Sample records for behavior change intervention

  1. Changing energy-related behavior: An Intervention Mapping approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gerjo, E-mail: [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Lo, Siu Hing, E-mail: [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y., E-mail: [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Ruiter, Robert A.C., E-mail: [Department of Work and Social Psychology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands)


    This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop a domain specific knowledge-base for effective intervention design. - Highlights: > Intervention Mapping (IM) is a planning process for developing evidence-based interventions.> IM takes a problem-driven rather than theory-driven approach. > IM can be applied to the promotion of energy-conservation in a multilevel approach. > IM helps identifying determinants of behaviors and environmental conditions. > IM helps selecting appropriate theory-based methods and practical applications.

  2. Understanding and Promoting Effective Engagement With Digital Behavior Change Interventions. (United States)

    Yardley, Lucy; Spring, Bonnie J; Riper, Heleen; Morrison, Leanne G; Crane, David H; Curtis, Kristina; Merchant, Gina C; Naughton, Felix; Blandford, Ann


    This paper is one in a series developed through a process of expert consensus to provide an overview of questions of current importance in research into engagement with digital behavior change interventions, identifying guidance based on research to date and priority topics for future research. The first part of this paper critically reflects on current approaches to conceptualizing and measuring engagement. Next, issues relevant to promoting effective engagement are discussed, including how best to tailor to individual needs and combine digital and human support. A key conclusion with regard to conceptualizing engagement is that it is important to understand the relationship between engagement with the digital intervention and the desired behavior change. This paper argues that it may be more valuable to establish and promote "effective engagement," rather than simply more engagement, with "effective engagement" defined empirically as sufficient engagement with the intervention to achieve intended outcomes. Appraisal of the value and limitations of methods of assessing different aspects of engagement highlights the need to identify valid and efficient combinations of measures to develop and test multidimensional models of engagement. The final section of the paper reflects on how interventions can be designed to fit the user and their specific needs and context. Despite many unresolved questions posed by novel and rapidly changing technologies, there is widespread consensus that successful intervention design demands a user-centered and iterative approach to development, using mixed methods and in-depth qualitative research to progressively refine the intervention to meet user requirements.

  3. Implicit Processes, Self-Regulation, and Interventions for Behavior Change (United States)

    St Quinton, Tom; Brunton, Julie A.


    The ability to regulate and subsequently change behavior is influenced by both reflective and implicit processes. Traditional theories have focused on conscious processes by highlighting the beliefs and intentions that influence decision making. However, their success in changing behavior has been modest with a gap between intention and behavior apparent. Dual-process models have been recently applied to health psychology; with numerous models incorporating implicit processes that influence behavior as well as the more common conscious processes. Such implicit processes are theorized to govern behavior non-consciously. The article provides a commentary on motivational and volitional processes and how interventions have combined to attempt an increase in positive health behaviors. Following this, non-conscious processes are discussed in terms of their theoretical underpinning. The article will then highlight how these processes have been measured and will then discuss the different ways that the non-conscious and conscious may interact. The development of interventions manipulating both processes may well prove crucial in successfully altering behavior.

  4. Cognitive changes in cardiovascular patients following a tailored behavioral smoking cessation intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, FJ; Dijkstra, A; de Haes, JCJM; Legemate, DA; Smets, EMA


    Background. Action aimed at changing smoking behavior to prevent cardiovascular patients from further impairing their health is advisable. Cognitive behavioral interventions can be effective in this regard since they attempt to influence cognitive determinants that presumably lead to smoking cessati

  5. Design for healthy behavior: design interventions and stages of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludden, Geke D.S.; Hekkert, Paul


    Designers have increasingly used the capacity of design to influence human behavior and consequently to address the challenges that our society faces. One of these challenges is the rise of ‘lifestyle diseases’, such as obesity and diabetes. A change towards a more healthy lifestyle could in many ca

  6. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs (United States)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  7. Verbal Bullying Changes among Students Following an Educational Intervention Using the Integrated Model for Behavior Change (United States)

    Naidoo, Saloshni; Satorius, Benn K.; de Vries, Hein; Taylor, Myra


    Background: Bullying behavior in schools can lead to psychosocial problems. School-based interventions are important in raising student awareness, developing their skills and in planning to reduce bullying behavior. Methods: A randomized controlled trial, using a school-based educational intervention to reduce verbal bullying, was conducted among…

  8. Are Social Networking Sites Making Health Behavior Change Interventions More Effective? A Meta-Analytic Review. (United States)

    Yang, Qinghua


    The increasing popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) has drawn scholarly attention in recent years, and a large amount of efforts have been made in applying SNSs to health behavior change interventions. However, these interventions showed mixed results, with a large variance of effect sizes in Cohen's d ranging from -1.17 to 1.28. To provide a better understanding of SNS-based interventions' effectiveness, a meta-analysis of 21 studies examining the effects of health interventions using SNS was conducted. Results indicated that health behavior change interventions using SNS are effective in general, but the effects were moderated by health topic, methodological features, and participant features. Theoretical and practical implications of findings are discussed.

  9. Evidence that implementation intentions reduce drivers' speeding behavior: testing a new intervention to change driver behavior. (United States)

    Brewster, Sarah E; Elliott, Mark A; Kelly, Steve W


    Implementation intentions have the potential to break unwanted habits and help individuals behave in line with their goal intentions. We tested the effects of implementation intentions in the context of drivers' speeding behavior. A randomized controlled design was used. Speeding behavior, goal intentions and theoretically derived motivational pre-cursors of goal intentions were measured at both baseline and follow-up (one month later) using self-report questionnaires. Immediately following the baseline questionnaire, the experimental (intervention) group (N=117) specified implementation intentions using a volitional help sheet, which required the participants to link critical situations in which they were tempted to speed with goal-directed responses to resist the temptation. The control group (N=126) instead received general information about the risks of speeding. In support of the hypotheses, the experimental group reported exceeding the speed limit significantly less often at follow-up than did the control group. This effect was specific to 'inclined abstainers' (i.e., participants who reported speeding more than they intended to at baseline and were therefore motivated to reduce their speeding) and could not be attributed to any changes in goal intentions to speed or any other measured motivational construct. Also in line with the hypotheses, implementation intentions attenuated the past-subsequent speeding behavior relationship and augmented the goal intention - subsequent speeding behavior relationship. The findings imply that implementation intentions are effective at reducing speeding and that they do so by weakening the effect of habit, thereby helping drivers to behave in accordance with their existing goal intentions. The volitional help sheet used in this study is an effective tool for promoting implementation intentions to reduce speeding.

  10. Innovative interventions to promote behavioral change in overweight or obese individuals: A review of the literature. (United States)

    Okorodudu, Daniel E; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor


    The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades, placing significant burdens on health care in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet, and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost, and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data show promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions.

  11. Promising Behavior Change Techniques in a Multicomponent Intervention to Reduce Concerns about Falls in Old Age: A Delphi Study (United States)

    Vestjens, Lotte; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Crutzen, Rik; Kok, Gerjo; Zijlstra, G. A. Rixt


    Complex behavior change interventions need evidence regarding the effectiveness of individual components to understand how these interventions work. The objective of this study was to identify the least and most promising behavior change techniques (BCTs) within the Dutch intervention "A Matter of Balance" (AMB-NL) aimed at concerns…

  12. A Review of Multiple Health Behavior Change Interventions for Primary Prevention. (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Prochaska, James O


    Most individuals engage in multiple unhealthy lifestyle behaviors with the potential for negative health consequences. Yet most health promotion research has addressed risk factors as categorically separate entities, and little is known about how to effectively promote multiple health behavior change (MHBC). This review summarizes the recent literature (January 2004 to December 2009) on randomized clinical trials evaluating MHBC interventions for primary prevention. Combining all the studies across all the reviews, fewer than 150 studies were identified. This is a fraction of the number of trials conducted on changing individual behavioral risks. Three primary behavioral clusters dominated: (1) the energy balance behaviors of physical activity and diet; (2) addictive behaviors like smoking and other drugs; and (3) disease-related behaviors, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer related. Findings were largely disappointing for studies of diet and physical activity, particularly with youth. Treating 2 addictions, including smoking, resulted in greater long-term sobriety from alcohol and illicit drugs. MHBC intervention effects were stronger and more consistent for cancer prevention than CVD prevention. MHBC interventions offer a new paradigm for broader, more comprehensive health promotion; however, the potential value in maximizing intervention impact is largely unmet.

  13. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Behavior Change: A Meta-Analytic Review (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Aylward, Brandon S.; Craig, James T.; Sorell, Danielle M.; Steele, Ric G.


    Objective: This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change. Method: Literature searches of electronic databases were undertaken in addition to manual reference searches of identified review articles. Databases searched include…

  14. Functions of behavior change interventions when implementing multi-professional teamwork at an emergency department : a comparative case study


    Frykman, Mandus; Hasson, Henna; Athlin, Åsa Muntlin; Schwarz, Ulrica von Thiele


    Background: While there is strong support for the benefits of working in multi-professional teams in health care, the implementation of multi-professional teamwork is reported to be complex and challenging. Implementation strategies combining multiple behavior change interventions are recommended, but the understanding of how and why the behavior change interventions influence staff behavior is limited. There is a lack of studies focusing on the functions of different behavior change interven...

  15. Game playbooks: tools to guide multidisciplinary teams in developing videogame-based behavior change interventions. (United States)

    Duncan, Lindsay R; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Culyba, Sabrina; Fiellin, Lynn E


    As mobile technologies and videogaming platforms are becoming increasingly prevalent in the realm of health and healthcare, so are the opportunities to use these resources to conduct behavioral interventions. The creation and empirical testing of game style interventions, however, is challenged by the requisite collaboration of multidisciplinary teams, including researchers and game developers who have different cultures, terminologies, and standards of evidence. Thus, traditional intervention development tools such as logic models and intervention manuals may need to be augmented by creating what we have termed "Game Playbooks" which are intervention guidebooks that are created by, understood by, and acceptable to all members of the multidisciplinary game development team. The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance and content of a Game Playbook created to aide in the development of a videogame intervention designed specifically for health behavior change in young teens as well as the process for creating such a tool. We draw on the experience of our research and game design team to describe the critical components of the Game Playbook and the necessity of creating such a tool.

  16. A primary care Web-based Intervention Modeling Experiment replicated behavior changes seen in earlier paper-based experiment


    Treweek, S.; Francis, JJ; Bonetti, D; Barnett, K; Eccles, MP; Hudson, J.; Jones, C.; Pitts, NB; Ricketts, IW; Sullivan, F; Weal, M; MacLennan, G.


    OBJECTIVES: Intervention Modeling Experiments (IMEs) are a way of developing and testing behavior change interventions before a trial. We aimed to test this methodology in a Web-based IME that replicated the trial component of an earlier, paper-based IME. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Three-arm, Web-based randomized evaluation of two interventions (persuasive communication and action plan) and a "no intervention" comparator. The interventions were designed to reduce the number of antibiotic p...

  17. Behavior change interventions to prevent HIV infection among women living in low and middle income countries: a systematic review. (United States)

    McCoy, Sandra I; Kangwende, Rugare A; Padian, Nancy S


    We conducted a systematic review of behavioral change interventions to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV among women and girls living in low- and middle-income countries. PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and other databases and bibliographies were systematically searched for trials using randomized or quasi-experimental designs to evaluate behavioral interventions with HIV infection as an outcome. We identified 11 analyses for inclusion reporting on eight unique interventions. Interventions varied widely in intensity, duration, and delivery as well as by target population. Only two analyses showed a significant protective effect on HIV incidence among women and only three of ten analyses that measured behavioral outcomes reduced any measure of HIV-related risk behavior. Ongoing research is needed to determine whether behavior change interventions can be incorporated as independent efficacious components in HIV prevention packages for women or simply as complements to biomedical prevention strategies.

  18. Understanding mechanisms of change in the development of antisocial behavior: The impact of a universal intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); P. Vuijk (Patricia); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)


    textabstractThe association between the development of antisocial behavior, affiliation with deviant friends, and peer rejection was tested with a preventive intervention; 664 boys and girls were randomly assigned to a universal classroom-based intervention targeting disruptive behavior or a control


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology

  20. Pregnancy-related Health Behavior of Women with Congenital Heart Disease : Room for Behavioral Change Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moons, Philip; Budts, Werner; Costermans, Els; Huyghe, Els; Pieper, Petronella G.; Drenthen, Wim


    Background. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease is associated with maternal and neonatal complications. In order to reduce risks for unfavorable outcomes, pregnant women need to adopt specific health behaviors. We investigated the pregnancy-related health behavior of women with congenit

  1. Theory-Driven Intervention for Changing Personality: Expectancy Value Theory, Behavioral Activation, and Conscientiousness (United States)

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Roberts, Brent W.; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C. W.


    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by…

  2. Dyadic planning of health-behavior change after prostatectomy: a randomized-controlled planning intervention. (United States)

    Burkert, Silke; Scholz, Urte; Gralla, Oliver; Roigas, Jan; Knoll, Nina


    In this study, we investigated the role of dyadic planning for health-behavior change. Dyadic planning refers to planning health-behavior change together with a partner. We assumed that dyadic planning would affect the implementation of regular pelvic-floor exercise (PFE), with other indicators of social exchange and self-regulation strategies serving as mediators. In a randomized-controlled trial at a German University Medical Center, 112 prostatectomy-patients with partners were randomly assigned to a dyadic PFE-planning condition or one of three active control conditions. Questionnaire data were assessed at multiple time points within six months post-surgery, measuring self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise as primary outcomes and social exchange (support, control) and a self-regulation strategy (action control) as mediating mechanisms. There were no specific intervention effects with regard to dyadic PFE-planning or pelvic-floor exercise, as two active control groups also showed increases in either of these variables. However, results suggested that patients instructed to plan dyadically still benefited from self-reported dyadic PFE-planning regarding pelvic-floor exercise. Cross-sectionally, received negative control from partners was negatively related with PFE only in control groups and individual action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and PFE for participants instructed to plan PFE dyadically. Longitudinally, action control mediated between self-reported dyadic PFE-planning and pelvic-floor exercise for all groups. Findings provide support for further investigation of dyadic planning in health-behavior change with short-term mediating effects of behavior-specific social exchange and long-term mediating effects of better self-regulation.

  3. Effectiveness of the behavior change intervention to improve harm reduction self-efficacy among people who inject drugs in Thailand

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    Pawa D


    Full Text Available Duangta Pawa,1 Chitlada Areesantichai1,2 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, 2Drug Dependence Research Center WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Drug Dependence, Bangkok, Thailand Background: People who inject drugs (PWID in Thailand reported unsafe injection practices resulting in injection-related health consequences. Harm reduction self-efficacy plays an important role and could be improved to reduce harm associated with injecting drugs. Evidence-based interventions targeting PWID are needed. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the behavior change intervention within the PWID population. Methods: The behavior change intervention, Triple-S, was designed to improve harm reduction self-efficacy among PWID. This quasi-experimental study was a pre- and post-comparison with a control group design. Participants were PWID, aged 18–45 years, and located in Bangkok. Changes in harm reduction self-efficacy of the intervention group were compared with the control group using paired and independent t-test. Results: Most of PWID were male (84%, had a secondary school and lower education (71%, were single, and had a mean age of 41 years. They had been injecting drugs for an average of 20 years, and the median of drug injections per week was ten times in the past month. Pre- and post-intervention effects were measured and results showed that the intervention group reported improvement in harm reduction self-efficacy in negative emotional conditions (P=0.048. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Triple-S intervention can significantly improve harm reduction self-efficacy in negative emotional conditions. The results may suggest the importance of behavior change intervention, especially when integrated with services provided by drop-in centers. The intervention can be further developed to cover other harm reduction behaviors and improve harm reduction self-efficacy. Keywords: drug injection, harm

  4. Community supported agriculture programs: a novel venue for theory-based health behavior change interventions. (United States)

    Wharton, Christopher M; Hughner, Renee Shaw; MacMillan, Lexi; Dumitrescu, Claudia


    Local foods programs such as community supported agriculture programs (CSAs) and farmers' markets have increased greatly in popularity. However, little research has been conducted regarding the effect of involvement in local foods programs on diet-related attitudes and behaviors. A series of focus groups was conducted to identify the motives that propel individuals to join a CSA, the experiences of belonging to a CSA, and the diet-related outcomes of CSA membership. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a framework to categorize findings, data suggest the potential of CSAs as a viable intervention strategy for promoting healthful diets and behaviors.

  5. Effectiveness of mHealth behavior change communication interventions in developing countries: a systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A; Rubin, Sara E; Roess, Amira A


    Mobile health (mHealth) technologies and telecommunication have rapidly been integrated into the health care delivery system, particularly in developing countries. Resources have been allocated to developing mHealth interventions, including those that use mobile technology for behavior change communication (BCC). Although the majority of mobile phone users worldwide live in the developing world, most research evaluating BCC mHealth interventions has taken place in developed countries. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine how much evidence currently exists for mHealth BCC interventions. In addition to analyzing available research for methodological rigor and strength of evidence, the authors assessed interventions for quality, applying a set of 9 standards recommended by mHealth experts. The authors reviewed 44 articles; 16 (36%) reported evaluation data from BCC mHealth interventions in a developing country. The majority of BCC mHealth interventions were implemented in Africa (n = 10) and Asia (n = 4). HIV/AIDS (n = 10) and family planning/pregnancy (n = 4) were the health topics most frequently addressed by interventions. Studies did not consistently demonstrate significant effects of exposure to BCC mHealth interventions on the intended audience. The majority of publications (n = 12) described interventions that used two-way communication in their message delivery design. Although most publications described interventions that conducted formative research about the intended audience (n = 10), less than half (n = 6) described targeting or tailoring the content. Although mHealth is viewed as a promising tool with the ability to foster behavior change, more evaluations of current interventions need to be conducted to establish stronger evidence.

  6. Usability evaluation of an online, tailored self-management intervention for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients incorporating behavior change techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken-Brewster, V.; Moser, A.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Nagykaldi, Z.; Vries, H. de; Tange, H.


    BACKGROUND: An eHealth intervention using computer tailored technology including several behavior change techniques was developed to support the self-management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to evaluate and improve the usability of the eHeal

  7. School promotion of healthful diet and exercise behavior: an integration of organizational change and social learning theory interventions. (United States)

    Parcel, G S; Simons-Morton, B G; O'Hara, N M; Baranowski, T; Kolbe, L J; Bee, D E


    In the Go For Health project, interventions based on organizational change and social learning theory facilitate changes in diet and exercise behavior by elementary school children. Baseline data documented the need for behavior change. Based on chemical analyses, average per meal amounts of total fat and sodium were higher than national recommendations: total fat was 29.3% higher than U.S. Dietary Goals; sodium was 107.4% greater than recommended levels. Observations of students in physical education class revealed children moved through space 50.1% of the time and moved continuously an average of 2.2 minutes per class period. These findings suggest the need for policy and practice changes in the school environment to enable children to engage in more healthful diet and exercise behavior.

  8. Behavior change following a self-management intervention for housebound older adults with arthritis: an experimental study

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    Gignac Monique


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the impact of a home-based self-management intervention for housebound older adults with arthritis on the adoption of health behaviors. The moderating role of socio-demographic, psychological, and physical characteristics in the process of behavior change was also investigated. Methods Participants were 113 older adult women (n = 102 and men (n = 11 with osteoarthritis (OA or rheumatoid arthritis (RA who were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 68 or wait list control (n = 45 groups. Participants were interviewed using standardized questionnaires at baseline, pre-intervention, and post-intervention. Results Adjusted multilevel modeling analyses indicated that from pre to post intervention, experimental participants significantly increased their weekly frequency of exercise and relaxation activities. Socioeconomic status and depression played a moderating role in this change for exercise with larger effects occurring among more privileged, non-depressed participants. Conclusion We conclude that a self-management intervention can successfully improve involvement in exercise and relaxation among housebound older adults with arthritis.

  9. Change in Metabolic Profile after 1-Year Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention in Obese Children

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    Elvira Verduci


    Full Text Available Research findings are inconsistent about improvement of specific cardio-metabolic variables after lifestyle intervention in obese children. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a 1-year intervention, based on normocaloric diet and physical activity, on body mass index (BMI, blood lipid profile, glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome. Eighty-five obese children aged ≥6 years were analyzed. The BMI z-score was calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipids, insulin and glucose. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was calculated and insulin resistance was defined as HOMA-IR >3.16. HOMA-β%, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and triglyceride glucose index were calculated. The metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. At the end of intervention children showed a reduction (mean (95% CI in BMI z-score (−0.58 (−0.66; −0.50, triglycerides (−0.35 (−0.45; −0.25 mmol/L and triglyceride glucose index (−0.29 (−0.37; −0.21, and an increase in HDL cholesterol (0.06 (0.01; 0.11 mmol/L. Prevalence of insulin resistance declined from 51.8% to 36.5% and prevalence of metabolic syndrome from 17.1% to 4.9%. Nutritional-behavioral interventions can improve the blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in obese children, and possibly provide benefits in terms of metabolic syndrome.

  10. Effects of a Health Behavior Change Model-Based HIV/STI Prevention Intervention on Condom Use among Heterosexual Couples: A Randomized Trial (United States)

    Harvey, S. Marie; Kraft, Joan Marie; West, Stephen G.; Taylor, Aaron B.; Pappas-DeLuca, Katina A.; Beckman, Linda J.


    This study examines an intervention for heterosexual couples to prevent human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infections. It also evaluates the effect of the intervention, which is based on current models of health behavior change, on intermediate outcomes (individual and relationship factors) and consistency of condom use. Eligible…

  11. Changing physician behavior: interventions to improve prescription writing practices in a secondary level hospital in Delhi

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    Dipanweeta Routray


    Conclusion: Combining different intervention seems a noble approach to improve the prescription writing practices with respect to completeness and inclusion of generic drugs, drugs from EDL. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 840-844

  12. Evaluating Psychosocial and Behavioral Mechanisms of Change in a Tailored Communication Intervention (United States)

    Elder, John P.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Slymen, Donald J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Campbell, Nadia R.


    This study examined the impact of a tailored nutrition intervention at 3 and 6 months postintervention. In all, 357 Latinas were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) a control condition comprised of previously developed Spanish language targeted materials, (2) tailored print materials, or (3) tailored print materials accompanied by…

  13. Changing physician behavior: interventions to improve prescription writing practices in a secondary level hospital in Delhi


    Dipanweeta Routray; Jyotiranjan Sahoo; Prateek Singh; Kulen Das; Satyavir Singh


    Background: According to a report by World Health Organization (WHO) in 2003, approximately 50% of all patients fail to take their medicine correctly. This is due to errors in prescription, underuse or misuse of medicines and ignorance of prescribers, dispensers, and patients. Methods: It is a hospital-based interventional-study carried out in a secondary level multispecialty hospital of Delhi. Investigators collected 536 prescriptions from the outpatient department of various departments ...

  14. Results of a large-scale randomized behavior change intervention on road safety in Kenya. (United States)

    Habyarimana, James; Jack, William


    Road accidents kill 1.3 million people each year, most in the developing world. We test the efficacy of evocative messages, delivered on stickers placed inside Kenyan matatus, or minibuses, in reducing road accidents. We randomize the intervention, which nudges passengers to complain to their drivers directly, across 12,000 vehicles and find that on average it reduces insurance claims rates of matatus by between one-quarter and one-third and is associated with 140 fewer road accidents per year than predicted. Messages promoting collective action are especially effective, and evocative images are an important motivator. Average maximum speeds and average moving speeds are 1-2 km/h lower in vehicles assigned to treatment. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no placebo effect. We were unable to discern any impact of a complementary radio campaign on insurance claims. Finally, the sticker intervention is inexpensive: we estimate the cost-effectiveness of the most impactful stickers to be between $10 and $45 per disability-adjusted life-year saved.

  15. Multiple-Family Group Intervention for Incarcerated Male Adolescents Who Sexually Offend and Their Families: Change in Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Predicts Adaptive Change in Adolescent Behaviors. (United States)

    Keiley, Margaret K; Zaremba-Morgan, Ali; Datubo-Brown, Christiana; Pyle, Raven; Cox, Milira


    The multiple-family group intervention is an effective, yet affordable, 8-week treatment that is conducted in a juvenile correctional institution in Alabama with adolescents who sexually offend and their families. Data from 115 incarcerated male adolescents and their male and female caregivers collected at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up were used to determine that problem behaviors (internalizing, externalizing) decreased over pre- and posttest and the significant decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation predicted those changes. Adolescent-reported anxiety over abandonment and attachment dependence on parents increased significantly; these changes were predicted by decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation. Linear growth models were also fit over the 3 time points and indicate decreases in adolescent problem behavior and maladaptive emotion regulation.

  16. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth;


    of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. OBJECTIVE: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described...... and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. METHODS: The program...... development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5...

  17. IDEAS (Integrate, Design, Assess, and Share): A Framework and Toolkit of Strategies for the Development of More Effective Digital Interventions to Change Health Behavior. (United States)

    Mummah, Sarah Ann; Robinson, Thomas N; King, Abby C; Gardner, Christopher D; Sutton, Stephen


    Developing effective digital interventions to change health behavior has been a challenging goal for academics and industry players alike. Guiding intervention design using the best combination of approaches available is necessary if effective technologies are to be developed. Behavioral theory, design thinking, user-centered design, rigorous evaluation, and dissemination each have widely acknowledged merits in their application to digital health interventions. This paper introduces IDEAS, a step-by-step process for integrating these approaches to guide the development and evaluation of more effective digital interventions. IDEAS is comprised of 10 phases (empathize, specify, ground, ideate, prototype, gather, build, pilot, evaluate, and share), grouped into 4 overarching stages: Integrate, Design, Assess, and Share (IDEAS). Each of these phases is described and a summary of theory-based behavioral strategies that may inform intervention design is provided. The IDEAS framework strives to provide sufficient detail without being overly prescriptive so that it may be useful and readily applied by both investigators and industry partners in the development of their own mHealth, eHealth, and other digital health behavior change interventions.

  18. PREVIEW Behavior Modification Intervention Toolbox (PREMIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth


    of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. OBJECTIVE: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described......) implementing the intervention and assuring quality. RESULTS: PREMIT is based on a trans-theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major "product" of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks...... and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. METHODS: The program...

  19. Intervention Based Exclusively on Stage-Matched Printed Educational Materials Regarding Healthy Eating Does Not Result in Changes to Adolescents’ Dietary Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Toral


    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the impact of a six-month stage-based intervention on fruit and vegetable intake, regarding perceived benefits and barriers, and self-efficacy among adolescents. Design. Randomized treatment-control, pre-post design. Subjects/Setting. Schools were randomized between control and experimental groups. 860 adolescents from ten public schools in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil were evaluated at baseline; 771 (81% completed the study. Intervention. Experimental group received monthly magazines and newsletters aimed at promotion of healthy eating. Measures. Self-reported fruit and vegetable intake, stages of change, self-efficacy and decisional balance scores were evaluated at baseline and post-intervention in both groups. Analysis. The effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated using the analysis of covariance model (ANCOVA and repeated measurement analysis by means of weighted least squares. Comparison between the proportions of adolescents who advanced through the stages during the intervention was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test. Results. After adjusting for sex and age, study variables showed no modifications through the proposed intervention. There was no statistical difference in participant mobility in the intervention and control groups between the stages of change, throughout the study. Conclusion. A nutritional intervention based exclusively on distribution of stage-matched printed educational materials was insufficient to change adolescents’ dietary behavior.

  20. A Test of Major Assumptions about Behavior Change: A Comprehensive Look at the Effects of Passive and Active HIV-Prevention Interventions Since the Beginning of the Epidemic (United States)

    Albarracin, Dolores; Gillette, Jeffrey C.; Earl, Allison N.; Glasman, Laura R.; Durantini, Marta R.; Ho, Moon-Ho


    This meta-analysis tested the major theoretical assumptions about behavior change by examining the outcomes and mediating mechanisms of different preventive strategies in a sample of 354 HIV-prevention interventions and 99 control groups, spanning the past 17 years. There were 2 main conclusions from this extensive review. First, the most…

  1. An exploration of factors related to dissemination of and exposure to internet-delivered behavior change interventions aimed at adults: A Delphi study approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Brouwer (Wendy); A. Oenema (Anke); R. Crutzen (Rik); J. de Nooijer (Jascha); N.K. de Vries (Nanne); J. Brug (Hans)


    textabstractBackground: The Internet is an attractive medium for delivering individualized, computer-tailored behavior change interventions to large numbers of people. However, the actual numbers of people reached seem to fall behind the high expectations. Insight into factors that determine use of

  2. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  3. Leadership behavior changes following a theory-based leadership development intervention: A longitudinal study of subordinates' and leaders' evaluations. (United States)

    Larsson, Gerry; Sandahl, Christer; Söderhjelm, Teresa; Sjövold, Endre; Zander, Ann


    The aim was to evaluate effects of leadership courses based on the developmental leadership model at the leadership behavioral level. A longitudinal design was employed with assessments before, one and six months after the leadership courses. The sample consisted of 59 leaders who made self-ratings and were rated by at least three subordinates on each occasion. Leadership behaviors were measured with the Developmental Leadership Questionnaire (DLQ). A limited increase of favorable leadership behaviors and a significant reduction of unfavorable leadership behaviors were found, particularly according to the subordinates' ratings. A cluster analysis yielded three meaningful leader profiles and showed that this pattern was found in all three profiles, irrespective of how favorably they were rated before the onset of the intervention.

  4. Towards Behaviorally Informed Public Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Olejniczak


    Full Text Available Purpose: This article informs readers about the theoretical and practical origins of the behaviorally informed interventions (BIPI, analyzes examples of the BIPI from different policy sectors and strategies they offer for policy and regulatory design, and discusses applications and implications of BIPI for public interventions Methodology: This paper is based on a review of literature, as well as an inspection of administrative practices in OECD countries. It encompasses a systematic analysis of scientific papers fromthe SCOPUS database and a query carried out at the library of George Washington University. Findings: The traditional approach to public policy research is based on rational choice theory. It offers limited support, because by assuming perfect rationality of policy decisions, it overlooks existence of systematic errors and biases of human decision-making. The authors argue that behaviorally informed public interventions (BIPI might contribute to improving the effectiveness of a number of public measures – regulation, projects, programs, and even entire policies. Practical implications: The behavioral approach allows decision-makers to better understand the decisions and behaviors of citizens, as well as to design more effective interventions with minimum effort by adapting the existing solutions to real decision mechanisms of citizens. Originality: By combining the concepts of traditional approach with the growing behavioral approach, the authors aim to propose a new theoretical framework (BIPI to be used as a tool for policy design, delivery and evaluation.

  5. Do Sexual Assault Bystander Interventions Change Men's Intentions? Applying the Theory of Normative Social Behavior to Predicting Bystander Outcomes. (United States)

    Mabry, Amanda; Turner, Monique Mitchell


    The high prevalence of sexual assault on college campuses has led to the implementation of health communication programs to prevent sexual assault. A few novel programs focus on primary prevention by targeting social norms related to gender and masculinity among men through bystander intervention. Guided by the theory of normative social behavior, this study sought to examine the relative effect of campaigns communicating positive versus negative injunctive norms and the interaction between exposure to such campaign messages and perceived descriptive norms and relevant cognitive moderators (e.g., outcome expectations, injunctive norms, group identity, ego involvement) among men. A 2 (high/low descriptive norms) × 2 (high/low moderator) × 3 (public service announcement) independent groups quasi-experimental design (N = 332) was used. Results indicated that messages communicating positive injunctive norms were most effective among men who were least likely to engage in bystander intervention. Furthermore, descriptive norms played a significant role in behavioral intentions, such that those with stronger norms were more likely to report intentions to engage in bystander behaviors in the future. Similarly, the moderators of aspiration, injunctive norms, social approval, and ego involvement had a significant positive effect on behavioral intentions. These findings have important implications for future message design strategy and audience segmentation.

  6. A Systematic Review of HIV and STI Behavior Change Interventions for Female Sex Workers in the United States. (United States)

    Abad, Neetu; Baack, Brittney N; O'Leary, Ann; Mizuno, Yuko; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Lyles, Cynthia M


    The lives of female sex workers (FSW) in the US are typically marked by substance abuse, violence, trauma, and poverty. These factors place FSW at risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The purpose of this systematic review is to examine HIV/STI interventions conducted in the US that aim to reduce sexual- or drug-related risk behavior among FSW. Eighteen studies describing 19 unique interventions met our selection criteria: five exclusively targeted FSW, two reported stratified data for FSW, and 12 included at least 50 % FSW. Results indicate that 15 interventions provided HIV/STI information, 13 provided substance abuse prevention information, and few included content tailored to specific needs of FSW. Our findings suggest that current HIV/STI prevention efforts in the US do not adequately address the needs of FSW. Interventions are needed to address issues facing FSW in order to reduce HIV/STI transmission in this high-risk group.

  7. Analysis of transtheoretical model of health behavioral changes in a nutrition intervention study--a continuous time Markov chain model with Bayesian approach. (United States)

    Ma, Junsheng; Chan, Wenyaw; Tsai, Chu-Lin; Xiong, Momiao; Tilley, Barbara C


    Continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) models are often used to study the progression of chronic diseases in medical research but rarely applied to studies of the process of behavioral change. In studies of interventions to modify behaviors, a widely used psychosocial model is based on the transtheoretical model that often has more than three states (representing stages of change) and conceptually permits all possible instantaneous transitions. Very little attention is given to the study of the relationships between a CTMC model and associated covariates under the framework of transtheoretical model. We developed a Bayesian approach to evaluate the covariate effects on a CTMC model through a log-linear regression link. A simulation study of this approach showed that model parameters were accurately and precisely estimated. We analyzed an existing data set on stages of change in dietary intake from the Next Step Trial using the proposed method and the generalized multinomial logit model. We found that the generalized multinomial logit model was not suitable for these data because it ignores the unbalanced data structure and temporal correlation between successive measurements. Our analysis not only confirms that the nutrition intervention was effective but also provides information on how the intervention affected the transitions among the stages of change. We found that, compared with the control group, subjects in the intervention group, on average, spent substantively less time in the precontemplation stage and were more/less likely to move from an unhealthy/healthy state to a healthy/unhealthy state.

  8. Mystery Motivator: a Tier 1 classroom behavioral intervention. (United States)

    Kowalewicz, Eva A; Coffee, Gina


    This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator-an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention-as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing criterion design, and the effectiveness of the intervention was assessed for an 8-week period. The frequency of disruptive behavior in all classrooms decreased. Teacher intervention acceptability data indicated seven of eight teachers found the intervention to be acceptable. Overall, data indicated the Mystery Motivator intervention was a powerful intervention for reducing disruptive behaviors in elementary classrooms.

  9. Continuous evaluation of evolving behavioral intervention technologies. (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Cheung, Ken; Schueller, Stephen M; Hendricks Brown, C; Duan, Naihua


    Behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) are web-based and mobile interventions intended to support patients and consumers in changing behaviors related to health, mental health, and well-being. BITs are provided to patients and consumers in clinical care settings and commercial marketplaces, frequently with little or no evaluation. Current evaluation methods, including RCTs and implementation studies, can require years to validate an intervention. This timeline is fundamentally incompatible with the BIT environment, where technology advancement and changes in consumer expectations occur quickly, necessitating rapidly evolving interventions. However, BITs can routinely and iteratively collect data in a planned and strategic manner and generate evidence through systematic prospective analyses, thereby creating a system that can "learn." A methodologic framework, Continuous Evaluation of Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technologies (CEEBIT), is proposed that can support the evaluation of multiple BITs or evolving versions, eliminating those that demonstrate poorer outcomes, while allowing new BITs to be entered at any time. CEEBIT could be used to ensure the effectiveness of BITs provided through deployment platforms in clinical care organizations or BIT marketplaces. The features of CEEBIT are described, including criteria for the determination of inferiority, determination of BIT inclusion, methods of assigning consumers to BITs, definition of outcomes, and evaluation of the usefulness of the system. CEEBIT offers the potential to collapse initial evaluation and postmarketing surveillance, providing ongoing assurance of safety and efficacy to patients and consumers, payers, and policymakers.

  10. Behavioral intervention reduces unhealthy eating behaviors in preschool children via a behavior card approach. (United States)

    Lin, Ming; Pan, Li-Ping; Han, Juan; Li, Li; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; Jin, Run-Ming


    Many eating behaviors form in childhood, and some unhealthy behaviors may persist into adulthood and have potential impacts on people's health. This study evaluated the effectiveness of behavioral intervention in reducing consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, fried food in preschool children, and changing parents' rewarding behaviors that encourage the consumption of the unhealthy foods. The research was a cluster randomized trial of seven kindergartens, involving 1138 children aged 3-6 years and their parents in Beijing, China. Parents and children allocated to the intervention group received two lectures and printed resources, including behavior cards, educational sheets. Children's behavior cards, applied with behavior-changing techniques, were used to intervene, and monitor behavior changes over time. Children in the control group just followed their usual health education curriculum in kindergartens. Intervention effects on food consumption behaviors were assessed by examining pre- and post-questionnaires. Of the 1138 children screened at baseline, 880 (77.3%) were measured at the end of the intervention period. The intervention lasted from March to June in 2010. The results showed that consumption of Western fast food, sweetened beverages, and fried food was decreased among the intervention group (Pchildren were decreased (P=0.002). From March to June 2010, the frequency of each target behavior in children tended to decrease over the intervention period (Pchildren and reduces the parents' practice of using unhealthy foods as reward.

  11. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Isabel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the theories we use lack a strong empirical foundation, and the available theories are not always used in the most effective way. Furthermore, many of the commonly-used theories provide at best information on what needs to be changed to promote healthy behavior, but not on how changes can be induced. Finally, many theories explain behavioral intentions or motivation rather well, but are less well-suited to explaining or predicting actual behavior or behavior change. For more effective interventions, behavior change theory needs to be further developed in stronger research designs and such change-theory should especially focus on how to promote action rather than mere motivation. Since voluntary behavior change requires motivation, ability as well as the opportunity to change, further development of behavior change theory should incorporate environmental change strategies. Conclusion Intervention Mapping may help to further improve the application of theories in nutrition and physical activity behavior change.

  12. "Is there nothing more practical than a good theory?": Why innovations and advances in health behavior change will arise if interventions are used to test and refine theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothman Alexander J


    Full Text Available Abstract Theoretical and practical innovations are needed if we are to advance efforts to persuade and enable people to make healthy changes in their behavior. In this paper, I propose that progress in our understanding of and ability to promote health behavior change depends upon greater interdependence in the research activities undertaken by basic and applied behavioral scientists. In particular, both theorists and interventionists need to treat a theory as a dynamic entity whose form and value rests upon it being rigorously applied, tested and refined in both the laboratory and the field. To this end, greater advantage needs to be taken of the opportunities that interventions afford for theory-testing and, moreover, the data generated by these activities need to stimulate and inform efforts to revise, refine, or reject theoretical principles.

  13. Effective strategies for behavior change. (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Pasternak, Ryan H


    Strategies that are most effective in both prevention and management of chronic disease consider factors such as age, ethnicity, community, and technology. Most behavioral change strategies derive their components from application of the health belief model, the theory of reasoned action/theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory. Many tools such as the readiness ruler and personalized action plan form are available to assist health care teams to facilitate healthy behavior change. Primary care providers can support behavior changes by providing venues for peer interventions and family meetings and by making new partnerships with community organizations.

  14. Can text messages reach the parts other process measures cannot reach: an evaluation of a behavior change intervention delivered by mobile phone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Irvine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Process evaluation is essential in developing, piloting and evaluating complex interventions. This often involves observation of intervention delivery and interviews with study participants. Mobile telephone interventions involve no face to face contact, making conventional process evaluation difficult. This study assesses the utility of novel techniques for process evaluation involving no face to face contact. METHODS: Text messages were delivered to 34 disadvantaged men as part of a feasibility study of a brief alcohol intervention. Process evaluation focused on delivery of the text messages and responses received from study participants. The computerized delivery system captured data on receipt of the messages. The text messages, delivered over 28 days, included nine which asked questions. Responses to these questions served as one technique for process evaluation by ascertaining the nature of engagement with the study and with steps on the causal chain to behavior change. RESULTS: A total of 646 SMS text messages were sent to participants. Of these, 613 messages (95% were recorded as delivered to participants' telephones. 88% of participants responded to messages that asked questions. There was little attenuation in responses to the questions across the intervention period. Content analysis of the responses revealed that participants engaged with text messages, thought deeply about their content and provided carefully considered personal responses to the questions. CONCLUSIONS: Socially disadvantaged men, a hard to reach population, engaged in a meaningful way over a sustained period with an interactive intervention delivered by text message. The novel process measures used in the study are unobtrusive, low cost and collect real-time data on all participants. They assessed the fidelity of delivery of the intervention and monitored retention in the study. They measured levels of engagement and identified participants' reactions to

  15. Personal Change and Intervention Style (United States)

    Andrews, John D. W.


    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  16. The RD parent empowerment program creates measurable change in the behaviors of low-income families and children: an intervention description and evaluation. (United States)

    Hand, Rosa K; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Carter, Betty Jean; Medrow, Lisa; Stern, Emily; Brown, Katie


    Dietary and physical activity habits are developed early in life and are influenced by family environments. We describe and evaluate an intervention for low-income families to encourage healthy habits. The RD Parent Empowerment Program ( consists of four workshops centered on the 8 Habits of Healthy Children and Families (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Foundation). Registered dietitian nutritionists conduct the workshops in school and community settings using a structured leader guide and tailor the communication and interactive activities to the audience. Participants are parents of young children. Our goals were to use a phenomenologic approach to elicit participant feedback, determine whether participants in the RD Parent Empowerment Program made healthier choices for their families after attending the workshops, and identify which elements of the program participants believed contributed most to its success. The evaluation design used a pragmatic, mixed-methods approach utilizing postintervention focus groups and pre-post intervention scores on the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) survey. All workshop attendees aged 18 years or older were eligible to participate in the evaluation. One hundred twenty-three parents participated in the intervention across seven sites. Focus group results were analyzed using thematic analysis methods to match themes to the main intervention goals. t Tests were used to compare pre- and postintervention FNPA scores and demographic characteristics pooled across sites. FNPA scores significantly improved from pre- to postintervention by a mean of 4.3 FNPA points (6.5%; P<0.01). Focus group participants reported behavior changes as a result of the program and identified the site leaders as integral to the program's success, triangulating the results. The RD Parent Empowerment Program generates meaningful self-reported behavior change in

  17. Changing Behavioral Lifestyle Risk Factors Related to Cognitive Decline in Later Life Using a Self-Motivated eHealth Intervention in Dutch Adults (United States)

    Qin, Li; Baars, Maria AE; de Lange, Annet; Kessels, Roy PC; Olde Rikkert, Marcel GM


    Background Our labor force is aging, but aged workers are not yet coached on how to stay cognitively fit for the job. Objective In this study, we tested whether a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention could improve multiple health-related behaviors that are associated with cognitive aging among working Dutch adults. Methods This quasi-experimental prospective study with a pre-post design was conducted with employees of Dutch medium to large companies. All employees with Internet access, a good understanding of the Dutch language, and who provided digital informed consent were eligible to participate. In total, 2972 participants (2110/2972, 71.11% females) with a mean (standard deviation, SD) age of 51.8 (SD 12.9) years were recruited; 2305 became active users of the intervention, and 173 completed the 1-year follow-up. This self-motivated eHealth lifestyle intervention stimulates participants to set personally relevant, monthly health behavior change goals using Goal Attainment Scaling and to realize these goals by implementing behavior change techniques grounded in behavior change theory. The primary outcomes were the goal-setting success rate and the change in overall lifestyle score from baseline to the 1-year follow-up; the score was based on physical activity, diet, smoking, alcohol, sleep, and stress scores. The secondary outcomes were the changes in body weight, body mass index, specific lifestyle characteristics, and website usage. Results A total of 1212 participants set 2620 behavior change goals; 392 participants assessed 1089 (1089/2288, 47.59%) goals and successfully achieved 422 (422/1089, 38.75%) of these goals. Among the goal-setting participants in follow-up, this led to a +0.81-point improvement (95% CI 0.49-1.13, PNederlands Trial Register: NTR4144; (Archived by WebCite at PMID:27317506

  18. Nutritional Intervention and Breakfast Behavior of Kindergartens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing GAO


    Full Text Available Background: To examine the effect of nutritional education on children’s breakfast patternsMethods: A kindergarten based nutrition intervention was started in September 2001 among 8 kindergartens in Hefei with a total of 2,012 children aged 4-6 years and their parent pairs.Results: Monthly nutrition education sessions were held over two semesters in kindergartens part of the intervention arm.  The approach in education and the content of other activities were uniform across all the kindergartens. A validated questionnaire was used to record breakfast behavior over 7 days including at least one weekend. The parents recorded the children’s breakfast pattern (frequency, time, and food selection at baseline, middle, and end of the study. After intervention, there were significant differences at the final stage, but none at the baseline before intervention. There were changes not only in breakfast frequency, but also in the breakfast selectionConclusion: The breakfast pattern of Chinese children can be modified through nutrition education after a long term intervention. Keywords: Breakfast, Children, Intervention, China

  19. A randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention in obese endometrial cancer survivors: quality of life outcomes and mediators of behavior change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Mary


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of a 6 month lifestyle intervention on quality of life, depression, self-efficacy and eating behavior changes in overweight and obese endometrial cancer survivors. Methods Early stage endometrial cancer survivors were randomized to intervention (n = 23 or usual care (n = 22 groups. Chi-square, Student's t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were used in intent-to-treat analyses. Outcomes were also examined according to weight loss. Results Morbidly obese patients had significantly lower self-efficacy, specifically when feeling physical discomfort. There was a significant improvement for self-efficacy related to social pressure (p = .03 and restraint (p = .02 in the LI group. There was a significant difference for emotional well-being quality of life (p = .02, self-efficacy related to negative emotions (p Conclusion This pilot lifestyle intervention had no effect on quality of life or depression but did improve self-efficacy and some eating behaviors. Trial Registration; NCT00420979

  20. The Effectiveness of Marlaat’s Cognitive Behavior Intervention and Group Treatment Based on Change Stages for Recovery and Relapse Prevention Rates in Male Heroin Crack Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khodadust


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the Study of effectiveness of Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention and group treatment based on change stages for recovery and relapse rates in male heroin crack addictions. Method: In a experimental research design, 45 men addictions, who were diagnosed as the dependence of the heroin crack on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, were chosen after successfully detoxified. They were divided two experimental groups (30 participants and a control group (15 participants that have been selected by random sampling. The first experimental group was undergone group treatment based on change stages underwent 16 sessions of 1.5 hours, totally 24 hours and the second experimental groups who were undergone Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention has been held 15 sessions of 2 hours, totally 24 hours. The control group were just received MMT without any psychotherapy. All participants were assessed by structured interview, urine test, before treatment, after treatment and after 3 months follow up. Results: Results showed that both psychotherapy treatments were affected on recovery and relapse rates. Conclusion: It seems that psychological problems and conflicts before addiction and after addiction could be caused for individuals’ tendency to narcotics consumption. Therefore, applying of psychotherapy could be useful in relapse prevention.

