Sample records for beginning catalysis research

  1. Research on Catalysis. (United States)

    Bartholomew, Calvin H.; Hecker, William C.


    The objectives and philosophy of the Catalysis Laboratory at Brigham Young University are discussed. Also discusses recent and current research activities at the laboratory as well as educational opportunities, research facilities, and sources of research support. (JN)

  2. Without Spectroscopy at the Beginning, Catalysis Research Proceeded in the Wrong Direction for More Than 100 Years

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner-Chavis, Ralph A; Selover, Theodore B; Zhang, Huixiong


    A study by infrared spectroscopy of the physisorbed region of catalysis demonstrated that the intermediates of catalysis exist on the surface as a two dimensional gas. Data in the Atomic Energy Level tables show that of the thousands of positive ions tabulated only approximately one hundred have the low-lying excited states that produce surface electric fields with a fractional charge. The specific catalyst for a reaction has the electric field with the fractional charge which when imparted to the two reactants changes the frequency of the fields at the sites of reaction on each so that they are harmonically equal, that is their ratio is a power of two. When the two reactants meet in the electric field of the catalyst resonance occurs. It is during resonance that electrons are shared, paired and exchanged and bonds are broken and made. This analysis of catalysis explains the most extraordinary observation that a catalyst is Not consumed when used because the catalyst is the electric fields. These discoveries ...

  3. Operando research in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Groot, Irene


    This book is devoted to the emerging field of techniques for visualizing atomic-scale properties of active catalysts under actual working conditions, i.e. high gas pressures and high temperatures. It explains how to understand these observations in terms of the surface structures and dynamics and their detailed interplay with the gas phase. This provides an important new link between fundamental surface physics and chemistry, and applied catalysis. The book explains the motivation and the necessity of operando studies, and positions these with respect to the more traditional low-pressure investigations on the one hand and the reality of industrial catalysis on the other. The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of new experimental and theoretical tools for operando studies of heterogeneous catalysis. The book has a strong emphasis on the new techniques and illustrates how the challenges introduced by the harsh, operando conditions are faced for each of these new tools. Therefore, one can also read th...

  4. DOE Laboratory Catalysis Research Symposium - Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, T.


    The conference consisted of two sessions with the following subtopics: (1) Heterogeneous Session: Novel Catalytic Materials; Photocatalysis; Novel Processing Conditions; Metals and Sulfides; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; Metal Oxides and Partial Oxidation; Electrocatalysis; and Automotive Catalysis. (2) Homogeneous Catalysis: H-Transfer and Alkane Functionalization; Biocatalysis; Oxidation and Photocatalysis; and Novel Medical, Methods, and Catalyzed Reactions.

  5. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Frenkel, Anatoly [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adzic, Radoslav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hulbert, Steve L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karim, Ayman [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullins, David R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Overbury, Steve [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  6. Seventh BES (Basic Energy Sciences) catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  7. The Beginning of Semiconductor Research in Cuba (United States)

    Veltfort, Theodore

    I was invited to Cuba in 1962 to initiate some efforts in semiconductor development. I had been a physicist and senior research engineer with various electronic companies of the "Silicon Valley" of California, south of San Francisco. I had heard of the efforts made by the new revolutionary government of Cuba to advance the level of science and technology, and I was anxious to see what I could do to help.

  8. Challenges Confronting Beginning Researchers in Conducting Literature Reviews (United States)

    Chen, Der-Thanq; Wang, Yu-Mei; Lee, Wei Ching


    Conducting literature review is a complicated, sometimes confusing and laborious process that beginning educational researchers, especially graduate students, often find challenging. However, in the past these challenges were hardly considered, but in more recent times they have been increasingly considered by various faculties and graduate…

  9. EPR spectroscopy as a tool in homogeneous catalysis research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goswami, M.; Chirila, A.; Rebreyend, C.; de Bruin, B.


    In the context of homogeneous catalysis, open-shell systems are often quite challenging to characterize. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most frequently applied tool to characterize organometallic compounds, but NMR spectra are usually broad, difficult to interpret and often fut

  10. Research progress in synthesis and catalysis of polyoxometalates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yun; HU Changwen; LIANG Hong


    Recent progress in the synthetic chemistry and catalysis of polyoxometalates (POMs) is reviewed. The novel POMs and their derivatives emerging in nearly three years (2002-2004) are introduced, including POMs with novel structure, POMs-organic hybrid compounds and host-guest complexes. Our review is focused on the elaboration of POMs' supramolecular chemistry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhaya Datye


    Catalysis is a key technology for improving the quality of life while simultaneously reducing the adverse impact of human activities on the environment. The discovery of new catalytic processes and the improvement of existing ones are also critically important for securing the nation's energy supply. The GRC on Catalysis is considered one the most prestigious conference for catalysis research, bringing together leading researchers from both academia, industry and national labs to discuss the latest, most exciting research in catalysis and the future directions for the field. The 2010 GRC on Catalysis will follow time-honored traditions and feature invited talks from the world's leading experts in the fundamentals and applications of catalytic science and technology. We plan to have increased participation from industry. The extended discussions in the company of outstanding thinkers will stimulate and foster new science. The conference will include talks in the following areas: Alternative feedstocks for chemicals and fuels, Imaging and spectroscopy, Design of novel catalysts, Catalyst preparation fundamentals, Molecular insights through theory, Surface Science, Catalyst stability and dynamics. In 2010, the Catalysis conference will move to a larger conference room with a new poster session area that will allow 40 posters per session. The dorm rooms provide single and double accommodations, free WiFi and the registration fee includes all meals and the famous lobster dinner on Thursday night. Afternoons are open to enjoy the New England ambiance with opportunities for hiking, sailing, golf and tennis to create an outstanding conference that will help you network with colleagues, and make long lasting connections.

  12. How to Begin Molecular Research of Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyung Yoon


    Full Text Available Advancing higher education is an important goal within the scientific and medical communities. The Korean Endocrine Society has worked with medical researchers who hope to conduct molecular research in addition to their clinical education. Based on concepts developed at a 2016 educational workshop, this article summarizes the requirement for a strong foundation in the performance of molecular research. Specifically, recent articles in metabolic research are highlighted to provide examples of commonly used techniques in this field of study.

  13. The beginnings of mineral processing research in Canada (part 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habashi, F. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering


    This article presented the historical aspects regarding Canadian research in mineral processing and ore refining. It highlighted the career of Eugene Haanel, the first director of Canada's Department of Mines. The events that led to the creation of the Canadian Bureau of Mines and the Energy Branch at the turn of the 1900s were described along with the creation of the first assay office to deal with the large amounts of gold produced in British Columbia and the Yukon. In order to encourage the exploitation of Canada's iron ore deposits and the abundant electrical energy from Niagara Falls, Haanel organized a mission to Europe to study steel production using electric furnaces. He sought ways to secure a supply of the reducing agent and the fuel that metallurgical processes required in great quantities. Noting that Canada was spending millions to import coal and coke, he promoted the exploitation of the large deposits of peat in Ontario and Quebec. He also drew attention to the need to stop using wood as a fuel to conserve the forests. In 1905, the Mining Section was commissioned to evaluate nonferrous metal deposits in Canada, including lead-zinc, cobalt, asbestos, mica, graphite and raw materials for cement manufacture. Serious hydrometallurgical research in Canada began in 1921 at the Ministry of Mines, followed by pyrometallurgical research in 1922. The radioactivity division was created in 1948. The article also described the reorganization of extractive metallurgical research in Canada. 9 figs.

  14. Cold Neutron Research Facility begins operating at NIST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeman, E.J.


    Steady-state neutron beams are generally produced by fission in a nuclear reactor, whereas pulsed beams come from spallation neutron sources. Beams from a reactor have a distribution of wavelengths that is roughly Maxwellian, with a peak wavelength that depends on the temperature of the moderator that surrounds the fuel. Cold neutrons can be selected from the low-energy tail of the distribution, but the flux drops as 1/{lambda}{sup 4}. However, by shifting the whole spectrum to longer wavelengths one can dramatically increase the cold neutron flux. This is achieved by replacing part of the core moderator with a cold moderator, or cold source,' such as liquid deuterium (at about 30 K) or D{sub 2}O ice (at about 40 K). Neutrons lose energy to the moderator through collisions, producing a shifted spectrum from which one can select lower-energy neutrons with a roughly ten-fold improvement in the flux. Neutrons exhibit optical behavior such as refraction and total reflection. Thus one can use neutron guides - analogous to optical fibers - to conduct intense beams of neutrons from the reactor into a large experimental hall, dubbed a guide hall,' where background radiation is low. The Cold Neutron Research Facility was finally funded in 1987 and opened its doors this past June. CNRF is located at the 20-MW NIST research reactor, which began continuous operation in 1969. With some foresight, the designers of the original reactor allowed space for the addition of a cryogenic moderator, which is only now being exploited. NIST will develop 10 experimental stations for use by the research science community. Additional help in financing the facility comes from participating research teams made up of groups from industry, academe and government.

  15. Advances in catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Bruce C


    Advances in Catalysis fills the gap between the journal papers and the textbooks across the diverse areas of catalysis research. For more than 60 years Advances in Catalysis has been dedicated to recording progress in the field of catalysis and providing the scientific community with comprehensive and authoritative reviews. This series in invaluable to chemical engineers, physical chemists, biochemists, researchers and industrial chemists working in the fields of catalysis and materials chemistry. * In-depth, critical, state-of-the-art reviews * Comprehensive, covers of all as

  16. Catalysis Research of Relevance to Carbon Management: Progress, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hironori; Aresta, Michele; Armor, John; Barteau, Mark; Beckman, Eric J.; Bell, Alexis T.; Bercaw, John E.; Creutz, Carol; Dinjus, Eckhard; Dixon, David A.; Domen, Kazunari; Dubois, Daniel L.; Eckert, Juergen; Fujita, Etsuko; Gibson, Dorothy H.; Goddard, William A.; Goodman, Wayne D.; Keller, Jay; Kubas, Gregory J.; Kung, Harold H.; Lyons, James E.; Manzer, Leo; Marks, Tobin J.; Morokuma, Keiji; Nicholas, Kenneth M.; Periana, Roy; Que, Lawrence; Rostrup-Nielson, Jens; Sachtler, Woflgang M H.; Schmidt, Lanny D.; Sen, Ayusman; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Stair, Peter C.; Stults, Bailey R.; Tumas, William


    The goal of the 'Opportunities for Catalysis Research in Carbon Management' workshop was to review within the context of greenhouse gas/carbon issues the current state of knowledge, barriers to further scientific and technological progress, and basic scientific research needs in the areas of H{sub 2} generation and utilization, light hydrocarbon activation and utilization, carbon dioxide activation, utilization, and sequestration, emerging techniques and research directions in relevant catalysis research, and in catalysis for more efficient transportation engines. Several overarching themes emerge from this review. First and foremost, there is a pressing need to better understand in detail the catalytic mechanisms involved in almost every process area mentioned above. This includes the structures, energetics, lifetimes, and reactivities of the species thought to be important in the key catalytic cycles. As much of this type of information as is possible to acquire would also greatly aid in better understanding perplexing, incomplete/inefficient catalytic cycles and in inventing new, efficient ones. The most productive way to attack such problems must include long-term, in-depth fundamental studies of both commercial and model processes, by conventional research techniques and, importantly, by applying various promising new physicochemical and computational approaches which would allow incisive, in situ elucidation of reaction pathways. There is also a consensus that more exploratory experiments, especially high-risk, unconventional catalytic and model studies, should be undertaken. Such an effort will likely require specialized equipment, instrumentation, and computational facilities. The most expeditious and cost-effective means to carry out this research would be by close coupling of academic, industrial, and national laboratory catalysis efforts worldwide. Completely new research approaches should be vigorously explored, ranging from novel compositions

  17. Advances in catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jentoft, Friederike C


    Advances in Catalysis fills the gap between the journal papers and the textbooks across the diverse areas of catalysis research. For more than 60 years Advances in Catalysis has been dedicated to recording progress in the field of catalysis and providing the scientific community with comprehensive and authoritative reviews. This series is invaluable to chemical engineers and chemists working in the field of catalysis in academia or industry. Authoritative reviews written by experts in the field. Topics selected to reflect progress of the field. Insightful and critical articles, fully edite

  18. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Frontiers in Polymerization Catalysis and Polymer Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Guyot, A


    Due to their specific properties, polymers with well-defined structures have been receiving increasing attention over the last several years. Owing to the wide variability of their properties, these specialty polymers have been used in various areas from biomedical engineering to electronics or energy applications. The synthesis of such polymers necessi­ tates the use of new methods of polymerization which derived from an insight into the mechanism of polymerization reactions. A NATO Advanced Research Workshop on "Frontiers in Polymerization Catalysis and Polymer Synthesis" was held in BANDOl (FRANCE) in February 1987. Its aim was to assess the new polymerization methods, as well as the latest advances in the mechanisms of conventional polymerization reactions together with their applications to the synthesis of new macromolecular structures. The financial support from the NATO Scientific Affairs Division which covered the "lecturers' accomodation and travel expenses as well as the organization charges of th...

  19. Linking Teacher Socialization Research with a PETE Program: Insights from Beginning and Experienced Teachers (United States)

    MacPhail, Ann; Hartley, Therese


    The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which beginning and experienced teachers differed in their perceptions of shaping school forces and their being shaped by school forces. The findings allow the authors to examine the link between teacher socialization research and practice in a physical education teacher education (PETE)…

  20. Catalysis seen in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, M.


    Synchrotron radiation techniques are widely applied in materials research and heterogeneous catalysis. In homogeneous catalysis, its use so far is rather limited despite its high potential. Here, insights in the strengths and limitations of X-ray spectroscopy technique in the field of homogeneous ca

  1. Heterogeneous Catalysis. (United States)

    Vannice, M. A.


    Described is a graduate course in catalysis offered at Penn State University. A detailed course outline with 30 lecture topics is presented. A list of 42 references on catalysis used in place of a textbook is provided. (BT)

  2. Catalysis seen in action. (United States)

    Tromp, Moniek


    Synchrotron radiation techniques are widely applied in materials research and heterogeneous catalysis. In homogeneous catalysis, its use so far is rather limited despite its high potential. Here, insights in the strengths and limitations of X-ray spectroscopy technique in the field of homogeneous catalysis are given, including new technique developments. A relevant homogeneous catalyst, used in the industrially important selective oligomerization of ethene, is taken as a worked-out example. Emphasis is placed on time-resolved operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy with outlooks to novel high energy resolution and emission techniques. All experiments described have been or can be done at the Diamond Light Source Ltd (Didcot, UK).

