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Sample records for behavior disorders cerebral

  1. Changes in Regional Cerebral Blood Flow with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Panic Disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, K. S.; Jun, S. K.; Kim, J. B.; Jang, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    This study attempted to prospectively investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on SPECT and clinical response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder with (PDA) and without (PD) agoraphobia. Using 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT, we assessed brain perfusion in 5 out patients at rest before and after CBT. The subjects received 12 weekly sessions of CBT. Subjects were assessed by Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, Body Sensations Questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and clinical global improvement (CGI) scale measurement were used as outcome measures. Patients were considered responders to CBT if they are much or very much improved on CGI scale and have a PDSS score at least 30% below their baseline. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The baseline scans were compared to the post-CBT scans by using the statistics option multi subject, different conditions. Of 5 subjects 4 were male, 3 diagnosed PDA, and 4 on anti-anxiety medication. All of the subjects were classified as CBT responders. Their mean pretreatment and posttreatment PDSS were 17.4 (SD=8.2) and 4.2 (SD=3.1), respectively. The results of SPM analysis showed a significant decrease in blood flow after CBT in the thalamus bilaterally and right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 6). All results were thresholded at an uncorrected p<0.001 (for voxel height) and a corrected p<0.04 (for spatial extent). These preliminary data suggest that SPM analysis of 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT can reveal the change of rCBF in patient with panic disorder before and after CBT and the CBT effect may be associated with limbic and thalamic networks. However this study was a short trial with small number of subjects. Further studies with larger patient cohorts are needed

  2. Changes in Regional Cerebral Blood Flow with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Panic Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, K. S.; Jun, S. K.; Kim, J. B.; Jang, E. J. [College of Medicine, Univ. of Kyemyoung, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This study attempted to prospectively investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on SPECT and clinical response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder with (PDA) and without (PD) agoraphobia. Using 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT, we assessed brain perfusion in 5 out patients at rest before and after CBT. The subjects received 12 weekly sessions of CBT. Subjects were assessed by Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, Body Sensations Questionnaire, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and clinical global improvement (CGI) scale measurement were used as outcome measures. Patients were considered responders to CBT if they are much or very much improved on CGI scale and have a PDSS score at least 30% below their baseline. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The baseline scans were compared to the post-CBT scans by using the statistics option multi subject, different conditions. Of 5 subjects 4 were male, 3 diagnosed PDA, and 4 on anti-anxiety medication. All of the subjects were classified as CBT responders. Their mean pretreatment and posttreatment PDSS were 17.4 (SD=8.2) and 4.2 (SD=3.1), respectively. The results of SPM analysis showed a significant decrease in blood flow after CBT in the thalamus bilaterally and right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 6). All results were thresholded at an uncorrected p<0.001 (for voxel height) and a corrected p<0.04 (for spatial extent). These preliminary data suggest that SPM analysis of 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT can reveal the change of rCBF in patient with panic disorder before and after CBT and the CBT effect may be associated with limbic and thalamic networks. However this study was a short trial with small number of subjects. Further studies with larger patient cohorts are needed.

  3. Changes in cerebral blood flow after cognitive behavior therapy in patients with panic disorder: a SPECT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ho-Jun; Choi, Young Hee; Chung, Yong-An; Rho, Wangku; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Aim Inconsistent results continue to be reported in studies that examine the neural correlates of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder. We examined the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) associated with the alleviation of anxiety by CBT in panic patients. Methods The change in rCBF and clinical symptoms before and after CBT were assessed using single photon emission computed tomography and various clinical measures were analyzed. Results Fourteen subjects who completed CBT showed significant improvements in symptoms on clinical measures, including the Panic and Agoraphobic Scale and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised. After CBT, increased rCBF was detected in the left postcentral gyrus (BA 43), left precentral gyrus (BA 4), and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9 and BA 47), whereas decreased rCBF was detected in the left pons. Correlation analysis of the association between the changes in rCBF and changes in each clinical measure did not show significant results. Conclusion We found changes in the rCBF associated with the successful completion of CBT. The present findings may help clarify the effects of CBT on changes in brain activity in panic disorder. PMID:24790449

  4. Changes in cerebral blood flow after cognitive behavior therapy in patients with panic disorder: a SPECT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo HJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ho-Jun Seo,1 Young Hee Choi,2 Yong-An Chung,3 Wangku Rho,1 Jeong-Ho Chae11Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 2Metta Institute of Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South KoreaAim: Inconsistent results continue to be reported in studies that examine the neural correlates of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in patients with panic disorder. We examined the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF associated with the alleviation of anxiety by CBT in panic patients.Methods: The change in rCBF and clinical symptoms before and after CBT were assessed using single photon emission computed tomography and various clinical measures were analyzed.Results: Fourteen subjects who completed CBT showed significant improvements in symptoms on clinical measures, including the Panic and Agoraphobic Scale and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised. After CBT, increased rCBF was detected in the left postcentral gyrus (BA 43, left precentral gyrus (BA 4, and left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 9 and BA 47, whereas decreased rCBF was detected in the left pons. Correlation analysis of the association between the changes in rCBF and changes in each clinical measure did not show significant results.Conclusion: We found changes in the rCBF associated with the successful completion of CBT. The present findings may help clarify the effects of CBT on changes in brain activity in panic disorder.Keyword: single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, anxiety, neural correlate, brain activity

  5. Cerebral metabolism in dogs assessed by 18F-FDG PET. A pilot study to understand physiological changes in behavioral disorders in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irimajiri, Mami; Jaeger, C.B.; Luescher, A.U.; Miller, M.A.; Hutchins, G.D.; Green, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique, which is utilized in human behavior and psychiatric disorder research, was performed on the brains of clinically normal mixed breed dogs, 3 hound-type (long floppy ears) mixed breed dogs and 3 non-hound retriever-type mixed breed dogs. Glucose metabolism was obtained with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and quantitative analysis was performed by standardized uptake value (SUV) measurement. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in each dog, and these images were superimposed on PET images to identify anatomical locations. The glucose metabolism in each region of interest was compared between the three hound-type dogs and 3 non-hound-type dogs. The two anatomically different types of dog were compared to assess whether breed-typical behavioral tendencies (e.g., sniffing behavior in hound-type dogs, staring and retrieving in Labrador-type dogs) are reflected in baseline brain metabolic activity. There were no significant differences between the hound-type dogs and non-hound-type dogs in cerebral SUV values. These data might serve as normal canine cerebral metabolism data for FDG PET studies in dogs and form the basis for investigations into behavioral disorders in dogs such as compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders and cognitive dysfunction. (author)

  6. Diagnosis of cerebral disorders using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, K [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), which makes differential diagnosis of cerebral disorders possible, was applied in the diagnosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease. CT findings of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage showed the localization, volume, and direction of hematoma, and the classification of hematoma according to CT findings was highly correlated to the clinical symptoms of the patients. CT findings of cerebral thrombosis showed the extension of the lesion to be a low density area, but there were many cases in which they did not show a low density area immediately after an attack. CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage were very useful in the diagnosis of intracerebral hematoma, ventricular hematoma, and intracranial hematoma secondary to this disease. However, it was very difficult to diagnose cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease by means of CT.

  7. Diagnosis of cerebral disorders using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Koichi

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT), which makes differential diagnosis of cerebral disorders possible, was applied in the diagnosis of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease. CT findings of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage showed the localization, volume, and direction of hematoma, and the classification of hematoma according to CT findings was highly correlated to the clinical symptoms of the patients. CT findings of cerebral thrombosis showed the extension of the lesion to be a low density area, but there were many cases in which they did not show a low density area immediately after an attack. CT findings of subarachnoid hemorrhage were very useful in the diagnosis of intracerebral hematoma, ventricular hematoma, and intracranial hematoma secondary to this disease. However, it was very difficult to diagnose cerebrovascular Moyamoya disease by means of CT. (Nishio, M.)

  8. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  9. Sleep disorders in children with cerebral palsy: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lélis, Ana Luíza P A; Cardoso, Maria Vera L M; Hall, Wendy A

    2016-12-01

    Sleep disorders are more prevalent in children with cerebral palsy. The review aimed to identify and synthesize information about the nature of sleep disorders and their related factors in children with cerebral palsy. We performed an electronic search by using the search terms sleep/child*, and sleep/cerebral palsy in the following databases: Latin American literature on health sciences, SCOPUS, medical publications, cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature, psycinfo, worldcat, web of science, and the Cochrane library. The selection criteria were studies: available in Portuguese, English or Spanish and published between 2004 and 2014, with results addressing sleep disorders in children (ages 0-18 y) with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy. 36,361 abstracts were identified. Of those, 37 papers were selected, and 25 excluded. Twelve papers were incorporated in the study sample: eight quantitative studies, three reviews, and one case study. Eleven types of sleep disorders were identified, such as difficult morning awakening, insomnia, nightmares, difficulties in initiating and maintaining nighttime sleep (night waking), and sleep anxiety. Twenty-one factors were linked to sleep disorders, which we classified as intrinsic factors associated with common comorbidities accompanying cerebral palsy, and extrinsic aspects, specifically environmental and socio-familial variables, and clinical-surgical and pharmacological interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Altered Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vállez García, David; Doorduin, Janine; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.j.o.; Otte, Andreas

    There is increasing evidence of central hyperexcitability in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (cWAD). However, little is known about how an apparently simple cervical spine injury can induce changes in cerebral processes. The present study was designed (1) to validate previous results showing

  11. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

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    Bedriye Oncu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.

  12. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohar, J.; Insel, T.R.; Berman, K.F.; Foa, E.B.; Hill, J.L.; Weinberger, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO 2 did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow

  13. Long-term effects of stimulant exposure on cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate and behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, Anouk; Bouziane, C.; Bron, E. E.; Klein, S.; Bottelier, M. A.; Kooij, J. J. S.; Rombouts, S. A. R. B.; Reneman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Stimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the DA system. We

  14. Long-term effects of stimulant exposure on cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate and behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A. (Anouk); C. Bouziane (Cheima); E.E. Bron (Esther); S. Klein (Stefan); Bottelier, M.A.; Kooij, J.J.S.; S.A.R.B. Rombouts (Serge); L. Reneman (Liesbeth)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the

  15. Long-term effects of stimulant exposure on cerebral blood flow response to methylphenidate and behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrantee, A.; Bouziane, C.; Bron, E.E.; Klein, S.; Bottelier, M.A.; Kooij, J.J.S.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Reneman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Stimulant prescription rates for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are increasing, even though potential long-term effects on the developing brain have not been well-studied. A previous randomized clinical trial showed short-term age-dependent effects of stimulants on the DA system. We

  16. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Case Following Cerebral Ischemia

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    Semra Bilge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder is characterised by recurrent, unwanted, distressing thoughts, images, impulses and associated behaviours which generally emerge in the 2nd or 3rd decades of life. Elderly onset cases are rare. A 71 year old patient was admitted to our hospital because of left-sided weakness. Neurological examination revealed left hemiparesis, mild dysphasia and anosognosia. Using cranial magnetic resonance, infarcts were found in the MCA territories, in the posterior portion of the middle temporal gyrus supplied by the cortical (inferior branch and in the internal capsule, globus pallidus and putamen portions supplied by the lenticolostriate branch. An occlusion was also present in the right internal carotid artery (ICA. Fifteen days after presentation he developed an abnormal fear of urine contamination. He showered and handwashed excessively and exhibited insomnia and anxiety. The patient knew that his behaviour was ridiculous but could not prevent it. Formal neuropsychological testing found his simple attention to be mildly impared. His visuospatial function and construction abilities were also impaired. Obsessive compulsive disorder is usually an early onset disease. However this report seeks to draw attention to late-onset cases such as this, which are due to a cerebrovascular disorder.

  17. Cerebral basis of posttraumatic stress disorder following the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganovsky, Konstantin N; Zdanevich, Nataliya A

    2013-04-01

    Whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following radiation emergency has psychopathological, neurocognitive, and neurophysiological peculiarities is at issue. The goal was to explore the features and cerebral basis of "radiation" PTSD in the survivors of the Chernobyl accident. Subjects and Methods The cross-sectional study included 241 people, 219 of whom have been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria, among them 115 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl accident (34 with acute radiation sickness), 76 evacuees from the Chernobyl exclusion zone, 28 veterans of the war in Afghanistan, and 22 healthy unexposed individuals. Psychometric examinations, neurocognitive assessments, computerized electroencephalography, and cerebral vascular Doppler were used. "Radiation" PTSD includes "flashforward" phenomena and anticipating stress (projection of fear and danger to the future); somatoform disorders (depression, trait and state anxiety); and neurocognitive deficit (impaired memory and attention, auditory-verbal memory and learning, proactive and retroactive interference, cerebellar and stem symptoms, intellectual changes). The intima-media component, thickness of common carotid arteries, and common and left internal carotid arteries stenosis rates are increased in the liquidators. Changes of bioelectrical brain activity as a decrease of beta- and theta-power, together with an increase of alpha-power, were found in the Chernobyl accident survivors with PTSD. PTSD following radiation emergency is characterized by comorbidity of psychopathology, neurocognitive deficit, and cerebrovascular pathology with increased risk of cerebral atherosclerosis and stroke. The cerebral basis of this PTSD is proposed to be an abnormal communication between the pyramidal cells of the neocortex and the hippocampus, and deep brain structures. It is recommended that a system of emergency and long-term psychological

  18. Pathophysiology of cerebral circulatory disorders in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Totaro; Goto, Hiromi; Izaki, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the pathologic conditions of cerebral circulatory disorders in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Among 44 possible iNPH patients, 40 patients underwent shunt surgery based on diagnostic flow charts plotted by the Southern Tohoku method and were evaluated to be shunt-effective at the end of the first post-surgical month. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by N-isopropyl-( 123 I)-P-iodo-amphetamine single photon emission computed tomography (mean, mCBF; cortical region, cCBF; thalamus-basal ganglia region, tbCBF on autoradiography [ARG] method) and the perfusion patterns of the cerebral cortex were measured based on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) Z-score images, before and 1 month after the surgery in all 40 subjects. The mCBF rose significantly from 32.1±2.74 ml/100 g/min before surgery to 39.8±3.02 ml/100 g/min after surgery (p<0.03). Investigation of the change of CBF revealed reductions in the cCBF (3 cases), tbCBF (9 cases), and cCBF+tbCBF (28 cases), with the reduced-cCBF group totaling 31 cases and the reduced-tbCBF group totaling 37 cases. Investigation of cerebral cortex hypoperfusion by 3D-SSP Z-score revealed 31 cases with hypoperfusion (frontal lobe type [19 cases], occipitotemporal lobe type [5 cases], mixed type [7 cases]) and nine cases with cortical normoperfusion (N). The pattern of reduction of the cortical blood flow on ARG method was favorably correlated with the pattern of hypoperfusion of the cerebral cortex on 3D-SSP Z-score images before surgery. A reduction of blood flow was found in the thalamus-basal ganglia region of all N type cases. The blood flow improved in 19 of 31 (61.3%) cases of the reduced-cCBF group and in 32 of 37 (86.5%) cases of the reduced-tbCBF group. All of the cases without detectable improvement exhibited increased blood flow in non-reduction areas. Investigation of the hypoperfusion patterns of the cerebral cortex on 3D-SSP Z

  19. Digestive tract neural control and gastrointestinal disorders in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Liubiana A; Silva, Luciana R; Mendes, Fabiana A A

    2012-01-01

    To examine the neural control of digestive tract and describe the main gastrointestinal disorders in cerebral palsy (CP), with attention to the importance of early diagnosis to an efficient interdisciplinary treatment. Systematic review of literature from 1997 to 2012 from Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, and Cochrane Library databases. The study included 70 papers, such as relevant reviews, observational studies, controlled trials, and prevalence studies. Qualitative studies were excluded. The keywords used were: cerebral palsy, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, constipation, recurrent respiratory infections, and gastrostomy. The appropriate control of the digestive system depends on the healthy functioning and integrity of the neural system. Since CP patients have structural abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, they are more likely to develop eating disorders. These range from neurological immaturity to interference in the mood and capacity of caregivers. The disease has, therefore, a multifactorial etiology. The most prevalent digestive tract disorders are dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and constipation, with consequent recurrent respiratory infections and deleterious impact on nutritional status. Patients with CP can have neurological abnormalities of digestive system control; therefore, digestive problems are common. The issues raised in the present study are essential for professionals within the interdisciplinary teams that treat patients with CP, concerning the importance of comprehensive anamnesis and clinical examination, such as detailed investigation of gastrointestinal disorders. Early detection of these digestive problems may lead to more efficient rehabilitation measures in order to improve patients' quality of life.

  20. Disruptive Behavior Disorders

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    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... greater chance of experiencing learning disabilities such as reading disorders and verbal impairment. But what distinguishes children ...

  1. Behavior Disorders and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1993-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 127 children with epilepsy aged 8-12 years and their mothers, designed to identify factors contributing to behavior problems, is reported from the Indiana University School of Nursing, Indianapolis; the Minnesota Comprehensive Epilepsy Program, Minneapolis; and the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston.

  2. Altered Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vállez García

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of central hyperexcitability in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (cWAD. However, little is known about how an apparently simple cervical spine injury can induce changes in cerebral processes. The present study was designed (1 to validate previous results showing alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in cWAD, (2 to test if central hyperexcitability reflects changes in rCBF upon non-painful stimulation of the neck, and (3 to verify our hypothesis that the missing link in understanding the underlying pathophysiology could be the close interaction between the neck and midbrain structures. For this purpose, alterations of rCBF were explored in a case-control study using H215O positron emission tomography, where each group was exposed to four different conditions, including rest and different levels of non-painful electrical stimulation of the neck. rCBF was found to be elevated in patients with cWAD in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, and decreased in the superior temporal, parahippocampal, and inferior frontal gyri, the thalamus and the insular cortex when compared with rCBF in healthy controls. No differences in rCBF were observed between different levels of electrical stimulation. The alterations in regions directly involved with pain perception and interoceptive processing indicate that cWAD symptoms might be the consequence of a mismatch during the integration of information in brain regions involved in pain processing.

  3. Electropalatography in the Description and Treatment of Speech Disorders in Five Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Ann; Carlsson, Goran; Lohmander, Anette

    2011-01-01

    Some children with cerebral palsy have articulation disorders that are resistant to conventional speech therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the visual feedback method of electropalatography (EPG) could be an effective tool for treating five children (mean age of 9.4 years) with dysarthria and cerebral palsy and to explore…

  4. Neuro-Ophthalmological Disorders in Cerebral Palsy: Ophthalmological, Oculomotor, and Visual Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi, Elisa; Signorini, Sabrina G.; La Piana, Roberta; Bertone, Chiara; Misefari, Walter; Galli, Jessica; Balottin, Umberto; Bianchi, Paolo Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a disorder caused by damage to the retrogeniculate visual pathways. Cerebral palsy (CP) and CVI share a common origin: 60 to 70% of children with CP also have CVI. We set out to describe visual dysfunction in children with CP. A further aim was to establish whether different types of CP are associated with…

  5. Altered Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vállez García, David; Doorduin, Janine; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Otte, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of central hyperexcitability in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (cWAD). However, little is known about how an apparently simple cervical spine injury can induce changes in cerebral processes. The present study was designed (1) to validate previous results showing alterations of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in cWAD, (2) to test if central hyperexcitability reflects changes in rCBF upon non-painful stimulation of the neck, and (3) to verify our hypothesis that the missing link in understanding the underlying pathophysiology could be the close interaction between the neck and midbrain structures. For this purpose, alterations of rCBF were explored in a case-control study using H2(15)O positron emission tomography, where each group was exposed to four different conditions, including rest and different levels of non-painful electrical stimulation of the neck. rCBF was found to be elevated in patients with cWAD in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, and decreased in the superior temporal, parahippocampal, and inferior frontal gyri, the thalamus and the insular cortex when compared with rCBF in healthy controls. No differences in rCBF were observed between different levels of electrical stimulation. The alterations in regions directly involved with pain perception and interoceptive processing indicate that cWAD symptoms might be the consequence of a mismatch during the integration of information in brain regions involved in pain processing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Seasonality as a Factor of Resort Treatment Efficiency of Patients with Cerebral Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr N. Bitsadze

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the results of examination of 369 patients with cerebrovascular disorders considers the features of seasonality impact on the cerebral haemodynamics correction and climatic balneotherapy efficiency in the course of subtropical balneotherapy resort treatment. The findings indicate the necessity to differentiate the approaches to patients with cerebrovascular disorders referral to resort treatment and climatic balneotherapy procedures prescription, considering both cerebral ischemia stage and seasonality.

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow distribution in newly diagnosed schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, P; Holm, S; Madsen, P L

    1994-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow distribution (rCBF) in 24 first admissions with schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder and in 17 healthy volunteers was examined. Single photon emission computed tomography with a brain-retained tracer, technetium-99m-d,l-hexamethyl-propylene amine oxime, was used...... interrelationship in schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder....

  8. Abnormal occipital event-related potentials in Parkinson's disease with concomitant REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Pierre-Olivier; Gagnon, Jean-François; Montplaisir, Jacques; Vendette, Mélanie; Postuma, Ronald B; Gagnon, Katia; Gosselin, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is found in 33-46% of patients with Parkinson's disease and was shown to be associated with cognitive deficits. Our goal was to improve our understanding of the role of this sleep disorder in cerebral dysfunction occurring in Parkinson's disease using a visual cognitive task and event-related potentials. Sixteen patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, 15 patients with Parkinson's disease without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and 16 healthy control subjects were included. The amplitude and latency of event-related potentials were compared between groups. No group differences were found for reaction times or accuracy. A Group effect was found for P2 wave amplitude; patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder had increased P2 in comparison with the control group (p disorder were associated with abnormal visual P2 component of event-related potentials. Although patients with Parkinson's disease alone were not significantly different from patients with combined Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, their P2 amplitudes were not sufficiently abnormal to differ from that of control subjects. This study confirms that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder accentuates cerebral dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Time Course of Changes in Extravascular Lung Water Index, Intracranial and Cerebral Perfusion Pressures in Acute Cerebral Circulatory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Churlyaev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the time course of changes in extravascular lung water index (ELWI and intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures (ICP and CPP and to determine their possible relationships in acute cerebral circulatory disorders (ACCD. Subject and methods. ELWI, pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI, ICP, CPP, and central hemodynamics were studied by transpulmonary thermodilution and current X-ray studies were conducted in 18 patients on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 of ACCD. Results. Examinations revealed a supratentorial dislocation of the brain in 6 persons; its subtento-rial dislocation was found in 1 case; supra- and subtentorial dislocations were seen in 6. In patients, ELWI and PVPI increased from days 1 and 5, respectively. The high baseline ICP increased over time. CPP remained unchanged. Preserved left ventricular contractility, enhanced myocardial one, a significant direct correlation between ELWI and PVPI, as well as their increase confirmed that the noncardiogenic genesis was responsible for increased ELWI. A direct significant correlation was found between ICP and ELWI, ICP and PVPI. Against this background, acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 14 patients with pneumonia evolving in its presence in 7 patients. Conclusion. In ACCD, ELWI increases in the first 24 hours of the acute period. One of its causes is, along with others, primary and/or secondary damage to the brainstem structures with elevated ICP and progressive brain dislocation. The determination of ICP, unlike CPP, is crucial in the diagnosis and treatment of primary/secondary brain injuries and in prognosis. Key words: acute cerebral circulatory disorder, extravascular lung fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability, intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  10. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Tamura, Maasa; Chiba, Yuhei; Katsuse, Omi; Suda, Akira; Kamada, Ayuko; Ikura, Takahiro; Abe, Kie; Ogawa, Matsuyoshi; Minegishi, Kaoru; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Kirino, Yohei; Ihata, Atsushi; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-08-15

    Depression is frequently observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) patients often exhibit cerebral hypometabolism, but the association between cerebral metabolism and depression remains unclear. To elucidate the features of cerebral metabolism in SLE patients with depression, we performed brain 18F-fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on SLE patients with and without major depressive disorder. We performed brain FDG-PET on 20 SLE subjects (5 male, 15 female). The subjects were divided into two groups: subjects with major depressive disorder (DSLE) and subjects without major depressive disorder (non-DSLE). Cerebral glucose metabolism was analyzed using the three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) program. Regional metabolism was evaluated by stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE), in which the whole brain was divided into segments. Every SLE subject exhibited cerebral hypometabolism, in contrast to the normal healthy subjects. Regional analysis revealed a significantly lower ER in the left medial frontal gyrus (p=0.0055) and the right medial frontal gyrus (p=0.0022) in the DSLE group than in the non-DSLE group. Hypometabolism in the medial frontal gyrus may be related to major depressive disorder in SLE. Larger studies are needed to clarify this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  12. Hemispheric Lateralization, Cerebral Dominance, Conjugate Saccadic Behavior and Their Use in Identifying the Creatively Gifted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekdal, C. K.

    1979-01-01

    In an effort to establish new means of locating the gifted creative productive thinker, an investigation of current brain research in the areas of hemispheric lateralization, cerebral dominance and conjugate saccadic behavior is analyzed. (Author/PHR)

  13. [Dialectical behavior therapy approaches with disruptive behavior disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Christina; Manetsch, Madleina; Vriends, Noortje

    2016-11-01

    Disruptive behaviour disorders comprise the diagnosis conduct disorder (CD) and in adults the diagnosis antisocial personality disorder (APD). CD is seen as a difficult-to-treat disorder with a high risk for persistent behavioral problems. In addition, CD is seen as the precursor to antisocial personality disorder (Kretschmer et al., 2014). Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was originally developed by Marsha Linehan (1991) for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but because of the core deficits in emotion regulation in disruptive behavior disorders, DBT is also increasingly being recommended for the treatment of CD and APD. This review presents DBT adaptions for the forensic setting and for the treatment of CD/APD. Clinical implications are discussed.

  14. Relationship of cerebral arterial stenosis to cognitive and memory disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jifeng Li; Zhou Wang; Shenggang Sun; Gaomei Cai; Kejin Gu; Yaoqun Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral arterial stenosis can cause cerebral hypoperfusion, and than result in the decline of cognitive function, whereas the cognitive dysfunction induced by different cerebral arterial stenosis have different manifestations and types.OBJECTIVE: To observe the differences of cognitive and memory dysfunctions in patients with cerebral arterial stenosis of different types.DESIGN: A comparative observation.SETTING: Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two outpatients or inpatients with cerebral arterial stenosis were selected from the Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical College from February 2005 to January 2006,including 25 males and 17 females. There were 18 cases of internal carotid arterial stenosis, 14 cases of vertebrobasilar arterial stenosis and 10 cases of whole cerebral arterial stenosis. The diagnostic standards for cerebral arterial stenosis were identified according to North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NAS CET). Meanwhile, 18 healthy physical examinees were enrolled as the control group, including 10males and 8 females, aged 58-80 years old. All the enrolled subjects were informed and agreed with the detection and evaluation.METHODS: ① The memory function was evaluated using revised Wechsler memory scale for adults, including long-term memory (experience, orientation and counting), short-term memory (visual recognition, picture memory, visual regeneration, association and thigmesthesia) and sensory memory (forward and backward recitation of numbers). The scale scores were turned to memory quotients. The higher the scores, the better the memory function. ② The cognitive function was evaluated using revised Wechsler adult intelligence scale:It consisted of eleven subtests, including six language scales (information, digit span, vocabulary, arithmetics,apprehension, similarity) and five operation scales (picture completion, picture arrangement, block design

  15. Epigenetics and cerebral organoids: promising directions in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Sheena Louise; Ilieva, Mirolyuba; Maria Michel, Tanja

    2018-01-10

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect 1 in 68 children in the US according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is characterized by impairments in social interactions and communication, restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors, and interests. Owing to disease complexity, only a limited number of treatment options are available mainly for children that alleviate but do not cure the debilitating symptoms. Studies confirm a genetic link, but environmental factors, such as medications, toxins, and maternal infection during pregnancy, as well as birth complications also play a role. Some studies indicate a set of candidate genes with different DNA methylation profiles in ASD compared to healthy individuals. Thus epigenetic alterations could help bridging the gene-environment gap in deciphering the underlying neurobiology of autism. However, epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have mainly included a very limited number of postmortem brain samples. Hence, cellular models mimicking brain development in vitro will be of great importance to study the critical epigenetic alterations and when they might happen. This review will give an overview of the state of the art concerning knowledge on epigenetic changes in autism and how new, cutting edge expertise based on three-dimensional (3D) stem cell technology models (brain organoids) can contribute in elucidating the multiple aspects of disease mechanisms.

  16. Psychiatric Disorders among Children with Cerebral Palsy at School Starting Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorgaas, H. M.; Hysing, M.; Elgen, I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present population study was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the impact of comorbid conditions. A cohort of children with CP born 2001-2003, and living in the Western Health Region of Norway were evaluated at school starting age. Parents were interviewed with the…

  17. Cerebral Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Occurring after Renal Transplantation: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jang Ho; Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Hong Chul; Hwang, Min Su [Dept. of Radiology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of organ transplantation and immunosuppression. A 36-year-old woman with a history of renal transplantation visited the hospital complaining of headache and on pathology was diagnosed with cerebral PTLD manifesting as multiple rim enhanced masses in both hemispheres. We report here a case of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder involving the cerebrum occurring after renal transplantation, and describe the MRI findings for this patient

  18. Cerebral Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Occurring after Renal Transplantation: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jang Ho; Byun, Woo Mok; Kim, Hong Chul; Hwang, Min Su

    2012-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of organ transplantation and immunosuppression. A 36-year-old woman with a history of renal transplantation visited the hospital complaining of headache and on pathology was diagnosed with cerebral PTLD manifesting as multiple rim enhanced masses in both hemispheres. We report here a case of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder involving the cerebrum occurring after renal transplantation, and describe the MRI findings for this patient

  19. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  20. Behavioral management of night eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berner LA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Berner,1 Kelly C Allison2 1Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Night eating syndrome (NES is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat. As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. Keywords: night eating syndrome, cognitive-behavioral treatment, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss, behavior therapy

  1. Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Salmon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated the relation between Slow Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior. Surprisingly, however, the relation between Female Intrasexual Competitiveness (competition for mates and competition for status and Disordered Eating Behavior was completely spurious, with executive functions serving as a common cause underlying the inhibition of both Disordered Eating Behavior and Female Intrasexual Competitiveness. The protective function of Slow Life History Strategy with respect to Disordered Eating Behavior apparently resides in a higher degree of Behavioral Regulation, a type of Executive Function. The enhanced Behavioral Regulation or self-control, of individuals with a Slow Life History Strategy is also protective against hazardously escalated levels of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness.

  2. Family history of idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Postuma, Ronald B; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort.......To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort....

  3. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Rebecca; Straebler, Suzanne; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the leading evidence-based treatment for bulimia nervosa. A new ?enhanced? version of the treatment appears to be more potent and has the added advantage of being suitable for all eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. This article reviews the evidence supporting CBT in the treatment of eating disorders and provides an account of the ?transdiagnostic? theory that underpins the enhanced form of the treatme...

  4. Organic Determinants of Learning and Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, William H.; And Others

    Theories regarding organic determinants of learning and behavior disorders are reviewed historically. Cases illustrating how a bio-ecologic examination can isolate the substances to which a person reacts and some of the reasons for those reactions are presented; and the role of various disorders in relation to the central nervous system is…

  5. Alterations of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Major Depressive Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Chung, Yong An; Seo, Ye Young; Yoo, Ik Dong; Na, Sae Jung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ki Jun [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The authors analyzed how the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings of patients with major depression differ from the normal control, and our results were compared to previous reports. Twelve patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for major depression who were off all psychotropic medications for > 4 weeks (male: 7, female: 5, age range: 19approx52 years, average age: 29.3+-9.9 years) and 14 normal volunteers (male: 8, female: 6, age range: 19approx53 years, average age: 31.4+-9.2 years) were recruited. Images of brain perfusion SPECT were obtained using Tc-99m ECD and patterns of the rCBF were compared between patients with major depression and the healthy control subjects. The patients with major depression showed increase of the r-CBF in right lingual gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left precuneus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and showed decrease of r-CBF in right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus of left limbic lobe, cingulate gyrus of right frontal lobe, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe compared to the normal control. The Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT findings in our study did not differ from the previously reported regional cerebral blood flow pattern of patients with major depression. Especially, decreased rCBF pattern typical to major depression patients in the right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, and cingulate regions was clearly demonstrated

  6. Alterations of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Major Depressive Disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Hyoung; Chung, Yong An; Seo, Ye Young; Yoo, Ik Dong; Na, Sae Jung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ki Jun

    2009-01-01

    The authors analyzed how the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings of patients with major depression differ from the normal control, and our results were compared to previous reports. Twelve patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for major depression who were off all psychotropic medications for > 4 weeks (male: 7, female: 5, age range: 19∼52 years, average age: 29.3±9.9 years) and 14 normal volunteers (male: 8, female: 6, age range: 19∼53 years, average age: 31.4±9.2 years) were recruited. Images of brain perfusion SPECT were obtained using Tc-99m ECD and patterns of the rCBF were compared between patients with major depression and the healthy control subjects. The patients with major depression showed increase of the r-CBF in right lingual gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left precuneus, and left superior temporal gyrus, and showed decrease of r-CBF in right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus of left limbic lobe, cingulate gyrus of right frontal lobe, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe compared to the normal control. The Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT findings in our study did not differ from the previously reported regional cerebral blood flow pattern of patients with major depression. Especially, decreased rCBF pattern typical to major depression patients in the right pons, left medial frontal gyrus, and cingulate regions was clearly demonstrated

  7. Maternal thyroid disorder in pregnancy and risk of cerebral palsy in the child: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Tanja Gram; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Uldall, Peter; Paneth, Nigel; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Tollånes, Mette Christophersen; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2018-05-31

    Cerebral palsy is the most frequent motor disability in childhood, but little is known about its etiology. It has been suggested that cerebral palsy risk may be increased by prenatal thyroid hormone disturbances. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal thyroid disorder is associated with increased risk of cerebral palsy. A population-based cohort study using two study populations. 1) 1,270,079 children born in Denmark 1979-2007 identified in nationwide registers, and 2) 192,918 children born 1996-2009 recruited into the Danish National Birth Cohort and The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study, combined in the MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark (MOBAND) collaboration cohort. Register-based and self-reported information on maternal thyroid disorder was studied in relation to risk of cerebral palsy and its unilateral and bilateral spastic subtypes using multiple logistic regression. Children were followed from the age of 1 year to the age of 6 years, and cerebral palsy was identified in nationwide registers with verified diagnoses. In register data, hypothyroidism was recognized in 12,929 (1.0%), hyperthyroidism in 9943 (0.8%), and unclassifiable thyroid disorder in 753 (cerebral palsy was 1.0 (95% CI: 0.7-1.5). Maternal thyroid disorder identified during pregnancy was associated with elevated risk of unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (odds ratio 3.1 (95% CI: 1.2-8.4)). In MOBAND, 3042 (1.6%) of the mothers reported a thyroid disorder in pregnancy, which was not associated with cerebral palsy overall (odds ratio 1.2 (95% CI: 0.6-2.4)). Maternal thyroid disorder overall was not related to bilateral spastic cerebral palsy, but maternal thyroid disorder identified in pregnancy was associated with increased risk of unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. These findings should be replicated in studies making use of maternal blood samples.

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow and P300 in neurosurgical disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Kazuyoshi; Hyoutani, Genhachi; Maeshima, Shinichirou; Miyamoto, Kazuki; Kuwata, Toshikazu; Terada, Tomoaki; Komai, Norihiko

    1990-01-01

    Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), P300 and higher brain function were studied in neurosurgical patients with localized lesions on computed tomography (CT). Twenty-five patients ranging in age from 30 to 81 were studied. Nineteen of these suffered from cerebrovascular disease and six had tumors. Using the oddball paradigm, P300 components were elicited by rate tones (2 KHz) and recorded at Cz and Pz referred to linked ear-lobe electorodes. The P300 latencies of the patients were statistically compared with those of 27 normal subjects. Higher brain function was evaluated with the following psychological tests: a rating scale for psychological function (Sano and Tanemura), Mini-Mental State (MMS), Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS) and the 'Kanahiroi' test. Regional CBF was measured in the bilateral cerebral cortices (the frontal, temporal and occipital lobes), thalamus and basal ganglia by means of a cold xenon CT method. The laterality indices of rCBF (Rt. rCBF/Lt. rCBF) in the bilateral symmetrical areas of the patients were compared to those of 8 normal subjects. Of the 25 patients, 12 revealed prolongation of P300 latency. Ten (86%) of the 12 with prolonged P300 latency showed reduction of rCBF in the right cerebral hemisphere (rt. frontal lobe, rt. thalamus and rt. basal ganglia). Significant correlations (P<0.025) were recognized between the P300 latencies and the laterality indices of rCBF in the frontal lobe and thalamus. There was a significant correlation (P<0.05) between the scores of MMS and HDS and the laterality indicies of rCBF in the frontal lobe only. In the 13 patients with normal P300 latency, 6 (46%) displayed no reduction in rCBF. The remaining 7 patients with normal P300 showed reduction of rCBF in the left hemisphere. Both right frontal lobe and right thalamus have an important role affecting the prolongation of P300 latency and disturbance of cognitive functions. (author)

  9. Cerebral glucose metabolic differences in patients with panic disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordahl, T.E.; Semple, W.E.; Gross, M.; Mellman, T.A.; Stein, M.B.; Goyer, P.; King, A.C.; Uhde, T.W.; Cohen, R.M. (NIMH, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Regional glucose metabolic rates were measured in patients with panic disorder during the performance of auditory discrimination. Those regions examined by Reiman and colleagues in their blood flow study of panic disorder were examined with a higher resolution positron emission tomography (PET) scanner and with the tracer (F-18)-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In contrast to the blood flow findings of Reiman et al., we did not find global gray metabolic differences between patients with panic disorder and normal controls. Consistent with the findings of Reiman et al., we found hippocampal region asymmetry. We also found metabolic decreases in the left inferior parietal lobule and in the anterior cingulate (trend), as well as an increase in the metabolic rate of the medial orbital frontal cortex (trend) of panic disorder patients. It is unclear whether the continuous performance task (CPT) enhanced or diminished findings that would have been noted in a study performed without task.

  10. Cerebral glucose metabolic differences in patients with panic disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordahl, T.E.; Semple, W.E.; Gross, M.; Mellman, T.A.; Stein, M.B.; Goyer, P.; King, A.C.; Uhde, T.W.; Cohen, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Regional glucose metabolic rates were measured in patients with panic disorder during the performance of auditory discrimination. Those regions examined by Reiman and colleagues in their blood flow study of panic disorder were examined with a higher resolution positron emission tomography (PET) scanner and with the tracer [F-18]-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In contrast to the blood flow findings of Reiman et al., we did not find global gray metabolic differences between patients with panic disorder and normal controls. Consistent with the findings of Reiman et al., we found hippocampal region asymmetry. We also found metabolic decreases in the left inferior parietal lobule and in the anterior cingulate (trend), as well as an increase in the metabolic rate of the medial orbital frontal cortex (trend) of panic disorder patients. It is unclear whether the continuous performance task (CPT) enhanced or diminished findings that would have been noted in a study performed without task

  11. Allergies and Learning/Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, James A.; Nall, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This article describes various types of allergies, how they are diagnosed medically, and the different forms of medical treatment. It also considers how allergies may affect school learning and behavior, the connection between allergies and learning and behavioral disorders, the impact of allergy medications upon classroom performance, and various…

  12. Virtual reality in pediatric neurorehabilitation: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michelle; Reid, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the current status and use of virtual reality (VR) for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism and cerebral palsy. This literature review explores how VR systems have been used as treatment tools to address the primary impairments of these disorders. Three major classes of VR display systems are identified that can be characterized by the type of human-computer interaction provided: (1) feedback-focused interaction, (2) gesture-based interaction, and (3) haptic-based interaction. The demonstrated effectiveness and potential effectiveness of each class are discussed in the context of remediating the primary impairments of children with ADHD, autism and cerebral palsy. Three major themes for future research are discussed to support continued research interest in using VR in pediatric neurorehabilitation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Cerebral Palsy and Down Syndrome: A Scoping Review

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Safiza Mohamad Nor; Nur Shahida Abdul Aziz; Cheong Siew Man; Rashidah Ambak; Mohd Azahadi Omar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Down Syndrome (DS) and Cerebral Palsy (CP) are the most common disabilities among children. Nutritional status assessment is important as these children are at risk of underweight, overweight or obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this review were to identify evidence on the prevalence of nutritional status of children with DS, CP and ASD, and to determine tools and indicators to measure the nutritional status of these children. Methods: This s...

  14. Disordered Money Behaviors: Development of the Klontz Money Behavior Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Klontz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much of the existing literature on financial behavior focuses on basic money management tasks (e.g., balancing a checkbook. However, it can be equally important to identify problematic financial behaviors that can sabotage one’s financial health. The purpose of this study was to create an assessment tool that can be used by mental health and financial professionals to identify disordered money behaviors that may impede on progress towards one’s financial goals. This study asked 422 respondents to indicate their agreement with disordered money behaviors, including compulsive buying, pathological gambling, compulsive hoarding, workaholism, financial enabling, financial dependence, financial denial, and financial enmeshment, which were correlated with demographic characteristics and financial outcomes. The results identified eight subscales derived from 68 disordered money behavior items. All eight subscales were found to have high reliability in measuring disordered behaviors, and six were associated with negative financial health indicators (e.g. less net worth, less income, and/or more revolving credit.

  15. Cerebral calcifications and schizophreniform disorder Calcificações cerebrais e transtorno esquizofreniforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandez Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Discuss pathophysiological aspects of cerebral calcifications (CC and highlight its importance related to the occurrence of neuropsychiatric syndromes. METHOD: Single case report. RESULT: Man 52 years old, 20 years after going through a total thyroidectomy, starts showing behavioral disturbance (psychotic syndrome. He was diagnosed as schizophrenic (paranoid subtype and submitted to outpatient psychiatric treatment. During a psychiatric admission to evaluate his progressive cognitive and motor deterioration, we identified a dementia syndrome and extensive cerebral calcifications, derived from iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism. CONCLUSION: The calcium and phosphorus disturbances, including hypoparathyroidism, are common causes of CC. Its symptoms can imitate psychiatric disorders and produce serious and permanent cognitive sequelae. The exclusion of organicity is mandatory in any psychiatric investigative diagnosis in order to avoid unfavorable outcomes, such as in the present case report.OBJETIVOS: Discutir aspectos fisiopatológicos das calcificações cerebrais (CC e ressaltar sua importância na ocorrência de síndromes neuropsiquiátricas. MÉTODO: Relato de caso individual. RESULTADO: Homem 52 anos de idade, 20 anos após tireoidectomia total, iniciou com alteração comportamental (síndrome psicótica, foi diagnosticado como portador de esquizofrenia paranoide e encaminhado para ambulatório de psiquiatria. Durante internação psiquiátrica, para avaliação de importante deterioração cognitivo e motora, foi verificada a vigência de síndrome demencial e extensas CC, secundários a hipoparatiroidismo iatrogênico. CONCLUSÃO: Os distúrbios do metabolismo do cálcio e do fósforo, incluindo o hipoparatiroidismo, são causas frequentes de CC. Seus sintomas podem mimetizar transtornos psiquiátricos e provocar sequelas cognitivas permanentes. A exclusão de organicidade é mandatória durante toda investigação diagnóstica na

  16. Ocular disorders in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, A Taylan; Berk, A Tulin; Yaman, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    To document common ocular abnormalities in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy (CP) and to find out whether any correlation exists between their occurance and etiologic factors. Totally 194 patients with the diagnosis of spastic type CP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Detailed ophthalmic examinations were performed. Demographic data and neuroradiological findings were documented. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U, Pearson Chi-square tests and Student's t tests were used in the statistical analysis. The mean age was 64.7±44.2 months on the first ophthalmic examination. Prevalences of diplegia (47.4%) and tetraplegia (36.1%) were found to be higher than the frequency of hemiplegia (16.5%) in our study population. Etiologic factor was asphyxia in 60.8% of the patients. Abnormal ocular findings were present in 78.9% of the patients. Statistically significant poor vision was detected in tetraplegia group among all the spastic ubtypes of CP (P=0.000). Anisometropia and significant refractive error were found in 14.4% and 70.1% of the patients, respectively. Thirty-six children (18.6%) had nystagmus and 107 children (55.2%) had strabismus. Lower gestational age and birth weight were statistically higher in patients with esotropia than exotropia (P=0.009 and P=0.024, respectively). Abnormal morphology of the optic disc was present in 152 eyes (39.2%). Severe periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) was found in 48 patients and statistically significant poor vision was detected in the presence of PVL (P=0.000). Spastic diplegic or tetraplegic CP patients with positive neuroradiological symptoms, younger gestational age and lower birth weight ought to have detailed ophthalmic examinations as early as possible to provide best visual rehabilitation.

  17. Ocular disorders in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yaman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To document common ocular abnormalities in children with spastic subtype of cerebral palsy (CP and to find out whether any correlation exists between their occurance and etiologic factors. METHODS: Totally 194 patients with the diagnosis of spastic type CP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Detailed ophthalmic examinations were performed. Demographic data and neuroradiological findings were documented. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U, Pearson Chi-square tests and Student’s t tests were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 64.7±44.2 months on the first ophthalmic examination. Prevalences of diplegia (47.4% and tetraplegia (36.1% were found to be higher than the frequency of hemiplegia (16.5% in our study population. Etiologic factor was asphyxia in 60.8% of the patients. Abnormal ocular findings were present in 78.9% of the patients. Statistically significant poor vision was detected in tetraplegia group among all the spastic ubtypes of CP (P=0.000. Anisometropia and significant refractive error were found in 14.4% and 70.1% of the patients, respectively. Thirty-six children (18.6% had nystagmus and 107 children (55.2% had strabismus. Lower gestational age and birth weight were statistically higher in patients with esotropia than exotropia (P=0.009 and P=0.024, respectively. Abnormal morphology of the optic disc was present in 152 eyes (39.2%. Severe periventricular leukomalacia (PVL was found in 48 patients and statistically significant poor vision was detected in the presence of PVL (P=0.000. CONCLUSION: Spastic diplegic or tetraplegic CP patients with positive neuroradiological symptoms, younger gestational age and lower birth weight ought to have detailed ophthalmic examinations as early as possible to provide best visual rehabilitation.