  1. Trials of Intervention Principles: Evaluation Methods for Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technologies. (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Schueller, Stephen M; Riley, William T; Brown, C Hendricks; Cuijpers, Pim; Duan, Naihua; Kwasny, Mary J; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Cheung, Ken


    In recent years, there has been increasing discussion of the limitations of traditional randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodologies for the evaluation of eHealth and mHealth interventions, and in particular, the requirement that these interventions be locked down during evaluation. Locking down these interventions locks in defects and eliminates the opportunities for quality improvement and adaptation to the changing technological environment, often leading to validation of tools that are outdated by the time that trial results are published. Furthermore, because behavioral intervention technologies change frequently during real-world deployment, even if a tested intervention were deployed in the real world, its shelf life would be limited. We argue that RCTs will have greater scientific and public health value if they focus on the evaluation of intervention principles (rather than a specific locked-down version of the intervention), allowing for ongoing quality improvement modifications to the behavioral intervention technology based on the core intervention principles, while continuously improving the functionality and maintaining technological currency. This paper is an initial proposal of a framework and methodology for the conduct of trials of intervention principles (TIPs) aimed at minimizing the risks of in-trial changes to intervention technologies and maximizing the potential for knowledge acquisition. The focus on evaluation of intervention principles using clinical and usage outcomes has the potential to provide more generalizable and durable information than trials focused on a single intervention technology.

  2. Correlates of Adherence to a Telephone-Based Multiple Health Behavior Change Cancer Preventive Intervention for Teens: The Healthy for Life Program (HELP) (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Peshkin, Beth N.; Sharff, McKane E.; Walker, Leslie R.; Abraham, Anisha A.; Hawkins, Kirsten B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.


    This study examined factors associated with teens' adherence to a multiple health behavior cancer preventive intervention. Analyses identified predictors of trial enrollment, run-in completion, and adherence (intervention initiation, number of sessions completed). Of 104 teens screened, 73% (n = 76) were trial eligible. White teens were more…

  3. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel)


    textabstractBACKGROUND: The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. DISCUSSION: Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is th

  4. Sex-dependent behavioral effects and morphological changes in the hippocampus after prenatal invasive interventions in rats: implications for animal models of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina von Wilmsdorff


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although schizophrenia affects both human genders, there are gender-dependent differences with respect to age of onset, clinical characteristics, course and prognosis of the disease. METHODS: To investigate sex-dependent differences in motor coordination and activity as well as in cognitive and social behavior, we repeatedly tested female (n = 14 and male (n = 12 Fisher rats (postnatal days, PD 56-174 that had received intracerebroventricular injections of kainic acid as well as female (n = 15 and male (n = 16 control animals. The hippocampus was examined histologically. RESULTS: Compared to male controls, in the alcove test both female controls and female animals with prenatal intervention spent less time in a dark box before entering an unknown illuminated area. Again, animals that received prenatal injection (particularly females made more perseveration errors in the T-maze alternation task compared to controls. Female rats exhibited a higher degree of activity than males, suggesting these effects to be sex-dependent. Finally, animals that received prenatal intervention maintained longer lasting social contacts. Histological analyses showed pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area CA3 (in both hemispheres of control animals to be longer than those found in treated animals. Sex-dependent differences were found in the left hippocampi of control animals and animals after prenatal intervention. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate important differences between males and females in terms of weight gain, response to fear, working memory and social behavior. We also found sex-dependent differences in the lengths of hippocampal neurons. Further studies on larger sample sets with more detailed analyses of morphological changes are required to confirm our data.

  5. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery. (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L


    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.

  6. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Eating Disorders: Tailoring Interventions to Patient Readiness for Change (United States)

    Geller, Josie; Dunn, Erin C.


    This paper focuses on the integration of Motivational Interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of eating disorders. Although CBT is regarded as the treatment of choice in this population, it nevertheless has limitations: some patients fail to engage, drop out from treatment prematurely, or simply do not improve.…

  7. The Design and Evaluation of a Simulation-Based Behavior Change Intervention for Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes (United States)

    Gibson, Bryan Smith


    This dissertation describes a line of research that addresses translational research questions related to the use of computerized simulation to affect the knowledge, beliefs, motivation and self-management behaviors of individuals with chronic disease. The specific research projects focus on type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and physical activity as…

  8. Changes in Colorectal Cancer Screening Knowledge, Behavior, Beliefs, Self-Efficacy, and Barriers among Community Health Clinic Patients after a Health Literacy Intervention (United States)

    Arnold, Connie L.; Rademaker, Alfred; Liu, Dachao; Davis, Terry C.


    Objective The objective in this pre- and post-survey assessment was to compare the effectiveness of a health literacy-directed intervention designed to increase knowledge, beliefs, barriers, self-efficacy and behavior associated with CRC screening with FOBT among patients cared for in predominantly rural community clinics and the change in these characteristics over the first 15 months after enrolling in a study designed to assess screening strategies. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, a quasi-experimental intervention was conducted in 8 predominantly rural Federally Qualified Health Centers. Patients were orally administered a 15-minute survey at enrollment by a clinic research assistant (RA) and at 15 months by phone by a central RA. Participants included 428 community clinic patients aged 50–85 (mean 58.5); the majority (79%) were female, 69% were African American, and 54% had limited health literacy. Results There was significant improvement across all groups with the number of patients reporting they had been given information /education on CRC testing (p83%) as confirmed by study records.

  9. Exposure to Large-Scale Social and Behavior Change Communication Interventions Is Associated with Improvements in Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices in Ethiopia (United States)

    Rawat, Rahul; Mwangi, Edina M.; Tesfaye, Roman; Abebe, Yewelsew; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Menon, Purnima


    Optimal breastfeeding (BF) practices in Ethiopia are far below the government’s targets, and complementary feeding practices are poor. The Alive & Thrive initiative aimed to improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices through large-scale implementation of social and behavior change communication interventions in four regions of Ethiopia. The study assessed the effects of the interventions on IYCF practices and anthropometry over time in two regions–Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region and Tigray. A pre- and post-intervention adequacy evaluation design was used; repeated cross-sectional surveys of households with children aged 0–23.9 mo (n = 1481 and n = 1494) and with children aged 24–59.9 mo (n = 1481 and n = 1475) were conducted at baseline (2010) and endline (2014), respectively. Differences in outcomes over time were estimated using regression models, accounting for clustering and covariates. Plausibility analyses included tracing recall of key messages and promoted foods and dose-response analyses. We observed improvements in most WHO-recommended IYCF indicators. Early BF initiation and exclusive BF increased by 13.7 and 9.4 percentage points (pp), respectively. Differences for timely introduction of complementary foods, minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD), and consumption of iron-rich foods were 22.2, 3.3, 26.2, 3.5, and 2.7 pp, respectively. Timely introduction and intake of foods promoted by the interventions improved significantly, but anthropometric outcomes did not. We also observed a dose-response association between health post visits and early initiation of BF (OR: 1.8); higher numbers of home visits by community volunteers and key messages recalled were associated with 1.8–4.4 times greater odds of achieving MDD, MMF, and MAD, and higher numbers of radio spots heard were associated with 3 times greater odds of achieving MDD and MAD. The interventions were

  10. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice


    Sharma, Mahendra P.; Andrade, Chittaranjan


    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control th...

  11. Innovative Techniques for Evaluating Behavioral Nutrition Interventions. (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E; Laugero, Kevin D; Graham, Dan J; Cunningham, Brian T; Jahns, Lisa; Lora, Karina R; Reicks, Marla; Mobley, Amy R


    Assessing outcomes and the impact from behavioral nutrition interventions has remained challenging because of the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With the current high global obesity and related chronic disease rates, novel methods to evaluate the impact of behavioral nutrition-based interventions are much needed. The objective of this narrative review is to describe and review the current status of knowledge as it relates to 4 different innovative methods or tools to assess behavioral nutrition interventions. Methods reviewed include 1) the assessment of stress and stress responsiveness to enhance the evaluation of nutrition interventions, 2) eye-tracking technology in nutritional interventions, 3) smartphone biosensors to assess nutrition and health-related outcomes, and 4) skin carotenoid measurements to assess fruit and vegetable intake. Specifically, the novel use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, by characterizing the brain's responsiveness to an intervention, can help researchers develop programs with greater efficacy. Similarly, if eye-tracking technology can enable researchers to get a better sense as to how participants view materials, the materials may be better tailored to create an optimal impact. The latter 2 techniques reviewed, smartphone biosensors and methods to detect skin carotenoids, can provide the research community with portable, effective, nonbiased ways to assess dietary intake and quality and more in the field. The information gained from using these types of methodologies can improve the efficacy and assessment of behavior-based nutrition interventions.

  12. Treatment Fidelity: Special Educators' Perceptions of Measures Used to Monitor the Implementation of Behavior Intervention Plans (United States)

    Thorne, Jennifer


    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 requires empirically based interventions to be used when treating chronic problem behaviors. The fundamental part of behavior modification is the ability to demonstrate that behavior change occurred due to the intervention. This can only be accomplished when the intervention is…

  13. Changing behavioral lifestyle risk factors related to cognitive decline in later life using a self-motivated eHealth intervention in Dutch adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, T.; Qin, L.; Baars, M.A.E.; Lange, A.H. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.


    BACKGROUND: Our labor force is aging, but aged workers are not yet coached on how to stay cognitively fit for the job. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we tested whether a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention could improve multiple health-related behaviors that are associated with cognitive aging a

  14. School-based interventions for disruptive behavior. (United States)

    Lee, Terry


    Youth disruptive behavior is a concern for youth, school personnel,families, and society. Early childhood disruptive behaviors negatively impact the classroom, and are associated with negative academic, social, behavioral, emotional, substance use, health, and justice system outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Effective, comprehensive, multicomponent interventions targeting risk/protective factors and pathways associated with antisocial behavior reduce and/or mitigate these negative outcomes. Positive effects have been demonstrated for universal and indicated programs for participating youth and families in early childhood, and for high-risk youth in adolescence and young adulthood. These empirically supported programs inform the treatment of complex and difficult-to-treat disruptive behavior.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    In this report an overview is given of the contribution of cognitive approaches to behavioral medicine. The (possible) contribution of cognitive therapy is reviewed in the area of coronary heart disease, obesity, bulimia nervosa, chronic pain, benign headache, cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndr

  16. Behavioral economics: merging psychology and economics for lifestyle interventions. (United States)

    Thorgeirsson, Tryggvi; Kawachi, Ichiro


    The field of behavioral economics combines psychology and economics to investigate how individuals actually behave as opposed to how they would behave if they were being perfectly rational (as in the sense of maximizing their utility). Although initial applications focused on consumer behavior, such as explaining why people failed to save adequately for retirement, the field has moved increasingly into the area of explaining health behaviors as well as the design of lifestyle interventions, such as weight loss and smoking-cessation programs. This article provides an overview of several important behavioral economics concepts of relevance to public health and health behavior change.

  17. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice. (United States)

    Sharma, Mahendra P; Andrade, Chittaranjan


    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control therapy, sleep restriction therapy, sleep hygiene, paradoxical intention therapy, cognitive restructuring, and other approaches. These are briefly explained. Research indicates that behavioral interventions are efficacious, effective, and likely cost-effective treatments for insomnia that yield reliable, robust, and long-term benefits in adults of all ages. Detailed guidance is provided for the practical management of patients with insomnia.

  18. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention. (United States)

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin


    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions.

  19. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.


    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  20. A telehealth behavioral coaching intervention for neurocognitive disorder family carers (United States)

    Gant, Judith R.


    Objectives This study examined the differential impact of two telehealth programs for women caring for an older adult with a neurocognitive disorder. Outcomes examined were depressive symptoms, upset following disruptive behaviors, anxious and angry mood states, and caregiving self‐efficacy. Methods Women cohabitating with a family member diagnosed with a neurocognitive disorder were assigned via random allocation to either of the following: (1) a 14‐week behavioral intervention using video instructional materials, workbook and telephone coaching in behavioral management, pleasant events scheduling, and relaxation or (2) a basic education guide and telephone support comparison condition. Telephone assessments were conducted by interviewers blind to treatment condition at pre‐intervention, post‐intervention, and 6 months following intervention. Results For those providing in‐home care at post‐treatment, depressive symptoms, upset following disruptive behaviors, and negative mood states were statistically lower in the behavioral coaching condition than in the basic education and support condition. Reliable change index analyses for Beck Depression Inventory II scores favored the behavioral coaching condition. Caregiving self‐efficacy scores for obtaining respite and for managing patient behavioral disturbances were significantly higher in the coaching condition. Effect sizes were moderate but not maintained at the 6‐month follow‐up. Conclusions This study provides some initial evidence for the efficacy of a telehealth behavioral coaching intervention compared with basic education and telephone support. Carers' abilities to maintain strategy use during progressive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease likely require longer intervention contact than provided in the current study. Dementia carers, including those living in rural areas, can benefit from accessible and empirically supported interventions that can be easily disseminated across distances

  1. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van


    Objectives: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients’ lifestyle behavior. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a

  2. Communication-related behavior change techniques used in face-to-face lifestyle interventions in primary care: A systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordman, J.; Weijden, T. van der; Dulmen, S. van


    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on the relative effectiveness of face-to-face communication-related behavior change techniques (BCTs) provided in primary care by either physicians or nurses to intervene on patients' lifestyle behavior. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL a

  3. Innovative techniques for evaluating behavioral nutrition interventions (United States)

    Assessing outcomes and impact from behavioral nutrition interventions in the community has remained challenging for a variety of reasons. One main reason is the lack of methods available beyond traditional nutrition assessment tools and techniques. With current global obesity and related chronic dis...

  4. Positive Intervention for Serious Behavior Problems: Best Practices in Implementing the Hughes Bill (A.B. 2586) and the Positive Behavioral Intervention Regulations. (United States)

    Wright, Diana Browning; Gurman, Harvey B.

    This manual provides guidelines to educators attempting to comply with California's Hughes Bill, which is intended to ensure the rights of special education students to have positive behavioral intervention plans designed to bring lasting behavioral changes without interventions that cause pain or trauma. An introductory chapter summarizes the…

  5. School Bullies' Intention to Change Behavior Following Teacher Interventions: Effects of Empathy Arousal, Condemning of Bullying, and Blaming of the Perpetrator. (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F; Vartio, Annina; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina


    This study examines how bullies' perceptions of how they were treated by a teacher (or other school personnel) during discussions aimed at putting an end to bullying influenced their intention to change their behavior. After each discussion, which took place as part of the implementation of an anti-bullying program, bullies anonymously reported the extent to which they felt that the teacher aroused their empathy for the victim, condemned their behavior, or blamed them. Half of the schools implementing the program were instructed to handle these discussions in a confrontational way-telling the bully that his behavior is not tolerated-while the other half were instructed to use a non-confronting approach. Schools were randomly assigned to one of the two approaches. A total of 341 cases (188 in primary and 153 in secondary schools) handled in 28 Finnish schools were analyzed. Regression analyses showed that attempts at making bullies feel empathy for the victim and condemning their behavior both increased bullies' intention to stop. Blaming the bully had no significant effect. Bullies' intention to change was the lowest when both empathy-arousal and condemning behavior were low. The effects of empathy arousal were stronger when condemning the behavior was low (and vice versa), suggesting that teachers tackling bullying should make sure to use at least one of these strategies. When choosing not to raise the child's empathy, clear reprobation of the behavior is key.

  6. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior. (United States)

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J


    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial.

  7. School Bullies’ Intention to Change Behavior Following Teacher Interventions: Effects of Empathy Arousal, Condemning of Bullying, and Blaming of the Perpetrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, C.F.; Vartio, Annina; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina


    This study examines how bullies’ perceptions of how they were treated by a teacher (or other school personnel) during discussions aimed at putting an end to bullying influenced their intention to change their behavior. After each discussion, which took place as part of the implementation of an anti-

  8. Globalization of Behavioral Risks Needs Faster Diffusion of Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahul Ebrahim, MD, MSc, PhD


    Full Text Available International trade, population migration, changes in living conditions (i.e., consumption transition, nutritional transition, and changes in production, marketing, and availability of consumer goods (i.e., production transition have brought about continuous and rapid changes in the human environment. Such changes have improved the health and economic status of many people in developing countries. At the same time, a parallel phenomenon is occurring: the rapid emergence and expansion of modifiable risk behaviors. These behaviors adversely affect the national health of developing countries and that of future generations because of their impact on maternal, child, and adolescent health. Furthermore, these behaviors are increasing at a faster rate than interventions to curb their growth are being implemented. We discuss the current status of five modifiable risk behaviors — alcohol consumption, tobacco use, overweight and obesity, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity — to emphasize the need for global advocacy and local action to enhance policy formulation and diffusion of interventions necessary to moderate the spread of these behaviors.

  9. Understanding the role of mHealth and other media interventions for behavior change to enhance child survival and development in low- and middle-income countries: an evidence review. (United States)

    Higgs, Elizabeth S; Goldberg, Allison B; Labrique, Alain B; Cook, Stephanie H; Schmid, Carina; Cole, Charlotte F; Obregón, Rafael A


    Given the high morbidity and mortality among children in low- and middle-income countries as a result of preventable causes, the U.S. government and the United Nations Children's Fund convened an Evidence Summit on Enhancing Child Survival and Development in Lower- and Middle-Income Countries by Achieving Population-Level Behavior Change on June 3-4, 2013, in Washington, D.C. This article summarizes evidence for technological advances associated with population-level behavior changes necessary to advance child survival and healthy development in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. After a rigorous evidence selection process, the authors assessed science, technology, and innovation papers that used mHealth, social/transmedia, multiplatform media, health literacy, and devices for behavior changes supporting child survival and development. Because of an insufficient number of studies on health literacy and devices that supported causal attribution of interventions to outcomes, the review focused on mHealth, social/transmedia, and multiplatform media. Overall, this review found that some mHealth interventions have sufficient evidence to make topic-specific recommendations for broader implementation, scaling, and next research steps (e.g., adherence to HIV/AIDS antiretroviral therapy, uptake and demand of maternal health service, and compliance with malaria treatment guidelines). While some media evidence demonstrates effectiveness in changing cognitive abilities, knowledge, and attitudes, evidence is minimal on behavioral endpoints linked to child survival. Population level behavior change is necessary to end preventable child deaths. Donors and low- and middle-income countries are encouraged to implement recommendations for informing practice, policy, and research decisions to fully maximize the impact potential of mHealth and multimedia for child survival and development.

  10. A comparison of family interventions to address adolescent risky behaviors: a literature review. (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui; Gibbs, Marilyn Beth; Clemen-Stone, Susan; Duffy, Sonia


    The purpose of this integrative review is to describe, compare, and synthesize traditional and computer-based family interventions that aim to change adolescents' risky sexual behaviors and substance abuse. Family interventions have been shown to generate protective effects for preventing adolescents from risky behaviors. It is not clear, however, whether there are significant differences or similarities in the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. An integrative literature review was conducted to describe and compare the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. Both interventions have generated significant effects on reducing risky behavior among adolescents. Interventions guided by theory, tailored to participants' culture/gender, and which included sufficient boosting dosages in their designs demonstrated significant short- or long-term effects in terms of reducing adolescents' risky behaviors. Regardless of delivery method, well-designed family interventions are noted to maximize familial protective effects and reduce risky behaviors.

  11. Influence of behavioral theory on fruit and vegetable intervention effectiveness among children: A meta-analysis (United States)

    The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses that interventions clearly based on theory, multiple theories, or a formal intervention planning process will be more effective in changing fruit and vegetable consumption among children than interventions with no behavioral theoretical foundati...

  12. Behavioral interventions for office-based care: interventions in the family medicine setting. (United States)

    Larzelere, Michele McCarthy


    The practice of family medicine includes the care of many patients with mental health or behavior change needs. Patients in mild to moderate distress may benefit from brief interventions performed in the family physician's office. Patients in more extreme distress may be helped by referral to behavioral health clinicians for short-term or open-ended therapies. Electronic therapy programs and bibliotherapy are also useful resources. The transition to the patient-centered medical home model may allow for more widespread integration of behavioral health care clinicians into primary care, in person and through telemental health care. Integrated care holds the promise of improved access, greater effectiveness of behavioral health service provision, and enhanced efficiency of primary care for patients with behavioral health care needs.

  13. Translating Behavioral Interventions Onto mHealth Platforms: Developing Text Message Interventions for Smoking and Alcohol. (United States)

    Bock, Beth C; Rosen, Rochelle K; Barnett, Nancy P; Thind, Herpreet; Walaska, Kristen; Foster, Robert; Deutsch, Christopher; Traficante, Regina


    The development of mHealth applications is often driven by the investigators and developers with relatively little input from the targeted population. User input is commonly limited to "like/dislike" post- intervention consumer satisfaction ratings or device or application specific user analytics such as usability. However, to produce successful mHealth applications with lasting effects on health behaviors it is crucial to obtain user input from the start of each project and throughout development. The aim of this tutorial is to illustrate how qualitative methods in an iterative process of development have been used in two separate behavior change interventions (targeting smoking and alcohol) delivered through mobile technologies (ie, text messaging). A series of focus groups were conducted to assist in translating a face-to-face smoking cessation intervention onto a text message (short message service, SMS) delivered format. Both focus groups and an advisory panel were used to shape the delivery and content of a text message delivered intervention for alcohol risk reduction. An in vivo method of constructing message content was used to develop text message content that was consistent with the notion of texting as "fingered speech". Formative research conducted with the target population using a participatory framework led to important changes in our approach to intervention structure, content development, and delivery. Using qualitative methods and an iterative approach that blends consumer-driven and investigator-driven aims can produce paradigm-shifting, novel intervention applications that maximize the likelihood of use by the target audience and their potential impact on health behaviors.

  14. Improvements in Child Behavior and Family Mealtime Environment After an Intensive Behavioral Feeding Intervention. (United States)

    Seiverling, Laura; Hendy, Helen M; Yusupova, Stella


    The present study examined changes in child and family mealtime patterns before and after intensive behavioral feeding intervention at a multidisciplinary hospital-based program for 50 children. At preintervention and postintervention, caregivers completed surveys to report child feeding goals and the About Your Child's Eating scale (AYCE). In addition, at postintervention, each caregiver rated intervention effectiveness for his or her child's feeding goals identified at preintervention and provided intervention satisfaction ratings. Results revealed that caregivers perceived all three AYCE family mealtime patterns to improve from preintervention to postintervention, the majority of caregivers rated intervention as being effective for improving the specific child feeding goals identified at preintervention, and caregivers gave high satisfaction ratings for the intervention.

  15. Transition from the Lactational Amenorrhea Method to other modern family planning methods in rural Bangladesh: barrier analysis and implications for behavior change communication program intervention design. (United States)

    Kouyaté, Robin Anthony; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Haver, Jaime; McKaig, Catharine; Akter, Nargis; Nash-Mercado, Angela; Baqui, Abdullah


    The timely transition from Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM)(2) to another modern family planning method contributes to healthy spacing of pregnancies by increasing the adoption of family planning during the first year postpartum. Yet, literature suggests challenges in completing a timely LAM transition. To guide program implementation in Bangladesh, this study identified factors influencing women's transition decisions. Eighty postpartum women, comprising 40 who transitioned from LAM(3) and 40 who did not,(4) participated. Half of each group participated in in-depth interviews to explore the decision-making process. All participants responded to a "Barrier Analysis" questionnaire to identify differences in eight behavioral determinants. More than half of transitioners switched to another modern method before or within the same month that LAM ended. Of the 18 transitioners who delayed,(5) 15 waited for menses to return. For non-transitioners, key barriers included waiting for menses to return, misconceptions on return to fertility, and perceived lack of familial support. The LAM transition can help women prevent unintended pregnancy during the first year postpartum. Increased emphasis on counseling women about the risk of pregnancy, and misconceptions about personal fertility patterns are critical for facilitating the transition. Strategies should also include interventions that train health workers and improve social support.

  16. Scaling Climate Change Communication for Behavior Change (United States)

    Rodriguez, V. C.; Lappé, M.; Flora, J. A.; Ardoin, N. M.; Robinson, T. N.


    Ultimately, effective climate change communication results in a change in behavior, whether the change is individual, household or collective actions within communities. We describe two efforts to promote climate-friendly behavior via climate communication and behavior change theory. Importantly these efforts are designed to scale climate communication principles focused on behavior change rather than soley emphasizing climate knowledge or attitudes. Both cases are embedded in rigorous evaluations (randomized controlled trial and quasi-experimental) of primary and secondary outcomes as well as supplementary analyses that have implications for program refinement and program scaling. In the first case, the Girl Scouts "Girls Learning Environment and Energy" (GLEE) trial is scaling the program via a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for Troop Leaders to teach the effective home electricity and food and transportation energy reduction programs. The second case, the Alliance for Climate Education (ACE) Assembly Program, is advancing the already-scaled assembly program by using communication principles to further engage youth and their families and communities (school and local communities) in individual and collective actions. Scaling of each program uses online learning platforms, social media and "behavior practice" videos, mastery practice exercises, virtual feedback and virtual social engagement to advance climate-friendly behavior change. All of these communication practices aim to simulate and advance in-person train-the-trainers technologies.As part of this presentation we outline scaling principles derived from these two climate change communication and behavior change programs.

  17. 行为转变理论在糖尿病足高危病人自护行为干预中的应用%Application of behavioral change theory in self care behavior intervention of high risk patients with diabetic foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玲; 高俊香; 田素斋; 王磊磊; 王红红


    Objective:To probe into the effect of nursing intervention ,which based on the behavior change theory on self care behavior of high risk diabetic foot patients .Methods:A total of 68 cases of high risk diabetic foot patients were randomly divided into intervention group and control group ,34 cases in each group .The patients in control receired used conventional care .The patients in intervention group were given the nursing intervention based on the behavior change theory .The patients’ foot self care knowledge ,self efficacy and foot self care frequency ,foot skin conditions were evaluated and investigated at 3 months before the intervention ,3 months af‐ter the intervention ,6 months before the intervention ,and 6 months after the intervention .Results:After inter‐vention ,the patients in intervention group were better than those in control group in the aspects of the foot self care knowledge and self efficacy and foot self care behavior .Conclusion:Nursing intervention based on the be‐havior change theory may help patients to establish regular self care behaviors ,thus delaying and preventing the occurrence of diabetic foot .%[目的]探讨以行为转变理论为指导的护理干预对糖尿病足高危病人自我护理行为的影响。[方法]将68例糖尿病足高危病人随机分为干预组和对照组各34例,对照组采用常规护理,干预组实施以行为转变理论为指导的护理干预,分别于干预前、干预后3个月、6个月对病人的足部自我护理知识、自我效能、足部自我护理频率、足部皮肤情况进行测评和调查。[结果]干预后,干预组病人足部自我护理知识、自我效能、足部护理行为改善优于对照组,足部皮肤干燥情况得到改善。[结论]以行为转变理论为指导的护理干预可以帮助病人建立规律的自我护理行为,从而延缓和预防糖尿病足的发生。

  18. Reducing Youth Risk Behaviors Through Interactive Theater Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson


    Full Text Available The reduction of risk behaviors in secondary schools is a key concern for parents, teachers, and school administrators. School is one of the primary contexts of socialization for young people; thus, the investment in school-based programs to reduce risk behaviors is essential. In this study, we report on youth who participated in an intervention designed to improve decision-making skills based on positive youth development approaches. We examine changes in decision-making skills before and after involvement in the Teen Interactive Theater Education (TITE program and retrospective self-assessment of change in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs as a result of participating in TITE (n = 127. Youth that reported increases in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs due to the intervention (n = 89 were more likely to think about the consequences of their decisions and list options before making a decision compared to their counterparts that reported less overall learning (n = 38. Implications for intervention research and stakeholders are discussed.

  19. Characteristic market behaviors caused by intervention in a foreign exchange market

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, T; Takayasu, H; Watanabe, T


    In foreign exchange markets monotonic rate changes can be observed in time scale of order of an hour on the days that governmental interventions took place. We estimate the starting time of an intervention using this characteristic behavior of the exchange rates. We find that big amount of interventions can shift the averaged rate about 1 yen per 1 dollar in an hour, and the rate change distribution becomes asymmetric for a few hours.

  20. Behavioral Nutrition Interventions Using e- and m-Health Communication Technologies: A Narrative Review. (United States)

    Olson, Christine M


    e- and m-Health communication technologies are now common approaches to improving population health. The efficacy of behavioral nutrition interventions using e-health technologies to decrease fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable intake was demonstrated in studies conducted from 2005 to 2009, with approximately 75% of trials showing positive effects. By 2010, an increasing number of behavioral nutrition interventions were focusing on body weight. The early emphasis on interventions that were highly computer tailored shifted to personalized electronic interventions that included weight and behavioral self-monitoring as key features. More diverse target audiences began to participate, and mobile components were added to interventions. Little progress has been made on using objective measures rather than self-reported measures of dietary behavior. A challenge for nutritionists is to link with the private sector in the design, use, and evaluation of the many electronic devices that are now available in the marketplace for nutrition monitoring and behavioral change.

  1. Determining Responsiveness to School Counseling Interventions Using Behavioral Observations (United States)

    Gruman, Diana H.; Hoelzen, Brian


    School districts are in the process of adopting the Response to Intervention (RTI) approach to identify and remediate academic and behavioral deficits. As an integral member of the school behavior team, school counselors must use data on individual interventions to contribute to the data-based decision making process in RTI. This article presents…

  2. Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Child and Parent Distress during Venipuncture. (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; And Others


    Investigated behavioral intervention to control child distress during invasive cancer treatment. Children (n=23) requiring physical restraint to complete venipuncture were alternately assigned to behavioral intervention or attention control condition. Observed child distress, parent-rated child distress, and parent ratings of own distress were…

  3. Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change Applied to Voice Therapy



    Studies of patient adherence to health behavior programs, such as physical exercise, smoking cessation, and diet, have resulted in the formulation and validation of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behavior change. Although widely accepted as a guide for the development of health behavior interventions, this model has not been applied to vocal rehabilitation. Because resolution of vocal difficulties frequently depends on a patient’s ability to make changes in vocal and health behaviors, th...

  4. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study behavior intervention component. (United States)

    Venditti, E M; Elliot, D L; Faith, M S; Firrell, L S; Giles, C M; Goldberg, L; Marcus, M D; Schneider, M; Solomon, S; Thompson, D; Yin, Z


    HEALTHY was a multi-center primary prevention trial designed to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes in adolescents. Seven centers each recruited six middle schools that were randomized to either intervention or control. The HEALTHY intervention integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change and communications and promotion. The conceptual rationale as well as the design and development of the behavior intervention component are described. Pilot study data informed the development of the behavior intervention component. Principles of social learning and health-related behavior change were incorporated. One element of the behavior intervention component was a sequence of peer-led, teacher-facilitated learning activities known as FLASH (Fun Learning Activities for Student Health). Five FLASH modules were implemented over five semesters of the HEALTHY study, with the first module delivered in the second semester of the sixth grade and the last module in the second semester of the eighth grade. Each module contained sessions that were designed to be delivered on a weekly basis to foster self-awareness, knowledge, decision-making skills and peer involvement for health behavior change. FLASH behavioral practice incorporated individual and group self-monitoring challenges for eating and activity. Another element of the behavior intervention component was the family outreach strategy for extending changes in physical activity and healthy eating beyond the school day and for supporting the student's lifestyle change choices. Family outreach strategies included the delivery of newsletters and supplemental packages with materials to promote healthy behavior in the home environment during school summer and winter holiday breaks. In conclusion, the HEALTHY behavior intervention component, when integrated with total school food and physical education environmental changes enhanced by communications and promotional campaigns, is a feasible and

  5. Systematic Review of School-based Interventions to Modify Dietary Behavior: Does Intervention Intensity Impact Effectiveness? (United States)

    Racey, Megan; O'Brien, Charlene; Douglas, Sabrina; Marquez, Olivia; Hendrie, Gilly; Newton, Genevieve


    Background: Owing to the associations between diet and health, it is important that effective health promotion strategies establish healthful eating behaviors from an early age. We reviewed the intensity of school-based interventions aimed to modify dietary behavior in preadolescent and adolescents and related intervention characteristics to…

  6. Advancing work practices: Rethinking online professional development in the context of intervention-based sustainable change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack


    development simultaneously inspire and exemplify the model. Findings The paper suggests that increased attention to individual motivational drivers is needed, especially post intervention, to help ensure meaningful learning transfer and sustainable behavior change. The importance of individualized on...... interventions currently. It conceptualizes intervention-based change and the key motivational drivers of such change. In doing so, it illuminates highly contextual dynamics presumed to have a critical impact on the effectiveness of e-Learning for PD....

  7. Instructional design strategies for health behavior change. (United States)

    Kinzie, Mable B


    To help health educators build upon the best of different health behavior change theories, this paper offers a unified set of instructional design strategies for health education interventions. This set draws upon the recommendations of Rosenstock (Health Belief Model), Bandura (Social Cognitive Theory), and Dearing (Diffusion Theory), and uses a modified Events of Instruction framework (adapted from Robert Gagne): gain attention (convey health threats and benefits), present stimulus material (tailor message to audience knowledge and values, demonstrate observable effectiveness, make behaviors easy-to-understand and do), provide guidance (use trustworthy models to demonstrate), elicit performance and provide feedback (to enhance trialability, develop proficiency and self-efficacy), enhance retention and transfer (provide social supports and deliver behavioral cues). Sample applications of these strategies are provided. A brief review of research on adolescent smoking prevention enables consideration of the frequency with which these strategies are used, and possible patterns between strategy use and behavioral outcomes.

  8. Relative Efficacy of a Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infection, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention--Focused Intervention on Changing Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Adults (United States)

    Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.


    Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at…

  9. The Constraining Factors and Intervention Strategies of Adolescent Exercise Behavior Change in Stages%青少年锻炼行为分阶段转变的制约因素及干预策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Base on the "the transtheoretical model and stages of change TTM", "restricted model", "social ecology" theory. Depth analysis of constraints and model of adolescent exercise behavior change in stages. Explore effective intervention strategies of adolescent exercise behavior change in stages. To create a good society, family and school environment, together to promote the healthy development of youth sports job.%以"行为分阶段转变理论模型"、"限制模型"、"社会生态"理论为基础,深入分析青少年锻炼行为分阶段转变的制约因素与模型,探寻有效促进青少年锻炼行为分阶段转变的干预策略,以营造良好的社会、家庭与学校环境,促进青少年体育工作健康发展.

  10. Study on change of behavioral stages on nutritional intervention in farmers%阶段转变理论模型在农民人群中营养干预行为中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 潘怡; 杨溢; 王卓; 李威


    目的 探讨阶段转变理论模型在农民人群中开展"多吃蔬菜水果、少吃盐"的营养干预行为研究上的应用,评估其行为阶段转变的效果.方法 选取干预与对照农民各500余人,对调查对象统一进行基线调查和干预一年后的评估调查;根据基线调查数据,按阶段转变理论模型对其多吃蔬菜水果行为的接受程度划分为五个阶段,对干预组农民及不同阶段人群开展营养干预活动,试验后应用此模型评估两组行为阶段的改变.结果 应用阶段转变理论模型分析,干预后,干预组农民的多吃蔬菜水果的健康行为阶段前移,其准备期、行动期、维持期阶段人群比例分别增加了15.1%、20.7%和16.1%;农民的营养知识知晓率,每天蔬菜、水果的摄入量,叶酸、尿钾水平随着行为阶段的上升逐渐增加,而食盐摄入量,舒张压、同型半胱氨酸、尿钠水平随着行为阶段的上升而逐渐降低(P<0.05).结论 应用阶段转变理论模型对农民进行营养干预,农民多吃蔬菜水果行为发生了由无打算阶段转变为行动、维持阶段的变化,取得了行为阶段前移或上升的直观干预效果;处在行动、维持高阶段的人群确实要比低阶段的人群具有较高的营养知识水平、积极的健康信念和态度、健康的膳食行为、较低的慢性疾病危险因素水平,体现了该模型分析人们知-信-行在不同阶段转变的可应用性.%Objective To explore the applying stages of change model on nutrition intervention on “eating more vegetables and fruits, eating less salt” in farmers, and evaluate the change of behavioral stages. Methods The questionnaires were used to do baseline and evaluation survey on 500 farmers in trial group and control group respectively. Applying stages of change model to divide farmers into five stages according to their behavior of eating more vegetables and fruits. The intervention ways were used in trial

  11. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K


    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  12. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras (United States)

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.


    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  13. C-A1-01: Changes in Physical Activity and Nutrition in a Behavioral Intervention Pilot Study - Passport to Brain Wellness


    Hanson, Leah R.; Martinson, Brian C.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Crain, A Lauren; Hayes, Marcia G.; O’Connor, Patrick J; Matthews, Rachel B; Cooner, Jacob M


    Background/Aims: Increasing concerns about cognitive decline and dementia in the aging populations of most westernized countries suggests the need for interventions that can preserve cognitive function, are cost-effective, and feasibly implemented on a large scale. Empirical evidence is accumulating that points to the potential beneficial effects of cardiovascular fitness, healthy diet, social integration and participation in cognitively stimulating activities in the maintenance of cognitive ...

  14. Bidirectional Effects between Parenting and Aggressive Child Behavior in the Context of a Preventive Intervention. (United States)

    Te Brinke, Lysanne W; Deković, Maja; Stoltz, Sabine E M J; Cillessen, Antonius H N


    Over time, developmental theories and empirical studies have gradually started to adopt a bidirectional viewpoint. The area of intervention research is, however, lagging behind in this respect. This longitudinal study examined whether bidirectional associations between (changes in) parenting and (changes in) aggressive child behavior over time differed in three conditions: a child intervention condition, a child + parent intervention condition and a control condition. Participants were 267 children (74 % boys, 26 % girls) with elevated levels of aggression, their mothers and their teachers. Reactive aggression, proactive aggression and perceived parenting were measured at four measurement times from pretest to one-year after intervention termination. Results showed that associations between aggressive child behavior and perceived parenting are different in an intervention context, compared to a general developmental context. Aggressive behavior and perceived parenting were unrelated over time for children who did not receive an intervention. In an intervention context, however, decreases in aggressive child behavior were related to increases in perceived positive parenting and decreases in perceived overreactivity. These findings underscore the importance of addressing child-driven processes in interventions aimed at children, but also in interventions aimed at both children and their parents.

  15. Evidence-based behavioral interventions to promote diabetes management in children, adolescents, and families. (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Powell, Priscilla W; Anderson, Barbara J


    As members of multidisciplinary diabetes care teams, psychologists are well-suited to support self-management among youth with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their families. Psychological and behavioral interventions can promote adherence to the complex and demanding diabetes care regimen, with the goals of promoting high quality of life, achieving optimal glycemic control, and ultimately preventing disease-related complications. This article reviews well-researched contemporary behavioral interventions to promote optimal diabetes family- and self-management and health outcomes in youth with T1D, in the context of key behavioral theories. The article summarizes the evidence base for established diabetes skills training programs, family interventions, and multisystemic interventions, and introduces emerging evidence for technology and mobile health interventions and health care delivery system interventions. Next steps in behavioral T1D intervention research include tailoring interventions to meet individuals' and families' unique needs and strengths, and systematically evaluating cost-effectiveness to advocate for dissemination of well-developed interventions. Although in its infancy, this article reviews observational and intervention research for youth with T2D and their families and discusses lessons for future research with this population. Interventions for youth with T2D will need to incorporate family members, consider cultural and family issues related to health behaviors, and take into account competing priorities for resources. As psychologists and behavioral scientists, we must advocate for the integration of behavioral health into routine pediatric diabetes care in order to effectively promote meaningful change in the behavioral and medical well-being of youth and families living with T1D and T2D. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) Program: Underlying Theories (United States)

    Boulden, Walter T.


    The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…

  17. Classwide Intervention to Manage Disruptive Behavior in the Kindergarten Classroom (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schneider, Dana L.; Rezzetano, Kristin M.; Prodan, Tana; Tankersley, Melody


    The authors present an investigation of a classwide intervention to reduce disruptive behavior in a kindergarten classroom. Participants included children in 3 kindergarten classrooms and their teachers in an at-risk school district in Northeast Ohio. On the basis of student behaviors and teacher goals, the authors chose the Good Behavior Game…

  18. Using Data to Intensify Behavioral Interventions for Individual Students (United States)

    Kern, Lee; Wehby, Joseph H.


    In an earlier article (EJ1058920), Lee Kern and Joseph H. Wehby identified the reasons and process for using adaptive intensive behavioral intervention. Kern and Wehby use this article to present a fictional example of how the intervention is applied. Isaac, a 12 year old, 7th grade student at Highland Middle School, had a history of behavior…

  19. Automated dialogue generation for behavior intervention on mobile devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitrianie, S.; Griffioen-Both, F.; Spruit, S.; Lancee, J.; Beun, R.J.


    Communication in the form of dialogues between a virtual coach and a human patient (coachee) is one of the pillars in an intervention app for smartphones. The virtual coach is considered as a cooperative partner that supports the individual with various exercises for a behavior intervention therapy.

  20. Woman-centered research on access to safe abortion services and implications for behavioral change communication interventions: a cross-sectional study of women in Bihar and Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Sushanta K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe abortion in India leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Abortion has been legal in India since 1971, and the availability of safe abortion services has increased. However, service availability has not led to a significant reduction in unsafe abortion. This study aimed to understand the gap between safe abortion availability and use of services in Bihar and Jharkhand, India by examining accessibility from the perspective of rural, Indian women. Methods Two-stage stratified random sampling was used to identify and enroll 1411 married women of reproductive age in four rural districts in Bihar and Jharkhand, India. Data were collected on women's socio-demographic characteristics; exposure to mass media and other information sources; and abortion-related knowledge, perceptions and practices. Multiple linear regression models were used to explore the association between knowledge and perceptions about abortion. Results Most women were poor, had never attended school, and had limited exposure to mass media. Instead, they relied on community health workers, family and friends for health information. Women who had knowledge about abortion, such as knowing an abortion method, were more likely to perceive that services are available (β = 0.079; p Conclusions Behavior change communication (BCC interventions, which address negative perceptions by improving community knowledge about abortion and support local availability of safe abortion services, are needed to increase enabling resources for women and improve potential access to services. Implementing BCC interventions is challenging in settings such as Bihar and Jharkhand where women may be difficult to reach directly, but interventions can target individuals in the community to transfer information to the women who need this information most. Interpersonal approaches that engage community leaders and influencers may also counteract negative social norms regarding

  1. Evaluation of a planned behavior theory-based intervention programme to promote healthy eating. (United States)

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos


    The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention program based on the theoretical framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior, with the addition of attitude strength and role identity. The aim was to alter adolescents' healthy eating attitudes and behaviour. In the sample were 335 high school students, who were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and included posters and lectures promoting healthy eating. The measures included a questionnaire assessing the hypothesis and a food frequency questionnaire which measured eating habits. Analysis showed the intervention was effective in proving attitudes toward healthy eating and attitude strength, intention, perceived behavioral control, and healthy eating behaviour, but not effective in predicting subjective norms and role identity. Results provide evidence that intervention changed attitudes toward a behavior in a school setting.

  2. A theory-based online health behavior intervention for new university students: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epton Tracy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Too few young people engage in behaviors that reduce the risk of morbidity and premature mortality, such as eating healthily, being physically active, drinking sensibly and not smoking. The present research developed an online intervention to target these health behaviors during the significant life transition from school to university when health beliefs and behaviors may be more open to change. This paper describes the intervention and the proposed approach to its evaluation. Methods/design Potential participants (all undergraduates about to enter the University of Sheffield will be emailed an online questionnaire two weeks before starting university. On completion of the questionnaire, respondents will be randomly assigned to receive either an online health behavior intervention (U@Uni or a control condition. The intervention employs three behavior change techniques (self-affirmation, theory-based messages, and implementation intentions to target four heath behaviors (alcohol consumption, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and smoking. Subsequently, all participants will be emailed follow-up questionnaires approximately one and six months after starting university. The questionnaires will assess the four targeted behaviors and associated cognitions (e.g., intentions, self-efficacy as well as socio-demographic variables, health status, Body Mass Index (BMI, health service use and recreational drug use. A sub-sample of participants will provide a sample of hair to assess changes in biochemical markers of health behavior. A health economic evaluation of the cost effectiveness of the intervention will also be conducted. Discussion The findings will provide evidence on the effectiveness of online interventions as well as the potential for intervening during significant life transitions, such as the move from school to university. If successful, the intervention could be employed at other universities to promote

  3. A systematic review of behavioral interventions to promote intake of fruit and vegetables. (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Ravia, Jennifer


    Fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in the United States remains below recommended levels despite evidence of the health benefits of regular consumption. Efforts to increase F/V intake include behavior-based interventions. A systematic review of MEDLINE PubMed and PsycINFO databases (2005-2010) was conducted to identify behavior-based intervention trials designed to promote F/V intake. Using predetermined limits and selection criteria, 34 studies were identified for inclusion. Behavior-based interventions resulted in an average increase in F/V intake of +1.13 and +0.39 servings per day in adults and children, respectively. Interventions involving minority adults or low-income participants demonstrated average increases in daily F/V consumption of +0.97 servings/day, whereas worksite interventions averaged +0.8 servings/day. Achieving and sustaining F/V intake at recommended levels of intake across the population cannot be achieved through behavior-based interventions alone. Thus, efforts to combine these interventions with other approaches including social marketing, behavioral economics approaches, and technology-based behavior change models should be tested to ensure goals are met and sustained.