  3. Acquisition of a Scanning Tunneling Microscope to Enhance Research and Education in Stress-Controlled Catalysis (United States)


    experiments. MFP- 3D Scanner : The MFP- 3D features closed-loop sample scanning with a low-noise piezo driven flexure stage. Closed-loop operation...educational objectives of the ARO-MURI program currently funded at Brown University on “stress-controlled catalysis.” We have acquired an Asylum MFP- 3D -SA...program currently funded at Brown University on “stress-controlled catalysis.” We have acquired an Asylum MFP- 3D -SA instrument to, which has been

  4. Welcome to the National Wetlands Research Center Library: Successful Research Begins @ Your Library (United States)

    Broussard, Linda


    The National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) library is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is the only USGS library dedicated to wetland science. The mission of the NWRC library is to support the research and information needs of scientists, managers, and support personnel by providing a specialized, scientific collection of library materials and related information services that are responsive to and reflect internal and external customer needs and work processes. The NWRC library participates in international cataloging and resource sharing that allows libraries from throughout the world to borrow from its collections and lend to NWRC. This sharing of materials facilitates the research of other governmental agencies, universities, and those interested in the study of wetlands.

  5. The Era of International Space Station Utilization Begins: Research Strategy, International Collaboration, and Realized Potential (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Jean, Sabbagh


    With the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) nearing completion and the support of a full-time crew of six, a new era of utilization for research is beginning. For more than 15 years, the ISS international partnership has weathered financial, technical and political challenges proving that nations can work together to complete assembly of the largest space vehicle in history. And while the ISS partners can be proud of having completed one of the most ambitious engineering projects ever conceived, the challenge of successfully using the platform remains. During the ISS assembly phase, the potential benefits of space-based research and development were demonstrated; including the advancement of scientific knowledge based on experiments conducted in space, development and testing of new technologies, and derivation of Earth applications from new understanding. The configurability and human-tended capabilities of the ISS provide a unique platform. The international utilization strategy is based on research ranging from physical sciences, biology, medicine, psychology, to Earth observation, human exploration preparation and technology demonstration. The ability to complete follow-on investigations in a period of months allows researchers to make rapid advances based on new knowledge gained from ISS activities. During the utilization phase, the ISS partners are working together to track the objectives, accomplishments, and the applications of the new knowledge gained. This presentation will summarize the consolidated international results of these tracking activities and approaches. Areas of current research on ISS with strong international cooperation will be highlighted including cardiovascular studies, cell and plant biology studies, radiation, physics of matter, and advanced alloys. Scientific knowledge and new technologies derived from research on the ISS will be realized through improving quality of life on Earth and future spaceflight endeavours

  6. Entering Research: A course that creates community and structure for beginning undergraduate researchers in the STEM disciplines (United States)

    Balster, N.


    The benefits of undergraduate research are well documented such that these experiences have been incorporated into many school curricula. However, students still face many challenges (e.g. community establishment, identifying a mentor) when beginning research or are insufficiently supported to be successful in them. To help students overcome these challenges, we developed a novel course, called Entering Research, which helps undergraduates navigate the research experience and provides a supportive community of peers and experienced researchers as course facilitators. Following a teaching as research model, we studied the impact of this course over the three years it has been offered (2006-09). To date, 83 students who completed the course were given a pre and post assessment of learning gains (77% response). These students were also asked to answer a series of questions related to confidence, skills, and knowledge at course end, which we also compared to a group of similar students (n=92) who did not take the course, but were engaged in undergraduate research (63% response). Overall, we found that students value the Entering Research course, as they rated all of the topics covered in the seminar as helpful to their learning. Learning about research ethics and developing a research proposal were rated as most helpful, while web-based discussions and visiting peer laboratories were ranked lowest among the 20 survey questions. Relative to the post assessments, when aggregated by category, confidence, skill, and knowledge all significantly increased: knowledge at 22%, followed by skills (13%), and confidence (10%). All but two areas of confidence were self-rated as significant gains (p<0.01). All but two skills showed significant increases (p<0.01). And all five knowledge questions increased significantly (p<0.01). To test if these gains were related to the course, we compared these results to control group assessments. Students in the Entering Research course were

  7. PACS is only in the Beginning of Being Used as Clinical Research Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.K. Huang


    The PACS concept was introduced in 1982[1],after more than twenty years of technical advancements; it has become an integrated component of today's healthcare delivery system. PACS is now in the beginning of being used as a clinical research tool. [2]Among others, this paper describes four PACS- based research activities: medical imaging informatics, medical imaging Data Grid,combining PACS and teleradiology operations, and computer - assisted detection and diagnosis(CAD).In medical imaging informatics (MⅡ), we first introduce its infrastructure and the five layer of software architecture. The description of a new MⅡ training program supported by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National institutes of Health (NIH),USA is followed. The training program accepts candidates with medical and/ or biomedical engineering background. The goal is to cross - train multi - disciplinary individuals to be future leaders in the field of medical imaging informatics.Grid computing is a new paradigm combining computing, networking, information and storage technologies to advance the conventional distributing computing to the next level. One resource in Grid Computing is the Data Grid. We describe the use of Data Grid concept in medical imaging applications based on the five layer of the open source Globus toolkit 4 (GT4). Three examples are given.First, a Data Grid specifically designed for PACS image backup and disaster recovery developed at the Imaging and Informatics Laboratory (IPI), USC is illustrated. The second application is for image -based clinical trials using three international sites at IPI, USC, USA; the PACS Lab, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong; and the Heart Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil.In combining PACS and teleradiology operations, a Data Grid model is proposed to combine two disjoint, and yet, daily used PACS and teleradiology operations as one integrated system in a large - scale enterprise level. Methods of

  8. Preface: Catalysis Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yongdan


    This special issue of Catalysis Today with the theme “Sustain-able Energy” results from a great success of the session “Catalytic Technologies Accelerating the Establishment of Sustainable and Clean Energy”, one of the two sessions of the 1st International Symposium on Catalytic Science and Techn......This special issue of Catalysis Today with the theme “Sustain-able Energy” results from a great success of the session “Catalytic Technologies Accelerating the Establishment of Sustainable and Clean Energy”, one of the two sessions of the 1st International Symposium on Catalytic Science...... and Technology in Sustainable Energy and Environment, held in Tianjin, China during October8–10, 2014. This biennial symposium offers an international forum for discussing and sharing the cutting-edge researches and the most recent breakthroughs in energy and environmental technologies based on catalysis...

  9. Enantioconvergent catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin T. Mohr


    Full Text Available An enantioconvergent catalytic process has the potential to convert a racemic starting material to a single highly enantioenriched product with a maximum yield of 100%. Three mechanistically distinct approaches to effecting enantioconvergent catalysis are identified, and recent examples of each are highlighted. These processes are compared to related, non-enantioconvergent methods.

  10. Catalysis and biocatalysis program (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.


    This final report presents a summary of research activities and accomplishments for the Catalysis and Biocatalysis Program, which was renamed the Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program, currently of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD), Office of Industrial Technologies of the Department of Energy (DOE). The Program was formerly under the Division of Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) until the DOE reorganization in April, 1990. The goals of the BCTR Program are consistent with the initial ECUT goals, but represent an increased effort toward advances in chemical and biological technology transfer. In addition, the transition reflects a need for the BCTR Program to assume a greater R&D role in chemical catalysis as well as a need to position itself for a more encompassing involvement in a broader range of biological and chemical technology research. The mission of the AICD is to create a balanced Program of high risk, long-term, directed interdisciplinary research and development that will improve energy efficiency and enhance fuel flexibility in the industrial sector. Under AICD, the DOE Catalysis and Biocatalysis Program sponsors research and development in furthering industrial biotechnology applications and promotes the integrated participation of universities, industrial companies, and government research laboratories.

  11. pClone: Synthetic Biology Tool Makes Promoter Research Accessible to Beginning Biology Students (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm; Eckdahl, Todd; Cronk, Brian; Andresen, Corinne; Frederick, Paul; Huckuntod, Samantha; Shinneman, Claire; Wacker, Annie; Yuan, Jason


    The "Vision and Change" report recommended genuine research experiences for undergraduate biology students. Authentic research improves science education, increases the number of scientifically literate citizens, and encourages students to pursue research. Synthetic biology is well suited for undergraduate research and is a growing area…

  12. Editorial: Nanoscience makes catalysis greener

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek


    Green chemistry by nanocatalysis: Catalysis is a strategic field of science because it involves new ways of meeting energy and sustainability challenges. The concept of green chemistry, which makes the science of catalysis even more creative, has become an integral part of sustainability. This special issue is at the interface of green chemistry and nanocatalysis, and features excellent background articles as well as the latest research results. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Place to Begin (Again) in Research on Student Motivation: Teachers' Beliefs. (United States)

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Nicholls, John G.


    Reports a study of 178 elementary school teachers' beliefs about the effectiveness of different strategies for fostering student motivation. Found that teachers were well aware of the usefulness of strategies that researchers claim increase student task involvement and intrinsic motivation. In cases where research is divided, it was judged that…

  14. ‘Spiritalismus vincit Mundum’ Dutch spiritualism and the beginning of psychical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kloosterman


    Full Text Available The science of psychical research and parapsychology stemmed, among other things, from wonder about the phenomena of spiritualism: manifestations of the deceased through mediums in séances. In the Netherlands, academic psychical research emerged in 1919, when the Studievereeniging voor Psychical Research (SPR was founded. In this paper, it is argued that a revival of the popularity of spiritualism during the war contributed to the emergence of the Dutch SPR shortly after the First World War had ended. Mass bereavement does not suffice as an explanation for the growth of the spiritualistic movement in the neutral Netherlands in the war years. It is demonstrated that in the writings of spiritualists about the First World War persistent fin-de-siècle themes can be distinguished. Before and during the First World War Dutch spiritualism was dominated by ‘ideologically’ inclined spiritualists and their more ‘critical-scientific’ counterparts were a minority. This had hindered the development of Dutch psychical research. After the war spiritualists shared their hopeful and optimistic perspective of the human soul with scholars leaning towards psychoanalytical and psychomonist ideas. This eventually led to a joint foundation of the Dutch SPR. This alignment between ideological and critical-scientific spiritualists would not last; opinions on how to handle the research subjects (i.e. mediums remained too distinct.

  15. In the Beginning Was the Other: Lacanian Psychoanalysis and Its Implications for Educational Research Method (United States)

    Hyldgaard, Kirsten


    In much of educational philosophy and sciences the fundamental concepts are the subject conceived of as conscious and constituting and the learning process conceived of as a matter of cognition. This article asks what the effect would be on educational research method and educational theory in general if the fundamental concept were the subject in…

  16. Zeolites and Catalysis (United States)


    Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis ,Vol. als: State of the Art 1994, Studies in Surface Science and 5, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1997, p. 2329. Catalysis, Vol...Weitkamp (Eds.), in Zeolite and Microporous Materials, Studies in Surface Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis , Vol. 4, Wiley-VCH, Science and Catalysis

  17. Review on space weather in Latin America. 1. The beginning from space science research (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo


    The present work is the first of a three-part review on space weather in Latin America. It comprises the evolution of several Latin American institutions investing in space science since the 1960s, focusing on the solar-terrestrial interactions, which today is commonly called space weather. Despite recognizing advances in space research in all of Latin America, this review is restricted to the development observed in three countries in particular (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico), due to the fact that these countries have recently developed operational centers for monitoring space weather. The review starts with a brief summary of the first groups to start working with space science in Latin America. This first part of the review closes with the current status and the research interests of these groups, which are described in relation to the most significant works and challenges of the next decade in order to aid in the solving of space weather open issues.

  18. The neurosciences research program at MIT and the beginning of the modern field of neuroscience. (United States)

    Adelman, George


    The interdisciplinary field, "neuroscience," began at MIT in 1962 with the founding of the Neurosciences Research Program (NRP) by Francis O. Schmitt and a group of US and international scientists - physical, biological, medical, and behavioral - interested in understanding the brain basis of behavior and mind. They organized and held specialist meetings of basic topics in neuroscience, and the journal and book publications over the next 20 years, based on these meetings, helped establish the new field.

  19. The countries and languages that dominate biological research at the beginning of the 21st century


    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa


    artículo (arbitrado) -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Biología, 2005 Traditionally, studies of scientific productivity are biased in two ways: they are based on Current Contents, an index centered in British and American journals, and they seldom correct for population size, ignoring the relative effort that each society places in research. We studied national productivity for biology using a more representative index, the Biological Abstracts, and analyze...

  20. International Assessment of Research and Development in Catalysis by Nanostructured Materials (United States)


    surfaces, integration of theory and spectroscopy *Pascal Raybaud and Hervé Toulhoat, IFP Molecular modeling, ab initio thermochemistry of catalytic...Professor Award, the Union Carbide Innovation Recognition Award, and the UVa Rodman Scholars Award for Excellence in Teaching . He has co-authored...University of Cincinnati College of Engineering Outstanding Research Award for Young Faculty, University of Cincinnati Teaching Diversity Award, and a

  1. EMSL and Institute for Integrated Catalysis (IIC) Catalysis Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Charles T.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Henkelman, Graeme A.; Lobo, Raul F.; Schneider, William F.; Spicer, Leonard D.; Tysoe, Wilfred T.; Vohs, John M.; Baer, Donald R.; Hoyt, David W.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Mueller, Karl T.; Wang, Chong M.; Washton, Nancy M.; Lyubinetsky, Igor; Teller, Raymond G.; Andersen, Amity; Govind, Niranjan; Kowalski, Karol; Kabius, Bernd C.; Wang, Hongfei; Campbell, Allison A.; Shelton, William A.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Peden, Charles HF; Wang, Yong; King, David L.; Henderson, Michael A.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Szanyi, Janos; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Mei, Donghai; Garrett, Bruce C.; Ray, Douglas; Futrell, Jean H.; Laskin, Julia; DuBois, Daniel L.; Kuprat, Laura R.; Plata, Charity


    Within the context of significantly accelerating scientific progress in research areas that address important societal problems, a workshop was held in November 2010 at EMSL to identify specific and topically important areas of research and capability needs in catalysis-related science.