  18. Study of regional cerebral blood flow in obsessive compulsive disorder patients with SPM and ROI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Peiyong; Jiang Xufeng; Zhang Liying; Guo Wanhua; Zhu Chengmo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the alternations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Methods: rCBF measurements using 99 Tc m -ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT was performed on 14 OCD patients and 23 age-matched healthy volunteers. The rCBF distribution was compared between these two groups with SPM under the conditions of increased and decreased perfusion, and with regions of interest (ROIs) using cerebral template. P value was set at 0.01 level. Results: SPM analysis showed that rCBF decreased in cerebral areas including bilateral putamen, superior temporal gyrus and precuneus, and right orbital gyrus, superior and middle frontal gyrus, and left temporo-occipital lobule and superior parietal gyrus, and vermis. rCBF was also increased in left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus. With ROIs method, rCBF was decreased in right anterior frontal, temporo-parietal lobule and left temporo-occipital lobule. Conclusions: The study supports the viewpoint that rCBF abnormality of fronto-striatal circuits is involved in OCD patients. SPM method is a forceful tool in analyzing cerebral regional characters

  19. Behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Schofield, Casey A; Pietrefesa, Ashley S

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition is frequently cited as a vulnerability factor for development of anxiety. However, few studies have examined the unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Therefore, the current study addressed the relationship between behavioral inhibition and OCD in a number of ways. In a large unselected student sample, frequency of current OC symptoms was significantly correlated with retrospective self-reports of total levels of childhood behavioral inhibition. In addition, frequency of current OC symptoms was also significantly correlated with both social and nonsocial components of behavioral inhibition. Further, there was evidence for a unique relationship between behavioral inhibition and OC symptoms beyond the relationship of behavioral inhibition and social anxiety. In addition, results showed that reports of childhood levels of behavioral inhibition significantly predicted levels of OCD symptoms in adulthood. Finally, preliminary evidence suggested that behavioral inhibition may be more strongly associated with some types of OC symptoms than others, and that overprotective parenting may moderate the impact of behavioral inhibition on OC symptoms. The current findings suggest the utility of additional research examining the role of behavioral inhibition in the etiology of OCD.

  20. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood repetitive behavior disorders: tic disorders and trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Christopher A

    2011-04-01

    This article provides an overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for repetitive behavior disorders. Because tic disorders and trichotillomania are the most often studied and most debilitating of these conditions, this article focuses on the efficacy of CBT for these 2 conditions. An overview of CBT for children presenting with these concerns is provided. This review focuses particularly on habit reversal training, which is at the core of most CBT-based interventions. Two recent empirical studies on the immense potential of CBT in treating childhood repetitive behavior disorders and future areas of research are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lotufo Neto, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  2. Improvement in cerebral function with treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michael J; Francis, Jennifer; Friedlander, Joshua; Banks-Williams, Lisa; Lande, Raymond G; Taylor, Patricia; Blair, James; McLellan, Jennifer; Law, Wendy; Tarpley, Vanita; Patt, Ivy; Yu, Henry; Mallinger, Alan; Difede, Joann; Rizzo, Albert; Rothbaum, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are signature illnesses of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, but current diagnostic and therapeutic measures for these conditions are suboptimal. In our study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to try to differentiate military service members with: PTSD and mTBI, PTSD alone, mTBI alone, and neither PTSD nor mTBI. Those with PTSD are then randomized to virtual reality exposure therapy or imaginal exposure. fMRI is repeated after treatment and along with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scores to compare with baseline. Twenty subjects have completed baseline fMRI scans, including four controls and one mTBI only; of 15 treated for PTSD, eight completed posttreatment scans. Most subjects have been male (93%) and Caucasian (83%), with a mean age of 34. Significant improvements are evident on fMRI scans, and corroborated by CGI scores, but CAPS scores improvements are modest. In conclusion, CGI scores and fMRI scans indicate significant improvement in PTSD in both treatment arms, though CAPS score improvements are less robust. © 2010 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease.

  3. Neurorehabilitation of cerebral disorders following lightning and electrical trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Philip R

    2005-01-01

    The most devastating casualties in lightning and electrical trauma patients are the result of lesions of the nervous system, and especially lesions of the brain. The brain injuries can be divided into three categories: global dysfunction; focal brain injuries; and behavioral-cognitive sequelae without gross physical signs. Lightning injuries are usually the result of outdoor sports and leisure activities. Most electrical trauma cases are the result of workplace accidents. Rehabilitation planning should begin early after the incident and often needs to be continued for a long time. The goal of the rehabilitation team is to maximize functional return in patients with deficits related to brain lesions. The neurorehabilitation team includes the neurorehabilitation physician, physical therapists, occupational therapists, psychologists, speech therapists, and case managers.

  4. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...... symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale...

  5. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and suicidal behavior in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Daniel; Lawrence, Ryan; Parekh, Amrita; Galfalvy, Hanga; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Brent, David A; Mann, J John; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A

    2017-02-01

    The relationship of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) to suicidal behavior is understudied. The modest body of existing research suggests that NPD is protective against low-lethality suicide attempts, but is associated with high lethality attempts. Mood-disordered patients (N = 657) received structured interviews including Axis I and II diagnosis and standardized clinical measures. Following chi-square and t-tests, a logistical regression model was constructed to identify predictors of suicide attempt. While there was no bivariate relationship of NPD on suicide attempt, in the logistic regression patients with NPD were 2.4 times less likely to make a suicide attempt (OR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.19 - 0.88; p disorder, and to have high aggression and hostility scores. Limitations include that the sample consists of only mood-disordered patients, a modest sample size of NPD, and the data are cross-sectional. The multivariate protective effect of NPD on suicide attempt is consistent with most previous research. The lower impulsivity of NPD patients and less severe personality pathology relative to other personality disorders may contribute to this effect. No relationship of NPD to attempt lethality was found, contradicting other research, but perhaps reflecting differences between study samples. Future studies should oversample NPD patients and include suicide death as an outcome. Clinical implications include discussion of individualized suicide risk assessment with NPD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Basal cerebral glucose distribution in long-term post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Mario Enrique; Isoardi, Roberto; Prado, Marcela Nathalie; Bentolila, Silvia

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study basal cerebral glucose absorption patterns associated to long-term post-traumatic stress disorder. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and statistic parametric mapping (SPM) were used to compare regional cerebral glucose absorption between 15 war veterans (Hispanic men, aged 39-41 (M = 39.5, SD = 0.84)) diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on DSM-IV criteria, and a matching control group of six asymptomatic veterans. This study was conducted 20 years after the traumatic events. PTSD patients presented relatively diminished activity (P<0.005) in: cingulate gyri, precuneus, insula, hippocampus; frontal, pre-frontal and post-central regions; lingual, calcarine, occipital medial and superior gyri, and verbal and paraverbal areas. Relativeley augmented activity (P<0.005) was observed in PTSD patients in: fusiform, temporal superior, medial, and inferior gyri; occipital medial, inferior and lingual gyri; precuneus, and cerebellum. The amygdala and the thalamus showed normal metabolic activity. Various brain regions that showed diminished activity (limbic, frontal and prefrontal cortex, multimodal parieto-occipital areas and verbal and paraverbal areas) have evolved lately, and sub-serve highly complex cognitive and behavioural functions. Metabolic activity patterns are comparable to those observed in personality disorders of the borderline type.

  7. The role of cerebral resonance behavior in the control of music performance : an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons in the cerebral cortex have been shown to fire not only during performance but also during visual and auditory observation of activity. This phenomenon is commonly called cerebral resonance behavior. This would mean that cortical motor regions would not only be activated while

  8. Is chlormethiazole neuroprotective in experimental global cerebral ischemia? A microdialysis and behavioral study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaminy, S; Reymann, J M; Heresbach, N; Allain, H; Lechat, P; Bentué-Ferrer, D

    1997-04-01

    Chlormethiazole, an anticonvulsive agent, has been shown to have a possible neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia. In addition, chlormethiazole inhibits methamphetamine-induced release of dopamine, protecting against this neurotransmitter's neurotoxicity. The aim of this work was to ascertain whether, in experimental cerebral ischemia, chlormethiazole administration attenuated the ischemia-induced rise of the extracellular concentration of aminergic neurotransmitters and whether it reduces ischemia-induced deficits in memory and learning. Histology for assessment of ischemic damage was a so included. The four-vessel occlusion rat model was used to induce global cerebral ischemia. Aminergic neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the striatal extracellular fluid obtained by microdialysis were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. The drug was administered either IP (50 mg/kg-1) or directly through the dialysis probe (30 microM) 80 min before ischemia. For the behavioral test and histology, the drug was given IP (100 mg/kg-1) 1 h postischemia. The results obtained did not demonstrate any statistically significant evidence that chlormethiazole has an effect on the ischemia-induced rise in extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels. There was also no variation in metabolite levels. Behavioral measures (learning, recall) were not changed appreciably by the treatment. We observed no significant cell protection in the hippocampus (CA1, CA1), striatum, and entorhinal cortex in animals treated with chlormethiazole. We conclude that, under our experimental conditions, chlormethiazole has little or no effect on the neurochemical, neurobehavioral, and histological consequences of global cerebral ischemia.

  9. A pattern of cerebral perfusion anomalies between Major Depressive Disorder and Hashimoto Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aims to evaluate relationship between three different clinical conditions: Major Depressive Disorders (MDD), Hashimoto Thyroiditis (HT) and reduction in regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) in order to explore the possibility that patients with HT and MDD have specific pattern(s) of cerebral perfusion. Methods Design: Analysis of data derived from two separate data banks. Sample: 54 subjects, 32 with HT (29 women, mean age 38.8 ± 13.9); 22 without HT (19 women, mean age 36.5 ± 12.25). Assessment: Psychiatric diagnosis was carried out by Simplified Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDIS) using DSM-IV categories; cerebral perfusion was measured by 99 mTc-ECD SPECT. Statistical analysis was done through logistic regression. Results MDD appears to be associated with left frontal hypoperfusion, left temporal hypoperfusion, diffuse hypoperfusion and parietal perfusion asymmetry. A statistically significant association between parietal perfusion asymmetry and MDD was found only in the HT group. Conclusion In HT, MDD is characterized by a parietal flow asymmetry. However, the specificity of rCBF in MDD with HT should be confirmed in a control sample with consideration for other health conditions. Moreover, this should be investigated with a longitudinally designed study in order to determine a possible pathogenic cause. Future studies with a much larger sample size should clarify whether a particular perfusion pattern is associated with a specific course or symptom cluster of MDD. PMID:21910915

  10. Cognitive behavioral therapy for compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Burgard, Melissa; Faber, Ron; Crosby, Ross D; de Zwaan, Martina

    2006-12-01

    To our knowledge, no psychotherapy treatment studies for compulsive buying have been published. The authors conducted a pilot trial comparing the efficacy of a group cognitive behavioral intervention designed for the treatment of compulsive buying to a waiting list control. Twenty-eight subjects were assigned to receive active treatment and 11 to the waiting list control group. The results at the end of treatment showed significant advantages for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over the waiting list in reductions in the number of compulsive buying episodes and time spent buying, as well as scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale--Shopping Version and the Compulsive Buying Scale. Improvement was well-maintained at 6-month follow-up. The pilot data suggests that a cognitive behavioral intervention can be quite effective in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder. This model requires further testing.

  11. Impact of malnutrition on gastrointestinal disorders and gross motor abilities in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanozzi, Angelo; Capano, Guglielmo; Miele, Erasmo; Romano, Alfonso; Scuccimarra, Goffredo; Del Giudice, Ennio; Strisciuglio, Caterina; Militerni, Roberto; Staiano, Annamaria

    2007-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often demonstrate abnormal feeding behaviours, leading to reduced food consumption and malnutrition. Moreover, most of them present with gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and/or chronic constipation (CC), and poor motor function rehabilitation. The aim of our study was to assess the possible relationship between malnutrition and gastrointestinal problems and to evaluate the role of nutrition on their gross motor abilities in a population of children with CP and mental retardation. Twenty-one consecutive children (10 boys; mean age: 5.8+/-4.7 years; range: 1-14 years) with CP and severe mental retardation. Nutritional assessment included the measurement of body mass index (BMI=W/H2), fat body mass (FBM) and fat free mass (FFM). Children with symptoms suggesting GERD underwent prolonged 24h intraesophageal pH monitoring and/or upper GI endoscopy with biopsies before and after a 6 months of pharmaceutical (omeprazole) and nutritional (20% increment of daily caloric intake) treatments. The motor function was evaluated by "The Gross Motor Function Measure" (GMFM) before and after the 6 months on nutritional rehabilitation. BMI for age was or=25 degrees percentile, five of nine (55.5%) patients had persistent GERD when they were taken off the medication. Malnutrition and gastrointestinal disorders are very common in children with cerebral palsy. Improved nutritional status, particularly fat free mass gain, appears to have an impact on motor function in children with CP.

  12. Sexual behavior in women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Marianna; Harnic, Desiree; Catalano, Valeria; Di Nicola, Marco; Bruschi, Angelo; Bria, Pietro; Daniele, Antonio; Mazza, Salvatore

    2011-06-01

    There is a lack of studies regarding sexuality and sexual behavior in women with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study is to investigate sexual behavior in women affected by bipolar disorder in order to stimulate interest and debate in this area of care. Sixty women (30 BD I and 30 BD II) consent to participate in the study and were included in the sample. Moreover, sixty female healthy subjects without histories of psychiatric disorders were recruited as normal controls. Patients and healthy subjects were given the Sexual Interest and Sexual Performance Questionnaire, a questionnaire devised to explore various aspects of sexual behavior. The results of the present study suggest an increase of sexual interest in patients with BD I as compared both with BD II patients and healthy controls. In women with BD I such increase of interest was detected on some items of section I of the Sexual Interest and Sexual Performance Questionnaire, in particular "Actual Value of Sexuality" and "Implicit Sexual Interest", which implicitly explore sexual interest without overtly focusing upon sexual problems. Moreover, we observed a higher desired frequency of intercourse in women with BD I than BD II and a higher occurrence of repeated sexual intercourse in women with BD I than BD II. The main finding of the present study was an increase of sexual interest in BD I as compared with BD II female patients and normal controls. This result was detected when sexual interest was explored implicitly. Our study is limited by the small size of our subject groups. Further investigations on larger subject samples are needed to better clarify particular aspects of sexual behavior of BD patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Orthorexia nervosa. A new eating behavior disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Zamora, M L; Bote Bonaechea, B; García Sánchez, F; Ríos Rial, B

    2005-01-01

    New eating behavior disorders such as bigorexia (muscle dysmorphia) and orthorexia are appearing in developed countries. These disorders have not been officially recognized so that they are not classified as independent entities. The term orthorexia comes from the Greek word orthos (straight, proper) and orexia (appetite). It is characterized by the pathological obsession for biologically pure food, which leads to important dietary restrictions. Orthorexic patients exclude foods from their diets that they consider to be impure because they have herbicides, pesticides or artificial substances and they worry in excess about the techniques and materials used in the food elaboration. This obsession leads to loss of social relationships and affective dissatisfactions which, in turn, favors obsessive concern about food. In orthorexia, that patient initially wants to improve his/her health, treat a disease or lose weight. Finally, the diet becomes the most important part of their lives. We present a clinical case that responds to the characteristics of orthorexia. The differential diagnosis with chronic delusional disorder, anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder is carried out.

  14. Subtyping borderline personality disorder by suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloff, Paul H; Chiappetta, Laurel

    2012-06-01

    Course and outcome of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are favorable for the vast majority of patients; however, up to 10% die by suicide. This discrepancy begs the question of whether there is a high lethality subtype in BPD, defined by recurrent suicidal behavior and increasing attempt lethality over time. In a prospective, longitudinal study, we sought predictors of high lethality among repeat attempters, and defined clinical subtypes by applying trajectory analysis to consecutive lethality scores. Criteria-defined subjects with BPD were assessed using standardized instruments and followed longitudinally. Suicidal behavior was assessed on the Columbia Suicide History, Lethality Rating Scale, and Suicide Intent Scale. Variables discriminating single and repeat attempters were entered into logistic regression models to define predictors of high and low lethality attempts. Trajectory analysis using three attempt and five attempt models identified discrete patterns of Lethality Rating Scale scores. A high lethality trajectory was associated with inpatient recruitment, and poor psychosocial function, a low lethality trajectory with greater Negativism, Substance Use Disorders, Histrionic and/or Narcissistic PD co-morbidity. Illness severity, older age, and poor psychosocial function are characteristics of a poor prognosis subtype related to suicidal behavior.

  15. A study on regional cerebral blood flow at rest and stress state in anxiety disorder patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Li; Liu Jian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate he characteristics of rest and stress regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in naive anxiety disorder patients. Methods: Twenty naive anxiety disorder patients were enrolled in the study with twenty healthy volunteers as controls. The rest and stress 99 Tc m -ethylene cystein dimer (ECD) SPECT were performed separately at 2 consecutive days, Raven reasoning test was used as a stressor. Results: 1) Compared to the healthy controls, the patients' rest rCBF of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia were significantly lower (P<0.05 and 0.01). 2)The patients' stress rCBF of the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, part occipital lobe, part parietal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia were significantly lower compared to the healthy controls' (P<0.05 and 0.01). 3) Opposite to the healthy controls, the rCBF of patients increased significantly after stressor simulating. Conclusions: The hypofunction of frontal lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus and basal ganglia may exist in naive anxiety disorder patients. The abnormal rCBF of patients after simulating may be one of the characteristics of anxiety disorder

  16. Chaotic behavior in the disorder cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, J.-Y.; Hung, Y.-C.; Ho, M.-C.; Jiang, I-M.

    2008-01-01

    Disordered cellular automata (DCA) represent an intermediate class between elementary cellular automata and the Kauffman network. Recently, Rule 126 of DCA has been explicated: the system can be accurately described by a discrete probability function. However, a means of extending to other rules has not been developed. In this investigation, a density map of the dynamical behavior of DCA is formulated based on Rule 22 and other totalistic rules. The numerical results reveal excellent agreement between the model and original automata. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous situation is also discussed

  17. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  18. Disruptive behavior disorders in offspring of parents with major depression: associations with parental behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Petty, Carter; Micco, Jamie A; Henin, Aude; Park, Jennifer; Beilin, Ari; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Although the offspring of parents with major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk to develop disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) in addition to MDD, it remains unclear whether this heightened risk is due to MDD or to comorbid DBD in the parents. In a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from offspring at risk for MDD and panic disorder and comparison children, we stratified 169 children of parents who had been treated for MDD based upon presence (n=50) or absence (n=119) of parental history of DBD (ADHD, oppositional disorder, and conduct disorder) and contrasted them with children of parents with DBD but without MDD (n=19) and children whose parents had neither MDD nor DBD (n=106). The children had been assessed in middle childhood using structured diagnostic interviews. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD had significantly higher rates of MDD, DBD in general, and ADHD in particular, compared with offspring of parents with MDD alone. Offspring of parents with MDD + DBD also had higher rates of mania than controls. Both parental MDD and DBD conferred independent risk for MDD and DBD in the offspring. However, only parental DBD conferred independent risk for conduct disorder and ADHD and only parental MDD conferred independent risk for oppositional defiant disorder. Elevated rates of DBD in the offspring of parents with MDD appear to be due in part to the presence of DBD in the parents. Further studies of samples not selected on the basis of parental panic disorder are needed to confirm these results.

  19. [Exercise addiction: an emergent behavioral disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Sara; de la Vega, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Regular physical activity plays a relevant role in health maintenance and disease prevention. However, excess exercise may generate adverse effects both on physical and mental activity. To provide a state-of-the-art overview on exercise addiction, considering its concept, symptoms, diagnosis, epidemiological aspects, etiological factors, and potential interventions. Articles related to the topic were reviewed through Pubmed, Sportdiscus, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science databases, using combinations of the following keywords: "exercise", "addiction" and "dependence". Regular exercise taken into excess may result in adverse health consequences and quality of life impairment. Diagnosis of exercise addiction requires the employment of questionnaires such as the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS) and the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI). These instruments have allowed the estimation of a 3% prevalence among exercise practitioners. Proposed hypotheses to explain the etiology of this disorder include both physiological and psychological mechanisms. Treatment is based on the cognitive-behavioral approach, but effectiveness needs to be evaluated. Although different hypotheses have been proposed to explain exercise dependence, integrative models are still necessary. A clinical validation of diagnostic instruments and a deepening into the relationship with behavioral eating disorders are also required. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Cerebral Visual Impairments on Motor Skills: Implications for Developmental Coordination Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, Sylvie; Dutton, Gordon N.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) has become the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in children in industrialized countries. Its prevalence has increased sharply, due to increased survival rates of children who sustain severe neurological conditions during the perinatal period. Improved diagnosis has probably contributed to this increase. As in adults, the nature and severity of CVI in children relate to the cause, location and extent of damage to the brain. In the present paper, we define CVI and how this impacts on visual function. We then define developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and discuss the link between CVI and DCD. The neuroanatomical correlates and aetiologies of DCD are also presented in relationship with CVI as well as the consequences of perinatal asphyxia (PA) and preterm birth on the occurrence and nature of DCD and CVI. This paper underlines why there are both clinical and theoretical reasons to disentangle CVI and DCD, and to categorize the features with more precision. In order to offer the most appropriate rehabilitation, we propose a systematic and rapid evaluation of visual function in at-risk children who have survived preterm birth or PA whether or not they have been diagnosed with cerebral palsy or DCD. PMID:27757087

  1. [Differences in cerebral blood flow following risperidone treatment in children with autistic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Dilşad Foto; Karabacak, Neşe Ilgin; Akkaş, Burcu; Akdemir, Ozgür; Unal, Fatih; Senol, Selahattin

    2009-01-01

    Functional changes in the brains of autistic children due to risperidone treatment and theirs relationship to the symptom clusters are yet unknown. In this autistic disorder case series we aimed to comparatively evaluate the clinical findings before and after risperidone treatment, and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings with 99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) brain SPECT. Eleven autistic patients (age range: 6-7 years; 4 girls, 7 boys) received risperidone therapy (1.5-2.5 mg d(-1)) and were followed-up for 3 months. All the patients underwent neurologic examinations, psychometric examinations, and SPECT imaging, both at the start of risperidone treatment and 3 months after the treatment started. Clinical observations, and the observations of parents and teachers were recorded. These results were compared with cerebral perfusion indices obtained from SPECT data. After 3 months of treatment changes in rCBF were observed in various regions and to varying degrees. We observed relationships between clinical symptoms and pre-therapy rCBF findings, and between clinical improvement and rCBF changes. Findings in the present case series are the first to demonstrate a relationship between clinical improvement and regional perfusion patterns after risperidone treatment. We think that these findings may contribute to the understanding of the neurofunctional mechanisms and hypothetical models of autism.

  2. Moving On: Transitions for Youth with Behavioral Disorders. Working with Behavioral Disorders: CEC Mini-Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Gaylord-Ross, Robert

    This booklet reviews the literature on transitional services for youth with behavior disorders, provides examples of successful programs and activities, and identifies key elements of successful programs. Specific sections of the monograph address the following areas: long-term life adjustment; transition studies; vocational assessment; social…

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirong Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF and cognitive function in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Method: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was performed for 139 OCD patients and 139 controls, and the radioactivity rate (RAR was calculated. Cognitive function was assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Results: The RARs of the prefrontal, anterior temporal, and right occipital lobes were higher in patients than controls. For the WCST, correct and classification numbers were significantly lower, and errors and persistent errors were significantly higher in OCD patients. Right prefrontal lobe RAR was negatively correlated with correct numbers, right anterior temporal lobe RAR was positively correlated with errors, and the RARs of the right prefrontal lobe and left thalamus were positively correlated with persistent errors. Conclusion: OCD patients showed higher CBF in the prefrontal and anterior temporal lobes, suggesting that these areas may be related with cognitive impairment.

  4. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedo, S.E.; Schapiro, M.B.; Grady, C.L.; Cheslow, D.L.; Leonard, H.L.; Kumar, A.; Friedland, R.; Rapoport, S.I.; Rapoport, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD, Epilepsy, and Cerebral Palsy in Norwegian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Inger Johanne; Aase, Heidi; Chin, Richard; Gunnes, Nina; Lie, Kari Kveim; Magnus, Per; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have investigated the prevalence of neurologic and neurodevelopmental disorders individually, but few have examined them collectively, and there is uncertainty as to what extent they overlap. METHODS: The study has determined the proportions of children aged 0 to 11 years with diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and cerebral palsy (CP) in Norway. The data were obtained from the Norwegian Patient Register, which is nationwide and contains diagnoses assigned by Norwegian specialist health services (hospitals and outpatient clinics). The Norwegian Patient Register started collecting individual-level data in 2008, and the follow-up period for the study is years 2008 through 2010. RESULTS: For ASD, ADHD, and epilepsy, the proportions were highest in the oldest children. At age 11 years, the incidence was 0.7% for ASD, 2.9% for ADHD, and 0.9% for epilepsy. The cumulative incidence is likely to be higher because some cases diagnosed before 2008 were probably missed. For CP, the proportions were ∼0.3% for age ≥5 years. There was considerable overlap between diagnoses. For all disorders, boys had a significantly increased risk. In school-age children (aged 6–11 years) the male/female ratio was 4.3 for ASD, 2.9 for ADHD, 1.2 for epilepsy, and 1.3 for CP. CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate the significant burden of disease associated with neurologic and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and that this burden is disproportionately skewed toward boys. PMID:22711729

  6. Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Šteglová, Dominika

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on problem behavior, its manifestations and causes of origin in children with autism spectrum disorders. The thesis is divided into two parts, the theoretical and empirical. The theoretical part focuses on introduction to issues of autism spectrum disorders and problem behavior. Mentioned here is history and etiology of disorders, also the part deals with autistic triad of disability. Among others I try briefly characterize various autism spectrum disorders focusing on inf...

  7. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  8. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  9. Survey on Types and Associated disorders of Cerebral Palsy in Eastern and Northern Districts of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2011-10-01

    Conclusion: In this study, unilateral - spastic cerebral palsy was found as the most common type. Therefore, more evaluation to determine the about etiology of this type of cerebral palsy in our population is necessary.

  10. Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders in ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E. Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category, as this is how most clinicians see these behaviors, and as this may optimize clinical utility. The descriptions of these disorders should largely mirror those in DSM-5, given the evidence from recent field surveys. The recommendations regarding ICD-11 and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders should promote the global identification and treatment of these conditions in primary care settings.

  11. Cognitive and behavioral disorders in Parkinson's disease: an update. II: behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojano, Luigi; Papagno, Costanza

    2018-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can experience several behavioral symptoms, such as apathy, agitation, hypersexuality, stereotypic movements, pathological gambling, abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs, and REM sleep behavioral disorders. Psychoses and hallucinations, depression and anxiety disorders, and difficulties in recognizing and experiencing emotions also impair behavior and can cause severe psychosocial problems in patients with PD. Symptoms can be present since early stages of the disease, sometimes even before the appearance of classical motor symptoms, likely in relation to dopamine depletion in basal ganglia and/or to dysfunctions of other neurotrasmitter systems, and others can develop later, in some cases in relation to dopaminergic treatment. In this paper, we review recent literature, with particular attention to the last 5 years, on the main behavioral and emotional disturbances described in PD patients as well as the hypothesized neurofunctional substrate of such impairments. Finally, we provide some suggestions on the most suitable instruments to check and assess PD-associated behavioral defects over time.

  12. Family structure and eating behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Agut, Manuel; García-Alonso, Isabel; De la Gándara-Martín, Jesús J; Vegas-Miguel, María I; Sebastián-Vega, Carlota; Sanz-Cid, Beatriz; Martínez-Villares, Ana; Martín-Martínez, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The modern way of life, characterized by the cult of individualism, discredited authority, and a proliferation of points of view about reality, has modified family structure. This social structure imbues families and the way that its members become ill, in such a way that eating behavior disorders (EDs) have become a typically postmodern way of becoming ill. The aim is to understand the systemic structure and vulnerability of families by comparing 108 families with members who have ED to 108 families without pathology. A questionnaire administered by an interview with trained personnel was used. Families with ED have a different structure from the families in the control group. They have more psychiatric history and poor coping skills. The family hierarchy is not clearly defined and the leadership is diffuse, with strict and unpredictable rules, more intergenerational coalitions, and fewer alliances. The relationship between the parents is distant or confrontational, and their attitudes towards their children are complacent and selfish, with ambivalent and unaffectionate bonds. In the case of mothers, this is manifested by separation anxiety and dyadic dependence. Their expectations concerning their offspring are either very demanding and unrealistic, or indifferent, and there is less control of their behavior, in addition to poor organization of the family meals. The structural differences between the two groups of families seem to be important for the occurrence and maintenance of EDs, although they may not be the only cause. The results suggest strategies for clinical intervention in EDs.

  13. CSF tau and β-amyloid predict cerebral synucleinopathy in autopsied Lewy body disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David J; Xie, Sharon X; Coughlin, David; Nevler, Naomi; Akhtar, Rizwan S; McMillan, Corey T; Lee, Edward B; Wolk, David A; Weintraub, Daniel; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Duda, John E; Spindler, Meredith; Siderowf, Andrew; Hurtig, Howard I; Shaw, Leslie M; Grossman, Murray; Trojanowski, John Q

    2018-03-20

    To test the association of antemortem CSF biomarkers with postmortem pathology in Lewy body disorders (LBD). Patients with autopsy-confirmed LBD (n = 24) and autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD) (n = 23) and cognitively normal (n = 36) controls were studied. In LBD, neuropathologic criteria defined Lewy body α-synuclein (SYN) stages with medium/high AD copathology (SYN + AD = 10) and low/no AD copathology (SYN - AD = 14). Ordinal pathology scores for tau, β-amyloid (Aβ), and SYN pathology were averaged across 7 cortical regions to obtain a global cerebral score for each pathology. CSF total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau at threonine 181 , and Aβ 1-42 levels were compared between LBD and control groups and correlated with global cerebral pathology scores in LBD with linear regression. Diagnostic accuracy for postmortem categorization of LBD into SYN + AD vs SYN - AD or neocortical vs brainstem/limbic SYN stage was tested with receiver operating curves. SYN + AD had higher CSF t-tau (mean difference 27.0 ± 8.6 pg/mL) and lower Aβ 1-42 (mean difference -84.0 ± 22.9 g/mL) compared to SYN - AD ( p CSF t-tau ( R 2 = 0.15-0.16, p CSF Aβ 1-42 ( R 2 = 0.31, p CSF t-tau/Aβ 1-42 ratio ( R 2 = 0.27, p = 0.01). CSF t-tau/Aβ 1-42 ratio had 100% specificity and 90% sensitivity for SYN + AD, and CSF Aβ 1-42 had 77% specificity and 82% sensitivity for neocortical SYN stage. Higher antemortem CSF t-tau/Aβ 1-42 and lower Aβ 1-42 levels are predictive of increasing cerebral AD and SYN pathology. These biomarkers may identify patients with LBD vulnerable to cortical SYN pathology who may benefit from both SYN and AD-targeted disease-modifying therapies. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Traumatic brain injury causes long-term behavioral changes related to region-specific increases of cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöttker, Bruno; Stöber, Franziska; Hummel, Regina; Angenstein, Frank; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Schäfer, Michael K E

    2017-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and death and survivors often suffer from long-lasting motor impairment, cognitive deficits, anxiety disorders and epilepsy. Few experimental studies have investigated long-term sequelae after TBI and relations between behavioral changes and neural activity patterns remain elusive. We examined these issues in a murine model of TBI combining histology, behavioral analyses and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a proxy for neural activity. Adult C57Bl/6N mice were subjected to unilateral cortical impact injury and investigated at early (15-57 days after lesion, dal) and late (184-225 dal) post-traumatic time points. TBI caused pronounced tissue loss of the parietal cortex and subcortical structures and enduring neurological deficits. Marked perilesional astro- and microgliosis was found at 57 dal and declined at 225 dal. Motor and gait pattern deficits occurred at early time points after TBI and improved over the time. In contrast, impaired performance in the Morris water maze test and decreased anxiety-like behavior persisted together with an increased susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures suggesting alterations in neural activity patterns. Accordingly, SPECT imaging of CBF indicated asymmetric hemispheric baseline neural activity patterns. In the ipsilateral hemisphere, increased baseline neural activity was found in the amygdala. In the contralateral hemisphere, homotopic to the structural brain damage, the hippocampus and distinct cortex regions displayed increased baseline neural activity. Thus, regionally elevated CBF along with behavioral alterations indicate that increased neural activity is critically involved in the long-lasting consequences of TBI.

  15. Cerebral blood flow patterns using single photon emission computed tomography in patients with dissociative disorders and healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.

    2010-01-01

    To compare the cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in patients diagnosed to have Dissociative Disorder with healthy controls. This cross sectional comparative study was done at Dept of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi in collaboration with nuclear Medical Centre (NMC), at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) which is a tertiary referral center. A sample of 30 patients diagnosed as having Dissociative Disorder was compared with 10 controls for brain perfusion changes using TC-99m HMPAO (Hexamethyl-propylene-amine-oxime) Tc-99m. In group 1 perfusion changes were observed in 27 (90%) cases whereas unremarkable and insignificant changes were noted in 3 (10%) cases but no perfusion were noted in controls (P<0.001) In patients who were suffering from different types of dissociative disorder marked cerebral hypo perfusion was observed in frontal, frontomotor, orbitofrontal and temporal regions whereas hyperperfusion was noted in frontal and orbitofrontal areas in few cases. Conclusion: Cerebral blood flow changes in the fronto parietal brain are associated with symptomotology in dissociative disorders. (author)

  16. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...... for REM sleep behavior disorder....

  17. Mental and Behavioral Disorders among People with Congenital Deafblindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The population of people with congenital deafblindness faces challenges concerning communication and mobility. Due to the significance of the sensory loss it is difficult to diagnose mental and behavioral disorders. This article investigates the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders among 95 congenitally deafblind adults. Seventy-four…

  18. School Counselors Serving Students with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim

    2013-01-01

    School counselors are in a prime position to collaborate with school and community stakeholders to both prevent and respond to the challenges experienced and exhibited by students with one or more disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). In this article, the DBDs discussed include conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive…

  19. Co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in Nigerian adolescents with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Muideen O

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders and determined associated factors of sexual risk behavior among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Methods Socio-demographic information was obtained from the adolescents using socio-demographic questionnaire. Clinical interview, physical examination and laboratory investigations were employed to establish co-morbid disorders in these adolescents during the outpatient follow up visits over a one year period. Results A total of forty six (46 adolescents with bipolar disorder were followed up over a one year period. Twenty two (47.8% of the adolescents had co-morbid disorders with cannabis use disorders, alcohol use disorders, conduct disorder with or without other psychoactive substance use accounting for 23.9%, 8.7%, 13.0% respectively and HIV infection, though a chance finding accounting for 2.2%. Twenty one (45.7% of the adolescents had positive history of sexual risk behavior, which was significantly associated with presence of co-morbid disorders (p = 0.003, level of religion activities in the adolescents (p = 0.000, and marital status of the parents (p = 0.021. Conclusion When planning interventions for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, special attention may need to be focused on group of adolescents with co-morbid disorders and propensity towards impulsivity and sexual risk behavior. This may help in improving long term outcome in this group of adolescents.

  20. [Epidemiology of addictive disorders and behaviors in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kinjo, Aya

    2015-09-01

    Nationwide surveys to clarify the characteristics and trends of the addictive disorders and behaviors including alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, internet addiction and pathological gambling among Japanese adults were carried out in 2003, 2008, and 2013. At the part of the surveys on addictive behaviors in disaster stricken area by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the nationwide survey on benzodiazepine dependence was conducted in 2013. Epidemiological features of prevalent addictive disorders and behaviors were described. We observed large number of estimated patients with addictive disorders or behaviors in Japan, and the considerable proportion of them was not connect to appropriate medical services.

  1. Characteristic regional cerebral blood flow patterns in anorexia nervosa patients with binge/purge behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruo, T; Nakabeppu, Y; Sagiyama, K; Munemoto, T; Homan, N; Deguchi, D; Nakajo, M; Nozoe, S

    2000-09-01

    The authors' goal was to investigate the effect of imagining food on the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of anorexia nervosa patients with and without habitual binge/purge behavior. The subjects included seven female patients with purely restrictive anorexia, seven female patients with anorexia and habitual binge/purge behavior, and seven healthy women. Single photon emission computed tomography examination was performed before and after the subjects were asked to imagine food. Changes in rCBF count ratios (percent change) were then calculated and compared. The subjects were also asked to assess their degree of fear regarding their control of food intake. The anorexia nervosa patients with habitual binge/purge behavior had a significantly higher percent change in the inferior, superior, prefrontal, and parietal regions of the right brain than the patients with purely restrictive anorexia and the healthy volunteers. The patients with habitual binge/purge behavior also had the highest level of apprehension in regard to food intake. Specific activation in cortical regions suggests an association between habitual binge/purge behavior and the food recognition process linked to anxiety in patients with anorexia nervosa.

  2. Epigenetics and cerebral organoids:promising directions in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Sheena Louise; Ilieva, Mirolyuba; Maria Michel, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect 1 in 68 children in the US according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is characterized by impairments in social interactions and communication, restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors, and interests. Owing to disease complexity, only a limited number of treatment options are available mainly for children that alleviate but do not cure the debilitating symptoms. Studies confirm a genetic link, but environmental factors,...

  3. Zonisamide Combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Rotella, Carlo M.; Faravelli, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Binge eating disorder is a serious, prevalent eating disorder that is associated with overweight. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that can promote weight loss. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of zonisamide as augmentation to individual cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of binge eating disorder patients. Design: controlled open study. Participants: Twenty four threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder patients were enrolled in the cognitive behavioral therapy treatment group, and 28 patients in the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group. Measurements: At the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) of treatment, and one year after the end of treatment (T2), body mass index was measured and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Results. At T1 the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group showed a higher mean reduction of body mass index, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Binge Eating Scale scores. At T2, the cognitive behavior therapy group regained weight, while the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group reduced their body mass and showed a higher reduction in binge eating frequency and Binge Eating Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Restraint, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Conclusion. The zonisamide augmentation to individual cognitive behavior therapy can improve the treatment of binge eating disorder patients, reducing body weight and the number of binge eating episodes. These results are maintained one year after the end of treatment. PMID:20049147

  4. Children with Usher syndrome: mental and behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-03-27

    Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral disorders during childhood. The aetiology and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders among children with Usher syndrome are discussed. Children with Usher syndrome and their parents may need clinical support during early childhood to prevent development of mental and behavioral disorders.

  5. Children with Usher syndrome: mental and behavioral disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dammeyer Jesper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder. Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral disorders during childhood. The aetiology and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders among children with Usher syndrome are discussed. Children with Usher syndrome and their parents may need clinical support during early childhood to prevent development of mental and behavioral disorders.

  6. Comorbid personality disorders and violent behavior in psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volavka, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Schizophrenia without any comorbidity confers a modest, but statistically significant elevation of the risk for violence. That risk is considerably increased by comorbid antisocial personality disorder or psychopathy as well as by comorbid substance use disorders. These comorbidities are frequent. Conduct disorder and conduct disorder symptoms elevate the risk for aggressive behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with premorbid conditions, including antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Aggressive behavior in bipolar disorder occurs mainly during manic episodes, but it remains elevated in euthymic patients in comparison with controls. The risk of violent behavior is increased by comorbidity with borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and substance use disorders. These comorbidities are frequent. Borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are related in their phenomenology and response to medication. These two disorders share a tendency to impulsiveness, and impulsive behavior, including impulsive aggression, is particularly expressed when they co-occur.

  7. Cerebral disorders of Chernobyl clean-up workers in remote period after irradiation in doses > 1 Sv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomko, M.O.

    2004-01-01

    Neurologic, psychiatric and psychophysiologic (computed EEG) examinations were carried out in 45 men irradiated in doses > 1 Sv. Magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out in 35 of them. Prevalence of negative psychopathologic symptoms, domination of low-voltage polymorphous types of EEG were the proves of organic nature of cerebral disorders in these patients. Pathologic changes in brain's structures were confirmed by MRI

  8. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in Parkinson's Disease and Other Synucleinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Erik K; Boeve, Angelica R; Boeve, Bradley F

    2017-05-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by dream enactment and complex motor behaviors during rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep atonia loss (rapid eye movement sleep without atonia) during polysomnography. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder may be idiopathic or symptomatic and in both settings is highly associated with synucleinopathy neurodegeneration, especially Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder frequently manifests years to decades prior to overt motor, cognitive, or autonomic impairments as the presenting manifestation of synucleinopathy, along with other subtler prodromal "soft" signs of hyposmia, constipation, and orthostatic hypotension. Between 35% and 91.9% of patients initially diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder at a sleep center later develop a defined neurodegenerative disease. Less is known about the long-term prognosis of community-dwelling younger patients, especially women, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder associated with antidepressant medications. Patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder are frequently prone to sleep-related injuries and should be treated to prevent injury with either melatonin 3-12 mg or clonazepam 0.5-2.0 mg to limit injury potential. Further evidence-based studies about rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder are greatly needed, both to enable accurate prognostic prediction of end synucleinopathy phenotypes for individual patients and to support the application of symptomatic and neuroprotective therapies. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder as a prodromal synucleinopathy represents a defined time point at which neuroprotective therapies could potentially be applied for the prevention of Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, and pure autonomic failure. © 2017

  9. Oxygen, a Key Factor Regulating Cell Behavior during Neurogenesis and Cerebral Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuan; Zhu, Lingling; Fan, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen is vital to maintain the normal functions of almost all the organs, especially for brain which is one of the heaviest oxygen consumers in the body. The important roles of oxygen on the brain are not only reflected in the development, but also showed in the pathological processes of many cerebral diseases. In the current review, we summarized the oxygen levels in brain tissues tested by real-time measurements during the embryonic and adult neurogenesis, the cerebral diseases, or in the hyperbaric/hypobaric oxygen environment. Oxygen concentration is low in fetal brain (0.076-7.6 mmHg) and in adult brain (11.4-53.2 mmHg), decreased during stroke, and increased in hyperbaric oxygen environment. In addition, we reviewed the effects of oxygen tensions on the behaviors of neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro cultures at different oxygen concentration (15.2-152 mmHg) and in vivo niche during different pathological states and in hyperbaric/hypobaric oxygen environment. Moderate hypoxia (22.8-76 mmHg) can promote the proliferation of NSCs and enhance the differentiation of NSCs into the TH-positive neurons. Next, we briefly presented the oxygen-sensitive molecular mechanisms regulating NSCs proliferation and differentiation recently found including the Notch, Bone morphogenetic protein and Wnt pathways. Finally, the future perspectives about the roles of oxygen on brain and NSCs were given.

  10. Health Care Seeking Behavior among Caregivers of Sick Children Who Had Cerebral Malaria in Northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin E. Eseigbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is a significant cause of childhood morbidity in our region. The challenges of effective management include time and quality of treatment. The study appraised the health care seeking behavior of caregivers of sick children who developed cerebral malaria, in Zaria, northwestern Nigeria. Caregivers indentified were parents 29 (87.9% and grandparents 4 (12.1%. Most of them were in the upper social classes. Health care options utilized before presentation at our facility were formal health facility 24 (72.7%, patent medicine seller 12 (36.4%, home treatment 10 (30.3%, and herbal concoction 6 (18.2% with majority 24 (72.7% using more than one option. Antimalarial therapy was instituted in 25 (75.6% of the cases. Mortality was significantly associated with the use of herbal concoction, treatment at a formal health facility and patent medicine seller, multiple convulsions, age less than 5 years, and noninstitution of antimalarial therapy before presentation. The study showed use of inappropriate health care options by caregivers and highlighted the need to pursue an awareness drive among caregivers on the use of health care options.

  11. "Ormilo disease" a disorder of zebu cattle in Tanzania: bovine cerebral theileriosis or new protozoan disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Deborah; Biasibetti, Elena; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    "Ormilo" disease is a neurological disorder of cattle described by Maasai herders in Tanzania. It is attributed to infection by Theileria species, although no detailed data are available in the literature. The authors describe the macroscopical and histological changes observed in 30 brains of indigenous short-horn zebu cattle from Northern Tanzania, aged 2-9 years, with the characteristic neurological signs of "Ormilo". Moreover, the ultrastructural details observed in 14 selected brain samples were reported. Areas of congestion and hemorrhages, associated with the obstruction of the cerebral vessels with large numbers of parasitized lymphoid cells, were observed. Electron microscopy showed the presence of intralymphocytic parasites morphologically comparable to flagellated protozoa, not previously described in the lymphoid cells of cattle, but only reported during the sexual stages within the vector. Theileria taurotragi was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) in nine samples. The authors hypothesize that the parasite detected by electron microscopy could be a strain of a Theileria endemic to this region till now not investigated, having an intralymphocytic phase and being associated with other Theileria spp. infestation. Further studies are needed to better understand the etiology of "Ormilo" disease and to characterize the morphology of the observed parasite, clarifying its role in the disease in Tanzania.

  12. New definitions of 6 clinical signs of perceptual disorder in children with cerebral palsy: an observational study through reliability measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Sghedoni, A; Alboresi, S; Pedroni, E; Lombardi, F

    2014-12-01

    Recently authors have begun to emphasize the non-motor aspects of Cerebral Palsy and their influence on motor control and recovery prognosis. Much has been written about single clinical signs (i.e., startle reaction) but so far no definitions of the six perceptual signs presented in this study have appeared in literature. This study defines 6 signs (startle reaction, upper limbs in startle position, frequent eye blinking, posture freezing, averted eye gaze, grimacing) suggestive of perceptual disorders in children with cerebral palsy and measures agreement on sign recognition among independent observers and consistency of opinions over time. Observational study with both cross-sectional and prospective components. Fifty-six videos presented to observers in random order. Videos were taken from 19 children with a bilateral form of cerebral palsy referred to the Children Rehabilitation Unit in Reggio Emilia. Thirty-five rehabilitation professionals from all over Italy: 9 doctors and 26 physiotherapists. Measure of agreement among 35 independent observers was compiled from a sample of 56 videos. Interobserver reliability was determined using the K index of Fleiss and reliability intra-observer was calculated by the Spearman correlation index between ranks (rho - ρ). Percentage of agreement between observers and Gold Standard was used as criterion validity. Interobserver reliability was moderate for startle reaction, upper limb in startle position, adverted eye gaze and eye-blinking and fair for posture freezing and grimacing. Intraobserver reliability remained consistent over time. Criterion validity revealed very high agreement between independent observer evaluation and gold standard. Semiotics of perceptual disorders can be used as a specific and sensitive instrument in order to identify a new class of patients within existing heterogeneous clinical types of bilateral cerebral palsy forms and could help clinicians in identifying functional prognosis. To provide

  13. Emotional and behavioral problems associated with sleep disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers whether parasomnia may be associated with emotional and behavioral problems. It gives data on the relationship of impaired sleep duration and integrity to increased emotional responsiveness and lability, high levels of anxiety, and depression symptoms. Whether the clinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, aggression, and academic underachievement are related to sleep disorders, including those in the presence of sleep disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder, is discussed. There are data on the characteristic polysomnographic changes detected in the presence of the discussed emotional and behavioral disorders in children. A possible pathophysiological rationale is provided for the found associations. Practical guidelines for examination of children with complaints about emotional and behavioral disorders for possible concomitant parasomnias are substantiated. 

