229-243

  14. Behavior management training for the treatment of reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Lopez, Cristina; Dunkel, Stephanie; Joiner, Thomas E

    2008-08-01

    Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a childhood disorder characterized by extremely inappropriate social relating across a variety of interactions that must be present by age 5. Although children diagnosed with RAD appear to demonstrate significantly more behavioral problems and psychosocial difficulties than children without RAD, there have been few examinations of empirically informed treatments for this disorder. One avenue that may be particularly promising is the use of treatments that have been successfully used to decrease similar problematic behaviors in children. The present case study outlines the use of behavior management training (BMT) in the treatment of a 7-year-old female child with RAD. Given the marked reduction in problematic behaviors exhibited by this child as a result of a typical course of BMT, it is recommended that randomized clinical trials be conducted to test the efficacy of BMT for RAD.

  15. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...

  16. The effects of comorbid personality disorders on cognitive behavioral treatment for panic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Telch; J.H. Kamphuis; N.B. Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality pathology assessed both dimensionally and categorically on acute clinical response to group cognitive-behavioral treatment in a large sample of panic disorder patients (N = 173) meeting DSMIII-R criteria for panic disorder with or without a

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrecque, Joane; Dugas, Michel J.; Marchand, Andre; Letarte, Andree

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment package for comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). A single-case, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used with 3 primary GAD patients with secondary PDA. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated with…

  18. Behavioral Activation in the Treatment of Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 10-weeks of Behavioral Activation (BA) in the treatment of comorbid Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in four adults using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. All participants met full "DSM-IV" criteria for both MDD and PTSD at the…

  19. Behavioral and Sleep Disorders in Neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The behavior and sleep patterns of 64 children (mean age 10 years 7 months with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 were determined by mail and telephone questionnaire in a study at Park Hospital, University of Oxford, UK.

  20. Common Questions About Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists.

  1. The Effects of Jogging on the Rates of Selected Target Behaviors of Behaviorally Disordered Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated were the effects of a jogging program on talking out and out of seat behaviors exhibited by six elementary-aged behaviorally disordered students in a resource room setting. Results indicate a decrease in the occurrence of both behaviors following jogging for five of the six students. (Author/JDD)

  2. Behavior Modification/Traditional Techniques for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Paul; Ryan, Joseph B.; Gunter, Philip L.; Denny, R. Kenton

    2012-01-01

    In addressing positive general education teaching practices for use with students with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the chapter emphasizes teacher behavior change research that has been informed by applied behavior analytic (ABA) principles. Its central theme is that general education teachers can access research…

  3. Disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Larrañaga, Alejandra; Docet, María F; García-Mayor, Ricardo V.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at high risk for disordered eating behaviors (DEB). Due to the fact that type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic illnesses of childhood and adolescence, the coexistence of eating disorders (ED) and diabetes often affects adolescents and young adults. Since weight management during this state of development can be especially difficult for those with type 1 diabetes, some diabetics may restrict or omit insulin, a condition known as d...

  4. Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for concurrent Binge Eating Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbasson, Christine M; Nishikawa, Yasunori; Shapira, Leah B

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) often evidence comorbid Substance Use Disorders (SUD), resulting in poor outcome. This study is the first to examine treatment outcome for this concurrent disordered population. In this pilot study, 38 individuals diagnosed with BED and SUD participated in a 16-week group Mindfulness-Action Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (MACBT). Participants significantly improved on measures of objective binge eating episodes; disordered eating attitudes; alcohol and drug addiction severity; and depression. Taken together, MACBT appears to hold promise in treating individuals with co-existing BED-SUD.

  5. [Links between personality disorders, attachment disorders and violent behavior: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genest, Andrée-Anne; Mathieu, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Past research has established that personality disorders and attachment disorders are important risk factors for the perpetration of violent acts in a context of an intimate relationship. Very few studies have been conducted linking personality and attachment disorders to violent behaviors outside of the domestic violence context. This paper proposes to address this gap by reviewing the literature and linking these important concepts to general violence. This will allow a better understanding of the dynamics of violence and possibly open the door to new research and interventions taking into account both attachment and personality disorders as prodromic factors.

  6. Understanding hypersexuality: a behavioral disorder of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen M

    2003-01-01

    Although a rare manifestation of Alzheimer's Disease, hypersexuality is one of the most embarrassing behaviors for both informal and formal caregivers. This article presents an overview of the causes of the problem along with strategies home care and hospice nurses can use to teach families how to decrease the social isolation these patients experience.

  7. Disordered gambling: the evolving concept of behavioral addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Luke

    2014-10-01

    The reclassification of gambling disorder within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) addictions category marks an important step for addiction science. The similarities between gambling disorder and the substance use disorders have been well documented. As gambling is unlikely to exert actively damaging effects on the brain, the cognitive sequelae of gambling disorder may provide insights into addictive vulnerabilities; this idea is critically evaluated in light of recent structural imaging data. The second part of the review analyzes a fundamental question of how a behavior can become addictive in the absence of exogenous drug stimulation. The relative potency of drug and nondrug rewards is considered, alongside evidence that cognitive distortions in the processing of chance (for example, the illusion of control and the gambler's fallacy) may constitute an important added ingredient in gambling. Further understanding of these mechanisms at neural and behavioral levels will be critical for the classification of future behavioral addictions, and I consider the current research data for obesity and binge eating, compulsive shopping, and internet gaming disorder.

  8. Characteristics of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Frandsen, Rune Asger Vestergaard; Knudsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with Parkinsonian disorders, but is also reported in narcolepsy. Most patients...... of hypocretin deficiency. Thus, hypocretin deficiency is linked to the two major disturbances of REM sleep motor regulation in narcolepsy: RBD and cataplexy. Moreover, it is likely that hypocretin deficiency independently predicts periodic limb movements in REM and NREM sleep, probably via involvement...

  9. Cognitive behavioral therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Edna B. Foa

    2010-01-01

    Until the mid-1960s, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was considered to be treatment-resistant, as both psychodynamic psychotherapy and medication had been unsuccessful in significantly reducing OCD symptoms. The first real breakthrough came in 1966 with the introduction of exposure and ritual prevention. This paper will discuss the cognitive behavioral conceptualizations that influenced the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for OCD. There will be a brief discussion of the use...

  10. Cognitive behavioral therapy for sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babson, Kimberly A; Feldner, Matthew T; Badour, Christal L

    2010-09-01

    More than 70 million people in the United States experience primary insomnia (PI) at some point in their life, resulting in an estimated $65 billion in health care costs and lost productivity. PI is therefore one of the most common health care problems in the United States. To mollify the negative effects of PI, scholars have sought to evaluate and improve treatments of this costly health care problem. A breadth of research has demonstrated that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective intervention for PI. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of CBT for PI, including evidence regarding treatment efficacy, effectiveness, and practitioner considerations.

  11. Heart Rate and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Grasmann, Dorte; Fegert, Jorg M.; Holtmann, Martin; Poustka, Fritz; Schmeck, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; hyperkinetic conduct disorder, conduct disorder, hyperkinetic disorder) characterized by low heart rate profit less from an intensive cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at reducing impulsive, oppositional and aggressive behavior problems. Method: Basal heart rate…

  12. Understanding cooperative behavior in structurally disordered populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Zhang, W.; Du, P.; Choi, C. W.; Hui, P. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of an inhomogeneous competing environment on the extent of cooperation are studied within the context of a site-diluted evolutionary snowdrift game on a square lattice, with the occupied sites representing the players, both numerically and analytically. The frequency of cooperation ℱ C generally shows a non-monotonic dependence on the fraction of occupied sites ρ, for different values of the payoff parameter r. Slightly diluting a lattice leads to a lower cooperation for small and high values of r. For a range of r, however, dilution leads to an enhanced cooperation. An analytic treatment is developed for ℱC I + ℱC II, with ℱC I emphasizing the importance of the small clusters of players especially for ℱC II from the other players is shown to be inadequate. A local configuration approximation (LCA) that treats the local competing configurations as the variables and amounts to include spatial correlation up to the neighborhood of a player's neighbors is developed. Results of ℱ C ( ρ) and the number of different local configurations from LCA are in good agreement with simulation results. A transparent physical picture of the dynamics stemming from LCA is also presented. The theoretical approach provides a framework that can be readily applied to competing agent-based models in structurally ordered and disordered populations.

  13. Melting behavior of large disordered sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado, A

    2000-01-01

    The melting-like transition in disordered sodium clusters Na_N, with N=92 and 142 is studied by using a first-principles constant-energy molecular dynamics simulation method. Na_142, whose atoms are distributed in two (surface and inner) main shells with different radial distances to the center of mass of the cluster, melts in two steps: the first one, at approx. 130 K, is characterized by a high intrashell mobility of the atoms, and the second, homogeneous melting, at approx. 270 K, involves diffusive motion of all the atoms across the whole cluster volume (both intrashell and intershell displacements are allowed). On the contrary, the melting of Na_92 proceeds gradually over a very wide temperature interval, without any abrupt step visible in the thermal or structural melting indicators. The occurrence of well defined steps in the melting transition is then shown to be related to the existence of a distribution of the atoms in shells. Thereby we propose a necessary condition for a cluster to be considered r...

  14. Metal Pollutant Exposure and Behavior Disorders: Implications for School Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike

    1986-01-01

    The article summarizes research on relationships between low (below metal poisoning) metal exposure and childhood behavior disorders. Symptoms, assessment techniques (hair analysis), and environmental and dietary factors that may increase the risk of metal pollutant exposure are described. School programs emphasizing education and the role of…

  15. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  16. Mindfulness for Students Classified with Emotional/Behavioral Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Micheline S.; Austin, Vance L.

    2016-01-01

    A six-week investigation utilizing a standard mindfulness for adolescents curriculum and norm-based standardized resiliency scale was implemented in a self-contained school for students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (E/BD). Informal integration of mindfulness activities into a classroom setting was examined for ecological appropriateness and…

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

  18. Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Steketee, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This study pilot tested a newly developed modular cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment manual for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 12 adults with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18 or 22 weeks. Standardized clinician ratings…

  19. Dropout prediction in cognitive behavior therapy for panic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, G.P.J.; Kampman, M.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to attempt to identify reliable factors associated with dropout risk in a sample of 161 panic disorder patients treated with manualized cognitive behavior therapy. Four possible predictors of dropout were selected from the literature: level of education, treatment motivatio

  20. Learning assessment for students with mental and behavioral disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    The session aims at presenting a learning-based model for how to conduct a comprehensive psychological evaluation of the learning resources and challenges amongst students with mental and behavioral disorders. In the learning assessment model the learning resources and challenges of the students...

  1. Academic Instruction and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are known to experience academic deficits across core subject areas such as reading and mathematics. Until recently, less attention had been paid to the academic deficits of students with EBD. This was due, in part, to a common belief that academic deficits could not be addressed until problem…

  2. Patterns of Compensatory Behaviors and Disordered Eating in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Lisa M.; Reilly, Erin; Anderson, Drew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated rates of endorsement of eating-related compensatory behaviors within a college sample. Participants: This sample included male and female students (N = 1,158). Methods: Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The study defined 3 groups of students: those who did not…

  3. Group Development for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Sylvia; Guetzloe, Eleanor

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses effective techniques for teaching students with emotional disturbances and/or behavior disorders in group settings. Three stages of group development are described with specific teaching strategies for each stage identified and related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, including needs for safety and trust, belonging and…

  4. The Psychoeducational Philosophy: Programming Implications for Students with Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Albert H.

    1988-01-01

    The article describes factors relevant to the psychoeducational model of intervention with behavior disordered students, including values, biological predispositions, psychological development, and continuity of experience. The therapeutic potential of the teacher and the curriculum in helping students generate personal resources for coping is…

  5. Pharmacological enhancement of behavioral therapy: focus on posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dennis C; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Gerardi, Maryrose; Ressler, Kerry J

    2010-01-01

    Improved efficacy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other anxiety disorders is urgently needed. Traditional anxiety treatments of hypnosis and psychodynamic therapy may be of some help, but uncontrolled studies lead to inconclusive results on the efficacy of these treatment techniques. There is a larger literature supporting the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral procedures with PTSD, including prolonged exposure therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and anxiety management techniques. The cutting-edge technology of virtual reality-based exposure therapy for PTSD is particularly exciting. To further build on effective psychosocial treatments, current pharmacological augmentation approaches to emotional learning are being combined with psychotherapy. In particular, D-cycloserine, a partial NMDA agonist, has shown to be effective in facilitating the exposure/extinction therapy to improve the efficacy of treating anxiety disorders, and may guide the way for new pharmacological enhancements of behavioral therapy.

  6. Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiujias, Marina; Kelley, Elizabeth; Hall, Layla

    2017-03-09

    This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena. While RRBs tend to develop with some similarity in both disorders, the differing role of anxiety highlights important distinctions between ASD and OCD. We urge researchers and clinicians to think critically about the dimensions that affect RRB presentation. Future research should use this review as a starting point to further elucidate the differences between RRBs in these two populations.

  7. Torey Hayden's Teacher Lore: Classroom Behavior Management of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; Disney, Gayle

    2006-01-01

    Torey Hayden's portrayal of classroom behavior management in her teacher lore, autobiographical writings about teaching children with emotional and behavioral disorders, is examined. Five of her books were sampled: "One child", "Somebody else's kids", "Just another kid", "Ghost girl" and "Beautiful child". Each of these books unfolds within the…

  8. Effectiveness of a Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment on the Social Behaviors of Children with Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Volker, Martin A.; Nida, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    The current study presents preliminary data from an ongoing research project evaluating a summer treatment program for children with Asperger disorder (AD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment program on the social behaviors of 6- to 13-year-old children with AD. Overall program…

  9. A telehealth behavioral coaching intervention for neurocognitive disorder family carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gant, Judith R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the differential impact of two telehealth programs for women caring for an older adult with a neurocognitive disorder. Outcomes examined were depressive symptoms, upset following disruptive behaviors, anxious and angry mood states, and caregiving self‐efficacy. Methods Women cohabitating with a family member diagnosed with a neurocognitive disorder were assigned via random allocation to either of the following: (1) a 14‐week behavioral intervention using video instructional materials, workbook and telephone coaching in behavioral management, pleasant events scheduling, and relaxation or (2) a basic education guide and telephone support comparison condition. Telephone assessments were conducted by interviewers blind to treatment condition at pre‐intervention, post‐intervention, and 6 months following intervention. Results For those providing in‐home care at post‐treatment, depressive symptoms, upset following disruptive behaviors, and negative mood states were statistically lower in the behavioral coaching condition than in the basic education and support condition. Reliable change index analyses for Beck Depression Inventory II scores favored the behavioral coaching condition. Caregiving self‐efficacy scores for obtaining respite and for managing patient behavioral disturbances were significantly higher in the coaching condition. Effect sizes were moderate but not maintained at the 6‐month follow‐up. Conclusions This study provides some initial evidence for the efficacy of a telehealth behavioral coaching intervention compared with basic education and telephone support. Carers' abilities to maintain strategy use during progressive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease likely require longer intervention contact than provided in the current study. Dementia carers, including those living in rural areas, can benefit from accessible and empirically supported interventions that can be easily disseminated across distances

  10. Pathways to suicidal behavior in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia A; Dunn, Graham; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated paths to suicidal behavior in 94 civilian participants with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Two statistical modeling programs, TETRAD II version 2.1 and Mplus 5.21 were used to construct a working model of suicide in PTSD. Two paths to suicidal behavior were identified. In the first path, suicidal behavior was directly associated with greater life impairment, which in turn was associated with poorer occupational and social functioning. In the second path, suicidal behavior was directly associated with depressive symptoms, which in turn were associated with more severe PTSD symptoms. Psychotropic medication, employment status, and threat to life further contributed to the model. The findings suggest that negative perceptions of functional impairment and depression are strongly associated with suicidal behavior in PTSD.

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with behavioral disorders in children with chronic health conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso Adji

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions Prevalence of behavioral disorders in children with chronic health condition is 37.5%. The duration of illness contributes to the manifestation of behavioral disorders in children with chronic health conditions. [Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:1-5].

  12. Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P. K. H.; Schutter, D. J. L. G.; Kenemans, J. L.; Matthys, W.

    2015-01-01

    Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with

  13. Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome: Disorder of Self-mutilating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panse, Amey M; Jathar, Madhura; Gawali, Pritesh N

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS), a rare inborn error of metabolism, is characterized by self-injurious behavior, which results in partial or total destruction of oral and perioral tissues and/ or fingers. Persistent self-injurious behavior (biting the fingers, hands, lips, and cheeks; banging the head or limbs) is a hallmark of the disease. Prevention of self-mutilation raises significant difficulties. A case of a 10-month-old boy with aggressive behavior and severe lower lip injuries is presented. How to cite this article: Jathar P, Panse AM, Jathar M, Gawali PN. Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome: Disorder of Self-mutilating Behavior. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):139-142. PMID:27365935

  14. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  15. Comorbidity and medication in REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauscher, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Ju, Yo-El S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This controlled study investigated associations between comorbidity and medication in patients with polysomnographically confirmed idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD), using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort. METHODS: Data of a self-administered questionnaire on comorbi......OBJECTIVE: This controlled study investigated associations between comorbidity and medication in patients with polysomnographically confirmed idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD), using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort. METHODS: Data of a self-administered questionnaire...... on comorbidity and medication use of 318 patients with iRBD and 318 matched controls were analyzed. Comparisons between cases and controls were made using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Patients with iRBD were more likely to report depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1...

  16. Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes; Flavia Marcele Cipriani; Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED) among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 bo...

  17. Childhood Fish Consumption and Learning and Behavioral Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny L. Carwile

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a major source of nutrients critical for brain development during early life. The importance of childhood fish consumption is supported by several studies reporting associations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation with better behavior and school performance. However, fish may have a different effect than n-3 PUFA alone due to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, a frequent contaminant. We investigated associations of childhood fish consumption with learning and behavioral disorders in birth cohort study of the neurotoxic effects of early life exposure to solvent-contaminated drinking water. Childhood (age 7–12 years fish consumption and learning and behavioral problems were reported in self-administered questionnaires (age 23–41 at questionnaire completion. Fish consumption was not meaningfully associated with repeating a grade, tutoring, attending summer school, special class placement, or low educational attainment. However, participants who ate fish several times a week had an elevated odds of Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (odds ratio: 5.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.5–18 compared to participants who did not eat fish. While these findings generally support the safety of the observed level of fish consumption, the absence of a beneficial effect may be attributed to insufficient fish intake or the choice of relatively low n-3 PUFA fish.

  18. Quarrelsome behavior in borderline personality disorder: influence of behavioral and affective reactivity to perceptions of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadikaj, Gentiana; Moskowitz, D S; Russell, Jennifer J; Zuroff, David C; Paris, Joel

    2013-02-01

    We examined how the amplification of 3 within-person processes (behavioral reactivity to interpersonal perceptions, affect reactivity to interpersonal perceptions, and behavioral reactivity to a person's own affect) accounts for greater quarrelsome behavior among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Using an event-contingent recording (ECR) methodology, individuals with BPD (N = 38) and community controls (N = 31) reported on their negative affect, quarrelsome behavior, and perceptions of the interaction partner's agreeable-quarrelsome behavior in interpersonal events during a 20-day period. Behavioral reactivity to negative affect was similar in both groups. However, behavioral reactivity and affect reactivity to interpersonal perceptions were elevated in individuals with BPD relative to community controls; specifically, individuals with BPD reported more quarrelsome behavior and more negative affect during interactions in which they perceived others as more cold-quarrelsome. Greater negative affect reactivity to perceptions of other's cold-quarrelsome behavior partly accounted for the increased quarrelsome behavior reported by individuals with BPD during these interactions. This pattern of results suggests a cycle in which the perception of cold-quarrelsome behavior in others triggers elevated negative affect and quarrelsome behavior in individuals with BPD, which subsequently led to more quarrelsome behavior from their interaction partners, which leads to perceptions of others as cold-quarrelsomeness, which begins the cycle anew.

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptacek R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radek Ptacek,1,2 George B Stefano,1,3 Simon Weissenberger,1 Devang Akotia,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Hana Papezova,1 Lucie Domkarova,1 Tereza Stepankova,1 Michal Goetz4 1Department of Psychiatry, Charles University 1st Medical Faculty and General Teaching Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychology, University of New York in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3MitoGenetics Research Institute, MitoGenetics, LLC, Farmingdale, NY, USA; 4Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs. In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1 impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2 other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3 poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4 other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from

  20. Behavioral and personality characteristics of children with reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sara Elizabeth Kay; Geher, Glenn

    2003-03-01

    The authors compared behavioral and personality characteristics of children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) with non-RAD children. Participants included parents of children with RAD (n = 21), parents of non-RAD children (n = 21), and some of the children (n = 20). The parents completed questionnaires regarding behavioral and personality characteristics of their children. Parents were also given the option of asking their children to participate in the study by completing self-report measures. Several significant findings were obtained. Children with RAD scored lower on empathy but higher on self-monitoring than non-RAD children. These differences were especially pronounced based on parent ratings and suggest that children with RAD may systematically report their personality traits in overly positive ways. Their scores also indicated considerably more behavioral problems than scores of the control children. Previous research has been generally qualitative in nature. The current research represents some of the first quantitative, empirical work documenting specific behaviors associated with the diagnosis of RAD. The findings of this study have implications for better understanding and dealing with reactive attachment disorder.

  1. Adolescent health-risk behavior and community disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Wiehe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors. OBJECTIVE: Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls. METHODS: Girls (N = 52, aged 14-17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points. Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not. RESULTS: Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04 and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01. Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively. Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health.

  2. A Review of the Literature of a Dual Diagnosis: Mental Retardation and Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a synthesis of the literature findings on the dual diagnosis of mental retardation and behavior disorders. Topics covered include: (1) behavior management techniques; (2) drug treatment; (3) family perspectives; (4) education; (5) behavioral treatment; and (6) behavior disorders and mental retardation as mild disabilities. (Author/CR)

  3. A Review of Behavioral Treatments for Self-Injurious Behaviors of Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Lo Vullo, Santino V.

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are considered to be among the most serious of the mental health conditions. Concomitant with many cases of ASD is intellectual disability. Further compounding the disability is the fact that both conditions are known risk factors for self-injurious behavior (SIB). To date, the most effective intervention methods,…

  4. Behavioral Parent Training Effect on Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Varnado

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and other disorders affecting central nervous system functioning leading to disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents seldom include an adjunctive psychosocial intervention. Objective: The purpose of this quality improvement study was to implement Behavioral Parent Training (BPT in an outpatient private practice setting to improve outcomes in home, school, and social settings for children and adolescents. Method: Parent(s/guardian(s of ten (n=10 children ages seven through 12. The study utilized the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale, Home Situations Questionnaire, and Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale – Parent Form as well as Teacher Rating Scale and School Questionnaires for measurement of behaviours prior to BPT. The standardized ADHD parent and teacher rating scales along with the questionnaires for both were again completed at the conclusion of the BPT sessions for comparison. Results: Findings indicated significant improvements in disruptive behaviour. Conclusion: Psychosocial interventions such as BPT can be a powerful adjunct to pharmacotherapy in ADHD and behavior disorders for this population. Providing such intervention in a routine practice setting offers the potential for improved outcomes in the child/adolescent’s home, school, and social setting.

  5. Recognizing and treating uncommon behavioral and emotional disorders in children and adolescents who have been severely maltreated: reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Jeffrey J; Hazan, Cindy

    2004-05-01

    This article explores reactive attachment disorder, a disorder that has been linked to severe and chronic maltreatment. The fundamental concepts of attachment theory are reviewed briefly, and the two types of behaviors associated with reactive attachment disorder in children and adolescents are discussed. Treatment strategies are explored, including the controversial holding or rebirthing strategies.

  6. Personality profiles in young adults with disordered eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Melioli, Tiffany; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-08-01

    Personality traits are closely related to eating disorders (ED) and might be involved in their development and maintenance. Nevertheless little is known regarding the association between personality traits and disordered eating in subclinical populations. College students answered questionnaires assessing disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and the following personality disorder (PD) traits: schizotypal, autistic, obsessional, borderline and cyclothymic. Participants with DEB (n=101, 87% women) displayed significantly higher scores for several variables including schizotypy, cyclothymic, borderline and obsessional traits compared to other participants (n=378). Cluster analysis in the DEB subsample led to the identification of three groups: 1) a cluster with a high level of traits (HT); 2) a cluster scoring high on schizotypal, borderline and cyclothymic traits (SBC); 3) a cluster with a low level of traits (LT). Symptoms of depression, suicidal ideations, trait anger and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were higher in the HT and the SBC clusters compared to the LT cluster. Given that two thirds of participants suffering from DEB appeared to display a morbid personality profile, it appears of prime importance to take into account PD traits of individuals with DEB.

  7. REM sleep behavior disorder: from dreams to neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postuma, Ronald B; Gagnon, Jean-Francois; Montplaisir, Jacques Y

    2012-06-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder is a unique parasomnia characterized by dream enactment behavior during REM sleep. Unless triggered by pharmacologic agents such as antidepressants, it is generally related to damage of pontomedullary brainstem structures. Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a well-established risk factor for neurodegenerative disease. Prospective studies have estimated that at least 40-65% of patients with idiopathic RBD will eventually develop a defined neurodegenerative phenotype, almost always a 'synucleinopathy' (Parkinson's disease, Lewy Body dementia or multiple system atrophy). In most cases, patients appear to develop a syndrome with overlapping features of both Parkinson's disease and Lewy body dementia. The interval between RBD onset and disease onset averages 10-15 years, suggesting a promisingly large window for intervention into preclinical disease stages. The ability of RBD to predict disease has major implications for design and development of neuroprotective therapy, and testing of other predictive markers of synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration. Recent studies in idiopathic RBD patients have demonstrated that olfaction, color vision, severity of REM atonia loss, transcranial ultrasound of the substantia nigra, and dopaminergic neuroimaging can predict development of neurodegenerative disease.

  8. Cognition in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François eGagnon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is a parasomnia characterized by excessive muscle activity and undesirable motor events during REM sleep. RBD occurs in approximately 0.5% of the general population, with a higher prevalence in older men. RBD is a frequent feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, but is only rarely reported in Alzheimer’s disease. RBD is also a risk factor for α-synuclein-related diseases, such as DLB, Parkinson’s disease (PD, and multiple system atrophy. Therefore, RBD has major implications for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and for understanding neurodegeneration mechanisms. Several markers of neurodegeneration have been identified in RBD, including cognitive impairments such as deficits in attention, executive functions, learning capacities, and visuospatial abilities. Approximately 50% of RBD patients present mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Moreover, RBD is also associated with cognitive decline in PD.

  9. Hypnagogic behavior disorder: complex motor behaviors during wake-sleep transitions in 2 young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María Luz; García-Morales, Irene; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Franch, Oriol

    2008-08-01

    A nondescribed behavioral disorder was observed during wake-sleep transitions in 2 young children. Two boys had episodes of abnormal behavior in hypnagogic-and occasionally hypnopompic-periods for 1 year from the time they were 1 year and several months old. The episodes consisted of irregular body movements, which could be either gentle or violent but never made the children get out of bed. They lasted from a few seconds to 2 hours and were associated with poor reactivity and amnesia of the events. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings showed wake-state features, with brief bursts of hypnagogic hypersynchrony, and did not display seizure activity. A distinctive behavior disorder occurring during wake-sleep transitions with a wake EEG pattern has been identified in very early childhood. The clinical profile does not fit any of the known parasomnias and might belong to a new category of parasomnia.

  10. Behavioral Disorder amongst Adolescents Attending Secondary School in Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chinawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49% adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11% adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8% committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems.

  11. [Parkinson Disease With Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by lack of muscle atonia during REM sleep and enactment of dream content. RBD is associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and has high incidence in PD patients. PD patient with RBD mainly presents rigid type, has longer disease duration, more severe motor and non-motor symptoms and poorer activity of daily living and life quality. The pathophysiological mechanisms of RBD may be related to dysfunctions of pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus/sub-locus coeruleus complex and related projections. The diagnosis of RBD depends on clinical histories and video-polysomnography (v-PSG). Besides treatment for PD, protective measures have to be taken for patients and their sleep partners. If abnormal behaviors during sleep cause distress and danger,patients should be given drug therapy.

  12. Longitudinal prediction of disruptive behavior disorders in adolescent males from multiple risk domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentacosta, Christopher J; Hyde, Luke W; Goodlett, Benjamin D; Shaw, Daniel S

    2013-08-01

    The disruptive behavior disorders are among the most prevalent youth psychiatric disorders, and they predict numerous problematic outcomes in adulthood. This study examined multiple domains of risk during early childhood and early adolescence as longitudinal predictors of disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses among adolescent males. Early adolescent risks in the domains of sociodemographic factors, the caregiving context, and youth attributes were examined as mediators of associations between early childhood risks and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Participants were 309 males from a longitudinal study of low-income mothers and their sons. Caregiving and youth risk during early adolescence each predicted the likelihood of receiving a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, sociodemographic and caregiving risk during early childhood were indirectly associated with disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses via their association with early adolescent risk. The findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting risk across domains may reduce the prevalence of disruptive behavior disorders.

  13. Ethnic Disparities in School-Based Behavioral Health Service Use for Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Pellecchia, Melanie; Marcus, Steven; Hadley, Trevor; Mandell, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined racial/ethnic disparities in school-based behavioral health service use for children with psychiatric disorders. Methods: Medicaid claims data were used to compare the behavioral healthcare service use of 23,601 children aged 5-17 years by psychiatric disorder (autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD],…

  14. PIC Profiles for Learning-Disabled and Behavior-Disordered Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, David S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared the performance of learning-disabled and behavior-disordered children (N=60) on the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC). Results showed that learning-disabled and behavior-disordered children could be differentiated clearly on subtests that comprise the cognitive development and conduct disorder factors. However, less differentiation…

  15. Suicidal behavior in adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, D; Sher, L

    2010-08-01

    Recently, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescence is higher than the prevalence of PTSD in adult populations. PTSD and suicidality are often found in populations of adolescents presenting with other emotional disorders (particularly mood disorders), traumatic grief, childhood abuse, and/or a family or peer history of suicide. The reasons and developments of the association between PTSD and suicidality in adolescence, however, remain unclear. Core psychobiological changes contributing to PTSD affect emotion, arousal, perception of the self and the world, irritability, impulsivity, anger, aggression and depression. There is evidence that the aforementioned factors, as well as alcohol and other drug use may act to moderate the influence of stressful life events and lead to eventual suicidality. Both PTSD and suicidality in adolescents have also been hypothesized to be a result of exposure to violence and negative coping styles. There are many treatment challenges for these populations, yet the most promising prevention and treatments include suicide risk screenings, suicide education, Dialectical Behavioral Therapy, addressing associated coping mechanisms and prescribing anti-depressant and anti-anxiety medications. However, when prescribing medications, physicians do need to be careful to consider the weaknesses and strengths of each of the pharmacological options as they apply to adolescents presenting with PTSD and suicidality.

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Behice ÖZTOP

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.

  17. Behavioral disorders in rats with chronic myocardial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodinskiy A.G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation of cardiologists and psychiatrists suggest that cardiovascular diseases and depression are the most common and frequent comorbid conditions. Therefore the aim of the study was to identify behavioral disorders in rats on the background of myocardial dysfunction in the experiment. Material of the research: 60 adult male rats of Wistar line, weighing 200-220 g, divided into 2 groups - control and experimental. Myocardial dysfunction was modeled by intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin by 5 mg/kg of animal weight. To verify the model of myocardial dysfunction ECG and histological examination of the myocardium were performed. Evaluation of higher divisions of the CNS reactions was performed using the "open field" method by such indicators: vertical and horizontal motor activity (decreased by 71,4%, acts and defecation boluses (down by 85-88%, the number of burrows (decreased by 57-90%, grooming (decreased by 23%, all parameters were reliable (in p<0,05. There was a gradual decline of rats’ emotionality, CNS depression and increased anxiety. It was found that behavioral disorders in the experiment were typical for anxiety and depression states.