  4. Decreasing Risky Behavior on Social Network Sites: The Impact of Parental Involvement in Secondary Education Interventions. (United States)

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin


    Teenagers face significant risks when using increasingly popular social network sites. Prevention and intervention efforts to raise awareness about these risks and to change risky behavior (so-called "e-safety" interventions) are essential for the wellbeing of these minors. However, several studies have revealed that while school interventions often affect awareness, they have only a limited impact on pupils' unsafe behavior. Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior and theories about parental involvement, we hypothesized that involving parents in an e-safety intervention would positively influence pupils' intentions and behavior. In a quasi-experimental study with pre- and post-test measures involving 207 pupils in secondary education, we compared the impact of an intervention without parental involvement with one that included active parental involvement by means of a homework task. We found that whereas parental involvement was not necessary to improve the intervention's impact on risk awareness, it did change intentions to engage in certain unsafe behavior, such as posting personal and sexual information on the profile page of a social network site, and in reducing existing problematic behavior. This beneficial impact was particularly evident for boys. These findings suggest that developing prevention campaigns with active parental involvement is well worth the effort. Researchers and developers should therefore focus on other efficient strategies to involve parents.

  5. The information architecture of behavior change websites. (United States)

    Danaher, Brian G; McKay, H Garth; Seeley, John R


    The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)-the structure of website information--is an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ranging from a matrix design to the tunnel design. The free-form matrix IA design allows users free rein to use multiple hyperlinks to explore available content according to their idiosyncratic interests. The more directive tunnel IA design (commonly used in e-learning courses) guides users step-by-step through a series of Web pages that are arranged in a particular order to improve the chances of achieving a goal that is measurable and consistent. Other IA designs are also discussed, including hierarchical IA and hybrid IA designs. In the hierarchical IA design, program content is arranged in a top-down manner, which helps the user find content of interest. The more complex hybrid IA design incorporates some combination of components that use matrix, tunnel, and/or hierarchical IA designs. Each of these IA designs is discussed in terms of usability, participant engagement, and program tailoring, as well as how they might best be matched with different behavior change goals (using Web-based smoking cessation interventions as examples). Our presentation underscores the role of considering and clearly reporting the use of IA designs when creating effective Web-based interventions. We also encourage the adoption of a multidisciplinary perspective as we move towards a more mature view of Internet intervention research.

  6. The effects of macro-level interventions on addictive behavior. (United States)

    Pacula, R L; Chaloupka, F J


    Drug addictions are often viewed as compulsive behaviors, not sensitive to the typical rules of self-discipline or market forces. Nonetheless, many governments try to discourage consumption of addictive substances through macro policy tools, such as taxation, regulation and prohibition, in an effort to reduce the harmful consequences that result from their consumption. The government's ability to discourage this type of behavior through these macro policies depends critically on the responsiveness of addictive consumption to market interventions. This paper reviews the growing literature that applies economic principles to the analysis of "substance abuse." Specifically, we review the impact of prices and public policies on the demands for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. The findings from these studies clearly demonstrate that even addictive behaviors are sensitive to changes in the price of substances being abused. When the full price of the addictive good rises, consumption of that good falls, even among abusers. Therefore, public policies that raise the full price of a drug to a consumer, particularly youth, are likely to result in long run reductions in rates of addiction.

  7. Social Validity of a Positive Behavior Interventions and Support Model (United States)

    Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane


    As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…

  8. The Social Validity Assessment of Social Competence Intervention Behavior Goals (United States)

    Hurley, Jennifer J.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Feurer, Irene D.


    Social validation is the value judgment from society on the importance of a study. The social validity of behavior goals used in the social competence intervention literature was assessed using the Q-sort technique. The stimulus items were 80 different social competence behavior goals taken from 78 classroom-based social competence intervention…

  9. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions with Maltreated Children and Adolescents. (United States)

    Verduyn, Chrissie; Calam, Rachel


    Discussion of cognitive behavioral interventions with abused children and adolescents covers use of cognitive therapy with adults, therapeutic processes in cognitive therapy, involvement of parents and carers in cognitive behavioral therapy, and cognitive schema and maltreatment. Application is made to types of abuse (physical, emotional, sexual)…

  10. Longitudinal Outcomes of Functional Behavioral Assessment--Based Intervention (United States)

    Kern, Lee; Gallagher, Patricia; Starosta, Kristin; Hickman, Wesley; George, Michael


    A critical measure of intervention effectiveness is durability over time. Still, few studies have examined the long-term outcomes of support derived from a functional behavioral assessment as well as enablers and barriers that contribute to or impede successful outcomes. In the current study, a functional behavioral assessment was conducted with a…

  11. Implementation of Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports in Louisiana (United States)

    Hill, Juanita Mathis


    Many teachers have expressed their concern about continuous classroom disruption. Time taken to correct undesired behaviors is reducing the number of instructional minutes in the classroom on a daily basis. Instead of relying solely on classroom rules, the teacher who wishes to implement Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports should use and…

  12. The role of teacher behavior management in the development of disruptive behaviors: an intervention study with the good behavior game. (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A C; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde


    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and children's on-task and off-task classroom behavior and peer reports of hyperactive and oppositional behavior were available. Results showed that the reduced use of negative remarks of intervention teachers predicted children's increase in on-task behavior and decrease in talking-out behavior. These improved children's classroom behaviors in turn mediated the impact of the intervention on the development of hyperactive and oppositional behavior over the studied period. These results were similar for girls and boys. The results underscore the role of teachers' classroom management strategies in improving children's classroom behavior, which, in turn is an important component in the reduction of disruptive behavior development.

  13. Case Series: Evaluation of Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Medicated Children With ADHD. (United States)

    Vetrayan, Jayachandran; Othman, Suhana; Victor Paulraj, Smily Jesu Priya


    Objective: To assess the effectiveness and feasibility of behavioral sleep intervention for medicated children with ADHD. Method: Six medicated children (five boys, one girl; aged 6-12 years) with ADHD participated in a 4-week sleep intervention program. The main behavioral strategies used were Faded Bedtime With Response Cost (FBRC) and positive reinforcement. Within a case-series design, objective measure (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children [SDSC]) and subjective measure (sleep diaries) were used to record changes in children's sleep. Results: For all six children, significant decrease was found in the severity of children's sleep problems (based on SDSC data). Bedtime resistance and mean sleep onset latency were reduced following the 4-week intervention program according to sleep diaries data. Gains were generally maintained at the follow-up. Parents perceived the intervention as being helpful. Conclusion: Based on the initial data, this intervention shows promise as an effective and feasible treatment. (J. of Att. Dis. 2013; XX(X) 1-XX).

  14. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change. (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M


    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  15. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change. (United States)

    Cullen, K W; Baranowski, T; Smith, S P


    Recent reviews have noted that behavioral theory-based nutrition education programs are more successful at achieving food behavior change than knowledge-based programs and that a clear understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change procedures enable dietetics professionals to more effectively promote change. Successful dietary behavior change programs target 1 or more of the personal, behavioral, or environmental factors that influence the behavior of interest and apply theory-based strategies to influence or change those factors. Goal setting is a strategy that is frequently used to help people change. A 4-step goal-setting process has been identified: recognizing a need for change; establishing a goal; adopting a goal-directed activity and self-monitoring it; and self-rewarding goal attainment. The applications of goal setting in dietary interventions for adults and children are reviewed here. Because interventions using goal setting appear to promote dietary change, dietitians should consider incorporating the goal-setting strategies to enhance the behavior change process in nutrition education programs.

  16. What is the benefit of the biomedical and behavioral interventions in preventing HIV transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kuchenbecker


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Scientific evidence supports the sinergy between biomedical and behavioral interventions aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV as a strategy to eradicate AIDS.Objective:To characterize comparatively the benefits from biomedical and behavioral interventions to prevent HIV transmission.Methods:Narrative review. We performed a comparative analysis of the benefits of studied interventions by means of estimating the number needed to treat (NNT. Evaluated interventions: counseling activities for behavior change to prevent exposure to HIV; antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and antiretroviral post-exposure prophylasis (PEP for HIV and treatment of serodiscordant couples as a strategy for prevention of HIV transmission (TasP.Results:counseling interventions and TasP have smaller NNTs, equal to, respectively, 11 (95%CI 9 - 18 at 12 months and 34 (95%CI 23 - 54 in 42 months comparatively to PrEP interventions, that resulted in 41 (95%CI 28 - 67 individuals receiving antiretrovirals in order to prevent one case of HIV infection at 36 months for men and serodiscordant couples. PEP interventions are associated with protective effects estimated at 81%. Lack of trials evaluating PEP prevents estimate of NNT.Conclusion:The estimate of the NNT can be a helpful parameter in the comparison between the effectiveness of different behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies. Studies evaluating the benefit and safety of combined behavioral and biomedical interventions are needed, especially considering the attributable fraction of each component. Integration of behavioral and biomedical interventions is required to achieve complete suppression of the virus, and thus reducing viral replication, infectivity and the number of cases.

  17. Are we going to close social gaps in HIV? Likely effects of behavioral HIV-prevention interventions on health disparities. (United States)

    Albarracin, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R


    Although experimental behavioral interventions to prevent HIV are generally designed to correct undesirable epidemiological trends, it is presently unknown whether the resulting body of behavioral interventions is adequate to correct the social disparities in HIV-prevalence and incidence present in the United States. Two large, diverse-population meta-analytic databases were reanalyzed to estimate potential perpetuation and change in demographic and behavioral gaps as a result of introducing the available behavioral interventions advocating condom use. This review suggested that, if uniformly applied across populations, the analyzed set of experimental (i.e. under testing) interventions is well poised to correct the higher prevalence and incidence among males (vs. females) and African-Americans and Latinos (vs. other groups), but ill poised to correct the higher prevalence and incidence among younger (vs. older) people, as well as men who have sex with men, injection-drug users, and multiple partner heterosexuals (vs. other behavioral groups). Importantly, when the characteristics of the interventions most efficacious for each population were included in the analyses of behavior change, results replicated with three exceptions. Specifically, after accounting for interactions of intervention and facilitator features with characteristics of the recipient population (e.g. gender), there was no behavior change bias for men who have sex with men, younger individuals changed their behavior more than older individuals, and African-Americans changed their behavior less than other groups.

  18. Communication and marketing as climate change-intervention assets a public health perspective. (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Leiserowitz, Anthony


    The understanding that global climate change represents a profound threat to the health and well-being of human and nonhuman species worldwide is growing. This article examines the potential of communication and marketing interventions to influence population behavior in ways consistent with climate change prevention and adaptation objectives. Specifically, using a framework based on an ecologic model of public health, the paper examines: (1) the potential of communication and marketing interventions to influence population behaviors of concern, including support for appropriate public policies; (2) potential target audiences for such programs; and (3) the attributes of effective climate change messages. Communication and marketing interventions appear to have considerable potential to promote important population behavior change objectives, but there is an urgent need for additional translational research to effectively harvest this potential to combat climate change.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The results of cognitive-behavioral group interventions applied from 2002 to 2004 to 42 colombian combat veteranswith Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD are presented. The goal of the study was to stablish the effectiveness ofthe group interventions based in Prolonged Exposition and Stress Inoculation treatment processes. Differencesbetween pre-in-post symptomatology scores of PTSD were measured by Foa Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale(PDS and the Beck Depression Inventory. The statistical analysis was made by t test for paired samples, with alpha of0.05. Results show significant decrease in symptomatology and severity level after the intervention both in depressionand PTSD symptoms.

  20. Some current dimensions of the behavioral economics of health-related behavior change. (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Moody, Lara; Higgins, Stephen T


    Health-related behaviors such as tobacco, alcohol and other substance use, poor diet and physical inactivity, and risky sexual practices are important targets for research and intervention. Health-related behaviors are especially pertinent targets in the United States, which lags behind most other developed nations on common markers of population health. In this essay we examine the application of behavioral economics, a scientific discipline that represents the intersection of economics and psychology, to the study and promotion of health-related behavior change. More specifically, we review what we consider to be some core dimensions of this discipline when applied to the study health-related behavior change. Behavioral economics (1) provides novel conceptual systems to inform scientific understanding of health behaviors, (2) translates scientific understanding into practical and effective behavior-change interventions, (3) leverages varied aspects of behavior change beyond increases or decreases in frequency, (4) recognizes and exploits trans-disease processes and interventions, and (5) leverages technology in efforts to maximize efficacy, cost effectiveness, and reach. These dimensions are overviewed and their implications for the future of the field discussed.

  1. Analysis of behavioral change theory on the behavior of 2 type diabetes foot self - care intervention%行为转变理论对2型糖尿病患者足部自护行为干预的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗秀玲; 王娟; 袁梅; 欧瑞燕; 钟伟容


    目的::调查研究行为转变理论对2型糖尿病患者建立足部自护行为的干预效果。方法:使用单纯随机抽样法选择95例2型糖尿病住院患者,对患者实施以行为转变理论为基础的干预。采用调查表和随访方式调查干预前后糖尿病患者的足部自护知识、足部自护能力及足部健康状况。结果:干预12个月后患者在足部自护行为、自护知识得到提高,干预后足部健康状况较干预前得到改善。结论:行为转变理论在帮助2型糖尿病患者建立足部自护行为上具有良好效果,能有效改善足部健康状况。%Objective:To discuss the effect of change theory investigation of foot self - care behavior of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods:Used simple random sampling method to select 95 cases of hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes as the object of this study,up to 12 months of intervention on pa-tients,intervention model is based on the behavior change theory. Used questionnaire survey before and after the intervention and follow - up in patients with diabetes mellitus several indexes and analyzed the result,indicators include the foot self - care knowledge,self - care ability of foot and foot health status of patients with. Results:After 12 months intervention patients in the determination of foot self - care behavior indexes are improved obviously. Transition theo-ry. Conclusion:Behavior in helping to establish the foot self - care behavior of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus has good effect,can effectively improve the foot health.

  2. Comparison of behavioral intervention and sensory-integration therapy in the treatment of challenging behavior. (United States)

    Devlin, Sarah; Healy, Olive; Leader, Geraldine; Hughes, Brian M


    The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of sensory-integration therapy (SIT) and a behavioral intervention on rates of challenging behavior (including self-injurious behavior) in four children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder. For each of the participants a functional assessment was conducted to identify the variables maintaining challenging behavior. Results of these assessments were used to design function-based behavioral interventions for each participant. Recommendations for the sensory-integration treatment were designed by an Occupational Therapist, trained in the use of sensory-integration theory and techniques. The sensory-integration techniques were not dependent on the results of the functional assessments. The study was conducted within an alternating treatments design, with initial baseline and final best treatment phase. For each participant, results demonstrated that the behavioral intervention was more effective than the sensory integration therapy in the treatment of challenging behavior. In the best treatment phase, the behavioral intervention alone was implemented and further reduction was observed in the rate of challenging behavior. Analysis of saliva samples revealed relatively low levels of cortisol and very little stress-responsivity across the SIT condition and the behavioral intervention condition, which may be related to the participants' capacity to perceive stress in terms of its social significance.

  3. The Role of Teacher Behavior Management in the Development of Disruptive Behaviors: An Intervention Study with the Good Behavior Game (United States)

    Leflot, Geertje; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde


    The role of teacher behavior management for children's disruptive behavior development (hyperactive and oppositional behavior) was investigated using a universal classroom preventive intervention study. Five-hundred seventy children were followed from second to third grade of elementary school. Observations of teacher behavior management and…

  4. Review of AIDS Health Education and Behavioral Interventions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yumao(蔡于茂); ZENG Xuchun(曾序春); DONG Shifu(董时富)


    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) isan infectious disease caused by HIV. It has been epidemic formore than 20 years, but there is no cure of it. Health educationand behavioral interventions are some of the most effectiveapproaches in the control and prevention of AIDS. China isone of the countries with the fastest growing HIVseroprevalence rate, and is facing a widespread epidemic ofAIDS. Currently, high-risk populations such as individualswith multiple sexual partners and intravenous drug users arethe main foci of health education and behavioral interventionsin China. Encouraging results have been observed in manyforms of health education and behavioral intervention. Theapplication of health education and behavioral interventionsmust emerge from scientific evidence, follow a series ofstrategies, be carried out from various perspectives, andrequire the participation of all societal communities.

  5. Goal setting as a strategy for health behavior change. (United States)

    Strecher, V J; Seijts, G H; Kok, G J; Latham, G P; Glasgow, R; DeVellis, B; Meertens, R M; Bulger, D W


    This article discusses the beneficial effects of setting goals in health behavior change and maintenance interventions. Goal setting theory predicts that, under certain conditions, setting specific difficult goals leads to higher performance when compared with no goals or vague, nonquantitative goals, such as "do your best." In contrast to the graduated, easy goals often set in health behavior change programs, goal setting theory asserts a positive linear relationship between degree of goal difficulty and level of performance. Research on goal setting has typically been conducted in organizational and laboratory settings. Although goal setting procedures are used in many health behavior change programs, they rarely have been the focus of systematic research. Therefore, many research questions still need to be answered regarding goal setting in the context of health behavior change. Finally, initial recommendations for the successful integration of goal setting theory in health behavior change programs are offered.

  6. Behavior Basics: Quick Behavior Analysis and Implementation of Interventions for Classroom Teachers (United States)

    Taylor, Shanon S.


    Dealing with student behavior is often cited as one of the most frustrating aspects of teaching, yet many classroom teachers receive no pre-service training in the basics of behavior management. This article describes the process of implementing a quick behavioral analysis for the purpose of designing a basic intervention. It will provide general…

  7. Advancing work practices: Rethinking online professional development in the context of intervention-based sustainable change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack


    -executed instructional interventions will advance work practices. Design/methodology/approach The paper synthesizes contemporary social-psychological and educational research in the creation of a model of intervention-based change. In addition, the findings from an empirical study of online teacher professional...... development simultaneously inspire and exemplify the model. Findings The paper suggests that increased attention to individual motivational drivers is needed, especially post intervention, to help ensure meaningful learning transfer and sustainable behavior change. The importance of individualized on...... interventions currently. It conceptualizes intervention-based change and the key motivational drivers of such change. In doing so, it illuminates highly contextual dynamics presumed to have a critical impact on the effectiveness of e-Learning for PD....

  8. Mystery Motivator: A Tier 1 Classroom Behavioral Intervention (United States)

    Kowalewicz, Eva A.; Coffee, Gina


    This study is an examination of the effectiveness of the Mystery Motivator--an interdependent group contingency, variable-ratio, classwide intervention--as a tool for reducing disruptive classroom behavior in eight diverse general-education elementary school classrooms across seven different schools. The study was conducted using an ABAB, changing…

  9. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dreibelbis


    Full Text Available Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%, increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  10. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Zawadzki


    Full Text Available Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping training to change five environmentally impactful behaviors and then spread behavior change messages to fellow residents during a two-week energy challenge. Eco-reps successfully changed their own behaviors in a pro-environmental direction by generating important barriers and successful facilitators for behavior change, and eco-rep residence halls were more likely to reduce energy and maintain reductions compared to non-eco-rep halls. Implications for future environmental behavior change interventions are discussed.

  11. Changes in Body Composition, Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, and Eating Behavior after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention with High Volume of Physical Activity in Severely Obese Subjects: A Prospective Clinical Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti Karoline Danielsen


    Full Text Available We examined the effects of a 10–14-weeks inpatient lifestyle modification program, including minimum 90 min of physical activity (PA five days/week, on body composition, CVD risk factors, and eating behavior in 139 obese subjects (BMI 42.6±5.2 kg/m2. Completion rate was 71% (n=71 in the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI group and 85% (n=33 among waiting list controls. Compared to controls body weight (-17.0 (95% CI: -18.7, -15.3 kg, P<0.0001, fat mass (-15.2 (95% CI: -17.4, -13.1 kg, P<0.0001, fat free mass (-1.2 (95% CI: -2.2, -0.2 kg, P=0.016 and visceral fat (-86.6(95% CI: -97.4, -75.7 cm2, P<0.0001 were reduced in the ILI-group after 10–14 weeks. Within the ILI-group weight loss was -23.8 (95% CI: -25.9, -21.7 kg, P<0.0001 and -20.3 (95% CI: -23.3, -17.3 kg, P<0.0001, after six and 12 months, respectively. Systolic BP, glucose, triglycerides, and LDL-C were reduced, and HDL-C was increased (all P≤0.006 after 10–14 weeks within the ILI group. The reduction in glucose and increase in HDL-C were sustained after 12 months (all P<0.0001. After one year, weight loss was related to increased cognitive restraint and decreased uncontrolled eating (all P<0.05. Thus, ILI including high volume of PA resulted in weight loss with almost maintenance of fat-free mass, favorable changes in CVD risk factors, and eating behavior in subjects with severe obesity.

  12. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S


    Full Text Available Sonal SinghMarketing and Management Department, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.Keywords: social marketing, customer engagement, behavioral influence, change, youth

  13. Impact of a classroom behavior management intervention on teacher risk ratings for student behavior. (United States)

    Hansen, William B; Bishop, Dana C; Jackson-Newsom, Julia


    Classroom behavior management interventions have been used successfully with drug prevention programs to prevent subsequent antisocial behavior and substance use among youth. This article presents results from implementation of the All Stars Challenge, a classroom-based behavior management component to a drug prevention program for fifth graders. Risk ratings for shyness and lack of awareness of social norms among high-risk students who received the All Stars Challenge were reduced compared with fifth graders who did not receive the intervention. In contrast, physical and social aggressivity among low-risk students who received the program increased when compared to similar control students.

  14. Computerized Tailored Interventions for Behavioral Sequelae of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans (United States)


    Behavior Change (TTM) as the theoretical basis for generating personalized interventions ( Prochaska & Velicer, 1997; Velicer, Prochaska , & Redding, 2006...before the end of October, 2010. Drs. Jim Prochaska (originator of the TTM) and Kerry Evers (Pro-Change) will meet with the team October 21-22 to...returning from deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Journal of the American Medical Association, 295(9), 1023-1032. 2. Prochaska , J. O., & Velicer, W

  15. Decrease in Behavioral Problems and Trauma Symptoms Among At-Risk Adopted Children Following Web-Based Trauma-Informed Parent Training Intervention. (United States)

    Razuri, Erin Becker; Howard, Amanda R Hiles; Parris, Sheri R; Call, Casey D; DeLuna, Jamie Hurst; Hall, Jordan S; Purvis, Karyn B; Cross, David R


    Children who have experienced early adversities are at risk for behavioral problems and trauma symptoms. Using a two-group, pre-post intervention design, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of an online parent training for Trust-Based Relational Intervention, a trauma-informed, attachment-based intervention, in reducing behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in at-risk adopted children. Children of parents in the treatment group (n = 48) demonstrated significant decreases in behavioral problems and trauma symptoms after intervention. Scores for children in a matched-sample control group did not change. Findings suggest this intervention can effectively reduce behavioral problems and trauma symptoms in children with histories of adversities.

  16. Effectiveness of Cognitive/Behavioral Small Group Intervention for Reduction of Depression and Stress in Non-Hispanic White and Hispanic/Latino Women Dementia Family Caregivers: Outcomes and Mediators of Change


    Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Gray, Heather L.; Dupart, Tamarra; Jimenez, Daniel; Thompson, Larry W.


    This study enrolled 184 middle-aged and older women (95 Non-Hispanic White and 89 Hispanic/Latino) who provided in-home hands-on care to an elderly relative with Alzheimer's disease or another form of dementia. Within ethnic group they were randomly assigned to either a CBT-based small group intervention program called “Coping with Caregiving” (CWC) that taught a variety of cognitive and behavioral skills to reduce stress and depression, or to a minimal telephone based control condition (TSC)...




    The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one’s diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health. PMID:25774070


    Kurti, Allison N; Dallery, Jesse


    The use of mobile devices is growing worldwide in both industrialized and developing nations. Alongside the worldwide penetration of web-enabled devices, the leading causes of morbidity and mortality are increasingly modifiable lifestyle factors (e.g., improving one's diet and exercising more). Behavior analysts have the opportunity to promote health by combining effective behavioral methods with technological advancements. The objectives of this paper are (1) to highlight the public health gains that may be achieved by integrating technology with a behavior analytic approach to developing interventions, and (2) to review some of the currently, under-examined issues related to merging technology and behavior analysis (enhancing sustainability, obtaining frequent measures of behavior, conducting component analyses, evaluating cost-effectiveness, incorporating behavior analysis in the creation of consumer-based applications, and reducing health disparities). Thorough consideration of these issues may inspire the development, implementation, and dissemination of innovative, efficacious interventions that substantially improve global public health.

  19. Why behavior change is difficult to sustain. (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E


    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioning, punishment, reinforcement of alternative behavior, and abstinence reinforcement) tend to inhibit, rather than erase, the original behavior. Importantly, the inhibition, and thus behavior change more generally, is often specific to the "context" in which it is learned. In support of this view, the article discusses a number of lapse and relapse phenomena that occur after behavior has been changed (renewal, spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition, and resurgence). The findings suggest that changing a behavior can be an inherently unstable and unsteady process; frequent lapses should be expected. In the long run, behavior-change therapies might benefit from paying attention to the context in which behavior change occurs.

  20. Health behavior models in the age of mobile interventions: are our theories up to the task? (United States)

    Riley, William T; Rivera, Daniel E; Atienza, Audie A; Nilsen, Wendy; Allison, Susannah M; Mermelstein, Robin


    Mobile technologies are being used to deliver health behavior interventions. The study aims to determine how health behavior theories are applied to mobile interventions. This is a review of the theoretical basis and interactivity of mobile health behavior interventions. Many of the mobile health behavior interventions reviewed were predominately one way (i.e., mostly data input or informational output), but some have leveraged mobile technologies to provide just-in-time, interactive, and adaptive interventions. Most smoking and weight loss studies reported a theoretical basis for the mobile intervention, but most of the adherence and disease management studies did not. Mobile health behavior intervention development could benefit from greater application of health behavior theories. Current theories, however, appear inadequate to inform mobile intervention development as these interventions become more interactive and adaptive. Dynamic feedback system theories of health behavior can be developed utilizing longitudinal data from mobile devices and control systems engineering models.

  1. Behavioral interventions in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habibović, Mirela; Burg, Matthew M; Pedersen, Susanne S.


    The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the first-line treatment for primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. A subgroup of patients experience psychological distress postimplant, and no clear evidence base exists regarding how best to address patients' needs. The aim...... of this critical review is to provide an overview of behavioral interventions in ICD patients to date, and to delineate directions for future research using lessons learned from the ongoing RISTA and WEBCARE trials....

  2. Do TQM interventions change management culture? Findings and implications. (United States)

    Gerowitz, M B


    This study assesses the impact of TQM/CQI interventions on the culture and performance of top management teams. The findings suggest culture is related to performance but that TQM/CQI interventions are not associated with either performance or culture change. Implications for additional research and for practice are discussed.

  3. Social Marketing, Stages of Change, and Public Health Smoking Interventions (United States)

    Diehr, Paula; Hannon, Peggy; Pizacani, Barbara; Forehand, Mark; Meischke, Hendrika; Curry, Susan; Martin, Diane P.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Harris, Jeffrey


    As a "thought experiment," the authors used a modified stages of change model for smoking to define homogeneous segments within various hypothetical populations. The authors then estimated the population effect of public health interventions that targeted the different segments. Under most assumptions, interventions that emphasized primary and…

  4. Change in Autism Classification with Early Intervention: Predictors and Outcomes (United States)

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Zachor, Ditza A.


    The current study characterized stability and changes of autism diagnostic classification with intervention in very young children and examined pre-treatment predictors and post-intervention outcome. Sixty-eight children diagnosed with autism, aged 18-35 months (M = 25.4, SD = 4.0) participated in the study. Children underwent comprehensive…

  5. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs (United States)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  6. Bullying, incivility, and disruptive behaviors in the healthcare setting: identification, impact, and intervention. (United States)

    Felblinger, Dianne M


    Bullying, incivility, and their associated disruptive behaviors are insidious and destructive forces with negative consequences that require identification and intervention at the individual and organizational level. Costs incurred secondary to these insensitive behaviors are substantial and involve matters of patient safety, absenteeism, turnover, turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and employee healthcare. Factors that increase the risk of hostile behaviors include changing hierarchies, conflicting loyalties, stress, and the state of the science. Each organization has the responsibility to develop processes for managing threatening and intimidating actions. New criteria are proposed to guide the implementation of successful programs.

  7. Changing Behaviors by Changing the Classroom Environment (United States)

    Guardino, Caroline A.; Fullerton, Elizabeth


    This case study explores the possibility of affecting classroom behaviors by modifying the classroom environment. Although this type of research previously has been conducted in self-contained special education classrooms (Guardino, 2009), this is the first study to explore modifications in an inclusive classroom. The results of this study align…

  8. Foster Parent Intervention Engagement Moderating Child Behavior Problems and Placement Disruption. (United States)

    Degarmo, David S; Chamberlain, Patricia; Leve, Leslie D; Price, Joe


    OBJECTIVE: The authors conduct a within intervention group analysis to test whether caregiver engagement (e.g., participation, homework completion, openness to ideas, apparent satisfaction) in a group-based intervention moderates risk factors for foster child outcomes in a state-supported randomized trial of caregiver parent training. METHODS: The intervention is delivered in 16 weekly sessions by trained leaders. Outcomes are pre-post change in problem behaviors and negative placements. RESULTS: Analysis of 337 caregivers nested within 59 parent groups show caregiver engagement moderates number of prior placements on increases in child problem behaviors, and moderates risk of negative placement disruption for Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Variance in parent group process affects program effectiveness. Implications for practice and increasing effective engagement are discussed.

  9. Influencing behavioral change by customer engagement amongst youth. (United States)

    Singh, Sonal


    It is widely accepted that many social and health problems have underlying behavioral causes. Because these problems are rooted in human behavior, solutions to deal with them also lie in human behavior. This paper examines ways of integrating customer engagement in social programs to influence and initiate behavior change effectively with a special focus on youth. This work followed a theoretical deduction by use of a literature review. Social marketing places emphasis on behavior change, and one of the key challenges for social marketers is to ensure a perceived value for customers in taking up and maintaining positive behavior. If perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, and values influence behavior, then the central focus should be on the youth. Integrating youth is a prerequisite for effective social marketing programs and ultimately behavioral change. This approach will pave the way for effective brand positioning and brand loyalty in social marketing which has been lacking and requires more attention from researchers and policymakers. This paper outlines theoretical developments in social marketing that will increase the effectiveness of social marketing programs overall. Existing social marketing literature typically focuses on social marketing interventions and behavioral change. This paper uses customer engagement within a social marketing context so that social marketing programs are perceived as brands to which youth can relate.

  10. Development of a novel mindfulness and cognitive behavioral intervention for stress-eating: a comparative pilot study. (United States)

    Corsica, Joyce; Hood, Megan M; Katterman, Shawn; Kleinman, Brighid; Ivan, Iulia


    Stress-related eating is increasingly cited as a difficulty in managing healthy eating behaviors and weight. However few interventions have been designed to specifically target stress-related eating. In addition, the optimal target of such an intervention is unclear, as the target might be conceptualized as overall stress reduction or changing emotional eating-related thoughts and behaviors. This pilot study compared the effects of three interventions targeting those components individually and in combination on stress-related eating, perceived stress, and weight loss to determine whether the two intervention components are effective alone or are more effective when combined. Fifty-three overweight participants (98% female) who reported elevated levels of stress and stress-eating and were at risk for obesity were randomly assigned to one of three six-week interventions: a modified mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention, a cognitive behavioral stress-eating intervention (SEI), and a combined intervention that included all MBSR and SEI components. All three interventions significantly reduced perceived stress and stress-eating, but the combination intervention resulted in greater reductions and also produced a moderate effect on short term weight loss. Benefits persisted at six week follow-up.The pattern of results preliminarily suggests that the combination intervention (MBSR+SEI) may yield promise in the treatment of stress-related eating.

  11. A systematic review of interventions in primary care to improve health literacy for chronic disease behavioral risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taggart Jane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions used in primary care to improve health literacy for change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and weight (SNAPW. Methods A systematic review of intervention studies that included outcomes for health literacy and SNAPW behavioral risk behaviors implemented in primary care settings. We searched the Cochrane Library, Johanna Briggs Institute, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Psychinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, APAIS, Australasian Medical Index, Google Scholar, Community of Science and four targeted journals (Patient Education and Counseling, Health Education and Behaviour, American Journal of Preventive Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Study inclusion criteria: Adults over 18 years; undertaken in a primary care setting within an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD country; interventions with at least one measure of health literacy and promoting positive change in smoking, nutrition, alcohol, physical activity and/or weight; measure at least one outcome associated with health literacy and report a SNAPW outcome; and experimental and quasi-experimental studies, cohort, observational and controlled and non-controlled before and after studies. Papers were assessed and screened by two researchers (JT, AW and uncertain or excluded studies were reviewed by a third researcher (MH. Data were extracted from the included studies by two researchers (JT, AW. Effectiveness studies were quality assessed. A typology of interventions was thematically derived from the studies by grouping the SNAPW interventions into six broad categories: individual motivational interviewing and counseling; group education; multiple interventions (combination of interventions; written materials; telephone coaching or counseling; and computer or web based interventions. Interventions were classified by intensity of contact with the subjects (High ≥ 8 points of contact

  12. Factors underlying the success of behavioral HIV-prevention interventions for adolescents: a meta-review. (United States)

    Protogerou, Cleo; Johnson, Blair T


    The purpose of this meta-review was to identify characteristics of successful HIV prevention interventions for adolescents based on quantitative (i.e., meta-analyses) and qualitative reviews published to date, and to inform intervention utilization and future development. To that end, we were guided by principles of triangulation. Searches of seven electronic bibliographic databases yielded five meta-analyses and six qualitative reviews that satisfied the selection criteria. Reviews were subjected to careful content analysis. All reviews reported that behavioral interventions had positive outcomes on at least one of the following outcomes: HIV-related knowledge, subjective cognitions and beliefs enabling safer sex, abstinence, delaying next sexual intercourse, decreasing number of sexual partners, and actual condom use. Four categories, suggesting factors more prominently linked to intervention success, emerged: behavior change techniques (e.g., cognitive-behavior and motivation enhancement skills training); recipient characteristics (e.g., age, vulnerability to contracting STIs/HIV); prominent design features (e.g., use of theory, formative research); and socio-ecological features (e.g., supportive school environment). Future interventions would benefit from conducting preliminary formative research in order to enable optimal implementation of all these factors.

  13. Is Subjective Knowledge the Key to Fostering Sustainable Behavior? Mixed Evidence from an Education Intervention in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Redman


    Full Text Available Educational interventions are a promising way to shift individual behaviors towards Sustainability. Yet, as this research confirms, the standard fare of education, declarative knowledge, does not work. This study statistically analyzes the impact of an intervention designed and implemented in Mexico using the Educating for Sustainability (EfS framework which focuses on imparting procedural and subjective knowledge about waste through innovative pedagogy. Using data from three different rounds of surveys we were able to confirm (1 the importance of subjective and procedural knowledge for Sustainable behavior in a new context; (2 the effectiveness of the EfS framework and (3 the importance of changing subjective knowledge for changing behavior. While the impact was significant in the short term, one year later most if not all of those gains had evaporated. Interventions targeted at subjective knowledge will work, but more research is needed on how to make behavior change for Sustainability durable.

  14. Fruit and Vegetable Dietary Behavior in Response to a Low-Intensity Dietary Intervention: The Rural Physician Cancer Prevention Project (United States)

    Carcaise-Edinboro, Patricia; McClish, Donna; Kracen, Amanda C.; Bowen, Deborah; Fries, Elizabeth


    Context: Increased fruit and vegetable intake can reduce cancer risk. Information from this study contributes to research exploring health disparities in high-risk dietary behavior. Purpose: Changes in fruit and vegetable behavior were evaluated to assess the effects of a low-intensity, physician-endorsed dietary intervention in a rural…

  15. Impact of behavioral interventions in the management of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (United States)

    Cox, Daniel J; Gill Taylor, Ann; Dunning, Elizabeth S; Winston, Mary C; Luk Van, Ingrid L; McCall, Anthony; Singh, Harsimran; Yancy, William S


    Research on the role of behavior change as an efficacious intervention for adults with type 2 diabetes is evolving. Searching PubMed and Ovid Medline, we identified and reviewed primarily randomized controlled trials from 2010 to 2013 of adults managing type 2 diabetes without insulin. All studies are evaluated in terms of the rigor of their design and their impact on glycosylated hemoglobin. The most efficacious interventions appear to be low-carbohydrate/glycemic load diets, combined aerobic and resistance training, and self-monitoring of blood glucose, which educates patients about the impact of their food selections and physical activity on their blood glucose.

  16. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi


    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  17. Dietary Change Interventions for Undergraduate Populations: Systematic Review and Recommendations (United States)

    Pember, Sarah E.; Knowlden, Adam P.


    Background: Research demonstrates a decline in healthy eating behaviors during transitional years at university, potentially leading to weight gain and establishing maladaptive dietary habits. Purpose: This systematic review assessed the efficacy of previous nutrition interventions for undergraduates, evaluating design and implementation. Methods:…

  18. PREVIEW behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT: a study protocol for a psychological element of a multicenter project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kahlert


    Full Text Available Background: Losing excess body weight and preventing weight regain by changing lifestyle is a challenging but promising task to prevent the incidence of type-2 diabetes. To be successful, it is necessary to use evidence-based and theory-driven interventions, which also contribute to the science of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. Objective: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counselling approach. Methods: The program development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1 Summing-up the intervention goal(s, target group and the setting, (2 uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3 identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4 preparing for evaluation and (5 implementing the intervention and assuring quality. Results: PREMIT is based on a trans-theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major ‘product’ of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks and activities ordered by periods. PREMIT is constructed to help instructors guide participant’s behavior change. To ensure high fidelity and adherence of program-implementation across the eight intervention centers standardized operational procedures were defined and train-the-trainer workshops were held. In summary PREMIT is a theory-driven, evidence-based program carefully developed to change physical activity and dietary behaviors in pre

  19. Managing Loss and Change: Grief Interventions for Dementia Caregivers in a CBT-Based Trial. (United States)

    Meichsner, Franziska; Schinköthe, Denise; Wilz, Gabriele


    Dementia caregivers often experience loss and grief related to general caregiver burden, physical, and mental health problems. Through qualitative content analysis, this study analyzed intervention strategies applied by therapists in a randomized-controlled trial in Germany to assist caregivers in managing losses and associated emotions. Sequences from 61 therapy sessions that included interventions targeting grief, loss, and change were transcribed and analyzed. A category system was developed deductively, and the intercoder reliability was satisfactory. The identified grief intervention strategies were recognition and acceptance of loss and change,addressing future losses,normalization of grief, and redefinition of the relationship Therapists focused on identifying experienced losses, managing associated feelings, and fostering acceptance of these losses. A variety of cognitive-behavioral therapy-based techniques was applied with each strategy. The findings contribute to understanding how dementia caregivers can be supported in their experience of grief and facilitate the development of a manualized grief intervention.

  20. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy. (United States)

    Tonani, Marcela; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de


    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed that there are high risks for colon/rectum, cervical, and endometrial cancer; and moderate risks for the above as well as lung and breast cancer. In terms of persuasion, it was observed that cancer information was spread but not sustained for long periods. Moreover, there was no reinforcement. In view of cancer risk and the identified preventive behaviors, persuasion is considered a useful strategy to reduce these risks, as well as to encourage and sustain preventive behaviors, since it indicates routes to be followed.

  1. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change. (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A


    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  2. Three intervention levels for improving smoking behavior among Royal Thai Army conscripts. (United States)

    Pantaewan, Pannee; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Tansakul, Supreya; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh


    We evaluated a smoking cessation program based on an ecological model among Royal Thai Army conscripts with three levels of behavioral change intervention: intrapersonal level, interpersonal level and organizational level. The program applied processes of change in the Transtheoretical Model for intervention at the intrapersonal level; social support from the family at the interpersonal level; strengthening policies and activities to support quitting, including providing a smoke-free workplace at the organizational level. Eighty-nine participants were purposively selected from the first regiment of conscripts at the King's Royal Guard, recruited into the Army in 2009. The behavioral change intervention was conducted during their first six months of duty. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data between May and November 2009. Individual interviews and checklist observations were employed to collect data. Data was analyzed using inferential statistics, comparing means by paired t-test and the chi-square test was used to analyze correlations. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Sixty-three percent of participants significantly (p<0.001) reduced the number of cigarettes smoked, and 4.5% quit smoking. There was significant improvement in self-efficacy for improving smoking behavior (p=0.002) and making an effort to quit (p<0.001).

  3. Reliable Change in Depression during Behavioral Weight Loss Treatment among Women with Major Depression


    Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Schneider, Kristin L; Waring, Molly E.; DeBiasse, Michele A.; Jessica L Oleski; Sybil L. Crawford; Pagoto, Sherry L.


    Although behavioral weight loss interventions generally have been shown to improve depressive symptoms, little is known as to whether some people with major depressive disorder experience worsening of depression during a weight loss intervention. We examined rates and predictors of change in depression symptoms among 148 obese women with major depressive disorder who participated in a trial comparing depression treatment plus behavioral weight loss treatment (Behavioral Activation; BA) to beh...

  4. Improving knowledge and changing behavior towards guideline based decisions in diabetes care: a controlled intervention study of a team-based learning approach for continuous professional development of physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühne-Eversmann Lisa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuing Professional Development (CPD courses should ideally improve a physician’s knowledge and change their professional behavior in daily practice towards a best clinical practice reference model and guideline adherence. Interactive methods such as team-based learning and case-based learning, as compared to lectures, can impart sustainable knowledge and lead to high satisfaction among participants. We designed an interactive case-based CPD-seminar on diabetes care using a team-based learning approach to evaluate whether it leads to an improvement of short-term knowledge and changing of behavior towards guideline based decisions and how this learning approach is perceived by participants. Methods Questionnaires and an electronic voting system were used to evaluate motivation, acceptance and knowledge of voluntary participants. Furthermore, we analyzed data on index diagnostic tests and referrals of patients with diabetes of participating physicians over a period of six months before and after the course in comparison with a matched control group in a quasi-experimental design. Results Participants (n=103 rated the interactivity and team-based discussions as the main reasons for enhanced learning. They also expected that the course would change their professional behavior. Participants scored a mean of 43.9% right answers before and 62.6% after the course (p Conclusions Our team-based learning CPD-approach was highly accepted and resulted in an increase of short-term knowledge. It significantly increased the referral to diabetes specialists in daily practice whereas all other key professional behavior indicators did change but not significantly.

  5. Collaborating with Parents in Reducing Children's Challenging Behaviors: Linking Functional Assessment to Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Fettig


    Full Text Available The relationship between a functional assessment-based parent intervention and preschoolers' challenging behaviors was examined in the current study. A single subject design with a multiple baseline across 2 parent-child dyads was implemented. The researchers collaborated with parents to design the FA-based interventions and parents received varying levels of support throughout the study. Results indicate that parents were able to implement the functional assessment-based interventions, and these interventions effectively reduced children's challenging behaviors. In addition, parents continued implementing the intervention strategies following termination of the intervention, and children's challenging behaviors remained low.

  6. Population-Level Quality Measures for Behavioral Screening and Intervention. (United States)

    Brown, Richard L; Smith, Mindy A


    Delivered routinely in general health care settings, smoking, alcohol, depression, and obesity screening and intervention (behavioral screening and intervention [BSI]) could substantially improve population health and reduce health care costs. Yet BSI is seldom delivered in an evidence-based manner. This article assesses the adequacy of quality measures for BSI. Online searches of the National Quality Forum's Quality Positioning System and the National Clearinghouse for Quality Measures databases were conducted using the keywords smoking, tobacco, alcohol, depression, and obesity The types and focuses of each measure were classified, and differences between the metrics and evidence-based practice were identified. Most measures indicate whether BSI components are delivered, not how well. Clinicians can perform well on most metrics without delivering evidence-based services. More rigorous quality measures are needed. A new kind of measure is proposed, whereby separate terms representing the reach and effectiveness of key BSI components are multiplied to produce a single indicator of population-level impact for each behavioral topic.

  7. [Brief strategic family therapy: an empirically-validated intervention for reducing adolescent behavior problems]. (United States)

    Robbins, Michael S; Horigian, Viviana E; Szapocznik, José


    Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) is an empirically-supported treatment for children and adolescents with behavior problems and substance use problems. For three decades, the efficacy and effectiveness of BSFT has been established through the results of rigorous clinical trials studies conducted at the University of Miami's Center for Family Studies. BSFT is based on family systems approaches, most notably the work of Salvador Minuchin and Jay Haley, but has been refined to meet the pressing needs of youth with behavior problems. BSFT theory and interventions cover four broad domains: joining with family members and the family system, assessing problematic family interactions, creating a motivational context for change, and restructuring family interactions.