  2. Beginning C

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Ivor


    Beginning C, 5th Edition teaches you how to program using the widely-available C language. You'll begin from first-principles and progress through step-by-step examples to become a competent, C-language programmer. All you need are this book and any of the widely available free or commercial C or C++ compilers, and you'll soon be writing real C programs. C is a foundational language that every programmer ought to know. C is the basis for C# used in Microsoft .NET programming. It is the basis for Objective-C used in programming for the iPhone, the iPad, and other Apple devices. It is the basis


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    电化学增强催化(EPOC)通过电化学方式可在线控制化学反应进程,施加较小的电流或电势可以引起催化反应速率、产物产率或选择性有显著的变化,是近30年来电化学领域最令人激动的发现,对催化和电化学具有重大影响。本研究综述EPOC机理、研究应用进展,建议进一步研究EPOC的方向和技术路线。研究了EPOC型燃料电池堆反应器(MEPR),探索其传递特性、调控机制,有望获得基础性、前瞻性、战略性的科技成果。随着燃料电池的发展,催化膜成本将进一步降低,催化效率将显著提高,这种新型反应器最终将能满足工业规模化生产要求。%Electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC) makes the chemical reaction process be online controlled, in which a smaller current or potential is applied to cause significant changes for catalytic reaction rate, product yield or selectivity of chemical reaction, so it is the most exciting discovery in the field of electrochemistry during the last 30 years, and has a significant impact on the catalytic and electrochemistry. The mechanisms and research progresses of EPOC are reviewed, the further direction and technology roadmap of EPOC study are indicated in this paper. The research of monolithic electrochemical promotion reactor (MEPR), to explore the transfer characteristics and the regulatory mechanism, would get some of fundamental, forward-looking and strategic technological achievements. But with the development of fuel cells, catalytic membrane costs will be further reduced, the catalytic efficiency will also be significantly improved, this new type of reactor will eventually be able to meet the requirements of industrial scale production.

  4. Beginning Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Poe, Curtis 'Ovid'


    Everything beginners need to start programming with Perl Perl is the ever-popular, flexible, open source programming language that has been called the programmers’ Swiss army knife. This book introduces Perl to both new programmers and experienced ones who are looking to learn a new language. In the tradition of the popular Wrox Beginning guides, it presents step-by-step guidance in getting started, a host of try-it-out exercises, real-world examples, and everything necessary for a Perl novice to start programming with confidence. Introduces Perl to both new programmers and experienced o

  5. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert


    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  6. Beginning Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, James


    This is a book for those of us who believed that we didn't need to learn Perl, and now we know it is more ubiquitous than ever. Perl is extremely flexible and powerful, and it isn't afraid of Web 2.0 or the cloud. Originally touted as the duct tape of the Internet, Perl has since evolved into a multipurpose, multiplatform language present absolutely everywhere: heavy-duty web applications, the cloud, systems administration, natural language processing, and financial engineering. Beginning Perl, Third Edition provides valuable insight into Perl's role regarding all of these tasks and more. Comm

  7. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Linwood, Jeff


    Beginning Hibernate, Second Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open source, lightweight Hibernate-the de facto object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework. This book packs in brand-new information about the latest release of the Hibernate 3.5 persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you

  8. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Minter, Dave; Ottinger, Joseph


    Beginning Hibernate, Third Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open-source, lightweight Hibernate, a leading object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework.This book packs in information about the release of the Hibernate 4.x persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you'll be able to immediately star

  9. Catalysis of Photochemical Reactions. (United States)

    Albini, A.


    Offers a classification system of catalytic effects in photochemical reactions, contrasting characteristic properties of photochemical and thermal reactions. Discusses catalysis and sensitization, examples of catalyzed reactions of excepted states, complexing ground state substrates, and catalysis of primary photoproducts. (JM)

  10. Controllable Catalysis with Nanoparticles: Bimetallic Alloy Systems and Surface Adsorbates

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tianyou


    Transition metal nanoparticles are privileged materials in catalysis due to their high specific surface areas and abundance of active catalytic sites. While many of these catalysts are quite useful, we are only beginning to understand the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Opening the “black box” of nanoparticle catalysis is essential to achieve the ultimate goal of catalysis by design. In this Perspective we highlight recent work addressing the topic of controlled catalysis with bimetallic alloy and “designer” adsorbate-stabilized metal nanoparticles.

  11. Research progress on metal-free catalysis by nanodiamond%纳米金刚石非金属催化性能研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建; 王锐; 苏党生


    Metal-free catalysis by nanostructured carbons has been one of the hottest topics in the research areas of catalysis and nanomaterials. The advantages of nanodiamond include good dispersibility, high surface curvature, outstanding catalytic performance and mass production. Nanodiamond can efficiently catalyze methane decomposition, butane dehydrogenation, ethylbenzene dehydrogenation, NO2- oxidation and other processes. This review focuses on recent progress on the characterization of heteroatom functional groups, formation of sp2-hybridized shell and reaction mechanism, and provides a perspective on the challenges and industrialization of nanodiamond-based catalysis technology.%纳米结构碳材料的非金属催化性能研究正在成为国际催化与纳米材料研究的热点之一.纳米金刚石具有分散性能好、表面曲率高、催化性能优异、可批量生产等优点,可高效催化甲烷裂解、丁烷脱氢、乙苯脱氢、亚硝酸根氧化等反应过程.近年来,人们在纳米金刚石微观结构与表面化学活性研究上取得了一定的进展.本文对纳米金刚石上杂原子官能团表征、sp2壳层形成、催化反应机理方面的最新成果作了综述,并对纳米金刚石催化工艺存在的挑战及其规模化应用前景进行了展望.

  12. Bioorthogonal catalysis: Rise of the nanobots (United States)

    Unciti-Broceta, Asier


    Bioorthogonal catalysis provides new ways of mediating artificial transformations in living environs. Now, researchers have developed a nanodevice whose catalytic activity can be regulated by host-guest chemistry.

  13. Effects of Multilevel Support on First-Grade Teachers' Use of Research-Based Strategies during Beginning Reading Instruction (United States)

    Schnorr, Crystalyn Innocence


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of multilevel support on first-grade teachers' accurate use of research-based strategies during beginning reading instruction and the extent to which teachers maintained use of these strategies. Teachers were trained to use research-based strategies, including choral responding, response…

  14. Multicatalyst system in asymmetric catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jian


    This book introduces multi-catalyst systems by describing their mechanism and advantages in asymmetric catalysis.  Helps organic chemists perform more efficient catalysis with step-by-step methods  Overviews new concepts and progress for greener and economic catalytic reactions  Covers topics of interest in asymmetric catalysis including bifunctional catalysis, cooperative catalysis, multimetallic catalysis, and novel tandem reactions   Has applications for pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, materials, and flavour and fragrance

  15. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations. (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.


    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  16. Concepts in Heterogeneous Catalysis (United States)


    The group Vill metals have vacant atomic d-orbilals (holes in the d-band) which were ex- peeled to promote celuemiorplion and catalysisA by...Houston, Texas, February 24.26 1971. Mango , F. D., Advances in Catalysis, 19 (1969). Mango , F. D. and i. H. Schachtschnelder, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 89

  17. Surface and nanomolecular catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Ryan


    Using new instrumentation and experimental techniques that allow scientists to observe chemical reactions and molecular properties at the nanoscale, the authors of Surface and Nanomolecular Catalysis reveal new insights into the surface chemistry of catalysts and the reaction mechanisms that actually occur at a molecular level during catalysis. While each chapter contains the necessary background and explanations to stand alone, the diverse collection of chapters shows how developments from various fields each contributed to our current understanding of nanomolecular catalysis as a whole. The

  18. Molecular water oxidation catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Llobet, Antoni


    Photocatalytic water splitting is a promising strategy for capturing energy from the sun by coupling light harvesting and the oxidation of water, in order to create clean hydrogen fuel. Thus a deep knowledge of the water oxidation catalysis field is essential to be able to come up with useful energy conversion devices based on sunlight and water splitting. Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysis: A Key Topic for New Sustainable Energy Conversion Schemes presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of water oxidation catalysis in homogeneous phase, describing in detail the most importan

  19. Reaction Selectivity in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Kliewer, Christopher J.


    The understanding of selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis is of paramount importance to our society today. In this review we outline the current state of the art in research on selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis. Current in-situ surface science techniques have revealed several important features of catalytic selectivity. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy has shown us the importance of understanding the reaction intermediates and mechanism of a heterogeneous reaction, and can readily yield information as to the effect of temperature, pressure, catalyst geometry, surface promoters, and catalyst composition on the reaction mechanism. DFT calculations are quickly approaching the ability to assist in the interpretation of observed surface spectra, thereby making surface spectroscopy an even more powerful tool. HP-STM has revealed three vitally important parameters in heterogeneous selectivity: adsorbate mobility, catalyst mobility, and selective site-blocking. The development of size controlled nanoparticles from 0.8 to 10 nm, of controlled shape, and of controlled bimetallic composition has revealed several important variables for catalytic selectivity. Lastly, DFT calculations may be paving the way to guiding the composition choice for multi-metallic heterogeneous catalysis for the intelligent design of catalysts incorporating the many factors of selectivity we have learned.

  20. Age and cause mortality structure in the Italian regions at the beginning of the health transition: a research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Del Panta


    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring Italian mortality structure (by age and cause of death at the regional level in the last decades of the 19th Century. These years, corresponding to the beginning of the health transition process, were crucial in the Italian experience. The analysis is based on a careful exploitation of the volume “Statistica delle cause delle morti 1888”, published in 1890, by the General Directorate of Statistics. This volume is the only one which offers for the Italian regions, before the second World war, death statistics classified according to both age and cause together. The principal objectives of this descriptive contribution are essentially to illustrate the territorial variation of mortality conditions in the first phase of the health transition process as well as to underline the relevance and the complexities of the causes specific mortality analysis to explain the geographical mortality differentials in terms of age and sex.

  1. 26 CFR 1.41-4A - Qualified research for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1986. (United States)


    ... research and development under the Federal Acquisition Regulations System and similar provisions. The... THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-4A Qualified research for taxable...) (as that section read before amendment by the Tax Reform Act of 1986) and in this section, the...

  2. EU funding bonanza begins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gould


    There was little razzmatazz and chest-thumping in evidence at November’s official launch of FP6, the EU’s main vehicle for funding scientific research in Europe. Commission officials appeared quietly confident as they unveiled new plans for investment in scientific and technological projects (all subject to last minute change, of course. Draft documents were subsequently tidied and necessary revisions made, as consultative committees gave their final seal of approval. Initial calls for proposals have now been issued. Let the funding bonanza begin!

  3. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server


    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  4. Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, and Enzymatic Catalysis. (United States)

    Oyama, S. Ted; Somorjai, Gabor A.


    Discusses three areas of catalysis: homegeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic. Explains fundamentals and economic impact of catalysis. Lists and discusses common industrial catalysts. Provides a list of 107 references. (MVL)

  5. Asymmetric catalysis with helical polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, Rik P.; Roelfes, Gerard


    Inspired by nature, the use of helical biopolymer catalysts has emerged over the last years as a new approach to asymmetric catalysis. In this Concept article the various approaches and designs and their application in asymmetric catalysis will be discussed.

  6. Nanomaterials in catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Serp, Philippe; Somorjai, Gabor A; Chaudret, Bruno


    Nanocatalysis has emerged as a field at the interface between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and offers unique solutions to the demanding requirements for catalyst improvement. Heterogeneous catalysis represents one of the oldest commercial applications of nanoscience and nanoparticles of metals, semiconductors, oxides, and other compounds have been widely used for important chemical reactions. The main focus of this fi eld is the development of well-defined catalysts, which may include both metal nanoparticles and a nanomaterial as the support. These nanocatalysts should display the

  7. Isotopes in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Justin SJ


    The purpose of this book is to review the current, state-of-the-art application of isotopic methods to the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Isotopic studies are arguably the ultimate technique in in situ methods for heterogeneous catalysis. In this review volume, chapters have been contributed by experts in the field and the coverage includes both the application of specific isotopes - Deuterium, Tritium, Carbon-14, Sulfur-35 and Oxygen-18 - as well as isotopic techniques - determination of surface mobility, steady state transient isotope kinetic analysis, and positron emission profiling.

  8. Green chemistry by nano-catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek


    Nano-materials are important in many diverse areas, from basic research to various applications in electronics, biochemical sensors, catalysis and energy. They have emerged as sustainable alternatives to conventional materials, as robust high surface area heterogeneous catalysts and catalyst supports. The nano-sized particles increase the exposed surface area of the active component of the catalyst, thereby enhancing the contact between reactants and catalyst dramatically and mimicking the homogeneous catalysts. This review focuses on the use of nano-catalysis for green chemistry development including the strategy of using microwave heating with nano-catalysis in benign aqueous reaction media which offers an extraordinary synergistic effect with greater potential than these three components in isolation. To illustrate the proof-of-concept of this "green and sustainable" approach, representative examples are discussed in this article. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Photo-catalysis Plants from basic research to commercial reality; Plantas de tratamiento mediante fotocatalisis solar: de la investigacion basica a una realidad comercial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.


    The degradation process of nonbiodegradable organic substances by means of photo catalysis techniques allows the effective elimination of pollutants presents in water and air. The development during the last years of the solar photo catalysis technology, commonly called solar detoxification, has allowed that the first commercial plants based on solar collectors for the treatment of waste water containing persistent organic compounds become a reality. CIEMAT has played an essential roll on this process. This technology is based on the application of two different techniques (photo-Fenton and UV/TiO{sub 2} processes) implemented in static solar collectors CPC type (parabolic-compound). (Author)

  10. X-Ray absorption in homogeneous catalysis research: the iron-catalyzed Michael addition reaction by XAS, RIXS and multi-dimensional spectroscopy. (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias; Gastl, Christoph


    A survey over X-ray absorption methods in homogeneous catalysis research is given with the example of the iron-catalyzed Michael addition reaction. A thorough investigation of the catalytic cycle was possible by combination of conventional X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and multi-dimensional spectroscopy. The catalytically active compound formed in the first step of the Michael reaction of methyl vinyl ketone with 2-oxocyclopentanecarboxylate (1) could be elucidated in situ by RIXS spectroscopy, and the reduced catalytic activity of FeCl(3) x 6 H(2)O (2) compared to Fe(ClO(4))(3) x 9 H(2)O (3) could be further explained by the formation of a [Fe(III)Cl(4)(-)](3)[Fe(III)(1-H)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(+)][H(+)](2) complex. Chloride was identified as catalyst poison with a combined XAS-UV/vis study, which revealed that Cl(-) binds quantitatively to the available iron centers that are deactivated by formation of [FeCl(4)(-)]. Operando studies in the course of the reaction of methyl vinyl ketone with 1 by combined XAS-Raman spectroscopy allowed the exclusion of changes in the oxidation state and the octahedral geometry at the iron site; a reaction order of two with respect to methyl vinyl ketone and a rate constant of k = 1.413 min(-2) were determined by analysis of the C=C and C=O vibration band. Finally, a dedicated experimental set-up for three-dimensional spectroscopic studies (XAS, UV/vis and Raman) of homogeneous catalytic reactions under laboratory conditions, which emerged from the discussed investigations, is presented.