  18. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  19. Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD comple

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Patients and Results of Violent Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Oznur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: High levels of anger and aggression in post-traumatic stress disorder lead to unfavorable social, legal, physical and economic results to family members and the other social layers as much as patients. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relation between both alcohol-cigarette consumption ratios and anger levels, characteristics of aggressive behaviors and the judicial outcome in cases diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder due to armed conflict. METHODS: 38 cases diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder were included to the study. Pre- and post-traumatic alcohol/cigarette consumption amounts and aggressive behaviors are determined. Impact of Events Scale (Revised (IES-R was used for evaluating post-traumatic stress disorder symptom patterns and severity, Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for measuring anger and aggression levels, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rating Scale was used for evaluating the judicial outcome of aggression. RESULTS: 23 of cases (60.6% were married with children, 13 of cases (34.25 were single and 2 of cases (5.2% were divorced.18 of cases (47.4% were graduate. IES-R total score was 66,9 +/- 12,7, Buss Perry total score was 111,3 +/- 20,5, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rate was 2,5 +/- 1,0. When the pre- and post-traumatic aggressive behaviors were compared; physical violence to the partner was increased more than ten times, Physical and verbal violence to social individuals were increased more than four and seven times, respectively. And also it is observed that inflicting damage to property was increased 17 times, reckless driving was increased 11 times, and self-mutilation was increased 5 times. Alcohol consumption was determined as 0 (0 - 126 g/day for pre-trauma cases and 16.5 (0 - 294 g/day for post-trauma cases. Cigarette smoking was determined as 5 (0 and #8211; 40 cigarette/day for pre-trauma cases and 30 (0 -60 cigarette/day for post-trauma cases. CONCLUSION: Post

  1. Characterizing Caregiver Responses to Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder. This descriptive study documented the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors in 85 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder as they interacted with their caregiver in a play interaction. For each child restricted and repetitive behavior, a caregiver…

  2. Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with Substance Use Disorder and Comorbid ADHD : Two case presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Vedel, Ellen; van den Brink, Wir; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for substance use disorder (SUD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are presented illustrating that ICBT is a promising new treatment option. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Attenuated heart rate response in REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with Parkinson's disease with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder and patients with idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder have an attenuated heart rate response to arousals or to leg movements during...... sleep compared with healthy controls. Fourteen and 16 Parkinson's patients with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder, respectively, 11 idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder patients, and 17 control subjects underwent 1 night of polysomnography. The heart rate response...... and the idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder group. The heart rate response to leg movement was significantly lower in both Parkinson's groups and in the idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder group compared with the control group. The heart rate response for the idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement...

  4. Awareness of illness and suicidal behavior in delusional disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Molina-Andreu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The relationship between insight and suicidal behavior among psychotic patients is poorly studied and possibly mediated by clinical variables. Objectives Our goal was to investigate clinical differences in suicidal and non-suicidal delusional disorder (DD patients, and to evaluate the relationship between insight, psychotic and depressive symptoms. Methods Cross-sectional study in 64 consecutive DD patients. For assessment, we used the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17, the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS, the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP, and the first three items of the SUMD scale for insight. The sample was divided according to the presence of suicide attempts. To investigate psychopathological associations, bivariate correlation coefficients were used. Age at onset served as covariate in subsequent analyses. Results Suicidal DD patients had higher depressive symptoms and were more frequently admitted than non-suicidal patients. A logistic regression model confirmed that insight, depressive symptoms and age at onset were predictors of suicidal behavior. Unawareness of the effects of medication was negatively related to depressive symptoms. After adjustment, depressive symptoms were weakly correlated to better insight into the effects of medication. No other statistically significant correlations were found. Discussion Depressive symptoms, insight and age at onset of disease may be potential predictors of suicidal behavior in DD patients.

  5. RESTRAINTS AND PATIENTS WITH MENTAL DISORDERS AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zartaloudi A.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aggression management and means of control in psychiatric settings is an international issue. Many studies in mental health literature are related to the appearance and the causes of violence and the use of control procedures, such as seclusion and restraint, from mental health professionals in order to control and suppress aggressive and violent behavior. AIM: The purpose of this study is to present the restraints used to control the behaviour of mentally ill patients, the relationship between aggressive behavior and mental disorders and the historical background concerning the use of restrictive measures. METHOD: A critical review of this body of literature was carried out. Evidence was collected through Medline database. RESULTS: Two restraint techniques are used in order to cope with patients who could cause harm to themselves or their environment, physical restraint and seclusion. These restrictive measures are used through centuries in order to suppress violent behaviour of mental patients. CONCLUSION: Involuntary treatment and restraint are used when patients loose control of their behavior. In fact it is difficult to achieve a balance between ensuring patients’ rights and needs and preventing them from harming themselves or the others.

  6. Patterns of disordered eating behavior in women by sexual orientation: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M; Pantalone, David W

    2014-01-01

    Most disordered eating research has focused on White, heterosexual women. More empirical work is needed to better understand disordered eating among women of diverse backgrounds. Given evidence of disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) women in other health behaviors (e.g., tobacco use) and outcomes (e.g., cardiovascular disease), it appears important to study disordered eating behaviors among sexual minority women. In this article, we review the extant literature on disordered eating behaviors in women across sexual orientations, with a focus on research examining potential mechanisms of disparities in disordered eating, including awareness and internalization of sociocultural norms.

  7. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Characteristics of Comorbidity with Gambling Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Steward, Trevor; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has begun to be recognized as a condition worthy of attention by clinicians and researchers. Studies on the commonalities between CBB and other behavioral addictions such as gambling disorder (GD) exist in the literature, but additional research is needed to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of the comorbidity of CBB and GD. The aim of the study was to estimate the point-prevalence of CBB+GD in a clinical setting. Data corresponded to n = 3221 treatment-seeking patients who met criteria for CBB or GD at a public hospital unit specialized in treating behavioral addictions. Three groups were compared: only-CBB (n = 127), only-GD (n = 3118) and comorbid CBB+GD (n = 24). Prevalence for the co-occurrence of CBB+GD was 0.75%. In the stratum of patients with GD, GD+CBB comorbidity obtained relatively low point prevalence (0.77%), while in the subsample of CBB patients the estimated prevalence of comorbid GD was relatively high (18.9%). CBB+GD comorbidity was characterized by lower prevalence of single patients, higher risk of other behavioral addictions (sex, gaming or internet), older age and age of onset. CBB+GD registered a higher proportion of women compared to only-GD (37.5 vs. 10.0%) but a higher proportion of men compared to only-CBB (62.5 vs. 24.4%). Compared to only-GD patients, the simultaneous presence of CBB+GD was associated with increased psychopathology and dysfunctional levels of harm avoidance. This study provides empirical evidence to better understand CBB, GD and their co-occurrence. Future research should help delineate the processes through which people acquire and develop this comorbidity. PMID:27199853

  8. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Characteristics of Comorbidity with Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser eGranero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive buying behavior (CBB has begun to be recognized as a condition worthy of attention by clinicians and researchers. Studies on the commonalities between CBB and other behavioral addictions such as gambling disorder (GD exist in the literature, but additional research is needed to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of the comorbidity of CBB and GD. The aim of the study was to estimate the point-prevalence of CBB+GD in a clinical setting. Data corresponded to n=3,221 treatment-seeking patients who met criteria for CBB or GD at a public hospital unit specialized in treating behavioral addictions. Three groups were compared: only-CBB (n=127, only-GD (n=3,118 and comorbid CBB+GD (n=24. Prevalence for the co-occurrence of CBB+GD was 0.75%. In the stratum of patients with GD, GD+CBB comorbidity obtained relatively low point prevalence (0.77%, while in the subsample of CBB patients the estimated prevalence of comorbid GD was relatively high (18.9%. CBB+GD comorbidity was characterized by lower prevalence of single patients, higher risk of other behavioral addictions (sex, gaming or internet, older age and age of onset. CBB+GD registered a higher proportion of women compared to only-GD (37.5% vs. 10.0% but a higher proportion of men compared to only-CBB (62.5% vs. 24.4%. Compared to only-GD patients, the simultaneous presence of CBB+GD was associated with increased psychopathology and dysfunctional levels of harm avoidance. This study provides empirical evidence to better understand CBB, GD and their co-occurrence. Future research should help delineate the processes through which people acquire and develop this comorbidity.

  9. Empathy dysfunction in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wied, Minet; Gispen-de Wied, Christine; van Boxtel, Anton

    2010-01-10

    In this essay, we focus on empathy in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), based on the assumption that lack of empathy is a risk factor for the development of DBD. We reflect on the heterogeneity of DBD, the complex nature of the empathy construct, discuss empathy's role in aggression, and review recent findings from studies on empathic skills in children and adolescents with DBD. Research suggests that the mechanisms underlying empathy problems may be different for DBD subtypes. Individuals with psychopathic tendencies may show a selective impairment in empathy with sadness and fear due to abnormalities in neural circuits connected with the amygdala. Individuals without these tendencies may show little empathy for a variety of reasons, such as hostile attributions, anxiety and/or poor regulatory skills. Understanding more about the nature and causes of empathy dysfunction in DBD could aid in identifying subtypes and help to improve prevention and intervention programs. Suggestions for future research are made.

  10. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. Methods The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. Discussion The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions. PMID:26690622

  11. [Food addiction - substance use disorder or behavioral addiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Özgür; Kliewer, Josephine; Föcker, Manuel; Antel, Jochen; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    This article looks at food addiction as a subject situated between psychiatry, neurobiology, nutritional science, internal medicine, food industry, and public health. Essentially, the question is whether or not individual nutritional components can induce physical dependence, similar to the well-known effects of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine, or whether food addiction is rather a behavioral addiction. The literature describes many overlaps as well as differences of substance-based and non-substance-based addiction in both clinical and neurobiological terms. Until recently it was argued that food addiction appears only in the realms of obesity and eating disorders (e.g., binge-eating disorder, BED). Some studies, however, described the prevalence of food addiction symptoms and diagnoses independent of overweight or that they were in subjects who do not fulfill the criteria for BED. This article sums up the controversial discussion about the phenomenological and neurobiological classification of food addiction. Implications of food addiction for children and adolescents as well as public-health-related issues are also discussed.

  12. Disordered eating behaviors in type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Alejandra; Docet, María F; García-Mayor, Ricardo V

    2011-11-15

    Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus are at high risk for disordered eating behaviors (DEB). Due to the fact that type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic illnesses of childhood and adolescence, the coexistence of eating disorders (ED) and diabetes often affects adolescents and young adults. Since weight management during this state of development can be especially difficult for those with type 1 diabetes, some diabetics may restrict or omit insulin, a condition known as diabulimia, as a form of weight control. It has been clearly shown that ED in type 1 diabetics are associated with impaired metabolic control, more frequent episodes of ketoacidosis and an earlier than expected onset of diabetes-related microvascular complications, particularly retinopathy. The management of these conditions requires a multidisciplinary team formed by an endocrinologist/diabetologist, a nurse educator, a nutritionist, a psychologist and, frequently, a psychiatrist. The treatment of type 1 diabetes patients with DEB and ED should have the following components: diabetes treatment, nutritional management and psychological therapy. A high index of suspicion of the presence of an eating disturbance, particularly among those patients with persistent poor metabolic control, repeated episodes of ketoacidosis and/or weight and shape concerns are recommended in the initial stage of diabetes treatment, especially in young women. Given the extent of the problem and the severe medical risk associated with it, more clinical and technological research aimed to improve its treatment is critical to the future health of this at-risk population.

  13. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Tenback, D.E.; Quekel, L.G.; Rijke, Y.B. de; Boot, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). DESIGN: Physically healthy 10- to

  14. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Roke (Yvette); P.N. van Harten (Peter); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan); D.E. Tenback (Diederik); L.G.B.A. Quekel (Lorentz G. B.); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); A.M. Boot (Annemieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically hea

  15. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Tenback, Diederik E.; Quekel, Lorentz G. B. A.; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Boot, Annemieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically healthy 10- to

  16. Sexual behavior in sleep, sleepwalking and possible REM behavior disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, R; Alóe, F; Tavares, S; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Aguilar-Roblero, R; Rosenthal, L; Villalobos, L; Fernández-Cancino, F; Drucker-Colín, R; Chagoya De Sanchez, V

    1999-01-01

    Seven cases of sexual behavior during sleep (SBS) have been recently reported. The subjects had histories of behavioral parasomnias as well as positive family histories of parasomnia. A 27 year-old man with a history of sexual behavior during sleep was reported. His sleep history disclosed sleepwalking (SW) since 9 years of age. He also developed episodes of highly disruptive and violent nocturnal behavior with dream enactment at age 20 years, which often resulted in physical injuries either to himself or his wife and infant. His wife also reported episodes of amnestic sexual behavior that began 4 years before referral. During the episodes, the patient typically procured his wife, achieving complete sexual intercourse with total amnesia. Physical and neurological diagnostic workups were unremarkable. Family history disclosed sleepwalking in his brother. He was put on 2mg/day of bedtime clonazepam with a remarkable clinical improvement. This case involves either the combination of violent and non-violent sleepwalking with SBS, or the superimposition of presumed REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) on top of preexisting SW in a man who also developed SBS in adulthood. Thus, this is a case report of probable parasomnia overlap syndrome.

  17. Effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (LIBT) supplementing regular treatment in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) standardized tests of cognition, adaptive behavior, interpersonal relations, play, language, characterist

  18. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  19. Constant Time Delay: One Way to Provide Positive Behavioral Support for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kay B.; Lingo, Amy S.

    2005-01-01

    Teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) understand conceptually, emotionally, and legally the importance of using research-based procedures as well as positive behavioral supports. One way to provide positive behavioral support for students with EBD is constant time delay (CTD). CTD is an instructional delivery procedure…

  20. Video analysis of motor events in REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauscher, Birgit; Gschliesser, Viola; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Ulmer, Hanno; Peralta, Cecilia M; Müller, Jörg; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2007-07-30

    In REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), several studies focused on electromyographic characterization of motor activity, whereas video analysis has remained more general. The aim of this study was to undertake a detailed and systematic video analysis. Nine polysomnographic records from 5 Parkinson patients with RBD were analyzed and compared with sex- and age-matched controls. Each motor event in the video during REM sleep was classified according to duration, type of movement, and topographical distribution. In RBD, a mean of 54 +/- 23.2 events/10 minutes of REM sleep (total 1392) were identified and visually analyzed. Seventy-five percent of all motor events lasted <2 seconds. Of these events, 1,155 (83.0%) were classified as elementary, 188 (13.5%) as complex behaviors, 50 (3.6%) as violent, and 146 (10.5%) as vocalizations. In the control group, 3.6 +/- 2.3 events/10 minutes (total 264) of predominantly elementary simple character (n = 240, 90.9%) were identified. Number and types of motor events differed significantly between patients and controls (P < 0.05). This study shows a very high number and great variety of motor events during REM sleep in symptomatic RBD. However, most motor events are minor, and violent episodes represent only a small fraction.

  1. An Examination of Challenging Behaviors in Autistic Disorder versus Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: Significant Differences and Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are well-known for engagement in challenging behaviors. Unfortunately, due to its absence as a criterion for diagnosis in the "DSM-IV-TR", little attention has been paid to the endorsement rates of such behaviors. However, a recently developed measure to assist in the diagnosis of infants and toddlers…

  2. Child and Adolescent Behaviorally Based Disorders: A Critical Review of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…

  3. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Modified for Adolescent Binge Eating Disorder: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Debra L.; Couturier, Jennifer L.; Lock, James

    2007-01-01

    Given the lack of empirically supported treatments available for adolescents with eating disorders, it is important to investigate the clinical utility of extending treatments for adults with eating disorders to younger populations. Dialectical behavior therapy for binge eating disorder, based on the affect-regulation model, conceptualizes binge…

  4. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

  5. How Specific are the Relationships between Eating Disorder Behaviors and Perfectionism?

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Jing; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Williamson, J. Austin; Markon, Kristian E.; Pollack, Lauren O.

    2013-01-01

    Perfectionism is associated with several mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. The goal of this study was to test the specificity of the associations between perfectionism facets and eating disorder behaviors, by examining whether neuroticism and conscientiousness mediated or moderated associations between these variables. Participants from a representative community sample (N=407; 47% female) completed questionnaires assessing perfectionism, neuroticism, cons...

  6. Exposure to Metal Pollutants and Behavioral Disorders in Children: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike

    The paper reviews research on effects of metal pollutants on behavioral disorders in children. Methodological programs of studies conducted in the 1970's are described. Research since 1980 is then addressed in terms of general population studies and studies of behaviorally disordered populations. Findings of research on the latter subject group…

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  8. Are sedentary television watching and computer use behaviors associated with anxiety and depressive disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Leonore; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Sedentary behaviors may be more common among persons with mental disorders and thereby result in poorer health outcomes. This study examined whether independently of general physical activity level, mental disorders are linked to two important examples of sedentary behavior: computer use and watchin

  9. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  10. Video Game Access, Parental Rules, and Problem Behavior: A Study of Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Mazurek, Micah O.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to…

  11. Attenuated heart rate response in REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle; Sorensen, Helge B D; Jennum, Poul

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with Parkinson's disease with and without rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder and patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder have an attenuated heart rate response to arousals or to leg movements during sleep compared with healthy controls. Fourteen and 16 Parkinson's patients with and without rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder, respectively, 11 idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder patients, and 17 control subjects underwent 1 night of polysomnography. The heart rate response associated with arousal or leg movement from all sleep stages was analyzed from 10 heartbeats before the onset of the sleep event to 15 heartbeats following onset of the sleep event. The heart rate reponse to arousals was significantly lower in both parkinsonian groups compared with the control group and the idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder group. The heart rate response to leg movement was significantly lower in both Parkinson's groups and in the idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder group compared with the control group. The heart rate response for the idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder group was intermediate with respect to the control and the parkinsonian groups. The attenuated heart rate response may be a manifestation of the autonomic deficits experienced in Parkinson's disease. The idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder patients not only exhibited impaired motor symptoms but also incipient autonomic dysfunction, as revealed by the attenuated heart rate response.

  12. Description of an Intensive Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program for Multidiagnostic Clients with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…

  13. Dopamine transporter imaging in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Kim, Jong Min; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The pathogenesis of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is still unknown. However, involvement of dopaminergic system in RBD has been hypothesized because of frequent association with degenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent and pattern of loss of dopamine transporter in RBD using FP-CIT SPECT. Fourteen patient with idiopathic RBD (mean age:665 yrs, M:F=10:3) participated in this study. Polysonmography confirmed loss of REM atonia and determined RBD severities by amount of tonic/phasic muscle activity during REM sleep in all cases. To compare with RBD, 14 early idiopathic Parkinson's disease rated as Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 (IPD) and 12 healthy controls were also selected. All participants performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging 3 hours after injection of [123I]FP-CIT. Regions of interest were drawn on bilateral caudate and putamen, whole striatum and occipital cortex. Specific binding for dopamine transporters (DAT) were calculated using region to occipital uptake ratio based on the transient equilibrium method. Overall mean of DAT density in the striatum was lower in RBD group than controls, and higher than IPD group, However, DAT density in most individual RBD was still within normal range, and total striatal DAT density was not correlated with severity of RBD. Meanwhile, the caudate to putamen uptake ratio (C/P ratio) in RBD group was insignificantly higher than those in healthy controls. Nevertheless, C/P ratio within RBD group was reversely correlated with the RBD severity. Our study suggested that nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration could be a part of the pathogenesis of RBD, but not essential for the development of RBD. Further longitudinal evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system in idiopathic RBD may guarantee the more understanding for RBD and associated neurodegenerative disease.

  14. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR; ADIBSERESHKI, Narges; Masome POURMOHAMADREZA-TAJRISHI; Samaneh HOSSEINZADEH

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were chosen and randomly divided into two ...

  15. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  16. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder as Behavior Technicians for Young Children with Autism: Outcomes of a Behavioral Skills Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In…

  17. Bipolar Disorder Affects Behavior and Social Skills on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Thaís; Czepielewski, Letícia Sanguinetti; Fijtman, Adam; Sodré, Leonardo; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pereira, Caroline Silveira; Vianna-Sulzbach, Mireia; Goi, Pedro D.; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro; Kapczinski, Flavio; Kunz, Maurício; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN) and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN). Results SNN (p<0.001) and FBN (p = 0.036) of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021), Internet experience (p = 0.020), and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042). Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation), including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018) and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010). Discussion This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media. PMID:24244541

  18. Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p < 0.05. Among boys, body dissatisfaction, body fat, and nutritional status were associated with RBED (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Even though body dissatisfaction had the highest odds ratio, other variables were also associated with RBED.

  19. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment of Behavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria

    OpenAIRE

    FAYYAZi, Afshin; Salari, Elham; Ali KHAJEH; GAJARPOUR, Abdi

    2014-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Salari E, Khajeh A, Ghajarpour A. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment ofBehavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn; 8(4):33-38.AbstractObjectiveMany patients with late-diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU) suffer from severe behavior problems. This study compares the effects of buspirone and risperidone on reducing behavior disorders in these patients.Materials & MethodsIn this crossover clinical...

  20. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tokgunaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107

  1. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: an update on the empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Foa, Edna B

    2015-09-01

    A large amount of research has accumulated on the efficacy and effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. The purpose of the current article is to provide an overview of two of the most commonly used CBT methods used to treat anxiety disorders (exposure and cognitive therapy) and to summarize and discuss the current empirical research regarding the usefulness of these techniques for each anxiety disorder. Additionally, we discuss the difficulties that arise when comparing active CBT treatments, and we suggest directions for future research. Overall, CBT appears to be both efficacious and effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, but dismantling studies are needed to determine which specific treatment components lead to beneficial outcomes and which patients are most likely to benefit from these treatment components.

  2. Is increased sexual behavior a symptom of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Stewart; Bell, Robinette; Graff, Adam; Goldenberg, David; Haase, Elizabeth; Downey, Jennifer I; Friedman, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    While there is consensus that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents, its diagnostic criteria are debated. Excessive sexual behavior has been reported in youth who may have juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD), and has been termed "hypersexuality." Although there is no universal definition of this term, this observation has led to a hypothesis that increased sexual behavior characterizes the bipolar syndrome in children and adolescents, and differentiates it from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although this hypothesis is plausible, evidence for it is incomplete, because testing it definitively would require both establishing a standard definition of hypersexuality in children and adolescents, and also reaching consensus about the other nonsexual criteria for pediatric bipolar disorder. In addition, studies to test it would need to control factors other than JBD that are known to increase sexual behavior in children and adolescents. These include sexual abuse and related posttraumatic stress disorder, excessive exposure to sexual stimuli, psychiatric illness in general, and social variables such as family chaos and social stress. Some of these factors might increase sexual behavior in youth with bipolar disorder through psychodynamic mechanisms rather than as a result of the illness itself. Therefore, further research is needed to determine whether increased sexual behavior can serve as a diagnostically valuable criterion for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, and whether it differentiates the disorder from other conditions known to be associated with increased sexual behavior in youth.

  3. Evaluation and Management of Behavioral Health Disorders in Women: An Overview of Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, and Sleep in the Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitelson, Elizabeth; McGibbon, Cheryl

    2016-06-01

    Providers of obstetric and gynecologic care are often the most commonly seen medical providers for adult women, providing primary and reproductive care. Even where psychiatric care is readily available, obstetricians/gynecologists are frequently the front line for recognition, education, and initial management of many mental health problems. In settings where psychiatric treatment is a more scarce resource, obstetricians/gynecologists often are responsible for ongoing treatment of these disorders. This review focuses on the impact of the female reproductive life cycle on the presentation and management of some of the most common behavioral health problems in women: major depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and primary sleep disorders.

  4. Re-examination of chewing and spitting behavior: characteristics within and across eating disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Nora E; Swanson, Sonja A; Crow, Scott J; Mitchell, James; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Chewing and spitting (CS) out food is a relatively understudied eating disorder behavior. The aim of this study was to examine lifetime and current frequencies of CS across eating disorder diagnostic groups and to compare the severity of eating disorder symptomatology between participants who did and did not endorse CS. A total of 972 individuals presenting for outpatient eating disorder treatment between 1985 and 1996 completed a questionnaire that included items regarding current and lifetime eating disorder behaviors, including CS. Results indicated that both lifetime and current prevalence estimates of CS varied cross-diagnostically, with CS being more common among those with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa compared to those with eating disorder not otherwise specified. CS was significantly associated with several eating disorder symptoms, including compensatory behaviors, meal restriction, and lower BMI. Those who reported CS were also younger in age compared to those who did not report CS. These findings indicate that CS is associated with more severe eating and weight pathology and is not equally prevalent across eating disorder diagnoses. These results also support the relatively high occurrence of CS and the importance of targeting this behavior in eating disorder treatment. Future research should clarify the correlates, mechanisms, and function of CS in eating disorders.

  5. Neuronal mechanisms and circuits underlying repetitive behaviors in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-20

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive behaviors. In this review, we summarize the repetitive behaviors of the ASD mouse models and variations found in their neural mechanisms including molecular and electrophysiological features. We also propose potential neuronal mechanisms underlying these repetitive behaviors, focusing on the role of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits and brain regions associated with both social and repetitive behaviors. Further understanding of molecular and circuitry mechanisms of the repetitive behaviors associated with ASD is necessary to aid the development of effective treatments for these disorders.

  6. Effects of Supervisor Performance Feedback on Increasing Preservice Teachers' Positive Communication Behaviors with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathel, Jeanna Marie; Drasgow, Erik; Christle, Christine C.

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of supervisor performance feedback on preservice teachers' rates of positive and negative communication behaviors with students with emotional and behavioral disorders and the effects of the intervention on the preservice teachers' perceptions of classroom management and climate. The authors…

  7. Behavior Problems: Differences among Intellectually Disabled Adults with Co-Morbid Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly R. M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior problems such as aggression, property destruction, stereotypy, self-injurious behavior, and other disruptive behavior are commonly observed among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and epilepsy residing at state-run facilities. However, it is unknown how these populations differ on behavior…

  8. Teacher-Mediated Instructional Strategies for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, Regina Gilkey; Park, Kristy L.

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) may exhibit both learning and behavioral needs that affect the teacher's ability to provide effective instruction. Extending beyond simple academic content knowledge, effective teacher-based interventions include preventive and predictive actions that manage the disruptive behaviors often…

  9. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  10. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Classroom Management: Implications for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Regina M.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Special education teachers' skills with classroom organization and behavior management affect the emergence and persistence of behavior problems as well as the success of inclusive practice for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Adequate special education teacher preparation and strong classroom organization and behavior…

  11. Comparison of Sedentary Behaviors between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M.; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.; Maslin, Melissa; Lividini, Keith; Bandini, Linda G.

    2014-01-01

    Time spent in sedentary behavior is largely due to time spent engaged with electronic screen media. Little is known about the extent to which sedentary behaviors for children with autism spectrum disorder differ from typically developing children. We used parental report to assess and compare time spent in sedentary behaviors for 53 children with…

  12. Skills Practice in Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Women Meeting Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2007-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based practice for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and suicidal behavior that has been replicated with a variety of populations. Patients' practice of behavioral skills taught in the group skills training component of DBT may be partly responsible for the positive treatment outcomes according…

  13. Classroom-Based Functional Analysis and Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-Gallo, Glenna L.; Higbee, Thomas S.; Reagon, Kara A.; Davey, Bryan J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of disruptive behavior in a classroom setting for two students of typical intelligence with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) using the classroom teacher to implement functional analysis conditions. The functional analyses suggested that both participants' disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from task…

  14. Behavioral Genetics: Concepts for Research and Practice in Language Development and Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to behavioral genetics for researchers and practitioners in language development and disorders. It identifies essential concepts and applies behavioral genetic research to the language sciences. It suggests that more complex questions may be successfully addressed through behavioral genetic paradigms. Research needs…

  15. Effects of Oral Reading Fluency on Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders' Latency to Continue Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vostal, Brooks R.; Lee, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD) present deficits in literacy skills, in part because their disruptive behaviors interfere with task engagement. Antecedent manipulations, such as those based on behavioral momentum theory, can increase students' contact with reinforcement, leading to greater task engagement. This study…

  16. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective, and behavioral parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations, appraisals, and behaviors of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 mothers who were not anxious [NONANX] and 44 mothers with a current anxiety disorder [ANX]) when interacting with their 7-12-year-old children. There were no observed differences in anxiety and avoidance among children of ANX and NONANX mothers, but, compared with NONANX mothers, ANX mothers held more negative expectations, and they differed on observations of intrusiveness, expressed anxiety, warmth, and the quality of the relationship. Associations were moderated by the degree to which children expressed anxiety during the tasks. Maternal-reported negative emotions during the task significantly mediated the association between maternal anxiety status and the observed quality of the relationship. These findings suggest that maternal anxiety disorder is associated with reduced tolerance of children's negative emotions. This may interfere with the maintenance of a positive, supportive mother-child interaction under conditions of stress and, as such, this may impede optimum treatment outcomes. The findings identify potential cognitive, affective, and behavioral targets to improve treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders in the context of a current maternal anxiety disorder.

  17. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kawabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  18. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon effectively treats insomnia and behavioral symptoms in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  19. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  20. Assessment and Treatment of Personality Disorders: A Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Lootens, Christopher M.; Mitchell, John T.; Robertson, Christopher D.; Hundt, Natalie E.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Personality disorders are complex and highly challenging to treatment providers; yet, for clients with these problems, there exist very few treatment options that have been supported by research. Given the lack of empirically-supported therapies for personality disorders, it can be difficult to make treatment decisions for this population. The…

  1. Diversity in Pathways to Common Childhood Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Nikolas, Molly; Jernigan, Katherine; Friderici, Karen; Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are highly comorbid, a phenomenon thought to be due to shared etiological factors and mechanisms. Little work has attempted to chart multiple-level-of-analysis pathways (i.e., simultaneously including biological, environmental, and trait influences) to ODD and…

  2. Current Neural and Behavioral Dimensional Constructs across Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenecker, Scott A; Jacobs, Rachel H; Passarotti, Alessandra M

    2014-09-01

    Our understanding of the underlying neurobiology for mood disorders is still limited. We present an integrated model for conceptualizing and understanding mood disorders drawing upon a broad literature pertinent to mood disorders. The integrated model of emotion processing and regulation incorporates the linguistic constructs of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. In particular, we focus on the Positive Valence domain/circuit (PVC), highlighting recent reward research and the Negative Valence domain/circuit (NVC), highlighting rumination. Furthermore, we also illustrate the Cognitive Control and Problem Solving (CCaPS) circuit, which is heavily involved in emotion regulation, as well as the default mode network (DMN) and interactions between circuits. We conclude by proposing methods for addressing challenges in the developmental study of mood disorders including using high-risk design that incorporates risk for many disorders.

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  4. Weight perceptions, disordered eating behaviors, and emotional self-efficacy among high school adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullig, Keith J; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; Valois, Robert F

    2016-04-01

    Although emotional disorders and disordered eating behaviors are known to be related, the relationship between emotional self-efficacy (ESE) and disordered eating is unknown. This study examined the relationship between ESE and disordered eating in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents (n=2566). The Centers for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey and an adolescent ESE scale were utilized. Logistic regression adjusted for key covariates explored the relationship between low ESE and disordered eating among selected race and gender groups. Self-perceived weight as underweight or overweight; and dieting, vomiting or taking laxatives, taking diet pills, and fasting to lose weight were each associated (p<.05) with lower levels of ESE for certain race/gender groups. Findings provide increased justification for tailoring disordered eating interventions and treatments to accommodate the highest risk groups. Measures of ESE should be considered for adolescent mental health assessments in fieldwork, research, and evaluation efforts.