  8. Motivational Interviewing support for a behavioral health internet intervention for drivers with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Ingersoll


    Full Text Available While Internet interventions can improve health behaviors, their impact is limited by program adherence. Supporting program adherence through telephone counseling may be useful, but there have been few direct tests of the impact of support. We describe a Telephone Motivational Interviewing (MI intervention targeting adherence to an Internet intervention for drivers with Type 1 Diabetes,, and compare completion of intervention benchmarks by those randomized to plus MI vs. only. The goal of the pre-intervention MI session was to increase the participant's motivation to complete the Internet intervention and all its assignments, while the goal of the post-treatment MI session was to plan for maintaining changes made during the intervention. Sessions were semi-structured and partially scripted to maximize consistency. MI Fidelity was coded using a standard coding system, the MITI. We examined the effects of MI support vs. no support on number of days from enrollment to program benchmarks. Results show that MI sessions were provided with good fidelity. Users who received MI support completed some program benchmarks such as Core 4 (t176 df = −2.25; p < .03 and 11 of 12 monthly driving diaries significantly sooner, but support did not significantly affect time to intervention completion (t177 df = −1.69; p < .10 or rates of completion. These data suggest that there is little benefit to therapist guidance for Internet interventions including automated email prompts and other automated minimal supports, but that a booster MI session may enhance collection of follow-up data.

  9. A model of phone call intervention in sensitizing the change of dietary pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Corrêa Chaves


    Full Text Available Objective: To propose a model of phone call intervention for changing dietary patterns and to assess its effectiveness. Method: A study carried out at the Health Promotion School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, with 27 subjects, 3-5 phone calls contacts per user, by means of which were given orientations and interventions on the principles of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and the Transtheoretical Model on healthy eating. We analyzed the variables weight and body mass index, dietary patterns and overall stage of motivation to change. The data were submitted to analysis of variance with repeated measures at different stages of evaluation: pre-contact, 3rd and 5th phone calls. Results: After intervention, users showed a change in eating behavior in the third contact, and change occurred in weight and BMI in one patient. All findings were not statistically significant. There was improvement in the motivation to acquire new eating habits, also not significant. Conclusion: There was a slight change in feeding behavior, the motivation to change improved for all participants, without, however, have been effective in this type of approach.

  10. Implementation Planning to Promote Parents' Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.; Feinberg, Adam B.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.


    Behavioral interventions delivered across home and school settings can promote positive outcomes for youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, stakeholders who deliver these interventions may struggle to implement interventions as intended. Low levels of treatment integrity can undermine potentially positive intervention outcomes. One way…

  11. Sensory-Based Intervention for Children with Behavioral Problems: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Wan Yunus, Farahiyah; Liu, Karen P.; Bissett, Michelle; Penkala, Stefania


    Sensory-based intervention is a common approach used to address behavioral problems in children. Types of sensory-based intervention for children and details of the intervention effectiveness have not been systematically examined. This review examined the effectiveness and ideal types of sensory-based interventions for children with behavioral…

  12. Educational Intervention on Health Related Lifestyle Changes Among Iranian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saffari


    Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyle habits during adolescence can prevent many of the diseases and disabilities in adulthood and later. The aim of the study was to examine the role of education in improving lifestyles among Iranian adolescents.Methods: This group randomized controlled trial was conducted during October 2010 until January 2011 in Tehran. Participants for this study were selected through a random sampling method and divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received a six session course on healthy lifestyles and the control group received no intervention. The Adolescent Lifestyle Questionnaire (ALQ was used for collecting data. Data were collected before the intervention, at a two week after participation time point, and a three month follow-up was conducted.Results: Overall, 365 (male: 173, female: 192 adolescents participated in the study. There were significant differences between boys and girls in terms of physical activity and social support (P<0.001. The boys had higher levels of physical activity than girls. Girls received more social support than boys. There were significant differences in the lifestyle scores between the intervention and control groups at follow-up (P<0.001. The educational intervention indicated an improved total lifestyle score (from 123.7(SD.16.1 at baseline to 131.8 (SD.16.7 at two weeks and to 130.5(16.5 at 3 months after education among the intervention group.Conclusions: Adolescents` behaviors may be different in some dimensions among boys and girls. Unhealthy lifestyle habits are prevalent among adolescents. Therefore sex-specified lifestyle education can bring promising results. Further research in the field can reveal the importance of lifestyle intervention programs.

  13. Moms in motion: a group-mediated cognitive-behavioral physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brawley Lawrence R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background When examining the prevalence of physical inactivity by gender and age, women over the age of 25 are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior. Childbearing and motherhood have been explored as one possible explanation for this increased risk. Post natal exercise studies to date demonstrate promising physical and psychological outcomes, however few physical activity interventions have been theory-driven and tailored to post natal exercise initiates. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention based upon social-cognitive theory and group dynamics (GMCB to a standard care postnatal exercise program (SE. Method A randomized, two-arm intervention design was used. Fifty-seven post natal women were randomized to one of two conditions: (1 a standard exercise treatment (SE and (2 a standard exercise treatment plus group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention (GMCB. Participants in both conditions participated in a four-week intensive phase where participants received standard exercise training. In addition, GMCB participants received self-regulatory behavioral skills training via six group-mediated counseling sessions. Following the intensive phase, participants engaged in a four-week home-based phase of self-structured exercise. Measures of physical activity, barrier efficacy, and proximal outcome expectations were administered and data were analyzed using ANCOVA procedures. Results and discussion ANCOVA of change scores for frequency, minutes, and volume of physical activity revealed significant treatment effects over the intensive and home-based phases (p's Conclusion While both exercise programs resulted in improvements to exercise participation, the GMCB intervention produced greater improvement in overall physical activity, barrier efficacy and proximal outcome expectations.

  14. Modeling social transmission dynamics of unhealthy behaviors for evaluating prevention and treatment interventions on childhood obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M Frerichs

    Full Text Available Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1 to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2 to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively. Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally

  15. Raising a Red Flag on Dating Violence: Evaluation of a Low-Resource, College-Based Bystander Behavior Intervention Program. (United States)

    Borsky, Amanda E; McDonnell, Karen; Turner, Monique Mitchell; Rimal, Rajiv


    Encouraging bystanders to intervene safely and effectively in situations that could escalate to violence-known as bystander behavior programs-is a growing yet largely untested strategy to prevent dating violence. Using a quasi-experimental design, we evaluate a low-resource, low-intensity intervention aimed at preventing dating violence among college students. The integrated behavioral model (IBM) was used to guide the evaluation. We also assess which IBM variables were most strongly associated with bystander behaviors. Participants were drawn from two Virginia colleges that predominantly train females in the health profession sciences. The intervention group (n = 329) participated in a university-wide bystander behavior intervention consisting of a 30-min presentation on dating violence at new-student orientation and a week-long "red flag" social marketing campaign on campus to raise awareness of dating violence. Controlling for changes at the comparison university, results showed an increase in bystander behaviors, such as encouraging a friend who may be in an abusive relationship to get help, after the intervention and adjusting for potential confounders (increase of 1.41 bystander behaviors, p = .04). However, no significant changes were found for bystander intentions, self-efficacy, social norms, or attitudes related to dating violence from pre- to post-intervention. Self-efficacy had a direct relationship with bystander behaviors. Results suggest that low-resource interventions have a modest effect on increasing bystander behaviors. However, higher resource interventions likely are needed for a larger impact, especially among students who already demonstrate strong baseline intentions to intervene and prevent dating violence.

  16. Educational intervention on the health action model on Employee Safety Behaviors in Tabas coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Vahedian-Shahroodi


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Maintaining a huge elderly health, health promotion and community development is very important. Workers' health status is largely influenced by their working conditions and job. Work in mines, including those considered threats to workers' health. Materials and Methods: A number of 45 workers in each of the control and intervention groups participated in a quasi-experimental study. Demographic information and data related to HAM constructs and safety were collected through a HAM questionnaire and the safe operation checklist 3 months after the intervention. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used to confirm properties of the tools. Educational intervention accompanied was applied in the form of four training classes. The Data were analyzed based on distribution of variables. Results: Before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographics and the study main variables. After training, however, results showed significant changes of mean scores of attitude (P<0.001, norms (P<0.001, belief (P<0.001, intention (P<0.001, knowledge (P<0.001 in the experimental group. Conclusion: The research results show that HAM educational intervention is able to change workers’ awareness, attitude, norm, belief, and intention towards unsafe behavior and improve their safety performance.

  17. The Influence of Training, Reluctance, Efficacy, and Stigma on Suicide Intervention Behavior Among NCOs in the Army and Marine Corps. (United States)

    Ayer, Lynsay; Ramchand, Rajeev; Geyer, Lily; Burgette, Lane; Kofner, Aaron


    The Army and Marine Corps have consistently experienced the highest rates of suicide relative to the other services. In both the Army and Marine Corps, the service members responsible for identifying and referring individuals at risk for suicide are called "gatekeepers" and are typically noncommissioned officers (NCOs). We used structural equation modeling on survey responses from 1184 Army soldiers and 796 marines to estimate the relationships between training, intervention efficacy, reluctance, and mental health stigma on NCO intervention behaviors. Efficacy and reluctance were independently associated with intervention behaviors, and stigma was only associated with intervention behaviors among Army NCOs. Study results suggest that while quantity of training may help NCOs feel more confident about their ability to intervene, other efforts such as changing training content and delivery mode (e.g., interactive vs. didactic training) may be necessary in order to reduce reluctance and stigma to intervene with service members at risk for suicide.

  18. Meta-analyses on behavioral interventions to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV. (United States)

    Vergidis, Paschalis I; Falagas, Matthew E


    Different behavioral interventions have found to be efficacious in reducing high-risk sexual activity. Interventions have been evaluated in both original research and meta-analytic reviews. Most of the studies have shown that interventions are efficacious among different study populations. In adolescents, both in- and out-of-the classroom interventions showed a decrease in the risk of unprotected sex. In African Americans, greater efficacy was found for interventions including peer education. For Latinos, effect was larger in interventions with segmentation in the same gender. Geographic and social isolation are barriers in approaching MSM. For IDUs, interventions provided within a treatment program have an impact on risk reduction above that produced by drug treatment alone. Finally, people diagnosed with HIV tend to reduce their sexual risk behavior. However, adherence to safe sex practices for life can be challenging. Relentless efforts for implementation of behavioral interventions to decrease high-risk behavior are necessary to decrease HIV transmission.

  19. Preventing disruptive behavior in early elementary schoolchildren: impact of a universal classroom-based preventive intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. van Lier (Pol)


    textabstractKnowledge about the development of children with disruptive behaviors, leading to disruptive disorders and related poor outcomes, guides prevention research in the development and evaluation of preventive interventions. The overview of effective interventions in this chapter showed that

  20. Evaluation of cognitive and behavioral effects of peer education model-based intervention to sun safe in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Hu


    Full Text Available There have been many studies that evidence the health hazards of sunlight exposure, but less study on sun safe intervention model, especially in China. Our aim was to evaluate the cognitive and behavioral effects of a peer education model-based intervention to sun safe in children.Cluster random control intervention was conducted in one district in Chongqing, China. Two primary schools, selected through stratified clustered sampling approach (two grades in each school, three classes in each grade were designated as intervention (n=304 and control schools (n=305 randomly. 36 students, selected as peer educators in intervention group, were trained for one month. Educational activities such as discussions were organized by peer educator for one month. There was no sun safe education to participants in control school during the project period. The evaluation of changes of sun safe knowledge (the primary outcome, attitude and behavior (the secondary outcome measures were conducted before intervention and at months of 0, 1 and 6 of the intervention to two groups using quantitative and qualitative methods.After the intervention, sun safe knowledge score which gained by the students from intervention group has been remarkably improved, compared to baseline survey (24.48±6.17 vs. 29.51±6.75 (P<0.001, and it kept this high level (29.02±7.96 and. 28.65±8.96, while control group students' scores have made no difference (P=0.410. Most of students have changed their sun safe behavior after the intervention.Peer education program is somewhat effective in some dimensions for improving children's understanding of sun safe knowledge and behavior.

  1. Changing Food Related Behavior Through Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Fisker, Anna Marie; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    The aim of the workshop is to explore how designers can work actively and deliberately with changing food related behavior through socially responsible design. There will be focus on the holistic aspect of behavioral food design with active involving of the users experience. The workshop is based...

  2. Barriers to lifestyle behavioral change in migrant South Asian populations. (United States)

    Patel, Mihir; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Boutin-Foster, Carla


    The purpose of this literature review is to describe and assess the cultural barriers to behavior change in migrant South Asians, given the high morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in this population. We reviewed studies that explored the relationship between South Asian culture in the Diaspora and lifestyle behaviors. Our review produced 91 studies, of which 25 discussed the relationship between various aspects of South Asians' belief system and their approach to modifying lifestyle habits. We identify 6 specific categories of beliefs which play the largest role in the difficulties South Asians describe with behavior change: gender roles, body image, physical activity misconceptions, cultural priorities, cultural identity, and explanatory model of disease. Future research and interventions should account for these cultural factors to successfully improve dietary habits and physical activity levels in migrant South Asian populations.

  3. Behavioral Interventions in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: A Review of Activity Scheduling and Desensitization (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Jackson, Alun C.; Thomas, Shane A.


    Cognitive and behavioral interventions have been cautiously recommended as "best practice" in the treatment of pathological gambling. Behavioral interventions, using a range of techniques, have been the most commonly evaluated approach to the psychological treatment of pathological gambling. The recent literature evaluating behavioral treatments…

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral and Pharmacologic Interventions for Children's Distress during Painful Medical Procedures. (United States)

    Jay, Susan M.; And Others


    Evaluated efficacy of cognitive-behavioral intervention package and low-risk pharmacologic intervention (oral Valium) as compared with minimal treatment-attention control condition, in reducing children leukemia patients' distress during bone marrow aspirations. The cognitive-behavioral therapy reduced behavioral distress, pain ratings and pulse…

  5. What is the benefit of the biomedical and behavioral interventions in preventing HIV transmission?


    Ricardo Kuchenbecker


    ABSTRACTIntroduction:Scientific evidence supports the sinergy between biomedical and behavioral interventions aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV as a strategy to eradicate AIDS.Objective:To characterize comparatively the benefits from biomedical and behavioral interventions to prevent HIV transmission.Methods:Narrative review. We performed a comparative analysis of the benefits of studied interventions by means of estimating the number needed to treat (NNT). Evaluated interventions: ...

  6. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.


    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  7. Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries. (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R


    The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use.

  8. Supportive intervention using a mobile phone in behavior modification. (United States)

    Hareva, David H; Okada, Hiroki; Kitawaki, Tomoki; Oka, Hisao


    The authors previously developed a mobile ecological momentary assessment (EMA) system as a real-time data collection device using a mobile phone. In this study, a real-time advice function and real-time reporting function were added to the previous system as a supportive intervention. The improved system was found to work effectively and was applied to several clinical cases, including patients with depressive disorder, dizziness, smoking habit, and bronchial asthma. The average patient compliance rate was high (89%) without the real-time advice and higher (93%) with the advice. The trends in clinical data for patients using a mobile EMA with/without the new function were analyzed for up to several months. In the case of dizziness, an improving trend in its clinical data was observed after applying the real-time advice, and in the case of depressive disorder, a stabilizing trend was observed. The mobile EMA system with the real-time advice function could be useful as a supportive intervention in behavior modification and for motivating patients in self-management of their disease.

  9. Supportive intervention using a mobile phone in behavior modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hareva,David H.


    Full Text Available

    The authors previously developed a mobile ecological momentary assessment (EMA system as a real-time data collection device using a mobile phone. In this study, a real-time advice function and real-time reporting function were added to the previous system as a supportive intervention. The improved system was found to work effectively and was applied to several clinical cases, including patients with depressive disorder, dizziness, smoking habit, and bronchial asthma. The average patient compliance rate was high (89% without the real-time advice and higher (93% with the advice. The trends in clinical data for patients using a mobile EMA with/without the new function were analyzed for up to several months. In the case of dizziness, an improving trend in its clinical data was observed after applying the real-time advice, and in the case of depressive disorder, a stabilizing trend was observed. The mobile EMA system with the real-time advice function could be useful as a supportive intervention in behavior modification and for motivating patients in self-management of their disease.

  10. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk (United States)

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.


    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  11. Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Souza Lima


    Full Text Available Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS. The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not involving the central nervous system (CNS. Eighty-eight early MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 2.5 and 48 controls were tested. Perceived changes by informants in behavioral control, goal-directed behavior, decision making, emotional expression, insight and interpersonal relationships were assessed using the Iowa Scale of Personality Change (ISPC. Executive behavioral disturbances were screened using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX. The mean change between the premorbid and postmorbid ISPC ratings was similar in the MS [12.2 (SD 15.6] and in the control [11.5 (SD 15.1] group. The perceived behavioral changes (PBCs most frequently reported in both groups were lack of stamina, lability/moodiness, anxiety, vulnerability to stress and irritability. Pathological scores in the DEX were also similar in both groups. Correlations between PBCs and DEX scores were different in MS and control groups. MS patients with cognitive impairment had a marginally higher number of PBCs than control patients (p = 0.056 and a significantly higher DEXp score (p = 0.04. These results suggest that (1 PBCs occurring in early MS patients were not different from those induced by comparable chronic non-CNS disorders, (2 qualitative differences in the relationship between behavioral symptoms and executive-behavioral changes may exist between MS and control groups, and (3 behavioral symptoms seem associated with cognitive deficits in MS. We further plan to assess these observations longitudinally.

  12. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States. (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia


    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population.

  13. Sustained, fade-out or sleeper effects? A systematic review and meta-analysis of parenting interventions for disruptive child behavior. (United States)

    van Aar, Jolien; Leijten, Patty; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan


    Parenting interventions are known to reduce disruptive child behavior immediately post intervention. But it is largely unknown how reduced disruptive behavior develops in the months and years after the intervention. The present systematic review and multilevel meta-analysis examines whether improvements in disruptive child behavior after parenting intervention are maintained (i.e., sustained effects), fall back (i.e., fade-out effects), or increase further (i.e., sleeper effects). We identified 40 randomized controlled trials with follow-up assessments (up to three years) that generated 91 effect sizes. Mean effect size of post-intervention change was d=0.01, 95% CI [-0.05, 0.07], p=0.78. This lack of change suggests that parenting interventions lead to sustained effects on disruptive behavior. However, there was heterogeneity within and between trials, indicating that some interventions, or interventions under certain circumstances do show fade-out or sleeper effects. None of the moderators tested (i.e., length of follow-up and initial intervention success) explained this heterogeneity. We conclude that parenting interventions generally lead to sustained reductions in disruptive child behavior, at least until three year after intervention. Better understanding is needed of when and why sustainability is stronger in some cases than in others.

  14. Determining behavioral factors for interventions to increase safe water consumption: a cross-sectional field study in rural Ethiopia. (United States)

    Huber, Alexandra Claudia; Mosler, Hans-Joachim


    In developing countries, the lack of safe water options leads to many health risks. In the Ethiopian Rift Valley, most water sources are contaminated with an excess of fluoride. The consumption of fluoride-contaminated water leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis. The article presents an approach to designing community interventions based on evidence from quantitative data. After installing a community filter, a baseline study was conducted in 211 households to survey the acceptance and usage of the filter. To identify important psychological factors that lead to health behavior change, the Risk, Attitude, Norm, Ability, Self-regulation (RANAS) model was taken into account. Descriptive statistics were calculated for behavioral determinants, and their influence on consumption was analyzed with a linear regression. For every behavioral factor, an intervention potential (IP) was calculated. It was found that perceived distance, factual knowledge, commitment, and taste strongly influenced participants' consumption behavior and therefore should be tackled for interventions.

  15. Sensitivity to Change of Objectively-Derived Measures of Sedentary Behavior (United States)

    Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Eakin, Elizabeth G.; Gardiner, Paul A.; Dunstan, David W.; Owen, Neville; Healy, Genevieve N.


    The aim of this study was to examine the sensitivity to change of measures of sedentary behavior derived from body worn sensors in different intervention designs. Results from two intervention studies: "Stand up for Your Health" (pre-post home-based study with older adults not in paid employment) and "Stand Up Comcare"…

  16. Social and behavior change communication in the fight against malaria in Mozambique (United States)

    Arroz, Jorge Alexandre Harrison


    ABSTRACT Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and/or indoor residual spraying, associated with case management, are key interventions in the control of malaria in Africa. The objective of this study is to comment on the role of social and behavior change communication as a potential key intervention in the control of malaria in Mozambique.

  17. Health behaviors of mandated and voluntary students in a motivational intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Kazemi


    Conclusions: Intervention programs to reduce drinking by college students need to address developmental dynamics of freshmen students, including gender, psychosocial factors, personality, and lifestyle health-promoting behaviors.

  18. Examining How Adding a Booster to a Behavioral Nutrition Intervention Prompts Parents to Pack More Vegetables and Whole Gains in Their Preschool Children's Sack Lunches. (United States)

    Sweitzer, Sara J; Ranjit, Nalini; Calloway, Eric E; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Almansor, Fawaz; Briley, Margaret E; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia R


    Data from a five-week intervention to increase parents' packing of vegetables and whole grains in their preschool children's sack lunches showed that, although changes occurred, habit strength was weak. To determine the effects of adding a one-week booster three months post-intervention, children's (N = 59 intervention and 48 control) lunches were observed at baseline (week 0), post-intervention (week 6), pre-booster (week 20), and post-booster (week 26). Servings of vegetables and whole grains were evaluated in repeated measures models and results inspected relative to patterns projected from different explanatory models of behavior change processes. Observed changes aligned with projections from the simple associative model of behavior change. Attention in future studies should focus on behavioral intervention elements that leverage stimulus-response associations to increase gratification parents receive from providing their children with healthy lunches.

  19. School Social Workers as Response to Intervention Change Champions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deneca Winfrey Avant


    Full Text Available School social workers (SSWs are known for serving students with social, emotional, and academic needs. Implementing Response to Intervention (RTI/Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS is one avenue in which SSWs play an integral role by guiding the development and implementation of student interventions. RTI/MTSS requires substantive and multifaceted system changes that involve more than simply adopting new approaches. This paradigm shift brings change which may not be desired or easily accepted by school systems. However, developing collaborative relationships and using effective leadership strategies throughout the RTI/MTSS transformation can be a pathway to success. A survey of 192 SSWs in Illinois revealed the challenges that SSWs experienced as the process of implementing RTI/MTSS transformed them into change leaders. This revelation was viewed as an opportunity to closely align social and emotional practices with students’ academic achievement.

  20. A meta-analytic review of HIV behavioral interventions for reducing sexual risk behavior of men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Herbst, Jeffrey H; Sherba, R Thomas; Crepaz, Nicole; Deluca, Julia B; Zohrabyan, Lev; Stall, Ron D; Lyles, Cynthia M


    This meta-analysis examines the efficacy of international HIV prevention interventions designed to reduce sexual risk behavior of men who have sex with men (MSM). We performed a comprehensive search of published and unpublished English-language reports of HIV prevention interventions that focus on MSM and evaluated changes in risky sexual behavior or biologic outcomes related to sexual risk. Data from 33 studies described in 65 reports were available as of July 2003. Studies with insufficient data to calculate effect sizes were excluded from the meta-analysis. Interventions were associated with a significant decrease in unprotected anal intercourse (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.92) and number of sexual partners (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.61-0.94) and with a significant increase in condom use during anal intercourse (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.16-2.22). Interventions successful in reducing risky sexual behavior were based on theoretic models, included interpersonal skills training, incorporated several delivery methods, and were delivered over multiple sessions spanning a minimum of 3 weeks. Behavioral interventions provide an efficacious means of HIV prevention for MSM. To the extent that proven HIV prevention interventions for MSM can be successfully replicated in community settings and adapted and tailored to different situations, the effectiveness of current HIV prevention efforts can be increased.

  1. Planning versus action: Different decision-making processes predict plans to change one's diet versus actual dietary behavior. (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Brown-Kramer, Carolyn R


    Most health decision-making models posit that deciding to engage in a health behavior involves forming a behavioral intention which then leads to actual behavior. However, behavioral intentions and actual behavior may not be functionally equivalent. Two studies examined whether decision-making factors predicting dietary behaviors were the same as or distinct from those predicting intentions. Actual dietary behavior was proximally predicted by affective associations with the behavior. By contrast, behavioral intentions were predicted by cognitive beliefs about behaviors, with no contribution of affective associations. This dissociation has implications for understanding individual regulation of health behaviors and for behavior change interventions.

  2. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach. (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay


    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  3. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network. (United States)

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D


    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior.

  4. Review of recent behavioral interventions targeting older adults living with HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario


    Increasing attention has been paid to older adults living with HIV over the past few years given the increasing prevalence of HIV in this age group. Yet, despite numerous studies documenting psychosocial and behavioral differences between older and younger HIV-infected adults, few evidence-based behavioral interventions have been developed for this population. This review found only 12 manuscripts describing behavioral intervention studies in older HIV-positive adults published between 2011 and 2014, and they reported on a total of six interventions. Despite promising findings, there is a clear need for large-scale clinical trials to replicate these initial results and further develop additional interventions to address important clinical issues such as depression, sexual risk behaviors, cognition, and other significant issues affecting this cohort. This represents an exciting opportunity for behavioral scientists and HIV specialists to develop interventions that combine the psychological and behavioral with medical aspects of the disease.

  5. The Information Architecture of Behavior Change Websites



    The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)—the structure of website information—is an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ra...

  6. Translating HIV interventions into practice: community-based organizations' experiences with the diffusion of effective behavioral interventions (DEBIs). (United States)

    Margaret Dolcini, M; Gandelman, Alice A; Vogan, Stacy A; Kong, Carol; Leak, Tia-Nicole; King, A J; Desantis, Linda; O'Leary, Ann


    Efficacious behavioral interventions developed to address the spread of HIV/STIs are currently being disseminated in the USA through a national diffusion program (DEBI) spearheaded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Understanding how interventions are translated to real world settings is necessary to further scientific knowledge of this process and to facilitate future translation efforts in public health. Prior studies have begun to elucidate how agencies translate behavioral interventions into practice, but further work is needed. Guided by the ADAPT framework, we examined agencies' assessment, preparation, and implementation of interventions. Our qualitative interview-based study focused on six community-based agencies in California (United States) funded to implement three group-level HIV interventions. Findings showed considerable variation in the extent to which agencies engaged in assessment and broad-based preparation and in the ease with which agencies implemented the interventions. The findings provide insight into the process that agencies undergo in the translation of effective behavioral interventions and illustrate how agencies can inform logic models that guide translation. We also identify relevant dimensions of existing models, including the ADAPT framework and Rogers's (1995, 2005) diffusion of innovations in organizations, that have value for agencies that are translating research to practice.

  7. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions. (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y


    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control.

  8. Reality therapy oriented intervention program for cyberbullying behaviors and testing its efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taşkın Tanrıkulu


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an intervention program for cyberbullying based on reality therapy and also to investigate the efficiency of this program for such behavior. For the study, firstly, the concept of cyberbullying is analyzed and discussed within the framework of choice theory. Secondly, a psychological counseling program intended to reduce cyberbullying behaviors is developed and a pilot scheme is launched. Remarks of experts are taken into consideration in analyzing the pilot scheme and the program’s suitability with reality therapy is established. An intervention program is implemented at a high school in Istanbul in the first half of the 2012-2013 school year. In the study, designed with 2x3 split-plot method, experimental and control groups consisting of 12 people are formed and a ten-session program is implemented for the experimental group. Analyses show that cyberbullying behaviors decreased in the experimental group, while there was no change in the level of cyberbullying behaviors in the control group.

  9. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior. (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E


    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior.

  10. Psychotherapeutic process of cognitive-behavioral intervention in HIV-infected persons: Results from a controlled, randomized prospective clinical trial


    Znoj, H J; Messerli-Burgy, N; Tschopp, S; Weber, R.; Christen, L; Christen, S; Grawe, K


    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the possible mechanisms of behavioral change in a cognitive-behavioral intervention supporting medication adherence in HIV-infected persons. A total of 60 persons currently under medical treatment were randomized to psychotherapy or usual care and were compared with a sociodemographically matched group of general psychotherapy clients. Outcome measures included therapy adherence using medication event-monitoring system psychotherapeutic process...

  11. A systematic review of evidence-based interventions for students with challenging behaviors in school settings. (United States)

    Thompson, Aaron M


    The author's systematic review of 2,294 articles from 10 journals in the fields of education, special education, school social work, school psychology, and school counseling identified 42 articles meeting search criteria of addressing evidence-based interventions for students with challenging behaviors in school settings. Interventions were considered evidence-based if they were (a) manualized or structured to facilitate replication; (b) evaluated with an experimental design; and (c) demonstrated to be effective. Current practices available to address students who require evidence-based interventions for challenging behaviors are summarized. Suggestions for intervention development to address the needs of students with difficult behaviors are offered.

  12. Behavioral Stuttering Interventions for Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Nye, Chad; Vanryckeghem, Martine; Schwartz, Jamie B.; Herder, Carl; Turner, Herbert M., III.; Howard, Courtney


    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions designed to treat stuttering in children. Method: Studies were included for review if (a) the treatment was a behavioral intervention, (b) participants were between 2 and 18 years old, (c) the design was an experimental or quasi-experimental group design, and (d) the reported…

  13. The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior (United States)

    Hansen, Blake D.; Wills, Howard P.; Kamps, Debra M.; Greenwood, Charles R.


    Children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) struggle to achieve social and academic outcomes. Many studies have demonstrated self-management interventions to be effective at reducing problem behavior and increasing positive social and academic behaviors. Functional behavior assessment (FBA) information may be used in designing…

  14. ABA and PBS: The Dangers in Creating Artificial Dichotomies in Behavioral Intervention (United States)

    Weiss, Mary Jane; DelPizzo-Cheng, Eliza; LaRue, Robert H.; Sloman, Kimberly


    In recent years, there has been a great deal of controversy regarding the definition and independence of Positive Behavioral Supports (PBS) within the context of behavioral intervention. Specifically, behavior analysts have argued over whether PBS is subsumed within Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) or whether it can be considered a separate…

  15. Psychological and behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk: evidence from a randomized control trial among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents in South Africa. (United States)

    Thurman, T R; Kidman, R; Carton, T W; Chiroro, P


    Evidence-based approaches are needed to address the high levels of sexual risk behavior and associated HIV infection among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents. This study recruited adolescents from a support program for HIV-affected families and randomly assigned them by cluster to receive one of the following: (1) a structured group-based behavioral health intervention; (2) interpersonal psychotherapy group sessions; (3) both interventions; or (4) no new interventions. With 95% retention, 1014 adolescents were interviewed three times over a 22-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses, applying multivariate difference-in-difference probit regressions, were performed separately for boys and girls to assess intervention impacts on sexual risk behaviors. Exposure to a single intervention did not impact behaviors. Exposure to both interventions was associated with risk-reduction behaviors, but the outcomes varied by gender: boys reported fewer risky sexual partnerships (β = -.48, p = .05) and girls reported more consistent condom (β = 1.37, p = .02). There was no difference in the likelihood of sexual debut for either gender. Providing both psychological and behavioral interventions resulted in long-term changes in sexual behavior that were not present when either intervention was provided in isolation. Multifaceted approaches for reducing sexual risk behaviors among vulnerable adolescents hold significant promise for mitigating the HIV epidemic among this priority population.

  16. Comparison of Behavioral Intervention and Sensory-Integration Therapy in the Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior (United States)

    Devlin, Sarah; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive


    The current study investigates the comparative effects of sensory-integration therapy and behavioral interventions on rates of self-injurious behavior (SIB) in a 9-year-old boy with diagnosis of autism. A functional analysis was conducted to identify the variables maintaining the self-injurious behavior. This analysis demonstrated that SIB was…

  17. eHealth Applications Promising Strategies for Behavior Change

    CERN Document Server

    Noar, Seth M


    eHealth Applications: Promising Strategies for Behavior Change provides an overview of technological applications in contemporary health communication research, exploring the history and current uses of eHealth applications in disease prevention and management. This volume focuses on the use of these technology-based interventions for public health promotion and explores the rapid growth of an innovative interdisciplinary field. The chapters in this work discuss key eHealth applications by presenting research examining a variety of technology-based applications. Authors Seth M. Noar and Nancy

  18. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering Michael A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. Methods The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1 the first 6-months (i.e., initial change, (2 the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change, and (3 the entire 12-months (overall change of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group. Results Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes, with very

  19. Assessing progress and outcome of early intensive behavioral intervention for toddlers with autism. (United States)

    MacDonald, Rebecca; Parry-Cruwys, Diana; Dupere, Sally; Ahearn, William


    Intensive behavioral intervention for young children diagnosed with autism can produce large gains in social, cognitive, and language development. Although several studies have identified behaviors that are possible indicators of best outcome, changes in performance are typically measured using norm-referenced standardized scores referencing overall functioning level rather than via repeated observational measures of autism-specific deficits (i.e., social behavior). In the current study, 83 children with autism (CWA), aged 1, 2 and 3 years, and 58 same-aged typically developing children (TDC) were directly observed in the areas of cognitive skills, joint attention (JA), play, and stereotypic behavior using a measure called the Early Skills Assessment Tool (ESAT; MacDonald et al., 2006). CWA were assessed at entry into an EIBI program and again after 1 year of treatment. Changes in performance were compared pre- and post-treatment as well as to the normative data by age. Results indicate significant gains on the ESAT across all age groups with the greatest gains seen in the children who entered treatment prior to their second birthday. Increases were seen on direct measures of JA, play, imitation and language while decreases were seen in stereotypy regardless of level of performance at entry into EIBI. The ESAT, a direct measurement tool, served as a sensitive tool to measure changes in autism symptomatology following EIBI treatment.

  20. Behavioral changes in mice following benzene inhalation. (United States)

    Evans, H L; Dempster, A M; Snyder, C A


    Although benzene is an important occupational health hazard and a carcinogen, the possibility that behavioral changes may forewarn of the later-occurring hematological changes has not been investigated. A time-sampling protocol was used to quantify the occurrence of 7 categories of behavior in the homecage following daily 6-hr exposures to two strains of adult mice (CD1 and C57BL/6J). The behavioral categories were stereotypic behavior, sleeping, resting, eating, grooming, locomotion, and fighting. The inhalation exposures were designed to reflect occupational exposure. Dynamic vapor exposure techniques in standard inhalation chambers were employed. Exposure to 300 or 900 ppm benzene increased the occurrence of eating and grooming and reduced the number of mice that were sleeping or resting. The responses to benzene of both the CD1 and the C57 strains were similar. The positive findings with benzene inhalation indicate the utility of behavioral investigations into the toxicology of inhaled organic solvents. The methods described herein illustrate an objective observation of animal behavior that is capable of documenting toxicity and of guiding detailed follow-up studies aimed at mechanism of action.

  1. Dealing With Missing Behavioral Endpoints in Health Promotion Research by Modeling Cognitive Parameters in Cost-Effectiveness Analyses of Behavioral Interventions: A Validation Study. (United States)

    Prenger, Rilana; Pieterse, Marcel E; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Feenstra, Talitha L; Smit, Eline S; Hoving, Ciska; de Vries, Hein; van Ommeren, Jan-Kees; Evers, Silvia M A A; van der Palen, Job


    Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of behavioral interventions typically use physical outcome criteria. However, any progress in cognitive antecedents of behavior change may be seen as a beneficial outcome of an intervention. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility and validity of incorporating cognitive parameters of behavior change in CEAs. The CEA from a randomized controlled trial on smoking cessation was reanalyzed. First, relevant cognitive antecedents of behavior change in this dataset were identified. Then, transition probabilities between combined states of smoking and cognitions at 6 weeks and corresponding 6 months smoking status were obtained from the dataset. These rates were extrapolated to the period from 6 to 12 months in a decision analytic model. Simulated results were compared with the 12 months' observed cost-effectiveness results. Self-efficacy was the strongest time-varying predictor of smoking cessation. Twelve months' observed CEA results for the multiple tailoring intervention versus usual care showed € 3188 had to be paid for each additional quitter versus € 10,600 in the simulated model. The simulated CEA showed largely similar but somewhat more conservative results. Using self-efficacy to enhance the estimation of the true behavioral outcome seems a feasible and valid way to estimate future cost-effectiveness.

  2. Effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention on improving thehand-washing skills and behaviors of migrant workers in Beijing. (United States)

    Yang, Chong; Hu, Junfeng; Tao, Maoxuan; Li, Yubo; Chai, Yan; Ning, Yan; Li, Li; Xiao, Qin


    This study explores the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention featuring a combination of tailored print and video (TPV) and peer education on improving the hand-washing skills and behaviors of migrant workers in the capital city of China. In the control group, supportive measures in both policy and environment were adopted. In addition, the intervention group received TPV and peer education. A total of 1496 participants were involved in the baseline and evaluation survey. The results showed that the participants experienced significant changes in developing health behaviors and skills as a whole after the intervention. The intervention effectiveness of hand-washing skills on vendors was relatively small compared with those on restaurant waiters and waitresses (44.3% and 87.2%, respectively). About 81.2 percent of the participants always forgot to carefully wash their thumbs and 81.8 percent failed to properly clean the back of their hands. The multifaceted intervention of this study has helped in improving the hand-washing skills and behaviors of migrant workers. Key steps should be strengthened to enhance the intervention effect. Moreover, the elderly should be given more attention with regards to hand-washing skills.

  3. Social-cognitive theory mediators of behavior change in the National Institute of Mental Health Multisite HIV Prevention Trial. (United States)


    The National Institute of Mental Health Multisite HIV Prevention Trial was a trial of an intervention to reduce sexual HIV risk behaviors among 3,706 low-income at-risk men and women at 7 U.S. research sites. The intervention, based on social-cognitive theory and designed to influence behavior change by improving expected outcomes of condom use and increasing knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy to execute safer sex behaviors, was effective relative to a control condition in reducing sexual risk behavior. At 3 months after completion of the intervention, measures of these potential mediators were higher in the intervention than in the control condition. Although the effect of the intervention on sexual risk behavior was significantly reduced when the variables were controlled statistically, supporting the hypothesis of their mediation of the intervention effect, most of the effect remained unexplained, indicating the influence of unmeasured factors on outcome.

  4. Gamification: what it is and why it matters to digital health behavior change developers. (United States)

    Cugelman, Brian


    This editorial provides a behavioral science view on gamification and health behavior change, describes its principles and mechanisms, and reviews some of the evidence for its efficacy. Furthermore, this editorial explores the relation between gamification and behavior change frameworks used in the health sciences and shows how gamification principles are closely related to principles that have been proven to work in health behavior change technology. Finally, this editorial provides criteria that can be used to assess when gamification provides a potentially promising framework for digital health interventions.

  5. Applied behavior analysis as intervention for autism: definition, features and philosophical concepts

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    Síglia Pimentel Höher Camargo


    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a lifelong pervasive developmental disorder with no known causes and cure. However, educational and behavioral interventions with a foundation in applied behavior analysis (ABA have been shown to improve a variety of skill areas such as communication, social, academic, and adaptive behaviors of individuals with ASD. The goal of this work is to present the definition, features and philosophical concepts that underlie ABA and make this science an effective intervention method for people with autism.

  6. Behavioral Functionality of Mobile Apps in Health Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature


    Payne, Hannah E; Lister, Cameron; West, Josh; Bernhardt, Jay M.


    Background Several thousand mobile phone apps are available to download to mobile phones for health and fitness. Mobile phones may provide a unique means of administering health interventions to populations. Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to systematically search and describe the literature on mobile apps used in health behavior interventions, describe the behavioral features and focus of health apps, and to evaluate the potential of apps to disseminate health behavior in...

  7. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to phytoestrogens

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    Clotfelter, Ethan D. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)]. E-mail:; Rodriguez, Alison C. [Department of Biology, Amherst College, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States)


    We investigated the behavioral effects of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish, Betta splendens. Adult fish were exposed to a range of concentrations of genistein, equol, {beta}-sitosterol, and the positive control 17{beta}-estradiol. The following behaviors were measured: spontaneous swimming activity, latency to respond to a perceived intruder (mirror reflection), intensity of aggressive response toward a perceived intruder, probability of constructing a nest in the presence of a female, and the size of the nest constructed. We found few changes in spontaneous swimming activity, the latency to respond to the mirror, and nest size, and modest changes in the probability of constructing a nest. There were significant decreases, however, in the intensity of aggressive behavior toward the mirror following exposure to several concentrations, including environmentally relevant ones, of 17{beta}-estradiol, genistein, and equol. This suggests that phytoestrogen contamination has the potential to significantly affect the behavior of free-living fishes. - Environmentally relevant concentrations of phytoestrogens reduce aggressive behavior in fish.

  8. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior in Children with Moderate to Severe Cerebral Palsy (United States)

    Ryalls, Brigette O.; Harbourne, Regina; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Wickstrom, Jordan; Stergiou, Nick; Kyvelidou, Anastasia


    For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP), a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 s were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p < 0.001) and marginally significant improvement in play assessment scores (p = 0.067) were found from pre- to post-intervention. Sitting change explained a significant portion of the variance in play change for children over the age of 3 years, who were more severely affected by CP. The results of this study indicate that advances in sitting skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment. PMID:27199868

  9. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior In Children With Moderate To Severe Cerebral Palsy

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    Brigette Oliver Ryalls


    Full Text Available For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP, a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 seconds were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM, and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment (PACMI play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System (PIECES. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p<0.001 and marginally significant improvement in play assessment scores (p=0.067 were found from pre- to post-intervention. Sitting change explained a significant portion of the variance in play change for children over the age of 3 years, who were more severely affected by CP. The results of this study indicate that advances in sitting skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment.

  10. Pilot Study Results for a Novel Behavior Plus Nutrition Intervention for Caregivers of Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes (United States)

    Patton, Susana R.; Odar, Cathleen; Midyett, L. Kurt; Clements, Mark A.


    Objective This pilot study presents results for a parent-based educational intervention targeting mealtime behaviors plus nutrition among families of young children (M age: 5.0±1.2 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods We recruited nine caregivers who participated in the six-session intervention and completed baseline and post-treatment assessments. Results Children’s mean daily glycemic levels decreased from 185±46 mg/dl to 159±40 mg/dl (p<0.001). There were also decreases in problematic parent and child mealtime behaviors. There was no change in children’s dietary intake indicators. Conclusions and Implications It appears promising that our targeted behavior plus nutrition intervention can improve glycemic control and behavior for young children with T1DM. Our next step will be to modify the intervention to improve our nutrition education modules. Ultimately, we plan to test the intervention in a large randomized clinical trial to examine if it can yield improvements to children’s diet and glycated hemoglobin levels. PMID:24438850

  11. The application of nursing behavior intervention on the post-operation pain in abdomen

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    Xiao-fei WU


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of behavioral intervention for the post-operation pain in abdomen. Methods: Forty patients from the county hospital during October 2013 to January 2014 were selected as the observation objects and randomly divided into two groups, intervention group and control groups with 20 patients in each.The control group received conventional general care and the intervention group received nursing behavior interventions,including, the effective evaluation of pain, improvement of health education, strengthening of physical intervention, psychological intervention and psychosocial intervention etc. Two sets of VAS scores and nursing intervention effects were analyzed with statistical methods. Results: After taking nursing behavior interventions,the intervention group had significantly lower VAS scores,and lower level was more significant than that in the control group,The difference has statistically significant P<0.05.The intervention group has higher satisfaction for nursing service. Conclusion: The implementation of nursing behavior interventions can significantly relieve the patient pain, improve the postoperative analgesic treatment effect, and raise the quality of nursing and the comfort and satisfaction of the patients. Thereby reducing the incidence of postoperative complications, and promoting the patient recover. 

  12. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review


    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli


    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-rand...

  13. Positive effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention program for family caregivers of demented elderly

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    Patrícia Paes Araujo Fialho


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: It was to examine the effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT program administered to family caregivers of dementia patients. METHODS: Forty family caregivers were enrolled in a CBT intervention across eight weekly sessions. Cognitive, functional and behavioral status of patients were evaluated, as well as their own and their family caregivers' perceptions of quality of life. Specific instruments were also applied to evaluate caregiver stress level, coping, anxiety and depression. RESULTS: At the end of the program, family caregivers reported fewer neuropsychiatric symptoms among patients and an improvement in patients' quality of life. In addition, caregivers changed their coping strategies, whereas a significant decrease was observed in their anxiety levels. CONCLUSION: The CBT program employed appears to be a promising and useful tool for clinical practice, displaying positive effects on quality of life and neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, as well as proving beneficial for alleviating anxiety and stress in family caregivers.

  14. Neuroimaging mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for addictive behaviors: emerging translational approaches that bridge biology and behavior. (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy


    Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real-time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examine brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examine brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors.

  15. Psychotherapeutic process of cognitive-behavioral intervention in HIV-infected persons: results from a controlled, randomized prospective clinical trial. (United States)

    Znoj, Hans-Jörg; Messerli-Burgy, Nadine; Tschopp, Simone; Weber, Rainer; Christen, Lisanne; Christen, Stephan; Grawe, Klaus


    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the possible mechanisms of behavioral change in a cognitive-behavioral intervention supporting medication adherence in HIV-infected persons. A total of 60 persons currently under medical treatment were randomized to psychotherapy or usual care and were compared with a sociodemographically matched group of general psychotherapy clients. Outcome measures included therapy adherence using medication event-monitoring system psychotherapeutic processes and changes of experience and behavior. The general psychotherapy group was initially more distressed than HIV psychotherapy patients and reached higher levels of psychotherapeutic effect. In the HIV psychotherapy patients, a significant effect was found for maintaining adherence to medical treatment (Weber et al., 2004). These findings show that psychotherapy is a beneficial intervention for HIV-infected persons, and therapeutic alliance and activation of resources do not differ from a general psychotherapy treatment. Differential effects were detected for specific process variables, namely problem actuation.