  14. Acute effects of electroconvulsive therapy on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prohovnik, I.; Alderson, P.O.; Sackheim, H.A.; Decina, P.; Kahn, D.

    1984-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is frequently used in the treatment of major depression and other psychiatric disorders; its mechanism of action is not established, but previous evidence suggests that it is associated with postictal metabolic suppression. The authors have used measurements of rCBF as an index of cortical metabolic activity to study the acute effects of ECT. Measurements of rCBF were made in 32 cortical regions in 10 patients (pts) following one minute breathing of Xe-133 (5mCi/L); the measurements were performed 30min before and 50min after ECT. Bilateral ECT was administered to six pts (five diagnosed as major depressives and one schizophrenic) and unilateral ECT to four (all diagnosed as unipolar or bipolar affective disorder). The total rCBF material consists of 52 measurements in these pts, made before and after 16 bilateral and 10 unilateral treatments. ECT was found to cause significant reduction of rCBF. Mean hemispheric flows (using the Initial Slope Index to measure grey-matter flow) were reduced by about 5% in both hemispheres following bilateral treatment. Unilateral treatment caused a 9% reduction of flow in the treated hemisphere, but only 2% contralaterally. Regional patterns of flow decreases also differed between the two treatment modes: bilateral frontal reductions were found after bilateral treatment, whereas unilateral ECT caused a widespread flow reduction in the treated hemisphere, and almost no effect contralaterally. These results suggest that rCBF studies are useful for assessing ECT, and indicate that the acute cerebral effects of ECT vary with the mode of treatment

  15. Gambling disorder and other behavioral addictions: recognition and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Addiction professionals and the public are recognizing that certain nonsubstance behaviors--such as gambling, Internet use, video-game playing, sex, eating, and shopping--bear resemblance to alcohol and drug dependence. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions and has led to the newly introduced diagnostic category "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders" in DSM-5. At present, only gambling disorder has been placed in this category, with insufficient data for other proposed behavioral addictions to justify their inclusion. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of behavioral addictions, describes treatment considerations, and addresses future directions. Current evidence points to overlaps between behavioral and substance-related addictions in phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidity, neurobiological mechanisms, genetic contributions, responses to treatments, and prevention efforts. Differences also exist. Recognizing behavioral addictions and developing appropriate diagnostic criteria are important in order to increase awareness of these disorders and to further prevention and treatment strategies.

  16. Understanding Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs: Toward Identification of a Behavioral Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Nash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs currently represent the leading cause of mental retardation in North America, ahead of Down syndrome and cerebral palsy. The damaging effects of alcohol on the developing brain have a cascading impact on the social and neurocognitive profiles of affected individuals. Researchers investigating the profiles of children with FASDs have found impairments in learning and memory, executive functioning, and language, as well as hyperactivity, impulsivity, poor communication skills, difficulties with social and moral reasoning, and psychopathology. The primary goal of this review paper is to examine current issues pertaining to the identification of a behavioral phenotype in FASDs, as well as to address related screening and diagnostic concerns. We conclude that future research initiatives comparing children with FASDs to nonalcohol-exposed children with similar cognitive and socioemotional profiles should aid in uncovering the unique behavioral phenotype for FASDs.

  17. Behavioral symptoms and sleep problems in children with anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Kamei, Yuichi; Usami, Masahide; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kyota; Kodaira, Masaki; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disorders are frequently associated with childhood behavioral problems and mental illnesses such as anxiety disorder. To identify promising behavioral targets for pediatric anxiety disorder therapy, we investigated the associations between specific sleep and behavioral problems. We conducted retrospective reviews of 105 patients aged 4-12 years who met the DSM-IV criteria for primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (n = 33), separation anxiety disorder (n = 23), social phobia (n = 21), or obsessive compulsive disorder (n = 28). Sleep problems were evaluated using the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and behavioral problems by the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI), and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children. Depressive behavior was weakly correlated with CSHQ subscores for sleep onset delay and night waking but not with total sleep disturbance. Anxiety was correlated with bedtime resistance, night waking, and total sleep disturbance score. Oppositional defiance was correlated with bedtime resistance, daytime sleepiness, sleep onset delay, and most strongly with total sleep disturbance. On multiple regression analysis ODBI score had the strongest positive association with total sleep disturbance and the strongest negative association with total sleep duration. Sleep problems in children with anxiety disorders are closely related to anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Comorbidity and medication in REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauscher, Birgit; Jennum, Poul; Ju, Yo-El S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This controlled study investigated associations between comorbidity and medication in patients with polysomnographically confirmed idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD), using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort. METHODS: Data of a self-administered questionnaire...

  19. Longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubatsky, Max; Berge, Jerica; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify the longitudinal association between specific parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful) and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. The current study uses longitudinal data from a 5-year study to examine the associations between parenting style and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. Data from adolescents (n = 2516) participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study from 31 Minnesota schools, were used in the analysis. Time 1 data were collected using in-class assessments of adolescents from Minneapolis/St. Paul schools, and Time 2 data were collected using mailed surveys 5 years later. General Linear Models were used to predict adolescent-reported disordered eating behaviors at Time 2 from adolescent-reported parenting style at Time 1. Adolescent boys and girls who had authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of extreme weight control behaviors 5 years later compared to adolescents with authoritative, permissive, or neglectful mothers. Adolescent girls with authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of engaging in binge-eating behaviors at Time 2 compared to adolescent girls with authoritative or permissive mothers. There were no significant associations between paternal parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Although authoritarian parenting style served as a possible risk factor for disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, the findings were not conclusive. Future studies should investigate further the association between parenting style and weight control behaviors in adolescents.

  20. Autobiographical memory and suicidal behavior in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sanden, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The “cry of pain” model for suicidal behavior has received empirical support in studies of several mental disorders. As the first of its kind this study aims at investigating the association between overgeneral autobiographical memory, a vital aspect in the “cry of pain” model, and suicidal behavior in Bipolar Disorder. Further, this study seeks to explore the association between overgeneral autobiographical memory and hopelessness and exposure to trauma. Individuals with previous sui...

  1. Morbidities in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Mayer, Geert; Ju, Yo-El

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD, RBD without any obvious comorbid major neurological disease), is strongly associated with numerous comorbid conditions. The most prominent is that with neurodegenerative disorders, especially synuclein-mediated disorders, above all...... function, neuropsychiatric manifestations and sleep complaints. Furthermore, patients with PD and RBD may have worse prognosis in terms of impaired cognitive function and overall morbidity/mortality; in dementia, the presence of RBD is strongly associated with clinical hallmarks and pathological findings...

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)

  3. Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.

  4. The Effects of Peer Influence on Disordered Eating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…

  5. Behavior Disorders Prevalence in High School Students in Hamedan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Zolfaghari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Behavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence represent a range of problems and Its prevalence varies in different parts of Iran and the world. Knowledge of them is essential to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of patients. The aim of this survey is assessment of behavior disorders prevalence in high school students in Hamedan province. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and cross sectional study, 500 boy and girl students were selected from Hamedan high schools by multistep cluster sampling, based on region and gender. Data were gathered by Achenbach experience questionnaire (YSR form and analyzed by Friedman and independent T tests. Results: The findings showed that prevalence of behavioral problems among students in the province is 10 percent and it was higher in girls than boys. Most disorders were withdrawal disorder / anxiety and attention problems and somatization disorder was the least problem. Conclusion: Prevalence of behavior disorders in Hamedan province compared to other studies is moderate, but the behavior disorders prevalence of boys and girls are different from other researchs.

  6. Resounding failure to replicate links between developmental language disorder and cerebral lateralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dorothy V.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that failure to establish cerebral lateralisation may be related to developmental language disorder (DLD). There has been weak support for any link with handedness, but more consistent reports of associations with functional brain lateralisation for language. The consistency of lateralisation across different functions may also be important. We aimed to replicate previous findings of an association between DLD and reduced laterality on a quantitative measure of hand preference (reaching across the midline) and on language laterality assessed using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD). Methods From a sample of twin children aged from 6;0 to 11;11 years, we identified 107 cases of DLD and 156 typically-developing comparison cases for whom we had useable data from fTCD yielding a laterality index (LI) for language function during an animation description task. Handedness data were also available for these children. Results Indices of handedness and language laterality for this twin sample were similar to those previously reported for single-born children. There were no differences between the DLD and TD groups on measures of handedness or language lateralisation, or on a categorical measure of consistency of left hemisphere dominance. Contrary to prediction, there was a greater incidence of right lateralisation for language in the TD group (19.90%) than the DLD group (9.30%), confirming that atypical laterality is not inconsistent with typical language development. We also failed to replicate associations between language laterality and language test scores. Discussion and Conclusions Given the large sample studied here and the range of measures, we suggest that previous reports of atypical manual or language lateralisation in DLD may have been false positives. PMID:29333343

  7. Resounding failure to replicate links between developmental language disorder and cerebral lateralisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. Wilson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background It has been suggested that failure to establish cerebral lateralisation may be related to developmental language disorder (DLD. There has been weak support for any link with handedness, but more consistent reports of associations with functional brain lateralisation for language. The consistency of lateralisation across different functions may also be important. We aimed to replicate previous findings of an association between DLD and reduced laterality on a quantitative measure of hand preference (reaching across the midline and on language laterality assessed using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD. Methods From a sample of twin children aged from 6;0 to 11;11 years, we identified 107 cases of DLD and 156 typically-developing comparison cases for whom we had useable data from fTCD yielding a laterality index (LI for language function during an animation description task. Handedness data were also available for these children. Results Indices of handedness and language laterality for this twin sample were similar to those previously reported for single-born children. There were no differences between the DLD and TD groups on measures of handedness or language lateralisation, or on a categorical measure of consistency of left hemisphere dominance. Contrary to prediction, there was a greater incidence of right lateralisation for language in the TD group (19.90% than the DLD group (9.30%, confirming that atypical laterality is not inconsistent with typical language development. We also failed to replicate associations between language laterality and language test scores. Discussion and Conclusions Given the large sample studied here and the range of measures, we suggest that previous reports of atypical manual or language lateralisation in DLD may have been false positives.

  8. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Cerebral Palsy and Down Syndrome: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Safiza Mohamad Nor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, Down Syndrome (DS and Cerebral Palsy (CP are the most common disabilities among children. Nutritional status assessment is important as these children are at risk of underweight, overweight or obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this review were to identify evidence on the prevalence of nutritional status of children with DS, CP and ASD, and to determine tools and indicators to measure the nutritional status of these children. Methods: This scoping review was conducted using a framework suggested by Arksey and O'Maley. A comprehensive search was performed to identify published and unpublished works, reviews, grey literature and reports. Inclusion criteria for the search were articles in English published from 1990 to 2014 and related to children with ASD, DS and CP. Titles, abstract, and keywords for eligibility were examined independently by the researchers. Results: A total of 305,268 titles were extracted from electronic databases and other resources. Based on the inclusion criteria, 21 articles were selected for review. The prevalence of overweight or obese children with DS ranged from 33.5% to 43.5%. The prevalence of underweight children with CP was 22.2% to 78.2%. Children with ASD at a younger age were more likely to be overweight or obese compared with normal developing children. The common nutritional indicators used were z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, body mass index-for-age, and head circumference-for-age. Conclusions: Overall, there is emerging evidence on the nutritional status of children with ASD, DS and CP although this is still very limited in developing countries including Malaysia. The evidence shows that children with CP were at risk of being underweight, while children with DS and ASD were at risk of being overweight or obese.

  9. ADHD with comorbid oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder: discrete or nondistinct disruptive behavior disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Daniel F; Doerfler, Leonard A

    2008-09-01

    In children with ADHD who have comorbid disruptive behavior diagnoses distinctions between oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) remain unclear. The authors investigate differences between ODD and CD in a large clinical sample of children with ADHD. Consecutively referred and systematically assessed male children and adolescents with either ADHD (n = 65), ADHD with ODD (n = 85), or ADHD with CD (n = 50) were compared using structured diagnostic interviews and parent, teacher, and clinician rating scales. In children with ADHD, significant differences emerged between ODD and CD in the domains of delinquency, overt aggression, and ADHD symptom severity; ADHD with CD was most severe, followed by ADHD with ODD, and ADHD had the least severe symptoms. Distinctions between ADHD with CD and the other two groups were found for parenting, treatment history, and school variables. Within the limits of a cross-sectional methodology, results support clinically meaningful distinctions between ODD and CD in children with ADHD.

  10. Etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

  11. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  12. A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W Carroll

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM is a neurological syndrome that includes coma and seizures following malaria parasite infection. The pathophysiology is not fully understood and cannot be accounted for by infection alone: patients still succumb to CM, even if the underlying parasite infection has resolved. To that effect, there is no known adjuvant therapy for CM. Current murine CM (MCM models do not allow for rapid clinical identification of affected animals following infection. An animal model that more closely mimics the clinical features of human CM would be helpful in elucidating potential mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and evaluating new adjuvant therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A quantitative, rapid murine coma and behavior scale (RMCBS comprised of 10 parameters was developed to assess MCM manifested in C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA. Using this method a single mouse can be completely assessed within 3 minutes. The RMCBS enables the operator to follow the evolution of the clinical syndrome, validated here by correlations with intracerebral hemorrhages. It provides a tool by which subjects can be identified as symptomatic prior to the initiation of trial treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Since the RMCBS enables an operator to rapidly follow the course of disease, label a subject as affected or not, and correlate the level of illness with neuropathologic injury, it can ultimately be used to guide the initiation of treatment after the onset of cerebral disease (thus emulating the situation in the field. The RMCBS is a tool by which an adjuvant therapy can be objectively assessed.

  13. Fathers and mothers with eating-disorder psychopathology: Associations with child eating-disorder behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A limited literature suggests an association between maternal eating disorders and child feeding difficulties, and notes maternal concern about inadvertently transmitting eating disorders. Thus, parents may be an important target for eating-disorder research to guide the development of clinical programs. Methods The current study examined differences in child eating-disorder behaviors and parental feeding practices between a sample of parents (42 fathers, 130 mothers) exhibiting core features of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, or purging disorder, and a matched sample of parents (n=172) reporting no eating-disorder characteristics. Results Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology were significantly more likely than parents without eating-disorder characteristics to report child binge-eating and compulsive exercise. Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology reported greater perceived feeding responsibility, greater concern about their child’s weight, and more monitoring of their child’s eating than parents without eating-disorder characteristics; however, they did not differ significantly in restriction of their child’s diet and pressure-to-eat. Child body mass index z-scores did not differ between parents with versus without eating-disorder characteristics. Conclusion Our findings suggest some important differences between parents with and without core eating-disorder psychopathology, which could augment clinical interventions for patients with eating disorders who are parents, or could guide pediatric eating-disorder prevention efforts. However, because our study was cross-sectional, findings could indicate increased awareness of or sensitivity to eating-disorder behaviors rather than a psychosocial cause of those behaviors. Longitudinal research and controlled trials examining prevention and intervention can clarify and address these clinical concerns. PMID:27302549

  14. Loss of white matter integrity is associated with gait disorders in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, K.F. de; Tuladhar, A.M.; Norden, A.G.W. van; Norris, D.G.; Zwiers, M.P.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2011-01-01

    Gait disturbances are common in the elderly. Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions and lacunars infarcts, is thought to disrupt white matter tracts that connect important motor regions, hence resulting in gait disturbances. Pathological studies have demonstrated abnormalities

  15. Effect of adrenomedullin on the cerebral circulation: relevance to primary headache disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K A; Birk, S; Kitamura, K

    2009-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) is closely related to calcitonin gene-related peptide, which has a known causative role in migraine. Animal studies have strongly suggested that ADM has a vasodilatory effect within the cerebral circulation. For these reasons, ADM is also likely to be involved in migraine....... However, the hypothetical migraine-inducing property and effect on human cerebral circulation of ADM have not previously been investigated. Human ADM (0.08 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) or placebo (saline 0.9%) was administered as a 20-min intravenous infusion to 12 patients suffering from migraine without aura...... in a crossover double-blind study. The occurrence of headache and associated symptoms were registered regularly 24 h post infusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by (133)Xenon single-photon emission computed tomography, mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (V(MCA)) by transcranial...

  16. Sleep and Behavioral Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Sohl, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for sleep disturbance and behavioral dysregulation. However, the relationships between these difficulties are not fully understood. The current study examined the relationships between specific types of sleep and behavioral problems among 81 children with ASD. Sleep problems were…

  17. A Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Approach for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Hayward, Laura C.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Dimaite, Ruta

    2010-01-01

    Although body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been described in the literature for more than a century, there has been only a limited focus on the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for BDD. Our case report provides a detailed description of a course of cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for an individual with BDD. The patient was…

  18. Social Skills Training and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kathryn J.

    2012-01-01

    There is a large body of literature suggesting that students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) lack appropriate social skills, including deficits in building and maintaining interpersonal relationships, prosocial behaviors (e.g., sharing, helping, cooperation), and self-management strategies. While the literature shows small to modest…

  19. Self-Destructive Behavior in People with Dissociative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Glenn N.; Chawla, Neharika; Van der Kolk, Bessel

    2002-01-01

    Study assesses self-destructive behavior in a group of inpatients who have dissociative disorders compared to those who report few dissociative symptoms. Results reveal that these patients more frequently engage in self-destructive behaviors, use more methods of self-injury, and begin to injure themselves at an earlier age then patients who do not…

  20. Dissociative Disorders in Children: Behavioral Profiles and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical research has established a connection between childhood trauma and the development of dissociative disorders in adults. Pathological dissociation produces a range of symptoms and behaviors such as amnesias, rapid shifts in mood and behavior, and auditory and visual hallucinations. Many of these symptoms are misdiagnosed as attention,…

  1. [Repetitive impulse-associated behavioral disorders in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenschlager, R; Goerlich, K S; van Eimeren, T

    2012-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a number of behavioral disorders which may cause considerable social, professional or financial problems. Impulse control disorders (ICDs), such as pathological gambling, binge eating, compulsive shopping and hypersexuality occur in approximately 13-14% of PD patients. Further behavioral disorders are the dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), a substance dependence characterized by craving for dopaminergic substances and punding (prolonged repetitive activities which are not goal-oriented).Treatment-related risk factors are dopamine agonists for ICDs and a high total dopaminergic dose for DDS and punding. Shared risk factors are young age at onset, impulsive personality traits, depression and possibly dyskinesia. At the neuronal level these behavioral disorders seem to be associated with changes in the reward system and dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex. The evidence level for management strategies is at present insufficient. For ICDs current clinical practice consists of discontinuation or reduction of dopamine agonists.

  2. Examining the Criterion-Related Validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Carly A.; Perry, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory is a questionnaire designed to aid in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders or autism spectrum disorders. The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory assesses adaptive and maladaptive behaviors associated with pervasive developmental disorders and provides an…

  3. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Devnani; Racheal Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, ...

  4. Histogenetic disorders of cerebral cortex induced by in utero exposure to low-doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushiki, Shinji; Kinoshita, Chikako; Hyodo-Taguchi, Yasuko; Ishikawa, Yuji; Hirobe, Tomohisa

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate the short- and long-term effects of low-level ionizing radiation on cell migration in the developing cerebral cortex of mice and rats, we irradiated them at the middle of cortical histogenesis with either γ-rays or X-rays. We have demonstrated an effect of ionizing radiation on neuronal migration at doses as low as 0.15 Gy together with a changing pattern of expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM. Our findings suggest a possible role of N-CAM in neuronal migration and suggest the presence of a threshold in terms of the effects of small radiation doses on the developing cerebral cortex. In addition, the effects of radiation on neuronal migration during the embryonic stage remained even after birth in that aberrantly placed neurons were noted in the cerebral cortex. However, such derangement was less pronounced in mature animals compared to younger ones. These observations suggest that some modification process including apoptosis might have occurred during the postnatal period. In this review, molecular pathogenesis of neuronal migration disorders will also be discussed, based upon recent experimental as well as molecular genetic studies. (author)

  5. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Jennum, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by loss of REM sleep and related electromyographic atonia with marked muscular activity and dream enactment behaviour. RBD is seen in 0.5% of the population. It occurs in an idiopathic form and secondarily to medical...

  6. Effects of Mild Blast Traumatic Brain Injury on Cerebral Vascular, Histopathological, and Behavioral Outcomes in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yaping; Deyo, Donald; Parsley, Margaret A.; Hawkins, Bridget E.; Prough, Donald S.; DeWitt, Douglas S.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract To determine the effects of mild blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI), several groups of rats were subjected to blast injury or sham injury in a compressed air-driven shock tube. The effects of bTBI on relative cerebral perfusion (laser Doppler flowmetry [LDF]), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) cerebral vascular resistance were measured for 2 h post-bTBI. Dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure were measured in isolated middle cerebral arterial (MCA) segments, ex vivo, 30 and 60 min post-bTBI. Neuronal injury was assessed (Fluoro-Jade C [FJC]) 24 and 48 h post-bTBI. Neurological outcomes (beam balance and walking tests) and working memory (Morris water maze [MWM]) were assessed 2 weeks post-bTBI. Because impact TBI (i.e., non-blast TBI) is often associated with reduced cerebral perfusion and impaired cerebrovascular function in part because of the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species such as peroxynitrite (ONOO−), the effects of the administration of the ONOO− scavenger, penicillamine methyl ester (PenME), on cerebral perfusion and cerebral vascular resistance were measured for 2 h post-bTBI. Mild bTBI resulted in reduced relative cerebral perfusion and MCA dilator responses to reduced intravascular pressure, increases in cerebral vascular resistance and in the numbers of FJC-positive cells in the brain, and significantly impaired working memory. PenME administration resulted in significant reductions in cerebral vascular resistance and a trend toward increased cerebral perfusion, suggesting that ONOO− may contribute to blast-induced cerebral vascular dysfunction. PMID:29160141

  7. The Appalachian Perspective: An Adaptation to a Parent Training Program for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Jessica Marie

    2010-01-01

    Disruptive behavior disorders in children are distressing to others due to the abnormal nature of the child's behavior (Christophersen & Mortweet, 2003). These disorders include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Prevalent rates for these disorders range from 2% to…

  8. Behavior Modification/Traditional Techniques for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Paul; Ryan, Joseph B.; Gunter, Philip L.; Denny, R. Kenton

    2012-01-01

    In addressing positive general education teaching practices for use with students with or at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the chapter emphasizes teacher behavior change research that has been informed by applied behavior analytic (ABA) principles. Its central theme is that general education teachers can access research…

  9. Cognitive Behavior Therapies (CBT) in Childhood and Adolescent Mood Disorders and Anxiety Disorders: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgün Öngider

    2014-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to review efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) on childhood and adolescence in mood and anxiety disorders. Many researches have shown that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be effective in the treatment of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents. Child and adolescent depression and anxiety are frequent disorders which may have a recurring and chronic course. PsycINFO, Medline and the Turkish P...

  10. [Mutism and acute behavioral disorders revealing MELAS syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomans, H; Barroso, B; Bertandeau, E; Bonnan, M; Dakar, A; Demasles, S; Garraud, S; Krim, E; Martin-Négrier, M-L

    2011-11-01

    MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a rare genetic mitochondrial disease which can cause cerebral (cerebrovascular accident, migraine, mental deterioration..), sensorial (bilateral symmetrical deafness) and peripheral (muscular involvement, neuropathy) disorders potentially associated with diabetes, renal or cardiac disorders, or growth retardation. Eighty percent of the patients have the 3243 A>G mutation in the leucine RNA transfer gene. Clinical manifestations leading to discovery of the mutation can be extremely varied, affecting patients of different age groups. We report the case of a 49-year-old man who presented acute fits of confusion followed by mutism and praxic disorders. History taking revealed recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes, axonal neuropathy, and bilateral symmetrical deafness requiring hearing aids. The initial MRI showed FLAIR sequences with bi-parietal abnormalities, no signs of recent stroke on the DW/B10000 sequences, and basal ganglia calcifications. Blood tests and morphological findings ruled out a vascular origin. Search for lactic acidosis remained constantly negative in blood samples despite positive cerebrospinal fluid samples (N×3). The 3243 A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation was identified. The neuropsychological evaluation revealed a serious dysexecutive syndrome with a major impact on the patient's self sufficiency. Neurocognitive disorders are not common in MELAS syndrome. Brain MRI results and the presence of extra-neurological signs can be helpful for diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavioral Activation in the Treatment of Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 10-weeks of Behavioral Activation (BA) in the treatment of comorbid Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in four adults using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. All participants met full "DSM-IV" criteria for both MDD and PTSD at the…

  12. The effects of comorbid personality disorders on cognitive behavioral treatment for panic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telch, M.J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Schmidt, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality pathology assessed both dimensionally and categorically on acute clinical response to group cognitive-behavioral treatment in a large sample of panic disorder patients (N = 173) meeting DSMIII-R criteria for panic disorder with or without

  13. Protective Effects and Mechanism of Puerarin on Learning-Memory Disorder after Global Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-qin; GUO He-na; WANG Hu-qing; CHANG Ming-ze; ZHANG Gui-lian; ZHAO Ying-xian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of puerarin on the learning-memory disorder after global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, and to explore its mechanism of action. Methods: The global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model was established using the modified Pulsinelli four-vessel occlusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with puerarin (100 mg/kg) 1 h before ischemia and once every 6 h afterwards. The learning-memory ability was evaluated by the passive avoidance test. The dynamic changes of the cell counts of apoptosis and positive expression of Bcl-2 in the hippocampus CA1 region were determined by the TUNEL and immunohistochemical methods, respectively. Results: (1) Compared with the reperfusion group, the step through latency (STL) in the passive avoidance test in the puerarin group was prolonged significantly (P<0.01). (2) The apoptotic neurons were injured most severely on the 3rd day in the hippocampal CA1 region after global ischemia and reperfusion. In the pueradn group, the number of apoptotic cells decreased at respective time points after ischemia-reperfusion (P<0.01). (3) The level of positive expression of Bcl-2 varied according to the duration of reperfusion and the peak level occurred on day 1 in the hippocampal CA1 region after global cerebral ischemia. Compared with the reperfusion group, the expression of Bcl-2 in the pueradn group was up-regulated at the respective time points after ischemia raperfusion (P<0.01), reaching the peak on day 1. Conclusions: Puerarin could improve the learning-memory ability after global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats. The protective mechanism might be related to the effect of inhibiting or delaying the cell apoptosis through up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 after ischemia and reperfusion.

  14. Common Questions About Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists.

  15. Insulin deficiency exacerbates cerebral amyloidosis and behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Wei-Ping

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although increasing evidence has indicated that brain insulin dysfunction is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD, the underlying mechanisms by which insulin deficiency may impact the development of AD are still obscure. Using a streptozotocin (STZ-induced insulin deficient diabetic AD transgenic mouse model, we evaluated the effect of insulin deficiency on AD-like behavior and neuropathology. Results Our data showed that administration of STZ increased the level of blood glucose and reduced the level of serum insulin, and further decreased the phosphorylation levels of insulin receptors, and increased the activities of glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in the APP/PS1 mouse brain. We further showed that STZ treatment promoted the processing of amyloid-β (Aβ precursor protein resulting in increased Aβ generation, neuritic plaque formation, and spatial memory deficits in transgenic mice. Conclusions Our present data indicate that there is a close link between insulin deficient diabetes and cerebral amyloidosis in the pathogenesis of AD.

  16. Role of 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT in the detection of cerebral perfusion abnormality in cases of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Phom, H.; Thomas, E.J.; Tripathi, M.; Chandrashekar, N.; Bal, C.S.; Zamir, H.; Gulati, S.; Kalra, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: A randomized placebo controlled drug trial with Mentat, a herbal pharmacological agent, was initiated in January 2000 in the department of pediatrics at AIIMS, New Delhi, to compare the efficacy of Mentat with a placebo in school children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Materials and Methods: Contact was established with 12 Public schools in Delhi, to identify poor performers in classes I-V (age 6-12 yrs.). About 195 children with poor school performance were recruited in the study. They were screened for causes of poor performance, which included attention problems, hyperactivity, behavior problems, emotional problems, mental sub-normality and learning disability. ADHD suspected children were identified using the Malin's WISC, Connor's rating scale, Problem Behavior checklist, Bender Gestalt test and some sub tests of the Kaufman's Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC). Sixty children diagnosed as ADHD (using DSM-IV criteria), with an IQ between 90-110, were enrolled into the study. Of the 60 children randomized in the study, 30 received Mentat and 30 received an identical looking placebo. The drug/Placebo was given for a six-month period. 99mTC-ECD brain SPECT was performed in a subset of 34 children with ADHD. Results: Abnormal cerebral perfusion was seen in 23/34; thalamic hypoperfusion in 11, basal ganglia hypoperfusion in 9, thalamus and basal ganglia hypoperfusion in 2 and basifrontal hypoperfusion in 1. So far, in ten children with abnormal pretreatment scans, post treatment scans have also been done. In mentat group, 2/5 children showed normalization of perfusion abnormality after treatment whereas in placebo group, 1/5. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is selective focal cerebral hypoperfusion in cases of ADHD and 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT can be used for evaluation and further monitoring of therapeutic outcome in such cases

  17. Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in ischemic postconditioning-induced attenuation of cerebral ischemia-evoked behavioral deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Nirmal

    2007-01-01

    The present study has been designed to pharmacologically investigate the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in ischemic postconditioning-induced reversal of global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion-induced behavioral dysfunction in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 10 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was employed in the present study to produce ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in mice. Short-term memory was evaluated using the elevated plus maze test. The inclined beam walking test was employed to assess motor incoordination. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion followed by reperfusion produced impaired short-term memory, motor co-ordination and lateral push response. Three episodes of carotid artery occlusion for a period of 10 s and reperfusion of 10 s (ischemic postconditioning) significantly prevented ischemia-reperfusion-induced behavioral deficit measured in terms of loss of short-term memory, motor coordination and lateral push response. Wortmannin (2 mg/kg, iv), a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor given 10 min before ischemia attenuated the beneficial effects of ischemic postconditioning. It may be concluded that beneficial effects of ischemic postconditioning on global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion-induced behavioral deficits may involve activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase-linked pathway.

  18. Eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors in sexual minority populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Blashill, Aaron J.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Argenal, Russell L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarized trends and key findings from empirical studies conducted between 2011–2017 regarding eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) populations. Recent findings Recent research has examined disparities through sociocultural and minority stress approaches. Sexual minorities continue to demonstrate higher rates of disordered eating; disparities are more pronounced among males. Emerging data indicates elevated risk for disordered eating pathology among sexual minorities who are transgender or ethnic minorities. Dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs may hold promise for sexual minority males. Summary Continued research must examine the intersections of sexual orientation, gender, and ethnic identities, given emergent data that eating disorder risk may be most prominent among specific subgroups. More research is needed within sexual minorities across the lifespan. There are still a lack of eating disorder treatment and prevention studies for sexual minorities. PMID:28660475

  19. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior In Children With Moderate To Severe Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigette Oliver Ryalls

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP, a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 seconds were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM, and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment (PACMI play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System (PIECES. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p<0.001 and marginally significant improvement in play assessment scores (p=0.067 were found from pre- to post-intervention. Sitting change explained a significant portion of the variance in play change for children over the age of 3 years, who were more severely affected by CP. The results of this study indicate that advances in sitting skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment.

  20. Depression in Students with Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Margaret B.

    1987-01-01

    The five major characteristics of emotional disturbance identified in Public Law 94-142 are used as the framework for a review of research on childhood depression. Among characteristic behaviors are poor school performance, negative feelings about self that are reflected in difficulty with interpersonal relationships, and sleep disturbances. (JW)

  1. [Effects of aquaporin-4 gene knockout on behavior changes and cerebral morphology during aging in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengan; Lu, Yunbi; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effects of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) gene knockout on the behavior changes and cerebral morphology during aging in mice,and to compare that of young and aged mice between AQP4 knockout mice (AQP4(-/-)) and wild type mice (AQP4(+/+)). Fifty-eight CD-1 mice were divided into four groups: young (2-3 months old) AQP4(-/-), aged (17-19 months old) AQP4(-/-), young AQP4(+/+) and aged AQP4(+/+). The activity levels and exploring behavior of mice were tested in open field. The neurons were stained with toluidine blue and NeuN, the astrocytes and microglia were stained with GFAP and Iba-1, respectively. The morphological changes of neuron, astrocyte and microglia were then analyzed. Compared with young mice, the total walking distance in open field of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice decreased 41.2% and 44.1%, respectively (Ptime in the central area of open field. The density of neuron in cortex of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice decreased 19.6% and 15.8%, respectively (P<0.05), while there was no difference in the thickness of neuron cell body in hippocampus CA1 region. The density of astrocyte in hippocampus CA3 region of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice increased 57.7% and 64.3%, respectively (P<0.001), while there was no difference in the area of astrocyte. The area of microglia in hippocampus CA3 region of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice increased 46.9% and 52.0%, respectively (P<0.01), while there was no difference in the density of microglia. Compared with AQP4(+/+) mice, the young and aged AQP4(-/-) mice showed smaller area of astrocyte in hippocampus CA3 region, reduced 18.0% in young mice and 23.6% in aged mice. There was no difference between AQP4(+/+) mice and AQP4(-/-) mice for other observed indexes. AQP4 may be involved in change of astrocyte and astrocyte-related behaviors during aging. AQP4 gene knockout may have limited effects on the change of neuron, microglia and most neuronal behaviors in aging

  2. Disordered gambling: the evolving concept of behavioral addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Luke

    2014-01-01

    The reclassification of gambling disorder within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) addictions category marks an important step for addiction science. The similarities between gambling disorder and the substance use disorders have been well documented. As gambling is unlikely to exert actively damaging effects on the brain, the cognitive sequelae of gambling disorder may provide insights into addictive vulnerabilities; this idea is critically evaluated in light of recent structural imaging data. The second part of the review analyzes a fundamental question of how a behavior can become addictive in the absence of exogenous drug stimulation. The relative potency of drug and nondrug rewards is considered, alongside evidence that cognitive distortions in the processing of chance (for example, the illusion of control and the gambler's fallacy) may constitute an important added ingredient in gambling. Further understanding of these mechanisms at neural and behavioral levels will be critical for the classification of future behavioral addictions, and I consider the current research data for obesity and binge eating, compulsive shopping, and internet gaming disorder. PMID:25336388

  3. Borderline personality disorder: nursing interventions using dialectical behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Unda L; McComish, Judith Fry

    2006-06-01

    Psychotherapeutic treatment of people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is one of the greatest challenges confronting mental health professionals today. Clients with BPD are often difficult for nurses to work with, perhaps due to a lack of understanding of the underlying dynamics of the disorder. This article describes effective treatment strategies for BPD with a central focus on dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). In typical mental health settings, nurses can effectively implement interventions using the concepts of DBT to help people with BPD build effective coping strategies and skillful behavioral responses for improved quality of life.

  4. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets for cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiariti, Verónica; Mahdi, Soheil; Bölte, Sven

    2018-05-30

    Capturing functional information is crucial in childhood disability. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets promote assessments of functional abilities and disabilities in clinical practice regarding circumscribed diagnoses. However, the specificity of ICF Core Sets for childhood-onset disabilities has been doubted. This study aimed to identify content commonalities and differences among the ICF Core Sets for cerebral palsy (CP), and the newly developed Core Sets for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The categories within each Core Set were aggregated at the ICF component and chapter levels. Content comparison was conducted using descriptive analyses. The activities and participation component of the ICF was the most covered across all Core Sets. Main differences included representation of ICF components and coverage of ICF chapters within each component. CP included all ICF components, while ADHD and ASD predominantly focused on activities and participation. Environmental factors were highly represented in the ADHD Core Sets (40.5%) compared to the ASD (28%) and CP (27%) Core Sets. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Core Sets for CP, ASD, and ADHD capture both common but also unique functional information, showing the importance of creating condition-specific, ICF-based tools to build functional profiles of individuals with childhood-onset disabilities. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include unique functional information. The ICF-based tools for CP, ASD, and ADHD differ in terms of representation and coverage of ICF components and ICF chapters. Representation of environmental factors uniquely influences functioning and disability across ICF Core Sets for CP, ASD and ADHD.

  5. The turmeric protective properties at ethanol-induced behavioral disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldina I.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mechanically modified turmeric extract on the parameters of orienting-exploratory behavior in mice with chronic ethanol consumption. Material and methods. Mice behavior was assessed in the "open field" test. In the both control groups the animals received water or 10% ethanol solution; in the test group — turmeric extract in 10% ethanol solution. Amount of blood mononuclear cells, thymocytes, and splenocytes were estimated. Results. Analysis of the behavioral parameters in animals after chronic exposure to ethanol showed suppression of motor and exploratory components of the behavior. In mice that received both ethanol and turmeric extract recorded behavior parameters were significantly higher than in the group of animals who received ethanol only. It was shown that the turmeric extract enhances the amount of blood immune cells. Conclusion. Mechanically modified turmeric extract possesses protective properties against ethanol-induced behavioral disorders.

  6. A Study on Prevalence of Behavioral Disorders in Primary School Students in Abhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Shams-Esfandabadi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of behavioral disorder among of primary school students in Abhar. Materials & Methods: 600 primary school students (300 boys and 300 girls of public primary schools in Abhar, Iran were used as the sample for this study. Their behavioral disorder scores were obtained by means of Rutter's teachers' questionnaire. Results: Using a cutpoint of 9, the prevalence rate of behavioral disorder was 43.3% among subjects, with boys showing higher rates of behavioral disorder (44.7% than girls (42% but no significant differences were found by gender on rates of behavioral disorders. 6.3 percent of the subjects had severe behavioral disorder. Conclusion: Academic achievement was negatively related to behavioral disorder. Significant differences were found by mothers' education on children’s rates of behavioral disorder. Significant differences were found by fathers' occupation on children’s rates of behavioral disorder.

  7. Reversing Reading Failure in Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Mary E.; Longo, Ann Marie

    Boys Town cares for boys and girls (average age 15 years) who are socially and emotionally at risk because of problems such as chronic neglect or abuse, broken homes, and school failure. The majority are behaviorally disordered and emotionally impaired. Within a week of coming to Boys Town, students take the Diagnostic Assessments of Reading Test.…

  8. Learning assessment for students with mental and behavioral disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    The session aims at presenting a learning-based model for how to conduct a comprehensive psychological evaluation of the learning resources and challenges amongst students with mental and behavioral disorders. In the learning assessment model the learning resources and challenges of the students...

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

  10. Mindfulness for Students Classified with Emotional/Behavioral Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Micheline S.; Austin, Vance L.

    2016-01-01

    A six-week investigation utilizing a standard mindfulness for adolescents curriculum and norm-based standardized resiliency scale was implemented in a self-contained school for students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders (E/BD). Informal integration of mindfulness activities into a classroom setting was examined for ecological appropriateness and…

  11. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  13. Family Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Child Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Piacentini, John C.; Southam-Gerow, Michael; Chu, Brian C.; Sigman, Marian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study compared family-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT: the Building Confidence Program) with traditional child-focused CBT with minimal family involvement for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Forty clinically anxious youth (6-13 years old) were randomly assigned to a family- or child-focused cognitive-behavioral…

  14. Re-Engaging School Dropouts with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Julia; Bost, Loujeania Williams

    2015-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders have the highest dropout rates of any student group--about 40%. The outcomes for students who drop out of school are dire but are particularly bleak for students with poor academic, interpersonal, and decision-making skills. Helping students earn a high school diploma and gain the skills needed to…

  15. Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Steketee, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This study pilot tested a newly developed modular cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment manual for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 12 adults with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18 or 22 weeks. Standardized clinician ratings…

  16. Group Development for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Sylvia; Guetzloe, Eleanor

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses effective techniques for teaching students with emotional disturbances and/or behavior disorders in group settings. Three stages of group development are described with specific teaching strategies for each stage identified and related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, including needs for safety and trust, belonging and…

  17. Constructive Conflict Resolution for Students with Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Cathy; Foegen, Anne

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the application of constructive conflict resolution techniques in a middle-school program for students with behavior disorders, discussing the use of mediation, negotiation, constructive controversy, and classroom meetings. Initial efforts to explore the impact of the program are recounted, and implications for implementing…

  18. A Behavioral Continuum: A Look at Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, George; Kirk, Nancy A.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial personality disorders are not discrete diagnostic categories, but that they lie along a continuum and have in common the dimensions of degree of self-centeredness and degree of differentiation. Presents evidence supporting existence of continuum of behavior rather than discrete diagnostic…

  19. Using Puppets with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Rosario Anthony

    1993-01-01

    This article suggests ways in which special educators of students with emotional and behavioral disorders can introduce puppets into their classrooms as educational and therapeutic instruments. Puppets are able to help students identify problems and find rational solutions in a nonthreatening situation. Two sample applications are included. (DB)

  20. Sex differences in the brain, behavior, and neuropsychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F.

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain are reflected in behavior and in the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. The fetal brain develops in the male direction due to a direct effect of testosterone on the developing neurons, or in the female direction due to the absence of such a testosterone surge. Because

  1. Torey Hayden's Teacher Lore: Classroom Behavior Management of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike; Disney, Gayle

    2006-01-01

    Torey Hayden's portrayal of classroom behavior management in her teacher lore, autobiographical writings about teaching children with emotional and behavioral disorders, is examined. Five of her books were sampled: "One child", "Somebody else's kids", "Just another kid", "Ghost girl" and "Beautiful child". Each of these books unfolds within the…

  2. Relevances between cerebral circulatory disorder and symptom in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Totaro; Shimizu, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The subjects were shunt-effective idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) 40 patients. Before and one year after surgery, measurements of the cerebral circulatory dynamics (the cerebral blood flow pattern by region of interest (ROI) setting using 123 I-iofetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), and an evaluation of symptoms (gait disturbance: G, dementia: D, urinary incontinence: U) by grading scale (JNPHGS-R). Preoperative cerebral circulation and symptoms: As for the each symptoms and blood flow patterns, the seventies of G (p=0.017) in whole cortex non-reduction group (thalamus-basal ganglia reduction group) and D (p=0.021) in whole cortex reduction group were obviously high compared with other symptoms particularly. Circulation and symptoms one year after surgery: As the circulatory dynamics at different improvement sites and each symptoms, it was obviously mild for G (p=0.003) in the group with an increased only thalamus-basal ganglia blood flow and increased both whole cortex and thalamus-basal ganglia blood flow and tend to mild for D (p=0.091) in the group with an increased only whole cortex blood flow and increased both whole cortex and thalamus-basal ganglia blood flow compared with other symptoms. (author)

  3. Neuropathological Changes and Clinical Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Participants Are Similar to that Reported in Congenital and Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients' brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. "gondii"…

  4. Sexual risk behaviors among women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. COMORBID INTERMITTENT EXPLOSIVE DISORDER AND POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: CLINICAL CORRELATES AND RELATIONSHIP TO SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jennifer R.; Lee, Royce; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with both aggressive and suicidal behavior. Recent research suggests that the diagnosis of Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED), an impulse-control disorder characterized by repeated impulsive aggressive behavior, may help to identify individuals at risk for attempting suicide. Given the relationship between anger and PTSD, there is likely to be an increased prevalence of IED among individuals with PTSD; however, little is known about the overlap in these two disorders, including how individuals with comorbid IED and PTSD may differ from those with either disorder alone. The purpose of this study is to examine the clinical correlates of comorbid IED and PTSD and the contribution of these two disorders (among others) to lifetime suicide attempt and characteristics of suicidal behavior. Method In a large sample of community research volunteers (N=1460), we compared individuals with PTSD, IED, and comorbid PTSD and IED on measures of current mood, trait aggression, and trait impulsivity. We also examined the contributions of PTSD, IED, and other syndromal and personality disorders to the prediction of lifetime aggression and lifetime suicide attempt, and their relationship to characteristics of suicide attempts, including level of intent, use of violent versus non-violent means, and the medical seriousness of the attempt. Results Comorbid PTSD and IED was associated with significantly elevated levels of depression, anxiety, anger, aggression, and impulsivity, as well as with high rates of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. IED (β=.56, psuicide attempt in multivariate analysis (ORs: 1.6 and 1.6, pssuicide attempt (41.4% in this sample). Conclusion These findings add support to the notion that the diagnosis of IED may aid in identifying individuals at risk for aggressive and suicidal behavior. PMID:27624432

  6. Preparation of Teachers of Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders. Retrospective Series on Critical Issues in Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr., Ed.

    The third in a series, this collection of previously published monographs examines the challenges of preparing teachers to work with students who have emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Monographs include: (1) "Issues in Training Teachers for the Seriously Emotionally Disturbed" (Frank H. Wood), which discusses preparing regular and special…

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow in mood disorders. I. Comparison of major depressives and normal controls at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackeim, H.A.; Prohovnik, I.; Moeller, J.R.; Brown, R.P.; Apter, S.; Prudic, J.; Devanand, D.P.; Mukherjee, S.

    1990-01-01

    We measured regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique in 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 matched, normal controls during an eyes-closed, resting condition. The depressed group had a marked reduction in global cortical blood flow. To examine topographic abnormalities, traditional multivariate analyses were applied, as well as a new scaled subprofile model developed to identify abnormal functional neural networks in clinical samples. Both approaches indicated that the depressed sample had an abnormality in topographic distribution of blood flow, in addition to the global deficit. The scaled subprofile model identified the topographic abnormality as being due to flow reduction in the depressed patients in selective frontal, central, superior temporal, and anterior parietal regions. This pattern may reflect dysfunction in the parallel distributed cortical network involving frontal and temporoparietal polymodal association areas. The extent of this topographic abnormality, as revealed by the scaled subprofile model, was associated with both patient age and severity of depressive symptoms

  8. Binge-Eating Disorder: Between Eating Disorders and Obesity? A Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gempeler Rueda, Juanita

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews the available literature on binge-eating disorder, currently included in the DSM IV as an Eating Disorder NOS. Its inclusion in the DSM V is under discussion. Conceptualization of this disorder is examined, as well as implications for clinical interventions from a cognitive-behavioral perspective. Resumen El presente artículo tiene por objeto revisar la bibliografía actualizada disponible sobre el tema del trastorno por atracones de la alimentación, que hasta ...