  11. Pollution Control by Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus


    The report summarises the results of two years of collaboration supported by INTAS between Department of Chemistry,DTU,DK , IUSTI,Universite de Provence,FR, ICE/HT University 6of Patras,GR, and Boreskov Institute of Catalysis,RU.The project has been concerned with mechanistic studies of deNOx and...

  12. Anion-π catalysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Yingjie; Beuchat, César; Domoto, Yuya; Gajewy, Jadwiga; Wilson, Adam; Mareda, Jiri; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan


    The introduction of new noncovalent interactions to build functional systems is of fundamental importance. We here report experimental and theoretical evidence that anion-π interactions can contribute to catalysis. The Kemp elimination is used as a classical tool to discover conceptually innovative catalysts for reactions with anionic transition states. For anion-π catalysis, a carboxylate base and a solubilizer are covalently attached to the π-acidic surface of naphthalenediimides. On these π-acidic surfaces, transition-state stabilizations up to ΔΔGTS = 31.8 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1) are found. This value corresponds to a transition-state recognition of KTS = 2.7 ± 0.5 μM and a catalytic proficiency of 3.8 × 10(5) M(-1). Significantly increasing transition-state stabilization with increasing π-acidity of the catalyst, observed for two separate series, demonstrates the existence of "anion-π catalysis." In sharp contrast, increasing π-acidity of the best naphthalenediimide catalysts does not influence the more than 12 000-times weaker substrate recognition (KM = 34.5 ± 1.6 μM). Together with the disappearance of Michaelis-Menten kinetics on the expanded π-surfaces of perylenediimides, this finding supports that contributions from π-π interactions are not very important for anion-π catalysis. The linker between the π-acidic surface and the carboxylate base strongly influences activity. Insufficient length and flexibility cause incompatibility with saturation kinetics. Moreover, preorganizing linkers do not improve catalysis much, suggesting that the ideal positioning of the carboxylate base on the π-acidic surface is achieved by intramolecular anion-π interactions rather than by an optimized structure of the linker. Computational simulations are in excellent agreement with experimental results. They confirm, inter alia, that the stabilization of the anionic transition states (but not the neutral ground states) increases with the π-acidity of the

  13. 褐煤固体热载体催化热解研究进展%Research Progress on Catalysis Themolysis of Lignite Solid Heat Carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文英; 喻长连; 李晓红; 邓靖


    综述了国内外褐煤固体热载体催化热解技术研究进展,对比分析了传统固体热载体热解工艺和耦合热解集成工艺特点,以及使用的固体热载体催化性能,明确了循环流化床耦合低温热解多联产技术是褐煤清洁高效综合利用适合的工艺,指出该集成工艺不仅可以优化产物组成、增加产率和提高能量利用效率,还可实现热、电、气、油、焦多联供,提升煤的综合利用价值。最后对固体催化热载体本身及其制备过程中存在的问题和研究方向提出了相应的建议。%The paper introduced the research progress on the lignite themolysis technology of the solid heat carrier at home and abroad. The comparison and analysis on the themolysis technique of the solid heat carrier and the coupling themolysis technology as well as the catalysis performances of the applied solid heat carrier were conducted. The study results showed that the coupling low temperature themolysis multi link production technology of the circulating fluidized bed would be a suitable technique to clean and high efficient comprehensive utilization of lignite. The author pointed out that the integrated technique would not only optimize the product composition, improve the production rate and increase the energy utilization efficiency, could realize the heat, electric power, gas, oil, coke and other multi production and supply and could improve the coal comprehensive utilization value. In addition, according to the problems existed in the solid heat carrier and the preparation, the relative improved proposals and future research prospects were provided.

  14. Relativistic effects in homogeneous gold catalysis. (United States)

    Gorin, David J; Toste, F Dean


    Transition-metal catalysts containing gold present new opportunities for chemical synthesis, and it is therefore not surprising that these complexes are beginning to capture the attention of the chemical community. Cationic phosphine-gold(i) complexes are especially versatile and selective catalysts for a growing number of synthetic transformations. The reactivity of these species can be understood in the context of theoretical studies on gold; relativistic effects are especially helpful in rationalizing the reaction manifolds available to gold catalysts. This Review draws on experimental and computational data to present our current understanding of homogeneous gold catalysis, focusing on previously unexplored reactivity and its application to the development of new methodology.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Heinz


    This history covers: catalytic cracking and other acid catalysed reactions; zeolite catalysis; dual functional catalysis; hydrogenation catalysis and hydrogen production; catalytic hydrocarbon dehydrogenation; catalytic alkylation and dealkylation; catalytic coal liquefaction and gasification; heterogeneous oxidation, arnmoxidation, chlorination, and oxychlorination catalysis; olefin disproportionation catalysis; industrial homogeneous catalysis; catalytic polymerization; catalysis for motor vehicle emission control; fuel cell catalysis; and the profession of the catalytic chemist or engineer. The discussion is mostly limited to the rapid growth of industrial catalysis between the second World War and 1978.

  16. Neutrons for Catalysis: A Workshop on Neutron Scattering Techniques for Studies in Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Coates, Leighton [ORNL; Herwig, Kenneth W [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL


    This report summarizes the Workshop on Neutron Scattering Techniques for Studies in Catalysis, held at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on September 16 and 17, 2010. The goal of the Workshop was to bring experts in heterogeneous catalysis and biocatalysis together with neutron scattering experimenters to identify ways to attack new problems, especially Grand Challenge problems in catalysis, using neutron scattering. The Workshop locale was motivated by the neutron capabilities at ORNL, including the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the new and developing instrumentation at the SNS. Approximately 90 researchers met for 1 1/2 days with oral presentations and breakout sessions. Oral presentations were divided into five topical sessions aimed at a discussion of Grand Challenge problems in catalysis, dynamics studies, structure characterization, biocatalysis, and computational methods. Eleven internationally known invited experts spoke in these sessions. The Workshop was intended both to educate catalyst experts about the methods and possibilities of neutron methods and to educate the neutron community about the methods and scientific challenges in catalysis. Above all, it was intended to inspire new research ideas among the attendees. All attendees were asked to participate in one or more of three breakout sessions to share ideas and propose new experiments that could be performed using the ORNL neutron facilities. The Workshop was expected to lead to proposals for beam time at either the HFIR or the SNS; therefore, it was expected that each breakout session would identify a few experiments or proof-of-principle experiments and a leader who would pursue a proposal after the Workshop. Also, a refereed review article will be submitted to a prominent journal to present research and ideas illustrating the benefits and possibilities of neutron methods for catalysis research.

  17. Solid Base Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshio


    The importance of solid base catalysts has come to be recognized for their environmentally benign qualities, and much significant progress has been made over the past two decades in catalytic materials and solid base-catalyzed reactions. The book is focused on the solid base. Because of the advantages over liquid bases, the use of solid base catalysts in organic synthesis is expanding. Solid bases are easier to dispose than liquid bases, separation and recovery of products, catalysts and solvents are less difficult, and they are non-corrosive. Furthermore, base-catalyzed reactions can be performed without using solvents and even in the gas phase, opening up more possibilities for discovering novel reaction systems. Using numerous examples, the present volume describes the remarkable role solid base catalysis can play, given the ever increasing worldwide importance of "green" chemistry. The reader will obtain an overall view of solid base catalysis and gain insight into the versatility of the reactions to whic...

  18. Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Winterowd, Christopher; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas


    One of the most important developments in condensed matter physics in recent years has been the discovery and characterization of graphene. A two-dimensional layer of Carbon arranged in a hexagonal lattice, graphene exhibits many interesting electronic properties, most notably that the low energy excitations behave as massless Dirac fermions. These excitations interact strongly via the Coulomb interaction and thus non-perturbative methods are necessary. Using methods borrowed from lattice QCD, we study the graphene effective theory in the presence of an external magnetic field. Graphene, along with other $(2+1)$-dimensional field theories, has been predicted to undergo spontaneous breaking of flavor symmetry including the formation of a gap as a result of the external magnetic field. This phenomenon is known as magnetic catalysis. Our study investigates magnetic catalysis using a fully non-perturbative approach.

  19. Research progress on application of ionic liquid-organic biphasic catalysis%离子液体/有机两相催化应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉成; 王恒生; 程艳婷; 郭振美


    作者就近年来离子液体/有机两相催化在加氢、氢甲酰化、齐聚、Heck反应和羰基化反应中的研究进展进行了综述,重点介绍了基于氟硼酸根(BF4-)或氟磷酸根(PF6 -)的咪唑类离子液体在均相催化反应中的应用,并对离子液体/有机两相催化工业应用的前景进行了探讨.%This paper described the development of ionic liquid-organic biphasic catalysis in hydrogena-tion,hydroformylation,oligomerization, Heck reaction and carbonylation,introduced emphatically the applications of imidazole class ionic liquid based on the fluoboric acid anion (BF4- ) or the hexafluoro-phosphoric acid anion (PF6- ) in the homogeneous catalysis,and commented the future applications of ionic liquid-organic biphasic catalysis in chemical industry.

  20. Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms Part II: Homogeneous Catalysis (United States)

    Cooke, D. O.


    Suggests several mechanisms for catalysis by metal ion complexes. Discusses the principal factors of importance in these catalysis reactions and suggests reactions suitable for laboratory study. (MLH)

  1. Mindfulness and the Beginning Teacher (United States)

    Bernay, Ross S.


    This article reviews a hermeneutic phenomenological study of five beginning teachers who were introduced to mindfulness during their initial teacher education programme. The participants kept fortnightly journals and engaged in three interviews with the researcher to assess the benefits of using mindfulness during the first year of teaching. The…

  2. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.

  3. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; LingKang


    Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.  ……

  4. Mechanochemistry, catalysis, and catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butyagin, P.Yu.


    The physical basis of mechanochemistry and the reasons for the initiation and acceleration of chemical reactions upon the mechanical treatment of solids have been considered. The phenomenon of mechanical catalysis has been described in the example case of the oxidation of CO on oxide surfaces, and the nature of the active sites and the laws governing the mechanically activated chemisorption of gases on cleavage and friction surfaces of solids have been examined. The possibilities of the use of the methods of mechanochemistry in processes used to prepare catalysts have been analyzed in examples of decomposition reactions of inorganic compounds and solid-phase synthesis.

  5. Catalysis and prebiotic RNA synthesis (United States)

    Ferris, James P.


    The essential role of catalysis for the origins of life is discussed. The status of the prebiotic synthesis of 2',5'- and 3'5'-linked oligomers of RNA is reviewed. Examples of the role of metal ion and mineral catalysis in RNA oligomer formation are discussed.

  6. How Wars Begin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The Stevenson family was having dinner. The family atewithout talking for several minutes, then Tom said, "Daddy,do you know how wars begin? " Mr. Stevenson thought for a moment, then he said, "Yes,I think so.

  7. Asymmetric trienamine catalysis: new opportunities in amine catalysis. (United States)

    Kumar, Indresh; Ramaraju, Panduga; Mir, Nisar A


    Amine catalysis, through HOMO-activating enamine and LUMO-activating iminium-ion formation, is receiving increasing attention among other organocatalytic strategies, for the activation of unmodified carbonyl compounds. Particularly, the HOMO-raising activation concept has been applied to the greatest number of asymmetric transformations through enamine, dienamine, and SOMO-activation strategies. Recently, trienamine catalysis, an extension of amine catalysis, has emerged as a powerful tool for synthetic chemists with a novel activation strategy for polyenals/polyenones. In this review article, we discuss the initial developments of trienamine catalysis for highly asymmetric Diels-Alder reactions with different dienophiles and emerging opportunities for other types of cycloadditions and cascade reactions.