  16. Examination of an antecedent communication intervention to reduce tangibly maintained challenging behavior: a controlled analog analysis. (United States)

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; Zein, Farah El; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff


    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used to compare the effects of the antecedent communication intervention versus a no antecedent communication intervention condition. Immediately following the antecedent manipulations students were exposed to the tangible condition of the functional analysis. Results indicate that the antecedent communication intervention reduced challenging behavior in the subsequent tangible test condition for all three students. The importance of examining antecedent interventions to treat challenging behavior from a function analytic perspective is discussed.

  17. Validation of Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ramirez, Leivy Patricia; De la Roca-Chiapas, Jose Maria; Colunga-Rodriguez, Cecilia; Preciado-Serrano, Maria de Lourdes; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Pedroza-Cabrera, Francisco Javier; Martinez-Arriaga, Reyna Jazmin


    Background The transtheoretical model (TTM) has been widely used to promote healthy behaviors in different groups. However, a questionnaire has not yet been developed to evaluate the health behaviors that medical practitioners often consider in individuals with cancer or at a high risk of developing cancer. Purpose The aim of this study was to construct and validate the Health Behavior and Stages of Change Questionnaire (HBSCQ), which is based on the TTM and health recommendations related to risk and factors that protect against cancer. Methods Content validity was conducted in two phases (qualitative and quantitative). Item difficulty index, item discrimination index, and discrimination coefficient were obtained based on the classical test theory. Finally, Cronbach’s alpha was used. Results Measure of concordance showed scores considered adequate and excellent. The item discrimination index obtained a rating of “excellent” and suggested the preservation of all items. The discrimination coefficient scores are >0.74. The global internal consistency of the HBSCQ was 0.384. HBSCQ specification between groups of internal consistency for the sample of men was 0.712 and that for the sample of women was 0.378. Conclusion/implications for practice The HBSCQ represents a proposal for a fast, simple, and innovative screening test, which aims to identify persons who may benefit from interventions to promote health behaviors delimited to the stage of change. PMID:28356769

  18. Evidence-based interventions for adolescents with disruptive behaviors in school-based settings. (United States)

    Kuhn, Tarah M; Ebert, Jon S; Gracey, Kathy A; Chapman, Gabrielle L; Epstein, Richard A


    Disruptive behaviors in the school setting can threaten the maintenance of optimal learning environments in schools. Challenging behaviors, such as defiance, hostility, and aggression, often define disruptive classroom behaviors. This article presents a clinical review of existing literature on interventions for adolescent disruptive behavior problems in school-based settings and in outpatient mental health settings and makes recommendations around working with adolescents with disruptive behaviors in school-based settings. Many types of interventions are effective; effective implementation is key to good results.

  19. Developing and implementing a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in prison-based drug treatment: Project BRITE. (United States)

    Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Prendergast, Michael L


    Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or noncompliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention.

  20. Fostering a need-supportive teaching style: intervention effects on physical education teachers' beliefs and teaching behaviors. (United States)

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen


    The present intervention study examined whether physical education (PE) teachers can learn to make use of autonomy-supportive and structuring teaching strategies. In a sample of 39 teachers (31 men, M = 38.51 ± 10.44 years) and 669 students (424 boys, M = 14.58 ± 1.92 years), we investigated whether a professional development training grounded in self-determination theory led to changes in (a) teachers' beliefs about the effectiveness and feasibility of autonomy-supportive and structuring strategies and (b) teachers' in-class reliance on these strategies, as rated by teachers, external observers, and students. The intervention led to positive changes in teachers' beliefs regarding both autonomy support and structure. As for teachers' actual teaching behavior, the intervention was successful in increasing autonomy support according to students and external observers, while resulting in positive changes in teacher-reported structure. Implications for professional development and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  1. Group Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Rompa, David; Cage, Marjorie


    Results of a randomized controlled trial show that a behavioral intervention grounded in social cognitive theory reduces unprotected sexual behaviors among men and women living with HIV infection, with the greatest reductions in HIV transmission risk behaviors occurring with non-HIV-positive sex partners. In this article, the authors describe the…

  2. Improving Classroom Engagement among High School Students with Disruptive Behavior: Evaluation of the Class Pass Intervention (United States)

    Collins, Tai A.; Cook, Clayton R.; Dart, Evan H.; Socie, Diana G.; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Long, Anna C.


    Off-task and disruptive classroom behaviors have a negative impact on the learning environment and present a unique challenge for teachers to address. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Class Pass Intervention (CPI) as a behavior management strategy for secondary students with disruptive classroom behavior. The CPI consists of providing…

  3. Nature of urban interventions in changing the old center of a globalizing Doha

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    Remah Y. Gharib


    Full Text Available Doha, Qatar is continuously positioning itself at the forefront of international urbanism with different qualities of expression in terms of economy, culture, and global outlook, and is characterized by fast-tracked urban development process with large-scale urban interventions in the old center. Although the unprecedented urban growth of this city continues to be a subject of discussion, little attention has been given to investigate the new interventions and the resulting effects they have on the old center. This study aims to examine three important urban interventions, namely, the Museum of Islamic Art, the reconstruction of the traditional market called Souq Waqif, and the Msheireb urban regeneration project. It examines local and global issues, universal standard practices, and traditional knowledge. This study employs a descriptive analysis of these interventions to explore the impact of change in the old center, exemplified by socio-spatial and typo-morphological aspects. Reference is made to a number of empirical studies, including behavioral mapping, GIS population statistics, and analysis of historical maps. Results analytically narrate the reactions of these interventions to the possibility of simultaneously adopting universal practices with local knowledge, and whether prioritizing local influences would represent narrow-mindedness in shaping the city.

  4. Rewarding safe behavior: strategies for change. (United States)

    Fell-Carlson, Deborah


    Effective, sustainable safety incentives are integrated into a performance management system designed to encourage long term behavior change. Effective incentive program design integrates the fundamental considerations of compensation (i.e., valence, instrumentality, expectancy, equity) with behavior change theory in the context of a strong merit based performance management system. Clear expectations are established and communicated from the time applicants apply for the position. Feedback and social recognition are leveraged and used as rewards, in addition to financial incentives built into the compensation system and offered periodically as short term incentives. Rewards are tied to specific objectives intended to influence specific behaviors. Objectives are designed to challenge employees, providing opportunities to grow and enhance their sense of belonging. Safety contests and other awareness activities are most effective when used to focus safety improvement efforts on specific behaviors or processes, for a predetermined period of time, in the context of a comprehensive safety system. Safety incentive programs designed around injury outcomes can result in unintended, and undesirable, consequences. Safety performance can be leveraged by integrating safety into corporate cultural indicators. Symbols of safety remind employees of corporate safety goals and objectives (e.g., posted safety goals and integrating safety into corporate mission and vision). Rites and ceremonies provide opportunities for social recognition and feedback and demonstrate safety is a corporate value. Feedback opportunities, rewards, and social recognition all provide content for corporate legends, those stories embellished over time, that punctuate the overall system of organizational norms, and provide examples of the organizational safety culture in action.

  5. [Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use]. (United States)

    Diestelkamp, Silke; Wartberg, Lutz; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer


    Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use Brief interventions are recommended for prevention and early intervention of risky alcohol use. However, evidence of their effectiveness, in particular for children and adolescents, is heterogeneous. Analysis of counsellor and intervention variables may provide insights into mechanisms of action in brief interventions and thereby contribute to an enhanced effectiveness. We analyzed data of N = 141 children and adolescents who were treated for acute alcohol intoxication in the emergency department. Study participants received a brief motivational intervention to reduce risky alcohol use during hospitalization. We applied multiple regression analysis to examine counsellor variables (empathy, affirmation, competence, congruence) and intervention variables (readiness and confidence ruler, decisional balance, goal agreement) as predictors of motivation to change. Higher scores on the basic therapeutic skill "positive affirmation" (R2 = 7.1 %; p < .01), finishing the intervention with a written goal agreement (R2 = 2.9 %; p < .05) and younger age were associated with greater readiness to change (R2 = 10.2 %; p < .01). Therefore, a special focus should be put on the counsellor skill "positive affirmation" when training new counsellors. Results also indicate that younger patients respond stronger to a brief intervention in this context.

  6. An Evaluation of a Smartphone–Assisted Behavioral Weight Control Intervention for Adolescents: Pilot Study (United States)

    Duncombe, Kristina M; Lott, Mark A; Hunsaker, Sanita L; Duraccio, Kara M; Woolford, Susan J


    Background The efficacy of adolescent weight control treatments is modest, and effective treatments are costly and are not widely available. Smartphones may be an effective method for delivering critical components of behavioral weight control treatment including behavioral self-monitoring. Objective To examine the efficacy and acceptability of a smartphone assisted adolescent behavioral weight control intervention. Methods A total of 16 overweight or obese adolescents (mean age=14.29 years, standard deviation=1.12) received 12 weeks of combined treatment that consisted of weekly in-person group behavioral weight control treatment sessions plus smartphone self-monitoring and daily text messaging. Subsequently they received 12 weeks of electronic-only intervention, totaling 24 weeks of intervention. Results On average, participants attained modest but significant reductions in body mass index standard score (zBMI: 0.08 standard deviation units, t (13)=2.22, P=.04, d=0.63) over the in-person plus electronic-only intervention period but did not maintain treatment gains over the electronic-only intervention period. Participants self-monitored on approximately half of combined intervention days but less than 20% of electronic-only intervention days. Conclusions Smartphones likely hold promise as a component of adolescent weight control interventions but they may be less effective in helping adolescents maintain treatment gains after intensive interventions. PMID:27554704

  7. Is there life after DEBI? Examining health behavior maintenance in the diffusion of effective behavioral interventions initiative. (United States)

    Feldman, Matthew B; Silapaswan, Andrew; Schaefer, Nathan; Schermele, Daniel


    The evidence-based interventions that are identified, packaged, and disseminated by the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as part of the Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions (DEBI) initiative-commonly referred to the "DEBIs"-currently represent a primary source of HIV prevention interventions for community-based providers. To date, little attention has focused on whether the intended outcomes of the DEBIs, i.e., reductions in HIV-related risk behaviors, are maintained over time. This review summarized evidence for the sustainability of the effects of the DEBIs on HIV sexual risk behavior and intravenous drug use from studies of original and adapted DEBIs. Evidence of intervention decay or a lack of any intervention effect was identified in several original and adapted versions of the DEBIs included in this review. Recommendations include modifications to current criteria for inclusion in the DEBI portfolio, in addition to the development of remediation strategies to address intervention decay. Further, theoretical models that specify the processes that underlie the maintenance of health behaviors over time should be used in developing HIV prevention interventions.

  8. Effectiveness of a self-administered intervention for criminal thinking: Taking a Chance on Change. (United States)

    Folk, Johanna B; Disabato, David J; Daylor, Jordan M; Tangney, June P; Barboza, Sharen; Wilson, John S; Bonieskie, Lynda; Holwager, James


    The current study tested the effectiveness of a self-administered, cognitive-behavioral intervention targeting criminal thinking for inmates in segregated housing: Taking a Chance on Change (TCC). Participants included 273 inmates in segregated housing at state correctional institutions. Reductions in criminal thinking, as assessed by the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Styles-Simplified Version, were found in the general criminal thinking score as well as the proactive and reactive composite scores. Examination of demographic predictors of change (i.e., age, years of education, length of sentence) revealed older and more educated participants decreased in criminal thinking more than younger and less educated participants. For a subset of 48 inmates, completion of TCC was associated with significant reduction of disciplinary infractions. Reductions in reactive criminal thinking predicted reductions in disciplinary infractions. Although further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of TCC in reducing recidivism, the reductions in criminal thinking and disordered conduct suggest this is a promising intervention and mode of treatment delivery. By utilizing self-directed study at an accessible reading level, the intervention is uniquely suited to a correctional setting where staff and monetary resources are limited and security and operational issues limit the feasibility of traditional cognitive-behavioral group treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Multimodal secondary prevention behavioral interventions for TIA and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Maggie Lawrence

    Full Text Available Guidelines recommend implementation of multimodal interventions to help prevent recurrent TIA/stroke. We undertook a systematic review to assess the effectiveness of behavioral secondary prevention interventions.Searches were conducted in 14 databases, including MEDLINE (1980-January 2014. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs testing multimodal interventions against usual care/modified usual care. All review processes were conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines.Twenty-three papers reporting 20 RCTs (6,373 participants of a range of multimodal behavioral interventions were included. Methodological quality was generally low. Meta-analyses were possible for physiological, lifestyle, psychosocial and mortality/recurrence outcomes. Note: all reported confidence intervals are 95%. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 4.21 mmHg (mean (-6.24 to -2.18, P = 0.01 I2 = 58%, 1,407 participants; diastolic blood pressure by 2.03 mmHg (mean (-3.19 to -0.87, P = 0.004, I2 = 52%, 1,407 participants. No significant changes were found for HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity-CR, BMI, weight or waist:hip ratio, although there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (-6.69 cm, -11.44 to -1.93, P = 0.006, I2 = 0%, 96 participants. There was no significant difference in smoking continuance, or improved fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a significant difference in compliance with antithrombotic medication (OR 1.45, 1.21 to 1.75, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%, 2,792 participants and with statins (OR 2.53, 2.15 to 2.97, P< 0.00001, I2 = 0%, 2,636 participants; however, there was no significant difference in compliance with antihypertensives. There was a significant reduction in anxiety (-1.20, -1.77 to -0.63, P<0.0001, I2 = 85%, 143 participants. Although there was no significant difference in odds of death or recurrent TIA/stroke, there was a significant reduction in the odds of cardiac events (OR 0.38, 0

  10. A community-based behavior modification intervention for childhood obesity. (United States)

    Gillis, David; Brauner, Michal; Granot, Esther


    Childhood obesity, caused by reduced physical activity and increased food consumption, has reached epidemic proportions. We hypothesized that a single practitioner could enable a child to reduce BMI by educating towards a healthier lifestyle and then reinforcing the message in a structured manner. In this study, intervention group participants and their parents received a half-hour talk on exercise and diet, repeated after 3 months. They were instructed to fill weekly diaries and were called weekly by telephone. Controls received the initial instruction only. Twenty-seven (14 intervention) obese children were recruited. Anthropometric parameters, fitness and biochemical data were collected before intervention and after 6 months in both groups. Sustained but not statistically significant improvements in attitude, BMI SDS and LDL-cholesterol were noted in the intervention group. These promising results support a need for further work to evaluate the efficacy and applicability of our approach in the population at large.

  11. The Effect of Life Skills Training in Group and Behavior Change on Affective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shakiba


    Full Text Available Background: Although various medical and psychological interventions have been used to treat addiction, addiction particularly methamphetamine addiction as a social, health and medical issues is still jeopardizing the human community. This study is aimed at determining the impact of teaching life skills and changing behavior on the emotional well-being of the individuals addicted to crystal methamphetamine. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using before-after plan with participation of 28 crystal methamphetamine addicts. In addition to receiving medical treatment, the intervention group patients obtained necessary trainings required for developing life skill and changing behavior during 15 sessions, whilst the control group received only the routine pharmacotherapy treatments and primary interventions. Then pretest and posttest scores of the two groups were compared. Results: The mean score on emotional well-being by the intervention group is lower than that in control group after treatment (10.71<18.78 which was statistically significant. The history of dependence on methamphetamine, age, education, the times of quits, and the marital status had no impact on the extent of the influence of teaching life skills and behavior changes on the individuals’ emotional well-being. Conclusion: Notwithstanding that addiction could influence various aspects of mental and emotional health of dependent people, teaching life skills and behavioral changes may lead to enhancement in their emotional well-being. Hence it is necessary to encourage these individuals to participate in group sessions of changing behavior and teaching life skills.

  12. An emotion regulation intervention to reduce risk behaviors among at-risk early adolescents (United States)

    Houck, Christopher D.; Hadley, Wendy; Barker, David; Brown, Larry K.; Hancock, Evan; Almy, Brandon


    This study aimed to evaluate an intervention designed to enhance early adolescents’ emotion regulation skill use and to decrease risk behaviors. Adolescents 12 to 14 years old (N = 420; 53% male) with mental health symptoms were referred for participation in either an Emotion Regulation (ER) or Health Promotion (HP) intervention consisting of twelve after-school sessions. Participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires on laptop computers. Using a generalized analysis of covariance controlling for baseline scores, participants in the ER intervention were less likely to be sexually active and engage in other risk behaviors, such as fighting, at the conclusion of the program. Additionally, participants in the ER intervention reported greater use of emotion regulation strategies and more favorable attitudes toward abstinence. Interventions directly targeting emotion regulation may be useful in addressing health risk behaviors of adolescents with mental health symptoms. PMID:26297499

  13. Values determine the (ineffectiveness of informational interventions in promoting pro-environmental behavior.

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    Jan Willem Bolderdijk

    Full Text Available Informational interventions (e.g., awareness campaigns, carbon footprint calculators are built on the assumption that informing the public about the environmental consequences of their actions should result in increased pro-environmental intentions and behavior. However, empirical support for this reasoning is mixed. In this paper, we argue that informational interventions may succeed in improving people's knowledge about the negative environmental consequences of one's actions, but this knowledge will not gain motivational force if people do not consider protecting the environment an important personal value. In an experiment, we measured individual differences in value priorities, and either presented participants a movie clip that portrayed the negative environmental consequences of using bottled water, or a control movie. As predicted, we found that the environmental movie improved recipients' knowledge of the negative environmental impact of bottled water, but this knowledge only resulted in concomitant changes in intentions and acceptability of related policies among participants who strongly endorsed biospheric (i.e. environmental values, while having no effect on those who care less about the environment. Interestingly, the results suggest that although informational interventions are perhaps not always successful in directly affecting less environmentally-conscious recipients, they could still have beneficial effects, because they make those who strongly care about the environment more inclined to act on their values.

  14. 束缚应激所致小鼠脑区的神经递质和行为改变及运动干预效果%Restrained stress induced changes of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and behaviors of mice as well as exercise intervention effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马磊; 黄文英; 杨念恩; 肖晓玲; 孙飙; 康学军


    In order to probe into the effects of restrained stress on monoamine neurotransmitters and behaviors of mice as well as aerobic exercise intervention effects, the authors selected 80 1-month old C57BL/6 mice, randomly divided them into 4 groups: a control group (Control, n=20), a restrained stress group (Stress, n=20), an exercise group (Ex, n=20) and an exercise + restrained stress group (Stress + Ex, n=20), fed the control group in a calm con-dition, let the restrained stress group suffer restrained stress for 2 weeks, let the exercise group exercise on a tread-mill 2 hours a day, let the exercise + restrained stress group suffer restrained stress and exercise on a treadmill si-multaneously, and revealed the following findings: in the behavior experiment, the mice in the restrained stress group had significantly decreased social behaviors and significantly increased levels of anxiety and depression be-haviors (P<0.05), while exercise intervention could alleviate the effects of restrained stress on these behaviors. Bio-chemical indexes indicated as well that aerobic exercise effectively alleviated retrained stress induced changes of behaviors and monoamine neurotransmitters. Conclusion: restrained stress will cause changes of social communica-tion and emotion related behaviors, while exercise intervention will play an effective role of alleviation.%为了探讨束缚应激对小鼠神经递质、行为的影响及有氧运动的干预效果。选用1月龄C57BL/6小鼠80只,随机分为4组:控制组(Control,n=20只)、束缚应激组(Stress,n=20只)、运动组(Ex,n=20只)、运动束缚应激组(Stress+Ex,n=20只)。控制组安静饲养,束缚应激组进行2周的束缚应激,运动组每天进行2 h跑台锻炼,运动束缚应激组同时进行束缚应激和跑台锻炼。结果发现:行为试验中,束缚应激组小鼠社交行为显著下降、焦虑及抑郁行为水平发生显著上升(P<0.05),而运动

  15. Emerging Approaches to Counseling Intervention: Dialectical Behavior Therapy (United States)

    Neacsiu, Andrada D.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.; Linehan, Marsha M.


    Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive, multimodal cognitive behavioral treatment originally developed for individuals who met criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) who displayed suicidal tendencies. DBT is based on behavioral theory but also includes principles of acceptance, mindfulness, and validation. Since its…

  16. Homosexuality And The Ethics Of Behavioral Intervention: Paper 3 (United States)

    Begelman, D. A.


    The author recommends that behavior therapists abandon the administration of sexual reorientation techniques to homosexuals because he believes homosexuality is not a behavior disorder or a form of mental illness. This paper was presented at the annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, 13 December…

  17. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior in Children with Moderate to Severe Cerebral Palsy. (United States)

    Ryalls, Brigette O; Harbourne, Regina; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Wickstrom, Jordan; Stergiou, Nick; Kyvelidou, Anastasia


    For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP), a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 s were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment.

  18. Cognitive-behavior intervention group counseling manual for reducing adolescents’ career indecision

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    Datu, Jesus Alfonso


    Full Text Available The current manual is purported to provide an empirical guide in facilitating a group intervention that will address career indecision among adolescents. It utilized Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as the major framework of the treatment protocol. Prior to the group facilitation, prospective members will be screened through an interview and Career Decision Profile. It consists of six sessions (one and a half hour every session which will be executed on a weekly basis. With the intention of modifying negative beliefs that the members hold about themselves in relation to career decision-making, specific activities and processing procedures were charted each session that ranged from individual cognitive exercises to dyadic behavioral role-plays. Each session will be monitored by the group counselor via group case notes to properly document therapeutic encounters which is essential in achieving the intended outcomes. At the end of the group intervention, members will be assessed through group feedback and administering of Career Decision Profile to look at the positive changes on their levels of capabilities to make career decisions.

  19. Decision making in the transtheoretical model of behavior change. (United States)

    Prochaska, James O


    Decision making is an integral part of the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Stage of change represents a temporal dimension for behavior change and has been the key dimension for integrating principles and processes of change from across leading theories of psychotherapy and behavior change. The decision-making variables representing the pros and cons of changing have been found to have systematic relationships across the stages of change for 50 health-related behaviors. Implications of these patterns of relationships are discussed in the context of helping patients make more effective decisions to decrease health risk behaviors and increase health-enhancing behaviors.

  20. HIV/AIDS Behavioral Interventions in China: A Literature Review and Recommendation for Future Research


    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming


    In the past two decades, China has witnessed an alarming increase of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Meanwhile, a number of HIV prevention interventions have been conducted. This study reviews existing studies in literature on behavioral interventions on HIV/AIDS in China. Of 25 studies we identified, most have been concentrated in South and South–West China, mainly targeting injection drug users and female sex workers. The most commonly used intervention strategy was individual-oriented HIV-related knowl...

  1. Caregiver preference for reinforcement-based interventions for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. (United States)

    Gabor, Anne M; Fritz, Jennifer N; Roath, Christopher T; Rothe, Brittany R; Gourley, Denise A


    Social validity of behavioral interventions typically is assessed with indirect methods or by determining preferences of the individuals who receive treatment, and direct observation of caregiver preference rarely is described. In this study, preferences of 5 caregivers were determined via a concurrent-chains procedure. Caregivers were neurotypical, and children had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Caregivers were taught to implement noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and the caregivers selected interventions to implement during sessions with the child after they had demonstrated proficiency in implementing the interventions. Three caregivers preferred DRA, 1 caregiver preferred differential reinforcement procedures, and 1 caregiver did not exhibit a preference. Direct observation of implementation in concurrent-chains procedures may allow the identification of interventions that are implemented with sufficient integrity and preferred by caregivers.

  2. Assessing the Impact of De Novo Social Ties within Health Intervention Settings: New Questions for Health Behavior Intervention Research. (United States)

    Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B


    Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical questions: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention?

  3. A randomized controlled trial of a theoretically-based behavioral nutrition intervention for community elders: lessons learned from the Behavioral Nutrition Intervention for Community Elders Study. (United States)

    Locher, Julie L; Vickers, Kristin S; Buys, David R; Ellis, Amy; Lawrence, Jeannine C; Newton, Laura Elizabeth; Roth, David L; Ritchie, Christine S; Bales, Connie W


    Older adults with multiple comorbidities are often undernourished or at high risk for becoming so, especially after a recent hospitalization. Randomized controlled trials of effective, innovative interventions are needed to support evidence-based approaches for solving nutritional problems in this population. Self-management approaches where participants select their own behavioral goals can enhance success of interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a multilevel self-management intervention to improve nutritional status in a group of high-risk older adults. The Behavioral Nutrition Intervention for Community Elders (B-NICE) trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to determine whether the intervention, compared to standard care, maintained or increased caloric intake (depending on baseline body mass index) and, consequently, stabilized or increased body weight. Participants were 34 Medicare-eligible, age 65 years old or older, homebound adults who were consuming insufficient calories and/or had a history of weight loss ≥2.5% over 6 months. The intervention took place within participants' homes. Outcome measures, including energy intake (based on collection of three 24-hour dietary recalls) and body weights were assessed at baseline and at 60 days post randomization. The primary analyses included analyses of covariance and Pearson's χ(2). We hypothesized that the intervention would result in increased caloric intake and weight gain in underweight older adults and increased or stabilized caloric intake and weight for everyone else. The intervention was feasible; however, it did not result in differences between groups for desired outcomes of either caloric intake or body weight. Future interventions might either deliberately involve caregivers or reduce burden for both patients and caregivers.

  4. Interventions to Mitigate the Psychological Effects of Media Violence on Aggressive Behavior. (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.


    Describes and evaluates attempts to mitigate effect that watching television violence has on young children. Most relevant studies have been laboratory experiments, and there is no reported evidence that any intervention has been effective over long-term. Concludes that interventions combining cognitive and behavioral approaches have most promise,…

  5. Development of an internet intervention to address behaviors associated with skin cancer risk among young adults

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    Carolyn Heckman


    Major conclusions: Development of an acceptable intervention intended to have a significant public health impact requires a relatively large investment in time, money, expertise, and ongoing user input. Lessons learned and recommendations are discussed. The comprehensive process used may help prepare others interested in creating similar behavioral health interventions.

  6. Systematic Review of Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism (United States)

    Howlin, Patricia; Magiati, Iliana; Charman, Tony


    Recent reviews highlight limitations in the evidence base for early interventions for children with autism. We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of early intensive behavioral interventions (EIBI) for young children with autism. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria (including two randomized controlled trials). At group level,…

  7. Train the Trainer Effectiveness Trials of Behavioral Intervention for Individuals with Autism: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Yoshiko; Kasari, Connie


    This systematic review examines train the trainer (TTT) effectiveness trials of behavioral interventions for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Published methodological quality scales were used to assess studies including participant description, research design, intervention, outcomes, and analysis. Twelve studies including 9 weak…

  8. Behavioral and Emotional Outcomes of an In-Home Parent Training Intervention for Young Children (United States)

    Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Griffith, Annette K.; Casey, Kathryn J.; Ingram, Stephanie; Simpson, Amy


    This study examined the effects of the Boys Town In-Home Family Program on improving child behavior and parenting skills. The three-month parenting intervention was delivered to parents in their homes. All children were referred to the program by school personnel. Of the 107 families that enrolled in the study, 79% completed the intervention.…

  9. A Function-Based Intervention to Decrease Disruptive Behavior and Increase Academic Engagement (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Smither, Rachel; Huseman, Rachel; Guffey, Jennifer; Fox, James


    A range of interventions exist to prevent and respond to disruptive classroom behavior. This study documents the efficacy of a function-based intervention conducted using a multiple baseline across settings design. Despite moderately variable levels of treatment fidelity, results suggest a functional relation between the introduction of a package…

  10. Increasing the Social Skills of a Student with Autism through a Literacy-Based Behavioral Intervention (United States)

    Francis, Grace L.; McMullen, Victoria B.; Blue-Banning, Martha; Haines, Shana


    Social skills instruction is as important for many students with disabilities as instruction in core academic subjects. Frequently, students with autism require individualized social skills instruction to experience success in general education settings. Literacy-based behavioral Interventions (LBBIs) are an effective intervention that instructors…

  11. Long-Term Post-Intensive Behavioral Intervention Outcomes for Five Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    O'Connor, Anne B.; Healy, Olive


    Research clearly indicates that early intensive behavioral intervention is an effective intervention for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However little is known about the longitudinal development of these children. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes for a number of children with ASD following intensive…

  12. Utilizing Cognitive Behavioral Interventions to Positively Impact Academic Achievement in Middle School Students (United States)

    Zyromski, Brett; Joseph, Arline Edwards


    Empirical research suggests a correlation between Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) interventions and increased academic achievement of students in middle schools. An argument was presented for utilizing CBT intervention within the delivery system of comprehensive school counseling programs in middle schools; specifically in individual…

  13. Positive Effects of Promoting Prosocial Behavior in Early Adolescence: Evidence from a School-Based Intervention (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Kanacri, Bernadette Paula Luengo; Gerbino, Maria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Alessandri, Guido; Vecchio, Giovanni; Caprara, Eva; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bridglall, Beatrice


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pilot school-based intervention called CEPIDEA, designed to promote prosocial behavior in early adolescence. The study took place in a middle school located in a small city near Rome. The intervention group included 151 students (52.3% males; M[subscript age] = 12.4), and the control group…

  14. Multilevel Factorial Experiments for Developing Behavioral Interventions: Power, Sample Size, and Resource Considerations (United States)

    Dziak, John J.; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Collins, Linda M.


    Factorial experimental designs have many potential advantages for behavioral scientists. For example, such designs may be useful in building more potent interventions by helping investigators to screen several candidate intervention components simultaneously and to decide which are likely to offer greater benefit before evaluating the intervention…

  15. Effects of a psycho-educational intervention on direct care workers' communicative behaviors with residents with dementia. (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana; Marques, Alda; Sousa, Liliana; Nolan, Mike; Figueiredo, Daniela


    This study assessed the effects of a person-centered care-based psycho-educational intervention on direct care workers' communicative behaviors with people with dementia living in aged-care facilities. An experimental study with a pretest-posttest control-group design was conducted in four aged-care facilities. Two experimental facilities received an 8-week psycho-educational intervention aiming to develop workers' knowledge about dementia, person-centered care competences, and tools for stress management. Control facilities received education only, with no support to deal with stress. In total, 332 morning care sessions, involving 56 direct care workers (female, mean age 44.72 ± 9.02 years), were video-recorded before and 2 weeks after the intervention. The frequency and duration of a list of verbal and nonverbal communicative behaviors were analyzed. Within the experimental group there was a positive change from pre- to posttest on the frequency of all workers' communicative behaviors. Significant treatment effects in favor of the experimental group were obtained for the frequency of inform (p educational intervention can positively affect direct care workers' communicative behaviors with residents with dementia. Further research is required to determine the extent of the benefits of this approach.

  16. Supportive and cognitive behavioral group interventions on Bam earthquake related PTSD symptoms in adolescents

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    J Mahmoudi-Gharaei


    Full Text Available Background: Psychological debriefing has been widely advocated for routine use following major traumatic events. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions, art supportive therapies, and sport and recreational support activities are other interventions for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder. We assessed the effects of theses methods individually and in combination on reduction posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents who had experienced Bam earthquake. Methods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of psychological debriefing, group cognitive-behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in 200 adolescents with PTSD symptoms who survived of Bam earthquake and compare it with a control group. Patients were randomly assigned to one of intervention programs including: group cognitive-behavioral therapy; group CBT plus art and sport interventions; art and sport interventions without group CBT; and control group. Results: Thirty one individuals were excluded because of migration. A statistically significant reduction in overall PTSD symptoms as well as in avoidance symptoms was observed after group cognitive-behavioral therapy. There was no significant difference in reduction of overall PTSD and avoidance symptoms between the other groups. Conclusion: Psychological interventions in form of group cognitive behavioral therapy can reduce the symptoms of PTSD symptoms but we couldn't find the art and sport supportive therapy alone or in combination with group CBT to be useful in this regard.

  17. Changes in electoral behavior in Paraguay

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    Full Text Available The Paraguayan electoral process has been historically conditioned by the control of the Asociación Nacional Republicana, the dominant political party during the Stroessner’s regime and the period of transition towards democracy. For this reason, the change of political representation in the Presidency that occurred in 2008 as a result of the electoral process was a milestone in the country’s political history and it highlighted the importance of analyzing the voting behavior of the Paraguayan population, its trends and the the conjectural and structural elements that condition them. In this opportunity we review the parameters of electoral behavior present in the country’s last three general elections, considering the electoral volatility rates resulting from such elections and the effective participation levels recorded, analyzing the socio-political context in which they occurred.

  18. Human Interventions versus Climate Change: Impacts on Water Management (United States)

    Gautam, M. R.; Acharya, K.


    Water availability and occurrence of water induced disasters are impacted by both natural and human centric drivers. Climate change is considered to be one of the noted drivers in this regard. Human interventions through land use/land cover change, stream and floodplain regulations via dams, weirs, and embankments could be other equally important group of drivers. Unlike developed countries that have both resources and capabilities to adapt and mitigate the impact of such drivers, developing countries are increasingly at more risk. Identifying roles of such drivers are fundamental to the formulation of any adaptation and mitigation plans for their impacts for developing countries. In this study, we present a few examples from three regions of Nepal- a developing country in South Asia generally considered as a water rich country. Through results of modeling and statistical analyses, we show which driver is in control in different watersheds. Preliminary results show that climate change impact appears to be more prominent in large snow-fed river basins. In the smaller non-snow-fed watersheds originating from the middle hill, the impacts are not explicit despite perception of local people about changes in the water availability. In the southern belt bordering India, the impacts of river regulation on downstream areas are found to be the principal cause of flooding/inundation.

  19. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change (United States)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D.; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik


    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275

  20. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change. (United States)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik


    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future.

  1. Combination of interventions can change students' epistemological beliefs (United States)

    Kalman, Calvin S.; Sobhanzadeh, Mandana; Thompson, Robert; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Wang, Xihui


    This study was based on the hypothesis that students' epistemological beliefs could become more expertlike with a combination of appropriate instructional activities: (i) preclass reading with metacognitive reflection, and (ii) in-class active learning that produces cognitive dissonance. This hypothesis was tested through a five-year study involving close to 1000 students at two institutions, in four physics courses. Using an experimental design, data from student interviews, writing product assessments, and the Discipline-Focused Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (DFEBQ) we demonstrate that the beliefs of novice science learners became more expertlike on 2 of the 4 DFEBQ factors. We conclude that a combination of an activity that gets students to examine textual material metacognitively (Reflective Writing) with one or more types of in-class active learning interventions can promote positive change in students' epistemological beliefs.

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions with Type A Faculty. (United States)

    Thurman, Christopher W.


    Discusses the use of cognitive behavioral techniques (cognitive restructuring, rational emotive therapy, and anger management) among college faculty. Each was successfully used in a treatment program for faculty at North Texas State University which emphasized reducing unnecessary expressions of Type A behavior while remaining productive and…

  3. The Flawed Reliance on Randomized Controlled Trials in Studies of HIV Behavioral Prevention Interventions for People Who Inject Drugs and Other Populations. (United States)

    Friedman, Samuel R; Perlman, David C; Ompad, Danielle C


    This article discusses ways in which randomized controlled trials do not accurately measure the impact of HIV behavioral interventions. This is because: 1. Such trials measure the wrong outcomes. Behavior change may have little to do with changes in HIV incidence since behavior change in events between HIV-concordant people have no impact on incidence. Even more important, the comparison of HIV incidence rates between study arms of individual-level RCTs does not measure the true outcome of interest-whether or not the intervention reduces HIV transmission at the community level. This is because this comparison cannot measure the extent to which the intervention stops transmission by HIV-infected people in the study to those outside it. (And this is made even worse if HIV-infected are excluded from the evaluation of the intervention.) 2. There are potential harms implicit in most cognitively oriented behavioral interventions that are not measured in current practice and may not be measurable using RCTs. Intervention trials often reinforce norms and values of individual self-protection. They rarely if ever measure whether doing this reduces community trust, solidarity, cohesion, organization, or activism in ways that might facilitate HIV transmission. 3. Many interventions are not best conceived of as interventions with individuals but rather with networks, cultures of risks, or communities. As such, randomizing individuals leads to effective interventions that diffuse protection through a community; but these are evaluated as ineffective because the changes diffuse to the control arm, which leads to systematic and erroneous reductions in the evaluated effectiveness as RCTs measure it. The paper ends by discussing research designs that are superior to individual-level RCTs at measuring whether an intervention reduces or increases new HIV transmission.

  4. Optimization of Multicomponent Behavioral and Biobehavioral Interventions for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Collins, Linda M; Kugler, Kari C; Gwadz, Marya Viorst


    To move society toward an AIDS-free generation, behavioral interventions for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS must be not only effective, but also cost-effective, efficient, and readily scalable. The purpose of this article is to introduce to the HIV/AIDS research community the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), a new methodological framework inspired by engineering principles and designed to develop behavioral interventions that have these important characteristics. Many behavioral interventions comprise multiple components. In MOST, randomized experimentation is conducted to assess the individual performance of each intervention component, and whether its presence/absence/setting has an impact on the performance of other components. This information is used to engineer an intervention that meets a specific optimization criterion, defined a priori in terms of effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and/or scalability. MOST will enable intervention science to develop a coherent knowledge base about what works and does not work. Ultimately this will improve behavioral interventions systematically and incrementally.

  5. HIV/AIDS behavioral interventions in China: a literature review and recommendation for future research. (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming


    In the past two decades, China has witnessed an alarming increase of HIV/AIDS epidemic. Meanwhile, a number of HIV prevention interventions have been conducted. This study reviews existing studies in literature on behavioral interventions on HIV/AIDS in China. Of 25 studies we identified, most have been concentrated in South and South-West China, mainly targeting injection drug users and female sex workers. The most commonly used intervention strategy was individual-oriented HIV-related knowledge education and behavioral skill training. All studies reported positive intervention effects including improved HIV-related knowledge, increased condom use, reduced needle sharing, and reduced STI. Literature also suggests a lack of intervention among other at-risk populations such as MSM, migrant workers, and non-injecting drug users, lack of studies with rigorous evaluation design, inadequate follow-up, limited outcome measurement, and lack of multi-faceted structural interventions. The existing intervention studies document strong evidence of controlling HIV/AIDS epidemic through effective behavioral intervention. More efforts are needed to control the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Future studies need to employ more rigorous methodology and incorporate environmental or structural factors for different populations at risk of HIV infection in China.

  6. Behavioral interventions to reduce HIV-related sexual risk behavior: review and synthesis of meta-analytic evidence. (United States)

    Noar, Seth M


    Over the past 25 years, scores of behavioral interventions to reduce HIV-related sexual risk behavior have been developed and evaluated. The purpose of the current study was to synthesize what is known about such interventions by systematically reviewing and synthesizing extant meta-analyses of the literature. Comprehensive search procedures resulted in a set of 18 meta-analyses that targeted HIV-related sexual risk behavior in a defined target population. The median meta-analysis in the review contained k = 19 primary studies with a cumulative N = 9,423 participants. All meta-analyses (11/11) that examined condom use found a statistically significant increase (median effect: OR = 1.34); 9/11 for reducing unprotected sex (median effect: OR = .76); 3/8 for reducing numbers of sexual partners (median effect: OR = .87); 4/6 for reduction of STDs (median effect: OR = .74); and 5/5 for reducing composite sexual risk (median effect: OR = .78). Summaries of moderator analyses suggested particular participant, intervention, and methodological characteristics that may influence the success of interventions. Implications include achieving a broader understanding of intervention moderators as well as increasing effectiveness trials and translation/dissemination of efficacious interventions to those populations most at risk.

  7. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  8. Effects of a food advertising literacy intervention on Taiwanese children's food purchasing behaviors. (United States)

    Liao, Li-Ling; Lai, I-Ju; Chang, Li-Chun; Lee, Chia-Kuei


    Unhealthy food advertising is an important contributor to childhood obesity. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of a food advertising literacy program that incorporated components of health-promoting media literacy education on fifth-grade children. Participants were 140 fifth-graders (10 and 11 years old) from one school who were randomly divided into three groups. Experimental Group A received a food advertising literacy program, experimental Group B received a comparable knowledge-based nutrition education program and the control group did not receive any nutrition education. Repeated measures analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to test mean changes between pretest, posttest and follow-up on participants' nutritional knowledge, food advertising literacy and food purchasing behavior. Results showed that, as compared with Group B and the control groups, Group A showed higher nutritional knowledge, food advertising literacy and food purchasing behavior at post-intervention, but had no significant improvements in nutritional knowledge and food purchasing behavior at the 1-month follow-up. Although some improvements were observed, future studies should consider a long-term, settings-based approach that is closely connected with children's daily lives, as this might be helpful to solidify children's skills in recognizing, evaluating and understanding unhealthy food advertising.

  9. Introduction to The Special Issue: Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions with Students with EBD (United States)

    Mayer, Matthew; Lochman, John; Van Acker, Richard


    Significant progress has been made in developing models of social information processing, and cognitive-behavioral processes and related interventions. While there has been limited attention to cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM) in the special education literature, the majority of the contributions have come from the fields of school,…

  10. Designing an Intervention to Promote Child Development among Fathers with Antisocial Behavior (United States)

    Charles, Pajarita; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Jones, Anne


    Objective: This article describes an intervention development focusing on the early design stages of a model to improve psychosocial and behavioral health outcomes among children of fathers with incarceration and antisocial behavioral histories. Method: We use a synthesis of the literature and qualitative interviews with key informants to inform a…

  11. Types of Motivating Operations in Interventions with Problem Behavior: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Simo-Pinatella, David; Font-Roura, Josep; Planella-Morato, Joaquima; McGill, Peter; Alomar-Kurz, Elisabeth; Gine, Climent


    A motivating operation (MO) alters both the effectiveness of a stimulus as a reinforcer and the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that particular stimulus. This article reviews studies that have manipulated a MO during interventions with school-age participants with intellectual disabilities and problem behavior. A…

  12. Using an Antecedent Art Intervention to Improve the Behavior of a Child with Autism (United States)

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.


    This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…

  13. The Implications of a System-Wide Positive Behavioral Intervention Initiative: From Design to Successful Implementation (United States)

    Austin, Vance L.; Malow, Micheline S.; Josephs, Nikki L.; Ecker, Andrew J.


    Residential schools for students with emotional and behavioral disorders have been steadily evolving since the beginning of the 20th Century. Traditional behavioral approaches involving physical restraint and confinement have been replaced with more humanistic interventions involving positive reinforcement. This article traces this transformative…

  14. Brief Intervention for Truant Youth Sexual Risk Behavior and Marijuana Use (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer


    Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…

  15. The Effects of Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports on Teacher Self-Efficacy and Teaching Anxiety (United States)

    VanParys Couet, Jill M.


    Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) is a process designed to improve disruptive behavior and increase student's achievement at the primary and secondary level. Although the success of PBIS programs with student achievement is well documented, the impact of PBIS on teachers' teaching anxiety and self-efficacy levels has yet to be…

  16. Construct Validation of a Measure to Assess Sustainability of School-Wide Behavior Interventions (United States)

    Hume, Amanda; McIntosh, Kent


    This study assessed aspects of construct validity of the School-wide Universal Behavior Sustainability Index-School Teams (SUBSIST), a measure evaluating critical features of the school context related to sustainability of school-wide interventions. Participants at 217 schools implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) were…

  17. Opinion: The Two Subject Matters of Behavior Analysis and Early Intervention (United States)

    Greer, R. Douglas


    The author argues that the field of behavior intervention has two subject matters that are distinct in several ways. Each is derived from, and contributes to, the foundation science and epistemology associated with behavior selection. The differences that the author wants to describe occurred to him as he sought to identify which of two Spanish…

  18. The Effect of Behavioral Family Intervention on Knowledge of Effective Parenting Strategies (United States)

    Winter, Leanne; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.


    There is a paucity of research considering the effect of behavioral family intervention (BFI) on parenting knowledge and the relative importance of both knowledge and parent confidence in reducing parenting dysfunction and problematic child behavior is unclear. In this study ninety-one parents (44 mothers, 47 fathers) of children aged 2-10 years…

  19. Promoting Prosocial Behaviors to Prevent Dating Violence among College Students: Evaluation of a Bystander Intervention (United States)

    Borsky, Amanda E.