  9. Dopamine and oxytocin interactions underlying behaviors: potential contributions to behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Tracey A; Douglas, Alison J

    2010-06-01

    Dopamine is an important neuromodulator that exerts widespread effects on the central nervous system (CNS) function. Disruption in dopaminergic neurotransmission can have profound effects on mood and behavior and as such is known to be implicated in various neuropsychiatric behavioral disorders including autism and depression. The subsequent effects on other neurocircuitries due to dysregulated dopamine function have yet to be fully explored. Due to the marked social deficits observed in psychiatric patients, the neuropeptide, oxytocin is emerging as one particular neural substrate that may be influenced by the altered dopamine levels subserving neuropathologic-related behavioral diseases. Oxytocin has a substantial role in social attachment, affiliation and sexual behavior. More recently, it has emerged that disturbances in peripheral and central oxytocin levels have been detected in some patients with dopamine-dependent disorders. Thus, oxytocin is proposed to be a key neural substrate that interacts with central dopamine systems. In addition to psychosocial improvement, oxytocin has recently been implicated in mediating mesolimbic dopamine pathways during drug addiction and withdrawal. This bi-directional role of dopamine has also been implicated during some components of sexual behavior. This review will discuss evidence for the existence dopamine/oxytocin positive interaction in social behavioral paradigms and associated disorders such as sexual dysfunction, autism, addiction, anorexia/bulimia, and depression. Preliminary findings suggest that whilst further rigorous testing has to be conducted to establish a dopamine/oxytocin link in human disorders, animal models seem to indicate the existence of broad and integrated brain circuits where dopamine and oxytocin interactions at least in part mediate socio-affiliative behaviors. A profound disruption to these pathways is likely to underpin associated behavioral disorders. Central oxytocin pathways may serve as a

  10. Impulse control disorder and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Sophie; Dauvilliers, Yves; Yu, Huan; Croisier-Langenier, Muriel; Rossignol, Alexia; Charif, Mahmoud; Geny, Christian; Carlander, Bertrand; Cochen De Cock, Valérie

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between ICD and RBD is still not yet understood and the results from the current literature are contradictory in PD. We aimed to explore the association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and impulse control disorder in Parkinson's disease. Ninety-eight non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease underwent one night of video-polysomnography recording. The diagnosis of RBD was established according to clinical and polysomnographic criteria. Impulse control disorders were determined by a gold standard, semi-structured diagnostic interview. Half of the patients (n = 49) reported clinical history of RBD while polysomnographic diagnosis of RBD was confirmed in 31.6% of the patients (n = 31). At least one impulse control disorder was identified in 21.4% of patients, 22.6% with RBD and 20.9% without. Logistic regression controlling for potential confounders indicated that both clinical RBD (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.07-1.48, P = 0.15) and polysomnographic confirmed RBD diagnoses (OR = 0.1.28, 95% CI = 0.31-5.33, P = 0.34) were not associated with impulse control disorder. In Parkinson's disease, REM Sleep Behavior Disorder is not associated with impulse control disorder. The results of our study do not support the notion that PSG-confirmed RBD and ICD share a common pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence exerted by risk factors of space and erath weather on frequency of emergency calls from patients with acute cerebral circulation disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belyaeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High morbidity with cardiovascular pathology increases loads on a public healthcare system and is not only social but also an economic problem. To optimize cardiovascular pathology prevention, it is necessary to thoroughly analyze risk factors which cause its occurrence. Our research goal was to examine a dynamics of acute cerebral circulation disorders depending on meteorological factors and heliofactors allowing for a seasonal component. We performed a retrospective analysis of morbidity with acute cerebral circulation disorders in winter, spring, and summer in 2012 on the basis of the archives obtained from an emergency station in Vladikavkaz. We analyzed 509 cases of the disease (294 women and 215 men. On the basis of our analysis results we assessed influence exerted by external factors on frequency of applications to emergency from patients with acute cerebral circulation disorders. We analyzed meteorological factors and heliofactors and their derivatives: average daily temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud coverage, weather pathogenicity, Sun radiation flux density at a wave length equal to 10.7, and a number of sunspots. We detected that in winter negative influence was exerted by temperature; there was also a multi-factor dependence between frequency of acute cerebral circulation disorders and such predictors as temperature pathogenicity index and speed of changes in Sun radiation flux density during a day (Rmulti = 0.50; R2 = 0.25. Drastic temperature fluctuations make for increase in morbidity in spring. Morbidity cases frequency in women in this period correlates not only with temperature pathogenicity index but also with pathogenicity index of air pressure changes. Morbidity increase in summer is caused by simultaneous drop both in air pressure and relative humidity (Rmulti = 0.59; R2 = 0.35. Overall, correlation between external factors and morbidity with acute cerebral circulation disorder has seasonal

  12. Cerebral Palsy for the Pediatric Eye Care Team Part III: Diagnosis and Management of Associated Visual and Sensory Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldi, Kyle A; Pendarvis, Lauren; Jackson, Jorie; Batra, Noopur Nikki Agarwal

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term used to describe a spectrum of deficits of muscle tone and posture resulting from damage to the developing nervous system. Though considered a motor disorder, CP can be associated with disorders of the sensory visual pathway. This paper, the final in a series of three articles, will present frequency, diagnosis, and management of the visual and binocular vision deficits associated with CP. Topics for discussion will include the prevalence and etiology of decreased acuity, the effect of CP on sensory and motor fusion, and the response to treatment for these sensory deficits. A retrospective chart review of all cases of cerebral palsy referred to the St. Louis Children's Hospital Eye Center was done. Detailed data on the sensory and motor deficits documented in these children was collected. Also recorded was the management strategy and response to treatment. Of the 131 cases reviewed (mean age 5.2 years at presentation), 46% had decreased vision in at least one eye due to amblyopia (24%), optic nerve abnormality (16%), cortical visual impairment (14%), or a combination. Forty-nine (37%) had significant refractive error. Sixty-four percent of those with significant refractive error responded to spectacle correction. Forty-three percent of those with amblyopia responded to conventional therapies. Of the nonstrabismic patients, 89% demonstrated sensory fusion, 90% had stereopsis, and 91% had motor fusion. No patient lacking fusion or stereopsis prior to strabismus surgery gained these abilities with realignment of the eyes. While children with CP are capable of age-appropriate acuity and binocular vision, they are at increased risk for sensory visual deficits. These deficits are not the direct result of CP itself, but either share a common underlying cause, or occur as sequelae to the strabismus that is prevalent in CP. Most importantly, some sensory deficits may respond to standard treatment methods.

  13. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  14. Adaptive and Behavioral Changes in Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase Knockout Mice: Relevance to Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Sophie; Pocivavsek, Ana; Repici, Mariaelena; Liu, Xi-Cong; Imbeault, Sophie; Maddison, Daniel C; Thomas, Marian A R; Smalley, Joshua L; Larsson, Markus K; Muchowski, Paul J; Giorgini, Flaviano; Schwarcz, Robert

    2017-11-15

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase converts kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its inhibition shunts the kynurenine pathway-which is implicated as dysfunctional in various psychiatric disorders-toward enhanced synthesis of kynurenic acid, an antagonist of both α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Possibly as a result of reduced kynurenine 3-monooxygenase activity, elevated central nervous system levels of kynurenic acid have been found in patients with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated adaptive-and possibly regulatory-changes in mice with a targeted deletion of Kmo (Kmo -/- ) and characterized the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase-deficient mice using six behavioral assays relevant for the study of schizophrenia. Genome-wide differential gene expression analyses in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of these mice identified a network of schizophrenia- and psychosis-related genes, with more pronounced alterations in cerebellar tissue. Kynurenic acid levels were also increased in these brain regions in Kmo -/- mice, with significantly higher levels in the cerebellum than in the cerebrum. Kmo -/- mice exhibited impairments in contextual memory and spent less time than did controls interacting with an unfamiliar mouse in a social interaction paradigm. The mutant animals displayed increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and in a light/dark box. After a D-amphetamine challenge (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), Kmo -/- mice showed potentiated horizontal activity in the open field paradigm. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the elimination of Kmo in mice is associated with multiple gene and functional alterations that appear to duplicate aspects of the psychopathology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effect of Group Parent Management Traning on Behavioral Disorders of Children with Attention Deficit-Hyoeractivity Disorder

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    Parsa Houshvar

    2009-10-01

    Conclusion: Group parent management training is significantly effective in decreasing behavioral disorders and anxiety status of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and this psychosocial intervention could be used as an effective complementary method beside medication and occupational therapy programs.

  16. Cerebral perfusion disorders in patients after craniocerebral injury with clinical temporal conus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasek, J.; Smrcka, M.; Maca, K.; Juran, V.; Vidlak, M.; Smrcka, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: to evaluate the changes of cerebral perfusion in patients after craniocerebral injury with clinical temporal conus syndrome. Material and methods: We present a group of 14 head injured patients admitted to neurosurgery with the syndrome of temporal herniation (Glasgow coma scale 3 - 5, homorateral dilated pupil and disturbed vital functions). There were 7 epidural, 6 subdural and one intracerebral hematomas. Mean age was 42, 7. All patients had urgent surgery and then continuous monitoring of vital functions. Results: Two postoperative CT and SPECT examinations were performed in each patient. Only 2 patients had visible ischemia on the first postoperative CT scan, both diet. 11 patients had ischemia in both the first post-operative and the follow up SPECT. 7 patients had improvement on the follow up SPECT compared to the first one, 6 of them were good results, one died. Conclusions: SPECT is very sensitive to impaired cerebral perfusion and may be helpful as a serial study. This is very mainly in the patients with reversible ischemia which may be influenced therapeutically with good results

  17. Impact of cerebral visual impairments on motor skills : implications for developmental coordination disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Chokron

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral visual impairment (CVI has become the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in children in industrialized countries. Its prevalence has increased sharply, due to increased survival rates of children who sustain severe neurological conditions during the perinatal period. Improved diagnosis has probably contributed to this increase. As in adults, the nature and severity of CVI in children relate to the cause, location and extent of damage to the brain. In the present paper, we define CVI and how this impacts on visual function. We then define DCD and discuss the link between CVI and DCD. The neuroanatomical correlates and aetiologies of DCD are also presented in relationship with CVI as well as the consequences of perinatal asphyxia and preterm birth on the occurrence and nature of DCD and CVI. This paper underlines why there are both clinical and theoretical reasons to disentangle CVI and DCD, and to categorise the features with more precision. In order to offer the most appropriate rehabilitation, we propose a systematic and rapid evaluation of visual function in at-risk children who have survived preterm birth or perinatal asphyxia whether or not they have been diagnosed with cerebral palsy or DCD.

  18. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior in Children with Moderate to Severe Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryalls, Brigette O.; Harbourne, Regina; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Wickstrom, Jordan; Stergiou, Nick; Kyvelidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP), a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of…

  19. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  20. Gambling Disorder and Other Behavioral Addictions: Recognition and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Addiction professionals and the public are recognizing that certain nonsubstance behaviors—such as gambling, Internet use, video-game playing, sex, eating, and shopping—bear resemblance to alcohol and drug dependence. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or “behavioral” addictions and has led to the newly introduced diagnostic category “Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders” in DSM-5. At present, only gambling disorder has been placed in this category, with insufficient data for other proposed behavioral addictions to justify their inclusion. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of behavioral addictions, describes treatment considerations, and addresses future directions. Current evidence points to overlaps between behavioral and substance-related addictions in phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidity, neurobiological mechanisms, genetic contributions, responses to treatments, and prevention efforts. Differences also exist. Recognizing behavioral addictions and developing appropriate diagnostic criteria are important in order to increase awareness of these disorders and to further prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25747926

  1. Sexual behavior and autism spectrum disorders: an update and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellaher, Denise C

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years, we have gained a deeper understanding about sexuality among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Greater interest in this subject and improvements in the empirical study of ASD populations are driving this enlightenment. The data is dispelling antiquated notions that ASD individuals are asexual, sexually unknowledgeable and inexperienced, and/or disinterested in relationships. We still have a ways to go in examining paraphilic or deviant arousal sexual behaviors among ASD individuals. This manuscript provides an update on sexuality research in ASD in the last few years. This is accompanied by a discussion of the paraphilic type sexual behaviors observed among some ASD individuals.

  2. Characteristics of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul Jørgen; Frandsen, Rune Asger Vestergaard; Knudsen, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with Parkinsonian disorders, but is also reported in narcolepsy. Most patients...... of hypocretin deficiency. Thus, hypocretin deficiency is linked to the two major disturbances of REM sleep motor regulation in narcolepsy: RBD and cataplexy. Moreover, it is likely that hypocretin deficiency independently predicts periodic limb movements in REM and NREM sleep, probably via involvement...... of the dopaminergic system. This supports the hypothesis that an impaired hypocretin system causes general instability of motor regulation during wakefulness, REM and NREM sleep in human narcolepsy. We propose that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor tone control during wakefulness and sleep in humans...

  3. Sleep Quality Improvement During Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; n = 26) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 24). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers.

  4. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Group Skills Training for Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Lori; Eddie, David; Harley, Rebecca; Jacobo, Michelle; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2017-07-01

    There is growing evidence that the capacity for emotion regulation is compromised in individuals with bipolar disorder. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), an empirically supported treatment that specifically targets emotion dysregulation, may be an effective adjunct treatment for improving emotion regulation and residual mood symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. In this open, proof-of-concept pilot study, 37 participants engaged in a 12-week DBT group skills training program, learning mindfulness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills. Repeated measures mixed models revealed skill acquisition in the areas of mindfulness, emotion regulation and distress tolerance, as well as improved psychological well-being and decreased emotion reactivity. The results of this study support a burgeoning literature that DBT is a feasible adjunct intervention for patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Addiction as a BAD, a Behavioral Allocation Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, R J; Ginsburg, Brett C

    2018-01-01

    Addiction is continued drug use despite its harm. As one always has alternatives, addiction can be construed as a decision to allocate behavior to drug use. While decision making is commonly discussed and studied as if it resulted from deliberative, evaluative processes, such processes are actually only rarely involved in behavior allocation. These deliberative processes are too slow, effortful and inefficient to guide behavior other than when necessary. Rather, most actions are guided by faster, more automatic processes, often labeled habits. Habits are mostly adaptive, and result from repeated reinforcement leading to over-learned behavior. Habitual behavior occurs rapidly in response to particular contexts, and the behavior occurring first is that which occurs, i.e., the behavior that is decided upon. Thus, as drug use becomes habitual, drug use is likely to be chosen over other available activities in that particular context. However, while drug use becoming habitual is necessary for addiction to develop, it is not sufficient. Typically, constraints limit even habitual drug use to safer levels. These constraints might include limiting occasions for use; and, almost always, constraints on amount consumed. However, in a minority of individuals, drug use is not sufficiently constrained and addiction develops. This review discusses the nature of these constraints, and how they might fail. These failures do not result from abnormal learning processes, but rather unfortunate interactions between a person and their environment over time. These accumulate in the maladaptive allocation of behavior to drug use. This Behavior Allocation Disorder (BAD) can be reversed; occasionally easily when the environment significantly changes, but more often by the arduous application of deliberative processes generally absent from decision making. These deliberative processes must continue until new more adaptive habits become the most probable behavior in the contexts encountered

  6. An etiological model of disordered eating behaviors among Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique Berbert; Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2017-09-01

    The Tripartite Influence Model posits that parents, peers and media influences mediated by internalization and appearance social comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, the Tripartite Influence Model has not been tested in Brazil where the people are known to have high levels of body image and appearance concerns. This study aimed to test an adapted Tripartite Influence Model of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors among Brazilian women. A sample of 741 undergraduate students (M age  = 23.55 years, SD = 4.09) completed measures of sociocultural influences, internalization of body ideal, social appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, muscularity dissatisfaction, disordered eating and body change behaviors. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that the proposed etiological model for Brazilian women has good fit indexes (χ 2 (2064) = 6793.232; p = 0.0001; χ 2 /gl = 3.29; CFI = 0.82; PCFI = 0.79; RMSEA = 0.056 [IC90% = 0.053-0.057]). Parent and media influences were related with both internalization and social comparison, while peer influence with social comparison. A full mediation model was found, with both internalization and social comparison contributing to body dissatisfaction. Finally, body dissatisfaction was associated with disordered eating behaviors. The findings inform the importance of considering cultural aspects that influence body image and eating behaviors, and highlight the validity of the proposed etiological model for Brazilian women, that can be used for research and clinical purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Eating behavior and eating disorders in adults before bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; King, Wendy C; Courcoulas, Anita; Dakin, George; Elder, Katherine; Engel, Scott; Flum, David; Kalarchian, Melissa; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    To describe eating patterns, prevalence of problematic eating behaviors, and determine factors associated with binge eating disorder (BED), before bariatric surgery. Before surgery, 2,266 participants (median age 46 years; 78.6% female; 86.9% white; median body mass index 45.9 kg/m(2) ) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study completed eating behavior survey items in the self-administered LABS-2 Behavior form. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the LABS-2 Psychiatric and Emotional Test Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12, the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and Impact of Weight Quality of Life-Lite Survey. The majority (92.1%) of participants reported eating dinner regularly, whereas just over half (54.0%) reported eating breakfast regularly. Half of the participants reported eating at least four meals/week at restaurants; two meals/week were fast food. Loss of control eating was reported by 43.4%, night eating syndrome by 17.7%; 15.7% satisfied criteria for binge eating disorder (BED), 2% for bulimia nervosa. Factors that independently increased the odds of BED were being a college graduate, eating more times per day, taking medication for psychiatric or emotional problems, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder, lower self-esteem and greater depressive symptoms. Before undergoing bariatric surgery a substantial proportion of patients report problematic eating behaviors. Several factors associated with BED were identified, most suggesting other mental health problems, including higher levels of depressive symptomotology. The strengths of this study include the large sample size, the multi-center design and use of standardized assessment practices. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hoarding behavior among young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD...

  9. Effect of Pre-nutrion of Flax Seed Oil (Linum Usitatissimum on the amount of Cerebral ischemic lesion and motor nerve disorders in animal model rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SV Hosseini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Stroke is the third death agent (factor in industrial countries after cardiovascular disease and cancer. With regard to high content of antioxidant materials in flax seed oil like &alpha-linolenic acid, lignan as well as phenolic combinations like secoisolarisirsinol (SDG, this study performed for studding relationship between of cerebral ischemic lesion and motor-nerve disorders in model of stroke in rat. Methods: in the study, 35 male mice from strain Wistar divided to 5 groups. The groups included control, sham and 3 experimental groups. They received doses 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 ml/kg from flax seed oil orally. By gavage for 30 days two control and sham groups received aqua distillate (distil water. Two hours after the last gavaged dose, overly group with 7 pieces operated for measurement of the amount of cerebral lesion and motor-nerve disorders. (Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model. Middle cerebral Artery Occlusion by the model resulted in local ischemic stroke in animal. Data analyzed by software SPSS, test ANOVA and disorders by test mann-Whitney. Findings: Average of records of motor-nerve disorders decreased significantly in group with dose 0.5 and 0.75 using flax seed oil (P<0.05. The amount of cerebral ischemic lesion in doses 0.5 and 0.75 than to control group is indicated meaning full different, but percent of the total cerebral lesion in control group in compared group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaningful different. Percent of the amount of ischemic lesion in region penumbra in group 0.75 and 0.5 than to control group is indicated meaningful different, but percent of the amount of lesion in region penumbra in control group in compared region penumbra in group with dose 0.25 is not indicated meaning full different. Results: Findings of the study indicated that flax seed oil, particular in doses 0.5 and 0.75 resulted to decrease of the amount of cerebral ischemic lesion and decrease of motor-nerve disorders in

  10. Childhood Fish Consumption and Learning and Behavioral Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny L. Carwile

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a major source of nutrients critical for brain development during early life. The importance of childhood fish consumption is supported by several studies reporting associations of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation with better behavior and school performance. However, fish may have a different effect than n-3 PUFA alone due to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, a frequent contaminant. We investigated associations of childhood fish consumption with learning and behavioral disorders in birth cohort study of the neurotoxic effects of early life exposure to solvent-contaminated drinking water. Childhood (age 7–12 years fish consumption and learning and behavioral problems were reported in self-administered questionnaires (age 23–41 at questionnaire completion. Fish consumption was not meaningfully associated with repeating a grade, tutoring, attending summer school, special class placement, or low educational attainment. However, participants who ate fish several times a week had an elevated odds of Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (odds ratio: 5.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.5–18 compared to participants who did not eat fish. While these findings generally support the safety of the observed level of fish consumption, the absence of a beneficial effect may be attributed to insufficient fish intake or the choice of relatively low n-3 PUFA fish.

  11. [Modern documentary research on disease menu of acupuncture-moxibustion for mental and behavioral disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, You-Ping; Chen, Yong; Xing, Lin; Niu, Bai-Lu; Zhu, Feng-Juan; Han, Jing; Wang, Yu; Bian, Wei; Liu, Cong-Sheng; Wei, Li; Du, Yuan-Hao

    2011-10-01

    Dominant disease menu of mental and behavioral disorder of acupuncture therapy was summarized and obtained in this article. Literatures on clinical treatment of mental and behavioral disorder with acupuncture were picked up from CBMdisc and CNKI during 1978 to 2007. Types of mental and behavioral disorder and report frequency of each disease treated with acupuncture were counted. And dominant diseases which were favorable to be treated with acupuncture were acquired through analysis and inductive method. Twenty-nine diseases of mental and behavioral disorder are favorable to be treated with acupuncture which were mentioned in totally 1967 related documents. It is found that the number of reports of sleep disorder, depression, hysteria aphronesia, dementia and sexual disorder are ranked as the top five. It is concluded that the preponderant diseases of mental and behavioral disorder treated by acupuncture are dementia, withdrawal syndrome, mental retardation, obsessive-compulsive disorder, sleep disorder, gastrointestinal neurosis (gastrointestinal disorders), depression, alcoholism and globus hystericus.

  12. Mullen scales of early learning: the utility in assessing children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas G; King, Tricia Z; Spencer, Katherine S

    2013-01-01

    A group of 47 patients diagnosed with neurodevelopmental disorders were compared to 47 age-, gender-, and racially matched typically developing children to examine the frequency of impairment across domains of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). The MSEL is a comprehensive measure of cognitive functioning designed to assess infants and preschool children between the ages of birth to 68 months. In the neurodevelopmental group, the sample was composed of children 2 to 4 years of age who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 19), cerebral palsy (CP; n = 14), and epilepsy (EPI; n = 14). A sample of 47 matched controls, taken from the normative sample of the MSEL, was used as a comparison group. Each one of the clinical groups comprising the neurodevelopmental sample demonstrated statistically significant delays across domains relative to the respective matched control group (p Children failed to demonstrate a "signature" profile for a diagnosis of ASD, CP, or EPI. The clinical sensitivity of the MSEL and the need for obtaining specific intervention services for children diagnosed with these conditions are presented. Finally, these results are discussed within the context of the clinical sensitivity of the MSEL in working with these clinical populations.

  13. Conduct disorder in girls: neighborhoods, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chien-Ni

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the social context of girls with conduct disorder (CD, a question of increasing importance to clinicians and researchers. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between three social context domains (neighborhood, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors and CD in adolescent girls, additionally testing for race moderation effects. We predicted that disadvantaged neighborhoods, family characteristics such as parental marital status, and parenting behaviors such as negative discipline would characterize girls with CD. We also hypothesized that parenting behaviors would mediate the associations between neighborhood and family characteristics and CD. Methods We recruited 93 15–17 year-old girls from the community and used a structured psychiatric interview to assign participants to a CD group (n = 52 or a demographically matched group with no psychiatric disorder (n = 41. Each girl and parent also filled out questionnaires about neighborhood, family characteristics, and parenting behaviors. Results Neighborhood quality was not associated with CD in girls. Some family characteristics (parental antisociality and parenting behaviors (levels of family activities and negative discipline were characteristic of girls with CD, but notll. There was no moderation by race. Our hypothesis that the association between family characteristics and CD would be mediated by parenting behaviors was not supported. Conclusion This study expanded upon previous research by investigating multiple social context domains in girls with CD and by selecting a comparison group who were not different in age, social class, or race. When these factors are thus controlled, CD in adolescent girls is not significantly associated with neighborhood, but is associated with some family characteristics and some types of parental behaviors. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships need to be further

  14. Sexual obsessions and suicidal behaviors in patients with mood disorders, panic disorder and schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’Osso Liliana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The topic of sexual obsessions as a psychiatric symptom has not been well investigated. The aim of this study was twofold: 1 to explore the presence of sexual obsessions in patients with mood disorders (n=156, panic disorder (n=54 and schizophrenia (n=79, with respect to non-psychiatric subjects (n=100; 2 to investigate the relationship between sexual obsessions and suicidal behaviors, taking into account socio-demographic variables ad mental disorders. Methods 289 psychiatric patients with mood disorders, panic disorder or schizophrenia, were recruited at the Italian University departments of psychiatry along with 100 non-psychiatric subjects, who presented for a routine eye exam at the ophthalmology department of the same Universities. The assessments included: the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Self-Report (OBS-SR, for sexual obsession, and the Mood Spectrum-Self Report lifetime version (MOODS-SR. Suicidality was assessed by means of 6 items of the MOODS-SR. Results Sexual obsessions were more frequent in schizophrenia (54.4%, followed by mood disorders (35.9%. Among schizophrenia patients, males reported more sexual obsessions than females (P Conclusions Special attention should be given to investigate and establish effective strategies of treatment for sexual obsessions, especially those with comorbid mood disorders or schizophrenia.

  15. The study of role of stress in children with behavior disorders and orofacial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad, R K; Jagtap, Kiran

    2012-07-01

    (1) To study the behavior disorders in children between 5 to 15 years. (2) To study the role of stress in causing behavior disorders. (3) To interpret the orofacial findings in children with behavior disorders. (4) Correlate the orofacial findings with behavior disorder. Ninty children with behavior problems between age of 5 to 15 years along with their parents who visited the Department of Child-Guidance Clinic, BYL Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai. Intraoral examinations were conducted. Behavioral disorders and factors predisposing to those disorders were recorded. Behavior disorders with orofacial lesions was more common in age group of 8 to 10 years. The children were continuously under stress, which manifested in the form of various orofacial disorders or oral lesions. Most common orofacial condition was bruxism. Awareness of behavior disorders in dental treatment should guide the pediatric dentist to seek child psychiatric consultation for behavioral disorders to enable early evaluation of the underlying disorder. The present study suggested that orofacial and behavior characteristics can serve as markers to diagnose children with behavioral disorders. It also serves as a guide to dental clinicians to refer such children to psychiatrists or pediatricians for early identification, prevention and treatment.

  16. Footprints of phineas gage: Historical beginnings on the origins of brain and behavior and the birth of cerebral localizationism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara P Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The intellectual revolution led by ancient Greek philosophers and physicians witnessed the extraordinary evolution of the birth of neuroscience from speculations of cardiocentrism (Aristotelism and encephalocentrism (Galenism. Later further development of neurosciences was hallmarked by the development of anatomic theories of phrenology by the German physician Franz Joseph Gall in 1796. Although phrenology was a pseudoscience, it was Gall who laid the foundations for the subsequent biologically based doctrine of brain behavior localization. The amazing story of Phineas Gage is a classic case in the nineteenth-century neurosciences literature that played a pivotal role in the concept of cerebral localizationism, a theory that moved beyond phrenology. This iconic case marked the historical beginnings of brain origins of human behavior and elucidated a link between brain trauma, prefrontal brain damage and personality change.

  17. Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D

    2012-03-01

    Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based survey. Of 278 participants (nfemale=208; nmale=70) aged 18-24 years old, disordered eating cognitions, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility were related to psychological distress after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. Disordered eating cognitions and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in disordered eating behaviors. Finally, mindfulness was found to moderate the association between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors.

  18. Applied behavior analysis: behavior management of children with autism spectrum disorders in dental environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Purnima; Ikkanda, Zachary

    2011-03-01

    There are a limited number of studies addressing behavior management techniques and procedural modifications that dentists can use to treat people with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The authors conducted a search of the dental and behavioral analytic literature to identify management techniques that address problem behaviors exhibited by children with ASDs in dental and other health-related environments. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a science in which procedures are based on the principles of behavior through systematic experimentation. Clinicians have used ABA procedures successfully to modify socially significant behaviors of people with ASD. Basic behavior management techniques currently used in dentistry may not encourage people with cognitive and behavioral disabilities, such as ASD, to tolerate simple in-office dental procedures consistently. Instead, dental care providers often are required to use advanced behavior management techniques to complete simple in-office procedures such as prophylaxis, sealant placement and obtaining radiographs. ABA procedures can be integrated in the dental environment to manage problem behaviors often exhibited by children with an ASD. The authors found no evidence-based procedural modifications that address the behavioral characteristics and problematic behaviors of children with an ASD in a dental environment. Further research in this area should be conducted. Knowledge and in-depth understanding of behavioral principles is essential when a dentist is concerned with modifying behaviors. Using ABA procedures can help dentists manage problem behaviors effectively and systematically when performing routine dental treatment. Being knowledgeable about each patient's behavioral characteristics and the parents' level of involvement is important in the successful integration of the procedures and reduction of in-office time.

  19. Application of the Trail Making Test in the assessment of cognitive flexibility in patients with speech disorders after ischaemic cerebral stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rajtar-Zembaty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to evaluate the level of cognitive flexibility in patients with speech disorders after ischaemic cerebral stroke. The study was conducted in a group of 43 patients (18 women and 25 men who had experienced cerebral ischaemic stroke. The patients under study were divided into groups based on the type of speech disorders, i.e.: aphasia, lack of speech disorders and dysarthria. A Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and a Clock Drawing Test (CDT were applied for the general evaluation of the efficiency of cognitive functions. Cognitive flexibility – a component of executive functions, was evaluated with the use of a Trail Making Test (TMT. The results obtained prove that patients with aphasia show the lowest level of cognitive flexibility. Disorders of executive functions can be related to the dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex which has been damaged as a result of ischaemic cerebral stroke. Presumably, there are common functional neuroanatomical circuits for both language skills and components of executive functions. In the case of damage to the structures that are of key importance for both skills, language and executive dysfunctions can therefore occur in parallel. The presence of executive dysfunctions in patients with aphasia can additionally impede the functioning of the patient, and also negatively influence the process of rehabilitation the aim of which is to improve the efficiency of communication.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptacek R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radek Ptacek,1,2 George B Stefano,1,3 Simon Weissenberger,1 Devang Akotia,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Hana Papezova,1 Lucie Domkarova,1 Tereza Stepankova,1 Michal Goetz4 1Department of Psychiatry, Charles University 1st Medical Faculty and General Teaching Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychology, University of New York in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3MitoGenetics Research Institute, MitoGenetics, LLC, Farmingdale, NY, USA; 4Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs. In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1 impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2 other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3 poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4 other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from

  1. The circadian oscillator of the cerebral cortex: molecular, biochemical and behavioral effects of deleting the Arntl clock gene in cortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering, Tenna; Carstensen, Mikkel Bloss; Wörtwein, Gitta

    2018-01-01

    for normal function of the cortical circadian oscillator. Daily rhythms in running activity and temperature were not influenced, whereas the resynchronization response to experimental jet-lag exhibited minor though significant differences between genotypes. The tail-suspension test revealed significantly...... prolonged immobility periods in the knockout mouse indicative of a depressive-like behavioral state. This phenotype was accompanied by reduced norepinephrine levels in the cerebral cortex. Our data show that Arntl is required for normal cortical clock function and further give reason to suspect...... that the circadian oscillator of the cerebral cortex is involved in regulating both circadian biology and mood-related behavior and biochemistry....

  2. Examining challenging behaviors of clients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalker, Samantha A; Carmel, Adam; Atkins, David C; Landes, Sara J; Kerbrat, Amanda H; Comtois, Katherine Anne

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have examined effects of challenging behaviors of clients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) on psychotherapy outcomes. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based treatment designed to treat chronic suicidality, self-directed violence (SDV), and emotion dysregulation, while targeting challenging behaviors. DBT has been shown to be effective with clients with BPD. We evaluated whether therapist reported challenging behaviors, such as high volume phone contacts or violating the therapist's limits, during DBT would be associated with dropping out of DBT, severity and frequency of SDV, emotion regulation deficits, psychological symptom severity and client's and therapist's satisfaction of treatment. The current study examined challenging behaviors reported by therapists in a sample of 63 psychiatrically disabled outpatient DBT clients diagnosed with BPD (73% women, average age 37 years). More frequent phone contacts were associated with a decrease in dropout and psychological symptoms, and an increase in client and therapist satisfaction. More avoidance/disengagement behavior was associated with more than twice the risk of SDV and a decrease in therapist satisfaction. Findings suggest that the phone coaching might serve to maximize client satisfaction and reduce the likelihood of dropout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adolescent health-risk behavior and community disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Wiehe

    Full Text Available Various forms of community disorder are associated with health outcomes but little is known about how dynamic context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behaviors.Assess whether exposure to contexts associated with crime (as a marker of community disorder correlates with self-reported health-related behaviors among adolescent girls.Girls (N = 52, aged 14-17, were recruited from a single geographic urban area and monitored for 1 week using a GPS-enabled cell phone. Adolescents completed an audio computer-assisted self-administered interview survey on substance use (cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use and sexual intercourse in the last 30 days. In addition to recorded home and school address, phones transmitted location data every 5 minutes (path points. Using ArcGIS, we defined community disorder as aggregated point-level Unified Crime Report data within a 200-meter Euclidian buffer from home, school and each path point. Using Stata, we analyzed how exposures to areas of higher crime prevalence differed among girls who reported each behavior or not.Participants lived and spent time in areas with variable crime prevalence within 200 meters of their home, school and path points. Significant differences in exposure occurred based on home location among girls who reported any substance use or not (p 0.04 and sexual intercourse or not (p 0.01. Differences in exposure by school and path points were only significant among girls reporting any substance use or not (p 0.03 and 0.02, respectively. Exposure also varied by school/non-school day as well as time of day.Adolescent travel patterns are not random. Furthermore, the crime context where an adolescent spends time relates to her health-related behavior. These data may guide policy relating to crime control and inform time- and space-specific interventions to improve adolescent health.

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow in children with autism spectrum disorders: a quantitative 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT study with statistical parametric mapping evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-han; JING Jin; XIU Li-juan; CHENG Mu-hua; WANG Xin; BAO Peng; WANG Qing-xiong

    2011-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which include autism, asperger syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood resulting in deficits in social interaction, repetitive patterns of behaviors, and restricted interests and activities. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a common technique used to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Several studies have measured rCBF in children with ASD using SPECT, however, findings are discordant. In addition, the majority of subjects used in these studies were autistic. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in rCBF in children with ASD using SPECT.Methods A Technetium-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (99mTc-ECD) brain SPECT study was performed on an ASD group consisting of 23 children (3 girls and 20 boys; mean age (7.2±3.0) years) who were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-Ⅳ) criteria and an age-matched control group with 8children (1 girl and 7 boys, mean age (5.5±2.4) years). Image data were evaluated with Statistical Parametric Mapping,5th version (SPM5). A Student's t test for unpaired data was used to compare rCBF and asymmetry in the autism and corresponding control group. The covariance analysis, taking age as covariance, was performed between the ASD and control group.Results There was a significant reduction in rCBF in the bilateral frontal lobe (frontal poles, arcula frontal gyrus) and the bilateral basal ganglia in the autism group, and a reduction in the bilateral frontal, temporal, parietal, legumina nucleus and cerebellum in the AS group compared to the control. In addition, asymmetry of hemispheric hypoperfusion in the ASD group was observed. Inner-group comparison analysis revealed that rCBF decreased significantly in the bilateral frontal lobe (42.7%), basal nucleus (24.9%) and temporal lobe (22.8%) in the autism

  5. Child behavior checklist dysregulation profile in children with disruptive behavior disorders: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Pisano, Simone; Milone, Annarita; Muratori, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    A Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) profile defined as Dysregulation Profile (DP) (scores 2 standard deviations or more in anxiety/depression, aggression, attention subscales) has been correlated to poor emotional and behavioral self-regulation. The clinical meaning and the prognostic implications of CBCL-DP are still debated, although it seems associated with severe psychopathology and poor adjustment. In the present study, we used the CBCL-DP score to examine the adolescent outcomes (psychiatric diagnosis, substance use, psychiatric hospitalization) in 80 referred children with disruptive behavior disorders -DBD- (Oppositional Defiant Disorder or conduct disorder), aged 8-9 years, 72 males (90%) and 8 females (10%), followed-up until the age of 14-15 years. Children with higher score on the CBCL-DP profile were at increased risk for presenting ADHD and mood disorders in adolescence. While ADHD in adolescence was predicted also by an ADHD diagnosis during childhood, CBCL-DP score was the only significant predictor of a mood disorder at 14-15 years. On the contrary, CBCL-DP score was not associated with a higher risk of conduct disorder, substance use and hospitalizations in adolescence. A cost-effective and reliable diagnostic measure such as the CBCL may be a part of the diagnostic procedure aimed to capture these at-risk children, to monitor their natural history up to adolescence, and to prevent the risk of a full-blown mood disorder. The small sample size and a selection bias of severe patients with DBD limit the generalization of the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Excessive crying: behavioral and emotional regulation disorder in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Sik Kim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the pediatric literature, excessive crying has been reported solely in association with 3-month colic and is described, if at all, as unexplained crying and fussing during the first 3 months of life. The bouts of crying are generally thought to be triggered by abdominal colic (over-inflation of the still immature gastrointestinal tract, and treatment is prescribed accordingly. According to this line of reasoning, excessive crying is harmless and resolves by the end of the third month without long-term consequences. However, there is evidence that it may cause tremendous distress in the mother&#8211;infant relationship, and can lead to disorders of behavioral and emotional regulation at the toddler stage (such as sleep and feeding disorders, chronic fussiness, excessive clinginess, and temper tantrums. Early treatment of excessive crying focuses on parent&#8211;infant communication, and parent-infant interaction in the context of soothing and settling the infant to sleep is a promising approach that may prevent later behavioral and emotional disorders in infancy.

  7. Impulsivity, aggression and suicidal behavior in unipolar and bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Nader; Baud, Patrick; Mouthon, Dominique; Courtet, Philippe; Malafosse, Alain

    2011-11-01

    Predictors of suicidal behaviors (SB) in bipolar (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) patients are poorly understood. It has been recognized that behavioral dysregulation characterizes SB with traits of impulsivity and aggression being particularly salient. However, little is known about how these traits are segregated among mood disorder patients with and without a history of suicide attempt (SA). This article aims to compare impulsivity and aggression between 143 controls, 138 BD and 186 MDD subjects with or without a history of SA. BD and MDD patients showed higher impulsivity scores (BIS-10 = 57.9 vs. 44.7, p impulsivity helped to distinguish MDD subjects without a history of SA from those with such a history, this was not the case in BD subjects where no difference in impulsive traits was observed between BD without and with history of SA (57.2 vs. 63.2 for BIS-10; p = 0.259). Impulsive and aggressive traits were strongly correlated in suicide attempters (independently of the diagnosis) but not in non-suicide attempters. Dimensional traits were not characterized at different stages of illness. Impulsivity, as a single trait, may be a reliable suicide risk marker in MDD but not in BD patients, and its strong correlation with aggressive traits seems specifically related to SB. Our study therefore suggests that the specific dimension of impulsive aggression should be systematically assessed in mood disorder patients to address properly their suicidal risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypnagogic behavior disorder: complex motor behaviors during wake-sleep transitions in 2 young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María Luz; García-Morales, Irene; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Franch, Oriol

    2008-08-01

    A nondescribed behavioral disorder was observed during wake-sleep transitions in 2 young children. Two boys had episodes of abnormal behavior in hypnagogic-and occasionally hypnopompic-periods for 1 year from the time they were 1 year and several months old. The episodes consisted of irregular body movements, which could be either gentle or violent but never made the children get out of bed. They lasted from a few seconds to 2 hours and were associated with poor reactivity and amnesia of the events. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings showed wake-state features, with brief bursts of hypnagogic hypersynchrony, and did not display seizure activity. A distinctive behavior disorder occurring during wake-sleep transitions with a wake EEG pattern has been identified in very early childhood. The clinical profile does not fit any of the known parasomnias and might belong to a new category of parasomnia.

  9. Effect of cation type and concentration of nitrates on neurological disorders during experimental cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzenkov, V S; Krushinskii, A L; Reutov, V P

    2013-10-01

    Experiments were performed on the model of ischemic stroke due to bilateral occlusion of the carotid arteries. Nitrates had various effects on the dynamics of neurological disorders and mortality rate of Wistar rats, which depended on the cation type and concentration.

  10. Temperamental correlates of disruptive behavior disorders in young children: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V; Violette, Heather; Wrightsman, Jessica; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F

    2002-04-01

    Our objective was to test the hypothesis that temperamental behavioral disinhibition measured in early childhood would be associated with disruptive behavior disorders. We used variables from laboratory-based behavioral observations originally devised to assess behavioral inhibition to construct a theory-based a priori definition of "behavioral disinhibition" in 200 young children at-risk for panic disorder, depression, or both and 84 children of parents without anxiety or major depressive disorder. We then compared behaviorally disinhibited and nonbehaviorally disinhibited children on rates of DSM-III-R disorders and measures of academic and social dysfunction. Behavioral disinhibition was significantly associated with higher rates of disruptive behavior disorders and mood disorders. Children with behavioral disinhibition were significantly more likely than nondisinhibited, noninhibited children to have attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to have comorbid mood and disruptive behavior disorders. Moreover, disinhibited children had lower Global Assessment of Functioning Scale scores and were more likely to have been in special classes and to have problems with school behavior and leisure activities. These results suggest that behavioral disinhibition may represent a temperamental precursor to disruptive behavior problems, particularly ADHD. Longitudinal studies using behavioral assessments of behavioral disinhibition are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. Cognitive behavior therapy for eating disorders versus normalization of eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södersten, P; Bergh, C; Leon, M; Brodin, U; Zandian, M

    2017-05-15

    We examine the science and evidence supporting cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for the treatment of bulimia nervosa and other eating disorders. Recent trials focusing on the abnormal cognitive and emotional aspects of bulimia have reported a remission rate of about 45%, and a relapse rate of about 30% within one year. However, an early CBT trial that emphasized the normalization of eating behavior had a better outcome than treatment that focused on cognitive intervention. In support of this finding, another treatment, that restores a normal eating behavior using mealtime feedback, has an estimated remission rate of about 75% and a relapse rate of about 10% over five years. Moreover, when eating behavior was normalized, cognitive and emotional abnormalities were resolved at remission without cognitive therapy. The critical aspect of the CBT treatment of bulimia nervosa therefore may actually have been the normalization of eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reflections on "A Qualitative Analysis of Mainstreamed Behaviorally Disordered Aggressive Adolescents' Perceptions of Helpful and Unhelpful Teacher Attitudes and Behaviors."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, E. Paula

    1993-01-01

    The author of EC 607 583 responds to questions about her research on mainstreamed behaviorally disordered aggressive adolescents' perceptions of helpful and unhelpful teacher attitudes and behaviors. Issues relevant to future research in this area are noted. (JDD)

  13. Cerebral glucose utilization in pediatric neurological disorders determined by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Kazuhiko; Tohoku Univ., Sendai; Iinuma, Kazuie; Miyabayashi, Shigeaki; Narisawa, Kuniaki; Tada, Keiya; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Tohoku Univ., Sendai; Ito, Masatoshi; Yamada, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    We measured local cerebral glucose utilization in 19 patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LG), partial seizures (PS), atypical and classical phenylketonuria (PKU), Leigh disease, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), using positron emission tomography (PET). The mean values of regional glucose utilization in interictal scans of LG were significantly reduced in all brain regions when compared with that of PS (P<0.005). PET studies of glucose utilization in LG revealed more widespread hypometabolism than in PS. Two sibling with dihydropteridine reductase deficiency, a patient with classical PKU, and a boy with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency showed reduced glucose utilization in the caudate and putamen. A marked decrease in glucose utilization was found in the cortical gray matter of a patient with rapidly progressive SSPE, despite relatively preserved utilization in the caudate and putamen. The PET study of a patient with slowly progressive SSPE revealed patterns and values of glucose utilization similar to those of the control. Thus, PET provided a useful clue toward understanding brain dysfunction in LG, PS, PKU, Leigh disease, and SSPE. (orig.)

  14. Cerebral glucose utilization in pediatric neurological disorders determined by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanai, Kazuhiko; Iinuma, Kazuie; Miyabayashi, Shigeaki; Narisawa, Kuniaki; Tada, Keiya; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ito, Masatoshi; Yamada, Kenji

    1987-09-01

    We measured local cerebral glucose utilization in 19 patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LG), partial seizures (PS), atypical and classical phenylketonuria (PKU), Leigh disease, and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), using positron emission tomography (PET). The mean values of regional glucose utilization in interictal scans of LG were significantly reduced in all brain regions when compared with that of PS (P<0.005). PET studies of glucose utilization in LG revealed more widespread hypometabolism than in PS. Two sibling with dihydropteridine reductase deficiency, a patient with classical PKU, and a boy with cytochrome c oxidase deficiency showed reduced glucose utilization in the caudate and putamen. A marked decrease in glucose utilization was found in the cortical gray matter of a patient with rapidly progressive SSPE, despite relatively preserved utilization in the caudate and putamen. The PET study of a patient with slowly progressive SSPE revealed patterns and values of glucose utilization similar to those of the control. Thus, PET provided a useful clue toward understanding brain dysfunction in LG, PS, PKU, Leigh disease, and SSPE.

  15. Single-photon tomographic determination of regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devous, M.D. Sr.; Rush, A.J.; Schlesser, M.A.; Debus, J.; Raese, J.D.; Chehabi, H.H.; Bonte, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of 133-Xe washout in 29 normal volunteers, 22 unipolar endogenous depressives (UPE), 9 unipolar nonendogenous depressives (UPNE), 13 bipolar depressed patients (BPD), and 14 schizophrenic patients (SCHZ). RCBF was measured 2 and 6 cm above and parallel to the cantho-meatal line and quantitated in 14 gray matter regions. Most subjects were drug-free for 4-14 days. Diagnoses were made by experienced clinicians employing the Research Diagnostic Criteria, the Hamilton Rating Scale, and the dexamethasone suppression test. SCHZ were rated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. UPE had reduced flow compared to normals in the right parietal and temporal lobes and a nonsignificant trend toward left temporal flow reductions. UPNE were not different from normal or other patient groups. BPD had significant flow elevations in the left hemisphere relative to normal, and in both hemispheres relative to UPE. SCHZ were not significantly different from normal or other patient groups. Anterior-posterior flow shifts were evaluated by subtracting parietal or temporal flows from frontal flows. SCHZ demonstrated a greater posterior shift (lower relative frontal lobe flow) in comparison to both UPE and UPNE. The most significant regional flow abnormalities were observed as frontal flow reductions in individual SCHZ, although these were not significant in the whole group in comparison to normal

  16. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Khdour, Hussain Y.; Abushalbaq, Oday M.; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T.; Imam, Aya F.; Gluck, Mark A.; Herzallah, Mohammad M.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of me...