  8. Beginning Ubuntu Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Raggi, Emilio; Channelle, Andy; Parsons, Trevor; Van Vugt, Sander


    Ubuntu Linux is the fastest growing Linux-based operating system, and Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Fifth Edition teaches all of us - including those who have never used Linux - how to use it productively, whether you come from Windows or the Mac or the world of open source. Beginning Ubuntu Linux, Fifth Edition shows you how to take advantage of the newest Ubuntu release, Lucid Lynx. Based on the best-selling previous edition, Emilio Raggi maintains a fine balance between teaching Ubuntu and introducing new features. Whether you aim to use it in the home or in the office, you'll be introduced to th

  9. Beginning Rails 3

    CERN Document Server

    Barazi, Rida Al


    Beginning Rails 3 is the practical starting point for anyone wanting to learn how to build dynamic web applications using the latest release of the Rails framework for Ruby. You'll learn how all of the components of Rails fit together and how you can leverage them to create sophisticated web applications with less code and more joy. This book is particularly well suited to those with little or no experience with web application development, or who have some experience but are new to Rails. Beginning Rails 3 assumes basic familiarity with web terms and technologies, but doesn't require you to b

  10. Beginning Microsoft Excel 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Abbott


    Beginning Microsoft Excel 2010 is a practical, step-by-step guide to getting started with the world's most widely used spreadsheet application. The book offers a hands-on approach to learning how to create and edit spreadsheets, use various calculation formulas, employ charts/graphs, and get work done efficiently. Microsoft is rolling out several new features with Excel 2010 - perhaps the most notable is the ability to use Excel 2010 online and this collaborate on a project in real time. Beginning Microsoft Office 2010 keeps you up-to-date with all of these new features and more. What you'll l

  11. Beginning ASPNET Security

    CERN Document Server

    Dorrans, Barry


    Beginning ASP.NET 3.5 Security is geared for novice to intermediate ASP.NET programmers who wish to protect and defend their web sites against attack and exploitation. Beginning with a discussion of why we need security and the things that may occur when it is ignored and an overview of how ASP.NET works, readers are taken through the common steps in developing a web site, the security problems each area exposes and how these can be exploited. Visual Studio Security MVP Barry Dorrans teaches readers how they can defend their applications using the standard .NET framework, industry patterns and

  12. New developments in oxidation catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosowski, F. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)


    The impact of heterogeneous catalysis on the economy can be depicted by the global revenue of the chemical industry in 2006, which accounted for 2200 billion Euros with a share of all chemical products produced applying heterogeneous catalysis of about two thirds. [1] The range of products is enormous and they contribute greatly to the quality of our lifes. The advancement in the development of basic and intermediate chemical products is crucially dependent on either the further development of existing catalyst systems or the development of new catalysts and key to success for the chemical industry. Within the context of oxidation catalysis, the following driving forces are guiding research activities: There is a continuous desire to increase the selectivity of a given process in response to both economic as well as ecological needs and taking advantage of higher efficiencies in terms of cost savings and a better utilization of raw materials. A second motivation focuses on raw material change to all abundant and competitive feedstocks requiring both new developments in catalyst design as well as process technology. A more recent motivation refers to the use of metal oxide redox systems which are key to success for the development of novel technologies allowing for the separation of carbon dioxide and the use of carbon dioxide as a feedstock molecule as well as storing renewable energy in a chemical. To date, general ab initio approaches are known for the design of novel catalytic materials only for a few chemical reactions, whereas most industrial catalytic processes have been developed by empirical methods. [2] The development of catalytic materials are either based on the targeted synthesis of catalytic lead structures as well as high throughput methods that allow for the screening of a large range of parameters. [3 - 5] The successful development of catalysts together with reactor technology has led to both significant savings in raw materials and emissions. The

  13. DNA-based hybrid catalysis. (United States)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard


    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphere interactions provided by the DNA are key to achieve high enantioselectivities and, often, additional rate accelerations in catalysis. Nowadays, current efforts are focused on improved designs, understanding the origin of the enantioselectivity and DNA-induced rate accelerations, expanding the catalytic scope of the concept and further increasing the practicality of the method for applications in synthesis. Herein, the recent developments will be reviewed and the perspectives for the emerging field of DNA-based hybrid catalysis will be discussed.

  14. A Survey Course in Catalysis. (United States)

    Skaates, J. M.


    Describes a 10-week survey course in catalysis for chemical engineering and chemistry students designed to show how modern chemistry and chemical engineering interact in the ongoing development of industrial catalysts. Includes course outline and instructional strategies. (Author/JN)

  15. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong


    and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...

  16. New strategies in chemical synthesis and catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pignataro, Bruno


    Providing a comprehensive overview of the essential topics, this book covers the core areas of organic, inorganic, organometallic, biochemical synthesis and catalysis.The authors are among the rising stars in European chemistry, a selection of participants in the 2010 European Young Chemists Award competition, and their contributions deal with most of the frontier issues in chemical synthesis. They give an account of the latest research results in chemistry in Europe, as well as the state of the art in their field of research and the outlook for the future.

  17. Beginning to edit physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, P.W.


    A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

  18. Health Begins at Home

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Clean and well-maintained homes can prevent many illnesses and injuries. This podcast discusses how good health begins at home.  Created: 3/30/2009 by Coordinating Center for Environmental Health and Injury Prevention (CCEHIP).   Date Released: 3/30/2009.

  19. Entropy and Enzyme Catalysis. (United States)

    Åqvist, Johan; Kazemi, Masoud; Isaksen, Geir Villy; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav


    The role played by entropy for the enormous rate enhancement achieved by enzymes has been debated for many decades. There are, for example, several confirmed cases where the activation free energy is reduced by around 10 kcal/mol due to entropic effects, corresponding to a rate enhancement of ∼10(7) compared to the uncatalyzed reaction. However, despite substantial efforts from both the experimental and theoretical side, no real consensus has been reached regarding the origin of such large entropic contributions to enzyme catalysis. Another remarkable instance of entropic effects is found in enzymes that are adapted by evolution to work at low temperatures, near the freezing point of water. These cold-adapted enzymes invariably show a more negative entropy and a lower enthalpy of activation than their mesophilic orthologs, which counteracts the exponential damping of reaction rates at lower temperature. The structural origin of this universal phenomenon has, however, remained elusive. The basic problem with connecting macroscopic thermodynamic quantities, such as activation entropy and enthalpy derived from Arrhenius plots, to the 3D protein structure is that the underlying detailed (microscopic) energetics is essentially inaccessible to experiment. Moreover, attempts to calculate entropy contributions by computer simulations have mostly focused only on substrate entropies, which do not provide the full picture. We have recently devised a new approach for accessing thermodynamic activation parameters of both enzyme and solution reactions from computer simulations, which turns out to be very successful. This method is analogous to the experimental Arrhenius plots and directly evaluates the temperature dependence of calculated reaction free energy profiles. Hence, by extensive molecular dynamics simulations and calculations of up to thousands of independent free energy profiles, we are able to extract activation parameters with sufficient precision for making

  20. Enhanced Micellar Catalysis LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D; Taggart, Gretchen; Kinnan, Mark K.; Glen, Crystal Chanea; Rivera, Danielle; Sanchez, Andres; Alam, Todd Michael


    The primary goals of the Enhanced Micellar Catalysis project were to gain an understanding of the micellar environment of DF-200, or similar liquid CBW surfactant-based decontaminants, as well as characterize the aerosolized DF-200 droplet distribution and droplet chemistry under baseline ITW rotary atomization conditions. Micellar characterization of limited surfactant solutions was performed externally through the collection and measurement of Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) images and Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) images. Micellar characterization was performed externally at the University of Minnesotas Characterization Facility Center, and at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source facility. A micellar diffusion study was conducted internally at Sandia to measure diffusion constants of surfactants over a concentration range, to estimate the effective micelle diameter, to determine the impact of individual components to the micellar environment in solution, and the impact of combined components to surfactant phase behavior. Aerosolized DF-200 sprays were characterized for particle size and distribution and limited chemical composition. Evaporation rates of aerosolized DF-200 sprays were estimated under a set of baseline ITW nozzle test system parameters.

  1. Mechanisms of RNA catalysis. (United States)

    Lilley, David M J


    Ribozymes are RNA molecules that act as chemical catalysts. In contemporary cells, most known ribozymes carry out phosphoryl transfer reactions. The nucleolytic ribozymes comprise a class of five structurally-distinct species that bring about site-specific cleavage by nucleophilic attack of the 2'-O on the adjacent 3'-P to form a cyclic 2',3'-phosphate. In general, they will also catalyse the reverse reaction. As a class, all these ribozymes appear to use general acid-base catalysis to accelerate these reactions by about a million-fold. In the Varkud satellite ribozyme, we have shown that the cleavage reaction is catalysed by guanine and adenine nucleobases acting as general base and acid, respectively. The hairpin ribozyme most probably uses a closely similar mechanism. Guanine nucleobases appear to be a common choice of general base, but the general acid is more variable. By contrast, the larger ribozymes such as the self-splicing introns and RNase P act as metalloenzymes.

  2. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James


    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  3. Beginning algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P


    Beginning Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in algebra. The publication first elaborates on the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on solving linear systems by graphing, elimination method, graphing ordered pairs and straight lines, linear and compound inequalities, addition and subtraction of real numbers, and properties of real numbers. The text then examines exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational expressions. Topics include multiplication and division

  4. New year new beginning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yi-jian


    @@ Beginning from January 2005, the Chinese Medical Journal will be published semimonthly. Since its establishment in 1887, this oldest medical periodical in China has been published monthly most of the time,and bimonthly, quarterly or even semiannually at times. To be published semimonthly is really the first time in the long centennial history of the journal. The shortening of the publication interval, in fact, reflects the surging accomplishments of medical sciences and technology in China in the past decades.

  5. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V


    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  6. Beginning programming for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wallace


    Do you think the programmers who work at your office are magical wizards who hold special powers that manipulate your computer? Believe it or not, anyone can learn how to write programs, and it doesn't take a higher math and science education to start. Beginning Programming for Dummies shows you how computer programming works without all the technical details or hard programming language. It explores the common parts of every computer programming language and how to write for multiple platforms like Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux. This easily accessible guide provides you with the tools

  7. Beginning Swift programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Wei-Meng


    Enter the Swift future of iOS and OS X programming Beginning Swift Programming is your ideal starting point for creating Mac, iPhone, and iPad apps using Apple's new Swift programming language. Written by an experienced Apple developer and trainer, this comprehensive guide explains everything you need to know to jumpstart the creation of your app idea. Coverage includes data types, strings and characters, operators and functions, arrays and dictionaries, control flow, and looping, with expert guidance on classes, objects, class inheritance, closures, protocols, and generics. This succinct - ye

  8. Begining Java EE 7

    CERN Document Server

    Gonclaves, Antonio


    Java Enterprise Edition (Java EE) continues to be one of the leading Java technologies and platforms. Beginning Java EE 7 is the first tutorial book on Java EE 7. Step by step and easy to follow, this book describes many of the Java EE 7 specifications and reference implementations, and shows them in action using practical examples. This definitive book also uses the newest version of GlassFish to deploy and administer the code examples. Written by an expert member of the Java EE specification request and review board in the Java Community Process (JCP), this book contains the best information possible, from an expert’s perspective on enterprise Java technologies.

  9. Beginning Android 2

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Mark


    The Android development platform, created by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, is a platform in its truest sense, encompassing hundreds of classes beyond the traditional Java classes and open source components that ship with the SDK. With Beginning Android 2, you'll learn how to develop applications for Android 2.x mobile devices, using simple examples that are ready to run with your copy of the SDK. Author, Android columnist, writer, developer, and community advocate Mark L. Murphy will show you what you need to know to get started programming Android applications, including how to craft

  10. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V


    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  11. Cinder begin creative coding

    CERN Document Server

    Rijnieks, Krisjanis


    Presented in an easy to follow, tutorial-style format, this book will lead you step-by-step through the multi-faceted uses of Cinder.""Cinder: Begin Creative Coding"" is for people who already have experience in programming. It can serve as a transition from a previous background in Processing, Java in general, JavaScript, openFrameworks, C++ in general or ActionScript to the framework covered in this book, namely Cinder. If you like quick and easy to follow tutorials that will let yousee progress in less than an hour - this book is for you. If you are searching for a book that will explain al

  12. Beginning Android 3

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Mark


    The vibrant and rich Android development platform, created by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, continues to be a platform in its truest sense, encompassing hundreds of classes beyond the traditional Java classes and open source components that ship with the software development kit. Android's continued growth includes support for Flash and Flash gaming apps, Wi-Fi tethering, improved performance, WebM or WebMedia integration for HTML5-based video and other multimedia APIs, Chrome OS (WebOS) integration, and more. With Beginning Android 3, you'll learn how to develop applications for Andro

  13. Beginning Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike


    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever. Beginning Windows 8 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes with it. From tips and tweaks to easy-to-follow guides and d

  14. Nonlinear effects in asymmetric catalysis. (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Tummanapalli; Abraham, Susan; Kagan, Henri B


    There is a need for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds for various applications. An efficient approach to achieve this goal is asymmetric catalysis. The chiral catalyst is usually prepared from a chiral auxiliary, which itself is derived from a natural product or by resolution of a racemic precursor. The use of non-enantiopure chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric catalysis seems unattractive to preparative chemists, since the anticipated enantiomeric excess (ee) of the reaction product should be proportional to the ee value of the chiral auxiliary (linearity). In fact, some deviation from linearity may arise. Such nonlinear effects can be rich in mechanistic information and can be synthetically useful (asymmetric amplification). This Review documents the advances made during the last decade in the use of nonlinear effects in the area of organometallic and organic catalysis.

  15. KCC1: First Nanoparticle developed by KAUST Catalysis Center

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie


    KCC1 is the first Nanoparticle developed by KAUST Catalysis Center. Director of KAUST Catalysis Center, Dr. Jean-Marie Basset, Senior Research Scientist at KCC, Dr. Vivek Polshettiwar, and Dr. Dongkyu Cha of the Advanced Nanofabrication Imaging & Characterization Core Laboratory discuss the details of this recent discovery. This video was produced by KAUST Visualization Laboratory and KAUST Technology Transfer and Innovation - Terence McElwee, Director, Technology Transfer and Innovation - This technology is part of KAUST\\'s technology commercialization program that seeks to stimulate development and commercial use of KAUST-developed technologies. For more information email us at

  16. Photoredox Catalysis in Organic Chemistry. (United States)

    Shaw, Megan H; Twilton, Jack; MacMillan, David W C


    In recent years, photoredox catalysis has come to the forefront in organic chemistry as a powerful strategy for the activation of small molecules. In a general sense, these approaches rely on the ability of metal complexes and organic dyes to convert visible light into chemical energy by engaging in single-electron transfer with organic substrates, thereby generating reactive intermediates. In this Perspective, we highlight the unique ability of photoredox catalysis to expedite the development of completely new reaction mechanisms, with particular emphasis placed on multicatalytic strategies that enable the construction of challenging carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds.

  17. Photoredox Catalysis in Organic Chemistry (United States)


    In recent years, photoredox catalysis has come to the forefront in organic chemistry as a powerful strategy for the activation of small molecules. In a general sense, these approaches rely on the ability of metal complexes and organic dyes to convert visible light into chemical energy by engaging in single-electron transfer with organic substrates, thereby generating reactive intermediates. In this Perspective, we highlight the unique ability of photoredox catalysis to expedite the development of completely new reaction mechanisms, with particular emphasis placed on multicatalytic strategies that enable the construction of challenging carbon–carbon and carbon–heteroatom bonds. PMID:27477076

  18. Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei Materiali, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)


    Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic technologies for scaling-down chemical processes, in order to develop sustainable production processes which reduce the impact on the environment to an acceptable level that allows self-depuration processes of the living environment.

  19. Applying homogeneous catalysis for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. (United States)

    Beller, M


    This article describes recent achievements of my research group in the Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V. in the area of applied homogeneous catalysis for the synthesis of biologically active compounds. Special focus is given on the development of novel and practical palladium and copper catalysts for the functionalization of haloarenes and haloheteroarenes.

  20. Functionalized pyrazines as ligands for minor actinide extraction and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikishkin, N.