  5. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Pharmacological Treatments of Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia: Critique and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Larry K.; Marchione, Karen

    1991-01-01

    Examines theoretical, methodologic, and research issues as well as strengths, limitations, and possible interactions pertaining to behavioral, cognitive, and pharmacological treatments of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Compares attrition, outcome, and maintenance effects and presents composite indices of significant improvement, endstate…

  6. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Powell, Nicole P; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Jimenez-Camargo, Luis

    2011-04-01

    This article focuses on the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) strategies for children and adolescents with externalizing disorders. Following a description of risk factors for youth antisocial behavior, several components common to CBT interventions for youth with externalizing behaviors will be described. Using the Coping Power Program as a model, child treatment components including Emotion Awareness, Perspective Taking, Anger Management, Social Problem Solving, and Goal Setting will be reviewed. CBT strategies for parents of youth with disruptive behaviors will also be described. Finally, the article summarizes the evidence for the effectiveness of CBT strategies for externalizing disorders and presents specific outcome research on several programs that include CBT techniques.

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Long-Term Effects on Anxiety and Secondary Disorders in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Lissette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Kurtines, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study's aim was to examine the long-term effects (8 to 13 years post-treatment; M = 9.83 years; SD = 1.71) of the most widely used treatment approaches of exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (i.e., group treatment and two variants of individual…

  8. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaro Kawabe; Fumie Horiuchi; Yasunori Oka; Shu-ichi Ueno

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteo...

  9. Disordered eating behavior among group fitness instructors: a health-threatening secret?

    OpenAIRE

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Nilsson, Merethe Pauline; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to examine disordered eating behavior (DE) and self-reported eating disorders (ED) among Norwegian group fitness instructors. Methods: Group fitness instructors from Norway (n = 685 females and 152 males, response rate: 57 %) completed an online survey. The survey included the instruments Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) and the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS). Results: A total of 22 % of the male and 59 % of the female respondents were cla...

  10. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Anisul eIslam; Ana Beatriz Fagundo; Jon eArcelus; Zaida eAguera; Susana eJiménez-Murcia; Jose Manuel Fernandez-Real; Francisco J Tinahones; Rafael eDe La Torre; Cristina eBotella; Gema eFrühbeck; Casanueva, Felipe F; Jose M Menchon; Fernando eFernandez-Aranda

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfac...

  11. Neuronal mechanisms and circuits underlying repetitive behaviors in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive b...

  12. A Comparison Study of Psychiatric and Behavior Disorders and Cognitive Ability Among Homeless and Housed Children

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, ManSoo; North, Carol S.; LaVesser, Patricia D.; Osborne, Victoria A.; Spitznagel, Edward L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the association of homelessness and related factors with child psychiatric and behavior disorders (diagnosed with structured diagnostic interviews) and child cognitive ability (on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test) in a randomly selected sample of 157 homeless children and their mothers and a comparison of 61 housed children and their mothers. Homeless children had more disruptive behavior disorders and lower cognitive scores than housed children. In multivariate analyse...

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Modification Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…

  14. Actigraphy as a diagnostic aid for REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, M.; Arends, J.B.; Bloem, B.R.; Overeem, S.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common parasomnia in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The current International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-II) requires a clinical interview combined with video polysomnography (video-PSG) to diagnose. The latter

  15. Using Carey Temperament Scales to Assess Behavioral Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Susan L.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers have suggested that temperament information could be useful for understanding the behavioral variability within the autism spectrum. The purpose of this brief report is to examine temperament profiles of 110 children with ASD (ages 3-8 years, 61 with Autistic Disorder, 42 with PDD-NOS; and 7 with Asperger Disorder) via a commonly…

  16. An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that experiential avoidance may play an important role in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; see Roemer, L., & Orsillo, S.M. (2002). "Expanding our conceptualization of and treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Integrating mindfulness/acceptance-based approaches with existing cognitive-behavioral models." "Clinical…

  17. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…

  18. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer; Bishop, Somer L.; Kleinke, Jennifer R.; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised (ADI-R: Lord, Rutter, & Le Couteur (1994) were examined in 165 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), 49 children with non-spectrum developmental disorders (DD), and 65 children with typical development (TD) at approximately 2 years of age. A factor…

  19. Risky Decision Making in Substance Dependent Adolescents with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Bokhoven, I. van; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Lochman, J.E.; Matthys, W.C.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Of all psychiatric disorders, the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are the most likely to predispose to substance dependence (SD). One possible underlying mechanism for this increased vulnerability is risky decision making. The aim of this study was to examine decision making in DBD adolescents

  20. Children with Anxiety Disorders: Use of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model within a Social Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearny, Regina; Pawlukewicz, Justine; Guardino, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Because anxiety is the most common mental health disorder diagnosed in children, early intervention is crucial for fundamental coping. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the preferred treatment method for this affective disorder, instruction for children needs to be specific for them to successfully acquire and implement essential CBT…

  1. Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Female Patients With Eating Disorders: Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, ter E.D.; Haan, de H.A.; Postel, M.G.; Palen, van der Job; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E.L.; Jong, de Cor A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therap

  2. Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy for female patients with eating disorders: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurne, E.D. ter; Haan, H.A. de; Postel, M.G.; Palen, J.A.M. van der; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy

  3. Executive Functioning Characteristics Associated with ADHD Comorbidity in Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…

  4. Trajectories of Symptom Reduction and Engagement during Treatment for Childhood Behavior Disorders: Differences across Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined trajectories of symptom reduction and family engagement during the modular treatment phase of a clinical trial for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders that was applied either in community settings or a clinic. Participants (N = 139) were 6-11 year-old children with diagnoses of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)…

  5. Behavior of conduct disordered children in interaction with each other and with normal peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MATTHYS, W; VANLOO, P; PACHEN, [No Value; de Vries, Han; VANHOOFF, JARAM; VANENGELAND, H

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the behavior of children with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder (CD/ODD) in interaction with each other and with normal control (NC) children in a semi-standardized setting over a period of 25 minutes. This short time turned out to be sufficient to demonstrate

  6. Neurocognitive and Behavioral Outcomes of Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at Age Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Zachary E.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Malesa, Elizabeth E.; Lee, Evon Batey; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Newsom, Cassandra R.; Crittendon, Julie; Stone, Wendy L.

    2012-01-01

    Later-born siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are at increased risk for ASD as well as qualitatively similar traits not meeting clinical cutoffs for the disorder. This study examined age five neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes of 39 younger siblings of children with ASD (Sibs-ASD) and 22 younger siblings of typically…

  7. [Treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in terms of cognitive behavioral].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrowska, Anna; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Risk of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) within life is estimated at 2.6-5.1%. Amongst etiological factors that affect the development of the disorder are: biological and psychological problems, including cognitive models. There are known several cognitive models: metacognitive, Borkovec'c model and the model developed in Quebec. Key cognitive contents that occur with generalized anxiety disorder are focused on two aspects: metacognitive beliefs and intolerance of uncertainty. A primary purpose of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is the modification of dysfunctional beliefs about worry. Cognitive behavioural therapy is effective in reducing anxiety, makes it easier to operate in the professional sphere and improves the quality of life.

  8. Suicidal behavior and self-harm in girls with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutek J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jiri Koutek, Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. Keywords: eating disorders, child, adolescent, self-harm, suicidal behavior

  9. Body image flexibility moderates the association between disordered eating cognition and disordered eating behavior in a non-clinical sample of women: a cross-sectional investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Makeda; Masuda, Akihiko; Hill, Mary L; Goodnight, Bradley L

    2014-12-01

    Body image flexibility, a regulation process of openly and freely experiencing disordered eating thoughts and body dissatisfaction, has been found to be a buffering factor against disordered eating symptomatology. The present cross-sectional study investigates whether body image flexibility accounts for disordered eating behavior above and beyond disordered eating cognition, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility in a sample of nonclinical women, and whether body image flexibility moderates the associations between these correlates and disordered eating behavior. Participants were 421 women, age 21±5.3 years old on average, who completed a web-based survey that included the self-report measures of interest. Results demonstrate the incremental effects of body image flexibility on disordered eating behavior above and beyond disordered eating cognition, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility. Women with greater body image flexibility endorse disordered eating behavior less so than those with lower body image flexibility. Body image flexibility moderates the association between disordered eating cognition and disordered eating behavior; for women with greater body image flexibility, disordered eating cognition is not positively associated with disordered eating behavior.

  10. Prevalence of Behavioral Disorders and Its Associated Factors in Hamadan Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jalilian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Studies have shown the high prevalence rate of behavioral disorders in primary school students, which may underlie many complications and problems for the students and their families. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of behav-ioral disorders among primary school students. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional-descriptive study which have been done on 352 primary school students in Hamadan. Samples have been selected based on a multistage ran-dom sampling and Rutter behavioral disorder questionnaire (teacher form was used for data collection. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using chi-square. Results: Our result showed that 16.1% of the participants suffered from behavioral disorders. The prevalence was more among the boys. Father's education and occupation, history of mental illness, parental divorce, and death of parents had significant relationships with the prevalence of behavioral disorders in these students. Conclusion: According to the results, designing and implementing educational programs for the prevention and treatment of student's behavioral disorders appear to be essential.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:62-68

  11. Empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in 6- to 7-year olds diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, P K H; Schutter, D J L G; Kenemans, J L; Matthys, W

    2015-01-01

    Empathy has been associated with decreased antisocial and increased prosocial behavior. This study examined empathy and prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Six- and 7-year-old children with DBD (with and without ADHD) (n = 67) and with ADHD only (n = 27) were compared to typically developing children (TD) (n = 37). Parents and teachers rated affective empathy in response to sadness and distress on the Griffith Empathy Measure. Children reported affective empathic ability in response to sad story vignettes. Empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress was assessed with a computer task, the Interpersonal Response Task (IRT). Compared to TD, children with DBD (with and without ADHD) and those with ADHD only were rated as less empathic by their teachers, but not by their parents. No differences between groups were observed in children who reported affect correspondence. Children with DBD (with and without ADHD) showed less prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress compared to TD. Children with ADHD only did not differ from TD. An additional analysis comparing all children with a diagnosis to the TD group revealed that the difference in prosocial behavior remained after controlling for ADHD symptoms, but not after controlling for DBD symptoms. These findings of impaired empathy-induced prosocial behavior in response to sadness and distress in young children with DBD suggest that interventions to ameliorate peer relationships may benefit from targeting on increasing prosocial behavior in these children.

  12. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kacar Basaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met the criteria were introduced in terms of method, therapy characteristics and results. The results of the studies showed that cognitive behavioral group therapies have similar efficacy with individual cognitive behavioral therapy on panic disorder symptoms (panic attacks frequency, the level of agoraphobia etc. and comorbid disorders (depression, anxiety sensitivity. However, cognitive behavioral group therapy is more cost-effective. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 79-94

  13. A cognitive-behavioral model of Internet gaming disorder: theoretical underpinnings and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive contributions to the behaviors observed in substance and non-substance addictions have been investigated and characterized. Based on models of drug addictions and the extant literature on Internet gaming disorder (IGD), we propose a cognitive-behavioral model for conceptualizing IGD. The model focuses on three domains and their roles in addictive behaviors. The three domains include motivational drives related to reward-seeking and stress-reduction, behavioral control relating to executive inhibition, and decision-making that involves weighing the pros and cons of engaging in motivated behaviors. Based on this model, we propose how behavioral therapies might target these domains in the treatment of IGD.

  14. Delinquency and association with behavioral disorders and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder (CD, and substance abuse disorder (SAD in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%. They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%, SAD (53.6%, and ADHD (43.5%. Both ADHD (p <0.001 and CD (p <0.01 had significant associations with substance abuse. Conclusion: in male adolescents in conflict with the law, ADHD, CD, and SAD were all found to be associated with delinquency.

  15. Reflections on Deviance in 1984: Selected Papers from the 1984 Midwest Symposium in Behavior Disorders. National Needs Analysis in Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Judith, Ed.; And Others

    Three papers from a symposium on "Reflections on Deviance in 1984" are presented with particular emphasis on educational programs for behavior disordered students. An initial paper by James A. and Robert H. Zabel entitled "Reflections on Deviance in Nineteen Eighty-Four: A Conversation with 'George Orwell'," presents a…

  16. A Naturalistic Examination of Social Comparisons and Disordered Eating Thoughts, Urges, and Behaviors in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the effects of body, eating, and exercise social comparisons on prospective disordered eating thoughts and urges (i.e., restriction thoughts, exercise thoughts, vomiting thoughts, binge eating urges) and behaviors (i.e., restriction attempts, exercising for weight/shape reasons, vomiting, binge eating) among college women using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Method Participants were 232 college women who completed a two-week EMA protocol, in which they used their personal electronic devices to answer questions three times per day. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess body, eating, and exercise comparisons as predictors of disordered eating thoughts, urges, and behaviors at the next report, adjusting for body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and the disordered eating thought/urge/behavior at the prior report, as well as body mass index. Results Body comparisons prospectively predicted more intense levels of certain disordered eating thoughts (i.e., thoughts about restriction and exercise). Eating comparisons prospectively predicted an increased likelihood of subsequent engagement in all disordered eating behaviors examined except vomiting. Exercise comparisons prospectively predicted less intense thoughts about exercise and an increased likelihood of subsequent vomiting. Discussion Social comparisons are associated with later disordered eating thoughts and behaviors in the natural environment and may need to be specifically targeted in eating disorder prevention and intervention efforts. Targeting body comparisons may be helpful in terms of reducing disordered eating thoughts, but eating and exercise comparisons are also important and may need to be addressed in order to decrease engagement in actual disordered eating behaviors. PMID:26610301

  17. Disordered eating behaviors among Italian men: objectifying media and sexual orientation differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Di Mattei, Valentina E; Bagliacca, Elena Pagani; Prunas, Antonio; Sarno, Lucio; Riva, Giuseppe; Zanetti, M Assunta

    2012-01-01

    Objectification theory was tested as a suitable framework for explaining sexual orientation differences in disordered eating behaviors in college-aged Italian men. The theory's applicability to 125 homosexual and 130 heterosexual men was investigated using self-report questionnaires. Gay men scored significantly higher on exposure to sexually objectifying media, body surveillance, body shame, disordered eating behaviors, and depression than heterosexual men. Although path analyses support the theory's applicability to both groups, for gay men the path model demonstrated a better fit to the objectification theory for disordered eating and depression. Practical implications are discussed.

  18. Designing a decision support system for distinguishing ADHD from similar children behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavarian, Mona; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Dibajnia, Parvin; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar

    2012-06-01

    In this study, a decision support system was designed to distinguish children with ADHD from other similar children behavioral disorders such as depression, anxiety, comorbid depression and anxiety and conduct disorder based on the signs and symptoms. Accuracy of classifying with Radial basis function and multilayer neural networks were compared. Finally, the average accuracy of the networks in classification reached to 95.50% and 96.62% by multilayer and radial basis function networks respectively. Our results indicate that a decision support system, especially RBF, may be a good preliminary assistant for psychiatrists in diagnosing high risk behavioral disorders of children.

  19. Eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in Japanese adolescent girls and boys in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Nin, Kazuko; Teramukai, Satoshi; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-12-15

    To investigate eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in adolescents, we administered the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) to Japanese adolescent girls and boys. The EDE-Q global scores in Japanese girls and boys, respectively, were significantly lower than those in girls and boys in previous studies. Objective binge eating episodes and extreme dietary restriction were the common behaviors, whereas self-induced vomiting and the misuse of laxatives were uncommon. Differences in the EDE-Q data between Japanese adolescents and adolescents in previous studies from Western countries suggest that there may be certain cultural differences in eating disorder psychopathology in adolescents.

  20. The Influence of Disorder on Thermotropic Nematic Liquid Crystals Phase Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Kralj

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the theoretical research on the influence of disorder on structure and phase behavior of condensed matter system exhibiting continuous symmetry breaking focusing on liquid crystal phase transitions. We discuss the main properties of liquid crystals as adequate systems in which several open questions with respect to the impact of disorder on universal phase and structural behavior could be explored. Main advantages of liquid crystalline materials and different experimental realizations of random field-type disorder imposed on liquid crystal phases are described.

  1. Adults with autism spectrum disorder as behavior technicians for young children with autism: Outcomes of a behavioral skills training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In Experiment 1, training of the adults focused on the implementation of mand training via incidental teaching. Experiment 2 focused on teaching participants to use discrete-trial training (DTT) with children who exhibited problem behavior. Both experiments showed that behavioral skills training was effective for teaching the adult participants the behavioral procedures needed to teach children with autism. In addition, the children acquired skills as a result of training. Results of Experiment 2 further demonstrated that the DTT skills generalized across untrained targets and children. Social validity ratings suggested that some participants' teaching was indistinguishable from that of individuals without ASD.

  2. How specific are the relationships between eating disorder behaviors and perfectionism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Forbush, Kelsie T; Williamson, J Austin; Markon, Kristian E; Pollack, Lauren O

    2013-08-01

    Perfectionism is associated with several mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. The goal of this study was to test the specificity of the associations between perfectionism facets and eating disorder behaviors, by examining whether neuroticism and conscientiousness mediated or moderated associations between these variables. Participants from a representative community sample (N = 407; 47% female) completed questionnaires assessing perfectionism, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and eating disorder behaviors. Neuroticism partially mediated associations between binge eating, restraint, body dissatisfaction, and maladaptive perfectionism facets. Neuroticism did not mediate associations between restriction and achievement striving perfectionism facets. Conscientiousness did not mediate any associations between perfectionism facets and eating disorder behaviors, yet Doubts about Actions interacted with conscientiousness to predict body dissatisfaction. Results indicate that neuroticism is key for understanding general risk factors that lead to myriad internalizing disorders, whereas maladaptive perfectionism has limited usefulness as a specific risk factor for eating disorder behaviors. Nevertheless, there is a unique association between dietary restraint and achievement striving dimensions of perfectionism that cannot be explained by higher-order personality traits.

  3. Distinguishing between autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by using behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and neuropsychological test battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Naomi; Ishitobi, Makoto; Arai, Sumiyoshi; Kawamura, Kaori; Asano, Mizuki; Inohara, Keisuke; Narimoto, Tadamasa; Wada, Yuji; Hiratani, Michio; Kosaka, Hirotaka

    2014-12-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) share many common symptoms, including attention deficit, behavioral problems, and difficulties with social skills. The aim of this study was to distinguish between ASD and ADHD by identifying the characteristic features of both the disorders, by using multidimensional assessments, including screening behavioral checklists, cognitive assessments, and comprehensive neurological battery. After screening for comorbid disorders, we carefully selected age-, sex-, IQ-, and socio-economic status-matched children with typical development (TD). In the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children, a lower score was observed for the ASD group than for the TD group in Picture concept, which is a subscale of perceptual reasoning. A lower score was shown by the ADHD group than by the TD group in the spatial working memory test in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB(®)). Although ASD and ADHD have many similar symptoms, they can be differentiated by focusing on the behavioral and cognitive characteristics of executive function.

  4. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Sexual Harassment in Italian Male and Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2016-08-12

    The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.

  5. Understanding Challenging Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Haegele, Justin A.

    2016-01-01

    Challenging behaviors of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may occur for a variety of reasons. These behaviors can contribute to the emotional burnout of teachers and impact the learning and safety of the student with ASD and his or her classmates. Physical education is one educational context where high and multiple risks of…

  6. Maternal Psychiatric Disorders, Parenting, and Maternal Behavior in the Home during the Child Rearing Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Brook, Judith S.

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Study, a community-based longitudinal study, were used to investigate associations between maternal psychiatric disorders and child-rearing behaviors. Maternal psychiatric symptoms and behavior in the home were assessed in 782 families during the childhood and adolescence of the offspring. Maternal anxiety,…

  7. An Analysis of Autism as a Contingency-Shaped Disorder of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drash, Philip W.; Tudor, Roger M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes autism as a contingency-shaped disorder of verbal behavior. Contingencies of reinforcement in effect during the first to third year of a child's life may operate to establish and maintain those behaviors that later result in a diagnosis of autism. While neurobiological variables may, in some cases, predispose some children to…

  8. Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders in Professional Development Schools: A Social Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarella, Paul; Hallam, Pamela R.; Christensen, Lynnette; Wall, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) are an increasingly popular strategy for improving schools. While PLCs routinely implement universal academic screening, they seldom screen for emotional and behavioral problems. This is unfortunate, as the early signs of emotional and behavioral disorders can be identified and interventions developed. The…

  9. Maladaptive and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Susan L.; MacLean, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians are recognizing that a subgroup of children with Down syndrome (DS) also present with clinically significant impairments in social-communication and restricted patterns of behavior, such as those that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Efforts to better describe the behavioral presentation of children with…

  10. Examining Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Two Observational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Sheri; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study of the FIRST WORDS® Project examined restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 55 toddlers at a mean age of 20 months who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Restricted and repetitive behaviors were coded using the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales in two video-recorded observation…

  11. Measuring Repetitive Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; Lecavalier, Luc; Halladay, Alycia K.; Bishop, Somer L.; Bodfish, James W.; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Jones, Nancy; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; McCracken, James T.; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors vary widely in type, frequency, and intensity among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. They can be stigmatizing and interfere with more constructive activities. Accordingly, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors may be a target of intervention. Several standardized…

  12. Behavioral flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Sigafoos, J.; Green, V.A.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have particular difficulty with behavioral flexibility, but the knowledge base on behavioral flexibility in children with a diagnosis of ASD plus intellectual disability (ID) compared to children with ID only is still scarce. The aim of the present study

  13. Function-Based Planning for Young Children at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahgahgwon, Kari N.; Umbreit, John; Liaupsin, Carl J.; Turton, Amina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of function-based intervention for young children at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in inclusive environments. Participants were two kindergarten students and one first-grade student, all of whom exhibited chronic disruptive behavior in the classroom despite previous interventions implemented…

  14. Review of Video Modeling with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sonia D.; Lang, Russell; O'Reilly, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) often engage in behavior that is disruptive in the classroom, impedes educational progress, and inhibits peer relationships. Video modeling has been demonstrated to be an effective intervention for other challenging populations (e.g., autism) and has been identified as a feasible intervention…

  15. Reliability of the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Behavior Problems for Children (ASD-BPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Rivet, Tessa T.

    2008-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention has occurred with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) of children and youth. Furthermore, the rationale for using the most restrictive of the applied behavior analysis methods and medication has been largely based on the presence of severe challenging behaviors such as…

  16. Struggling Readers with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and Their Teachers: Perceptions of Corrective Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Duchaine, Ellen L.; Jolivette, Kristine

    2010-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) experience deficits in social, behavioral, and academic areas. Of great importance in the academic area is reading achievement. Students with E/BD who struggle with reading tend to have negative in-school and post-school outcomes. Due to the severity of potential outcomes, it is essential to…

  17. A Pilot Study of Parent Training in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearss, Karen; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Smith, Tristram; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Guidance on effective interventions for disruptive behavior in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is limited. We present feasibility and initial efficacy data on a structured parent training program for 16 children (ages 3-6) with ASD and disruptive behavior. The 6-month intervention included 11 Core and up to 2 Optional…

  18. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  19. Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for alcohol and drug use disorders: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, M.B.; Vedel, E.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Narrative reviews conclude that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) produces better outcomes than individual-based treatment for alcoholism and drug abuse problems (e.g., [Epstein, E. E., & McCrady, B. S. (1998). Behavioral couples treatment of alcohol and drug use disorders: Current status and innovat

  20. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…

  1. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children with ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Nicholas, Jude; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children…

  2. Brief Report: Association between Behavioral Features and Gastrointestinal Problems among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J.; Arneson, Carrie L.; Levy, Susan E.; Kirby, Russell S.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Durkin, Maureen S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports suggest certain behaviors among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may indicate underlying gastro-intestinal (GI) problems, and that the presence of these behaviors may help alert primary care providers to the need to evaluate a child with ASD for GI problems. The purpose of this population-based study of 487 children…

  3. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders is here to stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, Gavin; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common and disabling. Cognitive behavior therapy is the treatment of choice but is often difficult to obtain. Automated, internet-delivered, cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) courses may be an answer. There are three recent systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials tha

  4. Academic Choice for Included Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerbetz, Mandi Davis; Kostewicz, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional disturbances present with behavioral and academic deficits that often limit their participation in general education settings. As an antecedent intervention, academic choice provides multiple choices surrounding academic work promoting academic and behavioral gains. The authors examined the effects of assignment choice with…

  5. Socialization and behavioral problems of elementary school pupils with developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanioglou, Aggelos; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Barkoukis, Vassilis

    2005-08-01

    The present study examined the role of the developmental coordination disorder in 154 children's socialization and the expression of deviant behaviors in the context of Greek primary education. For assessment of their motor coordination, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children of Henderson and Sugden was used. The peer nomination method (sociogram) was used for the estimation of children's social status, and the expression of deviant behaviors was assessed via Conners' Teacher Questionnaire. Analyses showed that developmental coordination disorder was associated with poor socialization and the expression of deviant behaviors. These findings support the development of educational programs to include children with poor motor coordination.

  6. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson′s disease: A case from India confirmed with polysomnographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder is a condition characterized by dream enactment. This condition may accompany neurodegenerative disorders. However, only a few reports from India are available, that too, without any polysomnographic evidence. We are reporting a case of REM sleep behavior disorder with polysomnographic evidence.

  7. Do Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders Infer Traits from Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rajani; Mitchell, Peter; Ropar, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Background: Traits and mental states are considered to be inter-related parts of theory of mind. Attribution research demonstrates the influential role played by traits in social cognition. However, there has been little investigation into how individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) understand traits. Method: The ability of individuals…

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…

  9. Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder: A report on two cases with contrasting features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriniwas Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is a rare parasomnia in which persons exhibit uncharacteristic violent behavior, while dreaming. Secondary RBD occurs due to some neurological conditions, psychoactive substance or psychotropic drug use. There are no case reports on idiopathic RBD in India. We report here two cases to underscore the importance of identifying the disease as behavior associated with RBD may be quite serious in nature and might lead to catastrophic consequences.

  10. Relationship between postural control and restricted, repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Krestin eRadonovich; Fournier, Kimberly A.; Christopher J. Hass

    2013-01-01

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with...

  11. Classroom-BasedFunctional Analysis and Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wright-Gallo, G. L.; Higbee, Thomas S.; Reagon, K. A.; Davey, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of disruptive behavior in a classroom setting for two students of typical intelligence with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) using the classroom teacher to implement functional analysis conditions. The functional analyses suggested that both participants' disruptive behavior was maintained by escape from task demands and access to attention. Based on this information, we implemented a DRA procedure in which participants could request either escape or atte...

  12. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Muris, Peter; Brakel, Anna; Arntz, Arnoud; Schouten, Erik

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control children, were followed during a 3-year period. Assessments took place on three occasions to measure children's level of behavioral inhibition, anxiety disorder symptoms, other psychopathological symptoms...

  13. What Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Do Therapists Report Using when Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were 80…

  14. What Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Do Therapists Report Using when Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were…

  15. Epidemiology, Comorbidity, and Behavioral Genetics of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Few, Lauren R; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2015-04-01

    Psychopathy is theorized as a disorder of personality and affective deficits while antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosis is primarily behaviorally based. While ASPD and psychopathy are similar and are highly comorbid with each other, they are not synonymous. ASPD has been well studied in community samples with estimates of its lifetime prevalence ranging from 1-4% of the general population.(4,5) In contrast, psychopathy is almost exclusively investigated within criminal populations so that its prevalence in the general population has been inferred by psychopathic traits rather than disorder (1%). Differences in etiology and comorbidity with each other and other psychiatric disorders of these two disorders are also evident. The current article will briefly review the epidemiology, etiology, and comorbidity of ASPD and psychopathy, focusing predominately on research completed in community and clinical populations. This paper aims to highlight ASPD and psychopathy as related, but distinct disorders.

  16. Are food restriction and pressure-to-eat parenting practices associated with adolescent disordered eating behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Katie A.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between parental pressure-to-eat and food restriction and adolescent disordered eating behaviors, within a sample of parent-adolescent pairs. Method Adolescents (N=2231) and their parents (N=3431) participated in two, coordinated, population-based studies designed to examine factors associated with weight and weight-related behaviors in adolescents. Results Overall, higher levels of pressure-to-eat or food restriction was significantly and positively associated with use of disordered eating behaviors among boys. For every one unit increase [Scale Range: 1-(low control) to 4 – (high control)] in mothers’ food restriction, boys were twice as likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors (p≤0.01). Examination of the association between food-related parenting practices and disordered eating behaviors among girls revealed fewer significant associations. However, analyses did reveal that for every one unit increase in mothers’ food restriction, girls were 1.33 times more likely to engage in extreme weight control behaviors (p=0.04). Discussion Study findings provide evidence of an association between controlling food-related parenting practices and adolescent disordered eating behaviors, particularly in boys. Future longitudinal research is needed to establish directionality of observed associations. PMID:24105668

  17. [Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior.

  18. Use of cognitive behavioral therapy and token economy to alleviate dysfunctional behavior in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Flavia Coelho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT with the Token Economy (TE technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11 on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior, a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in 7 categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.

  19. Overweight and obese status in children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Kristen K; Sharp, William G; McCracken, Courtney E; De Vinck-Baroody, Oana; Dong, Liansai; Aman, Michael G; McDougle, Christopher J; McCracken, James T; Eugene Arnold, L; Weitzman, Carol; Leventhal, John M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Scahill, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are common in pediatric populations. Children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior may be at higher risk. This study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are more likely to be overweight or obese than matched controls. Baseline data from medication-free children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Autism Network (N = 276) were compared to 544 control children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database matched on age, sex, race, parent education, and era of data collection. The mean age of the children with autism spectrum disorder was 7.9 ± 2.6 years; 84.4% were males. In the autism spectrum disorder group, the prevalence was 42.4% for overweight and 21.4% for obesity compared to 26.1% for overweight and 12.0% for obesity among controls (p autism spectrum disorder sample, obesity was associated with minority status and lower daily living skills. These findings suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are at increased risk for obesity and underscore the need for weight management interventions in this population.

  20. [Smith-Magenis syndrome is an association of behavioral and sleep/wake circadian rhythm disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, A; Nicolas, A; Sanlaville, D; Cochat, P; De Leersnyder, H; Rigard, C; Franco, P; des Portes, V; Edery, P; Demily, C

    2015-06-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a genetic disorder characterized by the association of facial dysmorphism, oral speech delay, as well as behavioral and sleep/wake circadian rhythm disorders. Most SMS cases (90%) are due to a 17p11.2 deletion encompassing the RAI1 gene; other cases stem from mutations of the RAI1 gene. Behavioral issues may include frequent outbursts, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders, self-injuries with onychotillomania and polyembolokoilamania (insertion of objects into bodily orifices), etc. It is noteworthy that the longer the speech delay and the more severe the sleep disorders, the more severe the behavioral issues are. Typical sleep/wake circadian rhythm disorders associate excessive daytime sleepiness with nocturnal agitation. They are related to an inversion of the physiological melatonin secretion cycle. Yet, with an adapted therapeutic strategy, circadian rhythm disorders can radically improve. Usually an association of beta-blockers in the morning (stops daily melatonin secretion) and melatonin in the evening (mimics the evening deficient peak) is used. Once the sleep disorders are controlled, effective treatment of the remaining psychiatric features is needed. Unfortunately, as for many orphan diseases, objective guidelines have not been drawn up. However, efforts should be focused on improving communication skills. In the same vein, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders, aggressiveness, and anxiety should be identified and specifically treated. This whole appropriate medical management is underpinned by the diagnosis of SMS. Diagnostic strategies include fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) or array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) when a microdeletion is sought and Sanger sequencing when a point mutation is suspected. Thus, the diagnosis of SMS can be made from a simple blood sample and should be questioned in subjects of any age presenting with an association of facial dysmorphism, speech delay with

  1. Screening for autism identifies behavioral disorders in children functional defecation disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Nicholson, Lisa M.; Butter, Eric M.; Ratliff-Schaub, Karen L.; Marc A Benninga; Williams, Kent C.