  17. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and behavioral disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemarette-Pittman, Nicole R; Stanford, Matthew S; Greve, Kevin W; Houston, Rebecca J; Mathias, Charles W

    2004-01-01

    Although obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) is an Axis II diagnosis that is not commonly associated with behavioral disinhibition, the literature contains reports of occasional explosive aggressive outbursts. Existing explanations of OCPD etiology do not address the coexistence of compulsive and impulsive features witnessed in some subpopulations of patients. In this study, the authors present a compensatory theory of OCPD in an effort to explain clinical observations of an unexpectedly large number of OCPD diagnoses among patients clinic referred and self-referred for aggression problems.

  18. Cerebral blood flow and metabolic patterns as predictors of response to bilateral anterior capsulotomy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, K.; Babel, B.; Tron, L.; Nemeth, A.; Pataki, E.; Csigo, E.; Morocz, K.; Lukacs, E.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Earlier Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies of patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have demonstrated abnormal regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) and Cerebral Glucose Metabolic (rCGlM) pattern in the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits (OBgThC). OCD is characterized by intrusive, repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors that cause marked distress. In case of a severe, and medically and/or psycho therapeutically intractable disease surgical therapy remains the only possible solution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate rCBF and rCGlM patterns as potential predictors of treatment response to bilateral anterior capsulotomy. We performed rCBF SPECT and rCGlM PET studies in 5 patients with severe, intractable OCD before and after (3, 6 and 12 months) surgical therapy. Methods: The assessment included neurological, psychiatrical examination, CT, MRI, and neuropsychological evaluation. 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT and 18F-FDG-PET studies were carried out with a standard technique for each patient. The data were analyzed visually and by a special region of interests (ROIs) program. The rCBF SPECT and glucose metabolic PET results were compared to clinical and neuropsychological findings. Results: The SPECT and PET measurements showed significant (p<0.05) rCBF and metabolic abnormalities in caudate nuclei, thalamus, singular and orbitofrontal cortex. There was a marked, but individually variable rCBF and rCGlM pattern before and after surgery. Additionally, the preoperative and postoperative rCBF and rCGlM data proved to be concordant with clinical and neuropsychological findings. Conclusion: Both SPECT and PET (before and after surgery) proved to be concordant with clinical and neuropsychological findings. However, rCGlM PET measurements had a higher sensitivity. Patients with higher preoperative rCBF and rCGlM rates of OBgThC circuits were associated with a better postoperative outcome. RCBF

  19. [Vegetative disorders in children with cerebral palsy. Results of an inquiry of parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, M; Bartmann, D; Süreth, H; Steinhausen, D

    1976-08-01

    Many of the disturbances resulting from dysregulations in the autonomous nervous system of children with cerebral palsy are rarely discussed in the doctor's praxis. Nevertheless, they are causes of trouble and worry for the parents. For this reason we started an inquiry into this matter. Questionnaires were sent to the parents of 452 C.P. patients. 374 were answered with sufficient care. The following factors were evaluated: sleep, bladder and bowel activity, temperature regulation, vomiting, sweating, blood circulation, growth. The C.P. children were compared to their own siblings especially to the next younger ones. The diagnoses were as follows: Spastic tetraplegia 197 patients. Spastic hemiplegia 44 patients, Athetosis 33 patients, Mixed cases of spasticity and athetosis 82 patients, Other 15 patients. The degrees of handicap in terms of motor development were: severe (unability to sit unsupported) 166 cases, moderate (unability to kneel or walk unsupported) 118 cases, mild (ability to kneel and/or walk unsupported) 87 cases. Summarized, the statements of the parents gave the following results: sleep disturbances: 169 cases (46%), constipation: 145 cases (39%), tendency towards temperature dysregulation: 112 cases (30%) , tendency towards increased vomiting: 91 cases (25%), sweating increased or decreased: 110 cases (30%), irregular and frequent voiding of bladder: 92 cases (25%), unstable regulation of blood circulation: 101 cases (27%), cold skin: 264 cases (71%), body-length deficit: 119 cases (32%), low-weight: 177 cases (48%), feet too small for age: 252 cases (68%). Results are related to diagnosis and severeness of handicap. In addition, it is discussed, whether there are relations between several of the investigated factors. The influence of the patients sex is discussed.

  20. The Use of a Functional Behavioral Assessment-Based Self Management Intervention for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Saleem A.; Fore, Cecil, III; Jones, Arthur; Smith, Latisha

    2012-01-01

    The research literature on the use of Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA) to develop Behavior Intervention Plans (BIP) for students with emotional/behavioral disorders, who present problem classroom behaviors for use in the schools, is well documented. There are school-wide, district-wide, and state-wide plans that are currently being…

  1. [Behavioral phenotypes of autism spectrum disorder patients and their parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Mingjing; Hu, Xiao; Cai, Jia; Guo, Kuifang; Huang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    To explore the relationship between the behavior phenotypes of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents through family study. Forty-five core families with ASD and 30 control families from Chengdu area were examined using Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis, and Logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the effect of various factors, especially genetic factors that may affect the pathogenesis of ASD. The social skills factor and communication factor of the father's AQ scale, as well as the mother's age of childbearing and AQ social skills factor are related to whether children with ASD (R were 0.46, 0.39, 0.39 and 0.36, Pautism. ASD may be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The autistic behavior phenotype of parents is a risk factor for ASD and is associated with developmental anomalies of early childhood.

  2. [Parkinson Disease With Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by lack of muscle atonia during REM sleep and enactment of dream content. RBD is associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and has high incidence in PD patients. PD patient with RBD mainly presents rigid type, has longer disease duration, more severe motor and non-motor symptoms and poorer activity of daily living and life quality. The pathophysiological mechanisms of RBD may be related to dysfunctions of pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus/sub-locus coeruleus complex and related projections. The diagnosis of RBD depends on clinical histories and video-polysomnography (v-PSG). Besides treatment for PD, protective measures have to be taken for patients and their sleep partners. If abnormal behaviors during sleep cause distress and danger,patients should be given drug therapy.

  3. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have...... recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been...... identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson's disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep-wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement...

  4. The acute effect of methylphenidate on cerebral blood flow in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szobot, Claudia M.; Ketzer, Carla; Kapczinski, Flavio; Cunha, Renato D.; Parente, Maria A.; Langleben, Daniel D.; Acton, Paul D.; Rohde, Luis A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly prescribed treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The therapeutic mechanisms of MPH are not, however, fully understood. We studied the effects of MPH on brain activity in male children and adolescents with ADHD, using the blood flow radiotracer technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The study was randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled (MPH group, n=19; placebo group, n=17), Radiotracer was administered during the performance of the Continuous Performance Test and before and after 4 days of MPH treatment. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) analysis showed a significant reduction in regional cerebral blood flow in the left parietal region in the MPH group compared with the placebo group (P<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Our findings suggest that the posterior attentional system, which includes the parietal cortex, may have a role in the mediation of the therapeutic effects of MPH in ADHD. (orig.)

  5. The acute effect of methylphenidate on cerebral blood flow in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szobot, Claudia M; Ketzer, Carla; Kapczinski, Flavio [Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cunha, Renato D [Service of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (Brazil); Parente, Maria A [Department of Psychology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Langleben, Daniel D [Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Acton, Paul D [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania (United States); Rohde, Luis A.P. [Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Servico de Psiquiatria da Infancia e Adolescencia, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, CEP 90035-003, RS Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2003-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most commonly prescribed treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The therapeutic mechanisms of MPH are not, however, fully understood. We studied the effects of MPH on brain activity in male children and adolescents with ADHD, using the blood flow radiotracer technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The study was randomized, double blind, and placebo controlled (MPH group, n=19; placebo group, n=17), Radiotracer was administered during the performance of the Continuous Performance Test and before and after 4 days of MPH treatment. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM99) analysis showed a significant reduction in regional cerebral blood flow in the left parietal region in the MPH group compared with the placebo group (P<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). Our findings suggest that the posterior attentional system, which includes the parietal cortex, may have a role in the mediation of the therapeutic effects of MPH in ADHD. (orig.)

  6. Using of virtual reality technology in acute cerebral stroke and their influense on post-stroke affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslyuk О.А.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study of virtual reality technology in the rehabilitation of patients with cerebral stroke and influence on post stroke affective disorder. Materials and methods. The study included 88 patients with ischemic stroke: 59 men (67% and 29 women (33%. The average age of the patients was 62,05 ± 11,74 years. In the study group included 46 patients, 44 patients in the control group. The groups were matched by age, time from the begin of disease, severity of disease, the severity of motor, affective and cognitive impairments. In addition, in the study group to the program of early rehabilitation to use individual training with virtual reality technology (BTS NIRVANA. The duration of the training was 21 days, 3 times a week for 40 minutes. Results. On the background of rehabilitation in the study group patients had a significant reduced of neurological deficit (p <0,05. Significantly improved neurodynamic and executive cognitive function (p <0,01. In the study group was a statistically significant decrease symptoms of depression on a scale of BDI was 31,7% vs. 20.9% in the control group, anxiety on a scale of HADS was 18,46% (p <0,05 vs. 12,23% (p <0,05 in the control group. Increase motivation and decrease symptoms of apathy in the study group of patients on a scale of AES-C was 13,78% (p <0,05 vs. 1,01 % in the control group. On the background of rehabilitation patients in the study group was no difference between the rates of pathological muscle and mental fatigue. On the background there is rehabilitation of the quality of life due to mobility and activities of daily living. Conclusion. The study showed the positive effect of virtual reality technology for the correction of post-stroke mood disorders.

  7. Case-control study of six genes asymmetrically expressed in the two cerebral hemispheres: association of BAIAP2 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribasés, Marta; Bosch, Rosa; Hervás, Amaia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disease that persists into adulthood in at least 30% of patients. There is evidence suggesting that abnormal left-right brain asymmetries in ADHD patients may be involved in a variety of ADHD...... results support the participation of BAIAP2 in the continuity of ADHD across life span, at least in some of the populations analyzed, and suggest that genetic factors potentially influencing abnormal cerebral lateralization may be involved in this disorder....

  8. Large animals as potential models of human mental and behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Michał; Danek, Janusz; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2017-12-30

    Many animal models in different species have been developed for mental and behavioral disorders. This review presents large animals (dog, ovine, swine, horse) as potential models of this disorders. The article was based on the researches that were published in the peer-reviewed journals. Aliterature research was carried out using the PubMed database. The above issues were discussed in the several problem groups in accordance with the WHO International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10thRevision (ICD-10), in particular regarding: organic, including symptomatic, disorders; mental disorders (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease, pernicious anemia and hepatic encephalopathy, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease); behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (alcoholic intoxication, abuse of morphine); schizophrenia and other schizotypal disorders (puerperal psychosis); mood (affective) disorders (depressive episode); neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder); behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors (anxiety disorders, anorexia nervosa, narcolepsy); mental retardation (Cohen syndrome, Down syndrome, Hunter syndrome); behavioral and emotional disorders (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). This data indicates many large animal disorders which can be models to examine the above human mental and behavioral disorders.

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Behice ÖZTOP

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.

  10. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel KARAKAYA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However, use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effective method for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhood and adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders of the children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Priority goal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here” fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, which cause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills during therapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training, cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scales specific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should be particularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 10-24

  11. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  12. Common Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Preschool Children: Presentation, Nosology, and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen Link; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    We review recent research on the presentation, nosology and epidemiology of behavioral and emotional psychiatric disorders in preschool children (children ages 2 through 5 years old), focusing on the five most common groups of childhood psychiatric disorders: attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, oppositional defiant and conduct disorders,…

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Patients and Results of Violent Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Oznur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: High levels of anger and aggression in post-traumatic stress disorder lead to unfavorable social, legal, physical and economic results to family members and the other social layers as much as patients. In this study, it is aimed to investigate the relation between both alcohol-cigarette consumption ratios and anger levels, characteristics of aggressive behaviors and the judicial outcome in cases diagnosed post-traumatic stress disorder due to armed conflict. METHODS: 38 cases diagnosed as post-traumatic stress disorder were included to the study. Pre- and post-traumatic alcohol/cigarette consumption amounts and aggressive behaviors are determined. Impact of Events Scale (Revised (IES-R was used for evaluating post-traumatic stress disorder symptom patterns and severity, Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for measuring anger and aggression levels, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rating Scale was used for evaluating the judicial outcome of aggression. RESULTS: 23 of cases (60.6% were married with children, 13 of cases (34.25 were single and 2 of cases (5.2% were divorced.18 of cases (47.4% were graduate. IES-R total score was 66,9 +/- 12,7, Buss Perry total score was 111,3 +/- 20,5, and Taylor and #8217;s Violence Rate was 2,5 +/- 1,0. When the pre- and post-traumatic aggressive behaviors were compared; physical violence to the partner was increased more than ten times, Physical and verbal violence to social individuals were increased more than four and seven times, respectively. And also it is observed that inflicting damage to property was increased 17 times, reckless driving was increased 11 times, and self-mutilation was increased 5 times. Alcohol consumption was determined as 0 (0 - 126 g/day for pre-trauma cases and 16.5 (0 - 294 g/day for post-trauma cases. Cigarette smoking was determined as 5 (0 and #8211; 40 cigarette/day for pre-trauma cases and 30 (0 -60 cigarette/day for post-trauma cases. CONCLUSION: Post

  14. Cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truwit, C.L.; Barkovich, A.J.; Koch, T.; Ferreiro, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews cranial MR findings in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) to clarify and categorize this disorder. The MR images of 40 patients with clinical CP were retrospectively reviewed. All patients suffered either varying spastic plegias, hypotonicity, or choreoathetosis. Concomitantly, the patients suffered from static encephalopathy, developmental delay, and/or microcephaly. Twenty-four patients were born at or near term, 10 were premature, and incomplete birth histories were available in six. The MR images revealed mild to severe degrees of white matter damage in 24 patients (12 term, nine premature, three unknown)

  15. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerys, Benjamin E; Wallace, Gregory L; Sokoloff, Jennifer L; Shook, Devon A; James, Joette D; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2009-12-01

    Recent estimates suggest that 31% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and another 24% of children with ASD exhibit subthreshold clinical ADHD symptoms. Presence of ADHD symptoms in the context of ASD could have a variety of effects on cognition, autistic traits, and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors including: exacerbating core ASD impairments; adding unique impairments specific to ADHD; producing new problems unreported in ASD or ADHD; having no clear impact; or producing some combination of these scenarios. Children with ASD and co-morbid ADHD symptoms (ASD+ADHD; n = 21), children with ASD without ADHD (ASD; n = 28), and a typically developing control group (n = 21) were included in the study; all groups were matched on age, gender-ratio, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Data were collected on verbal and spatial working memory, response inhibition, global executive control (EC), autistic traits, adaptive functioning, and maladaptive behavior problems. In this sample, the presence of ADHD symptoms in ASD exacerbated impairments in EC and adaptive behavior and resulted in higher autistic trait, and externalizing behavior ratings. ADHD symptoms were also associated with greater impairments on a lab measure of verbal working memory. These findings suggest that children with ASD+ADHD symptoms present with exacerbated impairments in some but not all domains of functioning relative to children with ASD, most notably in adaptive behavior and working memory. Therefore, ADHD may moderate the expression of components of the ASD cognitive and behavioral phenotype, but ASD+ADHD may not represent an etiologically distinct phenotype from ASD alone.

  16. Reward deficiency syndrome: genetic aspects of behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comings, D E; Blum, K

    2000-01-01

    added to the list. Like other behavioral disorders, these are polygenically inherited and each gene accounts for only a small per cent of the variance. Techniques such as the Multivariate Analysis of Associations, which simultaneously examine the contribution of multiple genes, hold promise for understanding the genetic make up of polygenic disorders.

  17. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic changes in oculopalatal myoclonus: implication for neural pathways, underlying the disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Moon, So Young; Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    Palatal myoclonus (PM) is characterized by rhythmic involuntary jerky movements of the soft palate of the throat. When associated with eye movements, it is called oculopalatal myoclonus (OPM). Ordinary PM is characterized by hypertrophic olivary degeneration, a trans-synaptic degeneration following loss of neuronal input to the inferior olivary nucleus due to an interruption of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle usually by a hemorrhage. However, the neural pathways underlying the disorder are uncertain. In an attempt to understand the pathologic neural pathways, we examined the metabolic correlates of this tremulous condition. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in 8 patients with OPM (age, 49.9±4.6 y: all males: 7 with pontine hemorrhage, 1 with diffuse brainstem infarction) and age-matched 50 healthy males (age, 50.7± 9.0) and the regional glucose metabolism compared using SPM99. For group analysis, the hemispheres containing lesions were assigned to the right side of the brain. Patients with OPM had significant hypometabolism in the ipsilateral (to the lesion) brainstem and superior temporal and parahippocampal gyri (P < 0.05 corrected, k = 100). By contrast, there was significant hypermetabolism in the contralateral middle and inferior temporal gyri, thalamus, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus (P < 0.05 corrected, k=l00). Our data demonstrate the distinct metabolic changes between several ipsilateral and contralateral brain regions (hypometabolism vs. hypermetabolism) in patients with OPM. This may provide clues for understanding the neural pathways underlying the disorder

  18. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic changes in oculopalatal myoclonus: implication for neural pathways, underlying the disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Moon, So Young; Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Palatal myoclonus (PM) is characterized by rhythmic involuntary jerky movements of the soft palate of the throat. When associated with eye movements, it is called oculopalatal myoclonus (OPM). Ordinary PM is characterized by hypertrophic olivary degeneration, a trans-synaptic degeneration following loss of neuronal input to the inferior olivary nucleus due to an interruption of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle usually by a hemorrhage. However, the neural pathways underlying the disorder are uncertain. In an attempt to understand the pathologic neural pathways, we examined the metabolic correlates of this tremulous condition. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in 8 patients with OPM (age, 49.9{+-}4.6 y: all males: 7 with pontine hemorrhage, 1 with diffuse brainstem infarction) and age-matched 50 healthy males (age, 50.7{+-} 9.0) and the regional glucose metabolism compared using SPM99. For group analysis, the hemispheres containing lesions were assigned to the right side of the brain. Patients with OPM had significant hypometabolism in the ipsilateral (to the lesion) brainstem and superior temporal and parahippocampal gyri (P < 0.05 corrected, k = 100). By contrast, there was significant hypermetabolism in the contralateral middle and inferior temporal gyri, thalamus, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus (P < 0.05 corrected, k=l00). Our data demonstrate the distinct metabolic changes between several ipsilateral and contralateral brain regions (hypometabolism vs. hypermetabolism) in patients with OPM. This may provide clues for understanding the neural pathways underlying the disorder.

  19. Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders in Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Milade Torres Nupan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available AimThe last systematic review of research on the behavior of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 was in 2012. Since then, several important findings have been published. Therefore, the study aim was to synthesize recent relevant work related to this issue.MethodWe conducted a systematic review of the literature. Relevant articles were identified using the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus and a manual search of references lists. Thirty of 156 articles identified met the inclusion criteria. A quality evaluation of the articles was performed and the information was synthesized using a narrative approach.ResultsCompared with controls, children and adolescents with NF1 present significant alterations in language, reading, visuospatial skills, motor function, executive function, attention, behavior, emotion, and social skills. The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is important and can affect cognition and executive function variables. A high prevalence of autistic traits and autistic spectrum disorder were reported. The benefits of using statins to treat cognitive deficits are unclear. However, children with NF1 and ADHD seem to benefit from methylphenidate treatment. The presence of hyperintensities in brain magnetic resonance imaging data seem to be related to poor cognitive performance. Analysis of these lesions could help to predict cognitive alterations in children with NF1.InterpretationThere has been important progress to evaluate cognitive characteristics of children with NF1 and to determine the physiological mechanisms of the concomitant disorders. However, discrepancies in relation to intelligence, learning disabilities, attention deficits, and treatment remain. Further investigations on this topic are recommended.

  20. Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders in Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Nupan, Martha Milade; Velez Van Meerbeke, Alberto; López Cabra, Claudia Alejandra; Herrera Gomez, Paula Marcela

    2017-01-01

    The last systematic review of research on the behavior of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was in 2012. Since then, several important findings have been published. Therefore, the study aim was to synthesize recent relevant work related to this issue. We conducted a systematic review of the literature. Relevant articles were identified using the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus and a manual search of references lists. Thirty of 156 articles identified met the inclusion criteria. A quality evaluation of the articles was performed and the information was synthesized using a narrative approach. Compared with controls, children and adolescents with NF1 present significant alterations in language, reading, visuospatial skills, motor function, executive function, attention, behavior, emotion, and social skills. The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is important and can affect cognition and executive function variables. A high prevalence of autistic traits and autistic spectrum disorder were reported. The benefits of using statins to treat cognitive deficits are unclear. However, children with NF1 and ADHD seem to benefit from methylphenidate treatment. The presence of hyperintensities in brain magnetic resonance imaging data seem to be related to poor cognitive performance. Analysis of these lesions could help to predict cognitive alterations in children with NF1. There has been important progress to evaluate cognitive characteristics of children with NF1 and to determine the physiological mechanisms of the concomitant disorders. However, discrepancies in relation to intelligence, learning disabilities, attention deficits, and treatment remain. Further investigations on this topic are recommended.

  1. Challenging Behaviors in Adults with Intellectual Disability: The Effects of Race and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Tureck, Kimberly; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of challenging behaviors were assessed in 175 adults with intellectual disability (ID) or ID and a comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The relationship between ASD diagnosis, race, and challenging behaviors was assessed using the "Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Adults (ASD-BPA)." Those with ASD and ID were…

  2. Disturbing, Disordered or Disturbed? Perspectives on the Definition of Problem Behavior in Educational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank H., Ed.; Lakin, K. Charlie, Ed.

    The book contains five papers presented at a 1979 topical conference on the definition of emotional disturbance and behavioral disorders in educational settings. The first paper, by F. Wood, is titled "Defining Disturbing, Disordered, and Disturbed Behavior." Topics covered include ambivalence about defining deviant behavior by special educators,…

  3. Exercise preconditioning improves behavioral functions following transient cerebral ischemia induced by 4-vessel occlusion (4-VO) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtan, Mahshid; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Taghipour, Zahra; Taghavi, Mohsen; Khodadadi, Hassan; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2013-12-01

    There is evidence that exercise decreases ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Since behavioral deficits are the main outcome in patients after stroke, our study was designed to investigate whether exercise preconditioning improves the acute behavioral functions and also brain inflammatory injury following cerebral ischemia. Male rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly allocated into five experimental groups. Exercise was performed on a treadmill 30min/day for 3 weeks. Ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion method. Recognition memory was assessed by novel object recognition task (NORT) and step-through passive avoidance task. Sensorimotor function and motor movements were evaluated by adhesive removal test and ledged beam-walking test, respectively. Brain inflammatory injury was evaluated by histological assessment. In NORT, the discrimination ratio was decreased after ischemia (P test, a significant reduction in response latency was observed in the ischemic group. Exercise preconditioning significantly decreased the response latency in the ischemic rats (P test, latency to touch and remove the sticky labels from forepaw was increased following induction of ischemia (all P beam-walking test, the slip ratio was increased following ischemia (P < 0.05).  In the ischemia group, marked neuronal injury in hippocampus was observed. These neuropathological changes were attenuated by exercise preconditioning (P < 0.001). Our results showed that exercise preconditioning improves behavioral functions and maintains more viable cells in the dorsal hippocampus of the ischemic brain.

  4. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  5. Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD

  6. Abnormal Sexual Behavior in an Adult Male with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Raguraman, Janakiraman; Priyadharshini, Kothai R.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Vijaysagar, John

    2004-01-01

    A male patient with homosexual obsession in obsessive compulsive disorder shows a better outcome following a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. This case report emphasizes the importance of combination therapy in obsessive compulsive disorder with abnormal sexual impulses and behavior.

  7. Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with substance use disorder and comorbid ADHD: two case presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Vedel, Ellen; van den Brink, Wim; Schoevers, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for substance use disorder (SUD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are presented illustrating that ICBT is a promising new treatment option

  8. Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with Substance Use Disorder and Comorbid ADHD : Two case presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Vedel, Ellen; van den Brink, Wir; Schoevers, Robert A.

    Two cases of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) for substance use disorder (SUD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are presented illustrating that ICBT is a promising new treatment option. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Implicit attitudes toward eating stimuli differentiate eating disorder and non-eating disorder groups and predict eating disorder behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, April R; Forrest, Lauren N; Velkoff, Elizabeth A; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Franklin, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    The current study tested whether people with and without eating disorders (EDs) varied in their implicit attitudes toward ED-relevant stimuli. Additionally, the study tested whether implicit evaluations of ED-relevant stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors over a 4-week interval. Participants were people without EDs (N = 85) and people seeking treatment for EDs (N = 92). All participants completed self-report questionnaires and a version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) at baseline. The AMP indexed implicit evaluations of average body stimuli, eating stimuli, and ED-symptom stimuli. Participants with EDs completed weekly follow-up measures of ED symptoms and behaviors for 4 weeks. Contrary to predictions, the anorexia nervosa (AN) group did not differ from the no ED group on implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli, and the bulimia nervosa (BN) group had less positive implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli relative to the no ED group. In line with predictions, people with AN and BN had more negative implicit attitudes toward average body and eating stimuli relative to the no ED group. In addition, among the ED group more negative implicit attitudes toward eating stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors 4 weeks later, over and above baseline ED symptoms and behaviors. Taken together, implicit evaluations of eating stimuli differentiated people with AN and BN from people without EDs and longitudinally predicted ED symptoms and behaviors. Interventions that increase implicit liking of eating-related stimuli may reduce ED behaviors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Cerebral Metabolism: Potential Applications in Stroke and Disorders of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Julius Gene S; Schmidt, Elena B

    2015-09-01

    No compound has generated more attention in both the scientific and recently in the political arena as much as cannabinoids. These diverse groups of compounds referred collectively as cannabinoids have both been vilified due to its dramatic and potentially harmful psychotropic effects and glorified due to its equally dramatic and potential application in a number of acute and chronic neurological conditions. Previously illegal to possess, cannabis, the plant where natural form of cannabinoids are derived, is now accepted in a growing number of states for medicinal purpose, and some even for recreational use, increasing opportunities for more scientific experimentation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the growing body of literature on cannabinoids and to present an overview of our current state of knowledge of the human endocannabinoid system in the hope of defining the future of cannabinoids and its potential applications in disorders of the central nervous system, focusing on stroke.

  11. Positron emission tomography assessment of cerebral glucose metabolic rates in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitelman, Serge A; Bralet, Marie-Cecile; Mehmet Haznedar, M; Hollander, Eric; Shihabuddin, Lina; Hazlett, Erin A; Buchsbaum, Monte S

    2018-04-01

    Several models have been proposed to account for observed overlaps in clinical features and genetic predisposition between schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. This study assessed similarities and differences in topological patterns and vectors of glucose metabolism in both disorders in reference to these models. Co-registered 18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET and MRI scans were obtained in 41 schizophrenia, 25 ASD, and 55 healthy control subjects. AFNI was used to map cortical and subcortical regions of interest. Metabolic rates were compared between three diagnostic groups using univariate and multivariate repeated-measures ANOVA. Compared to controls, metabolic rates in schizophrenia subjects were decreased in the frontal lobe, anterior cingulate, superior temporal gyrus, amygdala and medial thalamic nuclei; rates were increased in the occipital cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia and lateral thalamic nuclei. In ASD subjects metabolic rates were decreased in the parietal lobe, frontal premotor and eye-fields areas, and amygdala; rates were increased in the posterior cingulate, occipital cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia. In relation to controls, subjects with ASD and schizophrenia showed opposite changes in metabolic rates in the primary motor and somatosensory cortex, anterior cingulate and hypothalamus; similar changes were found in prefrontal and occipital cortices, inferior parietal lobule, amygdala, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. Schizophrenia and ASD appear to be associated with a similar pattern of metabolic abnormalities in the social brain. Divergent maladaptive trade-offs, as postulated by the diametrical hypothesis of their evolutionary relationship, may involve a more circumscribed set of anterior cingulate, motor and somatosensory regions and the specific cognitive functions they subserve.

  12. Hoarding behavior among young children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah; Stewart, Elyse; Walther, Michael; Benito, Kristen; Freeman, Jennifer; Conelea, Christ; Garci, Abbe

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that among the various subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), adults (e.g. Frost, Krause & Steketee, 1996) and older children and adolescents (Bloch et al., 2009; Storch et al., 2007) with problematic hoarding have distinct features and a poor treatment prognosis. However, there is limited information on the phenomenology and prevalence of hoarding behaviors in young children. The present study characterizes children ages 10 and under who present with OCD and hoarding behaviors. Sixty-eight children received a structured interview-determined diagnosis of OCD. Clinician administered, parent-report, and child-report measures on demographic, symptomatic, and diagnostic variables were completed. Clinician ratings of hoarding symptoms and parent and child endorsement of the hoarding item on the CY-BOCS checklist (Scahill, Riddle, McSwiggin-Hardin, & Ort, 1997) determined inclusion in the hoarding group ( n =33). Compared to children without hoarding symptoms ( n =35), the presence of hoarding symptoms was associated with an earlier age of primary diagnosis onset and a higher proportion of ADHD and provisional anxiety diagnoses. These results are partially consistent with the adult literature and with findings in older children (Storch et al., 2007). Additional data on clinical presentation and phenomenology of hoarding are needed to form a developmentally appropriate definition of the behavior.

  13. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devnani, Preeti; Fernandes, Racheal

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG) while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.

  14. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Devnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.

  15. Repercursões dos transtornos de processamento sensorial ao desempenho funcional de crianças com paralisia cerebral / Repercussions of sensory processing disorders in the functional skills of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyvianne Thayanara de Lima Reis

    2017-07-01

    Function Classifiction System (GMFCS was used as the exclusion criterion. Showed that there are relationships between these dimensions. There was a correspondence between the Functional Pedi with the item emotional / social responses of the Sensory Profile, thus identified possible sensory processing disorders in the functional abilities of children with cerebral palsy. Keywords: Child; Independence; Sensory Threshold; Cerebral Palsy; Occupational therapy. La parálisis cerebral (CP se define como una disfunción neurológica o como una lesión no progresiva en el sistema nervioso central. Es un trastorno del movimiento y la postura con la patología que puede coexistir con déficit de procesamiento sensorial. Pocos estudios muestran la asociación entre este déficit y los cambios en el rendimiento motor. Así, el objetivo de este estudio es conocer el perfil sensorial de los niños con parálisis cerebral y su impacto en el rendimiento funcional en relación con actividades de la vida diária. La metodología consistió en 29 niños con parálisis cerebral con edades comprendidas entre los 3 y 7 años y medio. La recopilación de datos se llevó a cabo a través de los instrumentos "del perfil sensorial" y "Inventario de evaluación Pediátrica de la Discapacidad (PEDI". El Sistema de Classificación de la Función Bruto del motor (GMFCS se utilizó como un criterio de exclusión. Ellos demostraron que existen relaciones entre éstos. Hubo corespondencia entre el elemento funcional PEDI con las respuestas emocionales / sociales del perfil sensorial, así que identifican posibles trastornos del procesamiento sensorial en las capacidades funcionales de los niños con parálisis cerebral.Palabras clave: Niño; la independencia; Los umbrales sensoriales; Parálisis Cerebral; Terapia ocupacional.

  16. [Association between behavioral problems and gastrointestinal disorders among children with autism spectrum disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J; Guo, M; Yang, T; Lai, X; Lei, Y Y; He, M L; Chen, J; Li, T Y

    2017-12-02

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between gastrointestinal disorders (GID) and core symptoms or behavioral problems among the children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) . Method: Totally 328 children with ASD and 202 normal controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from August 2013 to October 2016. The information about the gastrointestinal disorders, behavioral and emotional problems was collected by using questionnaires. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) were used to assess the core symptoms of the children with ASD. Neurodevelopmental status was evaluated with Gesell Developmental Scale (GDS). These variables were analyzed by using student's t -test and chi-square test. Result: The prevalence of GID was significantly higher in the children with ASD than in the normally developing children (49.4% (162/328) vs .25.7% (52/202), χ(2)=29.039, P= 0.000), especially the symptoms of constipation (33.2% (109/328) vs . 13.9% (28/202)), diarrhea (9.5%(31/328) vs . 1.5% (3/202)), nausea and vomiting (9.5% (31/328) vs . 3.5% (7/202)), and foul defecation (16.5% (54/328) vs . 5.0% (10/202)) (all P 0.05). Compared with ASD children without GID ( n =166), the ASD children with GID ( n =162) got higher scores in the "Body and Object Use" of ABC scale ( (16.4±9.3) vs . (12.3±6.7) scores, t= 2.258, P= 0.028), and had more emotional problems (63.6% (103/162) vs . 49.4% (82/166), χ(2)=6.707, P= 0.010). Moreover, the score of behavior problems questionnaire was higher in the ASD children with GID ( (35.3±16.8) vs . (16.1±13.6) scores, t= 5.748, P= 0.000). Conclusion: Children with ASD have higher risk of GID than the normal developing children. While the stereotyped behaviors, problem behaviors and emotional problems are severer in the ASD children with GID. Hence, it is important to provide comprehensive treatment and management for these groups of children.

  17. Cognitive profiles and regional cerebral blood flow changes in individuals with Asperger's disorder and Schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Motoichiro; Hayashi, Mika; Nozaki, Syoko

    2008-01-01

    Described are differences of the profiles and blood flow (CBF) changes in the title between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AD) and Schizophrenia (SZ). Children with AD syndrome have been suggested to have reasoning and fluid intelligence superior to normally developed ones, and to be of cognitive disability for the spatial composition which is thought to reflect the impairment in the right hemisphere. These characteristics are not suggested in SZ. Presented are examinations by authors of 99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD)-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images with Patlak method of 7 AD males (average age 24.4 y), 4 AD females (25.5 y), and 4 males and 2 females with SZ (25.8 y). Image analysis is done by SPM99 (Statistical Parametric Mapping) with standardized brain. Control with the matched age and sex is obtained from database of the normal healthy ones. In AD, clearly lowered CBF is observed in the right lateral and medial parietal lobe and right superior temporal convolution (particularly, in females), and in SZ, in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial regions of frontal lobe of both sides. The finding in the right superior temporal convolution in AD is considered to be important from the aspect of impairment of eye gaze processing. (R.T.)

  18. Psychosis, Mood and Behavioral Disorders in Usher Syndrome: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanico, Daniela; Fragiotta, Serena; Cutini, Alessandro; Grenga, Pier Luigi; Vingolo, Enzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to focus the current knowledge about mental and behavioral disorders in Usher syndrome. Previous studies described the presence of various mental disorders associated with Usher syndrome, suggesting possible mechanisms of association between these disorders. The most common manifestations are schizophrenia-like disorder and psychotic symptoms. Mood and behavioral disorders are rarely described, and often are associated with more complex cases in co-occurrence with other psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies reported diffuse involvement of central nervous system (CNS) in Usher patients, suggesting a possible role of CNS damage in the pathogenesis of psychiatric manifestations. Genetic hypothesis and stress-related theories have also been proposed.

  19. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Characteristics of Comorbidity with Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Steward, Trevor; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has begun to be recognized as a condition worthy of attention by clinicians and researchers. Studies on the commonalities between CBB and other behavioral addictions such as gambling disorder (GD) exist in the literature, but additional research is needed to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of the comorbidity of CBB and GD. The aim of the study was to estimate the point-prevalence of CBB+GD in a clinical setting. Data corresponded to n = 3221 treatment-seeking patients who met criteria for CBB or GD at a public hospital unit specialized in treating behavioral addictions. Three groups were compared: only-CBB (n = 127), only-GD (n = 3118) and comorbid CBB+GD (n = 24). Prevalence for the co-occurrence of CBB+GD was 0.75%. In the stratum of patients with GD, GD+CBB comorbidity obtained relatively low point prevalence (0.77%), while in the subsample of CBB patients the estimated prevalence of comorbid GD was relatively high (18.9%). CBB+GD comorbidity was characterized by lower prevalence of single patients, higher risk of other behavioral addictions (sex, gaming or internet), older age and age of onset. CBB+GD registered a higher proportion of women compared to only-GD (37.5 vs. 10.0%) but a higher proportion of men compared to only-CBB (62.5 vs. 24.4%). Compared to only-GD patients, the simultaneous presence of CBB+GD was associated with increased psychopathology and dysfunctional levels of harm avoidance. This study provides empirical evidence to better understand CBB, GD and their co-occurrence. Future research should help delineate the processes through which people acquire and develop this comorbidity.

  20. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Characteristics of Comorbidity with Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser eGranero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Compulsive buying behavior (CBB has begun to be recognized as a condition worthy of attention by clinicians and researchers. Studies on the commonalities between CBB and other behavioral addictions such as gambling disorder (GD exist in the literature, but additional research is needed to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of the comorbidity of CBB and GD. The aim of the study was to estimate the point-prevalence of CBB+GD in a clinical setting. Data corresponded to n=3,221 treatment-seeking patients who met criteria for CBB or GD at a public hospital unit specialized in treating behavioral addictions. Three groups were compared: only-CBB (n=127, only-GD (n=3,118 and comorbid CBB+GD (n=24. Prevalence for the co-occurrence of CBB+GD was 0.75%. In the stratum of patients with GD, GD+CBB comorbidity obtained relatively low point prevalence (0.77%, while in the subsample of CBB patients the estimated prevalence of comorbid GD was relatively high (18.9%. CBB+GD comorbidity was characterized by lower prevalence of single patients, higher risk of other behavioral addictions (sex, gaming or internet, older age and age of onset. CBB+GD registered a higher proportion of women compared to only-GD (37.5% vs. 10.0% but a higher proportion of men compared to only-CBB (62.5% vs. 24.4%. Compared to only-GD patients, the simultaneous presence of CBB+GD was associated with increased psychopathology and dysfunctional levels of harm avoidance. This study provides empirical evidence to better understand CBB, GD and their co-occurrence. Future research should help delineate the processes through which people acquire and develop this comorbidity.

  1. Rivastigmine for refractory REM behavior disorder in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Valerio; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Lapenta, Leonardo; Mariotti, Paolo; Marra, Camillo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-03-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and REM Behavior Disorder (RBD) are both associated with a degeneration of ponto-medullary cholinergic pathways. We conducted a placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot trial of Rivastigmine (RVT) in 25 consecutive patients with MCI, who presented RBD refractory to conventional first-line treatments (melatonin up to 5 mg/day and clonazepam up to 2 mg/day). RVT treatment was followed by a significant reduction of RBD episodes when compared with placebo. Our data suggest that, in MCI patients with RBD resistant to conventional therapies (muscle relaxants benzodiazepines or melatonin,) treatment with RVT may induce a reduction in the frequency of RBD episodes compared to placebo.

  2. Relationship between regional cerebral perfusion and cognitive disorders in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinhua; Zhao Peiqin; Zhao Yan; Liu Fuyuan; Meng Juanjuan; Chen Huidong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristic rCBF abnormalities and the relationship between rCBF and cognitive disorders in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods: The study subjects were 11 middle aged, glycemic controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Age range of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was 46 - 59 years. Eleven age-, sex-, education- and occupation- matched normal controls (age range 41 - 58 years) were studied under identical conditions. Cognitive functions were evaluated by Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), Trail Marking Test A and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), respectively. 99 Tc m -ECD (ethyl-cysteine ate dimer) SPECT imaging was performed on all patients and normal controls. Results: 1) Cognitive test scores of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were lower than that of normal controls. Diabetic patients were scored lower in memory test than controls (accumulation adding, visual recognition, learning and total memory quotient of WMS, P < 0.05). Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients needed much more time to complete the trail marking test (74.2 s vs. 48.7 s). WCST scores were significantly different between two groups. 2) The rCBF values of frontal, temporal and parietal lobe were decreased significantly in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. 3) For type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, there was a correlation between rCBF values of right frontal lobe and adding, understanding scores of WMS (positively correlated), preservative errors(%) of WCST (negatively correlated). The rCBF values of right temporal lobe were positively correlated with inverted counting. Conclusions: 1) Impairments of central nervous system are existed in glycemic controlled (lack of repeated hypoglycemia) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Abnormalities in CNS can express as cognitive dysfunction, such as decrement of memory, attention, thinking and conceptual reasoning abilities. 2) Hypo-perfusions of frontal, temporal and parietal cortex can be identified in patients of

  3. Behavioral Approach to Assessment of Youth with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders: A Handbook for School-Based Practitioners. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael J., Ed.; Fiedler, Craig R., Ed.

    The 15 chapters in this book address behavioral approaches to the assessment of youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Behavioral Assessment: An Overview" (Catherine Stanger); (2) "Legal and Ethical Issues in the Educational Assessment and Programming for Youth with…

  4. Behavioral activation and inhibition system's role in predicting addictive behaviors of patients with bipolar disorder of Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary.

  5. Comparing Effective Treatments for Attention-Maintained and Escape- Maintained Behaviors in Children with Behavior Disorders: Brief Review and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Worcester; T. F. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    This literature review compares treatment for attention-maintainedversus escape maintained aberrant behavior in children with behavior disorders. Specifically, studies utilizing time out procedures, differential reinforcement procedures, noncontingent reinforcement, and functional communication training are discussed. It was found that these are effective treatments for attention-maintained behaviors; while escape extinction, positive and negative reinforcement, functional communication trai...

  6. [Electromyography Analysis of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Natsuko; Kinoshita, Fumiya; Takada, Hiroki; Nakayama, Meiho

    2018-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG), which records physiological phenomena including brain waves, breathing status, and muscle tonus, is useful for the diagnosis of sleep disorders as a gold standard. However, measurement and analysis are complex for several specific sleep disorders, such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Usually, brain waves during REM sleep indicate an awakening pattern under relaxed conditions of skeletal and antigravity muscles. However, these muscles are activated during REM sleep when patients suffer from RBD. These activated muscle movements during REM, so-called REM without atonia (RWA) recorded by PSG, may be related to a neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease. Thus, careful analysis of RWA is significant not only physically, but also clinically. Commonly, manual viewing measurement analysis of RWA is time-consuming. Therefore, quantitative studies on RWA are rarely reported. A software program, developed from Microsoft Office Excel ® , was used to semiautomatically analyze the RWA ratio extracted from PSG to compare with manual viewing measurement analysis. In addition, a quantitative muscle tonus study was carried out to evaluate the effect of medication on RBD patients. Using this new software program, we were able to analyze RWA on the same cases in approximately 15 min as compared with 60 min in the manual viewing measurement analysis. This software program can not only quantify RWA easily but also identify RWA waves for either phasic or tonic bursts. We consider that this software program will support physicians and scientists in their future research on RBD. We are planning to offer this software program for free to physicians and scientists.

  7. Effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (LIBT) supplementing regular treatment in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) standardized tests of cognition, adaptive behavior, interpersonal relations, play, language,

  8. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-12-01

    Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions.

  9. The effect of comorbid major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder on cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracalanza, Katie; McCabe, Randi E; Taylor, Valerie H; Antony, Martin M

    2014-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) commonly co-occur in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD), yet whether these comorbidities influence the outcomes of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for SAD is unclear. The present study examined the degree to which individuals with SAD and comorbid MDD (SAD+MDD; n=76), comorbid BD (SAD+BD; n=19), a comorbid anxiety disorder (SAD+ANX; n=27), or no comorbid diagnoses (SAD+NCO; n=41) benefitted from CBT for SAD. Individuals were screened using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and then completed the Social Phobia Inventory and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales before and after 12-weeks of group CBT for SAD. At pretreatment the SAD+MDD and SAD+BD groups reported higher social anxiety symptoms than the SAD+ANX and SAD+NCO groups. All groups reported large and significant improvement in social anxiety with CBT. However, at posttreatment the SAD+MDD and SAD+BD groups continued to have higher social anxiety symptoms than the SAD+NCO group, and the SAD+ANX group did not differ in social anxiety symptoms from any group. The sample also showed small and statistically significant improvement in depressive symptoms with CBT for SAD. Information about medication was not collected in the present study, and we did not assess the long-term effects of CBT. Our results suggest that CBT for SAD is an effective treatment even in the presence of comorbid mood disorders in the short-term, although extending the course of treatment may be helpful for this population and should be investigated in future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  11. Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based s...

  12. Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Tenback, Diederik E.; Quekel, Lorentz G. B. A.; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Boot, Annemieke M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of antipsychotic (AP) treatment and AP-induced hyperprolactinemia on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). Design: Physically healthy 10- to

  13. The relationship between types and severity of repetitive behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigated which categories of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without tics are experienced as most severe across the study groups and what the differences are in symptom

  14. Maternal drinking behavior and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in adolescents with criminal behavior in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Momino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal alcohol exposure can have serious and permanent adverse effects. The developing brain is the most vulnerable organ to the insults of prenatal alcohol exposure. A behavioral phenotype of prenatal alcohol exposure including conduct disorders is also described. This study on a sample of Brazilian adolescents convicted for criminal behavior aimed to evaluate possible clinical features of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS. These were compared to a control group of school adolescents, as well as tested for other environmental risk factors for antisocial behavior. A sample of 262 institutionalized male adolescents due to criminal behavior and 154 male students aged between 13 and 21 years comprised the study population. Maternal use of alcohol was admitted by 48.8% of the mothers of institutionalized adolescents and by 39.9% of the school students. In this sample of adolescents we could not identify -individual cases with a clear diagnosis of FAS, but signs suggestive of FASD were more common in the institutionalized adolescents. Social factors like domestic and family violence were frequent in the risk group, this also being associated to maternal drinking during pregnancy. The inference is that in our sample, criminal behavior is more related to complex interactions between environmental and social issues including prenatal alcohol exposure.

  15. Learned Helplessness and Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Deprivation in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; Singh, Nirbhay N.

    2004-01-01

    Students with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) are characterized by academic deficits and classroom behavioral problems. The relationship between problem behavior and academic difficulties is complex, and some researchers have hypothesized that the classroom behavior problems of students with E/BD are responses to aversive stimuli, namely…

  16. Effects of interactive games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    AlSaif, Amer A.; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Motor control and muscle strength impairments are the prime reasons for motor behavior disorders in children with spastic cerebral palsy. These impairments lead to histological changes in muscle growth and the learning of motor skills. Therefore, such children experience reduced muscle force generation and decreased muscle flexibility. We investigated the effect of training with Nintendo Wii Fit games on motor performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Method...