    The research presented in this thesis concerns the design of ligands for a wide range of applications, from nuclear waste treatment to catalysis. The strategies employed to design actinide-selective extractants, for instance, comprise the fine tuning of the ligand electronic properties as well as us

  1. A conceptual translation of homogeneous catalysis into heterogeneous catalysis: homogeneous-like heterogeneous gold nanoparticle catalyst induced by ceria supporter. (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xing; Xue, Wei; Guan, Bing-Tao; Shi, Fu-Bo; Shi, Zhang-Jie; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Chun-Hua


    Translation of homogeneous catalysis into heterogeneous catalysis is a promising solution to green and sustainable development in chemical industry. For this purpose, noble metal nanoparticles represent a new frontier in catalytic transformations. Many challenges remain for researchers to transform noble metal nanoparticles of heterogeneous catalytic active sites into ionic species of homogeneous catalytic active sites. We report here a successful design on translating homogeneous gold catalysis into a heterogeneous system with a clear understanding of the catalytic pathway. This study initiates a novel concept to immobilize a homogeneous catalyst based on electron transfer between supporting base and supported nanoparticles. Meanwhile, on the basis of theoretical calculation, it has deepened the understanding of the interactions between noble metal nanoparticles and the catalyst support.

  2. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis. (United States)

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui


    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  3. Binding Energy and Enzymatic Catalysis. (United States)

    Hansen, David E.; Raines, Ronald T.


    Discussed is the fundamental role that the favorable free energy of binding of the rate-determining transition state plays in catalysis. The principle that all of the catalytic factors discussed are realized by the use of this binding energy is reviewed. (CW)

  4. Molecular catalysis of rare-earth elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesky, Peter W. (ed.) [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry


    This volume reviews the recent developments in the use of molecular rare-earth metal compounds in catalysis. Most of the applications deal with homogenous catalysis but in some cases, heterogeneous systems are also mentioned. The rare-earth elements, which are the lanthanides and their close relatives - scandium and yttrium - have not been in the focus of molecular chemistry for a long time and therefore have also not been considered as homogenous catalysts. Although the first organometallic compounds of the lanthanides, which are tris(cyclopentadienyl) lanthanide complexes, were already prepared in the 1950s, it was only in the late 1970s and early 1980s when a number of research groups began to focus on this class of compounds. One reason for the development was the availability of single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques, which made it possible to characterize these compounds.Moreover, new laboratory techniques to handle highly air and moisture sensitive compounds were developed at the same time. Concomitant with the accessibility of this new class of compounds, the application in homogenous catalysis was investigated. One of the first applications in this field was the use of lanthanide metallocenes for the catalytic polymerization of ethylene in the early 1980s. In the last two or three decades, a huge number of inorganic and organometallic compounds of the rare-earth elements were synthesized and some of them were also used as catalysts. Although early work in homogenous catalysis basically focused only on the hydrogenation and polymerization of olefins, the scope for catalytic application today is much broader. Thus, a large number of catalytic {sigma}-bond metathesis reactions, e.g. hydroamination, have been reported in the recent years. This book contains four chapters in which part of the recent development of the use of molecular rare-earth metal compounds in catalysis is covered. To keep the book within the given page limit, not all aspects could be

  5. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew


    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  6. Molecular catalysis science: Perspective on unifying the fields of catalysis. (United States)

    Ye, Rong; Hurlburt, Tyler J; Sabyrov, Kairat; Alayoglu, Selim; Somorjai, Gabor A


    Colloidal chemistry is used to control the size, shape, morphology, and composition of metal nanoparticles. Model catalysts as such are applied to catalytic transformations in the three types of catalysts: heterogeneous, homogeneous, and enzymatic. Real-time dynamics of oxidation state, coordination, and bonding of nanoparticle catalysts are put under the microscope using surface techniques such as sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under catalytically relevant conditions. It was demonstrated that catalytic behavior and trends are strongly tied to oxidation state, the coordination number and crystallographic orientation of metal sites, and bonding and orientation of surface adsorbates. It was also found that catalytic performance can be tuned by carefully designing and fabricating catalysts from the bottom up. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, and likely enzymes, behave similarly at the molecular level. Unifying the fields of catalysis is the key to achieving the goal of 100% selectivity in catalysis.

  7. Researching Our Own Practice: An Individual Creative Process and a Dialogic-Collaborative Process: Self Knowledge is the Beginning of Wisdom. Krishnamurti (1991, p. 196

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farren Margaret


    Full Text Available In this paper, we explain how our individual PhD enquiries (Farren, 2006; Crotty, 2012 have informed the philosophical underpinnings of our postgraduate programmes. The approach used to ensure validity and rigour in the research process is presented. We report on the development of the International Research Centre for e-Innovation and Workplace Learning and its collaboration in European projects such as Pathway to Inquiry Based Learning, Inspiring Science Education (ISE and the African based Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative (GeSCI project Leadership Development in ICT and the Knowledge Society. Our claim is that researching our own practice can be a transformative experience for the practitioner-researcher who is committed to generating knowledge that has personal, professional and social value.

  8. "In Dreams Begins Responsibility": A Self-Study about How Insights from Dreams May Be Brought into the Sphere of Action Research (United States)

    Balogh, Ruth


    This paper argues that material from dreams offers a resource within the social sphere that has potential for the practice of action research. The modern approach to dream interpretation, following Freud, has almost exclusively been situated at the level of the therapeutic dyad where the significance of dream material is circumscribed within…

  9. Insights into enzymatic thiamin catalysis


    Wikner, Christer


    Thiamin diphosphate, the biologically active form of vitamin B,, functions as a cofactor in various enzymes in the cell. The protein enhances the reactivity of the cofactor by binding it in a very specific manner. In this work, based upon information from the crystal structure, the mechanism of the thiamin dependent enzyme transketolase from yeast has been investigated by various methods. In enzymatic thiamin catalysis, the protein has three major tasks in the formation of a...

  10. Recent advances in cooperative bimetallic asymmetric catalysis: dinuclear Schiff base complexes. (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki; Shibasaki, Masakatsu


    Cooperative catalysis has proven to be a powerful strategy for realizing high reactivity and selectivity in asymmetric transformations. A variety of cooperative asymmetric catalysts have been developed over the last two decades. In this feature article, recent advances from our research on cooperative asymmetric catalysis, focusing on dinuclear Schiff base catalysis, are described. Design of dinuclear Schiff base catalysts and their applications in several asymmetric C-C and C-N bond-forming reactions under simple proton transfer conditions with perfect atom-economy are discussed in detail.

  11. Listening begins at home. (United States)

    Stengel, James R; Dixon, Andrea L; Allen, Chris T


    Procter & Gamble has long been regarded as a major power of the marketing world and a prime training ground for marketers. But in the summer of 2000, with half of P&G's top 15 brands losing market share and employee morale in ruins, company executives realized that the marketing organization was in trouble. Training programs had been dramatically downsized and in some cases eliminated, employees were being fast-tracked up the career ladder without sufficient time to develop and hone their skills, mentoring had all but disappeared, and the marketing career path had lost its prestige. In an attempt to rebuild P&G's marketing strength, James Stengel, the heir apparent to the chief marketing officer position, began working with University of Cincinnati professors Chris Allen and Andrea Dixon on a new training program to fix the weaknesses in the marketing organization. But when the two professors began interviewing P&G senior executives, they discovered that the plans in motion for mapping out the marketing group's recovery were based not on data but on the intuition of a few individuals at corporate headquarters. So began the most comprehensive internal research endeavor in P&G marketing's history. Using the company's existing process for consumer research, Allen and Dixon shadowed employees, conducted one-on-one interviews, held focus-group sessions, and surveyed 3,500 members of the marketing staff to learn what the company was doing right--and wrong--and what mattered most to its people. The results led to the most sweeping redesign of P&G's marketing organization in 60 years. In this article, the authors explore the value of listening to employees--and truly hearing them. One of their conclusions: A structured research process can show you what's really on employees' minds.

  12. Nanometallic chemistry: deciphering nanoparticle catalysis from the perspective of organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis. (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Yuan, Yuan; Dyson, Paul J


    Nanoparticle (NP) catalysis is traditionally viewed as a sub-section of heterogeneous catalysis. However, certain properties of NP catalysts, especially NPs dispersed in solvents, indicate that there could be benefits from viewing them from the perspective of homogeneous catalysis. By applying the fundamental approaches and concepts routinely used in homogeneous catalysis to NP catalysts it should be possible to rationally design new nanocatalysts with superior properties to those currently in use.

  13. Cosmic strings and baryon decay catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, R.; Perkins, W.B.; Davis, A.C.; Brandenberger, R.H. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA); Cambridge Univ. (UK); Brown Univ., Providence, RI (USA). Dept. of Physics)


    Cosmic strings, like monopoles, can catalyze proton decay. For integer charged fermions, the cross section for catalysis is not amplified, unlike in the case of monopoles. We review the catalysis processes both in the free quark and skyrmion pictures and discuss the implications for baryogenesis. We present a computation of the cross section for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay using classical physics. We also discuss some effects which can screen catalysis processes. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Cosmic strings and baryon decay catalysis (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth; Perkins, W. B.; Davis, A.-C.; Brandenberger, R. H.


    Cosmic strings, like monopoles, can catalyze proton decay. For integer charged fermions, the cross section for catalysis is not amplified, unlike in the case of monopoles. The catalysis processes are reviewed both in the free quark and skyrmion pictures and the implications for baryogenesis are discussed. A computation of the cross section for monopole catalyzed skyrmion decay is presented using classical physics. Also discussed are some effects which can screen catalysis processes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our objectives were to develop a multidisciplinary team and capabilities to develop a fundamental understanding of homogeneous, heterogeneous, and heterogenized catalysts. With the aid of theoretical chemistry approaches we explored and characterized the chemical reactivity and physical properties of a large number of catalytic systems.

  16. Water Research Consortium U.S. Department of Energy Grant Award Number DE-FG02-05ER64132 Final Technical Report For Period Beginning: 15 September 2005 And Ending: 31 December 2009 Report Date: 16 March 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Billingsley


    This report summarizes the activities of the INRA Water Research Consortium (IWRC) for the period beginning September 15, 2005 and ending December 16, 2010. This report compares accomplishments to project objectives, documents the activities associated with this project, and lists products developed during the course of the project. The Water Resources Research Needs Assessment team received funding from the Inland Northwest Research Alliance Water Resources Steering Committee to facilitate a structured needs assessment process that could provide a basis for future targeted research efforts to improve regional water resources management in the Inland Northwest region. The original INRA proposal specifically mentions the need to conduct a detailed assessment of the information and research needs of policy makers and water user groups during a period of increasing competition for scarce water supplies. A particular focus of this assessment would be to understand what types of research might facilitate water resource management during periods of drought. The specific goals of the Needs Assessment project were to: (1) Quickly ascertain the perceptions of diverse stakeholders in this region; (2) Condense this complex information into a format that can be shared with the INRA scientific panel, and (3) Develop of a realistic set of research needs & priorities that can shape future INRA-funded research activities.

  17. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi


    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  18. Cooperative catalysis designing efficient catalysts for synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, René


    Written by experts in the field, this is a much-needed overview of the rapidly emerging field of cooperative catalysis. The authors focus on the design and development of novel high-performance catalysts for applications in organic synthesis (particularly asymmetric synthesis), covering a broad range of topics, from the latest progress in Lewis acid / Br?nsted base catalysis to e.g. metal-assisted organocatalysis, cooperative metal/enzyme catalysis, and cooperative catalysis in polymerization reactions and on solid surfaces. The chapters are classified according to the type of cooperating acti

  19. Hydrogen Production by Homogeneous Catalysis: Alcohol Acceptorless Dehydrogenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin


    in hydrogen production from biomass using homogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous catalysis has the advance of generally performing transformations at much milder conditions than traditional heterogeneous catalysis, and hence it constitutes a promising tool for future applications for a sustainable energy sector...

  20. Electronic Structure and Catalysis on Metal Surfaces (United States)

    Greeley, Jeff; Norskov, Jens K.; Mavrikakis, Manos


    The powerful computational resources available to scientists today, together with recent improvements in electronic structure calculation algorithms, are providing important new tools for researchers in the fields of surface science and catalysis. In this review, we discuss first principles calculations that are now capable of providing qualitative and, in many cases, quantitative insights into surface chemistry. The calculations can aid in the establishment of chemisorption trends across the transition metals, in the characterization of reaction pathways on individual metals, and in the design of novel catalysts. First principles studies provide an excellent fundamental complement to experimental investigations of the above phenomena and can often allow the elucidation of important mechanistic details that would be difficult, if not impossible, to determine from experiments alone.

  1. Contrast and Synergy between Electrocatalysis and Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wieckowski


    Full Text Available The advances in spectroscopy and theory that have occurred over the past two decades begin to provide detailed in situ resolution of the molecular transformations that occur at both gas/metal as well as aqueous/metal interfaces. These advances begin to allow for a more direct comparison of heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis. Such comparisons become important, as many of the current energy conversion strategies involve catalytic and electrocatalytic processes that occur at fluid/solid interfaces and display very similar characteristics. Herein, we compare and contrast a few different catalytic and electrocatalytic systems to elucidate the principles that cross-cut both areas and establish characteristic differences between the two with the hope of advancing both areas.

  2. Research Program of International Geophysical Year (Igy-1957 Have Ended In the Millennium Beginning By Discovery of the Theoretical Current Sheets in the Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostapenko V. A.