    The objective of this dissertation was to evaluate a bystander behavior program at the Jefferson College of Health Sciences (JCHS) in Roanoke, Virginia. Specifically, this dissertation examined the: (1) preliminary measurement properties of a newly developed bystander behavior intention scale; (2) impact of the bystander intervention at JCHS; and…

  20. A Systematic Review of Interventions to Change Staff Care Practices in Order to Improve Resident Outcomes in Nursing Homes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Fay Low

    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed interventions that attempted to change staff practice to improve long-term care resident outcomes.Studies met criteria if they used a control group, included 6 or more nursing home units and quantitatively assessed staff behavior or resident outcomes. Intervention components were coded as including education material, training, audit and feedback, monitoring, champions, team meetings, policy or procedures and organizational restructure.Sixty-three unique studies were broadly grouped according to clinical domain-oral health (3 studies, hygiene and infection control (3 studies, nutrition (2 studies, nursing home acquired pneumonia (2 studies, depression (2 studies appropriate prescribing (7 studies, reduction of physical restraints (3 studies, management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (6 studies, falls reduction and prevention (11 studies, quality improvement (9 studies, philosophy of care (10 studies and other (5 studies. No single intervention component, combination of, or increased number of components was associated with greater likelihood of positive outcomes. Studies with positive outcomes for residents also tended to change staff behavior, however changing staff behavior did not necessarily improve resident outcomes. Studies targeting specific care tasks (e.g. oral care, physical restraints were more likely to produce positive outcomes than those requiring global practice changes (e.g. care philosophy. Studies using intervention theories were more likely to be successful. Program logic was rarely articulated, so it was often unclear whether there was a coherent connection between the intervention components and measured outcomes. Many studies reported barriers relating to staff (e.g. turnover, high workload, attitudes or organizational factors (e.g. funding, resources, logistics.Changing staff practice in nursing homes is possible but complex. Interventionists should consider barriers and

  1. Feasibility and Impact of a Combined Supervised Exercise and Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention following Bariatric Surgery: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich C. Jassil


    Full Text Available Background. Lifestyle intervention programs after bariatric surgery have been suggested to maximise health outcomes. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility and impact of an 8-week combined supervised exercise with nutritional-behavioral intervention following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Methods. Eight female patients (44 ± 8 years old, BMI = 38.5 ± 7.2 kgm−2 completed the program. Before and after intervention, anthropometric measures, six-minute walk test (6MWT, physical activity level, eating behavior, and quality of life (QoL were assessed. Percentage weight loss (%WL outcomes were compared with a historical matched control group. Results. The program significantly improved functional capacity (mean increment in 6MWT was 127 ± 107 meters, p=0.043, increased strenuous intensity exercise (44 ± 49 min/week, p=0.043, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (p=0.034, reduced consumption of ready meals (p=0.034, and improved “Change in Health” in QoL domain (p=0.039. The intervention group exhibited greater %WL in the 3–12-month postsurgery period compared to historical controls, 12.2 ± 7.5% versus 5.1 ± 5.4%, respectively (p=0.027. Conclusions. Lifestyle intervention program following bariatric surgery is feasible and resulted in several beneficial outcomes. A large randomised control trial is now warranted.

  2. Health Related Quality of Life, Lifestyle Behaviors, and Intervention Preferences of Survivors of Childhood Cancer (United States)

    Badr, Hoda; Chandra, Joya; Paxton, Raheem J.; Ater, Joann L.; Urbauer, Diana; Cruz, Cody Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy


    PURPOSE Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at increased risk for poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and chronic health conditions -- both of which can be exacerbated by unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Developing a clearer understanding of the associations between HRQOL, lifestyle behaviors, and medical and demographic variables (e.g., age/developmental stage at time of diagnosis) is an important step toward developing more targeted behavioral interventions for this population. METHOD Cross-sectional questionnaires were completed by 170 CCSs who were diagnosed with leukemia, lymphoma, sarcoma, or a cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) and treated at a comprehensive cancer center between 1992 and 2007. Questionnaires addressed weight status, lifestyle behaviors, aspects of HRQOL, and intervention preferences. RESULTS Adolescent and young adult survivors (AYAs) and survivors of CNS tumors or lymphoma reported significantly (pexercise interventions. CONCLUSION Findings support the premise that females, AYAs, and survivors of cancers of the CNS or lymphoma are “at risk” subgroups within the CCS population for poor dietary practices, sedentary behaviors, and poor HRQOL. Future research should focus on developing diet and PA interventions to improve HRQOL that target these groups. IMPLICATIONS FOR SURVIVORS Greater consideration of the role of gender, developmental stage, and the HRQOL challenges facing CCSs may help researchers to develop targeted behavioral interventions for those who stand to benefit the most. PMID:23749663

  3. Cortisol Patterns for Young Children Displaying Disruptive Behavior: Links to a Teacher-Child, Relationship-Focused Intervention. (United States)

    Hatfield, Bridget E; Williford, Amanda P


    Supportive and close relationships that young children have with teachers have lasting effects on children's behavior and academic success, and this is particularly true for children with challenging behaviors. These relationships are also important for children's developing stress response system, and children in child care may be more likely to display atypical cortisol patterns at child care. However, warm, supportive relationships with teachers may buffer these negative effects of child care. While many relationship-focused early childhood interventions demonstrate changes in child behavior, associations with children's stress response system are unknown. This study assessed children's activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via salivary cortisol as a function of their participation in a dyadic intervention intended to improve a teacher's interaction quality with a particular child. Seventy teachers and 113 preschool children participated who were part of a larger study of teachers and children were randomly assigned at the classroom level across three intervention conditions: Banking Time, Time-Control Comparison (Child Time), and Business-as-Usual. At the end of the school year, children in the Banking Time condition displayed a significantly greater decline in cortisol across the morning during preschool compared to children in Business-as-Usual condition. These pilot results are among the first to provide preliminary evidence that school-based interventions that promote sensitive and responsive interactions may improve young children's activity in the stress response system within the child care/early education context.

  4. The Effects of a Short-term Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Naderi


    Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.

  5. Preventing disruptive behavior in elementary schoolchildren: impact of a universal classroom-based intervention. (United States)

    van Lier, Pol A C; Muthén, Bengt O; van der Sar, Ria M; Crijnen, Alfons A M


    A population-based, randomized universal classroom intervention trial for the prevention of disruptive behavior (i.e., attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems, oppositional defiant problems, and conduct problems) is described. Impact on developmental trajectories in young elementary schoolchildren was studied. Three trajectories were identified in children with high, intermediate, or low levels of problems on all 3 disruptive behaviors at baseline. The intervention had a positive impact on the development of all disruptive behavior problems in children with intermediate levels of these problems at baseline. Effect sizes of mean difference at outcome were medium or small. In children with the highest levels of disruptive behavior at baseline, a positive impact of the intervention was found for conduct problems.

  6. Combinations of techniques that effectively change health behavior : evidence from meta-Cart analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Buuren, S. van; Genugten, L. van; Verheijden, M.W.; Empelen, P. van


    Objective: Many health-promoting interventions combine multiple behavior change techniques (BCTs) to maximize effectiveness. Although, in theory, BCTs can amplify each other, the available meta-analyses have not been able to identify specific combinations of techniques that provide synergistic effec

  7. Body image change and improved eating self-regulation in a weight management intervention in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardinha Luís B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful weight management involves the regulation of eating behavior. However, the specific mechanisms underlying its successful regulation remain unclear. This study examined one potential mechanism by testing a model in which improved body image mediated the effects of obesity treatment on eating self-regulation. Further, this study explored the role of different body image components. Methods Participants were 239 overweight women (age: 37.6 ± 7.1 yr; BMI: 31.5 ± 4.1 kg/m2 engaged in a 12-month behavioral weight management program, which included a body image module. Self-reported measures were used to assess evaluative and investment body image, and eating behavior. Measurements occurred at baseline and at 12 months. Baseline-residualized scores were calculated to report change in the dependent variables. The model was tested using partial least squares analysis. Results The model explained 18-44% of the variance in the dependent variables. Treatment significantly improved both body image components, particularly by decreasing its investment component (f2 = .32 vs. f2 = .22. Eating behavior was positively predicted by investment body image change (p Conclusions Results suggest that improving body image, particularly by reducing its salience in one's personal life, might play a role in enhancing eating self-regulation during weight control. Accordingly, future weight loss interventions could benefit from proactively addressing body image-related issues as part of their protocols.

  8. Consumer behavior and energy conservation. A policy-oriented field experimental study on the effectiveness of behavioral interventions promoting residential energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ester, P.


    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at promoting energy conservation by consumers. It is argued that energy conservation has many advantages over other energy policy options, especially with respect to sociopolitical, economic, technical, safety and environmental considerations. Theories are discussed which deal with micromotives behind individual energy consumption and their macroconsequences. Antecedent and consequence behavioral interventions (information/education, prompting, modeling, feedback, self-monitoring, reinforcement/punishment) for promoting energy conservation by consumers are analyzed, and an extensive review is presented of behavioral experiments conducted in this area. Discussed is how the field experiment, which was conducted in five cities in the Netherlands with appr. 400 subjects, has been implemented. Hypotheses are tested regarding belief structures with respect to energy conservation. Provided are data about the absolute and relative effectiveness of energy conservation information, biweekly and monthly feedback, and self-monitoring in encouraging consumers to conserve energy. Hypotheses are tested about cognitive aspects related to responsiveness to behavioral interventions and attitude change toward energy conservation. Conclusions are presented and some energy policy recommendations and directions for future research are formulated. (J.C.R.)

  9. Breast Cancer Survivors’ Beliefs and Preferences Regarding Technology-Supported Sedentary Behavior Reduction Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Spring


    Full Text Available Purpose: Less time spent in sedentary behaviors is associated with improved health and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, little is known about survivors’ interest in sedentary behavior reduction interventions and how to effectively reduce this risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to explore breast cancer survivors’ interest in and preferences for technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction interventions. Methods: Breast cancer survivors (n = 279; Mage = 60.7 (SD = 9.7 completed a battery of online questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all data. To examine potential relationships between demographic, disease and behavioral factors, and survivors’ interest in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention, we conducted logistic regression analyses. These same factors were examined in relation to the perceptions of the effectiveness of such intervention using multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, survivors spent 10.1 (SD = 4.3 hours/day in sedentary activity. They believed prolonged periods of sedentary behavior were harmful to their health (87.0% and that reducing sedentary behavior could improve their health (88.4%. Survivors believed they should move around after 30–60 (56.7% or ≥ 60 (29.9% minutes of sedentary behavior and indicated they were most likely to replace sedentary behaviors with walking around (97.1% or walking in place (73.4%. The majority of survivors (79.9% was interested in participating in a technology-supported sedentary behavior reduction intervention and indicated they would use a smartphone application (61.3% 2–3 times/day (48.0%, 6 to 7 days/week (52.0%. Most survivors (73.5% believed reminders would help them decrease sedentary behavior and preferred they be delivered after sitting for 60 minutes (60.5% via vibrations on a wrist worn activity tracker (77.3% or text messages (54.4%. Conclusions: Technology-supported sedentary

  10. Risking Your Health : Causes, Consequences, and Interventions to Prevent Risky Behaviors


    de Walque, Damien


    Behaviors that pose risks for an individual’s health and that also represent important threats for public health, such as drug use, smoking, alcohol, unhealthy eating causing obesity, and unsafe sex, are highly prevalent in low income countries, even though they are traditionally associated with richer countries. Individual choices are an important part of the risky behaviors. Risking Your Health: Causes, Consequences, and Interventions to Prevent Risky Behaviors explore how those choices...



    Ioannou, Evangelia


    During the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has increased and more and more children with ASD are educated in inclusive classrooms. Although their inclusion can have several benefits, teachers face some challenges. The main reason is these students’ problem behavior or lack of a desirable behavior. The aim of this systematic literature review was to analyze interventions for behavior management of students with ASD, since the ratification of S...

  12. Nonpharmacological Interventions to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review

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    Alexandra Martini de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systematic review in Medline and Embase databases, in the last 10 years, until June 2015. Key words used were (1 non-pharmacological interventions, (2 behavioral symptoms, (3 psychological symptoms, and (4 dementia. Results. We included 20 studies published in this period. Among these studies, program activities were more frequent (five studies and the symptoms more responsive to the interventions were agitation. Discussion. Studies are heterogeneous in many aspects, including size sample, intervention, and instruments of measures. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological interventions are able to provide positive results in reducing symptoms of BPSD. Most studies have shown that these interventions have important and significant efficacy.


    Tiburcio, Nelson Jose; Twiggs, Robert; Dunlap, Eloise E.


    Substance use disorders are credited with greater amounts of death and illness than all other preventable health problems. Billions of dollars are spent on efforts to control drug supplies and fund various treatment approaches, but relatively little resources have been directed towards investigating how environmental conditions can contribute to or detract from substance user’s individual motivation to change behavior. Hurricane Katrina caused untold property damage and upheaval, in addition to the vast numbers of people whose lives it drastically affected. This article examines how surviving this ordeal, subsequent evacuation, and eventual resettlement in New Orleans or re-location to a different city (in this case, Houston) impacted individuals’ motivation to change their substance use patterns and behaviors. This article’s approach is grounded in the values of the social work profession and examines: 1) the role of life events in motivating change of substance using behaviors in the absence of formal treatment interventions; and 2) participant resilience in overcoming the adversities inherent to this disaster. PMID:21852981

  14. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade. (United States)

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle


    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school.

  15. Mental Health Professionals and Behavioral Interventions for Obesity: A Systematic Literature Review. (United States)

    Prost, Stephanie Grace; Ai, Amy L; Ainsworth, Sarah E; Ayers, Jaime


    Adult obesity in the United States has risen to epidemic proportions, and mental health professionals must be called to action. The objectives of this article were to (a) synthesize outcomes of behavioral health interventions for adult obesity in recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews (MAs/SRs) as well as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and further, (b) evaluate the role of mental health professionals in these behavioral health interventions. Articles were included if published in English between January 1, 2004, and May 1, 2014, in peer-reviewed journals examining behavioral health interventions for adults with obesity. Data were subsequently extracted and independently checked by two authors. Included MAs/SRs utilized motivational interviewing, financial incentives, multicomponent behavioral weight management programs, as well as dietary and lifestyle interventions. Behavioral health interventions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were discussed across 3 major intervention types (educational, modified caloric intake, cognitive-based). Regarding the 1st study objective, multiple positive primary (e.g., weight loss) and secondary outcomes (e.g., quality of life) were found in both MAs/SRs and RCTs. However, the majority of included studies made no mention of interventionist professional background and little inference could be made regarding the effects of professional background on behavioral health intervention outcomes for adults facing obesity; an important limitation and direction for future research. Future studies should assess the effects of interventionist profession in addition to primary and secondary outcomes for adults facing obesity. Implications for mental health professionals' educational curricula, assessment, and treatment strategies are discussed.

  16. Behavioral Parenting Interventions for Child Disruptive Behaviors and Anxiety: What’s Different and What’s the Same (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin


    This paper reviews the role of parents in behavioral interventions with children’s disruptive and anxiety problems. The evolution of interventions for these two types of problems differs, as has the role of parents in these interventions. In contrast to the central role of parents in the conceptualization and treatment of disruptive behaviors, parents have played a more varied and less prominent role in the conceptualization and treatment of children’s anxiety. Furthermore, the literature involving parents in the treatment of children’s anxiety indicates these interventions are more efficacious than control groups but not more efficacious than intervening with the child alone. Some limited evidence emerges for parenting as a mediator in the treatment of disruptive behaviors, but not of anxiety, where the role of parenting has rarely been measured. Implications for conceptualizing the role of parents in intervention programs for youth are discussed and directions for future research are delineated (e.g., collecting long term follow-up data, examine moderators of treatment response, develop programs for comorbid diagnoses). PMID:23178234

  17. Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change. (United States)

    Oettingen, Gabriele; Schwörer, Bettina


    When people engage in mind wandering they drift away from a task toward their inner thoughts and feelings. These thoughts often circle around people's personal futures. One assumed function of mind wandering is that it aids problem solving and planning for the future. We will discuss different forms of mind wandering and their effects on problem solving and behavior change. While solely fantasizing about a desired future leads to poor problem solving and little behavior change, mind wandering in the form of mental contrasting leads to skilled problem solving and substantial behavior change. In mental contrasting, people first envision the desired future and then imagine the obstacles that need to be surmounted to reach said future. Mental contrasting instigates behavior change by modulating the strength of associations between future and reality and between reality and instrumental action. Intervention research shows that mental contrasting can be taught as a cost- and time-effective self-regulation strategy of behavior change. The findings have implications for research on mind wandering, problem solving, and on creating effective interventions of behavior change.

  18. Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eOettingen


    Full Text Available When people engage in mind wandering they drift away from a task towards their inner thoughts and feelings. These thoughts often circle around people’s personal futures. One assumed function of mind wandering is that it aids problem solving and planning for the future. We will discuss different forms of mind wandering and their effects on problem solving and behavior change. While solely fantasizing about a desired future leads to poor problem solving and little behavior change, mind wandering in the form of mental contrasting leads to skilled problem solving and substantial behavior change. In mental contrasting, people first envision the desired future and then imagine the obstacles that need to be surmounted to reach said future. Mental contrasting instigates behavior change by modulating the strength of associations between future and reality and between reality and instrumental action. Intervention research shows that mental contrasting can be taught as a cost- and time-effective self-regulation strategy of behavior change. The findings have implications for research on mind wandering, problem solving, and on creating effective interventions of behavior change.

  19. Social influence and bullying behavior: intervention-based network dynamics of the fairplayer.manual bullying prevention program. (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Scheithauer, Herbert


    Bullying is a social phenomenon and although preventive interventions consequently address social mechanisms, evaluations hardly consider the complexity of peer processes. Therefore, the present study analyzes the efficacy of the fairplayer.manual bullying prevention program from a social network perspective. Within a pretest-posttest control group design, longitudinal data were available from 328 middle-school students (MAge  = 13.7 years; 51% girls), who provided information on bullying behavior and interaction patterns. The revealed network parameters were utilized to examine the network change (MANCOVA) and the network dynamics (SIENA). Across both forms of analyses, findings revealed the hypothesized intervention-based decrease of bullies' social influence. Hence the present bullying prevention program, as one example of programs that successfully addresses both individual skills and social mechanisms, demonstrates the desired effect of reducing contextual opportunities for the exhibition of bullying behavior.

  20. Classroom Management Strategies and Behavioral Interventions to Support Academic Achievement (United States)

    Gilpatrick, Robin Sue Holzworth


    This mixed method project study identified the need for effective classroom management strategies to dissuade student noncompliant behavior and to ensure academic success for all students. Enhancing classroom management practices is vital to improved student achievement and teacher self-efficacy. Within a constructivist framework, it is critical…

  1. Ten year literature on psychological and behavioral interventions against cancer: a terms analysis. (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Chai, Jing; Wang, De-Bin; Xia, Yi; Cheng, Peng-Lai; Dai, Zhao-Yang


    We here performed a systematic review of PBIC literature using terms analysis in a hope of both identifying potential trends and patterns and exploring methods leveraging traditional literature reviews in this specific area. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were retrieved from PUBMED and translated into dichotomized article records representing presence or non-presence of MeSH terms and a metric consisting of numbers of times of co- occurrence between all pairs of terms identified using a self-designed program. The occurrence of and relations among the terms were calculated and visualized using Excel2007 and UCINET respectively. A total of 1,742 terms were identified from 997 articles retrieved. Put in a descending order, the lines representing the times of term occurrence formed a typical hyperbolic curve; when plotted along the x-axis of whole MESH terms, the lines clustered within four specific regions. Comparison of term occurrence between 2002 and 2011 revealed priority changes in population and subjects (from general groups to priority groups), intervention approaches (from medicine to exercise and psychotherapy), methodology and techniques (from cohort studies to randomized controlled trials) and outcomes (from health and mental health to quality of life, depression etc.). Networks of the terms featured a number of closely linked groups of topics including method and questionnaires, therapy and outcomes, survival management, psychological assessment and intervention, behavioral intervention (individual and community oriented). Terms analysis revealed interesting trends and patterns about PBIC publications and both the analysis methods and findings have implications for future research and literature reviews.

  2. The impact of informational interventions about cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome on GPs referral behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeres, K.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Mes, C.; Bleijenberg, G.


    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the impact of an informational intervention among general practitioners (GPs) about a new treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in a mental health center (MHC). The outcome measures concerned GPs knowledge and attitude

  3. A Behavioral Diagnostic Paradigm for Integrating Behavior-Analytic and Psychopharmacological Interventions for People with a Dual Diagnosis. (United States)

    Pyles, David A. M.; Muniz, Kathleen; Cade, Amanda; Silva, Rodolfo


    Discusses the use of different medications for people with developmental disabilities and presents a paradigm for integrating behavior-analytic and psychopharmacological treatment interventions. The model is consistent with the least restrictive, yet effective, treatment philosophy and addresses assessment and treatment of medical issues,…

  4. Longitudinal analysis of intervention effects on temptations and stages of change for dietary fat using parallel process latent growth modeling. (United States)

    Brick, Leslie Ann D; Yang, Si; Harlow, Lisa L; Redding, Colleen A; Prochaska, James O


    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend a 20-35 percent daily intake of fat. Resisting the temptation to eat high-fat foods, in conjunction with stage of readiness to avoid these foods, has been shown to influence healthy behavior change. Data (N = 6516) from three randomized controlled trials were pooled to examine the relationships among direct intervention effects on temptations and stage of change for limiting high-fat foods. Findings demonstrate separate simultaneous growth processes in which baseline level of temptations, but not the rate of change in temptations, was significantly related to the change in readiness to avoid high-fat foods.

  5. Children with Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia: Changes in Articulation and Perceived Resilience with Intensive Multimodal Intervention (United States)

    Martin, Maureen K; Wright, Lindsay Elizabeth; Perry, Susan; Cornett, Daphne; Schraeder, Missy; Johnson, James T.


    Research into intervention strategies for developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD) clearly demonstrates the need to identify effective interventions. The goals of this study were to examine changes in articulation skills following the use of phonetic, multimodal intervention and to consider the relationship between these improved articulation skills…

  6. Does Early Mathematics Intervention Change the Processes Underlying Children's Learning? (United States)

    Watts, Tyler W.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine; Bailey, Drew H.


    Early educational intervention effects typically fade in the years following treatment, and few studies have investigated why achievement impacts diminish over time. The current study tested the effects of a preschool mathematics intervention on two aspects of children's mathematical development. We tested for separate effects of the intervention…

  7. The Effect of Multiple Interventions on Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors (United States)


    ix List of Figures Page Figure 1: Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein , 1980) .....................................12 Figure 2...decision-making model which predicts how people conciously decide upon the actions they execute ( Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975). TRA theorizes that people...which is a model that predicts the manner in which people form the behaviors they project (Ajzen & Fishbein , 1980). As shown in Figure 1, Ajzen

  8. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review


    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.


    Abstract: Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area.

  9. Behavioral Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission and Acquisition for Transgender Women: A Critical Review. (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J


    Worldwide, transgender women are at disproportionately higher risk of HIV infection, with the primary mode of infection being condomless anal intercourse. Although very few HIV prevention interventions have been developed and tested specifically for transgender women, growing evidence suggests that behavioral HIV risk reduction interventions for other marginalized groups are efficacious. We outline the current state of knowledge and areas in need of further development in this area.

  10. A Multicomponent Schoolyard Intervention Targeting Children’s Recess Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Effects After One Year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kann, Dave H.H.; de Vries, S.I.; Schipperijn, J.


    were found. In depth-analyses on intervention components showed that physical schoolyard interventions particularly predicted a decrease in time spent in sedentary behavior during recess at follow-up. Intervention intensity and school?s commitment to the project strengthened this effect. Conclusions...... The multicomponent schoolyard PA intervention was effective in making children spend a larger proportion of recess time in light PA, which was most likely the result of a shift from sedentary behavior to light PA....

  11. Life skills: evaluation of a theory-driven behavioral HIV prevention intervention for young transgender women. (United States)

    Garofalo, Robert; Johnson, Amy K; Kuhns, Lisa M; Cotten, Christopher; Joseph, Heather; Margolis, Andrew


    Young transgender women are at increased risk for HIV infection due to factors related to stigma/marginalization and participation in risky sexual behaviors. To date, no HIV prevention interventions have been developed or proven successful with young transgender women. To address this gap, we developed and pilot tested a homegrown intervention "Life Skills," addressing the unique HIV prevention needs of young transgender women aged 16-24 years. Study aims included assessing the feasibility of a small group-based intervention with the study population and examining participant's engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors pre- and 3-months-post-intervention. Fifty-one (N = 51) young transgender women enrolled in the study. Our overall attendance and retention rates demonstrate that small group-based HIV prevention programs for young transgender women are both feasible and acceptable. Trends in outcome measures suggest that participation in the intervention may reduce HIV-related risk behaviors. Further testing of the intervention with a control group is warranted.

  12. Changing the home nutrition environment: effects of a nutrition and media literacy pilot intervention. (United States)

    Evans, Alexandra E; Dave, Jayna; Tanner, Andrea; Duhe, Sonya; Condrasky, Margaret; Wilson, Dawn; Griffin, Sarah; Palmer, Meredith; Evans, Martin


    The specific aim for this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a nutrition and media literacy intervention targeting elementary students and their parents. The purpose of the intervention was to increase child fruit and vegetables (FV) consumption and change the home nutrition environment (measured with FV availability and accessibility and parental social support). During the intervention, students learned about nutrition, the role media plays in shaping values concerning nutrition, and developed a media campaign for their parents. A quasi-experimental research design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The media intervention was effective in changing the home environment.

  13. Child characteristics associated with outcome for children with autism in a school-based behavioral intervention. (United States)

    Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E; Kerns, Connor M; Xie, Ming; Marcus, Steven C; Mandell, David S


    This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child characteristics (including age, language ability, autism severity, social skills, adaptive behavior, co-occurring psychological symptoms, and restrictive and repetitive behavior) and outcome, as measured by changes in cognitive ability following one academic year of an intervention standardized across the sample were evaluated using linear regression with random effects for classroom. While several scales and subscales had statistically significant bivariate associations with outcome, in adjusted analysis, only age and the presence of symptoms associated with social anxiety, such as social avoidance and social fearfulness, as measured through the Child Symptom Inventory-4, were associated with differences in outcome. The findings regarding the role of social anxiety are new and have important implications for treatment. Disentangling the construct of social anxiety to differentiate between social fearfulness and social motivation has important implications for shifting the focus of early treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder.

  14. Pilot and Feasibility Test of a Mobile Health-Supported Behavioral Counseling Intervention for Weight Management Among Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)

    Quintiliani, Lisa M; Mann, Devin M; Puputti, Marissa; Quinn, Emily; Bowen, Deborah J


    Background Health behavior and weight management interventions for cancer survivors have the potential to prevent future cancer recurrence and improve long-term health; however, their translation can be limited if the intervention is complex and involves high participant burden. Mobile health (mHealth) offers a delivery modality to integrate interventions into daily life routines. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a one-group trial with a pre-post evaluation design on engagement (use and acceptability), physiological (weight), behavioral (diet and physical activity), and other secondary outcomes. Methods The 10-week intervention consisted of mHealth components (self-monitoring of selected diet behaviors via daily text messages, wireless devices to automatically track weight and steps) and 4 motivational interviewing–based technology-assisted phone sessions with a nonprofessionally trained counselor. Participants were overweight breast cancer survivors who had completed treatment and owned a smartphone. Weight was measured objectively; diet and physical activity were measured with brief self-reported questionnaires. Results Ten women participated; they had a mean age of 59 years (SD 6), 50% belonged to a racial or ethnic minority group, 50% had some college or less, and 40% reported using Medicaid health insurance. Engagement was high: out of 70 days in total, the mean number of days recording steps via the wristband pedometer was 64 (SD 7), recording a weight via the scale was 45 (SD 24), and responding to text messages was 60 (SD 13); 100% of participants completed all 4 calls with the counselor. Most (90%) were very likely to participate again and recommend the program to others. Mean weight in pounds decreased (182.5 to 179.1, mean change −3.38 [SD 7.67]), fruit and vegetable daily servings increased (2.89 to 4.42, mean change 1.53 [SD 2.82]), and self-reported moderate physical activity increased in metabolic equivalent of

  15. Behavioral interventions to promote condom use among women living with HIV: a systematic review update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonantzin Ribeiro Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract: Behavioral interventions have been essential components of HIV prevention approaches, especially those aimed to promote safe sexual practices. We conducted a comprehensive literature search without language restrictions between 1980 and July 2014 to identify randomized controlled trials or controlled studies investigating behavioral interventions which: included women living with HIV; focused on condom use promotion; presented/analyzed outcomes by gender; used a 3-month follow-up or more; and considered at least one HIV-related behavioral or biological outcome. Eight studies comprising a total of 1,355 women living with HIV were included in the meta-analyses, and 13 studies were qualitatively described. When compared to standard care or minimal support intervention, behavioral interventions did not demonstrate an effect on increasing consistent condom use at the 3-month follow-up (RR = 0.92; 95%CI: 0.73, 1.16; p = 0.48, 6-month follow-up (RR = 1.13; 95%CI: 0.96, 1.34; p = 0.15, and 12-month follow-up (RR = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.77, 1.08; p = 0.30. Behavioral interventions also failed to reach positive effect in reduction of unprotected sexual intercourse at 6-months (MD = -1.80; 95%CI: -4.21, 0.62; p = 0.14 and 12-months follow-up (MD = -1.39; 95%CI: -2.29, 0.21; p = 0.09. These findings should be interpreted with caution since they are based on a few small trials. New researches are needed to assess the potential gains from a combination of interventions that promote safe sexual behavior with a harm reduction and gender approach, particularly in developing countries where HIV infection rates remain high.

  16. Simple interventions to improve healthy eating behaviors in the school cafeteria (United States)


    The National School Lunch Program in the United States provides an important opportunity to improve nutrition for the 30 million children who participate every school day. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and evaluate simple, evidence-based strategies to improve healthy eating behaviors at school. Healthy eating behaviors are defined as increased selection/consumption of fruits and/or vegetables, increased selection of nutrient-dense foods, or decreased selection of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods. Data were collected from sales records, 24-hour food recalls, direct observation, and estimation of plate waste. The review is limited to simple, discrete interventions that are easy to implement. Sixteen original, peer-reviewed articles are included. Interventions are divided into 5 categories: modification of choice, behavior modification, marketing strategies, time-efficiency strategies, and fruit slicing. All interventions resulted in improved eating behaviors, but not all interventions are applicable or feasible in all settings. Because these studies were performed prior to the implementation of the new federally mandated school meal standards, it is unknown if these interventions would yield similar results if repeated now. PMID:26874753

  17. Ecological Momentary Interventions: Incorporating Mobile Technology Into Psychosocial and Health Behavior Treatments (United States)

    Heron, Kristin E.; Smyth, Joshua M.


    Purpose Psychosocial and health behavior treatments and therapies can be extended beyond traditional research or clinical settings by using mobile technology to deliver interventions to individuals as they go about their daily lives. These Ecological Momentary Interventions [EMI] are treatments that are provided to people during their everyday lives (i.e., in real time) and in natural settings (i.e., real world). The goal of the present review is to synthesize and critique mobile technology-based EMI aimed at improving health behaviors and psychological and physical symptoms. Methods Twenty-seven interventions using palmtop computers or mobile phones to deliver ambulatory treatment for smoking cessation, weight loss, anxiety, diabetes management, eating disorders, alcohol use, and healthy eating and physical activity were identified. Results There is evidence that EMI can be successfully delivered, are accepted by patients, and are efficacious for treating a variety of health behaviors and physical and psychological symptoms. Limitations of the existing literature were identified and recommendations and considerations for research design, sample characteristics, measurement, statistical analyses, and clinical implementation are discussed. Conclusions Mobile technology-based EMI can be effectively implemented as interventions for a variety of health behaviors and psychological and physical symptoms. Future research should integrate the assessment and intervention capabilities of mobile technology to create dynamically and individually tailored EMI that are ecologically sensitive. PMID:19646331

  18. Simple interventions to improve healthy eating behaviors in the school cafeteria. (United States)

    Kessler, Holly S


    The National School Lunch Program in the United States provides an important opportunity to improve nutrition for the 30 million children who participate every school day. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and evaluate simple, evidence-based strategies to improve healthy eating behaviors at school. Healthy eating behaviors are defined as increased selection/consumption of fruits and/or vegetables, increased selection of nutrient-dense foods, or decreased selection of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods. Data were collected from sales records, 24-hour food recalls, direct observation, and estimation of plate waste. The review is limited to simple, discrete interventions that are easy to implement. Sixteen original, peer-reviewed articles are included. Interventions are divided into 5 categories: modification of choice, behavior modification, marketing strategies, time-efficiency strategies, and fruit slicing. All interventions resulted in improved eating behaviors, but not all interventions are applicable or feasible in all settings. Because these studies were performed prior to the implementation of the new federally mandated school meal standards, it is unknown if these interventions would yield similar results if repeated now.

  19. Effectiveness of a positive psychology intervention combined with cognitive behavioral therapy in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario-Josefa Marrero

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and implement a positive intervention combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy to enhance subjective and psychological well-being and other positive functioning constructs in a convenience sample. Participants analysed were 48 university students (mean age 22.25, 25 assigned nonrandomized to intervention condition and 23 to no-treatment waiting-list control condition. All participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention to test the treatment program effectiveness. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs, controlling baseline differences between the two groups, indicated that the intervention group reported greater social support after the intervention period than the waiting-list control group. Within-group differences were found for happiness, selfacceptance, positive relations with others, optimism, and self-esteem in the intervention group; these differences did not appear in the waiting-list control group. These findings suggest the limited capacity of this intervention program for improving well-being through positive activities combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy. Future research should analyse what kind of activities could be more effective in promoting well-being depending on the characteristics of participants.


    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan


    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials.

  1. Weight loss maintenance in African American women: a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention literature. (United States)

    Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela


    We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.

  2. Integrating behavioral and biomedical research in HIV interventions: challenges and opportunities. (United States)

    Rausch, Dianne M; Grossman, Cynthia I; Erbelding, Emily J


    Recent clinical trials have demonstrated overwhelming success of biomedical tools to prevent the spread of HIV infection. However, the complex and somewhat disparate results of some of these trials have highlighted the need for effective integration of biomedical and behavioral sciences in the design and implementation of any future intervention trial. Integrating behavioral and biomedical sciences will require appropriate behavioral theories that can be used in the context of biomedical clinical trials and multidisciplinary teams working together from the earliest stages of trial design through to completion. It is also clear that integration of behavioral science will be necessary to implement prevention at the population level and reverse the HIV epidemic.

  3. A Qualitative Investigation of the Impact of a Livelihood Intervention on Gendered Power and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Positive Adults in Rural Kenya. (United States)

    Zakaras, Jennifer M; Weiser, Sheri D; Hatcher, Abigail M; Weke, Elly; Burger, Rachel L; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Dworkin, Shari L


    Despite the recognized links between food insecurity, poverty, and the risk of HIV/AIDS, few randomized trials have evaluated the impact of livelihood interventions on HIV risk behaviors. The current study draws upon data collected from a qualitative process evaluation that was embedded into a pilot randomized controlled trial that tested whether a multisectoral agricultural intervention (Shamba Maisha) affected the HIV-related health of HIV-positive adults in rural Kenya. In the current study, we drew upon longitudinal, in-depth interviews with 45 intervention participants and nine control participants (N = 54) in order to examine the impacts of the intervention on gendered power and sexual risk reduction among both women and men. Female and male participants in the intervention described positive changes in sexual practices and gendered power dynamics as a result of intervention participation. Changes included reduced sexual risk behaviors, improved gender-related power dynamics, and enhanced quality of intimate relationships. These findings illuminate how a multisectoral agricultural intervention may affect inequitable gender relations and secondary transmission risk. Further research is needed to explore how to best leverage agricultural interventions to address the important intersections between poverty and inequitable gender relations that shape HIV risks.

  4. Evaluation of Group Intervention for Mothers/Caretakers of Kindergarten Children with Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva


    Full Text Available Negative parental practices may influence the onset and maintenance of externalizing behavior problems, and positive parenting seem to improve children's social skills and reduce behavior problems. The objective of the present study was to describe the effects of an intervention designed to foster parents' social skills related to upbringing practices in order to reduce externalizing problems in children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirteen mothers and two care taker grandmothers took part in the study with an average of four participants per group. To assess intervention effects, we used a repeated measure design with control, pre, and post intervention assessments. Instruments used were: (a An interview schedule that evaluates the social interactions between parents and children functionally, considering each pair of child¿s and parent's behaviors as context for one another; (b A Social Skills Inventory; (c Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Intervention was effective in improving parent general social skills, decreasing negative parental practices and decreasing child behavior problems.

  5. Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior in Adults with HIV/AIDS Receiving HIV Care: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Rosenthal, Marika; Uusküla, Anneli


    Regular interactions with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who are receiving care provide caregivers opportunities to deliver interventions to reduce HIV-related risks. We conducted a systematic review of behavioral interventions for PLWHA (provided at individual level by caregivers at HIV care settings) to determine their efficacy in reducing sexual risk behavior. Conference websites and biomedical literature databases were searched for studies from 1981 to 2013. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (with standard-of-care control groups), considering at least one of a list of HIV-related behavioral or biological outcomes in PLWHA aged ≥18 receiving HIV care with at least 3-month follow-up were included. No language or publication status restrictions were set. Standardized search, data abstraction, and evaluation methods were used. Five randomized controlled trials were included in the review. We found limited evidence that sexual risk reduction interventions increase condom use consistency in HIV transmission risk acts, and reduce the number of (casual) sexual partners. We still believe that regular interactions between HIV care providers and PLWHA provide valuable opportunities for theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions to restrain the spread of HIV.

  6. Development and validation of a questionnaire to detect behavior change in multiple advance care planning behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Sudore

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Advance directives have traditionally been considered the gold standard for advance care planning. However, recent evidence suggests that advance care planning involves a series of multiple discrete behaviors for which people are in varying stages of behavior change. The goal of our study was to develop and validate a survey to measure the full advance care planning process. METHODS: The Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey assesses "Process Measures" of factors known from Behavior Change Theory to affect behavior (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness, using 5-point Likert scales and "Action Measures" (yes/no of multiple behaviors related to surrogate decision makers, values and quality of life, flexibility for surrogate decision making, and informed decision making. We administered surveys at baseline and 1 week later to 50 diverse, older adults from San Francisco hospitals. Internal consistency reliability of Process Measures was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (only continuous variables and test-retest reliability of Process and Action Measures was examined using intraclass correlations. For discriminant validity, we compared Process and Action Measure scores between this cohort and 20 healthy college students (mean age 23.2 years, SD 2.7. RESULTS: Mean age was 69.3 (SD 10.5 and 42% were non-White. The survey took a mean of 21.4 minutes (±6.2 to administer. The survey had good internal consistency (Process Measures Cronbach's alpha, 0.94 and test-retest reliability (Process Measures intraclass correlation, 0.70; Action Measures, 0.87. Both Process and Action Measure scores were higher in the older than younger group, p<.001. CONCLUSION: A new Advance Care Planning Engagement Survey that measures behavior change (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness and multiple advance care planning actions demonstrates good reliability and validity. Further research is needed to assess whether survey

  7. Energy Behavior Change and Army Net Zero Energy; Gaps in the Army’s Approach to Changing Energy Behavior (United States)


    Strategy including energy security, job creation, investment in innovation, and fighting climate change . The Assistant Secretary of the Army (Energy Trust of Oregon 2014). Energy behavior change efforts at Fort Carson, Colorado are part of a large information campaign and...behavior changes . Information they used included awareness on climate change and energy conservation. The researchers established a website to share

  8. Adolescent Self-Destructive Behavior and Crisis Intervention in Japan. (United States)

    Ishii, Kan'ichiro


    Reflects the author's experiences as a suicide prevention counselor at a Japanese university. Discusses the rising rate of adolescent suicide and its relationship to social change and family structure. Concludes that adolescent suicide is a silent indictment of current society in Japan. (JAC)

  9. Fostering change in back pain beliefs and behaviors: when public education is not enough. (United States)

    Gross, Douglas P; Deshpande, Sameer; Werner, Erik L; Reneman, Michiel F; Miciak, Maxi A; Buchbinder, Rachelle


    Mass media campaigns designed to alter societal views and individual behaviors about back pain have been undertaken and evaluated in multiple countries. In contrast to the original Australian campaign, subsequent campaigns have been less successful, with improvements observed in beliefs without the corresponding changes in related behaviors. This article summarizes the results of a literature review, expert panel, and workshop held at the Melbourne International Forum XI: Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain in March 2011 on the role and interplay of various social behavior change strategies, including public education, law and legislation, healthy public policy, and social marketing in achieving a sustained reduction in the societal burden of back pain. Given the complexities inherent to health-related behaviors change, the Rothschild framework is applied in which behavior change strategies are viewed on a continuum from public education at one end through law and health policy at the other. Educational endeavors should likely be augmented with social marketing endeavors and supportive laws and health policy to foster sustained change in outcomes such as work disability and health utilization. Practical suggestions are provided for future interventions aimed at changing back pain-related behaviors. Evaluation of previous back pain mass media campaigns reveals that education alone is unlikely to foster positive and persisting behavioral change without concomitant strategies.

  10. Preventing weight gain: the baseline weight related behaviors and delivery of a randomized controlled intervention in community based women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teede Helena J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women aged 25–45 years represent a high risk group for weight gain and those with children are at increased risk because of weight gain associated with pregnancy and subsequent lifestyle change. Average self-reported weight gain is approximately 0.60 kg per year, and weight gain is associated with increased risk of chronic disease. There are barriers to reaching, engaging and delivering lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain in this population. Methods This study investigated the baseline weight related behaviors and feasibility of recruiting and delivering a low intensity self-management lifestyle intervention to community based women with children in order to prevent weight gain, compared to standard education. The recruitment and delivery of the cluster-randomized controlled intervention was in conjunction with 12 primary (elementary schools. Baseline data collection included demographic, anthropometric, behavioral and biological measures. Results Two hundred and fifty community based women were randomized as clusters to intervention (n = 127 or control (n = 123. Mean age was 40.4 years (SD 4.7 and mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2 (SD 5.6. All components of this intervention were successfully delivered and retention rates were excellent, 97% at 4 months. Nearly all women (90% reported being dissatisfied with their weight and 72% attempted to self-manage their weight. Women were more confident of changing their diet (mean score 3.2 than physical activity (mean score 2.7. This population perceived they were engaging in prevention behaviors, with 71% reporting actively trying to prevent weight gain, yet they consumed a mean of 68 g fat/day (SD30 g and 27 g saturated fat/day (SD12 g representing 32% and 13% of energy respectively. The women had a high rate of dyslipidemia (33% and engaged in an average of 9187 steps/day (SD 3671. Conclusion Delivery of this low intensity intervention to a broad cross-section of community based

  11. A Review of Intervention Programs to Prevent and Treat Behavioral Problems in Young Children with Developmental Disabilities. (United States)

    Petrenko, Christie L M


    Children with developmental disabilities are at higher risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems than children in the general population. Effective prevention and treatment programs are necessary to reduce the burden of behavioral problems in this population. The current review identified 17 controlled trials of nine intervention programs for young children with developmental disabilities, with parent training the most common type of intervention in this population. Nearly all studies demonstrated medium to large intervention effects on child behavior post-intervention. Preliminary evidence suggests interventions developed for the general population can be effective for children with developmental disabilities and their families. A greater emphasis on the prevention of behavior problems in young children with developmental disabilities prior to the onset of significant symptoms or clinical disorders is needed. Multi-component interventions may be more efficacious for child behavior problems and yield greater benefits for parent and family adjustment. Recommendations for future research directions are provided.

  12. Behavior change to prevent or delay Type 2 diabetes: Psychology in action. (United States)

    Venditti, Elizabeth M


    Self-management is critical for the prevention and control of chronic health conditions. Research shows that dietary and physical activity behaviors related to obesity are inextricably linked to the development, course, and outcomes of Type 2 diabetes and its comorbidities. Therefore, a compelling case has been made for behavioral lifestyle intervention as the first-line approach. Academic psychologists and other behavioral scientists have contributed to all stages of obesity and diabetes prevention research and practice. They have made seminal contributions to the evidence-based science of health behavior change with the National Institutes of Health funded Diabetes Prevention Program randomized clinical trial and subsequent translation and dissemination efforts as exemplars. Beginning with social-cognitive learning theory and behavior modification for obesity, research psychologists have elucidated the critical elements associated with treatment efficacy and have demonstrated the benefits of identifying individuals at elevated risk and providing early intervention. Most often, the psychologist's role has been to design and evaluate programs based on behavioral principles, or supervise, train, and facilitate adherence to interventions, rather than function as the primary provider. Lifestyle interventions have made a strong public health impact, but pressing challenges remain. Issues include difficulties with long-term weight loss maintenance, heterogeneity of treatment response, pragmatic translation and dissemination concerns such as optimal training and delivery formats, scalability of lifestyle intervention programs, reimbursement, and a need for environmental and policy approaches that promote healthy lifestyle norms and behaviors for all communities. Health psychology should be at the forefront in addressing all of these concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. QT Dispersion: Does It Change after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Asadi Moghaddam


    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial ischemia is one of several causes of prolonged QT dispersion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect that percutaneous coronary intervention has on the depolarization and repolarization parameters of surface electrocardiography in patients with chronic stable angina.Methods: We assessed the effects of full revascularization in patients with chronic stable angina and single-vessel disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms were recorded before intervention and 24 hours subsequently. We measured parameters including QRS duration, QT and corrected QT durations, and JT and corrected JT duration in both electrocardiograms and compared the values.Results: There were significant differences between the mean QRS interval (0.086 ± 0.01sec vs. 0.082 ± 0.01 second; p value = 0.01, mean corrected QT dispersion (0.080 ± 0.04 sec vs. 0.068 ± 0.04 sec; p value = 0.001, and mean corrected JT dispersion (0.074 ± 0.04 sec vs. 0.063 ± 0.04 sec; p value = 0.001 before and after percutaneous coronary intervention. No significant differences were found between the other ECG parameters.Conclusion: Our data indicate that the shortening of corrected QT dispersion and corrected JT dispersion in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention is prominent.

  14. Behavioral Intervention for Domestic Pet Mistreatment in a Young Child with Autism (United States)

    Bergstrom, Ryan; Tarbox, Jonathan; Gutshall, Katharine A.