  17. Visual and SPM analysis of regional cerebral perfusion with Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with developmental language disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Lee, Myung Hoon; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young

    2003-01-01

    Developmental language disorder (DLD) refers to inadequate language acquisition at the expected age in children with otherwise normal development. However, language delay can be observed in patients with other developmental disoder (ODD). We, therefore, evaluated regional cerebral perfusion pattern in patients with DLD and ODD by means of visual and SPM analysis. Twelve patients, who underwent Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT within 3 weeks of their first visit, were included in the study. Psychological and language tests classified the patients into 2 groups ; 6 with DLD (3-7 yr, 5 male and I female) and 6 with ODD (2-6 yr, 6 male). Visual analysis for regional cerebral perfusion was done in each patient. SPM with 7 controls (age=7) was performed to evaluate difference between 2 groups using t-test. P value of less than 0.005 was considered to be significant. All patients had significant language delay for their age (9 month 3.5 yr). Among 6 patients with ODD, 4 had pervasive developmental disorder, 1 mental retardation and 1 attachment disorder. Visual analysis revealed significant perfusion decrease in only 1 patient with DLD and 2 with ODD ; the regions were left parieto-temporal cortex, both frontal and cerebellar cortices, and right temporal cortex respectively. Nine of 12 patients showed normal perfusion. SPM demonstrated perfusion decrease in left inferior frontal cortex and left superior parietal cortex (Wernicke's area) in patients with DLD, while, in patients with ODD, perfusion decrease was mostly located in the right hemisphere (lateral frontoorbital gyrus, occipitotemporal gyrus, cuneus and cerebellum). Corpus callosum showed no significant perfusion abnormality in both groups. Regional cerebral perfusion of patients with DLD, which was mainly located in the speech area, is quite different from that of ODD-patients with language delay. While SPM successfully revealed this difference in perfusion pattern, visual analysis had limited value

  18. Visual and SPM analysis of regional cerebral perfusion with Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in patients with developmental language disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; Lee, Myung Hoon; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Eun Young [College of Medicine, Univ. of Ajou, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Developmental language disorder (DLD) refers to inadequate language acquisition at the expected age in children with otherwise normal development. However, language delay can be observed in patients with other developmental disoder (ODD). We, therefore, evaluated regional cerebral perfusion pattern in patients with DLD and ODD by means of visual and SPM analysis. Twelve patients, who underwent Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT within 3 weeks of their first visit, were included in the study. Psychological and language tests classified the patients into 2 groups ; 6 with DLD (3-7 yr, 5 male and I female) and 6 with ODD (2-6 yr, 6 male). Visual analysis for regional cerebral perfusion was done in each patient. SPM with 7 controls (age=7) was performed to evaluate difference between 2 groups using t-test. P value of less than 0.005 was considered to be significant. All patients had significant language delay for their age (9 month 3.5 yr). Among 6 patients with ODD, 4 had pervasive developmental disorder, 1 mental retardation and 1 attachment disorder. Visual analysis revealed significant perfusion decrease in only 1 patient with DLD and 2 with ODD ; the regions were left parieto-temporal cortex, both frontal and cerebellar cortices, and right temporal cortex respectively. Nine of 12 patients showed normal perfusion. SPM demonstrated perfusion decrease in left inferior frontal cortex and left superior parietal cortex (Wernicke's area) in patients with DLD, while, in patients with ODD, perfusion decrease was mostly located in the right hemisphere (lateral frontoorbital gyrus, occipitotemporal gyrus, cuneus and cerebellum). Corpus callosum showed no significant perfusion abnormality in both groups. Regional cerebral perfusion of patients with DLD, which was mainly located in the speech area, is quite different from that of ODD-patients with language delay. While SPM successfully revealed this difference in perfusion pattern, visual analysis had limited value.

  19. Familial clustering of epilepsy and behavioral disorders: Evidence for a shared genetic basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C.; Caplan, Rochelle; Berg, Anne T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether family history of unprovoked seizures is associated with behavioral disorders in epilepsy probands, thereby supporting the hypothesis of shared underlying genetic susceptibility to these disorders. Methods We conducted an analysis of the 308 probands with childhood onset epilepsy from the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy with information on first degree family history of unprovoked seizures and of febrile seizures whose parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at the 9-year follow-up. Clinical cut-offs for CBCL problem and DSM-Oriented scales were examined. The association between first degree family history of unprovoked seizure and behavioral disorders was assessed separately in uncomplicated and complicated epilepsy and separately for first degree family history of febrile seizures. A subanalysis, accounting for the tendency for behavioral disorders to run in families, adjusted for siblings with the same disorder as the proband. Prevalence ratios were used to describe the associations. Key findings In probands with uncomplicated epilepsy, first degree family history of unprovoked seizure was significantly associated with clinical cut-offs for Total Problems and Internalizing Disorders. Among Internalizing Disorders, clinical cut-offs for Withdrawn/Depressed, and DSM-Oriented scales for Affective Disorder and Anxiety Disorder were significantly associated with family history of unprovoked seizures. Clinical cut-offs for Aggressive Behavior and Delinquent Behavior, and DSM-Oriented scales for Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder were significantly associated with family history of unprovoked seizure. Adjustment for siblings with the same disorder revealed significant associations for the relationship between first degree family history of unprovoked seizure and Total Problems and Agressive Behavior in probands with uncomplicated epilepsy; marginally significant results were seen for Internalizing Disorder

  20. Video Game Access, Parental Rules, and Problem Behavior: A Study of Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Mazurek, Micah O.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to…

  1. Suicidal Behavior Among Inpatients with Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders in Chengdu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Wu, Qiu-Hua; Conwell, Yeates; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the characteristics of suicidal behavior (suicide attempt or suicidal ideation) among 230 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia and mood disorders in a university hospital in China. The rate of lifetime suicidal behavior was found to be significantly higher in patients with mood disorders (62.4%) than in…

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  3. Description of an Intensive Dialectical Behavior Therapy Program for Multidiagnostic Clients with Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Anita; Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe an intensive outpatient dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) program for multidiagnostic clients with eating disorders who had not responded adequately to standard, empirically supported treatments for eating disorders. The program integrates DBT with empirically supported cognitive behavior therapy approaches that are well…

  4. Are sedentary television watching and computer use behaviors associated with anxiety and depressive disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Leonore; van Straten, Annemieke; Lamers, Femke; Cuijpers, Pim; Penninx, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Sedentary behaviors may be more common among persons with mental disorders and thereby result in poorer health outcomes. This study examined whether independently of general physical activity level, mental disorders are linked to two important examples of sedentary behavior: computer use and

  5. Overweight and Obese Status in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Kristen K.; Sharp, William G.; McCracken, Courtney E.; De Vinck-Baroody, Oana; Dong, Liansai; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Eugene Arnold, L.; Weitzman, Carol; Leventhal, John M.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Scahill, Lawrence

    2018-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are common in pediatric populations. Children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior may be at higher risk. This study examined whether children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior are more likely to be overweight or obese than matched controls. Baseline data from medication-free children…

  6. Child and Adolescent Behaviorally Based Disorders: A Critical Review of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…

  7. A classification of psychological factors leading to violent behavior in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J A; Derecho, D V; Leong, G B; Weinstock, R; Ferrari, M M

    2001-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder has long been linked to violent behavior. However, the exact nature of that association remains poorly characterized due to the limitations of knowledge in the area of phenomenology, contextual factors, the biology, and the nature of the aggression involved in the disorder. A clear understanding of the genesis of violence in posttraumatic stress disorder can be helpful to those involved in assessing psychiatric-legal issues relevant to the disorder and in its therapeutic management. In this article, we review the potential psychological links between posttraumatic stress disorder secondary to combat exposure and violent behavior and suggest a tentative classification of the main psychological causes of violence in that syndrome.

  8. Brain MRI and single photon emission computed tomography in severe athetotic cerebral palsy. A comparative study with mental and motor disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Tsuzura, Shigenobu; Matsuda, Hiroshi.

    1995-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) was performed in twelve patients with severe athetotic cerebral palsy (Ath; 5 males and 7 females) who had both motor delay (unable to move) and mental retardation (I.Q, or D.Q, below 30). The neuroimaging findings of those patients were compared with those of patients mental and motor disorders. In five caes suffering from neonatal asphyxia, SPECT demonstrated a decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in corpus striatum, thalamus, orbitofrontal areas, pericentral gyrus areas, prefrontal areas and medial temporal areas. In seven cases suffering from neonatal jaundice, SPECT demonstrated a decreased rCBF in orbito-frontal areas, prefrontal areas and medial temporal areas. SPECT showed hypoperfusion of peri-central gyrus areas in cases with complications of spastic palsy. The decreased rCBF in medial temporal areas mostly corresponded to an alteration in hippocampal formation as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cases with hypoperfusion of bilateral medial temporal areas showed a lower score of language understanding than those with the unilateral damage. In cases with hypofusion of bilateral prefrontal areas and bilateral medial temporal areas, the grade of understanding of language was almost below 12 months. In cases with hypoperfusion of orbitofrontal areas, psychomotor hypersensitivity had been observed. Those results suggest that IMP-SPECT and MRI of the brain is useful tool for neurological assessment in handicapped patients with athetotic cerebral palsy. (author)

  9. Brain MRI and single photon emission computed tomography in severe athetotic cerebral palsy. A comparative study with mental and motor disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Tsuzura, Shigenobu [Metropolitan Medical Center of the Severely Handicapped, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi

    1995-07-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]-iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) was performed in twelve patients with severe athetotic cerebral palsy (Ath; 5 males and 7 females) who had both motor delay (unable to move) and mental retardation (I.Q, or D.Q, below 30). The neuroimaging findings of those patients were compared with those of patients mental and motor disorders. In five caes suffering from neonatal asphyxia, SPECT demonstrated a decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in corpus striatum, thalamus, orbitofrontal areas, pericentral gyrus areas, prefrontal areas and medial temporal areas. In seven cases suffering from neonatal jaundice, SPECT demonstrated a decreased rCBF in orbito-frontal areas, prefrontal areas and medial temporal areas. SPECT showed hypoperfusion of peri-central gyrus areas in cases with complications of spastic palsy. The decreased rCBF in medial temporal areas mostly corresponded to an alteration in hippocampal formation as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cases with hypoperfusion of bilateral medial temporal areas showed a lower score of language understanding than those with the unilateral damage. In cases with hypofusion of bilateral prefrontal areas and bilateral medial temporal areas, the grade of understanding of language was almost below 12 months. In cases with hypoperfusion of orbitofrontal areas, psychomotor hypersensitivity had been observed. Those results suggest that IMP-SPECT and MRI of the brain is useful tool for neurological assessment in handicapped patients with athetotic cerebral palsy. (author).

  10. Dopamine transporter imaging in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Kim, Jong Min; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The pathogenesis of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is still unknown. However, involvement of dopaminergic system in RBD has been hypothesized because of frequent association with degenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent and pattern of loss of dopamine transporter in RBD using FP-CIT SPECT. Fourteen patient with idiopathic RBD (mean age:665 yrs, M:F=10:3) participated in this study. Polysonmography confirmed loss of REM atonia and determined RBD severities by amount of tonic/phasic muscle activity during REM sleep in all cases. To compare with RBD, 14 early idiopathic Parkinson's disease rated as Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 (IPD) and 12 healthy controls were also selected. All participants performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging 3 hours after injection of [123I]FP-CIT. Regions of interest were drawn on bilateral caudate and putamen, whole striatum and occipital cortex. Specific binding for dopamine transporters (DAT) were calculated using region to occipital uptake ratio based on the transient equilibrium method. Overall mean of DAT density in the striatum was lower in RBD group than controls, and higher than IPD group, However, DAT density in most individual RBD was still within normal range, and total striatal DAT density was not correlated with severity of RBD. Meanwhile, the caudate to putamen uptake ratio (C/P ratio) in RBD group was insignificantly higher than those in healthy controls. Nevertheless, C/P ratio within RBD group was reversely correlated with the RBD severity. Our study suggested that nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration could be a part of the pathogenesis of RBD, but not essential for the development of RBD. Further longitudinal evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system in idiopathic RBD may guarantee the more understanding for RBD and associated neurodegenerative disease.

  11. Dopamine transporter imaging in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yoon, In Young; Kim, Jong Min; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    The pathogenesis of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is still unknown. However, involvement of dopaminergic system in RBD has been hypothesized because of frequent association with degenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent and pattern of loss of dopamine transporter in RBD using FP-CIT SPECT. Fourteen patient with idiopathic RBD (mean age:665 yrs, M:F=10:3) participated in this study. Polysonmography confirmed loss of REM atonia and determined RBD severities by amount of tonic/phasic muscle activity during REM sleep in all cases. To compare with RBD, 14 early idiopathic Parkinson's disease rated as Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 (IPD) and 12 healthy controls were also selected. All participants performed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging 3 hours after injection of [123I]FP-CIT. Regions of interest were drawn on bilateral caudate and putamen, whole striatum and occipital cortex. Specific binding for dopamine transporters (DAT) were calculated using region to occipital uptake ratio based on the transient equilibrium method. Overall mean of DAT density in the striatum was lower in RBD group than controls, and higher than IPD group, However, DAT density in most individual RBD was still within normal range, and total striatal DAT density was not correlated with severity of RBD. Meanwhile, the caudate to putamen uptake ratio (C/P ratio) in RBD group was insignificantly higher than those in healthy controls. Nevertheless, C/P ratio within RBD group was reversely correlated with the RBD severity. Our study suggested that nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration could be a part of the pathogenesis of RBD, but not essential for the development of RBD. Further longitudinal evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system in idiopathic RBD may guarantee the more understanding for RBD and associated neurodegenerative disease

  12. [Psychological Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Oriented Therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Sofia; Barrocas, Daniel; Rijo, Daniel

    2017-04-28

    Borderline personality disorder is the most common personality disorder, with a global prevalence rate between 1.6% and 6%. It is characterized by affective disturbance and impulsivity, which lead to a high number of self-harm behaviors and great amount of health services use. International guidelines recommend psychotherapy as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder. This paper reviews evidence about the effects and efficacy of cognitive-behavioral oriented psychological treatments for borderline personality disorder. A literature review was conducted in Medline and PubMed databases, using the following keywords: borderline personality disorder, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and efficacy. Sixteen randomized clinical trials were evaluate in this review, which analyzed the effects of several cognitive-behavioral oriented psychotherapeutic interventions, namely dialectical behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, schema-focused therapy and manual-assisted cognitive therapy. All above stated treatments showed clinical beneficial effects, by reducing borderline personality disorder core pathology and associated general psychopathology, as well as by reducing the severity and frequency of self-harm behaviors, and by improving the overall social, interpersonal and global adjustment. Dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy also caused a soaring remission rate of diagnostic borderline personality disorder criteria of 57% and 94%, respectively. Although there were differences between the psychotherapeutic interventions analysed in this review, all showed clinical benefits in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Dialectical behavioral therapy and schema-focused therapy presented the strongest scientific data documenting their efficacy, but both interventions are integrative cognitive-behavioral therapies which deviate from the traditional cognitive-behavioral model. In summary, the available studies support

  13. What is the current practice of therapists in the measurement of somatosensation in children with cerebral palsy and other neurological disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Corrin; Taylor, Susan; Parkins, Timothy; Carey, Leeanne; Girdler, Sonya; Elliott, Catherine

    2018-04-01

    Somatosensation is the ability to detect and recognise body sensations such as touch, vibration, pressure, pain, temperature and proprioception. Cerebral palsy is a neurological disorder that is often accompanied by impairments in somatosensation. Current somatosensory assessments have limited psychometrics established for use with these children. The aim of this study was to identify therapists' current practice and perspectives related to the assessment of somatosensation in children with neurological disorders. A cross-sectional questionnaire was used to identify the somatosensory assessments currently used in clinical practice, time allocated to assessment, and therapists' satisfaction and confidence using the available assessments of somatosensation. The questionnaire was adapted from a previously utilised questionnaire that identified therapists' use of somatosensory assessments with adults post-stroke. A total of 135 therapists responded to the questionnaire. Seventy-nine (92%) occupational therapists and 44 (89.7%) physiotherapists indicated that they currently assessed or treated children with somatosensory deficits. Sixty-four (82.1%) occupational therapists and 38 (86.3%) physiotherapists regarded assessment of somatosensation in children with neurological disorders as important to very important. However, only seven (8.8%) occupational therapists and seven (15.9%) physiotherapists reported confidence in their ability to do so. The methods with which therapists detect and measure somatosensory impairment in children with neurological disorders are variable, with non-standardised and/or informal assessments most frequently used. Despite there being recommendations of best practice for the assessment of specific domains of somatosensation in children with cerebral palsy, current practice does not yet mirror these recommendations. Additionally, therapists have low satisfaction and confidence with what they are currently using, highlighting the need for a

  14. Cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following various cerebral diseases, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Masao; Anno, Izumi; Yano, Yuhiko; Anno, Yasuro.

    1980-01-01

    Patients having cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following hypoglycemia, cerebral contusion, or cerebral hypoxia including cerebrovascular disorders were reported. Description was made as to cerebral changes visualized on CT images and clinical courses of a patient who revived 10 minutes after heart stoppage during neurosurgery, a newborn with asphyxia, a patient with hypoglycemia, a patient who suffered from asphyxia by an accident 10 years before, a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning at an acute stage, a patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning 10 years before, a patient with diffuse cerebral ischemic changes, a patient with cerebral edema around metastatic tumor, a patient with respiration brain, a patient with neurological sequelae after cerebral contusion, a patient who had an operation to excise right parietal lobe artery malformation, and a patient who was shooted by a machine gun and had a lead in the brain for 34 years. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder as Behavior Technicians for Young Children with Autism: Outcomes of a Behavioral Skills Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In…

  16. Barriers and facilitators of obesity management in families of youth with emotional and behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Katelynn A; McKibbin, Christine L; Hartung, Cynthia M; Bartholomew, Kay L; Lee, Aaron A; Stevens, Anne E; Buxton, Yvette; Slosser, Andrea E; Andren, Katherine A Kitchen

    2017-09-01

    While youth with emotional and behavioral disorders experience increased rates of obesity, few obesity interventions exist that are tailored to their needs. Qualitative methods were employed to elucidate obesity management practices in this population. In all, 56 participants (i.e. 21 youths with emotional and behavioral disorders, 20 caregivers of youth with emotional and behavioral disorders, and 15 mental health providers) were recruited from community mental health centers. Participants completed a demographic form and semi-structured interview regarding obesity-related behaviors. Barriers (e.g. psychiatric symptoms) and facilitators (e.g. social support) to obesity management were identified. These results highlight preferred intervention components for this unique population.

  17. Losing control: assaultive behavior as a predictor of impulse control disorders in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Eric; Odlaug, Brian L; Lust, Katherine; Christenson, Gary; Derbyshire, Katherine; Grant, Jon E

    2014-11-01

    Assaultive behaviors are common among young people and have been associated with a range of other unhealthy, impulsive behaviors such as substance use and problem gambling. This study sought to determine the predictive ability of single assaultive incidents for impulse control disorders, an association that has yet to be examined, especially in young adults. The authors conducted a university-wide email survey in the spring of 2011 on 6000 university students. The survey examined assaultive behavior and associated mental health variables (using a clinically validated screening instrument, the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview), stress and mood states, and psychosocial functioning. The rate of response was 35.1% (n=2108). 109 (5.9%) participants reported that they had assaulted another person or destroyed property at some time in their lives. Compared with respondents without lifetime assaultive behavior, those with a history of assaultive or destructive behavior reported more depressive symptoms, more stress, and higher rates of a range of impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, compulsive buying, and skin picking disorder). Assaultive behavior appears fairly common among college students and is associated with symptoms of depression and impulse control disorders. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that assaultive behaviors may often be associated with significant morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for young adults attending college who report problems with assaultive behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differentiating children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, learning disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders by means of their motor behavior characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N=22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N=17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N=24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N=20). Physical education teachers used the MBC for children to rate their pupils based on their motor related behaviors. A multivariate analysis revealed significant differences among the groups on different problem scales. The results indicated that the MBC for children may be effective in discriminating children with similar disruptive behaviors (e.g., ADHD, CD) and autistic disorders, based on their motor behavior characteristics, but not children with Learning Disabilities (LD), when used by physical education teachers in school settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Autistic-spectrum disorders in Down syndrome: further delineation and distinction from other behavioral abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John C; Capone, George T; Gray, Robert M; Cox, Christiane S; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2007-01-05

    The present study extends our previous work characterizing the behavioral features of autistic-spectrum disorder (ASD) in Down syndrome (DS) using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and Autism Behavior Checklist (AutBehav). We examined which specific behaviors distinguished the behavioral phenotype of DS + ASD from other aberrant behavior disorders in DS, by determining the relative contribution of ABC and AutBehav subscales and items to the diagnosis of ASD. A total of 127 subjects (aged 2-24 years; mean age: 8.4 years; approximately 70% male), comprising: a cohort of 64 children and adolescents with DS and co-morbid ASD (DS + ASD), 19 with DS and stereotypic movement disorder (DS + SMD), 18 with DS and disruptive behaviors (DS + DB), and 26 with DS and no co-morbid behavior disorders (DS + none) were examined using the aforementioned measures of aberrant behavior. We found that subjects with DS + ASD showed the most severe aberrant behavior, especially stereotypy compared to DS + none and lethargy/social withdrawal and relating problems compared to DS + SMD. Specifically, relatively simple stereotypic behavior differentiated DS + ASD from DS + DB, whereas odd/bizarre stereotypic and anxious behavior characterized DS + ASD relative to DS + SMD and DS + none. Additionally, in a subset of subjects with DS + ASD and anxiety, social withdrawal was particularly pronounced. Overall, our findings indicate that a diagnosis of DS + ASD represents a distinctive set of aberrant behaviors marked by characteristic odd/bizarre stereotypic behavior, anxiety, and social withdrawal.

  20. Bipolar disorder affects behavior and social skills on the Internet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Martini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN. RESULTS: SNN (p<0.001 and FBN (p = 0.036 of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021, Internet experience (p = 0.020, and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042. Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation, including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018 and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media.

  1. Bipolar disorder affects behavior and social skills on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Thaís; Czepielewski, Letícia Sanguinetti; Fijtman, Adam; Sodré, Leonardo; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pereira, Caroline Silveira; Vianna-Sulzbach, Mireia; Goi, Pedro D; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro; Kapczinski, Flavio; Kunz, Maurício; Kauer-Sant'anna, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN) and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN). SNN (pInternet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021), Internet experience (p = 0.020), and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042). Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation), including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018) and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010). This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media.

  2. Assessment of cerebral benzodiazepine receptor distribution in anxiety disorders by 123I-iomazenil-SPECT. Comparison to cerebral perfusion scintigraphy by 123I-IMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Mayuki; Sue, Hironari; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Mori, Yutaka; Kawakami, Kenji

    1997-01-01

    123 I-Iomazenil ( 123 I-IMZ) and 123 I-IMP imaging were performed in 5 patients with anxiety disorder (PAD) and 6 normal volunteers (NV). On 123 I-IMZ delayed imaging, the 2 PAD showed abnormally decreased findings. In anxiety disorder, decreased accumulation on 123 I-IMZ delayed images was seen in left hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus in one patient, in right frontal and temporal lobe and left occipital pole in the other. Compared with NV, PAD had lower 123 I-IMZ uptake on delayed image in right upper and left lower frontal cortices, indicating the involvement of the benzodiazepine receptor complex in anxiety disorder. Compared with grading for anxiety disorder with Hamilton anxiety scale (HAS) and delayed to early count ratios of 123 I-IMZ, negative correlation (R 123 I-IMP image, positive correlation (R>0.7) was recognized in the hippocampus, the parahippocampal gyrus, the lower outer temporal cortex and the lower frontal cortex. (author)

  3. Assessment of cerebral benzodiazepine receptor distribution in anxiety disorders by {sup 123}I-iomazenil-SPECT. Comparison to cerebral perfusion scintigraphy by {sup 123}I-IMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Mayuki; Sue, Hironari; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Mori, Yutaka; Kawakami, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-01-01

    {sup 123}I-Iomazenil ({sup 123}I-IMZ) and {sup 123}I-IMP imaging were performed in 5 patients with anxiety disorder (PAD) and 6 normal volunteers (NV). On {sup 123}I-IMZ delayed imaging, the 2 PAD showed abnormally decreased findings. In anxiety disorder, decreased accumulation on {sup 123}I-IMZ delayed images was seen in left hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus in one patient, in right frontal and temporal lobe and left occipital pole in the other. Compared with NV, PAD had lower {sup 123}I-IMZ uptake on delayed image in right upper and left lower frontal cortices, indicating the involvement of the benzodiazepine receptor complex in anxiety disorder. Compared with grading for anxiety disorder with Hamilton anxiety scale (HAS) and delayed to early count ratios of {sup 123}I-IMZ, negative correlation (R<-0.7) was recognized hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, frontal and occipital cortices. Compared between HAS and the count ratio to the cerebellum on {sup 123}I-IMP image, positive correlation (R>0.7) was recognized in the hippocampus, the parahippocampal gyrus, the lower outer temporal cortex and the lower frontal cortex. (author)

  4. Behavioral activation and inhibition system's role in predicting addictive behaviors of patients with bipolar disorder of Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hasan; Pirani, Zabih; Vatandoust, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, prevalence of addictive behaviors among bipolar patients is considered to be a serious health threat by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of behavioral activation and inhibition systems in predicting addictive behaviors of male patients with bipolar disorder at the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. Materials and Methods: The research method used in this study is correlation. The study population consisted of 80 male patients with bipolar disorder referring to the psychiatrics clinics of Tehran city in 2014 who were referred to the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. To collect data, the international and comprehensive inventory diagnostic interview, behavioral activation and inhibition systems scale, and addictive behaviors scale were used. Results: The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between behavioral activation systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, television addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction, etc.). In addition, correlation between behavioral inhibition systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, TV addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction) is significantly negative. Finally, regression analysis showed that behavioral activation and inhibition systems could significantly predict 47% of addictive behaviors in patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusions: It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary. PMID:28194203

  5. Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Behaviors in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder with and without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder versus Several Comparison Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    We compared disruptive behaviors in boys with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plus ADHD (n = 74), chronic multiple tic disorder plus ADHD (n = 47), ADHD Only (n = 59), or ASD Only (n = 107). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 including parent- (n = 168) and teacher-rated (n = 173)…

  6. Risk behaviors for eating disorder: factors associated in adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Evidence shows that the prevalence of risk behaviors for eating disorders (RBED among young people has increased in recent years. Body dissatisfaction, excessive exercise, body composition, economic status, and ethnicity may be risk factors for RBED. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise, body fat, nutritional status, economic class, and ethnicity with RBED in adolescents. METHOD: This study included 562 boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess RBED. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to measure body dissatisfaction and commitment to exercise, respectively. Skin fold thickness was measured to classify body fat according to sex. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index (BMI and classify participants according to nutritional status. The economic class was recorded according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criterion. A questionnaire was used to record ethnicity, age and sex. Binary logistic regression was used to determine associations between variables. RESULTS: The results showed an association of RBED with body dissatisfaction, CES scores, and economic class among girls (p < 0.05. Among boys, body dissatisfaction, body fat, and nutritional status were associated with RBED (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Even though body dissatisfaction had the highest odds ratio, other variables were also associated with RBED.

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder by Proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L; Mothi, Suraj Sarvode; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-07-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing or impairing preoccupation with a perceived defect in physical appearance. BDD by proxy (BDDBP) is a significant but understudied variant of BDD in which the primary preoccupation involves perceived imperfections of another person. Like BDD, individuals with BDDBP engage in time-consuming rituals to "fix" the other person's appearance or alleviate distress. Avoidance is common and the impact of BDDBP on social functioning is profound. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best-studied and most promising psychological treatment for BDD, but no studies have examined its generalizability to the BDDBP variant. We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome of CBT modified for BDDBP in a sample of 6 adults with primary BDDBP. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 12-20weeks. Mean symptom severity (BDDBP-YBOCS) dropped from the moderately severe range at pretreatment to the subclinical range at posttreatment, t(6)=10.7, p<.001, d=3.3. One hundred percent of treatment completers were responders (≥30% reduction in BDDBP-YBOCS). Insight also improved. Treatment gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. To our knowledge, this represents the first treatment study for BDDBP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Sleepiness in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Neutel, Dulce; Herlin, Bastien; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Cochen de Cock, Valérie; Vidailhet, Marie

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether patients with idiopathic and symptomatic RBD were sleepier than controls, and if sleepiness in idiopathic RBD predicted earlier conversion to Parkinson disease. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and its determinants were compared at the time of a video-polysomnography for an RBD diagnosis in patients with idiopathic RBD, in patients with Parkinson disease, and in controls. Whether sleepiness at time of RBD diagnosis predicted an earlier conversion to neurodegenerative diseases was retrospectively analyzed in the followed-up patients. The 75 patients with idiopathic RBD were sleepier (ESS: 7.8 ± 4.6) at the time of RBD diagnosis than 74 age- and sex-matched controls (ESS: 5.0 ± 3.6, P sleep measures. Among the 69 patients with idiopathic RBD who were followed up for a median 3 years (1-15 years), 16 (23.2%) developed parkinsonism (n = 6), dementia (n = 6), dementia plus parkinsonism (n = 2), and multiple system atrophy (n = 2). An ESS greater than 8 at time of RBD diagnosis predicted a shorter time to phenoconversion to parkinsonism and dementia, from RBD onset, and from RBD diagnosis (when adjusted for age and time between RBD onset and diagnosis). Sleepiness is associated with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and predicts more rapid conversion to parkinsonism and dementia, suggesting it is an early marker of neuronal loss in brainstem arousal systems. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Abnormal metabolic network activity in REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtbernd, Florian; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ron B; Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chris C; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Vendette, Mélanie; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Eidelberg, David; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2014-02-18

    To determine whether the Parkinson disease-related covariance pattern (PDRP) expression is abnormally increased in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and whether increased baseline activity is associated with greater individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion. For this cohort study, we recruited 2 groups of RBD and control subjects. Cohort 1 comprised 10 subjects with RBD (63.5 ± 9.4 years old) and 10 healthy volunteers (62.7 ± 8.6 years old) who underwent resting-state metabolic brain imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Cohort 2 comprised 17 subjects with RBD (68.9 ± 4.8 years old) and 17 healthy volunteers (66.6 ± 6.0 years old) who underwent resting brain perfusion imaging with ethylcysteinate dimer SPECT. The latter group was followed clinically for 4.6 ± 2.5 years by investigators blinded to the imaging results. PDRP expression was measured in both RBD groups and compared with corresponding control values. PDRP expression was elevated in both groups of subjects with RBD (cohort 1: p abnormalities in subjects with idiopathic RBD are associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent phenoconversion to a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome.

  10. Neural correlates of behavior therapy for Tourette's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C; Carlson, Lindsay E; Reese, Hannah E; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L; Dougherty, Darin D; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-12-30

    Tourette's disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann's area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavior Therapy for Tic Disorders: An Evidenced-based Review and New Directions for Treatment Research

    OpenAIRE

    McGuire, Joseph F.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Piacentini, John; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.; Lewin, Adam B.

    2015-01-01

    Behavior therapy is an evidenced-based intervention with moderate-to-large treatment effects in reducing tic symptom severity among individuals with Persistent Tic Disorders (PTDs) and Tourette’s Disorder (TD). This review describes the behavioral treatment model for tics, delineates components of evidence-based behavior therapy for tics, and reviews the empirical support among randomized controlled trials for individuals with PTDs or TD. Additionally, this review discusses several challenges...

  12. Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia severity, Gross Motor, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification scales in childhood hyperkinetic movement disorders including cerebral palsy: a 'Rosetta Stone' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Markus C; Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Baker, Lesley; Lumsden, Daniel E; Hutton, Jane L; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M

    2016-02-01

    Hyperkinetic movement disorders (HMDs) can be assessed using impairment-based scales or functional classifications. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-movement (BFM-M) evaluates dystonia impairment, but may not reflect functional ability. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) are widely used in the literature on cerebral palsy to classify functional ability, but not in childhood movement disorders. We explore the concordance of these three functional scales in a large sample of paediatric HMDs and the impact of dystonia severity on these scales. Children with HMDs (n=161; median age 10y 3mo, range 2y 6mo-21y) were assessed using the BFM-M, GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS from 2007 to 2013. This cross-sectional study contrasts the information provided by these scales. All four scales were strongly associated (all Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rs >0.72, pdisorders including cerebral palsy can be effectively evaluated using these scales. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Does impaired socioemotional functioning account for behavioral dysexecutive disorders? Evidence from a transnosological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narme, Pauline; Roussel, Martine; Mouras, Harold; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral dysexecutive disorders are highly prevalent in patients with neurological diseases but cannot be explained by cognitive dysexecutive impairments. In fact, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Given that socioemotional functioning underlies appropriate behavior, socioemotional impairments may contribute to the appearance of behavioral disorders. To investigate this issue, we performed a transnosological study. Seventy-five patients suffering from various neurological diseases (Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and stroke) were included in the study. The patients were comprehensively assessed in terms of cognitive and behavioral dysexecutive disorders and socioemotional processes (facial emotion recognition and theory of mind). As was seen for cognitive and behavioral dysexecutive impairments, the prevalence of socioemotional impairments varied according to the diagnosis. Stepwise logistic regressions showed that (i) only cognitive executive indices predicted hypoactivity with apathy/abulia, (ii) theory of mind impairments predicted hyperactivity-distractibility-impulsivity and stereotyped/perseverative behaviors, and (iii) impaired facial emotion recognition predicted social behavior disorders. Several dysexecutive behavioral disorders are associated with an underlying impairment in socioemotional processes but not with cognitive indices of executive functioning (except for apathy). These results strongly suggest that some dysexecutive behavioral disorders are the outward signs of an underlying impairment in socioemotional processes.

  14. Maternal Parenting Behavior and Child Behavior Problems in Families of Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Boonen, Hannah; Lambrechts, Greet; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face specific challenges in parenting, but concrete parenting behavior has never been properly investigated in these families. This exploratory questionnaire study compared parenting behaviors among mothers of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 552) and without ASD (n = 437) and examined…

  15. Using Behavioral Parent Training to Treat Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Young Children: A How-to Approach Using Video Clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Burrell, T. Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the application of a behavioral parent training program, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), in the treatment of behavior disorders in young children. PCIT is unique in that it works with both the child and parent in treatment and it focuses on improving the parent-child relationship as a means to improving parent and…

  16. Effects of an Interdependent Group Contingency on the Transition Behavior of Middle School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Renee O.; Haydon, Todd; McCoy, Dacia; Howard, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    An ABAB design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an interdependent group contingency with randomized components to improve the transition behavior of middle school students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBDs) served in an alternative educational setting. The intervention was implemented by one teacher with three…

  17. REM sleep behavior disorder: association with motor complications and impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Jeon, Beom S; Yang, Hui-Jun; Ehm, Gwanhee; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Kim, Jong-Min

    2014-10-01

    Clinical phenotypes such as old age, longer disease duration, motor disability, akineto-rigid type, dementia and hallucinations are known to be associated with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the relationship between motor fluctuations/impulse control and related behaviors (ICRB) and RBD is not clear. We designed this study to elucidate the clinical manifestations associated with RBD to determine the implications of RBD in PD. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 994 patients with PD were interviewed to determine the presence of RBD and their associated clinical features including motor complications and ICRB. Of the 944 patients, 578 (61.2%) had clinical RBD. When comparing the clinical features between patients with RBD (RBD group) and without RBD (non-RBD group), older age, longer disease duration, higher Hoehn and Yahr stage (H&Y stage), higher levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD), and the existence of wearing off, dyskinesia, freezing, and ICRB, especially punding, were associated with the RBD group compared to the non-RBD group (P < .05 in all). Multivariate analysis showed that motor complications including wearing off, peak dose dyskinesia, and diphasic dyskinesia were the only relevant factors for RBD after adjusting for age and disease duration. Motor complications and ICRB are more frequent in patients with RBD than in patients without RBD. In addition, motor complications are related to RBD even after adjusting for age and disease duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tokgunaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107

  19. Predictors of Broad Dimensions of Psychopathology among Patients with Panic Disorder after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei Ogawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many patients with panic disorder meet criteria for at least one other diagnosis, most commonly other anxiety or mood disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the best empirically supported psychotherapy for panic disorder. There is now evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder yields positive benefits upon comorbid disorders. Objectives. The present study aimed to examine the predictors of broad dimensions of psychopathology in panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. Methods. Two hundred patients affected by panic disorder were treated with manualized group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We examined if the baseline personality dimensions of NEO Five Factor Index predicted the subscales of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at endpoint using multiple regression analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Results. Conscientiousness score of NEO Five Factor Index at baseline was a predictor of four Symptom Checklist-90 Revised subscales including obsessive-compulsive (β=-0.15, P<0.01, depression (β=-0.13, P<0.05, phobic anxiety (β=-0.15, P<0.05, and Global Severity Index (β=-0.13, P<0.05. Conclusion. Conscientiousness at baseline may predict several dimensions of psychopathology in patients with panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. For the purpose of improving a wide range of psychiatric symptoms with patients affected by panic disorder, it may be useful to pay more attention to this personal trait at baseline.

  20. BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER IN THE MEDICAL SETTING: Suggestive Behaviors, Syndromes, and Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a personality dysfunction that is characterized by disinhibition and impulsivity, which oftentimes manifest as self-regulation difficulties. Patients with this disorder have always been present in medical settings, but have been described as "difficult patients" rather than patients with borderline personality disorder. According to empirical findings, a number of behaviors and medical syndromes/diagnoses are suggestive of borderline personality disorder. Suggestive behaviors in the medical setting may include aggressive or disruptive behaviors, the intentional sabotage of medical care, and excessive healthcare utilization. Suggestive medical syndromes and diagnoses in the medical setting may include alcohol and substance misuse (including the abuse of prescription medications), multiple somatic complaints, chronic pain, obesity, sexual impulsivity, and hair pulling. While not all-inclusive or diagnostic, these behaviors and syndromes/diagnoses may invite further clinical evaluation of the patient for borderline personality disorder.

  1. Is increased sexual behavior a symptom of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Stewart; Bell, Robinette; Graff, Adam; Goldenberg, David; Haase, Elizabeth; Downey, Jennifer I; Friedman, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    While there is consensus that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents, its diagnostic criteria are debated. Excessive sexual behavior has been reported in youth who may have juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD), and has been termed "hypersexuality." Although there is no universal definition of this term, this observation has led to a hypothesis that increased sexual behavior characterizes the bipolar syndrome in children and adolescents, and differentiates it from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although this hypothesis is plausible, evidence for it is incomplete, because testing it definitively would require both establishing a standard definition of hypersexuality in children and adolescents, and also reaching consensus about the other nonsexual criteria for pediatric bipolar disorder. In addition, studies to test it would need to control factors other than JBD that are known to increase sexual behavior in children and adolescents. These include sexual abuse and related posttraumatic stress disorder, excessive exposure to sexual stimuli, psychiatric illness in general, and social variables such as family chaos and social stress. Some of these factors might increase sexual behavior in youth with bipolar disorder through psychodynamic mechanisms rather than as a result of the illness itself. Therefore, further research is needed to determine whether increased sexual behavior can serve as a diagnostically valuable criterion for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, and whether it differentiates the disorder from other conditions known to be associated with increased sexual behavior in youth.

  2. Re-examination of chewing and spitting behavior: characteristics within and across eating disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Nora E; Swanson, Sonja A; Crow, Scott J; Mitchell, James; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Chewing and spitting (CS) out food is a relatively understudied eating disorder behavior. The aim of this study was to examine lifetime and current frequencies of CS across eating disorder diagnostic groups and to compare the severity of eating disorder symptomatology between participants who did and did not endorse CS. A total of 972 individuals presenting for outpatient eating disorder treatment between 1985 and 1996 completed a questionnaire that included items regarding current and lifetime eating disorder behaviors, including CS. Results indicated that both lifetime and current prevalence estimates of CS varied cross-diagnostically, with CS being more common among those with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa compared to those with eating disorder not otherwise specified. CS was significantly associated with several eating disorder symptoms, including compensatory behaviors, meal restriction, and lower BMI. Those who reported CS were also younger in age compared to those who did not report CS. These findings indicate that CS is associated with more severe eating and weight pathology and is not equally prevalent across eating disorder diagnoses. These results also support the relatively high occurrence of CS and the importance of targeting this behavior in eating disorder treatment. Future research should clarify the correlates, mechanisms, and function of CS in eating disorders.

  3. [Comparison of attachment-related social behaviors in autistic disorder and developmental disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Devrim; Pehlivantürk, Berna; Unal, Fatih; Ozusta, Seniz

    2009-01-01

    This study examined social behaviors related to attachment in children with autistic disorder and the differences in these behaviors from those observed in developmentally disabled children. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the relationship between attachment behaviors and clinical variables, such as age, cognitive development, severity of autism, language development, and mothers' attachment styles. The study group consisted of 19 children with autistic disorder (mean age: 37.9 +/- 6.8 months) and the control group consisted of 18 developmentally disabled children without autistic disorder that were matched with respect to age, gender, and cognitive development. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was administered to all the children by two child psychiatrists. Mothers completed the Relationships Scale Questionnaire (RSQ). Cognitive development of the children was assessed with the Stanford-Binet intelligence scale. Attachment behaviors of the children were evaluated with a modified Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Attachment behaviors in the children with autistic disorder and in the children with developmental disabilities were similar. In contrast to the developmentally disabled group, the children with autistic disorder stayed closer toward their mothers compared with their responses to strangers. In the autistic disorder group, attachment behaviors were not associated with age, intelligence quotient, or mothers' attachment styles; however, a significant relationship between the severity of autism and the presence of speech was observed. Parents' understanding of the attachment needs and the attachment behaviors of their autistic children in the early stages of the disorder may lead to more secure attachment relationships and improved social development.

  4. The relationship between self-injurious behavior and self-disclosure in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Shellac, Evia; Hadas, Arik; Berger, Uri; Horwitz, Mira; Fennig, Silvana

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association between self disclosure and self-injurious behaviors among adolescent patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Sixty three female patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of eating disorders were included (i.e. anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified). Participants' age ranged from 11.5 to 20 years (M = 15.42, SD = 1.82). Participants completed self- report questionnaires about eating disorders, self-disclosure, self-injurious behaviors (FASM) and depression (BDI-II) RESULTS: 82.5% of the sample endorsed severe self-injurious behaviors. A moderate negative relationship was found between general disclosure to parents and self-injurious behaviors indicating that patients who generally self-disclose to their parents (on different topics, apart from suicidal ideation) engage less frequently in self-injurious behaviors. In addition, the more patients self-disclose their suicidal ideation to others, the more they tend to self-injure. Self-disclosure to parents on any topic may buffer against self-injurious behaviors and therefore it is important to work with adolescents suffering from eating disorders on effective self disclosure. In addition, self-disclosure about suicidal ideation to others by adolescents suffering from eating disorders should always be taken seriously, since it may be related to self-injurious behaviors.

  5. ADad 9: Suicidal behavior in Anxiety Disorders among adolescents in a rural community population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar; Nair, M K C; Chandra, Abhiram; Subramaniam, Vinod Shanmukham; Bincymol, K; George, Babu; Samuel, Beulah

    2013-11-01

    The risk of suicidal behavior associated with Anxiety Disorders (AD) among adolescents is known. However, concurrent mood disorders complicate these findings, and no data is available from India as well as from the community. This study aimed to address the suicidal risk associated with AD from different perspectives. The authors prospectively collected data for 500 adolescents in a community with independent, trained raters. Risk for suicidal behavior was measured with SADPERSONS scale, socio-economic status with Modified Kuppuswamy Scale, depression and anxiety disorders with Beck Depression Inventory and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders respectively. The relationship between predictors and need for preventive action was analyzed with univariate and multivariate regression analyses and a predictive model was built. Suicidal behavior was increased by the presence of AD (adjusted OR = 6.28), the number of co-morbid AD (adjusted OR = 2.04), severity of the AD (adjusted OR = 4.98). Being a boy increased the risk of suicidal behavior associated with AD (adjusted OR = 9.37), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (adjusted OR = 5.65), Separation Anxiety Disorder (unadjusted OR = 3.28), Social Anxiety Disorder (unadjusted OR = 5.91) while controlling for the confounding effect of Depressive Disorder. Gender did not have an influence on Panic Disorder. Presence of AD and co-morbid Depressive Disorder significantly contributed to a risk model for suicidal behavior. Anxiety Disorder is associated with the risk for potential suicidal behavior. Adolescent boys with AD and Depressive Disorder need to be identified as the high risk group for suicide prevention in the community.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: cerebral cavernous malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Cavernous Malformations Disease InfoSearch: Cerebral Cavernous Malformation ...

  7. Maladaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Emotion Experience and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Lee, Ihno A.; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive behavior is common in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the factors that give rise to maladaptive behavior in this context are not well understood. The present study examined the role of emotion experience and emotion regulation in maladaptive behavior in individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) participants.…

  8. Academic Competence and Social Adjustment of Boys with Learning Disabilities and Boys with Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Malka

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of 31 elementary grade boys with learning disabilities and 52 boys with behavior disorders who either did or did not also display hyperactive behavior found significant differences between groups on the Classroom Behavior Inventory in three areas: Hostility versus Consideration, Extroversion versus Introversion, and Independence versus…

  9. Evolution of Research on Interventions for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Behavior Analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram

    2012-01-01

    The extraordinary success of behavior-analytic interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has fueled the rapid growth of behavior analysis as a profession. One reason for this success is that for many years behavior analysts were virtually alone in conducting programmatic ASD intervention research. However, that era has…

  10. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  11. Skills Practice in Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Suicidal Women Meeting Criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenboim, Noam; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2007-01-01

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based practice for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and suicidal behavior that has been replicated with a variety of populations. Patients' practice of behavioral skills taught in the group skills training component of DBT may be partly responsible for the positive treatment outcomes according…

  12. Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2013-01-01

    While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…

  13. Pervasive developmental disorder behavior in adolescents with intellectual disability and co-occurring somatic chronic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior.

  14. Communication Disorders and Challenging Behaviors: Supporting Children's Functional Communication Goals in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Katy

    2017-01-01

    Children with communication disorders may express frustrations through challenging behaviors such as aggressive behaviors and social withdrawal. Challenging behaviors may lead to difficulties with building social competencies including emotional regulation and peer engagement. Individualized planning of functional goals for children with…

  15. Comparison of Sedentary Behaviors between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah M.; Curtin, Carol; Anderson, Sarah E.; Maslin, Melissa; Lividini, Keith; Bandini, Linda G.