    2016-01-01

    This study prospectively assessed whether positive screening surveys for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in children with functional defecation disorders (FDDs) accurately identify ASD. Parents of children (4–12 years) who met Rome III criteria for functional constipation (FC), FC with fecal incontinence (FI) and functional nonretentive FI (FNRFI) completed two ASD screening surveys. Children with positive screens were referred for psychological evaluation, and a year later, follow-up survey...

  2. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  3. The concept of post-traumatic mood disorder and its implications for adolescent suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, L

    2008-12-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disorder which is frequently comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD). It has been suggested that some or all individuals diagnosed with comorbid PTSD and MDD have a separate psychobiological condition that can be termed ''post-traumatic mood disorder'' (PTMD). The idea was based on the fact that a significant number of studies suggested that patients suffering from comorbid PTSD and MDD differed clinically and biologically from individuals with PTSD alone or MDD alone. Individuals with comorbid PTSD and MDD are characterized by greater severity of symptoms and the higher level of impairment in social and occupational functioning compared to individuals with PTSD alone or MDD alone. Neurobiological evidence supporting the concept of PTMD includes the findings from neuroendocrine challenge, cerebrospinal fluid, neuroimaging, sleep and other studies. It has been demonstrated that child abuse increases the risk for PTSD, MDD, and suicidal behavior in adolescents and adults. Many victims of childhood abuse develop comorbid PTSD and depression, i.e., they develop PTMD. PTMD is associated with suicidal behavior. The link between childhood abuse, suicidal behavior in adolescents and PTMD indicates that it is important to develop interventions to prevent PTMD in victims of child abuse; to develop measures to prevent suicidal behavior in adolescents with PTMD; and to study psychobiology of PTMD in order to develop treatments for PTMD. Priorities for intervening to reduce adolescent suicidal behavior lie with interventions focused upon the improved recognition, treatment and management of adolescents with psychiatric disorders including PTMD.

  4. The 5-HT7 receptor influences stereotypic behavior in a model of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Peter B; Sutcliffe, J Gregor

    2007-03-13

    The 5-HT7 receptor has been suggested as a new putative target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially depression. This hypothesis is based on the finding that antidepressant drugs have relatively high affinity for the 5-HT7 receptor, and that inactivation or blockade of the receptor leads to an antidepressant-like profile in behavioral models and sleep parameters. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is also believed to involve the serotonergic system and is treated using antidepressants, thus it is of interest to study the possible role of the 5-HT7 receptor in this disorder. We have evaluated the effect of inactivation or pharmacological blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor in three mouse behavioral models that are believed to mimic some of the stereotypic aspects of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In the most well-established behavioral model, marble burying, both inactivation and blockade of the 5-HT7 receptor reduced stereotypic behavior in that the number of marbles buried decreased. In two newer, less well-characterized models, head dipping and plastic-mesh screen chewing, there was no difference between wild-type mice and mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor. Taken together the data confirms and expands on previous findings that the 5-HT7 receptor is of importance for behaviors affected by antidepressants, and suggests that the 5-HT7 receptor might be of relevance as a target for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  5. Sleep Hygiene Behaviors Among Midlife Women with Insomnia or Sleep-Disordered Breathing: The SWAN Sleep Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kline, Christopher E.; Irish, Leah A.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Okun, Michele L.; Owens, Jane F.; Hall, Martica H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are the most common sleep disorders among midlife women. Although promoting sleep hygiene behaviors may be a useful behavioral approach for the management of insomnia or SDB, the frequency with which women engage in these behaviors is unclear.

  6. Daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa: associations with eating disorder behaviors in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; De Young, Kyle P; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    The role of anxiety has been emphasized in etiological/maintenance models of anorexia nervosa. This study identified daily patterns of anxiety in anorexia nervosa and examined the likelihood of the occurrence of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, the daily temporal distribution of eating disorder behaviors in each trajectory, and the extent to which the tendency to exhibit particular anxiety trajectories was associated with baseline diagnostic and trait-level personality variables. Women with full or subthreshold anorexia nervosa (N = 118) completed a 2-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol during which they reported on a variety of behavioral and affective variables, including anxiety and eating disorder behaviors. Using latent growth mixture modeling to classify EMA days (N = 1,526) based on anxiety ratings, we identified 7 distinct daily anxiety trajectories. Overall differences between trajectories were found for rates of binge eating, self-induced vomiting, body checking, skipping meals, and dietary restriction. Furthermore, distinct daily temporal distributions of eating disorder behaviors were found across the trajectories, with peaks in the probability of behaviors frequently coinciding with high levels of anxiety. Finally, traits of personality pathology (affective lability, self-harm, social avoidance, and oppositionality) and the presence of a co-occurring mood disorder were found to be associated with the tendency to experience particular daily anxiety trajectories (e.g., stable high anxiety). Findings support the presence of within-person variability in daily anxiety patterns in anorexia nervosa and also provide evidence for an association between these anxiety patterns and eating disorder behaviors.

  7. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prazeres AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.Keywords: dysmorphophobia, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, literature review

  8. Relative effects of cognitive and behavioral therapies on generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and panic disorder: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuijpers, Pim; Gentili, Claudio; Banos, Rosa M; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Botella, Cristina; Cristea, Ioana A

    2016-10-01

    Although cognitive and behavioral therapies are effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders, it is not clear what the relative effects of these treatments are. We conducted a meta-analysis of trials comparing cognitive and behavioral therapies with a control condition, in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder. We included 42 studies in which generic measures of anxiety were used (BAI, HAMA, STAI-State and Trait). Only the effects of treatment for panic disorder as measured on the BAI (13.33 points; 95% CI: 10.58-16.07) were significantly (p=0.001) larger than the effect sizes on GAD (6.06 points; 95% CI: 3.96-8.16) and SAD (5.92 points; 95% CI: 4.64-7.20). The effects remained significant after adjusting for baseline severity and other major characteristics of the trials. The results should be considered with caution because of the small number of studies in many subgroups and the high risk of bias in most studies.

  9. The sexual attitudes, behavior, and relationships of women with histrionic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apt, C; Hurlbert, D F

    1994-01-01

    To examine the sexual attitudes, behaviors, and intimate relationships of individuals with histrionic personality disorder, this study compared a sample of women with histrionic personality disorders to an adequately matched sample of women without personality disorders (aged 24-31 years) using various measures. As compared to the control group, women with histrionic personality were found to have significantly lower sexual assertiveness, greater erotophobic attitudes toward sex, lower self-esteem, and greater marital dissatisfaction. Women in the histrionic group were also found to evidence significantly greater sexual preoccupation, lower sexual desire, more sexual boredom, greater orgasmic dysfunction, and were more likely to enter into an extramarital affair than their counterparts. Despite these findings, a higher sexual esteem was noted among the histrionic group. This pattern of sexual behavior noted among histrionic women appears consistent with those behaviors exhibited in sexual narcissism. These findings and treatment considerations are explored.

  10. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Virgil L

    2010-07-01

    Given the prevalence of null hypothesis significance testing, cognitive-behavioral therapy's effect on depressive symptoms of bipolar disorder is not fully understood in the absence of effect size statistics. The present study discusses the disadvantages associated with null hypothesis significance testing and seeks to overcome these shortcomings via conducting a meta-analysis which examines cognitive-behavioral therapy for depressive symptoms in persons with bipolar disorder. A systematic literature search was conducted and included articles were subject to meta-analytic procedures. With a mean weighted Cohen's d of -0.29, relative to treatment as usual, cognitive-behavioral therapy has a small effect on depressive symptoms in persons with bipolar disorder. The strengths, limitations, and need for future research are discussed.

  11. [Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder in the DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plener, Paul L; Kapusta, Nestor D; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) were included as diagnostic categories in Section 3 of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Thus, these diagnostic entities were not recognized as formal clinical diagnoses, but rather for the first time clearly defined in a classificatory system to standardize further research in this field. This paper introduces both concepts and addresses the discussion about NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder based on a selective review of the literature. First studies using the new definitions are introduced. In Germany the prevalence of NSSI is estimated to lie at about 4 %, of SBD at about 9 %. It can be expected that in the future the new definitions will lead to a better comparability of study outcomes with regards to NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder.

  12. What's New in Treating Inpatients With Personality Disorders?: Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Old-Fashioned, Good Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah; Platt, Lois M

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric unit inpatients often have serious mental illnesses with comorbid personality disorders. Mental illnesses usually respond favorably to medication and psychotherapy, but personality disorders do not. Two personality disorders are commonly seen on inpatient units: borderline and antisocial. These personality disorders may destabilize the milieu with disruptive behaviors and present a challenge to nurses. Difficult patient behaviors and therapeutic responses by nurses are examined. Dialectical behavior therapy techniques and good communication skills may be used by nurses to (a) interact therapeutically with patients with personality disorders and (b) protect other patients and the milieu.

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsey, Shannon; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Woods, Briana A.

    2011-01-01

    A number of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) approaches are available for treating child and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Similar to other CBT treatments, particularly those for anxiety disorders, these treatments all include common elements (e.g., psychoeducation, relaxation and affective modulation skills, exposure). The goals of this review are to: 1) delineate common elements in CBT approaches for treating child and adolescent PTSD; 2) provide a detailed review of tw...

  14. Did Immanuel Kant have dementia with Lewy bodies and REM behavior disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marcelo; Slachevsky, Andrea; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego

    2010-06-01

    Immanuel Kant, one of the most brilliant minds of the XVIII century and of western philosophy, suffered from dementia in his late years. Based on the analysis of testimonies of his close friends, in this report we describe his neurological disorder which, after 8years of evolution, led to his death. His cognitive decline was strongly associated with a parasomnia compatible with a severe rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorder (RBD) and dementia with Lewy bodies.

  15. Social Anxiety and Aggression in Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ketty P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-nine boys in classes for students with behavioral disturbances were given questionnaires on trait anxiety, social anxiety, empathy, depression, and self-esteem, while teachers rated their aggression. Results showed that anxiety and empathy scores were not correlated with aggression, while social anxiety was positively correlated with trait…

  16. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  17. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khdour, Hussain Y; Abushalbaq, Oday M; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T; Imam, Aya F; Gluck, Mark A; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of medication-free patients with GAD, SAD, and PAD, along with matched healthy participants using a probabilistic category-learning task that allows the dissociation between positive and negative feedback learning. We also fitted all participants' data to a Q-learning model and various actor-critic models that examine learning rate parameters from positive and negative feedback to investigate effects of valence vs. action on performance. SAD and GAD patients were more sensitive to negative feedback than either PAD patients or healthy participants. PAD, SAD, and GAD patients did not differ in positive-feedback learning compared to healthy participants. We found that Q-learning models provide the simplest fit of the data in comparison to other models. However, computational analysis revealed that groups did not differ in terms of learning rate or exploration values. These findings argue that (a) not all anxiety spectrum disorders share similar cognitive correlates, but are rather different in ways that do not link them to the hallmark of anxiety (higher sensitivity to negative feedback); and (b) perception of negative consequences is the core feature of GAD and SAD, but not PAD. Further research is needed to examine the similarities and differences between anxiety spectrum disorders in other cognitive domains and potential implementation of behavioral therapy to remediate cognitive deficits.

  18. Study of defensive methods and mechanisms in developmental, emotional (internalization), and disruptive behavior (externalization) disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, H R; Zamani, N; Darvishi, M; Khansari, M R

    2014-09-18

    We need to find a way for adaptation with inherent unpleasantness of being human condition and conflicts that it caused, as we did not fail. Methods that we used for adaptation are named defense. This research have performed with the aim of study and compare defensive mechanisms and methods of Developmental, Emotional (Internalization), and Disruptive behavior (Externalization) disorders. Method, sample of this research included 390 family that are by available sampling method are selected. Tools of research were structured clinical interview of forth cognitive and statistical guide of psychopathic disorders for axis I and the way used for assess defensive mechanisms is defensive method 40 question's questionnaires of Andrews (1993). The data are compared by statistical methods comparison of averages and one way variance analysis and HSD tests and results show that undeveloped defensive mechanisms in by developmental disorder family (25.2 ± 3.7) mean and standard deviation, it is most used mechanism and in disruptive behavior disorder family by (11.2 ± 1.9) mean and standard deviation is used least mechanism and in developed mechanism of emotional disorder family by (7.8 ± 3.1) mean and standard deviation is most used mechanism and in developmental disorder family by (4.3 ± 1.5) mean and standard deviation is least mechanism in neuroticism patient, social phobia affected emotional disorder family (15.6 ± 2.6) and disruptive behavior disorder family have least mean and standard deviation (9.2 ± 1.7) (p< 0.005). Recent research shows significant of study defensive mechanism in psychopathic family of disorder children that affecting on the way of life of persons and interpersonal and intrapersonal relations and method of solving problem in family of them in life, so defensive mechanisms require more attention.

  19. Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa J Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents. Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metropolitan South Australia. There was a significant (all p<0.01 and over two-fold increase in the prevalence of binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting and/or laxative or diuretic misuse and strict dieting or fasting for weight or shape control among both genders. The most common diagnosis in 2005 was either binge eating disorder or other "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS; n = 119, 4.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this population sample the point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors increased over the past decade. Cases of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as currently defined, remain uncommon.

  20. Behavioral and Physiological Factors Associated With Selective Eating in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kelly; Case-Smith, Jane; Nahikian-Nelms, Marcia; Ratliff-Schaub, Karen; Spees, Colleen; Darragh, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    Selective eating is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it is not yet well understood. The objectives of this study were to examine a new definition of selective eating, compare behavioral measures between children with ASD and selective eating and those without selective eating, and determine relationships among behavioral measures and measures of selective eating. Participants were assigned to groups on the basis of number of foods eaten compared with a population-based sample. Results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance indicated no overall effect of group for challenging behaviors, sensory reactivity, or repetitive behaviors. Between-participant tests indicated that scores for compulsive behaviors were significantly lower (p = .036) for the selective eating group. Correlations were moderately strong among variables relating to food intake and behavioral variables, but were not significant between selective eating and behavioral variables. Further research is needed to validate the definition of selective eating and to identify targets for intervention.

  1. Orthorexia nervosa: a frequent eating disordered behavior in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-García, C; Papaianni, M C; Caglioti, F; Procopio, L; Nisticò, C G; Bombardiere, L; Ammendolia, A; Rizza, P; De Fazio, P; Capranica, L

    2012-12-01

    Striving for enhancing athletic performance, many sportsmen undergo rigid dietary habits, which could lead to eating disorders (EDs) or Orthorexia Nervosa (ON), a psychopathological condition characterized by the obsession for high quality food. The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of ON in athletes and to verify the relationship between ON and EDs. Five-hundred-seventy-seven athletes and 217 matched controls were administered the following tests: ORTO-15, Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26), Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS). High positivity to ORTO-15 (28%) and EAT-26 (14%) emerged in athletes, whereas a high rate of BUT positivity was evident among controls (21%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that independent predictors of ON are previous dieting, age, positivity to YBC-EDS, positivity to EAT-26, competition level, and number of YBC-EDS preoccupations and rituals. Sharing many features with both EDs and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, ON represents a crossroad between these pathologic conditions and might compromise the health state of an athlete. Therefore, coaches should consider important to detect symptoms of EDs and ON in their athletes.

  2. Inpatient Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Severe Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E for eating disorders has been developed and evaluated only in outpatient setting. Aim of the paper is to describe a novel model of inpatient treatment, termed inpatient CBT-E, indicated for patients with an eating disorder of clinical severity not manageable in an outpatient setting or that failed outpatient treatment. Inpatient CBT-E is derived by the outpatients CBT-E with some adaptations to rend the treatments suitable for an inpatient setting. The principal adaptations include: 1 multidisciplinary and non-eclectic team composed of physicians, psychologists, dieticians and nurses all trained in CBT; 2 assisted eating; 3 group sessions; and a CBT family module for patients younger than 18 years. The treatment lasts 20 weeks (13 for inpatients followed by seven weeks of residential day treatment and, as CBT-E, is divided in four stages and can be administered in a focused form (CBT-F or in a broad form (CBT-B. A randomized control trial is evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment.

  3. Mortality in individuals with disruptive behavior disorders diagnosed by specialist services - A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, James G; Giørtz Pedersen, Marianne; Erskine, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), inclusive of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are associated with outcomes likely to increase risk of mortality. Using Danish National Registers, a total of 1.92 million individuals including 9495 individuals with DBDs diagnosed...... at time of birth, parental education status, and parental employment status. Over the course of follow up, which totalled 24.9 million person-years, 5580 cohort members died including 78 individuals with DBDs. The mortality rate per 10,000 person-years was 9.66 for individuals with DBDs compared to 2...

  4. Animal behavior as a conceptual framework for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, David; Zor, Rama; Fineberg, Naomi; Hermesh, Haggai

    2012-06-01

    Research on affective disorders may benefit from the methodology of studying animal behavior, in which tools are available for qualitatively and quantitatively measuring and assessing behavior with as much sophistication and attention to detail as in the analysis of the brain. To illustrate this, we first briefly review the characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and then demonstrate how the quinpirole rat model is used as a conceptual model in studying human OCD patients. Like the rat model, the study of OCD in humans is based on video-telemetry, whereby observable, measurable, and relatively objective characteristics of OCD behavior may be extracted. In this process, OCD rituals are defined in terms of the space in which they are executed and the movements (acts) that are performed at each location or object in this space. Accordingly, OCD behavior is conceived of as comprising three hierarchical components: (i) rituals (as defined by the patients); (ii) visits to objects/locations in the environment at which the patient stops during the ritual; and (iii) acts performed at each object/location during visits. Scoring these structural components (behavioral units) is conveniently possible with readily available tools for behavioral description and analysis, providing quantitative and qualitative measures of the OCD hallmarks of repetition and addition, as well as the reduced functionality in OCD behavior. Altogether, the concept that was developed in the context of an animal model provides a useful tool that may facilitate OCD diagnosis, assessment and treatment, and may be similarly applied for other psychiatric disorders.

  5. Suicide Behaviors in Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Update for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Weisler, Richard H

    2016-03-01

    Suicide behaviors (ideation, attempts, and completions) are unfortunately common in patients with bipolar disorder. It is estimated that 25 to 50% attempt suicide at least once during their lifetime, and 6% to 19% complete suicide. Risk factors include a family history of suicide, previous suicide attempts, younger age of onset, comorbid psychiatric illnesses, and psychological constructs like hopelessness. Pharmacologic treatment may impact suicidal behaviors, either increasing vulnerability or resilience. Clinicians need to be particularly sensitive to their patient's thoughts and beliefs about death, particularly during stressful times of life or when in a depressive/mixed episode of bipolar disorder.

  6. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction among Nutrition Major College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael

    2016-10-26

    Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18-25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.

  7. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Food Addiction among Nutrition Major College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8% enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.

  8. Supporting students with mental, psychological and behavioral disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    The presentation will introduce a successful method of helping students with mental, neurological and psychosocial problems that is being developed at the University of Aarhus in Denmark. It includes learning disabilities at university because of schizophrenia, personality disorders, autism......, depression, brain damage or other mental, neurological or psychosocial problems by imitating the practice of craft’s apprenticeship. Older and more advanced students are being assigned to show these students how they should study medicine, law or arts and thereby give them a better chance of being included...... is in many ways similar to being put to a trade, and important for the academic success of the students is their ability to learn certain explicit and tacit abilities. To study medicine, law or arts the students have to learn how to study medicine, law or arts and that includes learning certain study...

  9. Rigid-compulsive behaviors are associated with mixed bowel symptoms in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C; Gorrindo, Phillip; Rosenberg, Daniel; Lee, Evon Batey; Levitt, Pat; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    Based on clinical experience, we hypothesized that rigid-compulsive behaviors are associated with severe constipation and co-occurring diarrhea or underwear staining in children with autism spectrum disorder. Using data from the Autism Treatment Network, we evaluated the association between these gastrointestinal symptoms and measures of rigid compulsive behavior in children ages 2-17. Following statistical correction, four of five primary measures were significantly associated with constipation and diarrhea or underwear staining, including parental report of repetitive behavior, parental report of compulsive behavior, clinician diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and report of rituals observed on the autism diagnostic observation schedule. This association could point to a causal connection between these symptoms or to a common biological pathway that impacts both gut and brain.

  10. Children with emotional and behavioral disorders in special education: Placement, progress, and family functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Stoutjesdijk, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The studies described in this dissertation focus on children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in special education. It was found that poor academic performance, relational problems between children and caregivers, and the age at which youth care was involved for the first time predicted placement in a more restrictive special educational setting over placement in a regular school. No differences in progress outcomes regarding behavioral functioning and academic performance of chi...

  11. The relationship of bottle feeding and other sucking behaviors with speech disorder in Patagonian preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Yanez N David; Jackson Chanaye; Gonzalez Juan; Parada Mary A; Vasquez Sandra; Barbosa Clarita; Gelaye Bizu; Fitzpatrick Annette L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that children's nonnutritive sucking habits may lead to delayed development of their oral anatomy and functioning. However, these findings were inconsistent. We investigated associations between use of bottles, pacifiers, and other sucking behaviors with speech disorders in children attending three preschools in Punta Arenas (Patagonia), Chile. Methods Information on infant feeding and sucking behaviors, age starting and stopping breast- and bot...

  12. Polar Behavior in a Magnetic Perovskite Via A-Site Size Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul-Hong [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    We elucidate a mechanism for obtaining polar behavior in magnetic perovskites based on A-site disorder and demonstrate this mechanism by density functional calculations for the double perovskite (La,Lu)MnNiO{sub 6} with Lu concentrations at and below 50%. We show that this material combines polar behavior and ferromagnetism. The mechanism is quite general and may be applicable to a wide range of magnetic perovskites.

  13. Polar Behavior in a Magnetic Perovskite from A-Site Size Disorder: A Density Functional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D. J.; Park, Chul Hong

    2008-02-01

    We elucidate a mechanism for obtaining polar behavior in magnetic perovskites based on A-site disorder and demonstrate this mechanism by density functional calculations for the double perovskite (La,Lu)MnNiO6 with Lu concentrations at and below 50%. We show that this material combines polar behavior and ferromagnetism. The mechanism is quite general and may be applicable to a wide range of magnetic perovskites.

  14. Frequency of REM sleep behavior disorders in patients with Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Marko; Svetel Marina; Kostić Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Sleep is prompted by natural cycles of activity in the brain and consists of two basic states: rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by violent motor and vocal behavior during REM sleep which represents dream enactment. The normal loss of muscle tone, with the exception of respiratory, sphincter, extra ocular and middle ear muscles, is absent in patients wit...

  15. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Barnett, Lisa M.; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A.; Papadopoulos, Nicole V.; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children’s physical activity (34–166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126–558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428–750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors. PMID

  16. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A; Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J; Barnett, Lisa M; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A; Papadopoulos, Nicole V; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna; Hinkley, Trina

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children's physical activity (34-166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126-558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428-750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors.

  17. Video game access, parental rules, and problem behavior: a study of boys with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Mazurek, Micah O

    2014-07-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to 18 years of age). Parents of these children reported on (1) whether they had specific rules regulating their child's video game use, (2) whether their child had in-room access to a variety of screen-based media devices (television, computer, and video game console), and (3) their child's oppositional behaviors. Multivariate regression models showed that in-room access to a video game console predicted oppositional behavior while controlling for in-room access to other media devices (computer and television) and relevant variables (e.g. average number of video game hours played per day). Additionally, the association between in-room access to a video game console and oppositional behavior was particularly large when parents reported no rules on their child's video game use. The current findings indicate that both access and parental rules regarding video games warrant future experimental and longitudinal research as they relate to problem behavior in boys with autism spectrum disorder.

  18. Hoarding in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Anxiety: Incidence, Clinical Correlates, and Behavioral Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A; Nadeau, Joshua M; Johnco, Carly; Timpano, Kiara; McBride, Nicole; Jane Mutch, P; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of hoarding among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder were administered a battery of clinician-administered measures assessing presence of psychiatric disorders and anxiety severity. Parents completed questionnaires related to child hoarding behaviors, social responsiveness, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and functional impairment. We examined the impact of hoarding behaviors on treatment response in a subsample of twenty-six youth who completed a course of personalized cognitive-behavioral therapy targeting anxiety symptoms. Hoarding symptoms were common and occurred in a clinically significant manner in approximately 25 % of cases. Overall hoarding severity was associated with increased internalizing and anxiety/depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and attention problems. Discarding items was associated with internalizing and anxious/depressive symptoms, but acquisition was not. Hoarding decreased following cognitive-behavioral therapy but did not differ between treatment responders and non-responders. These data are among the first to examine hoarding among youth with ASD; implications of study findings and future directions are highlighted.

  19. The disruptive behavior disorders and the coexisting deficits in the context of theories describing family relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak, Marta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is to understand behavior disturbances and widely comprehended deficits attached to it, with regards to quality of family relations.Method. To explain the etiology and the consequences of the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorder the authors analyzed literature which allowed combining the theory of attachment and the theory of deficits.In the first part of the script the authors described Bowlby’s theory of attachment, which arranges attachment behaviors in behavioral attachment system. To expand comprehension of the subject theymentioned psychoanalytic and system concepts. The second part of the paper is devoted to the definition of deficit phenomenon and determining its different areas on the basis of observations made by the researchers dealing with this matter.Conclusion. In authors’ opinion the deficits occurring in children suffering from disruptive behavior disorder are connected with improper family relations. The disruptive behavior disorders may be a way of defense against narcissistic injury as well as motor discharging of the emotional difficulties.

  20. Effects of Methylphenidate and Behavior Modification on the Social and Academic Behavior of Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: The Moderating Role of Callous/Unemotional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Carrey, Normand J.; Willoughby, Michael T.; King, Sara; Andrade, Brendan F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether response to behavior modification with and without methylphenidate differed for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct problems (CP) depending on the presence of callous/unemotional (CU) traits. Participants were 37 children ages 7 to 12, including 19 with ADHD/CP-only and 18 with…

  1. Parental educational practices in relation to children's anxiety disorder-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Robert C; Moutavelis, Adrianos G

    2011-08-01

    Schoolchildren reported their parents' use of aversive control and positive reinforcement contingencies in their educational interventions, as well as parental non-responsiveness to their requests for educational assistance. They also reported their own levels of six dimensions of anxiety disorder-related phenomena. Both parental use of aversive control and non-responsiveness were directly related to overall levels of child anxiety disorder-related behavior; these correlations were more robust than those observed in previous investigations of more diffuse dimensions of parenting style and trait anxiety. Panic disorder/agoraphobia and Generalized anxiety disorder were the dimensions most strongly correlated with both parental aversive control and non-responsiveness, while Compulsive behavior was uniquely uncorrelated with parental non-responsiveness and uniquely correlated with parental use of positive reinforcement contingencies. Differences in the magnitudes of correlations between anxiety disorder-related dimensions and parental educational practices are interpreted in terms of the probable differential effectiveness of their constituent behaviors in terminating parent-mediated negative reinforcers.

  2. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for externalizing disorders: A meta-analysis of treatment effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battagliese, Gemma; Caccetta, Maria; Luppino, Olga Ines; Baglioni, Chiara; Cardi, Valentina; Mancini, Francesco; Buonanno, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    Externalizing disorders are the most common and persistent forms of maladjustment in childhood. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to reduce externalizing symptoms in two disorders: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositive Defiant Disorder (ODD). The efficacy of CBT to improve social competence and positive parenting and reduce internalizing behaviors, parent stress and maternal depression was also explored. The database PsycInfo, PsycARTICLES, Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that the biggest improvement, after CBT, was in ODD symptoms (-0.879) followed by parental stress (-0.607), externalizing symptoms (-0.52), parenting skills (-0.381), social competence (-0.390) and ADHD symptoms (-0.343). CBT was also associated with improved attention (-0.378), aggressive behaviors (-0.284), internalizing symptoms (-0.272) and maternal depressive symptoms (-0.231). Overall, CBT is an effective treatment option for externalizing disorders and is also associated with reduced parental distress and maternal depressive symptoms. Multimodal treatments targeting both children and caregivers' symptoms (e.g. maternal depressive symptoms) appear important to produce sustained and generalized benefits.

  3. Oral health status, dental anxiety, and behavior-management problems in children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminabadi, Naser A; Najafpour, Ebrahim; Erfanparast, Leila; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Tamjid-Shabestari, Shabnam; Shirazi, Sajjad

    2016-02-01

    Mental disorders have been shown to affect children's oral health. This study was carried out to investigate the oral health status, dental anxiety (DA), and behavior-management problems (BMPs) during dental treatment in 6- to 9-yr-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study and control groups included 40 children with ODD/ADHD and 80 normal children, respectively. All participants received an amalgam restoration. During the procedure, the children's behavior was assessed using the Frankl Rating Scale and the Verbal Skill Scale. Parents rated their children's DA using the parental version of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental subscale (CFSS-DS). Comorbid anxiety disorders were assessed using the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed using the gingival index and the decayed, missing, and filled teeth score for permanent (DMFT) and primary (dmft) teeth. The findings showed that DA and BMPs were significantly higher in children with ODD/ADHD than in the controls. Furthermore, the frequency of DA and BMPs was higher in children with both ODD/ADHD and a comorbid anxiety disorder than in those without comorbid anxiety disorder. Children with ODD/ADHD had significantly higher DMFT/dmft scores than those in the control group, whereas the difference in gingival index was not statistically significant. In conclusion, children with ODD/ADHD had higher levels of DA, BMP and poorer oral health status.

  4. 睡眠行为障碍%Sleep behavior disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何荆贵; 张熙; 王鲁宁

    2006-01-01

    睡眠行为障碍(sleep behavior disorder,SBD)又称异睡症(parasomnias),系指睡眠或睡眠-觉醒转换时出现异常行为的一组疾病。按照1997年睡眠疾病的国际分类(International Classification of Sleep Disorders),本组疾病包括觉醒障碍、睡眠-觉醒转换障碍、快速眼球转动(快速眼动)睡眠期相关的睡眠行为障碍及其他睡眠行为障碍等4类20余种睡眠疾病。

  5. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors between Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jakicic, John M.; Barone Gibbs, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were…

  6. Adding cognitive-behavioral therapy to pharmacotherapy for panic disorder: Issues and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, M.W.; Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite ample evidence of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of patients with panic disorder (PD), dissemination of this evidence is proceeding slowly. This article highlights some of the issues surrounding the dissemination of CBT for PD and suggests strategies for

  7. STARS: Striving Together and Reaching Success; A Behavior Disorders Program Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Valerie E.; Dowda, Martha L.

    The manual introduces the framework of STARS (Striving Together and Reaching Success), a program for serving behaviorally disordered students in grades 1-8. The underlying philosophy is to provide a consistently structured instructional program to promote successful reintegration into a less restrictive educational setting. An overview section…

  8. Reduced sympathetic activity in idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Mehlsen, Jesper; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    More than 50% of patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) will develop Parkinson's disease or Lewy body dementia. In a previous study, we found attenuated heart rate responses in iRBD and Parkinson's disease patients during sleep. The current study aimed to evaluate heart rate...