    Full Text Available We declare about the discovery in the Nature of theoretical current sheets by S. I. Syrovatskij. The first “natural” current sheet was discovered in flare spectrum, calculated and researched experimentally. The current sheets (CS are found in chromosphere and downward levels in optical range data. The main problem of physics of solar flares has been solved. Magnetic field energy is a primary source of active processes in solar plasma. Current sheet (CS of S. I. Syrovatskij is the mechanism of magnetic energy transformation into plasma energy. The current sheet is not discovered in a flare, as expected. As a matter of fact, solar flare is in itself a current sheet, its direct observed development in chromosphere plasma. Continuous current sheet radiation is the «black» (BLF and the «white» (WLF flare (like light of Sun photosphere. It is the negative hydrogen ion excitation upon reaching hydrogen plasma density of ˃5 1017 cm -3

  3. Mozart Effect: Sound Beginnings? Infants and Toddlers. (United States)

    Caulfield, Rick


    Notes that outcomes of the "Mozart Effect" on early brain development are not thoroughly proven and presents challenges for future research. Points out that it is still unknown at what age exposure to musical concepts should begin, and that parents should allow children to pursue musical interests at their own pace to avoid burnout at a…

  4. Mallet Instruments Challenge Beginning Percussionists. (United States)

    Grumley, Fred


    Orff mallet instruments should be used in beginning band classes. Adding mallet instruments would expand a beginner's concept of percussion instruments. Just as important, the percussion section would provide a solid melodic and harmonic foundation to assist beginning wind instrumentalists with their insecurities about pitch. (RM)

  5. Indenylmetal Catalysis in Organic Synthesis. (United States)

    Trost, Barry M; Ryan, Michael C


    Synthetic organic chemists have a long-standing appreciation for transition metal cyclopentadienyl complexes, of which many have been used as catalysts for organic transformations. Much less well known are the contributions of the benzo-fused relative of the cyclopentadienyl ligand, the indenyl ligand, whose unique properties have in many cases imparted differential reactivity in catalytic processes toward the synthesis of small molecules. In this Review, we present examples of indenylmetal complexes in catalysis and compare their reactivity to their cyclopentadienyl analogues, wherever possible.

  6. Fundamental concepts in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Norskov, Jens K; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Bligaard, Thomas


    This book is based on a graduate course and suitable as a primer for any newcomer to the field, this book is a detailed introduction to the experimental and computational methods that are used to study how solid surfaces act as catalysts.   Features include:First comprehensive description of modern theory of heterogeneous catalysisBasis for understanding and designing experiments in the field   Allows reader to understand catalyst design principlesIntroduction to important elements of energy transformation technologyTest driven at Stanford University over several semesters

  7. Asymmetric catalysis : ligand design and microwave acceleration


    Bremberg, Ulf


    This thesis deals partly with the design and synthesis ofligands for use in asymmetric catalysis, and partly with theapplication of microwave heating on metal-based asymmetriccatalytic reactions. Enantiomerically pure pyridyl alcohols and bipyridylalcohols were synthesized from the chiral pool for future usein asymmetric catalysis. Lithiated pyridines were reacted withseveral chiral electrophiles, yielding diastereomeric mixturesthat could be separated without the use of resolutiontechniques....

  8. Cobalt particle size effects in catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Breejen, J.P.


    Aim of the work described in this thesis was first to investigate cobalt particle size effects in heterogeneous catalysis. The main focus was to provide a deeper understanding of the origin of the cobalt particle size effects in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalysis in which synthesis gas (H2/CO) is conver

  9. Wall catalysis experiment on AFE. [Aeroassist Flight Experiments (United States)

    Stewart, David A.; Kolodziej, Paul


    This paper describes the wall catalysis experiment which is planned as part of the Aeroassist Flight experiments (AFE) that will be flown from the Space Shuttle Orbiter in late 1993. Research on candidate high-catalytic efficiency overcoats for the experiment conducted in an arc-jet air stream are discussed. The temperature distribution over the AFE heat shield is also predicted using a reacting boundary layer solution that includes surface kinetics and optical properties determined from these tests.

  10. Hybrid Porous Materials for Controlled Release and Catalysis


    Liu, Rui


    First reported in 1992, ordered mesoporous materials exhibit unique features, such as regular pore geometry, high surface area, and large pore volume, and have shown great potential in various applications. This dissertation combines the knowledge from the field of ordered mesoporous materials and several other research areas to design advanced hybrid porous materials for controlled release and catalysis applications.The demand for better treatment of illness has led to ever-increasing effort...

  11. Beginnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F


    posttranslational processing. By these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are produced in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, gut hormones are widely expressed outside the gut. The different cell types often express different products of the same gene and release the peptides...... in different ways. Consequently, the same peptide may act as a hormone, a local growth factor, or a neurotransmitter. This new biology suggests that gastrointestinal hormones should be conceived as intercellular messengers of major general impact. The following short review is a vignette on steps......The gut is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones share some characteristics: Their structure groups hormones into families, each of which originate from a single gene. A hormone gene is often expressed in multiple peptides due to tandem genes, alternative splicing or differentiated...

  12. Beginnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper is a contribution to a series of recollections and reflections on the professional experiences of distinguished economists which the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review started in 1979. In it Hyman Minsky offers a retrospective on his academic career and intellectual development.

  13. Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis. (United States)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Somorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong


    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO(2)-Pt and Pt-SiO(2), can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO(2)-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H(2), which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO(2) interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts.

  14. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; E.Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Samorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong


    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO2-Pt and Pt-SiO2, can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO2-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H2, which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO2 interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts

  15. Molecular-Level Design of Heterogeneous Chiral Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco Zaera


    The following is a proposal to continue our multi-institutional research on heterogeneous chiral catalysis. Our team combines the use of surface-sensitive analytical techniques for the characterization of model systems with quantum and statistical mechanical calculations to interpret experimental data and guide the design of future research. Our investigation focuses on the interrelation among the three main mechanisms by which enantioselectivity can be bestowed to heterogeneous catalysts, namely: (1) by templating chirality via the adsorption of chiral supramolecular assemblies, (2) by using chiral modifiers capable of forming chiral complexes with the reactant and force enantioselective surface reactions, and (3) by forming naturally chiral surfaces using imprinting chiral agents. Individually, the members of our team are leaders in these various aspects of chiral catalysis, but the present program provides the vehicle to generate and exploit the synergies necessary to address the problem in a comprehensive manner. Our initial work has advanced the methodology needed for these studies, including an enantioselective titration procedure to identify surface chiral sites, infrared spectroscopy in situ at the interface between gases or liquids and solids to mimic realistic catalytic conditions, and DFT and Monte Carlo algorithms to simulate and understand chirality on surfaces. The next step, to be funded by the monies requested in this proposal, is to apply those methods to specific problems in chiral catalysis, including the identification of the requirements for the formation of supramolecular surface structures with enantioselective behavior, the search for better molecules to probe the chiral nature of the modified surfaces, the exploration of the transition from supramolecular to one-to-one chiral modification, the correlation of the adsorption characteristics of one-to-one chiral modifiers with their physical properties, in particular with their configuration

  16. The Beginnings of Airborne Weightlessness Research. (United States)


    flight, fifty-one sub-"l’s passenger, Laika (1.-D-81 stated gra-itv flying missions of the overall that "the accelerated heart rate of the...periods of sleep, and required reported"’ in the tachycardia of Laika several seconds before he was aware in Sputnik II which lasted three times of his...about Sputnik II’s from launching until burnout of the 48 hr. After a full breakfast, which passenger, Laika . This data noted engine. The transition from

  17. The Beginnings of Aeromedical Acceleration Research (United States)


    loads: namely 20, 40, 60 and 98 G, for a duration of five minutes. No wonder that Garsaux detected in the surviving animals severe neurological...after the von Diringshofen Era In 1934 Jongbloed and Noyons (15) published the results of their experi- ments with a small animal centrifuge on which...des Menschen im Flugzeug. Publisher J. Springer, Berlin. 19. Von Beckh, H. J. 1955. Fisiologia del Vuelo (Physiology of Flight). 147 pp. Publisher

  18. Homogeneous Catalysis with Metal Complexes Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Duca, Gheorghe


    The book about homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes deals with the description of the reductive-oxidative, metal complexes  in a liquid phase (in polar solvents, mainly in water, and less in nonpolar solvents). The exceptional importance of the redox processes in chemical systems, in the reactions occuring in living organisms, the environmental processes, atmosphere, water, soil, and in industrial technologies (especially in food-processing industries) is discussed. The detailed practical aspects of the established regularities are explained for solving the specific practical tasks in various fields of industrial chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, analytical chemistry and ecological chemistry. The main scope of the book is the survey and systematization of the latest advances in homogeneous catalysis with metal complexes. It gives an overview of the research results and practical experience accumulated by the author during the last decade.

  19. A Summary and Review of the Chinese Modern Famine History Research Since the Beginning of the 21st Century%新世纪以来中国近代灾荒史研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As an important branch of social history research,famine history has always been paid great attention to by scholars at home and abroad.The frequency of China's famines in modern times has made China faced with an unprecedented disaster relief situation.Since the beginning of the 21st century,in order to make an in-depth exploration of the social change of Modern China,scholars not only continue to study the causes of famine and the process in recent years,but also begin to try to study famine based on economic factors,cultural factors,geography,environment,and many other factors,all of which have expanded the research perspectives of the history of Modern China's famines.%灾荒史作为社会史研究的重要分支,历来备受海内外学者瞩目。近代灾荒的频发,使得灾难深重的中国面临前所未有的抗灾赈济局面。新世纪以来,为了深入剖析近代中国的社会变迁,学界除继续探讨近代灾荒的成灾诱因与过程外,开始尝试将灾荒与经济、文化、地理环境等诸多因素结合起来考察,从而拓展灾荒史的研究视域。

  20. Asymmetric catalysis with short-chain peptides. (United States)

    Lewandowski, Bartosz; Wennemers, Helma


    Within this review article we describe recent developments in asymmetric catalysis with peptides. Numerous peptides have been established in the past two decades that catalyze a wide variety of transformations with high stereoselectivities and yields, as well as broad substrate scope. We highlight here catalytically active peptides, which have addressed challenges that had thus far remained elusive in asymmetric catalysis: enantioselective synthesis of atropoisomers and quaternary stereogenic centers, regioselective transformations of polyfunctional substrates, chemoselective transformations, catalysis in-flow and reactions in aqueous environments.

  1. Nanocrystal assembly for tandem catalysis (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor; Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu


    The present invention provides a nanocrystal tandem catalyst comprising at least two metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. One embodiment utilizes a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling sub-10 nm platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO.sub.2--Pt and Pt--SiO.sub.2, can be used to catalyze two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO.sub.2--Pt interface catalyzed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H.sub.2, which were then subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalyzed by the nearby Pt--SiO.sub.2 interface. Consequently, propanal was selectively produced on this nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst.

  2. Palladium catalysis for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, L. D.; Datye, Abhaya


    Palladium (Pd) is an attractive catalyst for a range of new combustion applications comprising primary new technologies for future industrial energy needs, including gas turbine catalytic combustion, auto exhaust catalysts, heating and fuel cells. Pd poses particular challenges because it changes both chemical state and morphology as a function of temperature and reactant environment and those changes result in positive and negative changes in activity. Interactions with the support, additives, water, and contaminants as well as carbon formation have also been observed to affect Pd catalyst performance. This report describes the results of a 3.5 year project that resolves some of the conflicting reports in the literature about the performance of Pd-based catalysis.

  3. Inverse Magnetic/Shear Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    McInnes, Brett


    It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark-Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce ``inverse magnetic catalysis'', signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magne...

  4. The structural basis for specificity in lipoxygenase catalysis. (United States)

    Newcomer, Marcia E; Brash, Alan R


    Many intriguing facets of lipoxygenase (LOX) catalysis are open to a detailed structural analysis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids with two to six double bonds are oxygenated precisely on a particular carbon, typically forming a single chiral fatty acid hydroperoxide product. Molecular oxygen is not bound or liganded during catalysis, yet it is directed precisely to one position and one stereo configuration on the reacting fatty acid. The transformations proceed upon exposure of substrate to enzyme in the presence of O2 (RH + O2 → ROOH), so it has proved challenging to capture the precise mode of substrate binding in the LOX active site. Beginning with crystal structures with bound inhibitors or surrogate substrates, and most recently arachidonic acid bound under anaerobic conditions, a picture is consolidating of catalysis in a U-shaped fatty acid binding channel in which individual LOX enzymes use distinct amino acids to control the head-to-tail orientation of the fatty acid and register of the selected pentadiene opposite the non-heme iron, suitably positioned for the initial stereoselective hydrogen abstraction and subsequent reaction with O2 . Drawing on the crystal structures available currently, this review features the roles of the N-terminal β-barrel (C2-like, or PLAT domain) in substrate acquisition and sensitivity to cellular calcium, and the α-helical catalytic domain in fatty acid binding and reactions with O2 that produce hydroperoxide products with regio and stereospecificity. LOX structures combine to explain how similar enzymes with conserved catalytic machinery differ in product, but not substrate, specificities.

  5. Beginning WordPress 3

    CERN Document Server

    Leary, Stephanie


    One of the most popular open source blogging and content management systems, WordPress lets you create a website to promote yourself or your business quickly and easilyi' "and better yet, it's free. WordPress is a flexible, user-friendly system, and it can be extended with a variety of themes and plugins. Beginning WordPress 3 is a complete guide for the beginning developer who wants to start using WordPress. You'll learn how to publish and manage online content, add media, create widgets and plugins, and much more. What you'll learn * How to get started with Wordpress, create new content

  6. Relation between Hydrogen Evolution and Hydrodesulfurization Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Šaric, Manuel; Moses, Poul Georg; Rossmeisl, Jan


    A relation between hydrogen evolution and hydrodesulfurization catalysis was found by density functional theory calculations. The hydrogen evolution reaction and the hydrogenation reaction in hydrodesulfurization share hydrogen as a surface intermediate and, thus, have a common elementary step...

  7. Micelle Catalysis of an Aromatic Substitution Reaction (United States)

    Corsaro, Gerald; Smith J. K.


    Describes an experiment in which the iodonation of aniline reaction is shown to undergo catalysis in solution of sodium lauryl sulfate which forms micelles with negatively charged pseudo surfaces. (MLH)

  8. A Course in Kinetics and Catalysis. (United States)

    Bartholomew, C. H.


    Describes a one-semester, three-credit hour course integrating the fundamentals of kinetics and the scientific/engineering principles of heterogeneous catalysis. Includes course outline, list of texts, background readings, and topical journal articles. (SK)

  9. Advancing Sustainable Catalysis with Magnetite Surface ... (United States)

    This article surveys the recent developments in the synthesis, surface modification, and synthetic applications of magnetitenanoparticles. The emergence of iron(II,III) oxide (triiron tetraoxide or magnetite; Fe3O4, or FeO•Fe2O3) nanoparticles as a sustainable support in heterogeneous catalysis is highlighted. Use of an oxide of earth-abundant iron for various applications in catalysis and environmental remediation.

  10. Phosphine catalysis of allenes with electrophiles. (United States)

    Wang, Zhiming; Xu, Xingzhu; Kwon, Ohyun


    Nucleophilic phosphine catalysis of allenes with electrophiles is one of the most powerful and straightforward synthetic strategies for the generation of highly functionalized carbocycle or heterocycle structural motifs, which are present in a wide range of bioactive natural products and medicinally important substances. The reaction topologies can be controlled through a judicious choice of the phosphine catalyst and the structural variations of starting materials. This Tutorial Review presents selected examples of nucleophilic phosphine catalysis using allenes and electrophiles.