    2014-01-01

    Time spent in sedentary behavior is largely due to time spent engaged with electronic screen media. Little is known about the extent to which sedentary behaviors for children with autism spectrum disorder differ from typically developing children. We used parental report to assess and compare time spent in sedentary behaviors for 53 children with…

  16. Behavioral Treatment of Conversion Disorder in Adolescence: A Case Example of Globus Hystericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Thevenin, Deborah M.; Runyon, Melissa K.

    1997-01-01

    Using a case study, evaluates the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for the treatment of a patient diagnosed with a conversion disorder characterized by a perceived lump in the throat and subsequent weight loss. Results indicate that the behavioral therapy procedures contributed to increased weight and improved eating behavior. (RJM)

  17. Impact of sequential disorder on the scaling behavior of airplane boarding time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Yongjoo; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2013-05-01

    Airplane boarding process is an example where disorder properties of the system are relevant to the emergence of universality classes. Based on a simple model, we present a systematic analysis of finite-size effects in boarding time, and propose a comprehensive view of the role of sequential disorder in the scaling behavior of boarding time against the plane size. Using numerical simulations and mathematical arguments, we find how the scaling behavior depends on the number of seat columns and the range of sequential disorder. Our results show that new scaling exponents can arise as disorder is localized to varying extents.

  18. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon effectively treats insomnia and behavioral symptoms in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  19. Optimization behavior of brainstem respiratory neurons. A cerebral neural network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, C S

    1991-01-01

    A recent model of respiratory control suggested that the steady-state respiratory responses to CO2 and exercise may be governed by an optimal control law in the brainstem respiratory neurons. It was not certain, however, whether such complex optimization behavior could be accomplished by a realistic biological neural network. To test this hypothesis, we developed a hybrid computer-neural model in which the dynamics of the lung, brain and other tissue compartments were simulated on a digital computer. Mimicking the "controller" was a human subject who pedalled on a bicycle with varying speed (analog of ventilatory output) with a view to minimize an analog signal of the total cost of breathing (chemical and mechanical) which was computed interactively and displayed on an oscilloscope. In this manner, the visuomotor cortex served as a proxy (homolog) of the brainstem respiratory neurons in the model. Results in 4 subjects showed a linear steady-state ventilatory CO2 response to arterial PCO2 during simulated CO2 inhalation and a nearly isocapnic steady-state response during simulated exercise. Thus, neural optimization is a plausible mechanism for respiratory control during exercise and can be achieved by a neural network with cognitive computational ability without the need for an exercise stimulus.

  20. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  1. [Child behavior disorder : clinical reasoning in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacenelenbogen, N

    2017-01-01

    in Belgium 70 % of the children aged 0 - 14 years have at least one annual contact with their family doctor, while for the same period, only 6 - 12 % of them will see a neuropaediatrician and/or a child psychiatrist, despite the fact that a diagnostic of Externalizing behavior before the age of 6 to 7 years, such as various ways of aggressiveness, of anger or of stealing will very often alert the family, the staff of creches or nursery as well as the teachers. Other children are showing signs of Internalizing behavior, very often together with depression or other forms of anxiety. considering the role and the skills of the family doctor, the target is to propose a clinical approach adapted to the first line practitioner having to face the majority of complaints about the behaviour of a child younger than 10 years. bibliographic research. The research equations were used on the data base TRIP DATA BASE, Cochrane Library, PUBMED and Google Scholar (EN/FR), searching, bare exception, the literature of the last five years. Moreover, the sites of the Haute Autorité Française (HAS), Société Scientifique de Médecine Générale (SSMG), Centre d'Expertise en Soins de Santé (KCE), Institut Scientifique en Santé Publique (ISSP) and of the DSM V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) were consulted too. the age of the child, his social and family environment will guide the family doctor and in the majority of cases, he will be able to reassure the family. Moreover, when in front of any problem within the family life it should be advisable to inquire about the health of the children in question, especially from a behavioural point of view. To the opposite, when a child is showing TEC or TIC, it is important to inquire about circumstances in his environment that might potentially be at the origin of (or contributing to) the troubles. the challenge the family doctor is facing is to be able in a consultation of 15-30 minutes to make the difference between

  2. Binge Eating Disorder and Bipolar Spectrum disorders in obesity: Psychopathological and eating behaviors differences according to comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Garcia, Cristina; Caroleo, Mariarita; Rania, Marianna; Barbuto, Elvira; Sinopoli, Flora; Aloi, Matteo; Arturi, Franco; De Fazio, Pasquale

    2017-01-15

    Obesity is not a mental disorder, yet DSM-5 recognizes a strong association between obesity and psychiatric syndromes. Disorders within the Bipolar Spectrum (BSD) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED) are the most frequent psychiatric disorders among obese patients. The aim of this research is to investigate the psychopathological differences and the distinctive eating behaviors that accompany these comorbidities in obese patients. One hundred and nineteen obese patients (40 males; 79 females) underwent psychological evaluation and psychiatric interview, and a dietitian evaluated their eating habits. Patients were divided into four groups according to comorbidities, and comparisons were run accordingly. Forty-one percent of participants presented BED+BSD comorbidity (Group 1), 21% BED (Group 2) and 8% BSD (Group 3); only 29% obese participants had no comorbidity (Group 4). Female gender was overrepresented among Groups 1 and 2. BSD diagnosis varied according to comorbidities: Type II Bipolar Disorder and Other Specified and Related Bipolar Disorder (OSR BD) were more frequent in Group 1 and Type I Bipolar Disorder in Group 3. A trend of decreasing severity in eating behaviors and psychopathology was evident according to comorbidities (Group 1=Group2>Group3>Group 4). Limitations include the small sample size and the cross-sectional design of the study. BED and BSD are frequent comorbidities in obesity. Type II Bipolar Disorder and OSR BD are more frequent in the group with double comorbidity. The double comorbidity seems associated to more severe eating behaviors and psychopathology. Distinctive pathological eating behaviors could be considered as warning signals, symptomatic of psychiatric comorbidities in Obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Natalia; Postuma, Ronald B; Montplaisir, Jacques; Latreille, Véronique; Panisset, Michel; Chouinard, Sylvain; Bourgouin, Pierre-Alexandre; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2017-08-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia affecting 33% to 46% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The existence of a unique and specific impaired cognitive profile in PD patients with RBD is still controversial. We extensively assessed cognitive functions to identify whether RBD is associated with more severe cognitive deficits in nondemented patients with PD. One hundred sixty-two participants, including 53 PD patients with RBD, 40 PD patients without RBD, and 69 healthy subjects, underwent polysomnography, a neurological assessment and an extensive neuropsychological exam to assess attention, executive functions, episodic learning and memory, visuospatial abilities, and language. PD patients with RBD had poorer and clinically impaired performance in several cognitive tests compared to PD patients without RBD and healthy subjects. These two latter groups were similar on all cognitive measures. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis frequency was almost threefold higher in PD patients with RBD compared to PD patients without RBD (66% vs. 23%, p < .001). Moreover, subjective cognitive decline was reported in 89% of PD patients with RBD compared to 58% of PD patients without RBD (p = .024). RBD in PD is associated with a more impaired cognitive profile and higher MCI diagnosis frequency, suggesting more severe and widespread neurodegeneration. This patient subgroup and their caregivers should receive targeted medical attention to better detect and monitor impairment and to enable the development of management interventions for cognitive decline and its consequences. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Effects of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Social Anxiety Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Chen; Meng, Ya-Jing; Yuan, Min-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ru; Ren, Zheng-Jia; Qiu, Chang-Jian; Zhang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) on social anxiety disorders (SAD). A total of 50 patients with SAD were recruited in this study. A survey containing the Liebowitz social anxiety scale (LSAS),the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ),the fear of negative evaluation questionnaire (FNE),the social support rating scale (SSRS),the tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ),and the egna minnen barndoms uppfostran (EMBU) was administered before and (one week) after the GCBT,including in the 50 healthy controls. About 21 patients completed the eight-week GCBT (once a week,2 h a session). Follow-up surveys were conducted on 40 patients (22 patients treated with GCBT and 18 untreated) over a 1-5 year period. Significant differences were found between the SAD patients and healthy controls in thinking mode,personality characteristics,social support,parental rearing styles,and social anxiety symptoms. Significant decrease in social anxiety symptom ( t =4.06, P =0.000) , negative automatic thoughts ( t =4.58, P =0.000) and fear for rejection ( t =3.85, P =0.000) were observed after the GCBT therapy. Such improvement was positively correlated with subjective social support ( r =0.361, P =0.022) ,and negatively correlated with rejection of father ( r =-0.431, P =0.005) . There was also statistical difference between the patients with and without the GCBT therapy ( P =0.033) . GCBT treatment can relieve SAD symptoms by changing the negative cognitive of SAD patients. Social support and rejection of father affects the prognosis of SAD.

  5. Risperidone in the treatment of behavioral disorders associated with autism in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto; Scandurra, Valeria

    2008-08-01

    This is a review of the clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The main clinical characteristics are impairment in social skills, communication difficulties, repetitive movements and behaviors, including stereotypies. Pharmacotherapy is mainly directed at the so-called target symptoms, ie, behavioral disorders and the various kinds of repetitions associated with ASD. According to the available data, risperidone seems to be moderately efficacious and safe for treating behavioral disorders. 4 double blind controlled trial. 3 reanalysis studies, and 12 open studies have documented the role of risperidone in children with ASD. Controlled studies have been thoroughly considered in this review.

  6. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective, and behavioral parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations, appraisals, and behaviors of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 mothers who were not anxious [NONANX] and 44 mothers with a current anxiety disorder [ANX]) when interacting with their 7-12-year-old children. There were no observed differences in anxiety and avoidance among children of ANX and NONANX mothers, but, compared with NONANX mothers, ANX mothers held more negative expectations, and they differed on observations of intrusiveness, expressed anxiety, warmth, and the quality of the relationship. Associations were moderated by the degree to which children expressed anxiety during the tasks. Maternal-reported negative emotions during the task significantly mediated the association between maternal anxiety status and the observed quality of the relationship. These findings suggest that maternal anxiety disorder is associated with reduced tolerance of children's negative emotions. This may interfere with the maintenance of a positive, supportive mother-child interaction under conditions of stress and, as such, this may impede optimum treatment outcomes. The findings identify potential cognitive, affective, and behavioral targets to improve treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders in the context of a current maternal anxiety disorder. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Still lonely: Social adjustment of youth with and without social anxiety disorder following cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Kingery, Julie Newman; Davis, Molly; Jones, Anna; Whitehead, Monica; Jacob, Marni L

    2017-12-01

    Social experiences are an integral part of normative development for youth and social functioning difficulties are related to poor outcomes. Youth with anxiety disorders, and particularly social anxiety disorder, experience difficulties across many aspects of social functioning that may place them at risk for maladjustment. The goal of this paper was to compare social experiences of youth across anxiety diagnoses and examine whether treatment is helpful in improving social functioning. Ninety-two children (age 7-12 years; 58% male; 87.0% White) with a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and/or social anxiety disorder participated in cognitive behavioral therapy. At both pre- and post-treatment, children with social anxiety disorder self-reported greater loneliness than youth without social anxiety disorder, though levels of peer victimization and receipt of prosocial behavior were similar across groups. Parents reported greater social problems for youth with social anxiety disorder compared to those without social anxiety disorder. All youth experienced improved social functioning following treatment per child- and parent-reports. The results call for an increased focus on the social experiences of youth with anxiety disorders, and particularly loneliness, for children with social anxiety disorder. The results document ways that evidenced-based practice can improve social functioning for youth with anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictors of Broad Dimensions of Psychopathology among Patients with Panic Disorder after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masaki; Ino, Keiko; Imai, Risa; Ii, Toshitaka; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2018-01-01

    Background Many patients with panic disorder meet criteria for at least one other diagnosis, most commonly other anxiety or mood disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the best empirically supported psychotherapy for panic disorder. There is now evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder yields positive benefits upon comorbid disorders. Objectives The present study aimed to examine the predictors of broad dimensions of psychopathology in panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. Methods Two hundred patients affected by panic disorder were treated with manualized group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We examined if the baseline personality dimensions of NEO Five Factor Index predicted the subscales of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at endpoint using multiple regression analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Results Conscientiousness score of NEO Five Factor Index at baseline was a predictor of four Symptom Checklist-90 Revised subscales including obsessive-compulsive (β = −0.15, P cognitive-behavioral therapy. For the purpose of improving a wide range of psychiatric symptoms with patients affected by panic disorder, it may be useful to pay more attention to this personal trait at baseline. PMID:29721499

  9. Predictors of Broad Dimensions of Psychopathology among Patients with Panic Disorder after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Sei; Kondo, Masaki; Ino, Keiko; Imai, Risa; Ii, Toshitaka; Furukawa, Toshi A; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2018-01-01

    Many patients with panic disorder meet criteria for at least one other diagnosis, most commonly other anxiety or mood disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the best empirically supported psychotherapy for panic disorder. There is now evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder yields positive benefits upon comorbid disorders. The present study aimed to examine the predictors of broad dimensions of psychopathology in panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. Two hundred patients affected by panic disorder were treated with manualized group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We examined if the baseline personality dimensions of NEO Five Factor Index predicted the subscales of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at endpoint using multiple regression analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Conscientiousness score of NEO Five Factor Index at baseline was a predictor of four Symptom Checklist-90 Revised subscales including obsessive-compulsive ( β = -0.15, P cognitive-behavioral therapy. For the purpose of improving a wide range of psychiatric symptoms with patients affected by panic disorder, it may be useful to pay more attention to this personal trait at baseline.

  10. Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H; Slutske, Wendy S; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-05-01

    Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior were examined in a large community sample of 6,383 adult male, female, and opposite-sex twins. Retrospective reports of childhood conduct disorder (prior to 18 years of age) were obtained when participants were approximately 30 years old, and lifetime reports of adult antisocial behavior (antisocial behavior after 17 years of age) were obtained 8 years later. Results revealed that either the genetic or the shared environmental factors influencing childhood conduct disorder differed for males and females (i.e., a qualitative sex difference), but by adulthood, these sex-specific influences on antisocial behavior were no longer apparent. Further, genetic and environmental influences accounted for proportionally the same amount of variance in antisocial behavior for males and females in childhood and adulthood (i.e., there were no quantitative sex differences). Additionally, the stability of antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood was slightly greater for males than females. Though familial factors accounted for more of the stability of antisocial behavior for males than females, genetic factors accounted for the majority of the covariation between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior for both sexes. The genetic influences on adult antisocial behavior overlapped completely with the genetic influences on childhood conduct disorder for both males and females. Implications for future twin and molecular genetic studies are discussed.

  11. Lagging skills contribute to challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B; Cleary, Patrick; Kuschner, Emily S; Miller, Judith S; Armour, Anna Chelsea; Guy, Lisa; Kenworthy, Lauren; Schultz, Robert T; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2017-08-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder display challenging behaviors. These behaviors are not limited to those with cognitive and/or language impairments. The Collaborative and Proactive Solutions framework proposes that challenging behaviors result from an incompatibility between environmental demands and a child's "lagging skills." The primary Collaborative and Proactive Solutions lagging skills-executive function, emotion regulation, language, and social skills-are often areas of weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether these lagging skills are associated with challenging behaviors in youth with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Parents of 182 youth with autism spectrum disorder (6-15 years) completed measures of their children's challenging behaviors, executive function, language, emotion regulation, and social skills. We tested whether the Collaborative and Proactive Solutions lagging skills predicted challenging behaviors using multiple linear regression. The Collaborative and Proactive Solutions lagging skills explained significant variance in participants' challenging behaviors. The Depression (emotion regulation), Inhibit (executive function), and Sameness (executive function) scales emerged as significant predictors. Impairments in emotion regulation and executive function may contribute substantially to aggressive and oppositional behaviors in school-age youth with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability. Treatment for challenging behaviors in this group may consider targeting the incompatibility between environmental demands and a child's lagging skills.

  12. Disordered eating behaviors among transgender youth: Probability profiles from risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ryan J; Veale, Jaimie F; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-05-01

    Research has documented high rates of disordered eating for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, but prevalence and patterns of disordered eating among transgender youth remain unexplored. This is despite unique challenges faced by this group, including gender-related body image and the use of hormones. We explore the relationship between disordered eating and risk and protective factors for transgender youth. An online survey of 923 transgender youth (aged 14-25) across Canada was conducted, primarily using measures from existing youth health surveys. Analyses were stratified by gender identity and included logistic regressions with probability profiles to illustrate combinations of risk and protective factors for eating disordered behaviors. Enacted stigma (the higher rates of harassment and discrimination sexual minority youth experience) was linked to higher odds of reported past year binge eating and fasting or vomiting to lose weight, while protective factors, including family connectedness, school connectedness, caring friends, and social support, were linked to lower odds of past year disordered eating. Youth with the highest levels of enacted stigma and no protective factors had high probabilities of past year eating disordered behaviors. Our study found high prevalence of disorders. Risk for these behaviors was linked to stigma and violence exposure, but offset by social supports. Health professionals should assess transgender youth for disordered eating behaviors and supportive resources. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:515-522). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The impacts of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the treatment of phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Galvao-de Almeida

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Functional neuroimaging techniques represent fundamental tools in the context of translational research integrating neurobiology, psychopathology, neuropsychology, and therapeutics. In addition, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT has proven its efficacy in the treatment of anxiety disorders and may be useful in phobias. The literature has shown that feelings and behaviors are mediated by specific brain circuits, and changes in patterns of interaction should be associated with cerebral alterations. Based on these concepts, a systematic review was conducted aiming to evaluate the impact of CBT on phobic disorders measured by functional neuroimaging techniques. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted including studies published between January 1980 and April 2012. Studies written in English, Spanish or Portuguese evaluating changes in the pattern of functional neuroimaging before and after CBT in patients with phobic disorders were included. Results: The initial search strategy retrieved 45 studies. Six of these studies met all inclusion criteria. Significant deactivations in the amygdala, insula, thalamus and hippocampus, as well as activation of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, were observed after CBT in phobic patients when compared with controls. Conclusion: In spite of their technical limitations, neuroimaging techniques provide neurobiological support for the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of phobic disorders. Further studies are needed to confirm this conclusion.

  14. Demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual characteristics of adolescents with gender identity disorder or transvestic fetishism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Choi, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study provided a descriptive and quantitative comparative analysis of data from an assessment protocol for adolescents referred clinically for gender identity disorder (n = 192; 105 boys, 87 girls) or transvestic fetishism (n = 137, all boys). The protocol included information on demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual measures. Gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism youth had high rates of general behavior problems and poor peer relations. On the psychosexual measures, gender identity disorder patients had considerably greater cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did transvestic fetishism youth and other control youth. Male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a nonhomosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex) reported more indicators of transvestic fetishism than did male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a homosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex). The percentage of transvestic fetishism youth and male gender identity disorder patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation self-reported similar degrees of behaviors pertaining to transvestic fetishism. Last, male and female gender identity disorder patients with a homosexual sexual orientation had more recalled cross-gender behavior during childhood and more concurrent cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation. The authors discuss the clinical utility of their assessment protocol.

  15. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  16. Adults with autism spectrum disorder as behavior technicians for young children with autism: Outcomes of a behavioral skills training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In Experiment 1, training of the adults focused on the implementation of mand training via incidental teaching. Experiment 2 focused on teaching participants to use discrete-trial training (DTT) with children who exhibited problem behavior. Both experiments showed that behavioral skills training was effective for teaching the adult participants the behavioral procedures needed to teach children with autism. In addition, the children acquired skills as a result of training. Results of Experiment 2 further demonstrated that the DTT skills generalized across untrained targets and children. Social validity ratings suggested that some participants' teaching was indistinguishable from that of individuals without ASD. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Breastfeeding and behavior disorders among children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poton, Wanêssa Lacerda; Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de; Gonçalves, Helen

    2018-02-05

    This systematic review study aimed to assess the evidence available for the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood and adolescence. The search was carried out in the PubMed, Lilacs, and PsycINFO databases up to December 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: prospective, retrospective and cross-sectional studies assessing the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood or adolescence, using psychometric tests, carried out in humans and published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. The search was performed in several stages by two independent researchers using pre-established criteria. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Breastfeeding for a period equal to or higher than three or four months seemed to be inversely associated with total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood; however, the association remains unclear for other behavior disorders. Only four studies assessed behavior disorders in adolescence, and when an association was found, it was likely to be positive. The duration of breastfeeding seemed to be more important than the exclusive or non-exclusive pattern of breastfeeding. Breastfed children for at least three to four months had fewer total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood. Further studies are needed to better understand this association, particularly in adolescence and involving other behavioral profiles.

  18. Breastfeeding and behavior disorders among children and adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanêssa Lacerda Poton

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE This systematic review study aimed to assess the evidence available for the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood and adolescence. METHODS The search was carried out in the PubMed, Lilacs, and PsycINFO databases up to December 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: prospective, retrospective and cross-sectional studies assessing the association between breastfeeding and behavior disorders in childhood or adolescence, using psychometric tests, carried out in humans and published in Portuguese, English, or Spanish. The search was performed in several stages by two independent researchers using pre-established criteria. RESULTS Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Breastfeeding for a period equal to or higher than three or four months seemed to be inversely associated with total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood; however, the association remains unclear for other behavior disorders. Only four studies assessed behavior disorders in adolescence, and when an association was found, it was likely to be positive. The duration of breastfeeding seemed to be more important than the exclusive or non-exclusive pattern of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS Breastfed children for at least three to four months had fewer total behavior and conduct disorders in childhood. Further studies are needed to better understand this association, particularly in adolescence and involving other behavioral profiles.

  19. Parent Report of ADHD Symptoms of Early Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Finney, Sara J.; Evans, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    The Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD) scale includes the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. This study examined only the ADHD items of the DBD scale. This scale is frequently used for assessing parent-…

  20. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC. Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia.

  1. Overexpression of cerebral and hepatic cytochrome P450s alters behavioral activity of rat offspring following prenatal exposure to lindane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johri, Ashu; Yadav, Sanjay; Dhawan, Alok [Developmental Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, P. O. Box 80, M. G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001, U. P. (India); Parmar, Devendra [Developmental Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, P. O. Box 80, M. G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001, U. P. (India)

    2007-12-15

    Oral administration of different doses (0.0625, 0.125 or 0.25 mg/kg corresponding to 1/1400th, 1/700th or 1/350th of LD{sub 50}) of lindane to the pregnant Wistar rats from gestation days 5 to 21 were found to produce a dose-dependent increase in the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD) and N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase (NDMA-d) in brain and liver of offspring postnatally at 3 weeks. The increase in the activity of CYP monooxygenases was found to be associated with the increase in the mRNA and protein expression of xenobiotic metabolizing CYP1A, 2B and 2E1 isoenzymes in the brain and liver of offspring. Dose-dependent alterations in the parameters of spontaneous locomotor activity in the offspring postnatally at 3 weeks have suggested that increase in CYP activity may possibly lead to the formation of metabolites to the levels that may be sufficient to alter the behavioral activity of the offspring. Interestingly, the inductive effect on cerebral and hepatic CYPs was found to persist postnatally up to 6 weeks in the offspring at the relatively higher doses (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) of lindane and up to 9 weeks at the highest dose (0.25 mg/kg), though the magnitude of induction was less than that observed at 3 weeks. Alterations in the parameters of spontaneous locomotor activity in the offspring postnatally at 6 and 9 weeks, though significant only in the offspring at 3 and 6-week of age, have further indicated that due to the reduced activity of the CYPs during the ontogeny, lindane and its metabolites may not be effectively cleared from the brain. The data suggest that low dose prenatal exposure to the pesticide has the potential to produce overexpression of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs in brain and liver of the offspring which may account for the behavioral changes observed in the offspring.

  2. Overexpression of cerebral and hepatic cytochrome P450s alters behavioral activity of rat offspring following prenatal exposure to lindane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, Ashu; Yadav, Sanjay; Dhawan, Alok; Parmar, Devendra

    2007-01-01

    Oral administration of different doses (0.0625, 0.125 or 0.25 mg/kg corresponding to 1/1400th, 1/700th or 1/350th of LD 50 ) of lindane to the pregnant Wistar rats from gestation days 5 to 21 were found to produce a dose-dependent increase in the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD) and N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase (NDMA-d) in brain and liver of offspring postnatally at 3 weeks. The increase in the activity of CYP monooxygenases was found to be associated with the increase in the mRNA and protein expression of xenobiotic metabolizing CYP1A, 2B and 2E1 isoenzymes in the brain and liver of offspring. Dose-dependent alterations in the parameters of spontaneous locomotor activity in the offspring postnatally at 3 weeks have suggested that increase in CYP activity may possibly lead to the formation of metabolites to the levels that may be sufficient to alter the behavioral activity of the offspring. Interestingly, the inductive effect on cerebral and hepatic CYPs was found to persist postnatally up to 6 weeks in the offspring at the relatively higher doses (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) of lindane and up to 9 weeks at the highest dose (0.25 mg/kg), though the magnitude of induction was less than that observed at 3 weeks. Alterations in the parameters of spontaneous locomotor activity in the offspring postnatally at 6 and 9 weeks, though significant only in the offspring at 3 and 6-week of age, have further indicated that due to the reduced activity of the CYPs during the ontogeny, lindane and its metabolites may not be effectively cleared from the brain. The data suggest that low dose prenatal exposure to the pesticide has the potential to produce overexpression of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs in brain and liver of the offspring which may account for the behavioral changes observed in the offspring

  3. Assessment and Treatment of Personality Disorders: A Behavioral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Lootens, Christopher M.; Mitchell, John T.; Robertson, Christopher D.; Hundt, Natalie E.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Personality disorders are complex and highly challenging to treatment providers; yet, for clients with these problems, there exist very few treatment options that have been supported by research. Given the lack of empirically-supported therapies for personality disorders, it can be difficult to make treatment decisions for this population. The…

  4. Level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Khan, I.; Bashir, M.S.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    To find level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes. Methodology: A questionnaire based survey was undertaken among 71 athletes (15-25 years old) athletes from University of Lahore and Lahore College for Women University. Then the level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior calculated. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 71 athletes, 56 (78.87%) had anxiety due to eating disorder and 15 (21.12%) had no eating disorder. And 67 (94.3%) athletes had raised anxiety levels while 3 (4.2%) had no anxiety. Conclusion: Dieting behavior and binge eating that prompted eating disorder are the main cause of anxiety among young female athletes. (author)

  5. Specific features of suicidal behavior in patients with narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Dervic, Kanita; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Oquendo, Maria A

    2009-11-01

    Suicidal behavior is a clinically significant but underestimated cause of mortality in narcissistic personality disorder. Currently, there are no reliable estimates of suicidal behavior for this population. The main objective of this study was to test whether or not suicide attempters diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder are different in terms of impulsivity and expected lethality from suicide attempters with other cluster B personality disorders. In a sample of 446 suicide attempters, patients with cluster B personality disorder diagnoses (n = 254) as assessed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), version of the International Personality Disorder Examination-Screening Questionnaire (IPDE-SQ) were compared in terms of expected lethality and impulsivity (measured by the Beck Suicidal Intent Scale and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, respectively). The subjects were admitted to the emergency departments of the Ramón y Cajal Hospital and the Fundación Jiménez Diaz University Hospital in Madrid, Spain, between January 1999 and January 2003. Suicide attempts of subjects diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder had higher expected lethality than those of subjects without narcissistic personality disorder (t = -4.24, df = 439, P personality disorder (t = 0.28, df = 439, P = .795), antisocial personality disorder (t = 0.66, df = 439, P = .504), and borderline personality disorder (t = 1.13, df = 439, P = .256), respectively. Suicide attempters diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder did not significantly differ from suicide attempters without narcissistic personality disorder in terms of impulsivity measures (t = -0.33, df = 442, P = .738), while suicide attempters diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder were significantly more impulsive than suicide attempters without these diagnoses (t = -3.96, df = 442, P

  6. Drug and Alcohol Exposed Children: Implications for Special Education for Students Identified as Behaviorally Disordered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anne M.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol, the potential impact on the educational and social services systems, and implications for programing for children identified as behaviorally disordered. (Author/JDD)

  7. Vocational and Transition Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Cheney, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    This article describes characteristics of adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders, transition outcomes for these students, model transition programs, and key transition service delivery components, including: intake and functional skill assessment, personal future planning, wraparound social services, competitive employment, flexible…

  8. Attenuated heart rate response in REM sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Zoetmulder, Marielle

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with Parkinson's disease with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder and patients with idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder have an attenuated heart rate response to arousals or to leg movements during...... sleep compared with healthy controls. Fourteen and 16 Parkinson's patients with and without rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder, respectively, 11 idiopathic rapid‐eye‐movement sleep behavior disorder patients, and 17 control subjects underwent 1 night of polysomnography. The heart rate response...... associated with arousal or leg movement from all sleep stages was analyzed from 10 heartbeats before the onset of the sleep event to 15 heartbeats following onset of the sleep event. The heart rate reponse to arousals was significantly lower in both parkinsonian groups compared with the control group...

  9. Pervasive developmental disorder, behavior problems, and psychotropic drug use in children and adolescents with mental retardation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, de A.; Mulder, E.J.; Scheers, T.; Minderaa, R.B.; Tobi, H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmacotherapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 to

  10. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  11. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi; Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  12. Protective effects of traditional Chinese medicine formula NaoShuanTong capsule on haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders in rats with blood stasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Peng, Yao-Yao; Liang, Feng-Yin; Chen, Si; Li, Pei-Bo; Peng, Wei; Liu, Zhong-Zheng; Xie, Cheng-Shi; Long, Chao-Feng; Su, Wei-Wei

    2014-01-02

    NaoShuanTong capsule (NSTC), an oral traditional Chinese medicine formula, is composed of Pollen Typhae , Radix Paeoniae Rubra , Rhizoma Gastrodiae , Radix Rhapontici and Radix Curcumae . It has been widely used to treat ischemic stroke in clinic for many years in China. In addition to neuronal apoptosis, haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders also play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of ischemic stroke. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo protective effects of NSTC on haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders in rats with blood stasis. Sixty specific pathogen-free sprague-dawley rats, male only, were randomly divided into six groups (control group, model group, aspirin (100 mg/kg/d) group, NSTC low-dose (400 mg/kg/d) group, NSTC intermediate-dose (800 mg/kg/d) group, NSTC high-dose (1600 mg/kg/d) group) with 10 animals in each. The rats except those in the control group were placed in ice-cold water (0-4 °C) for 5 min during the time interval (4 h) of two adrenaline hydrochloride injections (0.8 mg/kg) to induce blood stasis. After treatment, whole blood viscosity at three shear rates, plasma viscosity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate significantly decreased in NSTC intermediate- and high-dose groups; erythrocyte aggregation index and red corpuscle electrophoresis index significantly decreased in all the three dose NSTC groups. Moreover, treatment with high-dose NSTC could significantly improve Na + -K + adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and Ca 2+ ATPase activity, as well as lower lactic acid level in brain tissues. These results demonstrated the protective effects of NSTC on haemorheology and cerebral energy metabolism disorders, which may provide scientific information for the further understanding of mechanism(s) of NSTC as a clinical treatment for ischemic stroke. Furthermore, the protective effects of activating blood circulation as observed in this study might create valuable

  13. Cerebral microangiopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral microangiopathies are a very heterogenous group of diseases characterized by pathological changes of the small cerebral vessels. They account for 20 - 30 % of all ischemic strokes. Degenerative microangiopathy and sporadic cerebral amyloid angiography represent the typical acquired cerebral microangiopathies, which are found in over 90 % of cases. Besides, a wide variety of rare, hereditary microangiopathy exists, as e.g. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), Fabrys disease and MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes). (orig.)

  14. Emotional and cognitive social processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease and are related to behavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narme, Pauline; Mouras, Harold; Roussel, Martine; Duru, Cécile; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Godefroy, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with behavioral disorders that can affect social functioning but are poorly understood. Since emotional and cognitive social processes are known to be crucial in social relationships, impairment of these processes may account for the emergence of behavioral disorders. We used a systematic battery of tests to assess emotional processes and social cognition in PD patients and relate our findings to conventional neuropsychological data (especially behavioral disorders). Twenty-three PD patients and 46 controls (matched for age and educational level) were included in the study and underwent neuropsychological testing, including an assessment of the behavioral and cognitive components of executive function. Emotional and cognitive social processes were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index caregiver-administered questionnaire (as a measure of empathy), a facial emotion recognition task and two theory of mind (ToM) tasks. When compared with controls, PD patients showed low levels of empathy (p = .006), impaired facial emotion recognition (which persisted after correction for perceptual abilities) (p = .001), poor performance in a second-order ToM task (p = .008) that assessed both cognitive (p = .004) and affective (p = .03) inferences and, lastly, frequent dysexecutive behavioral disorders (in over 40% of the patients). Overall, impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning was observed in 17% of patients and was related to certain cognitive dysexecutive disorders. In terms of behavioral dysexecutive disorders, social behavior disorders were related to impaired emotional and cognitive social functioning (p = .04) but were independent of cognitive impairments. Emotional and cognitive social processes were found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease. This impairment may account for the emergence of social behavioral disorders. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic psychotherapy or dialectical behavioral therapy-- which is better for borderline personality disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tene, O; Har-Even, A; Dahan, E; Babokshin, Y; Reuveni, I; Ponarovsky, B; Rosman, V; Gluzman, L

    2011-01-01

    Clinical dilemma: A 20-year-old female patient, diagnosed as suffering from borderline personality disorder, is referred to your clinic. Her disorder is characterized by unstable personal relationships, impulsivity, suicidal behavior, emotional instability and pan-anxiety. After initiation of pharmacological treatment which you have chosen, you meet with her parents who ask you which is better for their daughter dynamic-analytic psychotherapy or dialectical behavioral therapy.

  16. A single-question screen for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hogl, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is an important risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. Its prevalence is unknown. One barrier to determining prevalence is that current screening tools are too long for large......-scale epidemiologic surveys. Therefore, we designed the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), a screening question for dream enactment with a simple yes/no response....

  17. Using communication to reduce challenging behaviors in individuals with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Tiffany L; Prelock, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between expressive communication impairments and common challenging behaviors in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability. The communication challenges of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder/Intellectual Disability are described and several evidence-based intervention strategies are proposed to support communication so as to decrease challenging behaviors. Recommendations for practice are offered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  19. Eating disorders: Insights from imaging and behavioral approaches to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather

    2017-11-01

    Understanding factors that contribute to eating disorders, which affect 13% of females, is critical to developing effective prevention and treatment programs. In this paper, we summarize results from prospective studies that identified factors predicting onset and persistence of eating disorders and core symptom dimensions. Next, implications for intervention targets for prevention, and treatment interventions from the risk- and maintenance-factor findings are discussed. Third, given that evidence suggests eating disorders are highly heritable, implying biological risk and maintenance factors for eating disorders, we offer working hypotheses about biological factors that might contribute to eating disorders, based on extant risk factor findings, theory, and cross-sectional studies. Finally, potentially fruitful directions for future research are presented. We suggest that it would be useful for experimental therapeutics trials to evaluate the effects of reducing the risk factors on future onset of eating pathology and on reducing maintenance factors on the risk for persistence of eating pathology, and encourage researchers to utilize prospective high-risk studies so that knowledge regarding potential intervention targets for prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders can be advanced. Using the most rigorous research designs should help improve the efficacy of prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders.

  20. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  1. Purging behavior in anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, René Klinkby; Andries, Alin; Brixen, Kim Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Purging behavior in eating disorders is associated with medical risks. We aimed to compare remission rates in purging and non-purging females with anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in a large retrospective single center cohort. A total of 339 patients...

  2. Teachers' sick leave due to mental and behavioral disorders and return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda Aparecida; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript presents a review of the literature about medical leaves due to mental and behavioral disorders and return to work of teachers. There are scarce published manuscripts. Most articles relate with prevalence of mental disorders and factors associated with the work organization, and did not mention intervention proposals and or changes in the work organization and teaching work. Proposed actions are discussed.

  3. Familial Transmission of Mood Disorders: Convergence and Divergence with Transmission of Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A.; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Greenhill, Laurence; Kolko, David; Stanley, Barbara; Zelazny, Jamie; Brodsky, Beth; Melhem, Nadine; Ellis, Steven P.; Mann, J. John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Both mood disorder and suicidal behavior are familial. In this study, the authors examine the factors associated with the familial transmission of these two related conditions to learn which are shared or unique risk factors for familial transmission. Method: The 285 offspring of 141 probands with mood disorder were studied. Proband and…

  4. Risky Decision Making in Substance Dependent Adolescents with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Bokhoven, I. van; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Lochman, J.E.; Matthys, W.C.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Of all psychiatric disorders, the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) are the most likely to predispose to substance dependence (SD). One possible underlying mechanism for this increased vulnerability is risky decision making. The aim of this study was to examine decision making in DBD adolescents

  5. Executive Functioning Characteristics Associated with ADHD Comorbidity in Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A.; Kronenberger, William G.; Wang, Yang; Dunn, David W.; Mosier, Kristine M.; Kalnin, Andrew J.; Mathews, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of executive dysfunction in youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) remains unclear, despite extensive research in samples of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To determine the relationship between DBD, ADHD, and executive function deficits in aggressive teens, adolescents with DBD and comorbid ADHD…

  6. Trajectories of Symptom Reduction and Engagement during Treatment for Childhood Behavior Disorders: Differences across Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined trajectories of symptom reduction and family engagement during the modular treatment phase of a clinical trial for early-onset disruptive behavior disorders that was applied either in community settings or a clinic. Participants (N = 139) were 6-11 year-old children with diagnoses of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)…

  7. Comorbid Internalizing and Disruptive Behavior Disorder in Adolescents: Offending, Trauma, and Clinical Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences between comorbid internalizing and disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), and those with either internalizing disorder or DBD. We focused on differences with regard to trauma exposure and offending characteristics in 8,431 juvenile justice youths. Self-reported,

  8. Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Female Patients With Eating Disorders : Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.D.; de Haan, H.A.; Postel, Marloes Gerda; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E.L.; de Jong, Cor A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many patients with eating disorders do not receive help for their symptoms, even though these disorders have severe morbidity. The Internet may offer alternative low-threshold treatment interventions. Objective: This study evaluated the effects of a Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy

  9. Behavior of conduct disordered children in interaction with each other and with normal peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MATTHYS, W; VANLOO, P; PACHEN, [No Value; de Vries, Han; VANHOOFF, JARAM; VANENGELAND, H

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the behavior of children with conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder (CD/ODD) in interaction with each other and with normal control (NC) children in a semi-standardized setting over a period of 25 minutes. This short time turned out to be sufficient to demonstrate

  10. Case Study: Severe Self-Injurious Behavior in Comorbid Tourette's Disorder and OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Korey K.; Baptista-Neto, Lourival; Beasley, Pamela J.; Lobis, Robert; Pravdova, Iva

    2004-01-01

    This case report describes the successful treatment of severe self-injurious behavior in a 16-year-old adolescent with Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Treatment is described from initial presentation to the emergency department for severe self-inflicted oral lacerations through discharge from the inpatient psychiatric…

  11. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Drahota, Amy; Sze, Karen; Har, Kim; Chiu, Angela; Langer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorders often present with comorbid anxiety disorders that cause significant functional impairment. This study tested a modular cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for children with this profile. A standard CBT program was augmented with multiple treatment components designed to accommodate or…

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Modification Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…

  13. Counseling College Women Experiencing Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: A Cognitive Behavior Therapy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Laura H.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) is, by far, the most common eating disorder that college counseling professionals encounter among their female clients. Empirical evidence and best practice guidelines support use of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with women experiencing EDNOS. This article…

  14. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescents with anxiety disorders: A feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjerneklar, Silke; Hougaard, Esben; Nielsen, Amalie D.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-documented effective method for the treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. While internet based CBT (ICBT) programs for adults have been widely investigated, research on ICBT programs for anxiety disorders in youth...

  15. Children with Anxiety Disorders: Use of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Model within a Social Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearny, Regina; Pawlukewicz, Justine; Guardino, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Because anxiety is the most common mental health disorder diagnosed in children, early intervention is crucial for fundamental coping. Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the preferred treatment method for this affective disorder, instruction for children needs to be specific for them to successfully acquire and implement essential CBT…

  16. Case Study: Skinny Genes? An Interdisciplinary Look at a Complex Behavioral Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Joan-Beth; Carpino, Lisa A.

    2018-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a complex behavioral disorder with the highest risk of death of any psychological disorder. Between 15% and 20% of those suffering from anorexia die from complications that are attributed either directly or indirectly to self-starvation. Heritability for anorexia is around 0.5, meaning about 50% of the risk for anorexia is…

  17. Comparison of Child Behavior Checklist subscales in screening for obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Aaron Skovby; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents associated with significant functional impairment. Early and correct diagnosis is essential for an optimal treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine which of four subscales...... derived from the Child Behavior Checklist best discriminates OCD patients from clinical and population-based controls....

  18. Suicidal behavior and self-harm in girls with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutek J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jiri Koutek, Jana Kocourkova, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Comorbid psychopathology, including self-harm and suicidal behavior, is often found in patients with eating disorders. To better understand the reasons for high comorbid psychopathology among eating disorders, self-harm, and suicidal behavior, we examined this comorbidity in female patients hospitalized with eating disorders. In a sample of 47 girls admitted for anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa, 72% had depressive symptoms, 11% had obsessive-compulsive symptoms, 9% had anxiety disorder, 23% had substance abuse, and 57% had disharmonious personality development. Suicidal behavior was present in 60% of patients and self-harm in 49%. Association was found between self-harm and suicidality. In all, 68% of girls with eating disorders had a positive score in the Children’s Depression Inventory questionnaire and 62% of them in the Child Adolescent Suicidal Potential Index questionnaire. Clinical examination of girls with eating disorders should focus on identifying the risk of suicidal behavior and self-harm. Keywords: eating disorders, child, adolescent, self-harm, suicidal behavior

  19. Evaluation of cerebral activity in the prefrontal cortex in mood [affective] disorders during animal-assisted therapy (AAT) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Jun; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigooka, Jun; Fukamauchi, Fumihiko; Numajiri, Maki; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the possibility that animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is useful for promoting the recovery of a patient's psychological, social, and physiological aspect. As a pilot study, we measured the effect that AAT had on cerebral activity using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and examined whether or not NIRS be used to evaluate the effect of AAT biologically and objectively. Two patients with mood [affective] disorders and a healthy subject participated in this study. We performed two AAT and the verbal fluency task (VFT). The NIRS signal during AAT showed great [oxy-Hb] increases in most of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the two patients. When the NIRS pattern during AAT was compared with that during VFT, greater or lesser differences were observed between them in all subjects. The present study suggested that AAT possibly causes biological and physiological changes in the PFC, and that AAT is useful for inducing the activity of the PFC in patients with depression who have generally been said to exhibit low cerebral activity in the PFC. In addition, the possibility was also suggested that the effect of AAT can be evaluated using NIRS physiologically and objectively.

  20. Prevalence of Behavioral Disorders and Its Associated Factors in Hamadan Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jalilian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Studies have shown the high prevalence rate of behavioral disorders in primary school students, which may underlie many complications and problems for the students and their families. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of behav-ioral disorders among primary school students. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional-descriptive study which have been done on 352 primary school students in Hamadan. Samples have been selected based on a multistage ran-dom sampling and Rutter behavioral disorder questionnaire (teacher form was used for data collection. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 20 using chi-square. Results: Our result showed that 16.1% of the participants suffered from behavioral disorders. The prevalence was more among the boys. Father's education and occupation, history of mental illness, parental divorce, and death of parents had significant relationships with the prevalence of behavioral disorders in these students. Conclusion: According to the results, designing and implementing educational programs for the prevention and treatment of student's behavioral disorders appear to be essential.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 19 (4:62-68

  1. Conduct Disorders and Social Maladjustments: Policies, Politics, and Programming. Working with Behavioral Disorders: CEC Mini-Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank H.; And Others

    This booklet reviews the literature and examines issues associated with providing services to students who exhibit externalizing or acting-out behaviors in the schools. Considered are the following issues: eligibility (whether socially maladjusted or conduct-disordered students are eligible for special education); legal intent (intent of the…

  2. Dialectical behavior therapy for clients with binge-eating disorder or bulimia nervosa and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eunice Y; Matthews, Lauren; Allen, Charese; Kuo, Janice R; Linehan, Marsha Marie

    2008-09-01

    This treatment development study provides summary data for standard Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) with minimal adaptation for 8 women with binge-eating disorder (BED) (5) or bulimia nervosa (BN) (3) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). DBT involved 6 months of weekly skills group, individual DBT, therapist consultation team meeting, and 24-hour telephone coaching. Assessments were conducted at pre-, post-treatment, and 6-months follow-up and utilized standardized clinical interviews including the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE), Personality Disorders Exam, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. From pre- to post-treatment, effect sizes for objective binge eating, total EDE scores and global adjustment were large and for number of non-eating disorder axis I disorders and for suicidal behavior and self-injury were medium. From pre- to 6-months follow-up, effect sizes were large for all these outcomes. This provides promising pilot data for larger studies utilizing DBT for BED or BN and BPD. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Panic Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kacar Basaran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that evaluate effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for treatment for panic disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in the national and international databases. The articles that were not therapy effectiveness studies, and group therapies that not based on cognitive behavioral approach were eliminated. The remaining 19 studies that were met the criteria were introduced in terms of method, therapy characteristics and results. The results of the studies showed that cognitive behavioral group therapies have similar efficacy with individual cognitive behavioral therapy on panic disorder symptoms (panic attacks frequency, the level of agoraphobia etc. and comorbid disorders (depression, anxiety sensitivity. However, cognitive behavioral group therapy is more cost-effective. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 79-94

  4. Case-control study of six genes asymmetrically expressed in the two cerebral hemispheres: association of BAIAP2 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribasés, Marta; Bosch, Rosa; Hervás, Amaia

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disease that persists into adulthood in at least 30% of patients. There is evidence suggesting that abnormal left-right brain asymmetries in ADHD patients may be involved in a variety of ADHD......-related cognitive processes, including sustained attention, working memory, response inhibition and planning. Although mechanisms underlying cerebral lateralization are unknown, left-right cortical asymmetry has been associated with transcriptional asymmetry at embryonic stages and several genes differentially...... expressed between hemispheres have been identified. METHODS: We selected six functional candidate genes showing at least 1.9-fold differential expression between hemispheres (BAIAP2, DAPPER1, LMO4, NEUROD6, ATP2B3, and ID2) and performed a case-control association study in an initial Spanish sample of 587...