  9. Impact of Comorbidity on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Larson, Michael J.; Geffken, Gary R.; Lehmkuh, Heather D.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2008-01-01

    A chronic psychiatric condition among children and adolescents of concern is obsessive-compulsive disorder, which involves comorbid conditions. The impact of a range of comorbid illnesses on cognitive-behavioral therapy response and remission rates was conducted, with results revealing a negative impact on treatment response.

  10. Clinical Considerations when Tailoring Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Young Children with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Przeworski, Amy; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy, and in particular, exposure with response prevention for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), has only been systematically evaluated in children and adolescents ages 7-17. These treatments do not address the unique characteristics of young children with OCD. This paper discusses…

  11. Dysfunctional beliefs in group and individual cognitive behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hjalti; Hougaard, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to investigate dysfunctional beliefs in the form of inflated responsibility (IR) and thought action fusion (TAF) as predictive and mediating variables in Individual (n = 33) and Group (n = 37) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD...

  12. Intergenerational Transmission of Internalizing Problems: Effects of Parental and Grandparental Major Depressive Disorder on Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Roberts, Robert E.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of lifetime histories of grandparental (G1) and parental (G2) major depressive disorder (MDD) on children's (G3) internalizing problems were investigated among 267 G3 children (ages 2-18 years) who received Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) ratings and had diagnostic data available on 267 biological G2 parents and 527 biological G1…

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Prevent Relapse in Pediatric Responders to Pharmacotherapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn L.; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Jones, Jessica M.; Tao, Rongrong; Stewart, Sunita M.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2008-01-01

    The outcome of a sequential treatment strategy that included cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the prevention of major depressive disorder relapse among 46 youths is examined. Results show that youths under the antidepressant medication management plus relapse prevention CBT treatment was at lower risk for relapse than those under the…

  14. D-cycloserine augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, S.; Otto, M.W.; Pollack, M.H.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a generally effective treatment for treating anxiety disorders, there is clearly still room for further improvements. Recent advances in neuroscience of extinction learning led to novel clinical strategies to augment exposure-based treatments with d-cyc

  15. Sport-Based Group Therapy Program for Boys with ADHD or with Other Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, Dubi; Parish-Plass, Jim

    2011-01-01

    A group of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was compared to children with other behavior and emotional problems. All the participants participated together in 20 weekly sessions for 1 academic year. The participants were assessed with three questionnaires on three different occasions: before the beginning of the group,…

  16. Capacity and Opportunity: Predicting Engagement for Middle School Students with Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Marsha Dempsey; Martin, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the capacity and opportunity scores of 36 middle school students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) on the student version of the "American Institutes for Research (AIR) Self-Determination Scale" across three school engagement factors: grade point averages (GPA), school absences, and frequency of school…

  17. Stakeholders' Voices: Defining Needs of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Transitioning between School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Rohanna; Nese, Rhonda N. T.; Clark, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) too often do not receive adequate services or care in their school settings, particularly during transitions in educational placements. In addition, school support teams often struggle with creating transition plans that honor the needs of students with input from key stakeholders responsible…

  18. Pretreatment and Process Predictors of Outcome in Interpersonal and Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Saelens, Brian E.; Stein, Richard I.; Mockus, Danyte S.; Welch, R. Robinson; Matt, Georg E.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined pretreatment and process predictors of individual nonresponse to psychological group treatment of binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized trial, 162 overweight patients with BED were treated with either group cognitive-behavioral therapy or group interpersonal psychotherapy. Treatment nonresponse, which was defined…

  19. The Relationship between Body Dysmorphic Disorder Behaviors and the Acquired Capability for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Tracy K.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Menard, William; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 200 individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), we utilized the interpersonal-psychological theory for suicide as a framework to examine BDD behaviors that might be associated with suicide risk, insofar as they might increase the acquired capability for suicide. We predicted that physically painful BDD behaviors…

  20. The Association between Epilepsy and Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscidi, Emma W.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Spence, Sarah J.; Buka, Stephen L.; Morrow, Eric M.; Triche, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but little is known about how seizures impact the autism phenotype. The association between epilepsy and autism symptoms and associated maladaptive behaviors was examined in 2,645 children with ASD, of whom 139 had epilepsy, from the Simons Simplex Collection. Children with ASD and…

  1. The Impact of Labels and Behaviors on the Stigmatization of Adults with Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Robert C.; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is a paucity of literature on stigmatization of adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD). Therefore, this study examined whether young adults hold stigmatizing views towards individuals with AD and if that stigmatization is elicited by behaviors or labels. College students (N = 195) read one of six vignettes. A modified Social…

  2. Understanding and Developing Academic and Behavioral Interventions for Students with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killu, Kim; Crundwell, R. Marc A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in practices for effectively designing and delivering instruction for students with disabilities, educators continue to face challenges addressing the needs of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Little information is available for educators on accommodations and modifications that would serve the needs…

  3. Movement disorders in adults with intellectual disability and behavioral problems associated with use of antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheifes, A.; Walraven, S.; Stolker, J.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Tenback, D.E.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Heerdink, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antipsychotic drugs are prescribed to approximately 30% to 40% of adults with intellectual disability (ID) and behavioral problems despite lack of evidence of effectiveness and potential adverse effects, including movement disorders. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the prevale

  4. Mediated Moderation in Combined Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Component Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michelle G.; Fisher, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examined (a) duration of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a moderator of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) versus its components (cognitive therapy and self-control desensitization) and (b) increases in dynamic flexibility of anxious symptoms during the course of psychotherapy as a mediator of this moderation. Degree of…

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Intermittent Explosive Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Michael S.; Noblett, Kurtis L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Gollan, Jackie K.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2008-01-01

    No randomized clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of psychotherapy for intermittent explosive disorder (IED). In the present study, the authors tested the efficacy of 12-week group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapies (adapted from J. L. Deffenbacher & M. McKay, 2000) by comparing them with a wait-list control in a randomized…

  6. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Where Counseling and Neuroscience Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinson, Ryan A.; Young, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to support the biological basis of mental disorders. Subsequently, understanding the neurobiological context from which mental distress arises can help counselors appropriately apply cognitive behavioral therapy and other well-researched cognitive interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the…

  7. Designing Context-Aware Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Frost, Mads; Tuxen, Nanna;

    2016-01-01

    This position paper presents our preliminary design of context-aware cognitive behavioral therapy for unipolar and bipolar disorders. We report on the background for this study and the methods applied in the ongoing design process. The paper ends by presenting and discussing different design...

  8. Cognitive Set Shifting Deficits and Their Relationship to Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Haylie L.; Ragozzino, Michael E.; Cook, Edwin H.; Sweeney, John A.; Mosconi, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive impairments associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not yet clear. Prior studies indicate that individuals with ASD show reduced cognitive flexibility, which could reflect difficulty shifting from a previously learned response pattern or a failure to maintain a new…

  9. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

  10. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors as Predictors of Outcome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyb, Eva; Knoch, Kelley; Herlihy, Lauren; Stevens, Michael C.; Chen, Chi-Ming; Barton, Marianne; Treadwell, Kimberli; Fein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Questions have been raised about the significance of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in predicting outcomes of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Previous studies have yielded mixed findings, but some suggest that the presence of RRBs during preschool years is a negative prognostic indicator for later childhood. This study…

  11. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  12. Beyond Borderline Personality Disorder: Dialectical Behavior Therapy in a College Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, Amberly R.; Uschold, Carissa C.; Olandese, Michelle; Linn, Braden K.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the efficacy of a dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program with a general college counseling center population, not limited to students diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. A review of records of 64 students found that obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, paranoia,…

  13. Terapia comportamental cognitiva para pessoas com transtorno bipolar Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lotufo Neto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  14. Prospective Associations among Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms, Interpersonal Problems, and Aggressive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Smith, Tiffany D.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prospective relationships among borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms, interpersonal problems, and types of aggressive behaviors (i.e., experiencing psychological and physical victimization and perpetrating psychological and physical aggression) in a psychiatric sample (N = 139) over the course of 2 years. We…

  15. Social Networking Web Sites: Teaching Appropriate Social Competence to Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The Internet has opened a variety of different avenues for people to interact with each other. As new digital environments are developed, new sets of social skills are needed to appropriately interact. Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often have deficits in social competence and require specialized training in specific social…

  16. Sociosexuality Education for Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Pamela S.; Condo, Bethany; Hardaway, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis (ABA) has emerged as one of the most effective empirically based strategies for instructing individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Four ABA-based strategies that have been found effective are video modeling, visual strategies, social script fading, and task analysis. Individuals with ASD often struggle with…

  17. Children with emotional and behavioral disorders in special education : Placement, progress, and family functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutjesdijk, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The studies described in this dissertation focus on children with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in special education. It was found that poor academic performance, relational problems between children and caregivers, and the age at which youth care was involved for the first time predicted

  18. Friends or foes ? : predictors of treatment outcome of cognitieve behavioral therapy for childhood anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liber, Juliëtte Margo

    2008-01-01

    The present dissertation had as its central focus the prediction of outcome of the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. In the present study a selection of variables that were thought to have prognostic validity for successful cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) outcome were explored in a popu

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety and Phobic Disorders in Children and Adolescents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Neville J.; Heyne, David; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of cognitive-behavioural strategies used in the treatment of child-anxiety problems, emphasizing the need for exposure and caregiver involvement. Most of the paper focuses on developments in empirically supported cognitive-behavioral intervention protocols for generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  20. Impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment on Quality of Life in Panic Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telch, Michael J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Patients (n=156) meeting criteria for panic disorder with agoraphobia were randomly assigned to group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) or a delayed-treatment control. Compared with the control group, CBT-treated patients showed significant reductions in impairment that were maintained at follow-up. Anxiety and phobic avoidance were…

  1. What Are They Thinking? The Moral Judgment of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe the moral judgment of 12 third- through fifth-grade children with and without emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and to explore how feelings affected their thought processes. Data were gathered via three individually conducted moral dilemma interviews with each child participant. These procedures produced…

  2. Video Game Use and Problem Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Engelhardt, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have strong preferences for screen-based media, particularly video games. Although problematic video game use has been associated with behavior problems among typically developing children, the relationship between these variables has not been previously examined among children with ASD. The current…

  3. Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders in a Residential School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Robin Parks

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) have academic deficits that affect their success in school; however, few researchers have investigated what strategies work best for this population, especially in the area of writing. One promising intervention to support the writing skills of students with and at-risk for E/BD is…

  4. Antecedent Classroom Factors and Disruptive Behaviors of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Asmus, Jennifer M.; Boyd, Brian A.; Ladwig, Crystal N.; Sellers, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between antecedent classroom factors and the disruptive behaviors of five elementary-aged students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the influence of four types of molar antecedent classroom factors (i.e., instructional setting, instructional activity,…

  5. Callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder: Predictors of developmental trajectories and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Manfredi, Azzurra; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-02-28

    The present study investigated trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis followed-up from childhood to adolescence, to explore possible predictors of these trajectories, and to individuate adolescent clinical outcomes. A sample of 59 Italian referred children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (53 boys and 6 girls, 21 with Conduct Disorder) was followed up from childhood to adolescence. CU traits were assessed with CU-scale of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-parent report. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits are likely to decrease linearly from 9 to 15 years old, with a deceleration in adolescence (from 12 to 15). There was substantial individual variability in the rate of change of CU traits over time: patients with a minor decrease of CU symptoms during childhood were at increased risk for severe behavioral problems and substance use into adolescence. Although lower level of socio-economic status and lower level of parenting involvement were associated to elevated levels of CU traits at baseline evaluation, none of the considered clinical and environmental factors predicted the levels of CU traits. The current longitudinal research suggests that adolescent outcomes of Disruptive Behavior Disorder be influenced by CU traits trajectories during childhood.

  6. Behavioral Inhibition and Risk for Developing Social Anxiety Disorder: A Meta-Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, Jacqueline A.; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral inhibition (BI) has been associated with increased risk for developing social anxiety disorder (SAD); however, the degree of risk associated with BI has yet to be systematically examined and quantified. The goal of the present study was to quantify the association between childhood BI and risk for developing SAD. Method: A…

  7. Behavioral Interventions to Address Sleep Disturbances in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kylan S.; Johnson, Cynthia R.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common occurrence among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition to the adverse effects that sleep problems present for children's neurodevelopment, learning, and daytime behaviors, these sleep problems also present significant challenges for the entire family. This article outlines the results of a…

  8. Screening High School Students for Eating Disorders: Validity of Brief Behavioral and Attitudinal Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; Ziyadeh, Najat J.; Franko, Debra L.; McDonald, Julia; Mond, Jonathan M.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Early identification can greatly impact the trajectory of eating disorders, and school-based screening is 1 avenue for identifying those at risk. To be feasible in a school setting, a screening program must use a brief, valid screening tool. The aim of this study was to assess how well brief attitudinal and behavioral survey items…

  9. The Impact of Motivational Interviewing on Client Experiences of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertes, Angela; Westra, Henny A.; Angus, Lynne; Marcus, Madalyn

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) has recently been applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders in an effort to bolster engagement with and response rates to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a recent randomized control trial, the addition of MI as a pretreatment compared to no pretreatment was found to significantly improve response to CBT…

  10. Facial Mimicry in 6-7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, Peter; Munsters, Nicolette; Kenemans, Leon; Schutter, Dennis; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age.

  11. Challenging Behavior and Co-Morbid Psychopathology in Adults with Intellectual Disability and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jane; Hemmings, Colin; Kravariti, Eugenia; Dworzynski, Katharina; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (N=124) as compared to adults with ID only (N=562). All participants were first time referrals to specialist mental health services and were living in community settings.…

  12. Long-Term Post-Intensive Behavioral Intervention Outcomes for Five Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anne B.; Healy, Olive

    2010-01-01

    Research clearly indicates that early intensive behavioral intervention is an effective intervention for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However little is known about the longitudinal development of these children. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes for a number of children with ASD following intensive…

  13. K-12 Principal's Perceptions of Educational Programming for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (EBD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Richard; Beaudoin, Kathleen M.; Benner, Greg

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated school administrators' perceptions of the effectiveness of their programs serving students with emotional behavioral disorders (EBD). Specifically, the perceptions of principals in schools that provided self-contained programs were compared to the perceptions of principals in schools without self-contained programs. Also…

  14. Social Validation of Services for Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Kathleen M.; Knuth, Richard; Benner, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of 302 building administrators regarding their building level programs serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Comparisons were made between administrators of schools that housed self-contained programs and administrators from schools without self-contained programs on factors…

  15. Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaat, Aaron J.; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) is a widely used measure in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treatment studies. We conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the ABC in 1,893 children evaluated as part of the Autism Treatment Network. The root mean square error of approximation was .086 for the standard item assignment, and in…

  16. Factor Analysis of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Jason; Nations, Laura; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hall, Alicia; Wright, Harry H.; Gabriels, Robin; Gilbert, John R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A. O.; Cuccaro, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (varimax and promax rotations) of the aberrant behavior checklist-community version (ABC) in 275 individuals with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified four- and five-factor solutions which accounted for greater than 70% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (Lisrel 8.7) revealed indices of moderate fit for…

  17. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  18. Two-Day, Intensive Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a highly effective treatment for panic disorder. However, few patients have access to this treatment, particularly those living in rural areas. In a pilot study, the author previously described the efficacy of a 2-day, intensive, exposure-based CBT intervention that was developed for the purpose of delivering…

  19. A single-question screen for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hogl, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is an important risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. Its prevalence is unknown. One barrier to determining prevalence is that current screening tools are too long for large-scale epi...

  20. Use of dialectical behavior therapy in a partial hospital program for women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E B; Pistorello, J; Begin, A; Costello, E; Levinson, J; Mulberry, S; Pearlstein, T; Rosen, K; Stevens, M

    1998-05-01

    Dialectical behavior therapy, an outpatient psychosocial treatment for chronically suicidal women with borderline personality disorder, has been adapted for use in a partial hospital program for women. Patients attend the program for a minimum of five days of individual and group therapy, and full census is 12 women. About 65 percent of participants meet at least three criteria for borderline personality disorder, and most have suicidal and self-injurious behavior. Their comorbid diagnoses include trauma-related diagnoses and anxiety disorders, severe eating disorders, substance abuse, and depression. The partial hospital program is linked to an aftercare program offering six months of outpatient skills training based on dialectical behavior therapy. Both programs focus on teaching patients four skills: mindfulness (attention to one's experience), interpersonal effectiveness, emotional regulation, and distress tolerance. Two years of operation of the women's partial hospital program provides promising anecdotal evidence that dialectical behavioral therapy, an outpatient approach, can be effectively modified for partial hospital settings and a more diverse population.

  1. Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders to Self-Advocate through Persuasive Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Sanchez, Yojanna; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Kidd, Julie K.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) model of writing instruction with a self-determination training component for middle school-age students with emotional and behavioral disorders. We randomly assigned students to experimental or comparison treatments during which special education teachers provided the…

  2. Reading Instruction for Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in a Juvenile Correctional Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-DeBoer, Robyn A.; Malmgren, Kimber W.; Glass, Mary-Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a systematic, phonics-based reading intervention on the oral reading fluency and accuracy of adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) receiving educational services in a juvenile correctional facility. A multiple-baseline design across four participants was used to calculate the effect of daily,…

  3. Risk Factors Associated with Self-Injurious Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Emma G.; Oatley, Hannah K.; Mak-Fan, Kathleen M.; McGrath, Patricia A.; Taylor, Margot J.; Szatmari, Peter; Roberts, S. Wendy

    2012-01-01

    While self-injurious behaviors (SIB) can cause significant morbidity for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little is known about its associated risk factors. We assessed 7 factors that may influence self-injury in a large cohort of children with ASD: (a) atypical sensory processing; (b) impaired cognitive ability; (c) abnormal…

  4. Psychodynamic psychotherapy versus cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder: An efficacy and partial effectiveness trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bögels; P. Wijts; F.J. Oort; S.J.M. Sallaerts

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Comparing the overall and differential effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) versus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Design: Patients with a primary SAD (N = 47) were randomly assigned to PDT (N = 22) or CBT (N = 27). Both PDT and CBT consisted o

  5. Individual psychological and social risk factors for violent criminal behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova A.A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the risk factors for criminal aggression in adolescents with an organic mental disorder depending on the level of social deviations or severity of pathopsychological factor. The study involved 113 male adolescents aged 15 to 17 years. The main group consisted of juvenile offenders with organic mental disorder. We used the methods of investigation to determine the individual psychological characteristics, we also used structured risk assessment methods. It is shown that risk factors for criminal aggressive behavior in adolescents with organic mental disorder are a high level of proactive and reactive aggression, combined with underdeveloped mechanisms deter aggressive intentions. With the increase of organic disease, these features become more stable. An important role in shaping the aggressive criminal behavior plays an unsuccessful social environment. Interfamily problems, social deprivation, learning difficulties, communication in antisocial groups and substance abuse - all this increases the risk of aggressive illegal actions.

  6. Targeted Nutritional and Behavioral Feeding Intervention for a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Barnhill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of feeding issues and concerns, including food aversion, food selectivity, and complete food refusal, are not uncommon among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Other underlying issues are often comorbid with the concerns for feeding and ASD. These may include food allergies, gastrointestinal issues, oral motor issues, and swallowing disorders. The refusal to consume particular foods coupled with the inability to tolerate, digest, and absorb these foods can compromise an individual’s overall nutrition status. Therefore, a child’s behavior toward food and feeding activities has great impact on dietary intake, nutritional status, and growth. This case report is the first to document combined medical, behavioral, and nutritional intervention for a toddler with ASD and comorbid feeding disorder.

  7. Targeted Nutritional and Behavioral Feeding Intervention for a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Kelly; Tami, Amanda; Schutte, Claire; Hewitson, Laura; Olive, Melissa L

    2016-01-01

    A variety of feeding issues and concerns, including food aversion, food selectivity, and complete food refusal, are not uncommon among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Other underlying issues are often comorbid with the concerns for feeding and ASD. These may include food allergies, gastrointestinal issues, oral motor issues, and swallowing disorders. The refusal to consume particular foods coupled with the inability to tolerate, digest, and absorb these foods can compromise an individual's overall nutrition status. Therefore, a child's behavior toward food and feeding activities has great impact on dietary intake, nutritional status, and growth. This case report is the first to document combined medical, behavioral, and nutritional intervention for a toddler with ASD and comorbid feeding disorder.

  8. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized...... by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however...... with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic...

  9. Behavioral, cognitive, and family therapy for obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neziroglu, F; Hsia, C; Yaryura-Tobias, J A

    2000-09-01

    Behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy, individually and combined, are a solid base in any therapy, the goal of which is to decrease the maladaptive behaviors associated with obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. Future research into this area involves two branches: (1) better resolution in what components of current treatments are effective and (2) a better understanding of the cause of OCD. The therapies of choice are behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy, but often what is described as behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy varies. Further refinement of the specific components of behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy that directly apply to OCD is needed. The specific components likely include the use of ERP and rational emotive behavioral therapy but often even these therapies can be parceled into smaller discrete parts. Many facets still have not been explored thoroughly (e.g., the extent of exposure to adverse situations needed, ideal length of therapy, time needed for exposure, and the use of virtual reality versus traditional exposures). A better understanding of the biological basis for OCD also would further the field. A better understanding of the basis of this disorder also would help clinicians to treat it with medication and behavioral therapy. Research into how behavioral therapy and cognitive therapy makes neurophysiologic changes would show the effectiveness of the treatment and a biological basis. Such studies could include the use of MR imaging during different stages in behavioral therapy and the use of functional during therapy to observe changes in the brain. Although OCD still is not fully understood, researchers are now beginning to understand how to treat it, and a solid base of empiric data now exists. The authors hope that investigators will continue research toward a better understanding of this disorder so that clinicians can better help their patients.

  10. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment of Behavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Fayyazi A, Salari E, Khajeh A, Ghajarpour A. A Comparison of Risperidone and Buspirone for Treatment ofBehavior Disorders in Children with Phenylketonuria. Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn; 8(4:33-38.AbstractObjectiveMany patients with late-diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU suffer from severe behavior problems. This study compares the effects of buspirone and risperidone on reducing behavior disorders in these patients.Materials & MethodsIn this crossover clinical trial study, patients with severe behavior disorders after medical examination were randomly divided into two groups of two 8-week crossover treatments with risperidone or buspirone. Patient behavioral disorders before and after treatment by each drug was rated by parents on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF, and after treatment by each drug, were assessed by a physician through clinical global impression (CGI.ResultsThirteen patients were able to complete the therapy period with these two medications.The most common psychiatric diagnoses were intellectual disability accompanied by pervasive developmental disorder NOS, and intellectual disability accompanied by autistic disorder. Risperidone was significantly effective in reducing the NCBRF subscales of hyperactivity disruptive/ stereotypic, and conduct problems. Treatment by buspirone only significantly decreased the severity of hyperactivity, but other behavior aspects showed no significant differences. Assessment of the severity of behavior disorder after treatment by risperidone and buspirone showed significant differences in reducing hyperactivity and masochistic/stereotype.ConclusionAlthough buspirone is effective in controlling hyperactivity in patients with PKU, it has no preference over risperidone. Therefore, it is recommended as an alternative to risperidone.ReferencesSmith I, Nowles JK. Behaviour in early treated phenylketonuria: a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr 2000;159:89-93.Targum SD

  11. A novel analytical framework for dissecting the genetic architecture of behavioral symptoms in neuropsychiatric disorders.

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    Anthony J Deo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders, a categorical classification system is often utilized as a simple way for conceptualizing an often complex clinical picture. This approach provides an unsatisfactory model of mental illness, since in practice patients do not conform to these prototypical diagnostic categories. Family studies show notable familial co-aggregation between schizophrenia and bipolar illness and between schizoaffective disorders and both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, revealing that mental illness does not conform to such categorical models and is likely to follow a continuum encompassing a spectrum of behavioral symptoms. RESULTS AND METHODOLOGY: We introduce an analytic framework to dissect the phenotypic heterogeneity present in complex psychiatric disorders based on the conceptual paradigm of a continuum of psychosis. The approach identifies subgroups of behavioral symptoms that are likely to be phenotypically and genetically homogenous. We have evaluated this approach through analysis of simulated data with simulated behavioral traits and predisposing genetic factors. We also apply this approach to a psychiatric dataset of a genome scan for schizophrenia for which extensive behavioral information was collected for each individual patient and their families. With this approach, we identified significant evidence for linkage among depressed individuals with two distinct symptom profiles, that is individuals with sleep disturbance symptoms with linkage on chromosome 2q13 and also a mutually exclusive group of individuals with symptoms of concentration problems with linkage on chromosome 2q35. In addition we identified a subset of individuals with schizophrenia defined by language disturbances with linkage to chromosome 2p25.1 and a group of patients with a phenotype intermediate between those of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with linkage to chromosome 2p21. CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented

  12. Social learning theory and cognitive behavioral models of body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neziroglu, Fugen; Khemlani-Patel, Sony; Veale, David

    2008-03-01

    Contemporary cognitive behavioral models of body dysmorphic disorder are reviewed, whereby the first by Neziroglu and colleagues emphasizes conditioning processes and relational frame theory and the latter by Veale emphasizes information processing. A brief review of the existing cognitive behavioral therapy research follows the presentation of the models. The majority of publications on BDD continue to deal with phenomenology and epidemiology, and much more research on cognitive behavioral treatment is needed. Treatment research should be geared towards testing elements of the models explicated in this article, and randomized controlled trials are greatly needed.

  13. "Nudges" to Prevent Behavioral Risk Factors Associated With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodend, Ashleigh; Schölmerich, Vera; Denktaş, Semiha

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder-colloquially called "depression"-is a primary global cause of disability. Current preventive interventions, such as problem-solving therapy, are effective but also expensive. "Nudges" are easy and cheap interventions for altering behavior. We have explored how nudging can reduce three behavioral risk factors of depression: low levels of physical activity, inappropriate coping mechanisms, and inadequate maintenance of social ties. These nudges use cognitive biases associated with these behavioral risks, such as valuing the present more than the future, following the herd or the norm, making different choices in light of equivalent conditions, and deciding on the basis of salience or attachment to status quo.

  14. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children With ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... scale than children within the other three groups. Main effects of diagnosis appeared in ADHD children on the Inhibit, Emotional Control, and Working Memory scales, and on the Shift and Emotional Control scales in anxious children. Conclusion: The results indicate that a behavioral dysregulation in ADHD...

  15. Comparative analysis of autistic traits and behavioral disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome and Asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD.

  16. Road trauma in teenage male youth with childhood disruptive behavior disorders: a population based analysis.

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    Donald A Redelmeier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teenage male drivers contribute to a large number of serious road crashes despite low rates of driving and excellent physical health. We examined the amount of road trauma involving teenage male youth that might be explained by prior disruptive behavior disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of consecutive male youth between age 16 and 19 years hospitalized for road trauma (cases or appendicitis (controls in Ontario, Canada over 7 years (April 1, 2002 through March 31, 2009. Using universal health care databases, we identified prior psychiatric diagnoses for each individual during the decade before admission. Overall, a total of 3,421 patients were admitted for road trauma (cases and 3,812 for appendicitis (controls. A history of disruptive behavior disorders was significantly more frequent among trauma patients than controls (767 of 3,421 versus 664 of 3,812, equal to a one-third increase in the relative risk of road trauma (odds ratio  =  1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.54, p<0.001. The risk was evident over a range of settings and after adjustment for measured confounders (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.21-1.56, p<0.001. The risk explained about one-in-20 crashes, was apparent years before the event, extended to those who died, and persisted among those involved as pedestrians. CONCLUSIONS: Disruptive behavior disorders explain a significant amount of road trauma in teenage male youth. Programs addressing such disorders should be considered to prevent injuries.

  17. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in the Context of Asperger's Syndrome: A Single-Subject Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Herbert, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Asperger's Syndrome (AS) is a developmental disorder characterized by social impairment, highly circumscribed interests, repetitive behaviors, and motor clumsiness. The social impairment features of AS are similar to characteristics of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, little is known about the comorbidity of these disorders or the treatment…

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Youth with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles, Robert R.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed…

  19. Reflections on the Future of Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders: A Response to Colvin, Forness, and Nelson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Alec F.; Albrecht, Susan Fread; George, Cheryl L.; Mathur, Sarup R.; Paget, Mike; Ryan, Joseph B.; White, Richard B.; Baker, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In issue 37(1) of this journal, the authors published the findings of three studies addressing the status of Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) as an organization and of the field of special education for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD). In order to continue discussion of the status of CCBD, the editors…

  20. Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Adolescents with ASD: Comparisons to Youth with Intellectual Disability or Typical Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce L.; Blacher, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Dual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and behavior problems and/or mental disorders has become increasingly recognized and studied. Reported rates in samples of mixed-age youth with ASD are often above 70%, making this comorbidity more the rule than the exception. The present study compared rates of disruptive behavior disorder…

  1. Stop Hurting Start Helping. Empathy in children with disruptive behavior, attention-deficit and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, P.K.H.

    2014-01-01

    To date, various psychiatric disorders such as disruptive behavior, attention-deficit/hyperactivity and autism spectrum disorders have been associated with deficits in empathy in school-aged children and adolescents. In this dissertation, behavioral and physiological measures were used to study empa

  2. Wilson?s disease presenting as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a possible window to early treatment

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    Gotthard G. Tribl

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To describe characteristics of REM sleep behavior disorder in Wilson’s disease. Method Questionnaire-based interviews (patients and relatives, neurological examinations, two-week prospective dream-diary, video-polysomnography, transcranial sonography, MRI. Results Four Wilson’s disease cases with REM sleep behavior disorder were described; three had REM sleep behavior disorder as initial symptom. All showed mesencephalic tegmental/tectal sonographic hyperechogenicities and two presented ponto-mesencephalic tegmental MRI hyperintensities. Conclusion This first description of REM sleep behavior disorder in Wilson’s disease in literature documents REM sleep behavior disorder as a possible presenting symptom of Wilson’s disease and adds further evidence to the parallelism of Parkinson’s disease and Wilson’s disease in phenotype and brainstem topography, which ought to be further studied. REM sleep behavior disorder has prognostic relevance for neurodegeneration in α-synucleinopathies. In Wilson’s disease, usefulness of early diagnosis and treatment are already well established. REM sleep behavior disorder in Wilson’s disease offers a possible theoretical model for potential early treatment in this extrapyramidal and brainstem paradigm syndrome, previewing the possibility of neuroprotective treatment for REM sleep behavior disorder in “pre-clinical” Parkinson’s disease.