    Household pets can have a positive influence on quality of life for individuals who live with them (Bryant, 1990). Little previous research has investigated issues related to interaction between individuals with developmental disabilities and pets. In this study, we used simple behavioral intervention procedures to decrease pet mistreatment by a…

  15. Young Offenders: Early Intervention for Students with Behavioral and Emotional Disorders (United States)

    Hammond, Helen; Ingalls, Lawrence


    The value of early intervention programs for children with delays and/or disabilities has been well accepted in the research. Providing appropriate special education services at an early age of detecting academic and behavioral/social problems has proven to be effective at eliminating or decreasing special services at a later age. This…

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Worry, Uncertainty, and Insomnia for Cancer Survivors (United States)


    Anxiety Disorder; Worry; Uncertainty; Sleep Disorders; Insomnia; Fatigue; Pain; Depression; Cognitive-behavioral Therapy; Psychological Intervention; Esophageal Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Leukemia; Lung Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Neoplasm; Stage III or IV Cervical or Uterine Cancer; Stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV Breast Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Relapsed Lymphoma; Stage III or IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC or IV Melanoma

  17. Cancer Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: Testing a Biobehavioral/Cognitive Behavior Intervention (United States)

    Brothers, Brittany M.; Yang, Hae-Chung; Strunk, Daniel R.; Andersen, Barbara L.


    Objective: In this Phase II trial, we evaluated a novel psychological treatment for depressed patients coping with the stresses of cancer. Effectiveness of a combined biobehavioral intervention (BBI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was studied. Method: Participants were 36 cancer survivors (mean age = 49 years; 88% Caucasian; 92% female)…

  18. Teaching a Course in Abnormal Psychology and Behavior Intervention Skills for Nursing Home Aides. (United States)

    Glenwick, David S.; Slutzsky, Mitchel R.; Garfinkel, Eric


    Describes an 11-week course given at a nursing home to nursing home aides that focused on abnormal psychology and behavior intervention skills. Discusses the course goals, class composition, and course description. Addresses the problems and issues encountered with teaching this course to a nontraditional population in an unconventional setting.…

  19. Behavior Modification of Aggressive Children in Child Welfare: Evaluation of a Combined Intervention Program (United States)

    Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike


    Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…

  20. Teacher Well-Being and the Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (United States)

    Ross, Scott W.; Romer, Natalie; Horner, Robert H.


    Teacher well-being has become a major issue in the United States with increasing diversity and demands across classrooms and schools. With this in mind, the current study analyzed the relationship between outcomes of teacher well-being, including burnout and efficacy, and the implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and…

  1. Critical Incidents in Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (United States)

    Andreou, Theresa E.; McIntosh, Kent; Ross, Scott W.; Kahn, Joshua D.


    The purpose of this study was to identify, categorize, and describe practitioners' perspectives regarding factors that help and hinder sustainability of Tier I (universal) systems within School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). Seventeen participants involved in sustaining Tier I SWPBIS over several years within a…

  2. Variables Associated with Enhanced Sustainability of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Kim, Jerin; Mercer, Sterett H.; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Horner, Robert H.


    Practice sustainability is important to ensure that students have continued access to evidence-based practices. In this study, respondents from a national sample of 860 schools at varying stages of implementing School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) were administered a research-validated measure of factors predicting…

  3. BE-ACTIV: A Staff-Assisted Behavioral Intervention for Depression in Nursing Homes (United States)

    Meeks, Suzanne; Looney, Stephen W.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Teri, Linda


    Purpose: This article (a) describes a 10-week, behavioral, activities-based intervention for depression that can be implemented in nursing homes collaboratively with nursing home activities staff and (b) presents data related to its development, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes. Design and Methods: We developed BE-ACTIV, which stands for…

  4. Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions for Treatment of Depression in Alzheimer's Patients. (United States)

    Teri, Linda; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores


    Presents two strategies for treating depression in Alzheimer's patients: cognitive therapy for mildly demented adults which challenges patient's negative cognitions to reduce distortions and enable patient to generate more adaptive ways of viewing specific events; and behavioral intervention for moderately or severely demented adults which…

  5. The Effects of "Brain Gym" as a General Education Intervention: Improving Academic Performance and Behaviors (United States)

    Nussbaum, Sherri S.


    "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act" ("IDEA") and "No Child Left Behind" ("NCLB") now mandate that all at-risk students receive empirical, scientific research-based interventions. "Brain Gym" is a movement-based program designed to address a diverse range of students' academic and behavior needs by promoting whole-brain learning. However,…

  6. Impact of a Behavioral-Based Intervention on Inspiratory Muscle Training Prescription by a Multidisciplinary Team (United States)

    Simms, Alanna M.; Li, Linda C.; Geddes, E. Lynne; Brooks, Dina; Hoens, Alison M.; Reid, W. Darlene


    Introduction: Our goal was to compare behavioral- and information-based interventions aimed at increasing prescription of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by interdisciplinary teams during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Methods: Six hospital PR programs were randomly assigned to a…

  7. Do Reinforcement and Induction Increase Prosocial Behavior? Results of a Teacher-Based Intervention in Preschools (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Vidya; Bergin, Christi


    Teachers were trained to use reinforcement and induction to increase prosocial behavior in a sample of 98 children in Head Start-affiliated preschools, using a peer coaching model. There was one control group and three intervention groups: reinforcement-only, induction-only, and reinforcement-and-induction. Results indicated that the intervention…

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Increases Abstinence Rates for Depressive-History Smokers. (United States)

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others


    Tested hypothesis that cognitive-behavioral mood management intervention would be effective for smokers with history of major depressive disorder (MDD). Findings from 149 smokers, 31% of whom had history of MDD, revealed that history-positive subjects were more likely to be abstinent when treated with mood management; treatment condition…

  9. Values Determine the (In) Effectiveness of Informational Interventions in Promoting Pro-Environmental Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Gorsira, M.; Keizer, K.E.; Steg, L.


    Informational interventions (e.g., awareness campaigns, carbon footprint calculators) are built on the assumption that informing the public about the environmental consequences of their actions should result in increased pro-environmental intentions and behavior. However, empirical support for this

  10. Effects of an Autonomy-Supportive Intervention on Tutor Behaviors in a Higher Education Context (United States)

    McLachlan, Sarah; Hagger, Martin S.


    Empirical evidence has attested to the benefits of autonomy support in a classroom context, in facilitating students' autonomous motivation, well-being, creativity, engagement, and persistence. However, most interventional research aiming to increase teachers' autonomy-supportive behaviors has been conducted in school and college contexts, with…

  11. Helping Schoolchildren Cope with Anger: A Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention. Second Edition (United States)

    Larson, Jim; Lochman, John E.


    This guide presents information and clinical tools to implement the Anger Coping Program, an empirically supported intervention for students in grades 3-6. Practitioners are taken step by step through setting up treatment groups, teaching vital skills for reducing aggression and disruptive behavior, and building strong partnerships with teachers…

  12. The Effect of Literacy Intervention in Preschool Children's Dramatic Play on Literacy Behaviors. (United States)

    Johnson, Emily A.

    This study on the effect of participation in field trips as a literacy intervention in play investigated how preschool children incorporated the literacy behaviors emphasized during the field trips into their play activities. Authentic literacy materials were included in two dramatic play centers before and after 15 children participated in…

  13. The Effects of Implementing a Positive Behavior Intervention Support Program on Office Discipline Referrals (United States)

    Thomas, Cheryl Denise


    The purpose of this study was to determine if the implementation of PBIS (Positive Behavioral Intervention Support) program had a positive significant effect in decreasing office discipline referrals in a local elementary school. A sample independent t-Test was used to examine data on the school's average office discipline referrals for two years…

  14. A Preliminary Investigation into Teacher Perceptions of the Barriers to Behavior Intervention Implementation (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Rispoli, Kristin M.; Venesky, Lindsey G.; Schaffner, Kristen F.; McGuirk, Lindsay; Marshall, Stephanie


    Evidence-based practices are rarely translated into school settings. The literature examining the science-to-practice gap provides possible explanations, although these explanations are not supported with empirical evidence. Variables affecting behavior intervention implementation, such as lack of teacher training, lack of time, lack of resources,…

  15. Paradoxical versus Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions: Effects on Perceptions of Counselor Characteristics. (United States)

    McMillan, Douglas N.; Johnson, Mark E.


    Studied undergraduate student (N=96) perceptions of counselor characteristics during audiotaped counseling sessions in which counselor used either paradoxical intervention combining symptom prescription and restraining directives or cognitive-behavior directive with a client describing severe anxiety reactions. Found perceptions of counselor using…

  16. Targeting Vulnerabilities to Risky Behavior: An Intervention for Promoting Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Adolescents (United States)

    Claro, Anthony; Boulanger, Marie-Michelle; Shaw, Steven R.


    The paper examined the effectiveness of an in-school intervention for adolescents designed to target emotional regulation skills related to risky behaviors. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Intended for Youth (CERTIFY) program was delivered to at-risk adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Participants were drawn from an alternative high school and a…

  17. A Social-Behavioral Learning Strategy Intervention for a Child with Asperger Syndrome: Brief Report (United States)

    Bock, Marjorie A.


    This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (Stop-Observe-Deliberate-Act; SODA) on the social interaction skills of one middle school student with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the ability of one student with AS to participate in cooperative…

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Staff Training Package for Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autism (United States)

    Weinkauf, Sara M.; Zeug, Nicole M.; Anderson, Claire T.; Ala'i-Rosales, Shahla


    The effectiveness of behavioral interventions for the treatment of young children with autism has been well documented in professional literature. The success of these procedures, however, depends on the fidelity of implementation and proper training of the therapist. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a 125-skill, comprehensive staff…

  19. Functional Assessment Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Children’s Challenging Behaviors: Exploratory Study of Group Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Fettig


    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of group parent training on children’s challenging behaviors in home settings. Eight parents of young children with challenging behaviors were trained in a large group setting on using functional assessment to design interventions that fit the strengths and needs of individual families. The training included information sharing and collaborating with parents on designing functional-assessment based interventions. An Interrupted Time Series Design was used to examine the effects of large group training by comparing parent and child behaviors prior to intervention with behaviors after the intervention. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measures ANOVA. The results indicated that group training increased parents’ ability to implement functional assessment based strategies and these strategies resulted in a significant reduction in children’s challenging behaviors. Furthermore, parent implementation of functional assessment based strategies and children’s decreased levels of challenging behaviors were maintained after the completion of the intervention.

  20. The importance of employee participation and perceptions of changes in procedures in a teamworking intervention. (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Randall, Raymond


    The powerful positive results of implementing teamwork are not always achieved. It has been suggested that attempts to implement theories regarding teamwork do not always lead to those theories being put into practice, and as a result positive outcomes are not always found. The participation of employees in the development and implementation of an intervention may help to ensure that changes take place. In this longitudinal study (N = 583) of teamwork implementation in Denmark we examined the links between pre-intervention working conditions and well-being, levels of participation in planning and implementation, employees' reports of changes in procedures, and intervention outcomes. Pre-intervention levels of autonomy and job satisfaction predicted the degree of employee participation in the planning and implementation of the intervention. Pre-intervention well-being and social support were linked directly to the degree to which employees reported changes in existing work practices concerning teamwork. In addition, participation and changes in work procedures were significantly associated with post-intervention autonomy, social support and well-being. The results indicate that employee participation in intervention processes is crucial in what appears to be an important association with perceived changes in procedures and, therefore, in intervention outcomes.

  1. Motivation and Its Relationship to Adherence to Self-Monitoring and Weight Loss in a 16-Week Internet Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention (United States)

    Webber, Kelly H.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael


    Objective: To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention. Design: Two-group randomized design. Setting: This study was conducted over the Internet. Participants: Sixty-six women, ages 22-65, with a body mass index (BMI)…

  2. Using an eHealth Intervention to Stimulate Health Behavior for the Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Dutch Adults: A Study Protocol for the Brain Aging Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, T.; Baars, M.A.; Qin, L.; Lange, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.


    BACKGROUND: Internet-delivered intervention programs are an effective way of changing health behavior in an aging population. The same population has an increasing number of people with cognitive decline or cognitive impairments. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition

  3. Using an eHealth intervention to stimulate health behavior for the prevention of cognitive decline in Dutch adults: A study protocol for the Brain Aging Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, T.; Baars, M.A.E.; Qin, L.; Lange, A.H. de; Kessels, R.P.C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.


    Background: Internet-delivered intervention programs are an effective way of changing health behavior in an aging population. The same population has an increasing number of people with cognitive decline or cognitive impairments. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition

  4. Developing games for health behavior change: Getting started (United States)

    Many investigators are considering developing video games for health (video-G4Hs) but have questions about how to get started. This report provides guidance for investigators considering a G4H as a behavioral intervention procedure from a team of experienced G4H developers. Thirteen commonly asked q...

  5. Improving Health and Reducing Comorbidity Associated with HIV: The Development of TAVIE en santé, a Web-Based Tailored Intervention to Support the Adoption of Health Promoting Behaviors among People Living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Côté


    Full Text Available Background. In the domain of health behavior change, the deployment and utilization of information and communications technologies as a way to deliver interventions appear to be promising. This article describes the development of a web-based tailored intervention, TAVIE en santé, to support people living with HIV in the adoption of healthy behaviors. Methods. This intervention was developed through an Intervention Mapping (IM framework and is based on the theory of planned behavior. Results. Crucial steps of IM are the selection of key determinants of behavior and the selection of useful theory-based intervention methods to change the targeted determinants (active ingredients. The content and the sequence of the intervention are then created based on these parameters. TAVIE en santé is composed of 7 interactive web sessions hosted by a virtual nurse. It aims to develop and strengthen skills required for behavior change. Based on an algorithm using individual cognitive data (attitude, perceived behavioral control, and intention, the number of sessions, theory-based intervention methods, and messages contents are tailored to each user. Conclusion. TAVIE en santé is currently being evaluated. The use of IM allows developing intervention with a systematic approach based on theory, empirical evidence, and clinical and experiential knowledge.

  6. Reducing Adolescent Rage Bullies: Study on Behavior Management Training Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Beirami


    Full Text Available Background and aim: Adverse effects inner anger and interpersonal relationships will follow on from the other parent behavior management training and promoting and improving relations between parent-child.در این راستا هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی اثربخشی آموزش مدیریت رفتار براساس مدل بارکلی در کاهش خشم دانش آموزان دختر و پسر قلدر دوره اول متوسطه بود. Methods: The present Experimental research used a pretest– posttest and a control group. جامعه آماری شامل دانش آموزان دختر و پسر دوره اول متوسطه شهر تبریز که در سال تحصیلی 93-1392 مشغول به تحصیل بودند. The population consisted of male and female junior high school students in Tabriz who were enrolled in the 2012-2013 school year. به منظور اجرای پژوهش پس از انجام سرند توسط معلمان و اجرای پرسشنامه قلدر/قربانی الویوس، 30نفر از کودکانی که براساس نمرات کسب شده در پرسشنامه الویوس، به عنوان قلدر طبقه بندی شده بودند به صورت تصادفی در دو گروه 15 نفری آزمایش و کنترل جایگزین شدند؛ و پس از تکمیل پرسشنامه خشم نیلسون(2000 توسط دانش آموزان قلدر؛ والدین گروه آزمایش به مدت 9جلسه (45 دقیقه ای در برنامه آموزش مدیریت رفتار قرارگرفتند، ولی گروه کنترل هیچگونه آموزشی دریافت نکرد.Therefore, after screening by the teachers and the Nelson anger questionnaire, 30 children who, according to scores on the questionnaire were bullies, were classified randomly into two groups of 15 cases and controls were replaced and after completing the questionnaire anger Nilsson (2000 bullying by students, parents groups

  7. Designing the user interfaces of a behavior modification intervention for obesity & eating disorders prevention. (United States)

    Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos


    The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.

  8. Behavior modification of aggressive children in child welfare: evaluation of a combined intervention program. (United States)

    Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Büttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike


    Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve children (average age 10 years), diagnosed with an oppositional defiant disorder or a conduct disorder, are treated either with a child welfare program or with a combined intervention of child welfare program and TAC. Before and immediately after completion of the combined treatment, parent and teacher ratings are collected. Parents report children participating in child welfare and TAC to show a stronger decline in social and conduct problems as well as a clearer increase in prosocial behavior. Teachers see a better improvement in social problems and tended to report a decrease in aggressive behavior. Results confirm that the TAC can enhance effects of a child welfare program.

  9. A selective overview of issues on classification, causation, and early intensive behavioral intervention for autism. (United States)

    Pelios, L V; Lund, S K


    Autism is a behaviorally defined disorder that comprises a controversial diagnostic category due to heterogeneity in symptomatology, causation, and etiology and significant variance in response to intervention. In this article, the authors provide a brief overview of the clinical category and a summary of diagnostic developments with respect to the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Regarding causation and etiology, they briefly discuss selected perspectives from the fields of cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology. The article concludes with a summary of effective behavioral strategies for the treatment of children with autism. This section highlights the importance of early intensive behavioral intervention and includes a discussion of some important aspects of this approach.

  10. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children. (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E


    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.

  11. Changes in Illegal Behavior During Emerging Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiah Haffejee


    Full Text Available Emerging adulthood marks a critical developmental juncture during which some individuals disengage from the illegal behavior of their adolescence while others continue to use substances and commit crimes. While risk factors for delinquency during adolescence are well studied, factors that influence persisting or desisting from illegal activities during emerging adulthood have not been fully explored. This mixed methods study utilizes a sample of college students aged 18-25 (N=74 and examines factors differentiating those who abstained from illegal behaviors, desisted from illegal behaviors, and persisted in illegal behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression models indicated peers offending and hours spent studying predicted desisting and peers offending predicted persisting (compared to the abstaining group. Three qualitative themes: family and peer bonds, morals and values, and fear of consequences further explained factors influencing emerging adults’ persisting and desisting choices. Implications for social work practice are explored.

  12. A synthesis of meta-analytic evidence of behavioral interventions to reduce HIV/STIs. (United States)

    Covey, Judith; Rosenthal-Stott, Harriet E S; Howell, Stephanie J


    To identify the mode of delivery, communicator, and content dimensions that make STI/HIV prevention interventions most successful at increasing condom use/protected sex or reducing STI/HIV incidence. A literature search for published meta-analyses of STI/HIV prevention interventions yielded 37 meta-analyses that had statistically tested the moderating effects of the dimensions. Significant and non-significant moderators from the coded dimensions were extracted from each meta-analysis. The most consistently significant moderators included matching the gender or ethnicity of the communicator to the intervention recipients, group targeting or tailoring of the intervention, use of a theory to underpin intervention design, providing factual information, presenting arguments designed to change attitudes, and providing condom skills and intrapersonal skills training. The absence of significant effects for intervention duration and expert delivery are also notable. The success of HIV/STI prevention interventions may be enhanced not only by providing skills training and information designed to change attitudes, but also by ensuring that the content is tailored to the target group and delivered by individuals of the same gender and ethnicity as the recipients.

  13. An Evaluation of the Effects of Life Space Crisis Intervention on the Challenging Behavior of Individual Students (United States)

    Grskovic, Janice A.; Goetze, Herbert


    This study assessed the effects of Life Space Crisis Interventions on the challenging behavior of four students with learning handicaps attending a special school in Germany. Students were in seventh and tenth grades and exhibited an array of challenging, disruptive classroom behaviors. After the implementation of interventions, major improvement…

  14. The Impact of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the Organizational Health of Elementary Schools (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Koth, Christine W.; Bevans, Katherine B.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Leaf, Philip J.


    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a universal, school-wide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 7,500 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. PBIS aims to alter school environments…

  15. Development of Virtual Traveller: A behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity during primary school lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Norris


    Three sources of data were used to inform the intervention development process: the existing research literature on school-based physical activity interventions, teacher interviews (N=12 and pupil focus groups (N=18 and an experimental feasibility study (N=85; Norris, Shelton, Dunsmuir, Duke-Williams, & Stamatakis, 2015b. The Behaviour Change Wheel was used as a framework to guide synthesis of evidence into the resulting intervention. Potential appropriate Behaviour Change Techniques were reviewed and embedded within the intervention. Conclusions The resulting 6-week Virtual Traveller programme with a 3-month follow-up period is currently in its final stages of evaluation in ten Greater London primary schools. Using the Behaviour Change Wheel and Behaviour Change Techniques allows development of replicable health interventions in applied settings such as schools.

  16. The effects of an intensive behavior and nutrition intervention compared to standard of care on weight outcomes in CF. (United States)

    Stark, Lori J; Opipari-Arrigan, Lisa; Quittner, Alexandra L; Bean, Judy; Powers, Scott W


    Inadequate intake and suboptimal growth are common problems for patients with CF and a critical target for intervention. The purpose of this study was to compare the growth outcomes of children with CF who participated in a randomized clinical trial to improve energy intake and weight to children with CF receiving standard of care during the same time period. Our primary outcome was change in body mass index z-score (BMI z-score) over 2 years. An exploratory outcome was forced expiratory volume at 1-sec (FEV(1) ) over 2 years. Participants were children ages 4-12 with CF, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of behavior plus nutrition intervention versus nutrition education alone, and a matched Comparison Sample receiving standard of care drawn from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) Registry. Children in the Clinical Trial Group (N=67) participated in a 9-week, nutrition intervention and were followed at regular intervals (3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months) for 2 years post-treatment to obtain anthropometric and pulmonary function data. For each child in the Comparison Sample (N=346), these measures were obtained from the CFF Registry at matching intervals for the 27-month period corresponding to the clinical trial. Over 27 months, children in the Clinical Trial Group (the combined sample of the behavior plus nutrition and the nutrition alone) demonstrated significantly less decline in BMI z-score, -0.05 (SD=0.68, CI= -0.23 to 0.13), as compared to children in the Comparison Sample, -0.21 (SD=0.67, CI= -0.31 to -0.11). No statistically significant differences were found for decline in FEV(1) between children in the Clinical Trial Group and the Comparison Sample. The key implication of these findings is that intensive behavioral and nutritional intervention is effective and needs to be adapted so that it can be broadly disseminated into clinical practice.

  17. Impact of Developing Teacher Commitment to Behavioral Change. (United States)

    Devlin-Scherer, Roberta

    A study examined the effects of one aspect of trainer behavior on teachers' classroom behavioral change. The trainer behavior studied was elicitation of trainee public commitment. Seventeen teachers participated in a series of workshops from the Stallings' Effective Use of Time program. These workshops were team led by teacher, principal, and…

  18. Theory as a Foundation for Behavior Change in Serious Games (United States)

    This presentation will highlight the benefits of designing Games for Health (i.e., games created to change health behavior) using informed by behavioral and communication theories. The need to include choice, link adoption of new behavior to personal values, and build confidence in ability to succes...

  19. Health Literacy and Weight Change in a Digital Health Intervention for Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Primary Care Practice. (United States)

    Lanpher, Michele G; Askew, Sandy; Bennett, Gary G


    In the United States, 90 million adults have low health literacy. An important public health challenge is developing obesity treatment interventions suitable for those with low health literacy. The objective of this study was to examine differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as well as weight and intervention engagement outcomes by health literacy. We randomized 194 participants to usual care or to the Shape Program intervention, a 12-month digital health treatment aimed at preventing weight gain among overweight and Class I obese Black women in primary care practice. We administered the Newest Vital Sign instrument to assess health literacy. More than half (55%) of participants had low health literacy, which was more common among those with fewer years of education and lower income. There was no effect of health literacy on 12-month weight change or on intervention engagement outcomes (completion of coaching calls and interactive voice response self-monitoring calls). Low health literacy did not preclude successful weight gain prevention in the Shape Program intervention. Goal-focused behavior change approaches like that used in Shape may be particularly helpful for treating and engaging populations with low health literacy.

  20. Can Mobile Phone Apps Influence People’s Health Behavior Change? An Evidence Review (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Li, Mu


    Background Globally, mobile phones have achieved wide reach at an unprecedented rate, and mobile phone apps have become increasingly prevalent among users. The number of health-related apps that were published on the two leading platforms (iOS and Android) reached more than 100,000 in 2014. However, there is a lack of synthesized evidence regarding the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in changing people’s health-related behaviors. Objective The aim was to examine the effectiveness of mobile phone apps in achieving health-related behavior change in a broader range of interventions and the quality of the reported studies. Methods We conducted a comprehensive bibliographic search of articles on health behavior change using mobile phone apps in peer-reviewed journals published between January 1, 2010 and June 1, 2015. Databases searched included Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Embase, Health Technology Assessment, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Articles published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research during that same period were hand-searched on the journal’s website. Behavior change mechanisms were coded and analyzed. The quality of each included study was assessed by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Results A total of 23 articles met the inclusion criteria, arranged under 11 themes according to their target behaviors. All studies were conducted in high-income countries. Of these, 17 studies reported statistically significant effects in the direction of targeted behavior change; 19 studies included in this analysis had a 65% or greater retention rate in the intervention group (range 60%-100%); 6 studies reported using behavior change theories with the theory of planned behavior being the most commonly used (in 3 studies). Self-monitoring was the most common behavior change technique applied (in 12 studies). The studies suggest that some features improve the

  1. Stages of change of behavior in women on a multi-professional program for treatment of obesity 1 (United States)

    Bevilaqua, Cheila Aparecida; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa; Marcon, Sonia Silva


    ABSTRACT Objective: to ascertain the effectiveness of an intervention program in relation to anthropometric measurements and stage of readiness for behavioral change in women with excess weight. Methods: the intervention group (IG) was made up of 13 women, and the control group (CG), by 20. The intervention lasted 16 weeks, and included the practice of guided physical activity three times a week, and health education once a week. The application of the questionnaire on stage of readiness for behavioral change, and the anthropometric evaluations, were undertaken at two points - before and after the period of intervention. The statistical analysis involved tests of comparison and association. Results: in general, at the first point, the participants in the two groups were predisposed to make changes in what they ate and in their physical activity. However, significant difference was only observed in relation to weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-hip ratio and readiness for change among the members of the intervention group. Conclusion: the intervention programmed was effective in weight loss, reduction of waist circumference and waist-hip ratio, and in changing behaviors related to the practicing of physical exercise and eating habits. PMID:27737377

  2. Stages of change of behavior in women on a multi-professional program for treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheila Aparecida Bevilaqua

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to ascertain the effectiveness of an intervention program in relation to anthropometric measurements and stage of readiness for behavioral change in women with excess weight. Methods: the intervention group (IG was made up of 13 women, and the control group (CG, by 20. The intervention lasted 16 weeks, and included the practice of guided physical activity three times a week, and health education once a week. The application of the questionnaire on stage of readiness for behavioral change, and the anthropometric evaluations, were undertaken at two points - before and after the period of intervention. The statistical analysis involved tests of comparison and association. Results: in general, at the first point, the participants in the two groups were predisposed to make changes in what they ate and in their physical activity. However, significant difference was only observed in relation to weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio and readiness for change among the members of the intervention group. Conclusion: the intervention programmed was effective in weight loss, reduction of waist circumference and waist-hip ratio, and in changing behaviors related to the practicing of physical exercise and eating habits.

  3. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orla Doyle

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children's emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally.ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728.

  4. A Multimodal Behavioral Intervention to Impact Adherence and Risk Behavior among Perinatally and Behaviorally HIV-Infected Youth: Description, Delivery, and Receptivity of Adolescent Impact (United States)

    Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence


    Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce risk behavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a…

  5. Behavioral Interventions to Improve Asthma Outcomes for Adolescents: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Mosnaim, Giselle S.; Pappalardo, Andrea A.; Resnick, Scott E.; Codispoti, Christopher D.; Bandi, Sindhura; Nackers, Lisa; Malik, Rabia N.; Vijayaraghavan, Vimala; Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Powell, Lynda H.


    Background Factors at multiple ecological levels, including the child, family, home, medical care, and community, impact adolescent asthma outcomes. Objective This systematic review characterizes behavioral interventions at the child, family, home, medical system, and community level to improve asthma management among adolescents. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, SCOPUS, OVID, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and reference review databases was conducted from January 1, 2000 through August 10, 2014. Articles were included if the title or abstract included asthma AND intervention AND (Education OR self-management OR behavioral OR technology OR trigger reduction); and the mean/median age of participants was between eleven and sixteen years. We compared populations, intervention characteristics, study designs, outcomes, settings, and intervention levels across studies to evaluate behavioral interventions to improve asthma management for adolescents. Results Of 1230 articles identified and reviewed, 24 articles (21 unique studies) met inclusion criteria. Promising approaches to improving adherence to daily controller medications include: objective monitoring of inhaled corticosteroid adherence with allergist/immunologist feedback on medication taking behavior and school nurse directly observed therapy. Efficacy at increasing asthma self-management skills was demonstrated using group interactive learning in the school setting. This systematic review is not a meta-analysis, thus limiting its quantitative assessment of studies. Publication bias may also limit our findings. Conclusions Novel strategies to objectively increase controller medication adherence for adolescents include allergist/immunologist feedback and school nurse directly observed therapy. Schools, the most common setting across studies in this review, provide the opportunity for group interactive learning to improve asthma knowledge and self-management skills. PMID:26563672

  6. Effect of music intervention on burn patients' pain and anxiety during dressing changes. (United States)

    Hsu, Kuo-Cheng; Chen, Li Fen; Hsiep, Pi Hsia


    For burn patients, the daily dressing process causes pain and anxiety. Although drugs can relieve them, the degree of pain during dressing changes is often moderate to severe. Therefore, relevant supporting interventions, like music as an ideal intervention, could alleviate the patient's pain. This study investigated the impact of music intervention at dressing change time on burn patients' pain and anxiety. This was a prospective, randomized clinical trial; patients were randomly assigned into control (standard intervention) and experimental groups (crystal music intervention) for five consecutive days (35 patients in each group). Patients' pain and anxiety measurements were collected before, during, and after dressing changes and morphine usage was recorded. The study period was October 2014 to September 2015. There was no difference in morphine dosage for both groups. By the fourth day of music intervention, burn patients' pain before, during, and after dressing changes had significantly decreased; anxiety on the fourth day during and after dressing changes had also significantly decreased. Nurses may use ordered prescription analgesics, but if non-pharmacological interventions are increased, such as providing timely music intervention and creating a friendly, comfortable hospital environment, patients' pain and anxiety will reduce.

  7. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change. (United States)

    Flannery, Marie


    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  8. Differential Reinforcement of Communicative Behaviors (DRC): An Intervention for the Disruptive Behaviors of Developmentally Disabled Children. (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Carr, Edward G.

    A study, involving four developmentally disabled children who exhibited a variety of disruptive behaviors such as self-injury and tantrums, was conducted to assess the influence of task demands and adult attention on children's behaviors. The three experimental conditions were the "EASY 100" which consisted of an easy task on which children could…

  9. Evaluating the Use of Behavioral Skills Training to Improve School Staffs' Implementation of Behavior Intervention Plans (United States)

    Hogan, Ashley; Knez, Nikki; Kahng, SungWoo


    Variations of behavioral skills training (BST) have been used to teach behaviorally oriented skills such as discrete trial teaching, guided compliance, the implementation of the picture exchange system, and safe guarding students with physical disabilities. One area that has not received much attention is evaluating school staff's correct…

  10. A behavioral medicine intervention for older women living alone with chronic pain – a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederbom S


    Full Text Available Sara Cederbom,1,2 Elisabeth Rydwik,2,3 Anne Söderlund,2 Eva Denison,2 Kerstin Frändin,1 Petra von Heideken Wågert2 1Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Vasteras, 3Research and Development Unit, Jakobsbergs Hospital, Stockholm County Council, Järfälla, Sweden Background: To be an older woman, live alone, have chronic pain, and be dependent on support are all factors that may have an impact on daily life. One way to promote ability in everyday activities in people with pain-related conditions is to use individualized, integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy interventions. How this kind of intervention works for older women living alone at home, with chronic pain, and dependent on formal care to manage their everyday lives has not been studied. The aim was to explore the feasibility of a study and to evaluate an individually tailored integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention for the target group of women.Materials and methods: The study was a 12-week randomized trial with two-group design. Primary effect outcomes were pain-related disability and morale. Secondary effect outcomes focused on pain-related beliefs, self-efficacy for exercise, concerns of falling, physical activity, and physical performance.Results: In total, 23 women agreed to participate in the study and 16 women completed the intervention. The results showed that the behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention was feasible. No effects were seen on the primary effect outcomes. The experimental intervention seemed to improve the level of physical activity and self-efficacy for exercise. Some of the participants in both groups perceived that they could manage their everyday life in a better way after participation in the study.Conclusion: Results from this study are encouraging, but

  11. Reducing the decline in physical activity during pregnancy: a systematic review of behaviour change interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Currie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA typically declines throughout pregnancy. Low levels of PA are associated with excessive weight gain and subsequently increase risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension disorders, delivery by caesarean section and stillbirth. Systematic reviews on PA during pregnancy have not explored the efficacy of behaviour change techniques or related theory in altering PA behaviour. This systematic review evaluated the content of PA interventions to reduce the decline of PA in pregnant women with a specific emphasis on the behaviour change techniques employed to elicit this change. SEARCH AND REVIEW METHODOLOGY: Literature searches were conducted in eight databases. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed. Two reviewers independently evaluated each intervention using the behaviour change techniques (BCT taxonomy to identify the specific behaviour change techniques employed. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias using the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Overall quality was determined using the GRADE approach. FINDINGS: A total of 1140 potentially eligible papers were identified from which 14 studies were selected for inclusion. Interventions included counselling (n = 6, structured exercise (n = 6 and education (n = 2. Common behaviour change techniques employed in these studies were goal setting and planning, feedback, repetition and substitution, shaping knowledge and comparison of behaviours. Regular face-to-face meetings were also commonly employed. PA change over time in intervention groups ranged from increases of 28% to decreases of 25%. In 8 out of 10 studies, which provided adequate data, participants in the intervention group were more physically active post intervention than controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Physical activity interventions incorporating behaviour change techniques help reduce the decline in PA throughout pregnancy

  12. Variation in Response to Evidence-Based Group Preventive Intervention for Disruptive Behavior Problems: A View from 938 Coping Power Sessions. (United States)

    Lochman, John E; Dishion, Thomas J; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Powell, Nicole P; Qu, Lixin


    Prior research suggests that under some conditions, interventions that aggregate high-risk youth may be less effective, or at worse, iatrogenic. However, group formats have considerable practical utility for delivery of preventive interventions, and thus it is crucial to understand child and therapist factors that predict which aggressive children can profit from group intervention and which do not. To address these questions we video-recorded group Coping Power intervention sessions (938 sessions), coded both leader and participant behavior, and analyzed both leader and children's behaviors in the sessions that predicted changes in teacher and parent, reports of problem behavior at 1-year follow up. The sample included 180 high-risk children (69% male) who received intervention in 30 separate Coping Power intervention groups (six children assigned per group). The evidence-based Coping Power prevention program consists of 32 sessions delivered during the 4th and 5th grade years; only the child component was used in this study. The behavioral coding system used in the analyses included two clusters of behaviors for children (positive; negative) and two for the primary group leaders (group management; clinical skills). Growth spline models suggest that high levels of children's negative behaviors predicted increases in teacher and parent rated aggressive and conduct problem behaviors during the follow-up period in the three of the four models. Therapist use of clinical skills (e.g., warmth, nonreactive) predicted less increase in children's teacher-rated conduct problems. These findings suggest the importance of clinical training in the effective delivery of evidence-based practices, particularly when working with high-risk youth in groups.

  13. Behavioral Intervention versus Pharmacotherapy or Their Combinations in the Management of Overactive Bladder Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Tran


    Full Text Available Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB refers to individuals with the following symptoms: urinary urgency, increased urinary frequency, and urge incontinence. These symptoms are not life threatening but can cause embarrassment and significantly impact quality of life. There are numerous treatment options for OAB, including behavioral therapy, traditional pharmacological therapy or a combination of the two. These options are considered the mainstay of treatment for OAB. We carried out a comprehensive systematic review of the available literature on the effectiveness of behavioral intervention, anticholinergic drugs, and their combination in the management of adults with overactive bladder, with emphasis on results from clinical trials and primary literature. Each treatment intervention is efficacious, and the choice should be based on the patient's severity of symptoms, tolerability, compliance and satisfaction with the treatment. Based on available literature, management of OAB using a combination of behavioral therapy and drug intervention is the most efficacious in terms of patient satisfaction, perceived improvement, and reduction of bladder symptoms. It is also the most practical and cost effective for optimal management of patients with OAB. Pharmacological treatment, in addition to behavioral therapy, remains important in the management of adults with OAB syndrome.

  14. Propensity for Voluntary Travel Behavior Changes: An Experimental Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meloni, Italo; Sanjust, Benedetta; Sottile, Eleonora;


    implementation, which consisted of providing car users with a personalized travel plan after the first week of observation (before) and using the second week to monitoring the post-behavior (after). These data have then been used to estimate a Mixed Logit for the choice to use a personal vehicle or a light metro......In this paper we analyze individual propensity to voluntary travel behavior change combining concepts from theory of change with the methodologies deriving from behavioral models. In particular, following the theory of voluntary changes, we set up a two-week panel survey including soft measure......; and a Multinomial Logit for the decision to change behavior. Results from both models show the relevance of providing information about available alternatives to individuals while promoting voluntary travel behavioral change....

  15. Impact of nutritional interventions on food consumption pattern changes of workers and staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam


    Full Text Available Background: Worksite Intervention Project from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program aiming at modifying life style of workers and staff in Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention areas, and Arak (reference area carried out for 5 years. Nutritional interventions are one of the interventions of this project. This research aiming at studying the effect of these interventions on food consumption pattern changes carried out in workers and staff of Isfahan and Najafabad. Materials and Method: Food consumption pattern by food frequency questionnaire and demographic information of this group were collected before, after and annually during the intervention. Data were analyzed by Genera Linear Models (GLM, descriptive and trend analysis. Results: Beverage and hydrogenated oil consumption decreased and fruits and vegetables increased in workers and staff of intervention area more than reference area (p0.27. Compare to reference society fast food consumption in office staff of intervention society was increased (p<0.001.Conclusion: We conclude that nutritional interventions have favorite effects on practice of workers and staff of this Iranian population and interventions used in this study can use as applicable interventions for similar societies

  16. 安全心理与行为干预的研究%Study on Safety Psychology and Behavior Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张舒; 史秀志


    In order to control unsafe behavior of people and to prevent accidents, methods of safety psychology and behavior intervention were proposed. According to theoretical basis of safety psychology, several methods of safety psychology intervention were summarized, such as investigation for intervention,psychological counseling for intervention, crisis intervention method and culture for intervention. Based on the behavior patterns of people, several methods of safety behavior intervention were presented, such as safety observation and behavior intervention, safety process for intervention, positive behavior support for intervention, etc. In addition, the principles of different methods of safety psychology and behavior intervention were represented. Besides, the advantages and the disadvantages of each method were discussed.Safety psychology intervention aimed at preventing the emergence of unsafe behavior, and safety behavior intervention was the direct measures to prevent accidents. Thus, people can control accidents by taking measures of safety psychology and behavior intervention. Based on the analysis of different methods, the investigative directions and applications prospect of methods of safety psychology and behavior intervention are prospected.%为了控制人的不安全行为,预防事故的发生,提出安全心理干预与行为干预方法.基于安全心理学的基础理论,提出调查干预法、安全心理咨询干预法、危机干预法、文化干预法等安全心理干预方法.基于人的行为模式,提出安全观察与行为干预法、安全行为流程干预法、正向行为支持干预法等安全行为干预方法.阐述不同干预方法的基本原理,比较分析各种方法的优缺点.安全心理干预的目的是预防不安全行为的出现,安全行为干预是预防事故发生的直接措施,通过采取安全心理与行为干预措施,可以控制事故的发生.在探讨不同干预方式的基础上对安全心理

  17. Promoting Behavior Change from Alcohol Use through Mobile Technology: The Future of Ecological Momentary Assessment (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M.; Hunter-Reel, Dorian; Hagman, Brett T.; Mitchell, Jessica


    Background Interactive and mobile technologies (i.e., smartphones such as Blackberries, iPhones, and palm-top computers) show promise as an efficacious and cost-effective means of communicating health-behavior risks, improving public health outcomes, and accelerating behavior change (Abroms and Maibach, 2008). The present study was conducted as a “needs assessment” to examine the current available mobile smartphone applications (e.g., apps) that utilize principles of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) -- daily self-monitoring or near real-time self-assessment of alcohol use behavior -- to promote positive behavior change, alcohol harm reduction, psycho-education about alcohol use, or abstinence from alcohol. Methods Data were collected and analyzed from iTunes for Apple iPhone©. An inventory assessed the number of available apps that directly addressed alcohol use and consumption, alcohol treatment, or recovery, and whether these apps incorporated empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Results Findings showed that few apps addressed alcohol use behavior change or recovery. Aside from tracking drinking consumption, a minority utilized empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Some apps claimed they could serve as an intervention, however no empirical evidence was provided. Conclusions More studies are needed to examine the efficacy of mobile technology in alcohol intervention studies. The large gap between availability of mobile apps and their use in alcohol treatment programs indicate several important future directions for research. PMID:21689119

  18. Assessing Statistical Change Indices in Selected Social Work Intervention Research Studies (United States)

    Ham, Amanda D.; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Pettus, Joelle


    Objectives: This study examined how evaluation and intervention research (IR) studies assessed statistical change to ascertain effectiveness. Methods: Studies from six core social work journals (2009-2013) were reviewed (N = 1,380). Fifty-two evaluation (n= 27) and intervention (n = 25) studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were…

  19. Increasing organizational energy conservation behaviors: Comparing the theory of planned behavior and reasons theory for identifying specific motivational factors to target for change (United States)

    Finlinson, Scott Michael

    Social scientists frequently assess factors thought to underlie behavior for the purpose of designing behavioral change interventions. Researchers commonly identify these factors by examining relationships between specific variables and the focal behaviors being investigated. Variables with the strongest relationships to the focal behavior are then assumed to be the most influential determinants of that behavior, and therefore often become the targets for change in a behavioral change intervention. In the current proposal, multiple methods are used to compare the effectiveness of two theoretical frameworks for identifying influential motivational factors. Assessing the relative influence of all factors and sets of factors for driving behavior should clarify which framework and methodology is the most promising for identifying effective change targets. Results indicated each methodology adequately predicted the three focal behaviors examined. However, the reasons theory approach was superior for predicting factor influence ratings compared to the TpB approach. While common method variance contamination had minimal impact on the results or conclusions derived from the present study's findings, there were substantial differences in conclusions depending on the questionnaire design used to collect the data. Examples of applied uses of the present study are discussed.

  20. Promoting health behavior change using appreciative inquiry: moving from deficit models to affirmation models of care. (United States)

    Moore, Shirley M; Charvat, Jacqueline


    This article describes a new theoretical approach to health promotion and behavior change that may be especially suited to underserved women. Appreciative inquiry (AI), an organizational development process that focuses on the positive and creative as a force for an improved future, is described and adapted for use as an intervention to achieve health behavior change at the individual level. Guiding principles for its use with clients are provided, and an example of its application is illustrated in a hypothetical case study of an African American woman of low-socioeconomic resources who is attempting to increase lifestyle exercise following a cardiac event. AI is contrasted with the more traditional problem-solving approaches to the provision of care. The advantages, challenges, and issues associated with the use of AI as a health behavior change strategy are discussed.

  1. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddeland, I.; Heinke, J.; Biemans, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Konzmann, M.; Ludwig, F.; Masaki, Y.; Schewe, J.; Stacke, T.; Tessler, Z.; Wada, Y.; Wisser, D.


    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct

  2. The impact of civility interventions on employee social behavior, distress, and attitudes. (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Day, Arla; Oore, Debra Gilin


    Although incivility has been identified as an important issue in workplaces, little research has focused on reducing incivility and improving employee outcomes. Health care workers (N = 1,173, Time 1; N = 907, Time 2) working in 41 units completed a survey of social relationships, burnout, turnover intention, attitudes, and management trust before and after a 6-month intervention, CREW (Civility, Respect, and Engagement at Work). Most measures significantly improved for the 8 intervention units, and these improvements were significantly greater than changes in the 33 contrast units. Specifically, significant interactions indicating greater improvements in the intervention groups than in the contrast groups were found for coworker civility, supervisor incivility, respect, cynicism, job satisfaction, management trust, and absences. Improvements in civility mediated improvements in attitudes. The results suggest that this employee-based civility intervention can improve collegiality and enhance health care provider outcomes.

  3. Intervention of empowerment with multi-stage change theory on diet behavior for the influence of metabolic indices in patients with diabetes%授权原理结合多阶段改变理论干预糖尿病患者饮食行为对代谢指标的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴媛; 戴霞; 韦薇; 韦春; 陆丽荣; 李赛花


    Objective To investigate the influence of different educational methods on the metabolic indices in patients with diabetes .Methods A total of 218 patients with diabetes in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were ran-domized divided into two groups .Different intervention ways were used :patients in the control group received conventional educa-tional methods ,while patients in experiment group received the educational methods combined with empowerment and multi-stage theory of change .The C-DES-SF scale scores and the HbA1c ,FPG ,2 h PG ,TC ,TG ,LDL ,HDL indices was compared between the two groups .Results Indices and empowered ability of HbA1c ,FPG ,2 h PG ,TC ,LDL were changed in accordance with time .As compared with control group ,the educational method in intervention group had better change of FPG ,2 h PG ,TC ,LDL(P< 0 .05) . Indices and empowered ability of HbA1c ,FPG ,2 h PG ,TC ,LDL had inter-action with time ,and indexes in intervention group were better than those in the control group(P< 0 .05) .At the 3rd and 6th month after invention in the intervention group ,patients in movement stage and movement maintaining stage were higher than those in control group(P< 0 .05) .Conclusion Well correction of bad diet behaviors by application of educational methods of combined with empowerment and multi-stage theory of change for the type 2 diabetes patients would help the patients to improve the ability of self-care and control the level of metabolic indices .%目的:探讨运用授权原理及多阶段改变理论结合的教育模式干预糖尿病患者饮食行为对患者代谢指标的影响。方法将218例入住广西医科大学第一附属医院的糖尿病患者分成两组。采用不同的模式干预患者饮食行为,对照组采用传统的教育模式;干预组采用授权原理及多阶段改变理论相结合的教育模式。比较两组患者 BMI 、血糖、血脂、授权能力、行为改变情况。结果

  4. STD/AIDS Education and Behavioral Intervention Among Shenzhen Female Barbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xuchun(曾序春); HONG Fuchang(洪福昌); LUO Bin(罗斌); CAI Yumao(蔡于茂); LI Xiaohuan(李小环); ZHOU Hua(周华); DONG Shifu(董时富); Joseph Lau(刘德辉)


    Objective: To understand female barbers' currentawareness of STD/AIDS and evaluate the effect of healtheducation and behavioral interventions.Methods: 53 barbershops in Shenzhen were selected bysampling, and their 382 female barbers were given abase-line survey and assessment of intervention followingthe intervention. Results: The survey showed that female barbersgenerally have little education and knew little aboutSTDs/AIDS. They also had some misunderstanding aboutSTDs/AIDS. Most of them knew the main transmission ofSTDs/AIDS' through sexual contact, but didn't knowwhether AIDS could be transmitted through casual contactin daily life. Their knowledge of STDs/AIDS was limited,but they had lower condom use rates and correct ideasabout when to see the doctor.Conclusion: Health education and behavioralintervention related to STD/AIDS on special populationwere effective and of good social consequence.