  5. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Shan Baoci, E-mail: shanbc@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  6. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jing; Liu Jiangtao; Nie Binbin; Li Yang; Shan Baoci; Wang Gang; Li Kuncheng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  7. Delinquency and association with behavioral disorders and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Manoel Schier Dória

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence and associations of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder (CD, and substance abuse disorder (SAD in adolescents in conflict with the law in a Brazilian cohort. Methods: the Brazilian version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged-Children (K-SADS-PL was administered to 69 adolescent boys who were incarcerated for 45 days in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Results: mean age was 15.5 years (range, 12-16.9 years and most adolescents originated from disadvantaged social classes (87%. They resided in neighborhoods on the outskirts of the city or towns in the greater metropolitan area. Truancy and low educational achievement were common, with 73.9% not currently attending school and 43.4% not having finished the 5th grade. The great majority lived in single-parent families and many had relatives who themselves had problems with the law. Psychiatric disorders were apparent in 81.1% of the subjects, with the most common disorders being CD (59.4%, SAD (53.6%, and ADHD (43.5%. Both ADHD (p <0.001 and CD (p <0.01 had significant associations with substance abuse. Conclusion: in male adolescents in conflict with the law, ADHD, CD, and SAD were all found to be associated with delinquency.

  8. A study of cerebral hemodynamics in various cerebrovascular disorders by means of rCBF measurement with single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harano, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Xe-133 inhalation method, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured for the purpose of analyzing the pathophysiology of various cerebrovascular disorders. Included in this series were 38 normal volunteers (N), 72 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICD), 16 with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 9 with arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 6 with Moyamoya disease (MD), and 4 with hypertensive intracerebral hematoma (HIH). In the N group, rCBF was independent of sex and laterality. Increased rCBF was observed in the frontal region, as compared with other regions. A significantly increased rCBF was observed in the thirties decade of life; the difference in rCBF was, however, not statistically significant above the age of 30 years. In the ICD group, rCBF decreased in association with severer disorder. In cases of severe disorder, a significantly decreased rCBF was observed in the whole area, as compared with the control group. SPECT allowed early detection of decreased rCBF due to vaso-spasm in the SAH group. The groups of AVM, MD, and HIH showed decreased rCBF in the surrounding areas of the lesions. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. PMID:24204146

  10. Cephalic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... destructive lesions, but are sometimes the result of abnormal development. The disorder can occur before or after birth. Porencephaly most ... decade of life. SCHIZENCEPHALY is a rare developmental disorder characterized by abnormal slits, or clefts, in the cerebral hemispheres. Schizencephaly ...

  11. Evaluation of Cerebral Cortex Function in Clients with Bipolar Mood Disorder I (BMD I Compared With BMD II Using QEEG Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaleghi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Early diagnosis of type I and type II bipolar mood disorder is very challenging particularly in adolescence. Hence, we aimed to investigate the cerebral cortex function in these patients, using quantitative electroencephalography analysis to obtain significant differences between them.Methods: Thirty- eight adolescents (18 patients with bipolar disorder I and 20 with BMD II participated in this study. We recorded the electroencephalogram signals based on 10-20 international system by 21 electrodes in eyes open and eyes closed condition resting conditions. Forty seconds segments were selected from each recorded signals with minimal noise and artifacts. Periodogram Welch was used to estimate power spectrum density from each segment. Analysis was performed in five frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma, and we assessed power, mean, entropy, variance and skewness of the spectrums, as well as mean of the thresholded spectrum and thresholded spectrogram. We only used focal montage for comparison. Eventually, data were analyzed by independent Mann-Whitney test and independent t test.Results: We observed significant differences in some brain regions and in all frequency bands. There were significant differences in prefrontal lobe, central lobe, left parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe between BMD I and BMD II (P < 0.05. In patients with BMD I, spectral entropy was compared to patients with BMD II. The most significant difference was observed in the gamma frequency band. Also, the power and entropy of delta frequency band was larger in the left parietal lobe in the BMD I patients compared to BMD II patients (P < 0.05. In the temporal lobe, significant differences were observed in the spectrum distribution of beta and gamma frequency bands (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The QEEG and entropy measure are simple and available tools to help detect cerebral cortex deficits and distinguish BMD I from BMD II.

  12. Venlafaxine-induced REM sleep behavioral disorder presenting as two fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ryan Williams

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavioral disorder is characterized by the absence of muscular atonia during REM sleep. In this disorder, patients can violently act out their dreams, placing them at risk for traumatic fractures during these episodes. REM sleep behavioral disorder (RBD can be a sign of future neurodegenerative disease and has also been found to be a side effect of certain psychiatric medications. We present a case of venlafaxine-induced RBD in a 55 year old female who presented with a 13 year history of intermittent parasomnia and dream enactment in addition to a recent history of two fractures requiring intervention.

  13. Venlafaxine-induced REM sleep behavioral disorder presenting as two fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan Williams, R; Sandigo, Gustavo

    2017-10-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavioral disorder is characterized by the absence of muscular atonia during REM sleep. In this disorder, patients can violently act out their dreams, placing them at risk for traumatic fractures during these episodes. REM sleep behavioral disorder (RBD) can be a sign of future neurodegenerative disease and has also been found to be a side effect of certain psychiatric medications. We present a case of venlafaxine-induced RBD in a 55 year old female who presented with a 13 year history of intermittent parasomnia and dream enactment in addition to a recent history of two fractures requiring intervention.

  14. Dialectical behavior therapy for suicidal adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Dena A; Miller, Alec L

    2011-04-01

    Although research to date on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for adolescents has its limitations, growing evidence suggests that DBT is a promising treatment for adolescents with a range of problematic behaviors, including but not limited to suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury. This article introduces dialectical behavior therapy's theoretical underpinnings, describes its adaptation for suicidal adolescents, and provides a brief review of the empirical literature evaluating DBT with adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk Factors for Behavioral and Emotional Difficulties in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined risk factors for behavioral and emotional problems in 1973 siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results revealed six correlates of sibling internalizing and externalizing problems: male gender, smaller family size, older age of the child with ASD, lower family income, child with ASD behavior problems, and…

  16. Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) for alcohol and drug use disorders: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, M.B.; Vedel, E.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Narrative reviews conclude that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) produces better outcomes than individual-based treatment for alcoholism and drug abuse problems (e.g., [Epstein, E. E., & McCrady, B. S. (1998). Behavioral couples treatment of alcohol and drug use disorders: Current status and

  17. Conservatism and the Underidentification of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Andrew L.; Kauffman, James M.; Plageman, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Underidentification of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD; emotional disturbance or ED in federal language) is a critical issue, perhaps explainable in part by causal attributions of problem behavior associated with conservatism. Conservatism in 58 counties in the state of California was measured by finding the percentage of…

  18. Chewing and spitting out food as a compensatory behavior in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youn Joo; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Young-Chul

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that chewing and spitting out food may be associated with severe eating-related pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between chewing and spitting, and other symptoms of eating disorders. We hypothesized that patients who chew and spit as a compensatory behavior have more severe eating-related pathology than patients who have never engaged in chewing and spitting behavior. We divided 359 patients with eating disorders into two groups according to whether they engaged in chewing and spitting as a compensatory behavior to lose weight or not. After comparing eating-related pathology between the two groups, we examined factors associated with pathologic eating behaviors using logistic regression analysis. Among our 359 participants, 24.5% reported having engaged in chewing and spitting as a compensatory behavior. The chewing and spitting (CHSP+) group showed more severe eating disorder symptoms and suicidal behaviors. This group also had significantly higher scores on subscales that measured drive for thinness, bulimia, and impulse regulation on the EDI-2, Food Craving Questionnaire, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. Chewing and spitting is a common compensatory behavior among patients with eating disorders and is associated with more-pathologic eating behaviors and higher scores on psychometric tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Sigafoos, J.; Green, V.A.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have particular difficulty with behavioral flexibility, but the knowledge base on behavioral flexibility in children with a diagnosis of ASD plus intellectual disability (ID) compared to children with ID only is still scarce. The aim of the present study

  20. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A 1-Year Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe an adapted version of dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with bipolar disorder. Method: The dialectical behavior therapy intervention is delivered over 1 year and consists of two modalities: family skills training (conducted with individual family units) and individual therapy. The acute treatment period (6 months)…

  1. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders is here to stay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrews, Gavin; Newby, Jill M; Williams, Alishia D

    Anxiety disorders are common and disabling. Cognitive behavior therapy is the treatment of choice but is often difficult to obtain. Automated, internet-delivered, cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) courses may be an answer. There are three recent systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials

  2. Gender Differences in the Maintenance of Response to Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmingham, Kim L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential differential responses in men and women to cognitive behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Fifty-two men and 56 women diagnosed with PTSD participated in randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy for PTSD. Participants were randomly allocated to either (a) exposure-only…

  3. Adherence to Treatment in a Behavioral Intervention Curriculum for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Timothy R.; Symons, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Parents (N = 21) of children with autism spectrum disorders responded to a survey on adherence to skills instruction and problem behavior management strategies they had previously been observed to master in a standardized training curriculum based on the principles of applied behavior analysis. Survey items were guided by existing models of and…

  4. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children with ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J.; Nicholas, Jude; Lundervold, Astri J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children…

  5. HIV Risk Behavior in Persons with Severe Mental Disorders in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV risk behavior was significantly related to alcohol use (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Mental health services provide an important context for HIV/AIDS interventions in resource‑constrained countries like Nigeria. Keywords: Human immuno virus, Mental health, Psychiatric patients, Risk behavior, Severe mental disorders ...

  6. Reliability of the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Behavior Problems for Children (ASD-BPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Rivet, Tessa T.

    2008-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention has occurred with respect to the diagnosis and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) of children and youth. Furthermore, the rationale for using the most restrictive of the applied behavior analysis methods and medication has been largely based on the presence of severe challenging behaviors such as…

  7. The Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Sulkowski, Michael L.; Nadeau, Josh; Lewin, Adam B.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Mutch, P. Jane; Jones, Anna M.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the phenomenology and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth with ASD (N = 102; range 7-16 years). The presence of suicidal thoughts and behavior was assessed through the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Child and Parent Versions. Children and parents completed measures of anxiety severity,…

  8. Effects of Animal-Assisted Therapy on a Student with an Emotional/Behavioral Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Val Rae M.

    2008-01-01

    This single-subject action research project examines the effects of animal-assisted therapy on the self-esteem and classroom behaviors of a student with an emotional/behavioral disorder. An 18- year-old male attending a special education school in northeastern St. Paul participated in animal-assisted therapy research for four weeks. Quantitative…

  9. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Sexual Harassment in Italian Male and Female University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.

  10. Risperidone in the treatment of behavioral disorders associated with autism in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Canitano

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Canitano, Valeria ScandurraDivision of Child Neuropsychiatry, University Hospital of Siena, Siena, ItalyAbstract: This is a review of the clinical trials investigating the efficacy and safety of risperidone in the treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD. The main clinical characteristics are impairment in social skills, communication difficulties, repetitive movements and behaviors, including stereotypies. Pharmacotherapy is mainly directed at the so-called target symptoms, ie, behavioral disorders and the various kinds of repetitions associated with ASD. According to the available data, risperidone seems to be moderately efficacious and safe for treating behavioral disorders. 4 double blind controlled trial. 3 reanalysis studies, and 12 open studies have documented the role of risperidone in children with ASD. Controlled studies have been thoroughly considered in this review.Keywords: autism, pervasive developmental disorders, risperidone

  11. Behavioral and Psychological Aspects of Exercise across Stages of Eating Disorder Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Higgins, M. K.; St George, Sara M.; Rosenzweig, Ilyssa; Schaefer, Lauren M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Henning, Taylor M.; Preston, Brittany F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between behavioral and psychological aspects of exercise and eating disorder recovery. Participants were categorized as having an eating disorder (n = 53), partially recovered (n = 15), fully recovered (n = 20), or non-eating disorder controls (n = 67). Groups did not differ significantly in time spent exercising, but did differ in exercise intensity, guilt related exercise, obsessive exercise cognitions, and appearance/weight management and stress/mood management motivations for exercise. Results support the importance of measuring psychological aspects of exercise in particular across the course of an eating disorder. PMID:27463591

  12. Luttinger liquid behavior of weakly disordered quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palevski, A.; Levy, E.; Karpovski, M.; Tsukernik, A.; Dwir, B.; Kapon, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The talk will be devoted to the electronic transport in quantum nano wires. The temperature dependence of the conductance in long V-groove quantum wires fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures is consistent with recent theories given within the framework of the Luttinger liquid model, in the limit of weakly disordered wires. We show that for the relatively small amount of disorder in our quantum wires, the value of the interaction parameter g is g=0.66, which is the expected value for GaAs. However, samples with a higher level of disorder show conductance with stronger temperature dependence, which exceeds the range of validity of a perturbation theory. Trying to fit such data with perturbation-theory models leads inevitably to wrong (lower) values of g

  13. What Cognitive Behavioral Techniques Do Therapists Report Using when Delivering Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for the Eating Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Glenn; Stringer, Hannah; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians commonly "drift" away from using proven therapeutic techniques. This study examined the degree to which such drift occurs among cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) clinicians working with a specific clinical population--adults with eating disorders. Method: The study used a correlational design. The participants were…

  14. REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson′s disease: A case from India confirmed with polysomnographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder is a condition characterized by dream enactment. This condition may accompany neurodegenerative disorders. However, only a few reports from India are available, that too, without any polysomnographic evidence. We are reporting a case of REM sleep behavior disorder with polysomnographic evidence.

  15. Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep Mimicking REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A New Form of Periodic Limb Movement Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaig, Carles; Iranzo, Alex; Pujol, Montserrat; Perez, Hernando; Santamaria, Joan

    2017-03-01

    To describe a group of patients referred because of abnormal sleep behaviors that were suggestive of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in whom video-polysomnography ruled out RBD and showed the reported behaviors associated with vigorous periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS). Clinical history and video-polysomnography review of patients identified during routine visits in a sleep center. Patients were 15 men and 2 women with a median age of 66 (range: 48-77) years. Reported sleep behaviors were kicking (n = 17), punching (n = 16), gesticulating (n = 8), falling out of bed (n = 5), assaulting the bed partner (n = 2), talking (n = 15), and shouting (n = 10). Behaviors resulted in injuries in 3 bed partners and 1 patient. Twelve (70.6%) patients were not aware of displaying abnormal sleep behaviors that were only noticed by their bed partners. Ten (58.8%) patients recalled unpleasant dreams such as being attacked or chased. Video-polysomnography showed (1) frequent and vigorous stereotyped PLMS involving the lower limbs, upper limbs, and trunk (median PLMS index 61.2; median PLMS index in NREM sleep 61.9; during REM sleep only 8 patients had PLMS and their median PLMS index in REM sleep was 39.5); (2) abnormal behaviors (e.g., punching, groaning) during some of the arousals that immediately followed PLMS in NREM sleep; and (3) ruled out RBD and other sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea. Dopaminergic agents were prescribed in 14 out of the 17 patients and resulted in improvement of abnormal sleep behaviors and unpleasant dreams in all of them. After dopaminergic treatment, follow-up video-polysomnography in 7 patients showed a decrease in the median PLMS index from baseline (108.9 vs. 19.2, p = .002) and absence of abnormal behaviors during the arousals. Abnormal sleep behaviors and unpleasant dreams simulating RBD symptomatology may occur in patients with severe PLMS. In these cases, video-polysomnography ruled out RBD and

  16. Child temperament, parenting discipline style, and daytime behavior in childhood sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens-Stively, J; Frank, N; Smith, A; Hagino, O; Spirito, A; Arrigan, M; Alario, A J

    1997-10-01

    Fifty-two children without significant sleep disturbance seen at a primary care clinic for well-child care were compared on measures of temperament, parenting style, daytime behavior, and overall sleep disturbance to three diagnostic subgroups identified in a pediatric sleep clinic: children with obstructive sleep apnea (n = 33), parasomnias (night terrors, sleepwalking, etc.) (n = 16), and behavioral sleep disorders (limit-setting disorder, etc.) (n = 31). The mean age of the entire sample was 5.7 years. Temperamental emotionality in the behavioral sleep disorders group was associated with a higher level of sleep disturbance (p parenting laxness was associated with sleep disturbance in the general pediatric population (p parenting styles and daytime disruptive behaviors were more likely to be associated with the milder sleep disturbances found in children in a primary care setting.

  17. Dizziness and progressively poor memory for one year, combined with epilepsy, mental and behavior disorder for 19 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun JIANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that neurosyphilis has various brain MRI manifestations. In this report, we present a rare case with DWI lace-like high signal in cerebral cortex, which is usually seen in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. A 50-year-old male developed dizziness, poor memory, seizures, mental and behavioral disorders, and was admitted to our Emergency Department, where he experienced sudden left hemiplegia. Rapid plasma regain (RPR and treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA was positive in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. CSF: 14-3-3 protein (+. Brain MRI showed high FLAIR signals in the right frontal lobe, temporal lobe, insular lobe, occipital lobe and thalamus before the treatment. As for this patient, it was difficult to differentiate CJD from neurosyphilis at first. He was given penicillin treatment and responded well. Those lesions in brain MRI decreased after treatment. This case was reported to raise the awareness of early treatment of neruosyphilis and showed a special DWI lace-like image of this disease. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.016

  18. Use of cognitive behavioral therapy and token economy to alleviate dysfunctional behavior in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Flavia Coelho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT with the Token Economy (TE technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11 on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior, a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in 7 categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.

  19. Use of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Token Economy to Alleviate Dysfunctional Behavior in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luzia Flavia; Barbosa, Deise Lima Fernandes; Rizzutti, Sueli; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Miranda, Monica Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Medication has proved highly efficacious as a means of alleviating general symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, many patients remain functionally impaired by inappropriate behavior. The present study analyzed the use of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with the Token-Economy (TE) technique to alleviate problem behavior for 25 participants with ADHD, all children (19 boys, mean age 10.11) on long-term methylphenidate medication, who were given 20 CBT sessions with 10 weeks of TE introduced as of session 5. Their ten most acute problem behaviors were selected and written records kept. On weekdays, parents recorded each inappropriate behavior and provided a suitable model for their actions. At weekly sessions, problem behaviors were counted and incident-free participants rewarded with a token. To analyze improvement (less frequent problem behavior), a list of 11 behavioral categories was rated: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routines, poor self-care, verbal/physical aggression, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behavior, antisocial behavior, lacking in initiative and distraction. Two CBT specialists categorized behaviors and an ADHD specialist ruled on discrepancies. Statistical analyses used were Generalized Estimating Equations with Poisson distribution and autoregressive order correlation structure. In the course of the sessions, problematic behaviors decreased significantly in seven categories: impulsiveness, hyperactivity, disorganization, disobeying rules and routine, poor self-care, low frustration tolerance, compulsive behaviors, and antisocial behaviors. Caregiver attitudes to children's inappropriate behavior were discussed and reshaped. As functional improvement was observed on applying TE for 10 weeks, this type of intervention may be useful as an auxiliary strategy combined with medication.

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…

  1. Genetic modification of cerebral arterial wall: implications for prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Anantha; Santhanam, R; Katusic, Zvonimir S

    2006-10-01

    Genetic modification of cerebral vessels represents a promising and novel approach for prevention and/or treatment of various cerebral vascular disorders, including cerebral vasospasm. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the use of gene transfer to the cerebral arteries for prevention and/or treatment of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We also discuss the recent developments in vascular therapeutics, involving the autologous use of progenitor cells for repair of damaged vessels, as well as a cell-based gene delivery approach for the prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

  2. THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE TRAINING ON BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS OF BOYS WITH EXTERNALIZED BEHAVIOR DISORDER IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosar Moghaddam POUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence on the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder in Primary Schools. Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted along with a pre-test, post-test, with a control group and a follow-up test. For sampling, 40 students identified with Externalized behavioral problems through the Teacher Report Form (TRF and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were chosen and randomly divided into two groups (20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group received emotional intelligence training program in 17 sessions (2 sessions per week, 60 minutes per session and the control group received no training beyond their regular school program. After two months, in order to examine the stability (durability of training effect, the follow-up test was conducted. Finally, the data obtained were analyzed using the statistical method of generalized estimating equations. Results: The results showed that the intervention program had created a significant difference between the scores of the experimental and control group (p<0.001 and the rate of behavioral problems (aggression, rule breaking occurrence has dropped. This was true for the follow-up results too. Conclusions: It can be concluded that Emotional Intelligence Training decreases the behavior problems of boys with Externalized behavior disorder and helps to prevent high occurrence of these problems.

  3. Epidemiology, Comorbidity, and Behavioral Genetics of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Few, Lauren R; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2015-04-01

    Psychopathy is theorized as a disorder of personality and affective deficits while antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosis is primarily behaviorally based. While ASPD and psychopathy are similar and are highly comorbid with each other, they are not synonymous. ASPD has been well studied in community samples with estimates of its lifetime prevalence ranging from 1-4% of the general population. 4,5 In contrast, psychopathy is almost exclusively investigated within criminal populations so that its prevalence in the general population has been inferred by psychopathic traits rather than disorder (1%). Differences in etiology and comorbidity with each other and other psychiatric disorders of these two disorders are also evident. The current article will briefly review the epidemiology, etiology, and comorbidity of ASPD and psychopathy, focusing predominately on research completed in community and clinical populations. This paper aims to highlight ASPD and psychopathy as related, but distinct disorders.

  4. Evaluation of therapeutic effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy in patients with panic disorder using serial 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Song, Ho Chun; Yang, Jong Chul; Lee, Byeong Il; Heo, Young Jun; Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Joon; Park, Tae Jin

    2006-01-01

    Although several neuroanatomical models of panic disorder have been proposed, little is known regarding the neurological mechanisms underlying cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder. This study was performed to identify the brain structures that show changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after CBT in patients with panic disorder. Seven patients who were diagnosed as panic disorder by DSM-IV were treated with CBT for 8 weeks and twelve healthy volunteers joined in this study. Serial 99m Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT images were aquisited and PDSS-SR (Self-Report version of Panic Disorder Severity Scale) and ACQ (Agoraphobic Cognitive Question) scores were measured just before and after CBT in all patients. Data were analyzed using SPM2. Subjective symptoms were improved, and PDSS-SR and ACQ scores were significantly reduced (14.9 ± 3.9 vs. 7.0 ± 1.8, ρ < 0.05; 30.3 ± 8.5 vs. 21.6 ± 3.4, ρ < 0.05, respectively) after CBT in panic patients. Before CBT, a significant increase of rCBF was found in the cingulate gylus, thalamus, midbrain, both medial frontal and temporal lobes of the panic patients compared to the normal volunteers. After CBT, we observed a significant rCBF decrease in the left parahippocamus, right insula and cingulate gyrus, both frontal and temporal lobes, and a significant rCBF increase in both the occipital lobes, left insula, both frontal and left parietal lobes. These data suggested that CBT is effective for panic disorder and diminish the activity of the brain areas associated with fear in panic disorder

  5. Evaluation of therapeutic effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy in patients with panic disorder using serial {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Song, Ho Chun; Yang, Jong Chul; Lee, Byeong Il; Heo, Young Jun; Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Joon [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Jin [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Although several neuroanatomical models of panic disorder have been proposed, little is known regarding the neurological mechanisms underlying cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder. This study was performed to identify the brain structures that show changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after CBT in patients with panic disorder. Seven patients who were diagnosed as panic disorder by DSM-IV were treated with CBT for 8 weeks and twelve healthy volunteers joined in this study. Serial {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT images were aquisited and PDSS-SR (Self-Report version of Panic Disorder Severity Scale) and ACQ (Agoraphobic Cognitive Question) scores were measured just before and after CBT in all patients. Data were analyzed using SPM2. Subjective symptoms were improved, and PDSS-SR and ACQ scores were significantly reduced (14.9 {+-} 3.9 vs. 7.0 {+-} 1.8, {rho} < 0.05; 30.3 {+-} 8.5 vs. 21.6 {+-} 3.4, {rho} < 0.05, respectively) after CBT in panic patients. Before CBT, a significant increase of rCBF was found in the cingulate gylus, thalamus, midbrain, both medial frontal and temporal lobes of the panic patients compared to the normal volunteers. After CBT, we observed a significant rCBF decrease in the left parahippocamus, right insula and cingulate gyrus, both frontal and temporal lobes, and a significant rCBF increase in both the occipital lobes, left insula, both frontal and left parietal lobes. These data suggested that CBT is effective for panic disorder and diminish the activity of the brain areas associated with fear in panic disorder.

  6. [Development of sexuality and motivational aspects of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Sexual behavior and formation of sexuality in men with obsessive-compulsive disorder is one of the pressing issues in contemporary medicine. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the development of intrusive thoughts, memories, movements and actions, as well as a variety of pathological fears (phobias). Increase in the number of patients with this pathology in modern clinical practice of neurotic disorders, the young age of the patients and as a result violation of interpersonal, communicational and sexual nature is quite apparent. The study involved 35 men aged 23 to 47 years with clinical signs of OCD. We determined the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms using the Yale-Brown scale. We established the presence of a mild degree of disorder in 34,3% of cases; in 48,6% of cases disorder of moderate severity was diagnosed; remaining 17.1% were assessed subclinical condition of OCD at the applicable scale. The system of motivational maintenance of sexual behavior in men with obsessive-compulsive disorders is investigated. Motives of sexual behavior of the investigated men with the pathology are determined. The presented research in men with OCD have established multidimensionality and complexity of motivational ensuring of sexual behavior.

  7. Online social networking addiction among college students in Singapore: Comorbidity with behavioral addiction and affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Koh, Yvaine Yee Woen

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of addiction to social networking sites/platforms (SNS) and its comorbidity with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder among college students in Singapore. 1110 college students (age: M=21.46, SD=1.80) in Singapore completed measures assessing online social networking, unhealthy food intake and shopping addiction as well as depression, anxiety and mania. Descriptive analyses were conducted to investigate the prevalence and comorbidity of behavioral addiction and affective disorder. Chi-square tests were used to examine gender differences. The prevalence rates of SNS, food and shopping addiction were 29.5%, 4.7% and 9.3% respectively for the total sample. SNS addiction was found to co-occur with food addiction (3%), shopping addiction (5%), and both food and shopping addiction (1%). The comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder were 21% for depression, 27.7% for anxiety, and 26.1% for mania. Compared with the total sample, students with SNS addiction reported higher comorbidity rates with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder. In general, females as compared to males reported higher comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder. SNS addiction has a high prevalence rate among college students in Singapore. Students with SNS addiction were vulnerable to experience other behavior addiction as well as affective disorder, especially among females. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Impulsive behaviors in female patients with eating disorders in a university hospital in northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Yu Liang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders (EDs are often associated with various impulsive behaviors. This study investigated the prevalence of impulsive behaviors in ED patients in Taiwan. Three hundred sixteen female outpatients with ED and 142 psychiatric controls were recruited. All participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing lifetime presence of impulsive behaviors, including suicide, self-injury, stealing, alcohol use, illicit drug use, excessive spending, sexual promiscuity, and general psychopathology. More than 60% of the ED patients had at least one impulsive behavior. The most common impulsive behaviors among ED patients were excessive spending (34.9%, deliberate self-harm (32.7%, and stealing (26.3%. However, there were no significant differences in prevalences of any impulsive behaviors between ED patients and psychiatric controls. Clinicians should routinely assess and treat impulsive behaviors in female psychiatric patients with negative affectivity, regardless of the presence of ED, to help prevent potential adverse outcomes related to impulsive behaviors.

  9. A Preliminary Investigation of Associations between Disorders of Behavior and Language in Children with Chronic Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jeanne B.; Ruppert, Elizabeth S.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between language and behavior disorders was investigated. The teacher and parents of 12 children in a special public preschool for children with documented chronic otitis media and language disorders completed the Louisville Behavior Checklist. Most deviant behavior was reported on scales measuring cognitive and social-interactive…

  10. Cerebral metabolism in HIV infected patients with non-cognitive disorder using single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Qi

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: HIV infection induces inflammation in basal ganglia region, frontal lobe and parietal lobe before non-cognitive disorder occurs after HIV infection. However, the basal ganga region sees more neurons loss.

  11. Tourette Syndrome: Overview and Classroom Interventions. A Complex Neurobehavioral Disorder Which May Involve Learning Problems, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms, and Stereotypical Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ramona A.; Collins, Edward C.

    Tourette Syndrome is conceptualized as a neurobehavioral disorder, with behavioral aspects that are sometimes difficult for teachers to understand and deal with. The disorder has five layers of complexity: (1) observable multiple motor, vocal, and cognitive tics and sensory involvement; (2) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; (3)…

  12. The relationship of the Severe Personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Setareh Jani; Mehri Molaee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Given the disruptive effects of personality disorders on personal and family life, it is essential to recognize their predisposing factors to understand them more accurately, and identify their preventive measures treatment facilitators. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship of severe personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. Methods: The present...

  13. [Television and eating disorders. Study of adolescent eating behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, A P; Verticale, M S; Vallero, E; Bellone, S; Nespoli, L

    1997-06-01

    The media, mainly TV, play a significant social and cultural role and may affect the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia nervosa. Their influence acts mainly by favoring a tall and thin body as the only fashionable for female adolescents: your social success depends primarily and totally by your physical appearance and you can, (and must), shape your body as you like better. Our research aims t analyze the attitude of adolescent people toward the TV and to investigate on: 1) time spent watching TV programs; 2) the influence of TV on the personal choices of goods to buy; 3) the ideal body images; 4) choice of TV programs. Sixty-seven healthy adolescents (36 F-31 M) were included in our study as controls together with 24 female adolescents with eating disorders (DCA) diagnosed according to the DSM-IV and EAT/26 criteria. Our results show a psychological dependence of DCA adolescents from the TV (longer period of time spent watching TV programs, buying attitudes more influenced by TV advertising). The thin and tall body image is preferred by the DCA girls as well as by the controls; however the body appearance and proportions have a predominant and utmost importance only for the eating disorder females. The masculine subjects instead have a preference for a female and masculine opulent body appearance. To prevent the observed increase in prevalence and incidence of eating disorders among adolescents, it is appropriate to control the messages, myths and false hood propagated by media, TV in particular.

  14. Cerebral Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-02-01

    protocol for cerebral vasculitis should include initial MRI to assess the degree of parenchymal damage and to detect vessel wall changes, in particular in large-vessel vasculitis. If the results are ambiguous or medium-sized arteries are affected (beyond the spatial resolution of MRI DSA should follow. Small-vessel vasculitides entirely evade detection by vascular imaging and consequently require brain or leptomeningeal biopsy . Exclusion of differential diagnoses: Important differential diagnoses include RCVS,  intracranial atherosclerosis Moyamoy disease, autoimmune encephalopathies and infectious disorder such as varicella zoster virus (VZV vasculopathies or endocarditis. Therapy: Vasculitis is a serious disease that is potentially fatal or leads to permanent disability and requires rapid institution of immunosuppressive treatment. Possible therapeutic options include glucocorticoids, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, intravenous immunoglobulins and mycophenolate mofetil.

  15. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders. Studies with positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.R. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.; Selin, C.E.; Sumida, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were examined in patients with unipolar depression (N = 11), bipolar depression (N = 5), mania (N = 5), bipolar mixed states (N = 3), and in normal controls (N = 9) using positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18. All subjects were studied supine under ambient room conditions with eyes open. Bipolar depressed and mixed patients had supratentorial whole brain glucose metabolic rates that were significantly lower than those of the other comparison groups. The whole brain metabolic rates for patients with bipolar depression increased going from depression or a mixed state to a euthymic or manic state. Patients with unipolar depression showed a significantly lower ratio of the metabolic rate of the caudate nucleus, divided by that of the hemisphere as a whole, when compared with normal controls and patients with bipolar depression

  16. High Altitude Cerebral Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    described neuropathological findings of cerebral edema and wi4espread petechial hemorrhages in two HAPE fatalities and later reported (52...lethargy, thirst, indigestion, hysterical outburst o: other behavior disturbances, decreased concentration, fever , couhh and peripheral edema (52...autopsy results from the two fatalities in their series. In both cases multiple, widespread petechial hemorrhages were noted throughout the brain. One

  17. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prazeres AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.Keywords: dysmorphophobia, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, literature review

  18. New developments in behavioral treatments for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiluk, Brian D; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2013-12-01

    After decades of defining which behavioral treatments are effective for treating addictions, the focus has shifted to exploring how these treatments work, how best to disseminate and implement them in the community, and what underlying factors can be manipulated in order to increase the rates of treatment success. These pursuits have led to advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of treatment effects, the incorporation of technology into the delivery of current treatments and development of novel applications to support relapse prevention, as well as the inclusion of neurocognitive approaches to target the automatic and higher-order processes underlying addictive behaviors. Although such advances have the promise of leading to better treatments for more individuals, there is still much work required for these promises to be realized. The following review will highlight some of these recent developments and provide a glimpse into the future of behavioral treatments.

  19. Pharmacologic behavior management of pediatric dental patients diagnosed with attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerins, Carolyn A; McWhorter, Alton G; Seale, N Sue

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a survey of Texas pediatric dentists to determine: (1) the percentage of patients they treat with attention deficit disorder (ADD)/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); (2) the behavior management techniques that are utilized to treat their patients who suffer from ADD/ADHD; and (3) the relative success rates of these techniques in their practices. A 17-question, single-answer, multiple choice survey was mailed to 343 Texas pediatric dentists. The mailing list was obtained from American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry and Texas Academy of Pediatric Dentistry member rosters. One mailing was sent, including a self-addressed stomped envelope, for returned responses. A 54% response rate (186 surveys) revealed that nitrous oxide was the most frequently used pharmacologic behavior management technique; however, demerol/promethazine/nitrous oxide was rated as effective most often for treating ADD/ADHD patients. Practitioners believe the incidence of attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is increasing, and they are familiar with the medications used to treat the conditions. Texas pediatric dentists are using a variety of sedation techniques and are interested in developing guidelines for sedation of these patients.

  20. Cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenan, T.J.; Grossman, R.I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews retrospectively MR, CT, and angiographic findings in patients with cerebral vasculitis in order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the various imaging modalities, as well as the spectrum of imaging abnormalities in this disease entity. Studies were retrospectively reviewed in 12 patients with cerebral vasculitis proved by means of angiography and/or brain biopsy

  1. Critical behavior of spin systems with quenched disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtazaev, Akai K.; Kamilov, Ibragimkhan K.; Babaev, Albert B.

    2006-01-01

    A static critical behavior of three-dimensional diluted quenched Ising model on a cubic lattice is studied by Monte-Carlo methods. The static critical exponents of a specific heat α, susceptibility γ, magnetization β and exponent of correlation radius ν in a wide interval of change the values of spin concentrations p are calculated on the basis of the finite-size scaling theory using the common technique. The problem about universality classes of critical behavior for three-dimensional diluted systems is considered

  2. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  3. [Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder in the DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plener, Paul L; Kapusta, Nestor D; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) and Suicidal Behavior Disorder (SBD) were included as diagnostic categories in Section 3 of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Thus, these diagnostic entities were not recognized as formal clinical diagnoses, but rather for the first time clearly defined in a classificatory system to standardize further research in this field. This paper introduces both concepts and addresses the discussion about NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder based on a selective review of the literature. First studies using the new definitions are introduced. In Germany the prevalence of NSSI is estimated to lie at about 4 %, of SBD at about 9 %. It can be expected that in the future the new definitions will lead to a better comparability of study outcomes with regards to NSSI and suicidal behavior disorder.

  4. Adapting Dialectical Behavior Therapy for the Treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Brad; Van Orden, Kim

    2016-12-31

    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), created by Marsha Linehan, has been shown to be an effective therapy for the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and for suicidal and self-harming behavior. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a complex post-traumatic disorder which is highly comorbid with BPD, shares a number of clinical features with BPD, and which like BPD features a high degree of suicidality. The DID treatment literature emphasizes the importance of a staged approach, beginning with the creation of a safe therapeutic frame prior to addressing traumatic material; DBT is also a staged treatment, in which behavioral and safety issues are addressed in Stage 1, and trauma work reserved for Stage 2. The authors describe adapting DBT, and especially its techniques for Stage 1 safety work, for work with DID patients. Basic theoretical principles are described and illustrated with a case example.

  5. What's New in Treating Inpatients With Personality Disorders?: Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Old-Fashioned, Good Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah; Platt, Lois M

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric unit inpatients often have serious mental illnesses with comorbid personality disorders. Mental illnesses usually respond favorably to medication and psychotherapy, but personality disorders do not. Two personality disorders are commonly seen on inpatient units: borderline and antisocial. These personality disorders may destabilize the milieu with disruptive behaviors and present a challenge to nurses. Difficult patient behaviors and therapeutic responses by nurses are examined. Dialectical behavior therapy techniques and good communication skills may be used by nurses to (a) interact therapeutically with patients with personality disorders and (b) protect other patients and the milieu. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Multicomponent cognitive-behavioral therapy for intermittent explosive disorder by videoconferencing: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Osma, Jorge; Crespo, Elena; Castellano, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral Therapy (CBT) for the treatment of Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has proved to be effective, with moderate to large effect sizes both in individual and group interventions. Videoconferencing has been used effectively to treat different mental disorders but its use for IED patients is as yet unknown. The aim of this study is to provide preliminary evidence of the possibility of treating IED by videoconference. We present a case-study experiment of a Spanish male, a...

  7. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) among children with anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nilgun Ongider-Gregory; Burak Baykara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It was aimed to investigate efficacy of Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) in childhood anxiety disorders by pre and post therapy. Method: Trial sample was obtained from an university outpatient child psychiatry clinic. Therapy group (n=12) was selected from children and their parents whom was diagnosed as DSM-IV childhood anxiety disorder. And comparation group (n=12) was selected from children and their parents whom was in the waiting list. The total sample includes...

  8. Clinical features of Parkinson’s disease with and without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ye; Zhu, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Ondo, William G.; Wu, Yun-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Background Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are two distinct clinical diseases but they share some common pathological and anatomical characteristics. This study aims to confirm the clinical features of RBD in Chinese PD patients. Methods One hundred fifty PD patients were enrolled from the Parkinson`s disease and Movement Disorders Center in  Department of Neurology, Shanghai General Hospital from January 2013 to August 2014. This study examined P...

  9. Brief Cognitive Behavior Therapy in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder: A Preliminary Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Pinjarkar, Ravikant G; Sudhir, Paulomi M; Math, Suresh Bada

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice in anxiety disorders. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness brief CBT in social anxiety. Aims: We examined the effectiveness of a brief CBT of six sessions in patients with social anxiety disorder. Settings and Design: A single case design study baseline; post and 1 month follow-up was adopted. Materials and Methods: Seven patients with a DSM IV diagnosis of social anxiety underwent 6 weekly sessions of bri...

  10. Mindset of Paraprofessionals Serving Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Justin D.; Van Loan, Christopher L.; Werts, Margaret Gessler

    2018-01-01

    As schools across the United States move toward more inclusive models and as caseloads for special education teachers increase, special education paraprofessionals are being hired to fill service delivery gaps. Most often, paraprofessionals are asked to provide social and behavioral support to students with disabilities, and much of their time is…

  11. Social Anxiety and Aggression in Behaviorally Disordered Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ketty P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-nine boys in classes for students with behavioral disturbances were given questionnaires on trait anxiety, social anxiety, empathy, depression, and self-esteem, while teachers rated their aggression. Results showed that anxiety and empathy scores were not correlated with aggression, while social anxiety was positively correlated with trait…

  12. A comparison of the behavioral and emotional disorders of primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study investigated the emotional and behavioral problems of orphans in Rakai District, Uganda, and to suggest interventions. Studies, elsewhere, have shown orphans to have high levels of psychological problems. However, in Uganda such studies are limited and no specific interventions have been ...

  13. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  14. Eating disorder behaviors are increasing: findings from two sequential community surveys in South Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillipa J Hay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increase in the prevalence of eating disorders is inconsistent. Our aim was to determine change in the population point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors over a 10-year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eating disorder behaviors were assessed in consecutive general population surveys of men and women conducted in 1995 (n = 3001, 72% respondents and 2005 (n = 3047, 63.1% respondents. Participants were randomly sampled from households in rural and metropolitan South Australia. There was a significant (all p<0.01 and over two-fold increase in the prevalence of binge eating, purging (self-induced vomiting and/or laxative or diuretic misuse and strict dieting or fasting for weight or shape control among both genders. The most common diagnosis in 2005 was either binge eating disorder or other "eating disorders not otherwise specified" (EDNOS; n = 119, 4.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this population sample the point prevalence of eating disorder behaviors increased over the past decade. Cases of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as currently defined, remain uncommon.

  15. Relationship between Risk Behavior for Eating Disorders and Dental Caries and Dental Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Lorenna Mendes Temóteo; Fernandes, Liege Helena Freitas; Aragão, Amanda Silva; Aguiar, Yêska Paola Costa; Auad, Sheyla Márcia; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Sérgio D'Ávila Lins Bezerra; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between risk behavior for eating disorders (EDs) and dental erosion and caries. A controlled cross-sectional study was conducted in Brazil, involving 850 randomly selected female adolescents. After evaluating risk behavior for eating disorders through the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh, 12 adolescents were identified with severe risk behavior for EDs and matched to 48 adolescents without such risk. Dental examinations, anthropometric measurements, and eating habits and oral hygiene were performed. Adolescents with high severity eating disorder condition were not more likely to show dental caries ( p = 0.329; OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 0.35-13.72) or dental erosion ( p = 0.590; OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 0.56-9.70). Adolescents with high body mass index (BMI) were five times more likely to have high severity eating disorder condition ( p = 0.031; OR = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.61-23.07). Therefore, high severity risk behavior for EDs was not significantly associated with dental caries and dental erosion. However, high BMI was a risk factor for developing eating disorders and should be an alert for individuals with this condition.

  16. Anxiety disorders and behavioral inhibition in preschool children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Frank W; Backes, Aline; Sander, Charlotte S; Weber, Monika; von Gontard, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of anxiety disorders in preschool children and their associations with behavioral inhibition as a temperamental precursor. A representative sample of 1,342 children aged 4–7 years (M = 6;1, SD = 4.80) was examined with a standardized parental questionnaire, including items referring to anxiety disorders at the current age and behavioral inhibition at the age of 2 years. The total prevalence of anxiety disorders was 22.2 %. Separation anxiety (SAD) affected 7 %, social phobia (SOC) 10.7 %, specific phobia (PHOB) 9.8 % and depression/generalized anxiety (MDD/GAD) 3.4 % of children. The prevalence of most types of anxiety was higher in girls except for separation anxiety, which affected more boys. Behavioral inhibition in the second year of life was associated with all types of anxiety. Anxiety disorders are common but frequently overlooked in preschool children. Different subtypes can be differentiated and are often preceded by behavioral inhibition. Assessment, prevention and treatment of anxiety disorders are recommended in preschool children.

  17. Characteristics of stress-coping behaviors in patients with bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Eunsoo; Chang, Jae Seung; Choi, Sungwon; Ha, Tae Hyon; Cha, Boseok; Cho, Hyun Sang; Park, Je Min; Lee, Byung Dae; Lee, Young Min; Choi, Yoonmi; Ha, Kyooseob

    2014-08-15

    Appropriate stress-coping strategies are needed to improve the outcome in the treatment of bipolar disorders, as stressful life events may aggravate the course of the illness. The aim of this study was to compare stress-coping behaviors between bipolar patients and healthy controls. A total of 206 participants comprising 103 bipolar patients fulfilling the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Axis I disorder fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for bipolar I and II disorders and controls matched by age and sex were included in this study. Stress-coping behaviors were assessed using a 53-item survey on a newly-designed behavioral checklist. The characteristics of stress-coping behaviors between the two groups were compared by using t-test and factor analysis. Social stress-coping behaviors such as 'journey', 'socializing with friends', and 'talking something over' were significantly less frequent in bipolar patients than controls. On the other hand, pleasurable-seeking behaviors such as 'smoking', 'masturbation', and 'stealing' were significantly more frequent in bipolar patients than controls. These results suggest that bipolar patients may have more maladaptive stress-coping strategies than normal controls. It is recommended to develop and apply psychosocial programs to reduce maladaptive stress-coping behaviors of bipolar patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of the Good Behavior Game on the Behavioral, Emotional, and Social Problems of Children with Psychiatric Disorders in Special Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Wubbels, Theo; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Maras, Athanasios; Struiksma, A. J. Chris; Hopman, Juliette A. B.; Tick, Nouchka T.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching children with psychiatric disorders can be a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in children with psychiatric disorders, and their teachers, in special education. Teachers were trained by licensed school consultants to implement positive behavior support strategies to…

  19. Inpatient Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Severe Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E for eating disorders has been developed and evaluated only in outpatient setting. Aim of the paper is to describe a novel model of inpatient treatment, termed inpatient CBT-E, indicated for patients with an eating disorder of clinical severity not manageable in an outpatient setting or that failed outpatient treatment. Inpatient CBT-E is derived by the outpatients CBT-E with some adaptations to rend the treatments suitable for an inpatient setting. The principal adaptations include: 1 multidisciplinary and non-eclectic team composed of physicians, psychologists, dieticians and nurses all trained in CBT; 2 assisted eating; 3 group sessions; and a CBT family module for patients younger than 18 years. The treatment lasts 20 weeks (13 for inpatients followed by seven weeks of residential day treatment and, as CBT-E, is divided in four stages and can be administered in a focused form (CBT-F or in a broad form (CBT-B. A randomized control trial is evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment.

  20. Orthorexia nervosa: a frequent eating disordered behavior in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-García, C; Papaianni, M C; Caglioti, F; Procopio, L; Nisticò, C G; Bombardiere, L; Ammendolia, A; Rizza, P; De Fazio, P; Capranica, L

    2012-12-01

    Striving for enhancing athletic performance, many sportsmen undergo rigid dietary habits, which could lead to eating disorders (EDs) or Orthorexia Nervosa (ON), a psychopathological condition characterized by the obsession for high quality food. The aim of the study was to examine the occurrence of ON in athletes and to verify the relationship between ON and EDs. Five-hundred-seventy-seven athletes and 217 matched controls were administered the following tests: ORTO-15, Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26), Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) and Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale (YBC-EDS). High positivity to ORTO-15 (28%) and EAT-26 (14%) emerged in athletes, whereas a high rate of BUT positivity was evident among controls (21%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that independent predictors of ON are previous dieting, age, positivity to YBC-EDS, positivity to EAT-26, competition level, and number of YBC-EDS preoccupations and rituals. Sharing many features with both EDs and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum, ON represents a crossroad between these pathologic conditions and might compromise the health state of an athlete. Therefore, coaches should consider important to detect symptoms of EDs and ON in their athletes.