  3. An Integrative, Cognitive-Behavioral, Systemic Approach to Working with Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, Margaret Ann; Lambie, Glenn W.; Walter, Sara Meghan

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent diagnostic disorder for many students, which correlates with negative academic, social, and personal consequences. This article presents an integrative, cognitive-behavioral, systemic approach that offers behaviorally based interventions for professional school counselors to support…

  4. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786

  5. Examining Convergence of Retrospective and Ecological Momentary Assessment Measures of Negative Affect and Eating Disorder Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich, Joseph A.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Engel, Scott G.; Le Grange, Daniel; Mitchell, James E.; Crosby, Ross D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Data gathered via retrospective forms of assessment are subject to various recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is an alternative approach involving repeated momentary assessments within a participant's natural environment, thus reducing recall biases and improving ecological validity. EMA has been used in numerous prior studies examining various constructs of theoretical relevance to eating disorders. Method This investigation includes data from three previously published studies with distinct clinical samples: (a) women with anorexia nervosa (N=118), (b) women with bulimia nervosa (N=133), and (c) obese men and women (N=50; 9 with current binge eating disorder). Each study assessed negative affective states and eating disorder behaviors using traditional retrospective assessments and EMA. Spearman rho correlations were used to evaluate the concordance of retrospective versus EMA measures of affective and/or behavioral constructs in each sample. Bland-Altman plots were also used to further evaluate concordance in the assessment of eating disorder behaviors. Results There was moderate to strong concordance for the measures of negative affective states across all three studies. Moderate to strong concordance was also found for the measures of binge eating and exercise frequency. The strongest evidence of concordance across measurement approaches was found for purging behaviors. Discussion Overall, these preliminary findings support the convergence of retrospective and EMA assessments of both negative affective states and various eating disorder behaviors. Given the advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these assessment approaches, the specific questions being studied in future empirical studies should inform decisions regarding selection of the most appropriate method. PMID:25195932

  6. Clarifying the Behavioral Economics of Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Interpersonal Problems and Symptom Severity on Generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G; Taylor, Kristin P; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is associated with lower interpersonal warmth, possibly explaining its associated interpersonal impairment. Across two samples, we attempted to replicate previous findings that the disorder's constraint of interpersonal warmth can be detected via behavioral economic tasks. We also tested the test-retest stability of task indices. Results indicated that factors associated with social anxiety disorder (and not the disorder itself), such as the severity of social anxiety and more extreme interpersonal problems, lead to less generous behavior on the economic task examined. Results were clearest regarding fine-grained indices derived from latent trajectories. Unexpectedly, the combination of generalized anxiety disorder and higher depression also restricted generosity. Two of three indices showed acceptable test-retest stability. Maladaptive giving behavior may be a treatment target to improve interpersonal functioning in psychiatric disorders; therefore, future work should more precisely characterize behavioral economic tasks, including basic psychometric work (i.e., tests of reliability and validity).

  7. Purging behavior in anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, René Klinkby; Andries, Alin; Brixen, Kim Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Purging behavior in eating disorders is associated with medical risks. We aimed to compare remission rates in purging and non-purging females with anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in a large retrospective single center cohort. A total of 339 patients...... with AN and 266 patients with EDNOS were included in the study. The proportion of subjects with purging behavior at least once a week during the last 3months was similar in the two groups: 22% in AN and 24% in EDNOS. Remission was defined by a goal weight ≥85% of ideal body weight and no reported purging behavior...... in the last 6months. The median time from onset to remission for patients with AN was 7years for the non-purging vs. 11years for the purging patients. The purging AN patients with both vomiting and laxative abuse displayed the poorest course. Among EDNOS patients, the time to remission was also significantly...

  8. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children With ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children with a "pure" ADHD (n = 23), a "pure" anxiety (n = 24) and a group without any diagnosis (n = 104) in a 2 (ADHD vs. no ADHD) x 2 (anxiety vs. no anxiety) design. Results: The children with ADHD and anxiety disorder scored significantly higher on the Inhibit...... scale than children within the other three groups. Main effects of diagnosis appeared in ADHD children on the Inhibit, Emotional Control, and Working Memory scales, and on the Shift and Emotional Control scales in anxious children. Conclusion: The results indicate that a behavioral dysregulation in ADHD...

  9. Adolescent attachment and trajectories of hostile-impulsive behavior: implications for the development of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Smith, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' trajectories of impulsive and hostile behaviors provide a dynamic index of risk for the emergence of Cluster B (antisocial and borderline) personality disorders in early adulthood. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that preoccupied states of mind in the Adult Attachment Interview would increase both the level and rate of growth in adolescents' trajectories of aggressive and sexual risk-taking behaviors measured at ages 13, 15, and 17. Overall, preoccupied states of mind predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking and aggressive behaviors across all three assessments as well as higher rates of growth in sexual-risk taking and caregiver-reported aggression over time. In addition, preoccupied females showed slower rates of decline in self-reported hostile emotions than did preoccupied males. The effects of gender as a moderator of the relations between preoccupied status and risk trajectories for personality disorders are discussed.

  10. Pheromone application in prevention and therapy of domestic animal behavioral disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review-type paper presents the latest knowledge on pheromone therapy. Pheromone therapy does not imply merely the use of structural analogues of pheromones in therapy, but also in the prevention of behavioral disorders in domestic animals. Their application is induced in all cases in which the effects of stressors are expected and their negative effect on the health condition, welfare and production results of domestic animals. Structural analogues of pheromones can successfully be applied in the prevention and therapy of behavioral disorders in horses, swine, dogs, and cats. Recent investigations have confirmed that structural analogues of semiochemicals exert a positive effect also on the production results and meat quality of broilers. They realize their therapeutic and preventive effect on the behavior of domestic animals through the stabilization of the emotional state, relaxation, and calming the animals that are disturbed, or could become disturbed due to the effect of stressors.

  11. The behavioral economics of substance use disorders: reinforcement pathologies and their repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Johnson, Matthew W; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G

    2014-01-01

    The field of behavioral economics has made important inroads into the understanding of substance use disorders through the concept of reinforcer pathology. Reinforcer pathology refers to the joint effects of (a) the persistently high valuation of a reinforcer, broadly defined to include tangible commodities and experiences, and/or (b) the excessive preference for the immediate acquisition or consumption of a commodity despite long-term negative outcomes. From this perspective, reinforcer pathology results from the recursive interactions of endogenous person-level variables and exogenous environment-level factors. The current review describes the basic principles of behavioral economics that are central to reinforcer pathology, the processes that engender reinforcer pathology, and the approaches and procedures that can repair reinforcement pathologies. The overall goal of this review is to present a new understanding of substance use disorders as viewed by recent advances in behavioral economics.

  12. Cognitive behavior therapy for chronic insomnia occurring within the context of medical and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael T; Huang, Mary I; Manber, Rachel

    2005-07-01

    Insomnia is a pervasive problem for many patients suffering from medical and psychiatric conditions. Even when the comorbid disorders are successfully treated, insomnia often fails to remit. In addition to compromising quality of life, untreated insomnia may also aggravate and complicate recovery from the comorbid disease. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has an established efficacy for primary insomnia, but less is known about its efficacy for insomnia occurring in the context of medical and psychiatric conditions. The purpose of this article is to present a rationale for using CBT-I in medical and psychiatric disorders, review the extant outcome literature, highlight considerations for adapting CBT-I procedures in specific populations, and suggest directions for future research. Outcome studies were identified for CBT-I in mixed medical and psychiatric conditions, cancer, chronic pain, HIV, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcoholism. Other disorders discussed include: bipolar disorder, eating disorders, generalized anxiety, and obsessive compulsive disorder. The available data demonstrate moderate to large treatment effects (Cohen's d, range=0.35-2.2) and indicate that CBT-I is a promising treatment for individuals with medical and psychiatric comorbidity. Although the literature reviewed here is limited by a paucity of randomized, controlled studies, the available data suggest that by improving sleep, CBT-I might also indirectly improve medical and psychological endpoints. This review underscores the need for future research to test the efficacy of adaptations of CBT-I to disease specific conditions and symptoms.

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Groups for Children Manifesting ADHD and Other Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, Lauren

    1993-01-01

    Presents a model for school-based, cognitive-behavioral groups for children manifesting problem behaviors. Discusses key aspects of organizational readiness to conduct this type of program, particularly the importance of having the support of the children's classroom teachers. Describes the child group format and content, including recommended…

  14. Integrating Behavioral Economics and Behavioral Genetics: Delayed Reward Discounting as an Endophenotype for Addictive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James

    2013-01-01

    Delayed reward discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity, referring to how much an individual devalues a reward based on its delay in time. As a behavioral process that varies considerably across individuals, delay discounting has been studied extensively as a model for self-control, both in the general population and in clinical…

  15. Attachment and Parental Practices as Predictors of Behavioral Disorders in Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to investigate how two parental systems (attachment and parental practices interact to predict internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in girls and boys. The Security Scale was administered to 289 children (mean age = 10.5 years, and 205 parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and an instrument addressing parental practices. The results indicate that poor maternal attachment predicts aggression and delinquency in boys, while problems of this nature among girls are predicted by parental rejection and low behavioral control. Poor paternal attachment was the only predictor for social withdrawal and anxiety/depression in boys. A tendency of association between poor maternal attachment and social withdrawal was observed among girls, while low behavioral control and high psychological control predicted anxiety/depression. The results are discussed in terms of their contribution to understanding the complex relationship among gender, parental systems, and behavioral disorders.

  16. Risk of Hyperprolactinemia and Sexual Side Effects in Males 10-20 Years Old Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Disruptive Behavior Disorder and Treated with Risperidone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Tenback, Diederik; van Harten, Peter N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term treatment effects of risperidone on prolactin levels and prolactin-related side effects in pubertal boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Method: Physical healthy 10-20-year-old males with

  17. Comparing Executive Function and Behavioral Inhibition in Schizophrenia, Bipolar Mood Disorder Type I and Normal Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziye Khodaee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and Bipolar I disorder seems to be different from the normal individuals, that these defects affect their treatment results. Therefore, this study aimed to compare executive function and behavioral inhibition within patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar type I as well as a normal group. Methods: In this descriptive-comparative study, out of all patients hospitalized in daily psychiatric clinic in Najafabad in 2014 due to these disorders, 20 schizophrenia and 20 bipolar type I as well as 20 normal individuals were selected via the convinience sampling. All the study participants completed the computerizing tests including Tower of London and Go-No Go. The study data were analyzed utilizing SPSS software (ver 22 via MANOVA. Results: The study findings revealed a significant difference between the two patient groups and the normal group in regard with executive function and behavioral inhibition (p<0.05, whereas no differences were detected between schizophrenics and bipolar patient groups. Furthermore, patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar I mood disorder demonstrated significantly poor performance in cognitive function and behavioral inhibition compared to the normal group. Conclusion: The present study results can be significantly applied in pathology and therapy of these disorders, so as recognizing the inability of such patients can be effective in developing cognitive rehabilitation programs in these patients.

  18. Psychological factors related to eating disordered behaviors: a study with Portuguese athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz; Gomes, A Rui; Martins, Carla

    2011-05-01

    This study analyzes eating disordered behaviors in a sample of Portuguese athletes and explores its relationship with some psychological dimensions. Two hundred and ninety nine athletes (153 male, 51.2%) practicing collective (65.2%) or individual sports (34.8%) were included. The assessment protocol included the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) (Fairburn & Beglin, 1994); the Sport Condition Questionnaire (Bruin et al., 2007; Hall et al., 2007); the Sport Anxiety Scale (Smith et al., 2006); the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (Duda, 1992; Duda & Whitehead, 1998); the Cognitive Evaluation of Sport-Threat Perceptions (Cruz, 1994; Lazarus, 1991); and the Self-Presentation Exercise Questionnaire (Gammage et al., 2004). Results revealed that: i) no case of clinical significance was detected in the four dimensions of the EDE-Q simultaneously; ii) females scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score, and athletes with the better sport results scored higher on the Restraint subscale; iii) athletes with a higher desire to weigh less scored higher on the EDE-Q Global Score; iv) athletes with lower scores on EDE-Q displayed more positive results on the psychological measures; v) several psychological dimensions were identified as predictors of eating disordered behaviors. In conclusion, the prevalence of eating disordered behaviors was negligible in this study, yet the relationship of this problem with personal, sport and psychological factors was evident.

  19. Mood disorders in Huntington's disease: from behavior to cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Patrick; Orvoen, Sophie; Saudou, Frédéric; David, Denis J; Humbert, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is best known for its effect on motor control. Mood disturbances such as depression, anxiety, and irritability also have a high prevalence in patients with HD, and often start before the onset of motor symptoms. Various rodent models of HD recapitulate the anxiety/depressive behavior seen in patients. HD is caused by an expanded polyglutamine stretch in the N-terminal part of a 350 kDa protein called huntingtin (HTT). HTT is ubiquitously expressed and is implicated in several cellular functions including control of transcription, vesicular trafficking, ciliogenesis, and mitosis. This review summarizes progress in efforts to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying behavioral disorders in patients with HD. Dysfunctional HTT affects cellular pathways that are involved in mood disorders or in the response to antidepressants, including BDNF/TrkB and serotonergic signaling. Moreover, HTT affects adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a physiological phenomenon that is implicated in some of the behavioral effects of antidepressants and is linked to the control of anxiety. These findings are consistent with the emerging role of wild-type HTT as a crucial component of neuronal development and physiology. Thus, the pathogenic polyQ expansion in HTT could lead to mood disorders not only by the gain of a new toxic function but also by the perturbation of its normal function.

  20. Zingerone regulates intestinal transit, attenuates behavioral and oxidative perturbations in irritable bowel disorder in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J F; Pavani, Bandlapalli; Kranthi Kumar, Ch; Annamalai, A R

    2014-03-15

    Stress can lead to the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal disorders, the most prominent being irritable bowel disorder. The present study investigated the impact zingerone in ameliorating chronic water stress induced irritable bowel disorder, brain gut axis dysfunction and dysregulation of the intestinal barrier due to oxidative stress. Rats were randomly allocated to groups and subjected to chronic water stress for a period of 21 days for 1h and the fecal pellet output was measured. At the end of chronic stress, behavioral assessment for anxiety like behavior was recorded and plasma corticosterone levels were measured 60min after water stress. The colonic transit was determined, levels of oxidative and antioxidant biomarkers were measured in the colon homogenate. Myeloperoxidase activity was determined as an indirect index of neutrophil infiltration. Chronic water stress increased the rate of colonic transit, fecal output, induced behavioral changes, and decreased antioxidant levels. An increase in lipid peroxide levels, catalase and corticosterone was observed. Mast cell infiltration was evident in the stressed group. Zingerone significantly reduced colonic transit, fecal output, neutrophil infiltration, and lipid peroxide formation. The levels of catalase were not altered; however, a marginal increase in the levels of glutathione peroxidase was observed. Zingerone significantly enhanced the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased the levels of corticosterone. Zingerone produced marked improvement in stress induced irritable bowel disorder which could be attributed to the powerful antioxidant nature, direct effect on the intestinal smooth muscle and adaptogenic nature.

  1. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of aberrant behaviors in bipolar disorder from patients to models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A.; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Henry, Brook L.; Young, Jared W.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder suffer from states of depression and mania, during which a variety of symptoms are present. Current treatments are limited and neurocognitive deficits in particular often remain untreated. Targeted therapies based on the biological mechanisms of bipolar disorder could fill this gap and benefit patients and their families. Developing targeted therapies would benefit from appropriate animal models which are challenging to establish, but remain a vital tool. In this review, we summarize approaches to create a valid model relevant to bipolar disorder. We focus on studies that use translational tests of multivariate exploratory behavior, sensorimotor gating, decision-making under risk, and attentional functioning to discover profiles that are consistent between patients and rodent models. Using this battery of translational tests, similar behavior profiles in bipolar mania patients and mice with reduced dopamine transporter activity have been identified. Future investigations should combine other animal models that are biologically relevant to the neuropsychiatric disorder with translational behavioral assessment as outlined here. This methodology can be utilized to develop novel targeted therapies that relieve symptoms for more patients without common side effects caused by current treatments. PMID:26297513

  2. Mood disorders in Huntington’s disease: from behavior to cellular and molecular mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick ePla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder that is best known for its effect on motor control. Mood disturbances such as depression, anxiety, and irritability also have a high prevalence in patients with HD, and often start before the onset of motor symptoms. Various rodent models of HD recapitulate the anxiety/depressive behavior seen in patients. HD is caused by an expanded polyglutamine stretch in the N-terminal part of a 350 kDa protein called huntingtin (HTT. HTT is ubiquitously expressed and is implicated in several cellular functions including control of transcription, vesicular trafficking, ciliogenesis, and mitosis. This review summarizes progress in efforts to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying behavioral disorders in patients with HD. Dysfunctional HTT affects cellular pathways that are involved in mood disorders or in the response to antidepressants, including BDNF/TrkB and serotonergic signaling. Moreover, HTT affects adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a physiological phenomenon that is implicated in some of the behavioral effects of antidepressants and is linked to the control of anxiety. These findings are consistent with the emerging role of wild-type HTT as a crucial component of neuronal development and physiology. Thus, the pathogenic polyQ expansion in HTT could lead to mood disorders not only by the gain of a new toxic function but also by the perturbation of its normal function.

  3. Identifying comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders: comparison of two approaches used in adolescent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Stoep, Ann; Adrian, Molly C; Rhew, Isaac C; McCauley, Elizabeth; Herting, Jerald R; Kraemer, Helena C

    2012-07-01

    Interest in commonly co-occurring depression and disruptive behavior disorders in children has yielded a small body of research that estimates the prevalence of this comorbid condition and compares children with the comorbid condition and children with depression or disruptive behavior disorders alone with respect to antecedents and outcomes. Prior studies have used one of two different approaches to measure comorbid disorders: (1) meeting criteria for two DSM or ICD diagnoses or (2) scoring .5 SD above the mean or higher on two dimensional scales. This study compares two snapshots of comorbidity taken simultaneously in the same sample with each of the measurement approaches. The Developmental Pathways Project administered structured diagnostic interviews as well as dimensional scales to a community-based sample of 521 11-12 year olds to assess depression and disruptive behavior disorders. Clinical caseness indicators of children identified as "comorbid" by each method were examined concurrently and 3-years later. Cross-classification of adolescents via the two approaches revealed low agreement. When other indicators of caseness, including functional impairment, need for services, and clinical elevations on other symptom scales were examined, adolescents identified as comorbid via dimensional scales only were similar to those who were identified as comorbid via DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Findings suggest that when relying solely on DSM diagnostic criteria for comorbid depression and disruptive behavior disorders, many adolescents with significant impairment will be overlooked. Findings also suggest that lower dimensional scale thresholds can be set when comorbid conditions, rather than single forms of psychopathology, are being identified.

  4. Physiological and Behavioral Stress and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Routine Oral Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah I. Stein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD commonly exhibit uncooperative behaviors which impede oral care. Previous studies have utilized dentist-report measures of uncooperative behaviors in children with ASD but none have utilized an objective measure of children’s behavior or a physiological measure of distress. This study investigated behavioral and physiological distress in children with ASD during routine oral care and examined factors associated with this distress. Methods. Participants were 44 children (n=22 typical, n=22 ASD aged 6–12 receiving routine dental cleanings. Behavioral and physiological measures of stress and anxiety were collected during dental cleanings. Results. Children with ASD exhibited greater distress, compared to the typical group, on dentist-report and researcher-coded measures of overt distress behaviors and on physiological measures. Correlations between physiological and behavioral measures of distress were found in the ASD but not in the typical group. Behavioral distress was correlated with age in the typical group and with expressive communication ability and sensory processing difficulties in the ASD group; physiological distress was correlated with parent-report of anxiety in the typical group and sensory processing difficulties in the ASD group. Conclusions. Novel strategies may be required to decrease behavioral and physiological distress in children with ASD in the dental clinic.

  5. Systematic Review of Pharmacological and Behavioral Treatments for Skin Picking Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Bartley, Christine A; Bloch, Michael H

    2016-04-01

    Skin picking disorder (SPD) is a newly recognized psychiatric disorder in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. A systematic review was conducted to assess the efficacy of pharmacological and behavioral interventions for SPD. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or uncontrolled trials involving at least 10 subjects that examined the efficacy of pharmacological and behavioral interventions for SPD. We examined the improvement associated with interventions compared with inactive control conditions in RCTs and improvement over time in uncontrolled trials and within the treatment arms of RCTs. We stratified studies on the basis of intervention type. Meta-analysis included 11 studies. All interventions (including inactive control conditions) demonstrated significant improvement over the course of short-term clinical trials in SPD. Only behavioral treatments demonstrated significant benefits compared with inactive control conditions. There was no evidence from RCTs that pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or lamotrigine were more effective at treating SPD than placebo. Our meta-analysis suggests that subjects with SPD show significant improvement during short-term trials, regardless of the efficacy of the underlying intervention. This finding suggests that uncontrolled trials are of particularly limited utility for assessing efficacy of treatments in SPD. Future research should concentrate on developing larger placebo-controlled RCTs to examine efficacy of novel pharmacological agents. In addition, research should focus on improving accessibility of behavioral treatments with demonstrated efficacy for SPD.

  6. Vegetarianism and Eating Disorder Risk Behavior in Adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla CP Estima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate eating disorders risk behaviors and unhealthy weight control practices among adolescents who consider themselves as vegetarians and those who are omnivorous.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 technical schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample included 1167 adolescents (51% female, aged 14 to 19 (mean age, 16. Adolescents stated whether they  were currently vegetarian, and the sample was dichotomized as vegetarian and non-vegetarian. The two groups were compared as regards weight status, eating disorder risk behavior, unhealthy weight control methods and the perception of healthy eating.Results: About 4% of the sample was currently vegetarian, most of them female (70.8%, and females were 2.89 times more likely to be vegetarian than males. No relationship was found between the vegetarian status and unhealthy weight control behavior; however the vegetarian group considered their diet to be healthier than the non-vegetarian group (P=.04.Conclusions: The frequency of vegetarianism, as well the frequency of eating disorder risk behaviors had no association in this adolescent sample from São Paulo, Brazil.

  7. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic motor activities in REM sleep and dream-enacting behavior are mostly reported in presence of cataplexy. Narcolepsy without cataplexy is a condition rarely associated with hypocretin deficiency. We proposed that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor control during wakefulness and sleep in humans, and that hypocretin deficiency causes a functional defect in the motor control involved in the development of cataplexy during wakefulness and RBD/RSWA/phasic motor activity during REM sleep.

  8. Long-term oxytocin administration improves social behaviors in a girl with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosaka Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs exhibit core autistic symptoms including social impairments from early childhood and mostly show secondary disabilities such as irritability and aggressive behavior based on core symptoms. However, there are still no radical treatments of social impairments in these patients. Oxytocin has been reported to play important roles in multiple social behaviors dependent on social recognition, and has been expected as one of the effective treatments of social impairments of patients with ASDs. Case presentation We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with autistic disorder who treated by long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray. Her autistic symptoms were successfully treated by two month administration; the girl’s social interactions and social communication began to improve without adverse effects. Her irritability and aggressive behavior also improved dramatically with marked decreases in aberrant behavior checklist scores from 69 to 7. Conclusion This case is the first to illustrate long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray in the targeted treatment of social impairments in a female with autistic disorder. This case suggests that long-term nasal oxytocin spray is promising and well-tolerated for treatment of social impairments of patients with ASDs.

  9. Development and initial evaluation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F

    2014-12-15

    Considerable attention has focused on the growing need for evidence-based psychotherapy for veterans with affective disorders within the Department of Veteran Affairs. Despite, and possibly due to, the large number of evidence-based protocols available, several obstacles remain in their widespread delivery within Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. In part as an effort to address these concerns, newer transdiagnostic approaches to psychotherapy have been developed to provide a single treatment that is capable of addressing several, related disorders. The goal of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a transdiagnostic psychotherapy, Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT), in veterans with affective disorders. Study 1 provided initial support for transdiagnostic presentation of evidence-based psychotherapy components in veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=15). These findings were used to inform the development of the TBT protocol. In Study 2, an initial evaluation of TBT was completed in a second sample of veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=29). The findings of Study 2 demonstrated significant improvements in symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress, and related impairment across participants with various principal diagnoses. Together, the investigation provided preliminary support for effectiveness of TBT in veterans with affective disorders.

  10. Association between restricted and repetitive behaviors and nonverbal IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L; Richler, Jennifer; Lord, Catherine

    2006-08-01

    The present study explored the relationship between nonverbal IQ and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in 830 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The role of chronological age as a moderator of this relationship was also investigated. For many behaviors, there was a significant interaction between nonverbal IQ and chronological age, such that nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children. For the majority of such behaviors (e.g. repetitive use of objects, hand and finger mannerisms), RRB prevalence was negatively associated with NVIQ. However, the prevalence of certain behaviors (e.g. circumscribed interests) showed positive relationships with NVIQ, which provides some support for the idea of different classes of RRBs. For the severity of different RRBs, there were several significant effects for age and NVIQ, but few interactions.

  11. The process of assisting behavior modification in a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Sheng; Shih, Ying-Ling

    2007-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological disease among children. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of assisting with behavior modification in a child with ADHD. The patient had undergone medical treatment for a year with no obvious effect. With the guidance of other professional people, the child's teachers and nursing instructors, the researchers proceeded with behavioral modification in conjunction with medication for another year. The medication treatment followed doctors' prescriptions, and, as regards the behavioral treatment, doctors and experts drafted and decided the content of the behavioral contract. The main basic techniques were skillful reinforcement and punishment. Then, via interviews with his parents and teachers, information was obtained that provided an understanding of the patient's condition and progress. It was found that the improvements were very significant. On the basis of the research results, the researchers submit that: (1) drug treatment combined with behavioral treatment apparently improves the daily behaviors of hyperactive children; (2) good communication with parents and psychological preparation are the most critical keys to the success of substantial behavioral improvement among hyperactive children; (3) establishment and integration of social resources, including provision of transitional parenting education solutions, and cooperation and sound interaction from school teachers, which fosters consolidated team work, are the critical factors to behavioral improvement among hyperactive children.

  12. Alterations in the functional neural circuitry supporting flexible choice behavior in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, A-M; Mosconi, M W; Ragozzino, M E; Cook, E H; Sweeney, J A

    2016-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors, and a pronounced preference for behavioral and environmental consistency, are distinctive characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Alterations in frontostriatal circuitry that supports flexible behavior might underlie this behavioral impairment. In an functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 17 individuals with ASD, and 23 age-, gender- and IQ-matched typically developing control participants, reversal learning tasks were used to assess behavioral flexibility as participants switched from one learned response choice to a different response choice when task contingencies changed. When choice outcome after reversal was uncertain, the ASD group demonstrated reduced activation in both frontal cortex and ventral striatum, in the absence of task performance differences. When the outcomes of novel responses were certain, there was no difference in brain activation between groups. Reduced activation in frontal cortex and ventral striatum suggest problems in decision-making and response planning, and in processing reinforcement cues, respectively. These processes, and their integration, are essential for flexible behavior. Alterations in these systems may therefore contribute to a rigid adherence to preferred behavioral patterns in individuals with an ASD. These findings provide an additional impetus for the use of reversal learning paradigms as a translational model for treatment development targeting the domain of restricted and repetitive behaviors in ASD. PMID:27727243

  13. Maternal lifestyle factors in pregnancy risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen Markussen; Dalsgaard, Søren; Obel, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to examine the literature assessing the relationship between prenatal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and psychosocial stress during pregnancy to the risk of developing behavioral problems related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD...... indicated a greater risk of ADHD-related disorders among children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Contradictory findings were reported in the alcohol studies, and no conclusion could be reached on the basis of the caffeine study. Results from studies on psychological stress during pregnancy were...... of information on familial psychopathology also limited the interpretations. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero is suspected to be associated with ADHD and ADHD symptoms in children. Other maternal lifestyle factors during pregnancy may also be associated with these disorders. Further studies...

  14. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

  15. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia as a preparatory treatment for exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Jenna L; Gros, Daniel F

    2013-01-01

    Insomnia is present in a majority of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, when both disorders are present, disagreements exist about whether to provide exposure therapy for PTSD before insomnia treatment, or vice versa. The current case study describes the psychological treatment of a psychotherapy-naive veteran with comorbid insomnia and PTSD. The patient initially refused exposure therapy for PTSD; thus, cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) was a first-step treatment. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia provided insomnia symptom relief psychoeducation and self-monitoring of PTSD symptoms prepared the patient to enter exposure therapy. After six CBTi sessions, the patient completed seven sessions of trauma-specific exposure therapy. At the conclusion of treatment and at 90-day follow up, the patient demonstrated significant reductions in insomnia and PTSD symptoms. Findings support the safe and effective use of CBTi in patients with comorbid insomnia and PTSD to improve sleep and facilitate entry into exposure therapy for PTSD.

  16. From molecules to behavior: An integrative theory of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculae, Alexandru-Ştefan; Pavăl, Denis

    2016-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a group of neurodevelopmental disorders for which various theories have been proposed. Each theory brings valuable insights and has experimental evidence backing it, yet none provides an overarching explanation for each of the pathological aspects involved in ASD. Here we present an integrative theory of ASD, centered on a sequence of events spanning from the molecular to the behavioral level. We propose that an abnormality in the interplay between retinoic acid and sex hormones predisposes an individual to specific molecular malfunctions. In turn, this molecular syndrome generates an altered brain connectivity between the cerebellum, the midbrain dopaminergic areas, and the prefrontal cortex. Lastly, this disconnection would generate specific behavioral traits traditionally involved in ASD. Therefore, this paper represents a step forward in unifying different levels of pathological features into novel integrated testable hypotheses.

  17. Designing the user interfaces of a behavior modification intervention for obesity & eating disorders prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2015-01-01

    The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.

  18. The relationship between sleep and behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Simonne; Conduit, Russell; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha Mw; Cornish, Kim M

    2014-01-01

    Although there is evidence that significant sleep problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and that poor sleep exacerbates problematic daytime behavior, such relationships have received very little attention in both research and clinical practice. Treatment guidelines to help manage challenging behaviors in ASD fail to mention sleep at all, or they present a very limited account. Moreover, limited attention is given to children with low-functioning autism, those individuals who often experience the most severe sleep disruption and behavioral problems. This paper describes the nature of sleep difficulties in ASD and highlights the complexities of sleep disruption in individuals with low-functioning autism. It is proposed that profiling ASD children based on the nature of their sleep disruption might help to understand symptom and behavioral profiles (or vice versa) and therefore lead to better-targeted interventions. This paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations of current knowledge and proposes areas that are important for future research. Treating disordered sleep in ASD has great potential to improve daytime behavior and family functioning in this vulnerable population.

  19. Postnatal testosterone levels and disorder relevant behavior in the second year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Janet; Alexander, Gerianne M

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the relationship between testosterone collected at 3-4 months of age and sex-linked disorder-relevant behaviors in the second year of life. Eighty-four children participated at 3-4 (when salivary testosterone levels were obtained and second to fourth digit ratios were measured) and 18-24 months of age (when behavioral ratings of aggression and verbal ability were coded from two 8-min play sessions). Parents also completed the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, and the four subscales (Internalizing, Externalizing, Dysregulation, and Autism Spectrum Disorder) were used to indicate child specific problems. Greater postnatal testosterone levels in early infancy were predictive of more male-typical behaviors in the second year of life (i.e., more autism spectrum behaviors, less time vocalizing, and more Internalizing Problems). These results support the hypothesis that early infancy may be another critical period for the development of gender-linked behavior.

  20. Current perspectives on Internet delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with anxiety and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mewton L

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Louise Mewton, Jessica Smith, Pieter Rossouw, Gavin Andrews Clinical Research Unit for Anxiety and Depression, St Vincent’s Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The aim of the current review is to provide a summary of research into Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT for anxiety disorders. We include 37 randomized controlled trials that examined the efficacy of iCBT programs in adults (aged over 18 years, as compared with waiting list or active control. The included studies were identified from Medline searches and from reference lists, and only published data were included. Several trials of iCBT for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social phobia were identified. Two trials of iCBT for obsessive-compulsive disorder were identified, whilst one trial each was identified for hypochondriasis, specific phobia (spiders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, there were five trials that focused on transdiagnostic therapy for either a range of comorbid anxiety disorders or comorbid anxiety and depression. Between-group effect sizes were moderate to large for all disorders, and ranged from 0.30 to 2.53. iCBT was found to be commensurate with face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy whether delivered individually or in group format. Guidance may not be necessary for iCBT to be effective for immediate gains, but may be more important in longer-term maintenance of symptom improvement and maximizing patient adherence. The clinical experience of the individual providing guidance does not appear to impact treatment outcomes. Future research needs to focus on the optimal level of guidance required to generate maximum patient benefits, whilst balancing the efficient use of clinician time and resources. Evidence-based contraindications to iCBT should also be developed so that the choice of treatment modality accurately reflects patients’ needs. Further research should be conducted into the effective elements of

  1. Using Cover, Copy, and Compare Spelling With and Without Timing for Elementary Students with Behavior Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danette DARROW

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cover, copy, and compare (CCC procedures on spelling performance with two students. The participants were two elementarystudents enrolled in a self-contained behavior intervention classroom. A multiple baseline design across participants was employed to evaluate the effects of CCC on time to completion and words spelled correctly. Improvements in all measures were found when CCC was in effect. The participants enjoyed the procedures and each improved their spelling over baseline performance. Theapplicability of CCC across academic contexts and for students with behavior disorders was discussed.