  5. Changing handwashing behaviour in southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study on infrastructural and commitment interventions. (United States)

    Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim


    Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing

  6. Pilot Study of an Exercise Intervention for Depressive Symptoms and Associated Cognitive-Behavioral Factors in Young Adults With Major Depression. (United States)

    Nasstasia, Yasmina; Baker, Amanda L; Halpin, Sean A; Lewin, Terry J; Hides, Leanne; Kelly, Brian J; Callister, Robin


    This study assesses the feasibility of integrating motivational interviewing (MI) with an exercise intervention. It also explores patterns of depressive symptom changes (cognitive, affective, and somatic subscales) and their relationship to cognitive, behavioral, and immunological factors (interleukin 6, IL-6, a marker for inflammation) across the exercise intervention. Twelve young adults (20.8 ± 1.7 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder received a brief MI intervention followed by a 12-week exercise intervention. Assessments were conducted preintervention, postintervention, throughout the intervention, and at follow-up. Preliminary results show differential effects of exercise, with the largest standardized mean improvements for the affective subscale (-1.71), followed by cognitive (-1.56) and somatic (-1.39) subscales. A significant relationship was observed between increased behavioral activation and lower levels of IL-6. Despite study limitations, the magnitude of changes suggests that natural remission of depressive symptoms is an unlikely explanation for the findings. A randomized controlled trial has commenced to evaluate effectiveness of the intervention.

  7. A systematic evidence review of school-based group contingency interventions for students with challenging behavior. (United States)

    Maggin, Daniel M; Johnson, Austin H; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Ruberto, Laura M; Berggren, Melissa


    The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research underlying group contingency interventions to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support their use for managing the classroom behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. An application of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) procedures for evaluating single-subject research revealed that the research investigating group contingencies demonstrated sufficient rigor, evidence, and replication to label the intervention as evidence-based. These findings were further supported across five quantitative indices of treatment effect. The results associated with the application of the WWC procedures and quantitative evaluations were supplemented with additional systematic coding of methodological features and study characteristics to evaluate the populations and conditions under which the effects of the group contingency best generalize. Findings associated with this coding revealed that the lack of detailed reporting across studies limited our ability to determine for whom and under what conditions group contingencies are best suited.

  8. Mobile technology boosts the effectiveness of psychotherapy and behavioral interventions: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B; Rosen, Dana; Silk, Jennifer


    We conducted a meta-analysis on the effects of mobile technology on treatment outcome for psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions. Our search of the literature resulted in 26 empirical articles describing 25 clinical trials testing the benefits of smartphone applications, personal digital assistants (PDAs), or text messaging systems either to supplement treatment or substitute for direct contact with a clinician. Overall, mobile technology use was associated with superior treatment outcome across all study designs and control conditions, effect size (ES) = .34, p mobile technology using a rigorous "Treatment" versus "Treatment + Mobile" design, effect sizes were only slightly more modest (ES = .27) and still significant (p mobile technology for the delivery of psychotherapy and other behavioral interventions.

  9. Health behavior changes following breast cancer treatment: a qualitative comparison among Chinese American, Korean American, and Mexican American survivors. (United States)

    Lim, Jung-won; Gonzalez, Patricia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming F; Baik, Okmi; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T


    This study explored how Chinese American, Korean American, and Mexican American women modify their health behaviors following breast cancer treatment and identified motivators and barriers that influence their changes. An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study was undertaken using six focus groups. Discussions were transcribed and translated for content analysis. Significant differences among the ethnic groups were noted in the following health behavior practices which were most commonly stated as changed behaviors after a breast cancer diagnosis: 1) eating habits, 2) physical activity, 3) alternative medicine, 4) sleeping, 5) social activity, 6) weight control, and 7) alcohol consumption. Family, financial concerns, environment, and religious faith were commonly mentioned as motivators of and/or barriers to changes in health behaviors. Findings provide insight into different perspectives related to changes in health behaviors by ethnicity, which is critical for developing culturally tailored behavioral interventions to improve underserved breast cancer survivors' quality of life and to reduce health disparities.

  10. Couples-focused behavioral interventions for prevention of HIV: systematic review of the state of evidence. (United States)

    Burton, Jennifer; Darbes, Lynae A; Operario, Don


    HIV is frequently transmitted in the context of partners in a committed relationship, thus couples-focused HIV prevention interventions are a potentially promising modality for reducing infection. We conducted a systematic review of studies testing whether couples-focused behavioral prevention interventions reduce HIV transmission and risk behavior. We included studies using randomized controlled trial designs, quasi-randomized controlled trials, and nonrandomized controlled studies. We searched five electronic databases and screened 7,628 records. Six studies enrolling 1,084 index couples met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Results across studies consistently indicated that couples-focused programs reduced unprotected sexual intercourse and increased condom use compared with control groups. However, studies were heterogeneous in population, type of intervention, comparison groups, and outcomes measures, and so meta-analysis to calculate pooled effects was inappropriate. Although couples-focused approaches to HIV prevention appear initially promising, additional research is necessary to build a stronger theoretical and methodological basis for couples-focused HIV prevention, and future interventions must pay closer attention to same-sex couples, adolescents, and young people in relationships.

  11. Hypothesis-based interventions for tantrum behaviors of persons with developmental disabilities in school settings. (United States)

    Repp, A C; Karsh, K G


    We conducted a functional assessment of problem behaviors of 2 students with developmental disabilities in their classroom environments. Results of the assessments showed that although there were more tantrums in demand than in no-demand conditions, the function of the behavior was to gain attention (positive reinforcement) rather than to avoid or escape demands (negative reinforcement); demand conditions apparently served a discriminative function for the availability of attention. Therefore, intervention was based on the positive reinforcement hypothesis, resulting in a substantial reduction of tantrums for both subjects.

  12. Promoting smoke-free homes: a novel behavioral intervention using real-time audio-visual feedback on airborne particle levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil E Klepeis

    Full Text Available Interventions are needed to protect the health of children who live with smokers. We pilot-tested a real-time intervention for promoting behavior change in homes that reduces second hand tobacco smoke (SHS levels. The intervention uses a monitor and feedback system to provide immediate auditory and visual signals triggered at defined thresholds of fine particle concentration. Dynamic graphs of real-time particle levels are also shown on a computer screen. We experimentally evaluated the system, field-tested it in homes with smokers, and conducted focus groups to obtain general opinions. Laboratory tests of the monitor demonstrated SHS sensitivity, stability, precision equivalent to at least 1 µg/m(3, and low noise. A linear relationship (R(2 = 0.98 was observed between the monitor and average SHS mass concentrations up to 150 µg/m(3. Focus groups and interviews with intervention participants showed in-home use to be acceptable and feasible. The intervention was evaluated in 3 homes with combined baseline and intervention periods lasting 9 to 15 full days. Two families modified their behavior by opening windows or doors, smoking outdoors, or smoking less. We observed evidence of lower SHS levels in these homes. The remaining household voiced reluctance to changing their smoking activity and did not exhibit lower SHS levels in main smoking areas or clear behavior change; however, family members expressed receptivity to smoking outdoors. This study established the feasibility of the real-time intervention, laying the groundwork for controlled trials with larger sample sizes. Visual and auditory cues may prompt family members to take immediate action to reduce SHS levels. Dynamic graphs of SHS levels may help families make decisions about specific mitigation approaches.

  13. Scaling Behavior and Phase Change in Complex Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cheng


    Full Text Available Scaling behavior is a extremely typical phenomenon in complex system research, as well as it can act that many Macro indicators in system or distribution function of some variables meet exactly power-law behavior, which possesses different kinds of Exponents. In this article, according to Phase Change concept in Physics, it is researched that the nature in critical state of complex network with Seepage model, and it is totally stated that the basic reason of Self-similar behavior, Fractal behavior, and so on, and also Phase Change in complex network in critical state of complex network in accord with power-law distribution.    

  14. CDC’s dissemination of evidence-based behavioral HIV prevention interventions


    Collins, Charles B; Wilson, Katherine M.


    The Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention at the National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention seeks to make evidence-based behavioral HIV prevention interventions (EBIs) accessible to HIV prevention providers through a systematic process of identification, packaging, and dissemination. This update synthesizes that process and describes recent efforts to expand the use of EBIs internationally through partnerships between the CDC's Global AIDS...

  15. A randomized controlled trial of an intervention for infants’ behavioral sleep problems


    Hall, Wendy A.; Hutton, Eileen; Brant, Rollin F.; Collet, Jean Paul; Gregg, Kathy; Saunders, Roy; Ipsiroglu, Osman; Gafni, Amiram; Triolet, Kathy; Tse, Lillian; Bhagat, Radhika; Wooldridge, Joanne


    Background Infant behavioral sleep problems are common, with potential negative consequences. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess effects of a sleep intervention comprising a two-hour group teaching session and four support calls over 2 weeks. Our primary outcomes were reduced numbers of nightly wakes or parent report of sleep problem severity. Secondary outcomes included improvement in parental depression, fatigue, sleep, and parent cognitions about infant sleep. Methods Two...

  16. Effect of behavioral intervention using smartphone application for preoperative anxiety in pediatric patients


    Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Jung, Han-Kil; Lee, Gang-geun; Kim, Han-Young; Park, Sun-Gyoo; Woo, Seong-Chang


    Background Children and parents experience significant anxiety and distress during the preoperative period. This is important because preoperative anxiety in children is associated with adverse postoperative outcome. So we suggest behaviorally oriented preoperative anxiety intervention program based on the anesthesia and psychology with smartphone application, world-widely used. Methods A total 120 patients (aged 1-10 years old) who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia...

  17. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review


    Philipp Zimmer; Baumann, Freerk T; Max Oberste; Peter Wright; Alexander Garthe; Alexander Schenk; Thomas Elter; Galvao, Daniel A.; Wilhelm Bloch; Sven T. Hübner; Florian Wolf


    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results f...

  18. Incremental benefits of a daily report card intervention over time for youth with disruptive behavior. (United States)

    Owens, Julie Sarno; Holdaway, Alex S; Zoromski, Allison K; Evans, Steven W; Himawan, Lina K; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Murphy, Caroline E


    This study examined the percentage of children who respond positively to a daily report card (DRC) intervention and the extent to which students achieve incremental benefits with each month of intervention in a general education classroom. Participants were 66 children (87% male) with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or disruptive behavior problems who were enrolled in a school-based intervention program in rural, low-income school districts in a Midwest state. The DRC was implemented by each child's teacher, who received consultation from a graduate student clinician, school district counselor, or school district social worker. A latent class analysis using growth-mixture modeling identified two classes of response patterns (i.e., significant improvement and significant decline). Results indicated that 72% of the sample had all of their target behaviors classified as improved, 8% had all of their targets classified as declining, and 20% had one target behavior in each class. To examine the monthly incremental benefit of the DRC, individual effect sizes were calculated. Results for the overall sample indicated that most children experience a benefit of large magnitude (.78) within the first month, with continued incremental benefits through Month 4. The differential pattern of effect sizes for the group of improvers and the group of decliners offer data to determine when and if the DRC should be discontinued and an alternative strategy attempted. Evidence-based guidelines for practical implementation of the DRC are discussed.

  19. Randomized controlled trial of a brief dyadic cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to prevent PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Brunet


    Full Text Available Background : There is a dearth of effective interventions to prevent the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Method : We evaluated the efficacy of a brief dyadic two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention through a controlled trial involving trauma-exposed individuals recruited at the hospital's emergency room. Participants were randomly assigned to either the dyadic intervention group (n=37 or to a waiting list (assessment only group (n=37. Results : In an intent-to-treat analysis, a time-by-group interaction was found, whereby the treated participants had less PTSD symptoms at the post-treatment but not at the pre-treatment compared to controls. Controlling for the improvement observed in the control participants, the intervention yielded a net effect size of d=0.39. Conclusions : A brief, early, and effective intervention can be provided by nurses or social workers in hospital settings, at a fairly low cost to individuals presenting to the emergency room as the result of trauma exposure.

  20. Collective purchase behavior toward retail price changes (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako


    By analyzing a huge amount of point-of-sale data collected from Japanese supermarkets, we find power law relationships between price and sales numbers. The estimated values of the exponents of these power laws depend on the category of products; however, they are independent of the stores, thereby implying the existence of universal human purchase behavior. The rate of sales numbers around these power laws are generally approximated by log-normal distributions implying that there are hidden random parameters, which might proportionally affect the purchase activity.

  1. Effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports and fidelity of implementation on problem behavior in high schools. (United States)

    Flannery, K B; Fenning, P; Kato, M McGrath; McIntosh, K


    High school is an important time in the educational career of students. It is also a time when adolescents face many behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges. Current statistics about the behavioral, academic, and social-emotional challenges faced by adolescents, and the impact on society through incarceration and dropout, have prompted high schools to direct their attention toward keeping students engaged and reducing high-risk behavioral challenges. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS) on the levels of individual student problem behaviors during a 3-year effectiveness trial without random assignment to condition. Participants were 36,653 students in 12 high schools. Eight schools implemented SW-PBIS, and four schools served as comparison schools. Results of a multilevel latent growth model showed statistically significant decreases in student office discipline referrals in SW-PBIS schools, with increases in comparison schools, when controlling for enrollment and percent of students receiving free or reduced price meals. In addition, as fidelity of implementation increased, office discipline referrals significantly decreased. Results are discussed in terms of effectiveness of a SW-PBIS approach in high schools and considerations to enhance fidelity of implementation.

  2. Social Cognitive Determinants of Dietary Behavior Change in University Employees

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    Shawna eDoerksen


    Full Text Available Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employees across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable and low-fat food consumption and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted fruit and vegetable and low-fat consumption. Self-efficacy significantly predicted low-fat consumption. Goals were not associated with dietary behaviors. Further research into implementation strategies may provide insight into how goals work to bring about change.

  3. Social cognitive determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes. (United States)

    Doerksen, Shawna E; McAuley, Edward


    Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employes across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and low fat food consumption (LFC) and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted FVC and LFC. Self-efficacy significantly predicted LFC. Goals were not associated with dietary behaviors. Further research into implementation strategies may provide insight into how goals work to bring about change.

  4. Weight loss and related behavior changes among lesbians. (United States)

    Fogel, Sarah; Young, Laura; Dietrich, Mary; Blakemore, Dana


    Overweight and obesity are known risk factors for several modifiable, if not preventable diseases. Growing evidence suggests that lesbians may have higher rates of obesity than other women. This study was designed to describe weight loss and behavior changes related to food choices and exercise habits among lesbians who participated in a predominantly lesbian, mainstream, commercial weight loss program. Behavioral changes were recorded in exercise, quality of food choices, and number of times dining out. Although there were several limitations based on sample size and heterogeneity, the impact of a lesbian-supportive environment for behavior change was upheld.

  5. Posterior cingulate cortex: adapting behavior to a changing world. (United States)

    Pearson, John M; Heilbronner, Sarah R; Barack, David L; Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L


    When has the world changed enough to warrant a new approach? The answer depends on current needs, behavioral flexibility and prior knowledge about the environment. Formal approaches solve the problem by integrating the recent history of rewards, errors, uncertainty and context via Bayesian inference to detect changes in the world and alter behavioral policy. Neuronal activity in posterior cingulate cortex - a key node in the default network - is known to vary with learning, memory, reward and task engagement. We propose that these modulations reflect the underlying process of change detection and motivate subsequent shifts in behavior.

  6. Managing Challenging Behaviors of Dementia in Veterans: Identifying and Changing Activators and Consequences Using STAR-VA. (United States)

    Curyto, Kim J; McCurry, Sue M; Luci, Katherine; Karlin, Bradley E; Teri, Linda; Karel, Michele J


    One of the most challenging clinical issues for long-term care staff is the management of dementia-related behavioral symptoms. STAR-VA is an interdisciplinary intervention for managing challenging behaviors of Veterans with dementia in Community Living Centers (CLCs) within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. The goals of the current article are to delineate categories of challenging behaviors found in CLCs, the context in which behaviors occurred, and the interventions used by CLC clinical teams when implementing STAR-VA. In 2013, 17 CLC teams completed STAR-VA training, enrolling 71 Veteran participants. Four independent raters identified common assessment and intervention themes for six behavior categories, coding activators, consequences, goal behaviors, and care plans for each category. Successful care plans included staff changes in communication approaches, incorporation of pleasant events into care, and individualized environmental modifications. Findings illustrate the range of interventions that CLC teams may apply as a result of systematic behavioral assessment informing an understanding of activators and consequences of dementia-related behaviors. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(2), 33-43.].

  7. The Impact of Age and Type of Intervention on Youth Violent Behaviors (United States)

    Jagers, Robert J.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Flay, Brian R.


    This study compared the impact of the Aban Aya Youth Project (AAYP; Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 158: 377-384, 2004) social development classroom curriculum (SDC), school/family/community (SC) intervention curriculum, and a health enhancement curriculum (HEC) attention placebo control on changes over time in violent behaviors…

  8. Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: An Interventional Approach to Improving Negative Student Behaviors (United States)

    Vallaire-Thomas, Lola; Hicks, Jamilah; Growe, Roslin


    Inappropriate behaviors of elementary and middle school students are many times extremely difficult to change. These behaviors tend to be supported by reinforcement within the environment. When manifested in the classroom, these undesirable actions become the focus of negativity which translates into disciplinary problems and ultimately discipline…

  9. Positive Changes in Perceptions and Selections of Healthful Foods by College Students after a Short-Term Point-of-Selection Intervention at a Dining Hall (United States)

    Peterson, Sharon; Duncan, Diana Poovey; Null, Dawn Bloyd; Roth, Sara Long; Gill, Lynn


    Objective: Determine the effects of a short-term, multi-faceted, point-of-selection intervention on college students' perceptions and selection of 10 targeted healthful foods in a university dining hall and changes in their self-reported overall eating behaviors. Participants: 104 college students, (age 18-23) completed pre-I and post-I surveys.…

  10. Association of intervention outcomes with practice capacity for change: Subgroup analysis from a group randomized trial

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    Weyer Sharon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between health care practices' capacity for change and the results and sustainability of interventions to improve health care delivery is unclear. Methods In the setting of an intervention to increase preventive service delivery (PSD, we assessed practice capacity for change by rating motivation to change and instrumental ability to change on a one to four scale. After combining these ratings into a single score, random effects models tested its association with change in PSD rates from baseline to immediately after intervention completion and 12 months later. Results Our measure of practices' capacity for change varied widely at baseline (range 2–8; mean 4.8 ± 1.6. Practices with greater capacity for change delivered preventive services to eligible patients at higher rates after completion of the intervention (2.7% per unit increase in the combined effort score, p Conclusion Greater capacity for change is associated with a higher probability that a practice will attain and sustain desired outcomes. Future work to refine measures of this practice characteristic may be useful in planning and implementing interventions that result in sustained, evidence-based improvements in health care delivery.

  11. Increasing pro-environmental behaviors by increasing self-concordance: Testing an intervention. (United States)

    Unsworth, Kerrie L; McNeill, Ilona M


    Globally, there is a clear need to change our behavior to mitigate climate change. Many people, however, will not find the need for mitigation important enough to make their behavior more environmentally sustainable. Three studies supported the hypothesis that it is possible to overcome this issue by connecting these behaviors to goals that are important to people, even if such goals are unrelated to climate change or the environment in general. Study 1 (N = 305 working adults) showed that stronger self-concordance of behavior related to energy sustainability was related to a greater chance of signing a petition for increasing renewable energy sources. Next, 2 experimental studies (Study 2: N = 412 working and nonworking adults, and Study 3: N = 300 working adults) showed that increasing self-concordance of environmentally sustainable behaviors by asking people to cognitively connect either sustainable energy use (Study 2) or commuting behaviors (Study 3) to their personal goals increased intentions to engage in these behaviors compared to a control condition (Study 2 and Study 3) and compared to persuasion attempts based on climate change mitigation (Study 3). These findings occurred even after controlling for political orientation and environmental concerns. This research has significant practical implications for workplaces, particularly for those in which employees or managers place a low priority on environmental and climate change considerations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Psychology Departments Are Changing Their Behavior (United States)

    Glenn, David


    The neuroscience revolution has brought a set of difficult, at times uncomfortable, changes in university-based research psychology. The technologies that allow scholars to probe the structures and functions of the human brain are also causing profound alterations in the structures and functions of psychology departments: curricula, hiring…

  13. Is Parenting the Mediator of Change in Behavioral Parent Training for Externalizing Problems of Youth? (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Lafko, Nicole; Parent, Justin; Burt, Keith


    Change in parenting behavior is theorized to be the mediator accounting for change in child and adolescent externalizing problems in behavioral parent training (BPT). The purpose of this review is to examine this assumption in BPT prevention and intervention programs. Eight intervention and 17 prevention studies were identified as meeting all criteria or all but one criterion for testing mediation. Parenting behaviors were classified as positive, negative, discipline, monitoring/supervision, or a composite measure. Forty-five percent of the tests performed across studies to test mediation supported parenting as a mediator. A composite measure of parenting and discipline received the most support, whereas monitoring/supervision was rarely examined. More support for the mediating role of parenting emerged for prevention than intervention studies and when meeting all criteria for testing mediation was not required. Although the findings do not call BPT into question as an efficacious treatment, they do suggest more attention should be focused on examining parenting as a putative mediator in BPT. PMID:25455625

  14. Motivational Interviewing to Affect Behavioral Change in Older Adults (United States)

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure


    This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…

  15. Rationale and design: telephone-delivered behavioral skills interventions for Blacks with type 2 diabetes

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    Strom Joni L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM have higher prevalence of diabetes, poorer metabolic control, and greater risk for complications and death compared to American Whites. Poor outcomes in African Americans with T2DM can be attributed to patient, provider, and health systems level factors. Provider and health system factors account for Methods/Design We describe an ongoing four-year randomized clinical trial, using a 2 × 2 factorial design, which will test the efficacy of separate and combined telephone-delivered, diabetes knowledge/information and motivation/behavioral skills training interventions in high risk African Americans with poorly controlled T2DM (HbA1c ≥ 9%. Two-hundred thirty-two (232 male and female African-American participants, 18 years of age or older and with an HbA1c ≥ 9%, will be randomized into one of four groups for 12-weeks of phone interventions: (1 an education group, (2 a motivation/skills group, (3 a combined group or (4 a usual care/general health education group. Participants will be followed for 12-months to ascertain the effect of the interventions on glycemic control. Our primary hypothesis is that among African Americans with poorly controlled T2DM, patients randomized to the combined diabetes knowledge/information and motivation/behavioral skills training intervention will have significantly greater reduction in HbA1c at 12 months of follow-up compared to the usual care/general health education group. Discussion Results from this study will provide important insight into how best to deliver diabetes education and skills training in ethnic minorities and whether combined knowledge/information and motivation/behavioral skills training is superior to the usual method of delivering diabetes education for African Americans with poorly controlled T2DM. Trial registration National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry ( identifier# NCT00929838.

  16. A Longitudinal Study Examining Changes in Students' Leadership Behavior (United States)

    Posner, Barry Z.


    This study investigated the impact of a leadership development program in students' first year with the subsequent leadership behaviors of those students in their senior year. Significant changes were reported in the frequency of engaging in leadership behaviors from freshman to senior years. No differences were found on the basis of gender. In…

  17. Surgery-induced behavioral changes in aged rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Iris B.; Schoemaker, Regien G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Heineman, Erik; Nyakas, Csaba; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Humpel, Christian


    Elderly patients may experience impairments in cognition or mood following surgery. To study the development and underlying mechanisms of these postoperative behavioral changes, young (3 months) and aged (18-20 months) male rats were subjected to abdominal surgery followed by behavioral testing duri

  18. Determinants of Students' Interracial Behavior and Opinion Change (United States)

    Patchen, Martin; And Others


    Describes a study of interracial behavior and opinion change among black and white high school students in Indianapolis. Factors such as personal aggressiveness, initial racial attitudes, and opportunities for interracial contact within and prior to school are analyzed in terms of their influence on negative and positive interracial behavior.…

  19. Enhancing HIV Prevention Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Systematic Review of HIV Behavioral Interventions for Young Gay and Bisexual Men. (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Emmanuel, Diona; Durant, Sarah; Rhodes, Scott D


    Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent 64.0% of people living with HIV (PLWH) over the age of 13 years. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are particularly affected by HIV/AIDS; the rate of HIV infection for YMSM between the ages of 13 and 24 represents 72.0% of new infections among youth. To understand the current state of the science meant to prevent HIV for YMSM, we reviewed studies of HIV behavioral prevention interventions for YMSM. Five literature databases were searched, from their inception through October 2015, using key words associated with HIV prevention intervention evaluation studies for YMSM. The review criteria included behavioral HIV/AIDS prevention interventions, articles published in English-language peer-reviewed journals, YMSM between 13 and 24 years of age, and longitudinal repeated measures design. A total of 15 YMSM behavioral HIV prevention intervention studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and reported statistically significant findings. Common outcomes included unprotected sexual intercourse, HIV/AIDS risk behavior, condom use, HIV testing, safer sex attitude, and HIV prevention communication. Participant age, representation of Black/African American YMSM, application of theoretical and model underpinnings, congruence of assessment measures used, follow-up assessment times, and application of process evaluation were inconsistent across studies. To advance HIV prevention intervention research for YMSM, future studies should be theory-based, identify common constructs, utilize standard measures, include process evaluation, and evaluate sustained change over standard periods of time. HIV prevention interventions should incorporate the needs of the diverse, well-educated, web-connected millennial generation and differentiate between adolescent YMSM (13 to 18 years of age) and young adulthood YMSM (19 to 24 years of age). Because Black/African American YMSM represent more than 50% of new HIV infections, future HIV

  20. A primary health-care intervention on pre- and postnatal risk factor behavior to prevent childhood allergy. The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (PACT study

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    Jenssen Jon A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a primary prevention intervention program on risk behavior for allergic diseases among children up to 2 years of age. The setting was in ordinary pre- and postnatal primary health care in Trondheim, Norway. Methods The Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim, Norway (PACT study invited all pregnant women and parents to children up to 2 years of age in the community to participate in a non-randomized, controlled, multiple life-style intervention study. Interventional topics was increased dietary intake of cod liver oil and oily fish for women during pregnancy and for infants during the first 2 years of life, reduced parental smoking and reduced indoor dampness. A control cohort was established prior to the intervention cohort with "follow up as usual". Questionnaires were completed in pregnancy, 6 weeks after birth and at 1 and 2 years of age. Trends in exposure and behavior are described. Results Intake of oily fish and cod liver oil increased statistically significantly among women and infants in the intervention cohort compared to the control cohort. There was a low postnatal smoking prevalence in both cohorts, with a trend towards a decreasing smoking prevalence in the control cohort. There was no change in indoor dampness or in behavior related to non- intervened life-style factors. Conclusions The dietary intervention seemed to be successful. The observed reduced smoking behavior could not be attributed to the intervention program, and the latter had no effect on indoor dampness. Trial registrations (Current Controlled Trials registration number: ISRCTN28090297

  1. Formal Analysis of an Agent Support Model for Behaviour Change Intervention

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    Ojeniyi Adegoke


    Full Text Available Agent applications have been widely used in behaviour change intervention nowadays. This is due to the four features of agents: proactive, reactivity, social ability and autonomy.  However, psychological reactance is one of the major limiting causes of agent interventions. Although, many studies have investigated into both psychological reactance and behaviour change nevertheless how reactive intervention can be supported to obtain an improved behaviour change intervention is still lacking in most previous studies. Therefore, this paper describes the formal analysis of agent support model for behaviour change intervention. The analysis made use of two widely accepted approaches in agent formal evaluation namely mathematical analysis and automated verification. The mathematical analysis examined the correctness of the formal model representation and formalization that aimed to ensure that all syntax and semantic representations used in the formal model is consistent. The mathematical analysis used equilibrium property to explore the formal model consistency. Likewise, automated verification depicts the checking of the model properties against its specifications and theoretical traces.  The automated verification used Temporal Trace Language (TTL, which verifies the model properties and states against generated traces. The paper presents an agent support model that allows building agent-based software and applications that deflect psychological reactance and enhance an improved behavioural change intervention.

  2. The Role of Communication in Ensuring Sustained Behavior Change (United States)

    In Part 2 of a three-part webinar series on communications strategies and methods, we address how communications tools can be used throughout the implementation of climate and clean energy programs to achieve behavior change and ensure sustained.

  3. Theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior-based dietary interventions in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hackman CL


    Full Text Available Christine L Hackman, Adam P KnowldenDepartment of Health Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USABackground: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many nations around the world. The theory of planned behavior (TPB and the theory of reasoned action (TRA have been used to successfully plan and evaluate numerous interventions for many different behaviors. The aim of this study was to systematically review and synthesize TPB and TRA-based dietary behavior interventions targeting adolescents and young adults.Methods: The following databases were systematically searched to find articles for this review: Academic Search Premier; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL; Education Resources Information Center (ERIC; Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; and MEDLINE. Inclusion criteria for articles were: 1 primary or secondary interventions, 2 with any quantitative design, 3 published in the English language, 4 between January 2003 and March 2014, 5 that targeted adolescents or young adults, 6 which included dietary change behavior as the outcome, and 7 utilized TPB or TRA.Results: Of the eleven intervention studies evaluated, nine resulted in dietary behavior change that was attributed to the treatment. Additionally, all but one study found there to be a change in at least one construct of TRA or TPB, while one study did not measure constructs. All of the studies utilized some type of quantitative design, with two employing quasi-experimental, and eight employing randomized control trial design. Among the studies, four utilized technology including emails, social media posts, information on school websites, web-based activities, audio messages in classrooms, interactive DVDs, and health-related websites. Two studies incorporated goal setting and four employed persuasive communication.Conclusion: Interventions directed toward changing dietary behaviors

  4. Cost analyses of a web-based behavioral intervention to enhance fruit and vegetable consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClure Jennifer B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to evaluate costs associated with the online intervention trial, Making Effective Nutritional Choices for Cancer Prevention (MENU, and to connect the findings to the study outcomes. Methods Using prospective data collected during the MENU development and implementation phases, we estimated overall costs per person, incremental costs for the three arms of the MENU intervention, and incremental costs per change in fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption across the studied population. The MENU study was conducted in five HMO sites of the Cancer Research Network. The number of eligible study participants who were enrolled in the study was 2,540. Recruited participants were randomized into (1 an untailored website program, (2 tailored website program, or (3 tailored web program plus personalized counseling (HOBI via email. The primary measures for these analyses include the total intervention costs, average cost per participant, and the average cost per mean change in daily intake of F&V, stratified by study arm. Results The mean change in F&V consumption was greater in both the tailored arm and statistically higher in the HOBI arm relative to the untailored arm. The untailored arm achieved +2.34 servings increase vs. the tailored website arm (+2.68 and the HOBI arm (+2.80 servings increase. Total intervention costs for MENU participants who completed the 12-month follow-up assessment, by study arm, were estimated to be $197,197 or $110 respectively. This translates to $69 per participant in the untailored web site intervention, $81 per participant in the tailored website intervention, and $184 per participant in the HOBI intervention and a cost per average change in F&V consumption to be $35, $27 and $61 respectively. Conclusions Providing personalized "tailored" messages and additional personalized support via email generated an additional $12-$115 per participant, over the untailored web program

  5. Evaluation of a Serious Self-Regulation Game Intervention for Overweight-Related Behaviors (“Balance It”): A Pilot Study (United States)

    Paulussen, Theo; Kok, Gerjo; van Empelen, Pepijn


    the control group (n=124) and corrected for multiple testing. Results showed that active users’ snack consumption decreased more strongly (active users: mean change=–0.20; control group: mean change=–0.08; beta=–0.36, P=.01, R2 change=.05), and their use of active transport had a stronger increase (active users: mean change=0.92; control group=–0.12; beta=1.58, P=.02, R2 change=.03) than the control group. Results also revealed significant differences in action planning (active users: mean change=0.42; control group: mean change=0.07; beta=0.91, P=.01, R2 change=.04) and action control (active users: mean change=0.63; control group: mean change=–0.05; beta=1.25, P=.001, R2 change=.08) in terms of unhealthy eating. Conclusions The Balance It intervention did not show favorable effects on dietary intake and PA compared to the control condition. However, only a small number of people in the intervention condition actually used Balance It (27.6%). Exploratory analyses did suggest that, if used as planned, Balance It could contribute to changing dietary intake and PA behaviors, albeit it remains debatable whether this would be sufficient to prevent overweight. PMID:27670222

  6. A Goal-Setting and Feedback Intervention to Increase ID-Checking Behavior: An Assessment of Social Validity and Behavioral Impact (United States)

    Downing, Christopher O., Jr.; Geller, E. Scott


    A participative goal-setting and feedback intervention increased cashiers' identification-checking behavior at a large grocery store. The cashiers' identification-checking percentages increased from 0.2% at baseline to 9.7% during the intervention phase and then declined to 2.3% during withdrawal. At the control store, the percentages of…

  7. Exploring Behavioral Markers of Long-Term Physical Activity Maintenance: A Case Study of System Identification Modeling within a Behavioral Intervention (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B.; Buman, Matthew P.; Poothakandiyil, Nikhil; Rivera, Daniel E.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Aiken Morgan, Adrienne; McCrae, Christina S.; Roberts, Beverly L.; Marsiske, Michael; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.


    Efficacious interventions to promote long-term maintenance of physical activity are not well understood. Engineers have developed methods to create dynamical system models for modeling idiographic (i.e., within-person) relationships within systems. In behavioral research, dynamical systems modeling may assist in decomposing intervention effects…

  8. A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparison between Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) and Adult-Driven Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Intervention on Disruptive Behaviors in Public School Children with Autism (United States)

    Mohammadzaheri, Fereshteh; Koegel, Lynn Kern; Rezaei, Mohammad; Bakhshi, Enayatolah


    Children with autism often demonstrate disruptive behaviors during demanding teaching tasks. Language intervention can be particularly difficult as it involves social and communicative areas, which are challenging for this population. The purpose of this study was to compare two intervention conditions, a naturalistic approach, Pivotal Response…

  9. Treatment of Aphasia Combining Neuromodulation and Behavioral Intervention: Taking an Impairment and Functional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta


    Baseline measures of naming nouns and verbs in single words, and sentences, were obtained. While there was no improvement in production of nouns or verbs in single words or sentence production after sham tDCS, and no improvement of noun production after anodal tDCS and speech-language treatment, production of verbs in sentences improved after a 10-session treatment block of anodal tDCS and behavioral therapy. Conclusion Administering a behavioral treatment that is impairment-based as well as functionally-based in conjunction with tDCS is both feasible and promising. Anodal tDCS in conjunction with behavioral intervention is a treatment approach that warrants continued investigation. The results will be discussed in relation to the tDCS and aphasia literature.

  10. Cracking the Neural Code for Sensory Perception by Combining Statistics, Intervention, and Behavior. (United States)

    Panzeri, Stefano; Harvey, Christopher D; Piasini, Eugenio; Latham, Peter E; Fellin, Tommaso


    The two basic processes underlying perceptual decisions-how neural responses encode stimuli, and how they inform behavioral choices-have mainly been studied separately. Thus, although many spatiotemporal features of neural population activity, or "neural codes," have been shown to carry sensory information, it is often unknown whether the brain uses these features for perception. To address this issue, we propose a new framework centered on redefining the neural code as the neural features that carry sensory information used by the animal to drive appropriate behavior; that is, the features that have an intersection between sensory and choice information. We show how this framework leads to a new statistical analysis of neural activity recorded during behavior that can identify such neural codes, and we discuss how to combine intersection-based analysis of neural recordings with intervention on neural activity to determine definitively whether specific neural activity features are involved in a task.

  11. Smoking identities and behavior: evidence of discrepancies, issues for measurement and intervention. (United States)

    Ridner, S Lee; Walker, Kandi L; Hart, Joy L; Myers, John A


    Although researchers and health care practitioners tend to use standard categories to classify smokers and nonsmokers, recent research suggests that individual smokers may use a variety of self-definitions regarding their smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine smoking identity and smoking behavior among college students, specifically, the relationship between self-identifying as a smoker, nonsmoker, occasional smoker, or social smoker and number of days smoked in the past month. Data were obtained during a campuswide health assessment of randomly selected full-time students (N = 741). Results indicate discrepancy between smoking identity and cigarette use. Twenty percent of students who smoked in the past 30 days self-identified as nonsmokers. Such discrepancies have implications for data collection in research as well as on questionnaires and in health care interviews. Failure to understand actual smoking behavior may increase the risk that individuals will not receive effective smoking prevention and cessation interventions.

  12. Amplifying Health Through Community Gardens: A Framework for Advancing Multicomponent, Behaviorally Based Neighborhood Interventions. (United States)

    Alaimo, Katherine; Beavers, Alyssa W; Crawford, Caroline; Snyder, Elizabeth Hodges; Litt, Jill S


    The article presents a framework for understanding the relationship between community garden participation, and the myriad ways gardens and participation lead to emotional, social, and health impacts. Existing empirical research relating community gardens to health behaviors, such as physical activity and diet, and longer-term chronic disease-related outcomes is summarized. The research areas discussed include the effects of community garden participation on individual, social, emotional, and environmental processes; health behaviors including diet and physical activity; and health outcomes such as self-rated health, obesity, and mental health. Other mechanisms through which community gardens may affect population health are described. Applying a multitheoretical lens to explore associations between community garden participation and health enables us to delineate key aspects of gardening that elicit positive health behaviors and multifactorial health assets that could be applied to designing other types of health interventions.

  13. Social Cognitive Determinants of Dietary Behavior Change in University Employes


    Shawna eDoerksen; Edward eMcAuley


    Many adults have poor dietary habits and few studies have focused on mechanisms underlying these behaviors. This study examined psychosocial determinants of dietary behavior change in university employees across a 5-month period. Participants completed measures of fruit and vegetable and low-fat food consumption and social cognitive constructs. Multiple regression analyses accounted for a unique proportion of variation in dietary change. Outcome expectations significantly predicted fruit and ...

  14. Investigating Change in Adolescent Self-Efficacy of Food Safety through Educational Interventions (United States)

    Beavers, Amy S.; Murphy, Lindsay; Richards, Jennifer K.


    A successfully targeted intervention can influence food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, as well as encourage participants to recognize their own responsibility for safe food handling. This acknowledgement of an individual's responsibility and capacity to address food safety can be understood as self-efficacy of food safety (SEFS). This…

  15. Craving behavioral intervention for internet gaming disorder: remediation of functional connectivity of the ventral striatum. (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Liu, Ben; Yao, Yuan-Wei; Fang, Xiao-Yi


    Psychobehavioral intervention is an effective treatment of Internet addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, the neural mechanisms underlying its efficacy remain unclear. Cortical-ventral striatum (VS) circuitry is a common target of psychobehavioral interventions in drug addiction, and cortical-VS dysfunction has been reported in IGD; hence, the primary aim of the study was to investigate how the VS circuitry responds to psychobehavioral interventions in IGD. In a cross-sectional study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity of the VS in 74 IGD subjects (IGDs) and 41 healthy controls (HCs). In a follow-up craving behavioral intervention (CBI) study, of the 74 IGD subjects, 20 IGD subjects received CBI (CBI+) and 16 IGD subjects did not (CBI-). All participants were scanned twice with similar time interval to assess the effects of CBI. IGD subjects showed greater resting-state functional connectivity of the VS to left inferior parietal lobule (lIPL), right inferior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus, in positive association with the severity of IGD. Moreover, compared with CBI-, CBI+ showed significantly greater decrease in VS-lIPL connectivity, along with amelioration in addiction severity following the intervention. These findings demonstrated that functional connectivity between VS and lIPL, each presumably mediating gaming craving and attentional bias, may be a potential biomarker of the efficacy of psychobehavioral intervention. These results also suggested that non-invasive techniques such as transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation targeting the VS-IPL circuitry may be used in the treatment of Internet gaming disorders.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of behavioral interventions to reduce HIV risk behaviors of Hispanics in the United States and Puerto Rico. (United States)

    Herbst, Jeffrey H; Kay, Linda S; Passin, Warren F; Lyles, Cynthia M; Crepaz, Nicole; Marín, Barbara V


    This systematic review examines the overall efficacy of HIV behavioral interventions designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors or incident sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Hispanics residing in the United States or Puerto Rico. Data from 20 randomized and nonrandomized trials (N = 6,173 participants) available through January 2006 were included in this review. Interventions successfully reduced the odds of unprotected sex and number of sex partners, increased the odds of condom use, and decreased the odds of acquiring new STD infections. Interventions successful in reducing the odds of any sex risk behavior used non-peer deliverers; included >or=4 intervention sessions; taught condom use or problem solving skills; or addressed barriers to condom use, sexual abstinence, or peer norms. Interventions that included the Hispanic cultural belief of machismo or those developed based on ethnographic interviews were successful in reducing the odds of sex risk behaviors among non-drug users. Interventions targeting injection drug users (IDUs; N = 3,569) significantly reduced the odds of injection drug use and the odds of sharing cotton or cookers, but did not significantly reduce the odds of engaging in risky sex behavior or needle sharing. Further development of culturally appropriate HIV prevention interventions for Hispanic populations, particularly men and persons living with HIV, are warranted.

  17. Evidence-based tailoring of behavior-change campaigns: increasing fluoride-free water consumption in rural Ethiopia with persuasion. (United States)

    Huber, Alexandra C; Tobias, Robert; Mosler, Hans-Joachim


    Two hundred million people worldwide are at risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis due to excessive fluoride uptake from their water. Since medical treatment of the disease is difficult and mostly ineffective, preventing fluoride uptake is crucial. In the Ethiopian Rift Valley, a fluoride-removal community filter was installed. Despite having access to a fluoride filter, the community used the filter sparingly. During a baseline assessment, 173 face-to-face interviews were conducted to identify psychological factors that influence fluoride-free water consumption. Based on the results, two behavior-change campaigns were implemented: a traditional information intervention targeting perceived vulnerability, and an evidence-based persuasion intervention regarding perceived costs. The interventions were tailored to household characteristics. The campaigns were evaluated with a survey and analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in changing behavior and targeted psychological factors. While the intervention targeting perceived vulnerability showed no desirable effects, cost persuasion decreased the perceived costs and increased the consumption of fluoride-free water. This showed that altering subjective perceptions can change behavior even without changing objective circumstances. Moreover, interventions are more effective if they are based on evidence and tailored to specific households.

  18. Integrating Biopsychosocial Intervention Research in a Changing Health Care Landscape (United States)

    Ell, Kathleen; Oh, Hyunsung; Wu, Shinyi


    Objective: Safety net care systems are experiencing unprecedented change from the "Affordable Care Act," Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) uptake, health information technology application, and growing of mental health care integration within primary care. This article provides a review of previous and current efforts in which social…

  19. Behaviour change interventions to promote physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review. (United States)

    Larkin, Louise; Gallagher, Stephen; Cramp, Fiona; Brand, Charles; Fraser, Alexander; Kennedy, Norelee


    Research has shown that people who have rheumatoid arthritis (RA) do not usually participate in enough physical activity to obtain the benefits of optimal physical activity levels, including quality of life, aerobic fitness and disease-related characteristics. Behaviour change theory underpins the promotion of physical activity. The aim of this systematic review was to explore behaviour change interventions which targeted physical activity behaviour in people who have RA, focusing on the theory underpinning the interventions and the behaviour change techniques utilised using specific behaviour change taxonomy. An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCOhost, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Web of Science databases in August 2014, using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. A manual search of reference lists was also conducted. Randomised control trials which used behaviour change techniques and targeted physical activity behaviour in adults who have RA were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Five studies with 784 participants were included in the review. Methodological quality of the studies was mixed. The studies consisted of behaviour change interventions or combined practical physical activity and behaviour change interventions and utilised a large variety of behaviour change techniques. Four studies reported increased physical activity behaviour. All studies used subjective methods of assessing physical activity with only one study utilising an objective measure. There has been varied success of behaviour change interventions in promoting physical activity behaviour in people who have RA. Further studies are required to develop and implement the optimal behaviour change intervention in this population.

  20. Analysis of the roles of "serious games" in helping teach health-related knowledge and skills and in changing behavior. (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew W


    Researchers are developing sophisticated games specifically targeted to teach health-related knowledge and skills and to change health-related behaviors. Although these interventions, generally called "serious games," show promise, there has been limited evaluation of their effectiveness. This article offers a broad "consumer guide" for evaluating such health education interventions. Improving the development and evaluation of health-related serious games and educating potential purchasers of such products to be knowledgeable, demanding consumers will help move the field of serious games from "looks promising" to determining where such interventions will be effective and where they will not.