  2. Impulsivity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Subtype Classification Using the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Drew J.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Lynam, Donald R.; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the classification accuracy of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS) in discriminating several attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes, including predominantly inattentive type (ADHD/I), combined type (ADHD/C), and combined type with behavioral problems (ADHD/ODD), between each other and a non-ADHD control group using logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 88 children ranging in age from 9.0 years to 12.8 years, with a mean of 10.9 years....

  3. Association between Prepartum Feeding Behavior and Periparturient Health Disorders in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchterhand, Karen M; Silva, Paula R B; Chebel, Ricardo C; Endres, Marcia I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behavior, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group 4 weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score >3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-h periods of 2-4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at the time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf), primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf), and multiparous (lactation ≥2). Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behavior monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available, which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behavior or that of specific cohorts.

  4. Vegetarian Students in Their First Year of College: Are They at Risk for Restrictive or Disordered Eating Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Julianne; Rau, Stephanie I.; Wilson, Mardell A.; Walters, Connor

    2008-01-01

    This study compared restrictive and disordered eating behaviors in vegetarian versus non-vegetarian first-year college students. The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and the abbreviated Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) were used to assess eating behaviors (n=330). The mean restrictive DEBQ and the EAT-26 scores of vegetarians were…

  5. D-Cycloserine Augmentation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Directions for Pilot Research in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; McKay, Dean; Reid, Jeannette M.; Geller, Daniel A.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a recent translational success in combining behavioral psychotherapy with a novel medication, d-cycloserine (DCS), to augment cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The literature on behavioral theory of exposure-based therapies is provided, followed by a discussion of the role of DCS in enhancing extinction…

  6. Medication and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavior Problems: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Handen, Benjamin; Arnold, L. Eugene; Johnson, Cynthia; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Bearss, Karen; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Ramadan, Yaser; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Lecavalier, Luc; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Mulick, James A.; Hall, Kristy L.; Dziura, James; Ritz, Louise; Trollinger, Stacie; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Many children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) have serious, functionally impairing behavioral problems. We tested whether combined treatment (COMB) with risperidone and parent training (PT) in behavior management is superior to medication alone (MED) in improving severe behavioral problems in children with PDDs. Method:…

  7. Systematic Function-Based Intervention for Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in an Alternative Setting: Broadening the Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Amina M.; Umbreit, John; Mathur, Sarup R.

    2011-01-01

    Three adolescents (ages 14-17) with emotional and behavioral disorders displayed chronic disruptive behavior in their self-contained classrooms at a self-contained alternative school. A descriptive functional behavioral assessment was conducted for each student. Data from file review, structured interviews, and direct observations were used to…

  8. Genome-wide association analysis of eating disorder-related symptoms, behaviors, and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraska, Vesna; Davis, Oliver S P; Cherkas, Lynn F; Helder, Sietske G; Harris, Juliette; Krug, Isabel; Liao, Thomas Pei-Chi; Treasure, Janet; Ntalla, Ioanna; Karhunen, Leila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Christakopoulou, Danai; Raevuori, Anu; Shin, So-Youn; Dedoussis, George V; Kaprio, Jaakko; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D; Collier, David A; Zeggini, Eleftheria

    2012-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are common, complex psychiatric disorders thought to be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. They share many symptoms, behaviors, and personality traits, which may have overlapping heritability. The aim of the present study is to perform a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) of six ED phenotypes comprising three symptom traits from the Eating Disorders Inventory 2 [Drive for Thinness (DT), Body Dissatisfaction (BD), and Bulimia], Weight Fluctuation symptom, Breakfast Skipping behavior and Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait (CHIRP). Investigated traits were derived from standardized self-report questionnaires completed by the TwinsUK population-based cohort. We tested 283,744 directly typed SNPs across six phenotypes of interest in the TwinsUK discovery dataset and followed-up signals from various strata using a two-stage replication strategy in two independent cohorts of European ancestry. We meta-analyzed a total of 2,698 individuals for DT, 2,680 for BD, 2,789 (821 cases/1,968 controls) for Bulimia, 1,360 (633 cases/727 controls) for Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder trait, 2,773 (761 cases/2,012 controls) for Breakfast Skipping, and 2,967 (798 cases/2,169 controls) for Weight Fluctuation symptom. In this GWAS analysis of six ED-related phenotypes, we detected association of eight genetic variants with P < 10(-5) . Genetic variants that showed suggestive evidence of association were previously associated with several psychiatric disorders and ED-related phenotypes. Our study indicates that larger-scale collaborative studies will be needed to achieve the necessary power to detect loci underlying ED-related traits.

  9. The relationship of bottle feeding and other sucking behaviors with speech disorder in Patagonian preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanez N David

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that children's nonnutritive sucking habits may lead to delayed development of their oral anatomy and functioning. However, these findings were inconsistent. We investigated associations between use of bottles, pacifiers, and other sucking behaviors with speech disorders in children attending three preschools in Punta Arenas (Patagonia, Chile. Methods Information on infant feeding and sucking behaviors, age starting and stopping breast- and bottle-feeding, pacifier use, and other sucking behaviors, was collected from self-administered questionnaires completed by parents. Evaluation of speech problems was conducted at preschools with subsequent scoring by a licensed speech pathologist using age-normative standards. Results A total of 128 three- to five-year olds were assessed, 46% girls and 54% boys. Children were breastfed for an average of 25.2 (SD 9.6 months and used a bottle 24.4 (SD 15.2 months. Fifty-three children (41.7% had or currently used a pacifier for an average of 11.4 (SD 17.3 months; 23 children (18.3% were reported to have sucked their fingers. Delayed use of a bottle until after 9 months appeared to be protective for subsequent speech disorders. There was less than a one-third lower relative odds of subsequent speech disorders for children with a delayed use of a bottle compared to children without a delayed use of a bottle (OR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.10-0.98. A three-fold increase in relative odds of speech disorder was found for finger-sucking behavior (OR: 2.99, 95% CI: 1.10-8.00 and for use of a pacifier for 3 or more years (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 1.08-10.81. Conclusion The results suggest extended use of sucking outside of breastfeeding may have detrimental effects on speech development in young children.

  10. Loss of REM sleep features across nighttime in REM sleep behavior disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaldi, Dario; Latimier, Alice; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; VIDAILHET, Marie; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    International audience; ObjectivesMelatonin is a chronobiotic treatment which also alleviates rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Because the mechanisms of this benefit are unclear, we evaluated the clock-dependent REM sleep characteristics in patients with RBD, whether idiopathic (iRBD) or associated with Parkinson's Disease (PD), and we compared findings with PD patients without RBD and with healthy subjects.MethodsAn overnight videopolysomnography was performed in ten i...

  11. A cognitive behavioral therapy for co-occurring substance use and posttraumatic stress disorders

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark P.; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; Acquilano, Stephanie; Xie, Haiyi; Alterman, Arthur I.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2009-01-01

    Co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in addiction treatment programs and a risk factor for negative outcomes. Although interventions have been developed to address substance use and PTSD, treatment options are needed that are effective, well tolerated by patients, and potentially integrated with existing program services. This paper describes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD that was adapted from a treatment for persons with severe mental illnesses and P...

  12. Cognitive behavioral therapy for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kar N

    2011-01-01

    Nilamadhab KarDepartment of Psychiatry, Wolverhampton City Primary Care Trust, Wolverhampton, UKBackground: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric sequel to a stressful event or situation of an exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been used in the management of PTSD for many years. This paper reviews the effectiveness of CBT for the treatment of PTSD following various types of trauma, its potential to prevent PTSD, methods us...

  13. Behavioral Disorders in Association with Posterior Callosal and Frontal Cerebral Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lejeune

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral disorders were a prominent clinical feature after the surgical treatment of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture in a 44-year-old man. Callosal apraxia was associated with an alien hand. The latter remained 1 year after surgery while diagonistic apraxia disappeared after 3 months. Other callosal signs included left agraphia, tactile anomia and auditory suppression. MRI revealed posterior callosal infarction and a right frontal infarct. The association of diagonistic apraxia and alien hand is rarely reported.

  14. The Relation among Sleep, Routines, and Externalizing Behavior in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jill A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Bader, Stephanie H.; Jordan, Sara Sytsma

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined relations among sleep, routines, and externalizing behavior (based on parent report) in 115 children ages 6 to 12 years in two groups: 58 children with an autism spectrum disorder (age M = 9.0, SD = 2.09) and 57 non-ASD children (age M = 8.25, SD = 1.98). Within the ASD group, sleep hygiene and sleep quality were related…

  15. Body Satisfaction and Eating Disorder Behaviors among Immigrant Adolescents in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magtoto, Joanne; Cox, David; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Using a province-wide school-based health survey, this article investigated body satisfaction as a mediator of the association between eating disorder behaviors and immigrant status. Participants were a sample of adolescent girls (n = 15,066) and boys (n = 14,200) who completed the 2008 McCreary Centre Society Adolescent Health Survey IV.…

  16. Comparison of child interview and parent reports of children’s eating disordered behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires of child eating behavior have demonstrated poor agreement with child interview methods and parent report. However, no study has investigated the relationship between child interview and parent report. Therefore, we compared results from a diagnostic interview, the Eating Disorder Examination adapted for Children (ChEDE) to those from a questionnaire, the Adolescent Version of the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns-parent version (QEWP-P), in a nontreatment ...

  17. Eating Behavior and Eating Disorders in Adults Prior to Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; King, Wendy C.; Courcoulas, Anita; Dakin, George; Elder, Katherine; Engel, Scott; Flum, David; Kalarchian, Melissa; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe eating patterns, prevalence of problematic eating behaviors, and determine factors associated with binge eating disorder (BED), prior to bariatric surgery. Method Prior to surgery, 2,266 participants (median age 46 years; 78.6% female; 86.9% white; median body mass index 45.9 kg/m2) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study completed eating behavior survey items in the self-administered LABS-2 Behavior form. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the LABS-2 Psychiatric and Emotional Test Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12, the Short Form-36 Health Survey and Impact of Weight Quality of Life-Lite Survey. Results The vast majority (92.1%) of participants reported eating dinner regularly, while just over half (54.0%) reported eating breakfast regularly. Half of the participants reported eating at least 4 meals/week at restaurants; two meals/week were fast food. Loss of control eating was reported by 43.4%, night eating syndrome by 17.7%; 15.7% satisfied criteria for binge eating disorder (BED), 2% for bulimia nervosa. Factors that independently increased the odds of BED were being a college graduate, eating more times per day, taking medication for psychiatric or emotional problems, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder, lower self-esteem and greater depressive symptoms. Discussion Prior to undergoing bariatric surgery a substantial proportion of patients report problematic eating behaviors. Several factors associated with BED were identified, most suggesting other mental health problems, including higher levels of depressive symptomotology. The strengths of this study include the large sample size, the multi-center design and use of standardized assessment practices. PMID:24719222

  18. The Association between EEG Abnormality and Behavioral Disorder: Developmental Delay in Phenylketonuria

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaneh Karimzadeh; Hadi Zarafshan; Mohammad Reza Alaee

    2012-01-01

    Background. Brain defect leading to developmental delay is one of the clinical manifestations of phenylketonuria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between EEG abnormality and developmental delay/behavioral disorders in phenylketonuria. Patients and Methods. 105 phenylketonuria patients, who were diagnosed through newborn screening tests or during follow-up evaluation, were enrolled. Patients who were seizure-free for at least six months before the study were included. The...

  19. Eating behaviors, diet quality, and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Eriksen, Whitney T; Souders, Margaret C; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their caregivers face unique challenges in the children's daily eating routines and food intake patterns. The aim of this brief review is to describe eating behaviors of children with ASD, including increased food neophobia and food selectivity, and review findings on children's diet quality, and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Advancing knowledge about the interrelationships between these nutrition-related domains in children with ASD is expected to have important implications for clinical nursing practice and caregiver care.

  20. Musculoskeletal disorders: Epidemiology and treatment seeking behavior of secondary school students in a Nigerian community

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbehingbe Olayinka; Fatusi Adesegun; Adegbenro Caleb; Adeitan Opeyemi; Abass Ganiyu; Akintunde Akintomiwa

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological information paucity exists on musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among secondary school students in Nigeria. We aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern, and treatment seeking behaviors (TSB) of MSD in Southwest, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four randomly selected secondary schools in Ile-Ife in 2007. All the students were screened for MSD using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and physical examina...

  1. Evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of autistic disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Cooper, Matthew N; Bebbington, Keely; Alvares, Gail; Lin, Ashleigh; Wray, John; Glasson, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may in part be due to a shift in the diagnostic threshold that has led to individuals with a less severe behavioral phenotype receiving a clinical diagnosis. This study examined whether there were changes over time in the qualitative and quantitative phenotype of individuals who received the diagnosis of Autistic Disorder. Data were from a prospective register of new diagnoses in Western Australia (n = 1252). From 2000 to 2006, we examined differences in both the percentage of newly diagnosed cases that met each criterion as well as severity ratings of the behaviors observed (not met, partially met, mild/moderate and extreme). Linear regression determined there was a statistically significant reduction from 2000 to 2006 in the percentage of new diagnoses meeting two of 12 criteria. There was also a reduction across the study period in the proportion of new cases rated as having extreme severity on six criteria. There was a reduction in the proportion of individuals with three or more criteria rated as extreme from 2000 (16.0%) to 2006 (1.6%), while percentage of new cases with no "extreme" rating on any criteria increased from 58.5% to 86.6% across the same period. This study provides the first clear evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of individuals diagnosed with Autistic Disorder during a period of stability in diagnostic criteria. A shift toward diagnosing individuals with less severe behavioral symptoms may have contributed to the increasing prevalence of Autistic Disorder diagnoses. Autism Res 2017, 10: 179-187. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Risk behaviors related to eating disorders in adolescents and its association with dental erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Fagundes SOUTO

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The overvaluation of thinness as a standard of beauty has contributed to the development of eating disorders and has mainly affected adolescents and young adults. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders and their association with dental erosion in adolescents. Material and method This is a cross-sectional observational epidemiological study. The sample consisted of 278 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years, enrolled in a State School in Campinas - SP. Two questionnaires were used for the data collection on eating disorders: Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh and Eating Attitudes Test -26. The presence of erosion was evaluated by calibrated examiners. Result The mean age of the sample was 14.8 years. The prevalence of mean risk for bulimia in the sample was 43.2% (95% CI: 37.3%-49.0% and the prevalence of adolescents with a probability of developing bulimia was 53.2% (95% CI: 47.4%-59.1%. Of the total, 11.9% (95% CI: 8.1%-15.7% showed results suggestive of anorexia. Among women, 66.9% were classified as probability developing bulimia, whereas in men the prevalence was 39.0%. As for dental erosion, only 1.1% of the sample presented erosion. Conclusion The study pointed to large number of adolescents with risk behaviors for eating disorders but no association was found with dental erosion due to low prevalence.

  3. Effects of parent training on salivary cortisol in children and adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Motamedi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Since adulthood antisocial, aggressive and delinquent behaviors often have their onset early in life, investigating the association between biological factors and disruptive behaviors in children and adolescents are important and are emphasized on in the recent years. Baseline cortisol level seems to be a valuable biological marker of individuals with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD. This study examined the effect of parent training on salivary cortisol levels of children with DBD.
    • METHODS: Saliva samples were assayed to determine cortisol levels in nineteen clinic-referred children with DBD (aged 8 through 13 years before and after an eight-session parent training program. Children’s disruptive behaviors were assessed by Child Behavior Check List before and after the intervention.
    • RESULTS: Children’s salivary cortisol increased significantly after parent training sessions. Children with DBD who had lower basal cortisol levels had more severe disruptive behaviors and a better response to intervention by parent training as assessed by changes in cortisol levels and disruptive behaviour scores. However, post-interventional reduction of disruptive behaviors and increase in cortisol level was significant for all levels of baseline cortisol.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Parent training is an effective method for behavioral modification in DBD. Salivary cortisol may be considered a predictive factor for severity of the child or adolescent's disruptive behaviors and also for response of those behaviors to parent training.
    • KEY WORDS: Disruptive behavior, child, adolescent, parent training.

  4. Effects of the Good Behavior Game on the behavioral, emotional, and social problems of children with psychiatric disorders in special education settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.; Van Lier, Pol; Wubbels, T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Maras, Athanasios; Struiksma, Chris; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, Nouchka

    2016-01-01

    Teaching children with psychiatric disorders can be a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in children with psychiatric disorders, and their teachers, in special education. Teachers were trained by licensed school consultants to implem

  5. Sexual behaviors during sleep associated with polysomnographically confirmed parasomnia overlap disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolin, Alessandro; Tribolo, Antonella; Giordano, Alessandra; Chiarot, Elisabetta; Peila, Elena; Terreni, Anna; Bucca, Caterina; Mutani, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    Parasomnia overlap disorder (POD) refers to a sleep disorder characterized by the association of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) with NREM sleep parasomnia in the same patient. Sexual behaviors during sleep (SBS) can include most wakeful sexual activities and are classified in the ICSD-2 as a variant of confusional arousals and sleepwalking, both NREM parasomnias. A case of SBS associated with sleepwalking and possible RBD has been previously described, but it was not confirmed by polysomnography (PSG). We report two patients with SBS associated with POD documented by PSG. In one patient (60-year-old female) SBS was video-polysomnographically demonstrated: a few minute episode of masturbation occurring during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and preceded by hypersynchronous delta pattern. During the episode, the EEG pattern showed the persistence of delta rhythms with increasing alpha activity. When awoken by technicians, the patient was not aware of her sexual behavior and did not report any dream. The other patient, a 41-year-old male with a history of sleepwalking and RBD, was legally charged with repeatedly sexually fondling a young girl during the night. The POD was documented by PSG. The parasomnia defense, including sleepsex, was accepted by the Court and the patient was acquitted. This is an unprecedented report of SBS in patients with PSG-confirmed POD and of SBS documented during video-PSG.

  6. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Williams, Thomas J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Shea, Camille

    2016-01-01

    In April 2010, President Obama declared a space pioneering goal for the United States in general and NASA in particular. "Fifty years after the creation of NASA, our goal is no longer just a destination to reach. Our goal is the capacity for people to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time, ultimately in ways that are more sustainable and even indefinite." Thus NASA's Strategic Objective 1.1 emerged as "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration" (NASA 2015b). Any space flight, be it of long or short duration, occurs in an extreme environment that has unique stressors. Even with excellent selection methods, the potential for behavioral problems among space flight crews remain a threat to mission success. Assessment of factors that are related to behavioral health can help minimize the chances of distress and, thus, reduce the likelihood of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders arising within a crew. Similarly, countermeasures that focus on prevention and treatment can mitigate the cognitive or behavioral conditions that, should they arise, would impact mission success. Given the general consensus that longer duration, isolation, and confined missions have a greater risk for behavioral health ensuring crew behavioral health over the long term is essential. Risk, which within the context of this report is assessed with respect to behavioral health and performance, is addressed to deter development of cognitive and behavioral degradations or psychiatric conditions in space flight and analog populations, and to monitor, detect, and treat early risk factors, predictors and other contributing factors. Based on space flight and analog evidence, the average incidence rate of an adverse behavioral health event occurring during a space mission is relatively low for the

  7. Platelet serotonin concentration and suicidal behavior in combat related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Zrnka; Henigsberg, Neven; Pivac, Nela; Nedic, Gordana; Borovecki, Andrea

    2008-02-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious and global problem, a psychiatric disorder that frequently occurs with different comorbidities, and is associated with a high suicide rate. Pathophysiologically, both PTSD and suicidal behavior are related to disturbances in the central serotonergic system. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) controls emotional behavior, anxiety, impulsivity and aggression, and nearly all known antidepressants and antianxiety drugs affect 5-HT transmission. Platelet 5-HT can be used as a limited peripheral marker of the central serotonergic synaptosomes, since it is related to particular basic psychopathological characteristics of several psychiatric disorders. Platelet 5-HT concentration has been reported to be similar in PTSD subjects and healthy controls, but suicidal patients across different psychiatric diagnoses have reduced platelet 5-HT concentration. This study examined platelet 5-HT concentration by the spectrofluorimetric method in male subjects: 73 suicidal and 47 non-suicidal veterans with current and chronic combat related PTSD, 45 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal comparative non-PTSD subjects and 147 healthy men. The presence of suicidal behavior (score=0, non-suicidal; scores > or =1, suicidal) was assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS). Platelet 5-HT concentration was significantly lower in suicidal PTSD and non-PTSD patients compared to non-suicidal patients or healthy controls. Since the majority of patients scored very low on item 3 of HDRS, no significant correlation between suicidal scores and platelet 5-HT concentration was found. These results show that reduced platelet 5-HT concentration is related to suicidal behavior in PTSD, and suggest that platelet 5-HT concentration might be used as a peripheral marker to predict suicidal behavior across psychiatric diagnoses.

  8. Eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors for eating disorders among Chinese female dance students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoli Tao

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Along with the economic development, eating disorders begin to appear in China. In this context, we study potential risks for eating disorders. Methods: 1,199 Chinese students, aged 12-25 years, were randomly selected in spring 2006 from a survey with a series of scales (EAT-26, EDI that were used as a screening examination for eating attitudes, weight control behaviors and risk factors. Among them were 31 female Chinese dance students. The dancer students were compared with the female high risk group of eating disorders (EAT ≥ 20 and the female low risk group (EAT 0-9 according to their scores on EAT-26 and EDI. Results: There were just 3 dancers (10% with scores on the EAT-26 who were over the cut-off point of 20 for high risk of an eating disorder. The dance group also showed significantly higher scores than the low risk group (EAT 0-9 not only on the subscales Dieting, and EAT-26 total scores on the EAT-26, but also on the subscales Perfectionism and Maturity Fears on the EDI. Conclusions: Among the group of female Chinese dance students, most participants did not show a high risk for eating disorders and their high scores on some subscales on the EAT-26 and EDI could be caused by their occupation.

  9. Body Image Disturbance and Perfectionism as Predictor’s Factors of Disordered Eating Behavior among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Khodabakhsh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: The prevalence of disordered eating behaviors has been reported to increase in recent decades; therefore, scientific studies should perform for specifying psychological variables that may contribute to the etiology of this disorder. In this study, we examined the role of body image disturbance and perfectionism variables in predicting disordered eating behaviors among female students.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 upon a sample consisting of 464 female students in Allame Tabatabaie University were selected based on a Morgan formula and multi-stage cluster random sampling. Then, participants responded to the questionnaires of body image disturbance of Reas and et al. (2002, perfectionism scale of Besharat (2004 and eating attitudes test of Garner and Garfinkel (1979. The data were analyzed by correlation techniques and stepwise regression.Results: The results showed that these were internal correlation among body image disturbance and perfectionism and disordered eating behavior. Also, the results of stepwise regression analysis revealed that body image disturbance and perfectionism significantly predicted, respectively, almost 16% and 14% of variances of disordered eating behaviors among female students.Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, body image disturbance and perfectionism can predict disordered eating behaviors. Therefore, considering these variables can be important to prevent the development of eating-related diseases and to promote students’ health. Key Words: Body Image Disturbance, Perfectionism, Disordered Eating Behavior, Female Students.

  10. Role of Comorbid Depression and Co-Occurring Depressive Symptoms in Outcomes for Anxiety-Disordered Youth Treated with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of comorbid depressive disorders (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) and co-occurring depressive symptoms in treatment outcome and maintenance for youth (N = 72, aged 7-14) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy for a principal anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety…

  11. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  12. Down syndrome and comorbid autism-spectrum disorder: characterization using the aberrant behavior checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, George T; Grados, Marco A; Kaufmann, Walter E; Bernad-Ripoll, Susana; Jewell, Amy

    2005-05-01

    To report on the cognitive and behavioral attributes of 61 children with Down syndrome (DS) and autistic-spectrum disorder (ASD) according to DSM-IV criteria; to determine the utility of the aberrant behavior checklist (ABC) to characterize these subjects for research purposes; and to test the hypothesis that subjects with DS + ASD could be distinguished from their typical DS peers using the ABC. Cross-sectional design. Cases with DS + ASD (N = 61), comparison group of DS + stereotypy movement disorder (SMD) (N = 26) and typical DS controls without behavior problems (N = 44) were ascertained and enrolled sequentially upon presentation to a DS clinic at an academic medical center over a 10-year period from 1991 to 2001. All subjects underwent neurodevelopmental and medical evaluation, and standardized cognitive testing. The parents provided responses to standardized behavioral questionnaires. Cognitive function (IQ) differed markedly across the three groups. The Lethary and Stereotypy subscales of the ABC were highly significant (P PDD, P = 0.005; PDD < CDD, P = 0.002). Using a multivariate regression model, the ABC scales alone explained 62% of variance of ASD outcome; addition of demographic variables explained up to 68% of the variance. There is good correlation between DSM-IV criteria for autism and subscales scores on the ABC in subjects with DS. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using the ABC to characterize the neurobehavioral phenotype of a cohort of children with trisomy 21 and ASD for ongoing research purposes.

  13. Quetiapine-induced sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal from non-rapid eye movement sleep. The prevalence of sleep-related eating disorder has been found to be approximately between 1% and 5% among adults. Many cases of medication-related somnambulism and sleep-related eating disorder-like behavior have been reported in the literature. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication, has been associated with somnambulism but has not yet been reported to be associated with sleep-related eating disorder. Case presentation Case 1 is a 51-year-old obese African American male veteran with a body mass index of 34.11kg/m2 and severe sleep apnea who has taken 150mg of quetiapine at bedtime for more than one year for depression. He developed sleepwalking three to four nights per week which resolved after stopping quetiapine while being compliant with bi-level positive pressure ventilation therapy. At one year follow-up, his body mass index was 32.57kg/m2. Case 2 is a 50-year-old African American female veteran with a body mass index of 30.5kg/m2 and mild sleep apnea who has taken 200mg of quetiapine daily for more than one year for depression. She was witnessed to sleepwalk three nights per week which resolved after discontinuing quetiapine while being treated with continuous positive airway pressure. At three months follow-up, her body mass index was 29.1kg/m2. Conclusion These cases illustrate that quetiapine may precipitate complex motor behavior including sleep-related eating disorder and somnambulism in susceptible patients. Atypical antipsychotics are commonly used in psychiatric and primary care practice, which means the population at risk of developing parasomnia may often go unrecognized. It is important to recognize this potential adverse effect of quetiapine and, to prevent injury and worsening obesity, discuss this with the patients who are prescribed these medications. PMID:23130910

  14. Conduct disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conduct disorder is often linked to attention-deficit disorder . Conduct disorder also can be an early sign of ... child or teen has a history of conduct disorder behaviors. A physical examination and blood tests can help ...

  15. Pharmacologic treatment of behavioral symptoms in autism and pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    Autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are associated with various dysfunctional and problematic behaviors, in addition to the core features of language and social skills dysfunction that define these conditions. Although there is currently no pharmacologic cure for the core features of PDDs, some of the behavioral symptoms may be treated pharmacologically. In addition to relieving some of the daily stress in the lives of patients and their families, improvement of these behavioral symptoms, which include hyperactivity, aggression, tantrums, and self-injury, removes some of the hindrances to other rehabilitative efforts. This article discusses the efficacy and tolerability of various medications and alternative interventions in addressing the symptoms of autism and other PDDs.

  16. Adolescent boys and girls with behavioral disorders in residential homes: A camera-glasses study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wettstein

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents with behavioral disorders are often referred to residential homes. These homes cater and treat socially disadvantaged adolescents with a history of deviant behavior. This study investigated the environment of eight adolescents in these residential homes and four non-aggressive adolescents living with their families. The daily activities were recorded by using camera-glasses attached to the subject. These activities took place in school, leisure time, family and residential homes. Other additional methods were used to investigate the perception and experience of these adolescents. The results of this study indicate that the adolescents in residential homes have a smaller living space in contrast to the non-aggressive adolescents. They also have less close relationships and fewer interactions with their peers. Moreover they have more conflicts and show more often aggressive behavior and they are more often victims of aggression.

  17. Relationship Between Subtypes of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Sleep Disturbance in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Rachel J; Shui, Amy; Malow, Beth A

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association of two types of restricted and repetitive behaviors, repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on sameness (IS), with sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 532 children (aged 2-17) who participated in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network research registry. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised detected the presence of RSM and IS. RSM behaviors were positively associated with parent-reported sleep problems, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for anxiety symptoms. IS was not significantly associated with sleep problems. Better understanding of the relationship between specific types of repetitive behaviors and sleep problems may allow providers to tailor interventions to the individual presentations of their patients with ASD.

  18. The impact of cognitive behavioral therapy on post event processing among those with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2011-02-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment.

  19. [Comparative assessment of cognitive styles forming personal behavior in health and borderline personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, N P

    2006-01-01

    The author suggests a cognitive-analytical concept of personality focusing on cognitively mediated processes of cyclic interaction of different levels of consciousness and subconsciousness represented in the form of emotional-behavioral potential and functional-dynamic system. A cognitive type (cognitype)--a type of personality-centered cognitive operations that determines the pattern of behavioral cycle and distinctive features of social adaptation--is singled out as an integrative basic individual and psychological component of personality. Presented is classification of personality cognitypes, their adaptive and maladaptive variants, correlations between cognitypes and anomalies of personality. The principles of psychotherapy of maladaptive behavior, borderline and addictive disorders (positive reintegration of personality) are substantiated.

  20. The relationship of the Severe Personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Jani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the disruptive effects of personality disorders on personal and family life, it is essential to recognize their predisposing factors to understand them more accurately, and identify their preventive measures treatment facilitators. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship of severe personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. Methods: The present descriptive-correlational study recruited patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders presenting to psychiatry clinics in Ardabil using convenient sampling method. A total of 30 paranoid patients, 30 borderline patients and 20 schizotypal patients were selected by a psychiatrist through psychiatric examination, clinical interview and completing Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III. The following instruments were used: MCMI- III and behavioral activation-inhibition system scale (BIS-BAS. The data were analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. Results: BIS and BAS systems were both significant for predicting borderline and paranoid personality disorders, but only BIS was significant for predicting schizotypal personality disorder. Conclusion: These findings can help experts to have a better and more accurate understanding of personality disorders and use proper methods to predict the probability of these disorders and develop treatments.

  1. The underexamined association between posttraumatic stress disorder, medical illness and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobry, Yuriy; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is concerning not only because of the severity and chronicity of its symptoms - including distressing nightmares, flashbacks, anxiety attacks and maladaptive patterns of avoidant and nearly paranoid behavior - but also because of the wide spectrum of clinical and social impairments it is tightly associated with. The most striking example of clinical morbidity associated with PTSD is the well-known increase in the risk of suicidal behavior. Given that PTSD and medical illnesses increase the likelihood of suicide separately and independently, it is reasonable to suggest that the risk of suicidal behavior differs between patients suffering from PTSD comorbid with medical illnesses and patients having either condition alone. The available data point toward a novel clinical notion, an altered risk of suicidal behavior in patients suffering from comorbid PTSD and medical illnesses. This area of overlap between medicine and psychiatry is still in its infancy, with many unanswered questions about the rate, patterns and psychobiological mechanisms of suicidal behavior in this patient population. The positive association between PTSD, medical illness and suicidal behavior that appears to exist in the adult population, most likely affects the pediatric population as well. Closer investigation into the significance of the association between chronic medical illnesses, PTSD and suicidality in children, adolescents and adults is necessary.

  2. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; van Brakel, Anna M L; Arntz, Arnoud; Schouten, Erik

    2011-04-01

    This longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control children, were followed during a 3-year period. Assessments took place on three occasions to measure children's level of behavioral inhibition, anxiety disorder symptoms, other psychopathological symptoms, and a number of other vulnerability factors such as insecure attachment, negative parenting styles, adverse life events, and parental anxiety. Results obtained with Structural Equation Modeling indicated that behavioral inhibition primarily acted as a specific risk factor for the development of social anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, the longitudinal model showed additive as well as interactive effects for various vulnerability factors on the development of anxiety symptoms. That is, main effects of anxious rearing and parental trait anxiety were found, whereas behavioral inhibition and attachment had an interactive effect on anxiety symptomatology. Moreover, behavioral inhibition itself was also influenced by some of the vulnerability factors. These results provide support for dynamic, multifactorial models for the etiology of child anxiety problems.

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, Behavioral Weight Loss, and Sequential Treatment for Obese Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Wilson, G. Terence; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; White, Marney A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best established treatment for binge-eating disorder (BED) but does not produce weight loss. The efficacy of behavioral weight loss (BWL) in obese patients with BED is uncertain. This study compared CBT, BWL, and a sequential approach in which CBT is delivered first, followed by BWL (CBT + BWL).…

  4. Epidemiology of social behavioral disorders in male teenagers of Bushehr port 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Yazdanparast

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social Behavioral Disorders (SBD is significantly widespread among teenagers in such a way that psychologists called it as “the new hidden morbidity”. Therefore, screening of teenagers, finding out the related demographic factors and introducing them to consultation centers are very important points for therapeutic interventions. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 400 male teenagers aged 13-18 years old were randomly selected in two stages, from a population in Bushehr in November 2005. Pediatric Symptoms Checklist 35-items Questionnaire (PSC/35 was used for their parents or their close relatives. The PSC/35 has 93% and 71% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. The cut off point of 28 was considered as the state of having SBD using this Questionnaire. Results: Overall 148 (37% male teenagers were recognized to have SBD. SBD was more prevalent in boys with an annual educational average score of 14 (out of 20 in comparison with those with 14-17 or >17. Father’s job (labor, farmer or multiple job, predisposed his teenager children to SBD more than when he was employee or businessman. These behavioral abnormalities were more common if they were living with a single parent (death or divorce. SBD was more prevalent in those with externalized personality than both inter-externalized and internalized personalities. Less social behavioral disorders had a positive correlation with leisure time activities. Increase of age in male teenagers, number or order of children, being single, parents’ level of education, mother's occupation and the total income rate of the family had no significant correlation with SBD. Conclusions: The prevalence of social behavioral disorders in male teenagers of Bushehr port is more than industrial countries. Demographic factors such as father’s job (labor, farmer or multiple jobs, living with a single parent (death or divorce, no leisure time activity, and internalized personality were

  5. Clarifying the Behavioral Economics of Social Anxiety Disorder: Effects of Interpersonal Problems and Symptom Severity on Generosity

    OpenAIRE

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Taylor, Kristin P.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is associated with lower interpersonal warmth, possibly explaining its associated interpersonal impairment. Across two samples, we attempted to replicate previous findings that the disorder’s constraint of interpersonal warmth can be detected via behavioral economic tasks. We also tested the test-retest stability of task indices. Results indicated that factors associated with social anxiety disorder (and not the disorder itself), such as the severity of social anxiety ...

  6. The promise of cognitive behavior therapy for treatment of severe mental disorders: a review of recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), as exemplified by the model of psychotherapy developed and refined over the past 40 years by A.T. Beck and colleagues, is one of the treatments of first choice for ambulatory depressive and anxiety disorders. Over the past several decades, there have been vigorous efforts to adapt CBT for treatment of more severe mental disorders, including schizophrenia and the more chronic and/or treatment refractory mood disorders. These efforts have primarily studied CBT ...

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Severe Mental Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Mueser, Kim T.; Rosenberg, Stanley D.; Xie, Haiyi; Jankowski, M. Kay; Bolton, Elisa E.; Lu, Weili; Hamblen, Jessica L.; Rosenberg, Harriet J.; McHugo, Gregory J.; Wolfe, Rosemarie

    2008-01-01

    A cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program for PTSD was developed to address its high prevalence in persons with severe mental illness receiving treatment at community mental health centers. CBT was compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in a randomized controlled trial with 108 clients with PTSD and either major mood disorder (85%) or schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (15%), of whom 25% also had borderline personality disorder. Eighty-one percent of clients assigned to CBT participat...

  8. Moderating Effects of Challenging Behaviors and Communication Deficits on Social Skills in Children Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hess, Julie A.; Mahan, Sara

    2013-01-01

    One-hundred nine children 3-16 years of age diagnosed with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, or Asperger's Syndrome were studied. Children resided in six states in the United States. Using moderation analysis via multiple regression, verbal communication and challenging behaviors and how they interact…

  9. Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) versus Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Mixed Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J.; Eifert, Georg H.; Davies, Carolyn; Vilardaga, Jennifer C. Plumb; Rose, Raphael D.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Randomized comparisons of acceptance-based treatments with traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders are lacking. To address this gap, we compared acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to CBT for heterogeneous anxiety disorders. Method: One hundred twenty-eight individuals (52% female, mean age = 38, 33%…

  10. Drug-Refractory Aggression, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Severe Tantrums in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Chart Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Benjamin A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J.; Erickson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define…

  11. Social Functioning in Youth with Anxiety Disorders: Association with Anxiety Severity and Outcomes from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipani, Cara A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer…

  12. Addressing Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: Methods for Optimizing Long-Term Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a client with panic disorder and agoraphobia who relapses following a full course of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). To frame the client's treatment, the major components of CBT for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) are reviewed. Likely reasons for the treatment's failure and strategies for improving…

  13. The Relation of Severity and Comorbidity to Treatment Outcome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, Juliette Margo; van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; van der Leeden, Adelinde J. M.; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of comorbidity over and above the impact of symptom severity on treatment outcome of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for children with anxiety disorders. Children (aged 8-12, n = 124) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder were treated with a short-term CBT protocol. Severity was assessed with a composite measure…

  14. Efficacy of an Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Evaluation in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Lizabeth; Orsillo, Susan M.; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn

    2008-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic anxiety disorder, associated with comorbidity and impairment in quality of life, for which improved psychosocial treatments are needed. GAD is also associated with reactivity to and avoidance of internal experiences. The current study examined the efficacy of an acceptance-based behavioral therapy…

  15. Discriminant Validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.; Hale, James B.; Brodzinsky, Lara K.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, with concomitant executive function deficits often being the focus of empirical and clinical investigation. This study explored the validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Parent Form (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) for…

  16. Effectiveness of enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Martie; Korrelboom, Kees; van der Meer, Iris; Deen, Mathijs; Hoek, Hans W.; Spinhoven, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background: While eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most common eating disorder (ED) diagnosis in routine clinical practice, no specific treatment methods for this diagnosis have yet been developed and studied. Enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) has been described and

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidal behavior: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2009-08-01

    There is a large literature investigating the underlying mechanisms, risk factors and demographics of suicidal thoughts and behaviors across a number of psychiatric disorders, such as, major depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. However, less research has focused on the relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and suicide. There were two broad aims of this review. The first was to assess the extent to which PTSD is associated with suicide, and the second was to determine the effects of co-morbid disorders on this relationship. Overall, there was a clear relationship between PTSD and suicidal thoughts and behaviors irrespective of the type of trauma experienced. Very few studies directly examined whether depression was a mediating factor in the relationships reported. However, where this was investigated, the presence of co-morbid depression appeared to boost the effect of PTSD on suicidality. It was noteworthy that hardly any studies had investigated concepts thought to be key in other domains of research into suicidality, such as, feelings of entrapment, defeat and hopelessness.

  18. Personality dimensions and treatment drop-outs among eating disorder patients treated with cognitive behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Brambilla, Francesca; Marchesini, Giulio

    2008-04-15

    Premature, unilateral interruption of inpatient treatment of eating disorders (ED) is a key factor limiting success. We evaluated the role of personality dimensions (temperament and character) in predicting drop-out in 145 consecutive ED inpatients (133 females) who entered cognitive behavior therapy. Baseline assessment included anthropometry, the Eating Disorder Examination, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Treatment was based on the new transdiagnostic cognitive behavior theory of ED, adapted for an inpatient setting; it was manual-based and lasted 20 weeks (13, inpatients; 7, residential day hospital). Thirty-four patients (23.4%) discontinued treatment. Drop-outs had a lower level of education, a higher prevalence of separation or divorce in the family, and lower scores on the TCI Persistence scale. After correction for age, gender and body-mass index, scores on the Persistence scale continued to be significantly related to drop-out, and the association was confirmed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Eating disorder patients with low Persistence scores are significantly less likely to complete inpatient treatment.

  19. Wnt signaling in neuropsychiatric disorders: ties with adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Syed Mohammed Qasim; Choi, Chan-Il; Cho, Chang Hoon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Jun, Heechul; Jang, Mi-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to better understand and treat mental disorders, the Wnt pathway and adult hippocampal neurogenesis have received increased attention in recent years. One is a signaling pathway regulating key aspects of embryonic patterning, cell specification, and adult tissue homeostasis. The other is the generation of newborn neurons in adulthood that integrate into the neural circuit and function in learning and memory, and mood behavior. In this review, we discuss the growing relationship between Wnt signaling-mediated regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis as it applies to neuropsychiatric disorders. Evidence suggests dysfunctional Wnt signaling may aberrantly regulate new neuron development and cognitive function. Indeed, altered expression of key Wnt pathway components are observed in the hippocampus of patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders. Clinically-utilized mood stabilizers also proceed through modulation of Wnt signaling in the hippocampus, while Wnt pathway antagonists can regulate the antidepressant response. Here, we review the role of Wnt signaling in disease etiology and pathogenesis, regulation of adult neurogenesis and behavior, and the therapeutic targeting of disease symptoms. PMID:25263701

  20. Medical image of the week: REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahapetian RR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first 150 words. A 55 year old female with a past medical history significant for Parkinson disease status-post implantation of bilateral deep brain stimulators, depression, and restless legs syndrome, who initially presented to the sleep clinic on referral by neurology for evaluation of disordered sleep. Medications included carbidopa-levodopa, escitalopram, gabapentin, lorazepam, ambien, and pramipexole. Her subjective sleep complaints included snoring, restless sleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, sleep related anxiety, dream enactment behavior, nightmares, and sleep talking. She was sent to the sleep laboratory for evaluation of suspected rapid eye movement behavior disorder (RBD. Overnight polysomnogram did not show evidence for sleep disordered breathing. The sleep study was notable for rapid eye movement (REM sleep without atonia, visible arm and leg movements, and audible moaning, speaking, and crying out. These findings corroborated the subjective complaints expressed by the patient and her husband. Her medication regimen was altered. Zolpidem and lorazepam were discontinued and she ...

  1. Mice Lacking Brinp2 or Brinp3, or Both, Exhibit Behaviors Consistent with Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowicz, Susan R.; Featherby, Travis J.; Whisstock, James C.; Bird, Phillip I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brinps 1–3, and Astrotactins (Astn) 1 and 2, are members of the Membrane Attack Complex/Perforin (MACPF) superfamily that are predominantly expressed in the mammalian brain during development. Genetic variation at the human BRINP2/ASTN1 and BRINP1/ASTN2 loci has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We, and others, have previously shown that Brinp1−/− mice exhibit behavior reminiscent of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: We created Brinp2−/− mice and Brinp3−/− mice via the Cre-mediated LoxP system to investigate the effect of gene deletion on anatomy and behavior. Additionally, Brinp2−/−Brinp3−/− double knock-out mice were generated by interbreeding Brinp2−/− and Brinp3−/− mice. Genomic validation was carried out for each knock-out line, followed by histological, weight and behavioral examination. Brinp1−/−Brinp2−/−Brinp3−/− triple knock-out mice were also generated by crossing Brinp2/3 double knock-out mice with previously generated Brinp1−/− mice, and examined by weight and histological analysis. Results: Brinp2−/− and Brinp3−/− mice differ in their behavior: Brinp2−/− mice are hyperactive, whereas Brinp3−/− mice exhibit marked changes in anxiety-response on the elevated plus maze. Brinp3−/− mice also show evidence of altered sociability. Both Brinp2−/− and Brinp3−/− mice have normal short-term memory, olfactory responses, pre-pulse inhibition, and motor learning. The double knock-out mice show behaviors of Brinp2−/− and Brinp3−/− mice, without evidence of new or exacerbated phenotypes. Conclusion: Brinp3 is important in moderation of anxiety, with potential relevance to anxiety disorders. Brinp2 dysfunction resulting in hyperactivity may be relevant to the association of ADHD with chromosome locus 1q25.2. Brinp2−/− and Brinp3−/− genes do not compensate in the mammalian brain and likely have

  2. Characteristic interpersonal behavior in dependent and avoidant personality disorder can be observed within very short interaction sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Daniel; Sporberg, Doreen; Rehbein, Diana

    2006-08-01

    We present a behavior observation study of interpersonal behavior in 96 female subjects, who had been screened for the presence of dependent, avoidant, narcissistic and histrionic personality disorder features. Each subject took part in three short role-plays, taken from assertiveness training. Afterwards, both the subject and her role-play partner judged, how assertive the subject had been. Although observation time was very short, dependent and avoidant subjects could be easily identified from their overly submissive behavior in the role-plays. Histrionic and narcissistic subjects did not show distinctive interpersonal behavior. Contrary to a common belief, higher scores on some personality disorder (PD) scales were positively related to cross-situational variability of behavior. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for clinical diagnostics, therapy and the methodology of personality disorder research in general.

  3. Behavior and Sensory Interests Questionnaire: Validation in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen M; Sideridis, Georgios; Jackson, Frank I; Porche, Ken; Campe, Katherine L; Huntington, Noelle

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors, restricted interests and other unusual sensory behaviors often significantly impact the lives of many individuals with developmental disabilities, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Identifying specific patterns of atypical behaviors across different disorders allows for improved specificity of diagnoses, monitoring response to treatment and elucidating the genetic and neurobiological underpinnings of these disorders. The Behavior and Sensory Interests Questionnaire (BSIQ) is a newly designed, continuous dimensional instrument that comprehensively assesses the type, frequency, intensity, age of onset, and duration of these behaviors. The BSIQ takes 15-40 min to administer to a caregiver in an interview format. Using a large sample of children with either ASD, intellectual disabilities or who were typically developing, the construct validity of the BSIQ was confirmed using a series of multi-group confirmatory factor analysis models. Configural and metric invariance were satisfied, but not scalar invariance, as expected. The BSIQ showed acceptable internal consistency, excellent inter-rater reliability and excellent test-retest reliability.

  4. Youth with Behavioral Health Disorders Aging Out of Foster Care: a Systematic Review and Implications for Policy, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D; Adams, Danielle R

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice. We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.

  5. Antidepressant medication augmented with cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Petkus, Andrew J; White, Kamila S; Nguyen, Hoang; Kornblith, Sander; Andreescu, Carmen; Zisook, Sidney; Lenze, Eric J

    2013-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Generalized anxiety disorder is common among older adults and leads to diminished health and cognitive functioning. Although antidepressant medications are efficacious, many elderly individuals require augmentation treatment. Furthermore, little is known about maintenance strategies for older people. The authors examined whether sequenced treatment combining pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) boosts response and prevents relapse in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder. METHOD Participants were individuals at least 60 years of age with generalized anxiety disorder (N=73) who were recruited from outpatient clinics at three sites. Participants received 12 weeks of open-label escitalopram and were then randomly assigned to one of four conditions: 16 weeks of escitalopram (10-20 mg/day) plus modular CBT, followed by 28 weeks of maintenance escitalopram; escitalopram alone, followed by maintenance escitalopram; escitalopram plus CBT, followed by pill placebo; and escitalopram alone, followed by placebo. RESULTS Escitalopram augmented with CBT increased response rates on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire but not on the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale compared with escitalopram alone. Both escitalopram and CBT prevented relapse compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates effective strategies for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder in older adults. The sequence of antidepressant medication augmented with CBT leads to worry reduction in the short-term. Continued medication prevents relapse, but for many individuals, CBT would allow sustained remission without requiring long-term pharmacotherapy.

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Correlation between aberrant behaviors, EEG abnormalities and seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Elena Hartley-McAndrew

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between epilepsy, epileptiform discharges, cognitive, language and behavioral symptoms is not clearly understood. Since difficulties with socialization and maladaptive behaviors are found in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, we inquired whether epileptiform activity and seizures are associated with adverse behavioral manifestations in this population. We reviewed our EEG database between 1999-2006, and identified 123 children with ASD. EEG abnormalities were found in 39 children (31%. A control group of age and gender matched ASD children with normal EEG’s was obtained. Packets of questionnaires including the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale II (VABS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS were sent by mail. Out of 21 packets received, 11 had normal and 10 had abnormal EEG’s. There were no statistically significant differences in behavior between the two groups. Statistical analysis of discharge location and frequency did not reveal a significant trend. However, children with ASD and seizures had statistically significant lower scores in VABS daily living (P=0.009 and socialization (P=0.007 as compared to those without seizures. ASD children with seizures had higher ABC levels of hyperactivity and irritability. Differences in irritability scores nearly reached statistical significance (P=0.058. There was no significant difference in the degree of CARS autism rating between the groups. Our study did not reveal statistically significant differences in behaviors between ASD children with and without EEG abnormalities. However, ASD children with seizures revealed significantly worse behaviors as compared to counterparts without seizures.

  7. Variability in emotional/behavioral problems in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder: the role of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; Van Rijn, Sophie; De Wied, Minet; Van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    It is often reported that children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) are under-aroused. However, the evidence is mixed, with some children with ODD/CD displaying high arousal. This has led to the hypothesis that different profiles of arousal dysfunction may exist within children with ODD/CD. This knowledge could explain variability within children with ODD/CD, both in terms of specific types of aggression as well as comorbid symptoms (e.g., other emotional/behavioral problems). We measured heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) during rest and stress, and obtained parent and teacher reports of aggression, anxiety, attention problems and autism traits in a sample of 66 ODD/CD and 36 non-clinical boys (aged 8-12 years). The ODD/CD group scored significantly higher on aggression, anxiety, attention problems and autism traits than the controls; boys with ODD/CD also had higher resting HRs than controls, but HR stress, HRV and SCL did not differ. Hierarchical regressions showed different physiological profiles in subgroups of boys with ODD/CD based on their type of aggression; a pattern of high baseline HR and SCL, but low stress HRV was related to reactive aggression, whereas the opposite physiological pattern (low HR, low stress SCL, high stress HRV) was related to proactive aggression. Furthermore, high stress SCL was related to anxiety symptoms, whereas low stress SCL was related to attention problems. These findings are important because they indicate heterogeneity within boys with ODD/CD and highlight the importance of using physiology to differentiate boys with different ODD/CD subtypes.

  8. State dissociation moderates response to dialectical behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women with and without borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Kleindienst

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are prone to dissociation, which in theory should interfere with successful treatment. However, most empirical studies do not substantiate this assumption. Objective: The primary objective was to test whether state dissociation predicts the success of an adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy designed for the treatment of patients with PTSD after childhood sexual abuse (CSA (DBT-PTSD. We further explored whether the operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference with respect to prediction of improvement. Methods: We present a hypothesis-driven post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial on the efficacy in patients with PTSD after CSA. Regression analyses relating pre–post improvements in the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS to dissociation were applied to the women who participated in the active treatment arm (DBT-PTSD. Multivariate models accounting for major confounders were used to relate improvements in both the CAPS and the PDS to (1 state dissociation as assessed after each treatment session and (2 trait dissociation as assessed at baseline. Results: State dissociation during psychotherapy sessions predicted improvement after DBT-PTSD: patients with low state dissociation during treatment had a higher chance to show substantial improvement. This relation consistently emerged across subgroups of PTSD patients with and without borderline personality disorder. The operationalization of dissociation as state versus trait dissociation made a difference as improvement was not significantly predicted from trait dissociation. Conclusions: Dissociation during treatment sessions may reduce success with trauma-focused therapies such as DBT-PTSD. Accordingly, clinical studies aimed at improving ways to address dissociation are needed.

  9. A cognitive behavioral therapy for co-occurring substance use and posttraumatic stress disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark P; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; Acquilano, Stephanie; Xie, Haiyi; Alterman, Arthur I; Weiss, Roger D

    2009-10-01

    Co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in addiction treatment programs and a risk factor for negative outcomes. Although interventions have been developed to address substance use and PTSD, treatment options are needed that are effective, well tolerated by patients, and potentially integrated with existing program services. This paper describes a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD that was adapted from a treatment for persons with severe mental illnesses and PTSD in community mental health settings. The new adaptation is for patients in community addiction treatment with co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. In this study, 5 community therapists delivered the CBT for PTSD. Outcome data are available on 11 patients who were assessed at baseline, post-CBT treatment, and at a 3-month follow-up post-treatment. Primary outcomes were substance use, PTSD severity, and retention, of which all were favorable for patients receiving the CBT for PTSD.

  10. Dietary glycemic index modulates the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currais, A; Farrokhi, C; Dargusch, R; Goujon-Svrzic, M; Maher, P

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown etiology, but very likely resulting from both genetic and environmental factors. There is good evidence for immune system dysregulation in individuals with ASD. However, the contribution of insults such as dietary factors that can also activate the immune system have not been explored in the context of ASD. In this paper, we show that the dietary glycemic index has a significant impact on the ASD phenotype. By using BTBR mice, an inbred strain that displays behavioral traits that reflect the diagnostic symptoms of human ASD, we found that the diet modulates plasma metabolites, neuroinflammation and brain markers of neurogenesis in a manner that is highly reflective of ASD in humans. Overall, the manuscript supports the idea that ASD results from gene-environment interactions and that in the presence of a genetic predisposition to ASD, diet can make a large difference in the expression of the condition.

  11. Epigenetic and genetic variation at SKA2 predict suicidal behavior and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Z; Wilcox, H C; Eaton, W W; Van Eck, K; Kilaru, V; Jovanovic, T; Klengel, T; Bradley, B; Binder, E B; Ressler, K J; Smith, A K

    2015-08-25

    Traumatic stress results in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities and an increased risk to both suicidal behaviors and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous work out of our laboratory identified SKA2 DNA methylation associations with suicidal behavior in the blood and brain of multiple cohorts. Interaction of SKA2 with stress predicted suicidal behavior with ~80% accuracy. SKA2 is hypothesized to reduce the ability to suppress cortisol following stress, which is of potentially high relevance in traumatized populations. Our objective was to investigate the interaction of SKA2 and trauma exposure on HPA axis function, suicide attempt and PTSD. SKA2 DNA methylation at Illumina HM450 probe cg13989295 was assessed for association with suicidal behavior and PTSD metrics in the context of Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) scores in 421 blood and 61 saliva samples from the Grady Trauma Project (GTP) cohort. Dexamethasone suppression test (DST) data were evaluated for a subset of 209 GTP subjects. SKA2 methylation interacted with CTQ scores to predict lifetime suicide attempt in saliva and blood with areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUCs) of 0.76 and 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6-0.92, P = 0.003, and CI: 0.65-0.78, P suicidal behaviors and PTSD through dysregulation of the HPA axis in response to stress.

  12. Misuse of prescription stimulants for weight loss, psychosocial variables, and eating disordered behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy; Benotsch, Eric G; Koester, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the non-medical use of prescription drugs among young adults including an increase in the use of prescription stimulants normally used to treat ADHD. Reported motivations for the non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) include enhancing academic performance and to get high. Although a common side effect of these medications is appetite suppression, research examining weight loss as a motivation for NPS among young adults is sparse. In the present study, undergraduate students (n=705) completed an online survey assessing weight loss behaviors, motivations for weight loss, and eating behaviors. Nearly 12% of respondents reported using prescription stimulants to lose weight. Participants who reported using prescription stimulants for weight loss had greater appearance-related motivations for weight loss, greater emotion and stress-related eating, a more compromised appraisal of their ability to cope, lower self-esteem, and were more likely to report engaging in other unhealthy weight loss and eating disordered behaviors. Results suggest some young adults are misusing prescription stimulants for weight loss and that this behavior is associated with other problematic weight loss strategies. Interventions designed to reduce problematic eating behaviors in young adults may wish to assess the misuse of prescription stimulants.

  13. Family dysfunction in adolescents with suicidal behavior and in adolescents with conduct disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Kovačević Svetlana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The period of life known as adolescence generally refers to transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents' progress toward autonomy involves remaining connected with, as well as separated from parents. Young people and their parents usually have mixed feelings about adolescent autonomy and attachment. An estimated 50% of children born in the 80s have spent part of their developmental years in single-parent households. Divorce is almost always a stressful event in children's lives. Youthful suicide rate has increased dramatically and is the third leading cause of death among 15-19 year olds. Conduct disorder is one of the most frequently diagnosed conditions in adolescents. Suicidal adolescents and adolescents with conduct disorder are much more likely than their peers to have grown up in disrupted, disorganized homes with lack of attachment between parents and their children. Material and methods This prospective study was carried out during 2002, 2003, and 2004. The research included 60 adolescents treated at the Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Novi Sad, 30 with diagnosed conduct disorder and 30 with suicidal behavior. Results Along with other kinds of distress, suicidal adolescents have experienced an escalation of family problems a few months prior to attempted suicide. Discussion Divorce and life in single-parent households is almost always a stressful period in children's lives. Conduct disorder and suicidal behavior represent a desperate cry for help. Conclusion Most adolescents in both groups live in single-parent house­holds. These young people have frequently passed into adolescence with little reason to feel that they could rely on their parents for support, or on their home as a place of sanctuary. .

  14. Behavior genetics of personality disorders: informing classification and conceptualization in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Susan C; DeYoung, Nathaniel J

    2013-07-01

    Personality pathology is currently captured in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual through 10 categorical personality disorder (PD) diagnoses grouped into three descriptive clusters. This classification system has been criticized by many for using discrete categories and arbitrary thresholds when making clinical decisions. To address these critiques, the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has put forth a proposal that significantly alters the structure and content of the DSM-IV PD section. If this DSM-5 Work Group has conducted its own systematic review of the empirical literature, this review has not been released or made widely available. As such, it is up to the psychology community at large to determine how well the suggested changes align with findings from extant PD research. The current article joins this effort by addressing the contribution of behavior genetic findings to the revision process for classification of PDs in DSM-5. First, we provide a brief review of the history of PD classification in the DSM. Next, we present an overview and rationale for each of the five major suggested changes to PD diagnoses. For each suggested change, we outline the available evidence from behavior genetics and interpretations of these findings. Finally, we offer a summary of considerations for PD classification as the DSM-5 moves forward. Review of the behavior genetics literature suggests that several features of the DSM-5 proposal, including the elimination of 4 PDs, merging clinical disorders and PDs on a single axis, and the implementation of a trait rating system, require significantly greater explication before a product is finalized.

  15. The use of selected theatre rehearsal technique activities with African-American adolescents labeled "behavior disordered".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M G

    1992-01-01

    The extensive literature on the overrepresentation of adolescent African-American male learners in classes for students identified as behavior disordered has essentially not addressed the problems caused by teacher reactions to adolescent conversational language use, the qualitative differences in language choices, or the impact of the conversational choices of adolescents on their educational treatment. This article explores how the dramaturgical perspective of selected Theatre Rehearsal Technique (TRT) activities can be used as learning experiences in communication with this student population. If these students gain quantifiable success in their social communication interactions, reassessment of their special education placement might facilitate their entrance into less restrictive educational environments.

  16. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder as an outlier detection problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Nikolic, M.

    2014-01-01

    computed from manual scored REM sleep. This was accomplished by the use of subject-specific features combined with an outlier detector (one-class support vector machine classifier). RESULTS: It was possible to correctly separate idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder subjects from healthy control subjects...... and periodic limb movement subjects with an average validation area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.993 when combining the anterior tibialis with submentalis. Additionally, it was possible to separate all subjects correctly when the final algorithm was tested on 12 unseen subjects...

  17. Automatic REM sleep detection associated with idiopathic rem sleep Behavior Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, J; Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Sorensen, H B D

    2011-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is a strong early marker of later development of Parkinsonism. Currently there are no objective methods to identify and discriminate abnormal from normal motor activity during REM sleep. Therefore, a REM sleep detection without the use of chin...... electromyography (EMG) is useful. This is addressed by analyzing the classification performance when implementing two automatic REM sleep detectors. The first detector uses the electroencephalography (EEG), electrooculography (EOG) and EMG to detect REM sleep, while the second detector only uses the EEG and EOG....

  18. Oxytocin and vasopressin are dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a genetic disorder affecting social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS, a condition caused by deletion of ~28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT and arginine vasopressin (AVP regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music, and a negative physical stressor (cold. We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median levels of OT in WS versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in AVP. Further, in WS, OT and AVP increased in response to music and to cold, with greater variability and an amplified peak release compared to controls. In WS, baseline OT but not AVP, was correlated positively with approach, but negatively with adaptive social behaviors. These results indicate that WS deleted genes perturb hypothalamic-pituitary release not only of OT but also of AVP, implicating more complex neuropeptide circuitry for WS features and providing evidence for their roles in endogenous regulation of human social behavior. The data suggest a possible biological basis for amygdalar involvement, for increased anxiety, and for the paradox of increased approach but poor social relationships in WS. They also offer insight for translating genetic and neuroendocrine knowledge into treatments for disorders of social behavior.

  19. A Naturalistic Examination of the Temporal Patterns of Affect and Eating Disorder Behaviors in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Ellison, Jo; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence supports the presence of significant variability in the timing of affective experiences and eating disorder (ED) behaviors across ED populations. This study examined the naturalistic timing of affective states and ED behaviors in anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods Women (N = 118) with full or subthreshold DSM-IV AN completed two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving self-reports of affect and ED behaviors. Patterns of positive affect, negative affect, and tension/anxiety across hours of the day and days of the week were examined using linear mixed models. Variation in ED behavior occurrence (i.e., binge eating, vomiting, exercise, meal skipping, and self-weighing) across hours of the day and days of the week was examined using general estimating equations. Results Results revealed significant variation in tension/anxiety across hours of the day; there were no significant associations between time of day and negative or positive affect. All affective variables significantly varied across days of the week, with both negative affect and tension/anxiety highest in the middle of the week and lowest on the weekends. The ED behaviors all significantly varied across hours of the day, with binge eating and vomiting most common in later hours, exercise and self-weighing most common in earlier hours, and meal skipping most common at times corresponding to breakfast and lunch. ED behaviors did not significantly vary across days of the week. Conclusion The significant patterns of variation in the timing of affective experiences and ED behaviors may have utility in informing theories and interventions for AN. PMID:26282336

  20. Food Selectivity, Mealtime Behavior Problems, Spousal Stress, and Family Food Choices in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, C.; Hubbard, K.; Anderson, S. E.; Mick, E.; Must, A.; Bandini, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mealtime behavior problems and family stress occur frequently among families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown whether food selectivity is an associated factor. The associations of high food selectivity with mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and influence on family members were assessed among 53…