  11. Recent advances in homogeneous nickel catalysis. (United States)

    Tasker, Sarah Z; Standley, Eric A; Jamison, Timothy F


    Tremendous advances have been made in nickel catalysis over the past decade. Several key properties of nickel, such as facile oxidative addition and ready access to multiple oxidation states, have allowed the development of a broad range of innovative reactions. In recent years, these properties have been increasingly understood and used to perform transformations long considered exceptionally challenging. Here we discuss some of the most recent and significant developments in homogeneous nickel catalysis, with an emphasis on both synthetic outcome and mechanism.

  12. Loop residues and catalysis in OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Gary P.; Hansen, Michael Riis; Grubmeyer, Charles


    (preceding paper in this issue, DOI 10.1021/bi300083p)]. The full expression of KIEs by H105A and E107A may result from a less secure closure of the catalytic loop. The lower level of expression of the KIE by K103A suggests that in these mutant proteins the major barrier to catalysis is successful closure...... of the catalytic loop, which when closed, produces rapid and reversible catalysis....

  13. Great Expectations and New Beginnings (United States)

    Davis, Frances A.


    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  14. In the beginning was information

    CERN Document Server

    Gitt, Werner, Dr


    Information is the cornerstone of life, yet it is something people don't often think about. In his fascinating new book, In the Beginning Was Information, Dr. Werner Gitt helps the reader see how the very presence of information reveals a Designer.

  15. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefelmeyer, James


    I. Project Summary Catalytic processes are a major technological underpinning of modern society, and are essential to the energy sector in the processing of chemical fuels from natural resources, fine chemicals synthesis, and energy conversion. Advances in catalyst technology are enormously valuable since these lead to reduced chemical waste, reduced energy loss, and reduced costs. New energy technologies, which are critical to future economic growth, are also heavily reliant on catalysts, including fuel cells and photo-electrochemical cells. Currently, the state of South Dakota is underdeveloped in terms of research infrastructure related to catalysis. If South Dakota intends to participate in significant economic growth opportunities that result from advances in catalyst technology, then this area of research needs to be made a high priority for investment. To this end, a focused research effort is proposed in which investigators from The University of South Dakota (USD) and The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSMT) will contribute to form the South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG). The multidisciplinary team of the (SDCG) include: (USD) Dan Engebretson, James Hoefelmeyer, Ranjit Koodali, and Grigoriy Sereda; (SDSMT) Phil Scott Ahrenkiel, Hao Fong, Jan Puszynski, Rajesh Shende, and Jacek Swiatkiewicz. The group is well suited to engage in a collaborative project due to the resources available within the existing programs. Activities within the SDCG will be monitored through an external committee consisting of three distinguished professors in chemistry. The committee will provide expert advice and recommendations to the SDCG. Advisory meetings in which committee members interact with South Dakota investigators will be accompanied by individual oral and poster presentations in a materials and catalysis symposium. The symposium will attract prominent scientists, and will enhance the visibility of research in the state of South Dakota. The SDCG requests

  16. Specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diels-Alder reactions in aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubofu, E.B.; Engberts, J.B.F.N.


    A comparative study of specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diells-Alder reactions between dienophiles (1, 4 and 6) and cyclopentadiene (2) in water and mixed aqueous media is reported. The reactions were performed in water with copper(II) nitrate as the Lewis acid catalyst whereas hy

  17. Specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diels–Alder reactions in aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubofu, Egid B.; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.


    A comparative study of specific acid catalysis and Lewis acid catalysis of Diels–Alder reactions between dienophiles (1, 4 and 6) and cyclopentadiene (2) in water and mixed aqueous media is reported. The reactions were performed in water with copper(II) nitrate as the Lewis acid catalyst whereas hyd

  18. Acceptorless Dehydrogenation of N-Heterocycles by Merging Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis and Cobalt Catalysis. (United States)

    He, Ke-Han; Tan, Fang-Fang; Zhou, Chao-Zheng; Zhou, Gui-Jiang; Yang, Xiao-Long; Li, Yang


    Herein, the first acceptorless dehydrogenation of tetrahydroquinolines (THQs), indolines, and other related N-heterocycles, by merging visible-light photoredox catalysis and cobalt catalysis at ambient temperature, is described. The potential applications to organic transformations and hydrogen-storage materials are demonstrated. Primary mechanistic investigations indicate that the catalytic cycle occurs predominantly by an oxidative quenching pathway.

  19. Ceramics in Environmental Catalysis:Applications and Possibilities%Ceramics in Environmental Catalysis: Applications and Possibilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Environmental catalysis has been steadily growing because of the advances in its scientific and engineering aspects,as well as due to the new environmental challenges in the industrial era.The development of new catalysts and materials is essential for new technologies for various environmental applications.Ceramics play important roles in various environmental applications including the identification,monitoring,and quantification of pollutants and their control.Ceramics have important applications as sensors and photocatalysts,and they are extensively used as catalyst carriers and supports.Many ceramics are being explored as catalysts for pollution control applications.Their low cost,thermal and chemical stability,and capability of being tailored make them especially attractive for pollution control applications.Although a wide variety of materials have been developed as catalyst supports,this area is still of interest with new or modified catalyst supports being frequently reported.It is of equal importance to develop new or modified processes for the loading of catalysts on specific supports.Applications like chemical looping combustion (CLC) and other catalytic combustion processes are raising the demands to a new scale.We have been working on the development of both new and modified support materials,including mesoporous materials without structural order for possible applications in CLC and other catalytic reactions.Successful attempts have been made in the modification of conventional γ-Al2O3 and improved synthesis processes for supporting perovskite type catalysts.Our research on environmental catalysis applications of ceramic materials and processes are also briefly discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  1. Catalysis-by-design impacts assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, L L; Young, J K [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); Sen, R K [Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (USA)


    Catalyst researchers have always recognized the need to develop a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of catalytic processes, and have hoped that it would lead to developing a theoretical predictive base to guide the search for new catalysts. This understanding allows one to develop a set of hierarchical models, from fundamental atomic-level ab-initio models to detailed engineering simulations of reactor systems, to direct the search for optimized, efficient catalyst systems. During the last two decades, the explosions of advanced surface analysis techniques have helped considerably to develop the building blocks for understanding various catalytic reactions. An effort to couple these theoretical and experimental advances to develop a set of hierarchical models to predict the nature of catalytic materials is a program entitled Catalysis-by-Design (CRD).'' In assessing the potential impacts of CBD on US industry, the key point to remember is that the value of the program lies in developing a novel methodology to search for new catalyst systems. Industrial researchers can then use this methodology to develop proprietary catalysts. Most companies involved in catalyst R D have two types of ongoing projects. The first type, what we call market-driven R D,'' are projects that support and improve upon a company's existing product lines. Project of the second type, technology-driven R D,'' are longer term, involve the development of totally new catalysts, and are initiated through scientists' research ideas. The CBD approach will impact both types of projects. However, this analysis indicates that the near-term impacts will be on market-driven'' projects. The conclusions and recommendations presented in this report were obtained by the authors through personal interviews with individuals involved in a variety of industrial catalyst development programs and through the three CBD workshops held in the summer of 1989. 34 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Workplace aggression: beginning a dialogue. (United States)

    McLemore, Monica R


    The June 2005 Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing editorial titled "Communication: Whose Problem Is It?" (Griffin-Sobel, 2005) was written to begin a dialogue about a phenomenon frequently experienced yet rarely discussed: workplace aggression, also known as disruptive behavior. Prompted by a groundbreaking study published in the American Journal of Nursing by Rosenstein and O'Daniel (2005), the editorial challenged oncology nurses to begin to fix problems of communication. After reflecting on both of the articles and considering my own experience as a nurse manager, clinician, and scholar, I decided to explore the topic as it relates to nurse-to-nurse workplace aggression. The following is a summary of interviews with nurse managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse scientists about root causes and effective strategies to manage these sometimes complicated situations. This article is meant to continue the dialogue about the very sensitive issue. Confidentiality has been maintained, and I welcome your comments.

  3. On the Way of Setting up Research Team of Teaching and Research University at the Beginning%教学研究型大学初期科研团队组建办法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹铁方; 刘朱紫; 李岳林; 杜荣华


    Early teaching and research university research team building process by analyzing the research direction is not clear,the lack of funds,lack of appeal of academic leaders,and is difficult to confirm the attribution of scientific research and other issues,on this basis,further pointed out that from the threepronged approach to solve these problems:hospital,school resources to tilt to the research team has practical value and scientific value and the ability to make full use of existing resources to determine the direction of team research,and academic leaders established by internal potential combination with the introduction of talent;solve the attribution of scientific research in order to accelerate the formation of the research team,and to a certain extent;give full play to the graduate linking role,gave birth to the team of research results,promote the interdisciplinary team research direction of integration.%通过分析发现教学研究型大学初期科研团队组建过程中存在研究方向不明确、经费缺乏、缺乏有号召力的学术带头人以及科研成果的归属难以确认等问题,在此基础上进一步指出可从三个方面入手解决这些问题:以是否具有实用价值与科研价值及能否充分利用已有资源确定团队研究方向,然后通过内部挖潜与引进人才相结合确立学术带头人;通过院、校资源向科研团队倾斜,以加速科研团队的形成,并一定程度上解决科研成果的归属问题;充分发挥研究生纽带作用,孕育团队科研成果,促进学科交叉与团队研究方向的融合。

  4. SPIG From Beginning To Today (United States)

    Labat, J.


    Rapid growth of nuclear physics in fifties attracted attention of numerous scientists, mainly physicists. At the same time, governments become interested in the field, expecting various advantages, and to be honest, in the first place the nuclear weapons. As a result, also in the country at that time called Yugoslavia, the Federal Nuclear Agency has been formed, and generously funds have been given to support the research. In Yugoslavia three nuclear centers have been founded: in Belgrade (Serbia), Zagreb (Croatia) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). The nuclear research and applications to related fields, inevitably was related to the physics of ionized gases. Just to mention electro-magnetic separation of isotopes, mass spectrometry, gas filled nuclear radiation detectors, accelerator ion sources, sources for analytical spectroscopy and others. Right from the beginning a common problem has been met: lack of basic knowledge on elementary collision processes and in general on the matter in ionized state. Groups of physicists in the mentioned institutes have started paying full attention to these problems. They found it of interest to exchange the results and cooperate not only between themselves but also with research centers in other countries. It was felt that at least one national meeting should be organized, where an overview of activities in the field of ionized gases could be presented. Thanks to extraordinary efforts of prof. B. Perovic, supported, backed and simulated by prof. A. Milojevic, prof. Z. Sternberg, prof. Dj. Bosan and prof. A. Moljk first such meeting was prepared. In 1962 the "Ist Yugoslav Symposium an the Physics of Ionized Gases" was organized in Belgrade. Six invited lectures and 26 original contributions were presented. Two years later, in 1964, the second meeting of the same title was held in Zagreb (Croatia). The large number of participants and unexpected interest in field has initiated an idea that the study of different fields related to the

  5. Plasma Chemistry and Catalysis in Gases and Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Parvulescu, Vasile I; Lukes, Petr


    Filling the gap for a book that not only covers gases but also plasma methods in liquids, this is all set to become the standard reference on the topic. It considers the central aspects in plasma chemistry and plasma catalysis by focusing on the green and environmental applications, while also taking into account their practical and economic viability. With the topics addressed by an international group of major experts, this is a must-have for researchers, PhD students and postdocs specializing in the field.

  6. Charge Transfer and Catalysis at the Metal Support Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Lawrence Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Kinetic, electronic, and spectroscopic characterization of model Pt–support systems are used to demonstrate the relationship between charge transfer and catalytic activity and selectivity. The results show that charge flow controls the activity and selectivity of supported metal catalysts. This dissertation builds on extensive existing knowledge of metal–support interactions in heterogeneous catalysis. The results show the prominent role of charge transfer at catalytic interfaces to determine catalytic activity and selectivity. Further, this research demonstrates the possibility of selectively driving catalytic chemistry by controlling charge flow and presents solid-state devices and doped supports as novel methods for obtaining electronic control over catalytic reaction kinetics.

  7. Selenium nanomaterials: applications in electronics, catalysis and sensors. (United States)

    Chaudhary, Savita; Mehta, S K


    This review provides insights into the synthesis, functionalization, and applications of selenium nanoparticles in electronics, optics, catalysis and sensors. The variation of physicochemical properties such as particle size, surface area, and shape of the selenium nanoparticles and the effect of experimental conditions has also been discussed. An overview has also been provided on the fundamental electrical and optical properties of selenium nanomaterials as well as their utilization in different research fields. The work presents an insight on selenium nanoparticles with interesting properties and their future applications.

  8. Molecular modeling of heterogeneous catalysis (United States)

    Gislason, Jason Joseph

    A novel method for modeling heterogeneous catalysis was developed to further facilitate the understanding of catalytic reactor mechanisms. The method employs molecular dynamics simulations, statistical mechanical, and Unity Bond Index - Quadratic Exponential Potential (UBI-QEP) calculations to calculate the rate constants for reactions on metal surfaces. The primary difficulty of molecular dynamics simulations on metal surfaces has been the lack of reliable reactive potential energy surfaces. We have overcome this through the development of the Normalized Bond Index - Reactive Potential Function (NBI-RPF), which can accurately describe the reaction of adsorbates on metal surfaces. The first calculations of rate constants for a reaction on a metal surface using molecular dynamics simulations are presented. This method is applied to the determination of the mechanism for selective hydrogenation of acetylene in an ethylene rich flow. It was determined that the selectivity for acetylene hydrogenation is attributable to the higher reactivity of acetylene versus ethylene with respect to hydrogenation by molecular hydrogen. It was shown that hydrogen transfer from the carbonaceous layer to acetylene or ethylene is insignificant in the hydrogenation process. Molecular dynamics simulations and molecular mechanics calculations were used to determine the diffusion rate constants for dimethylnaphthalene isomers is mordenite. 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene were found to have similar diffusion rate constants. Grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations were performed on the competitive adsorption of 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene in type X zeolites exchanged individually with barium, calcium, potassium, and rubidium ions, calcium exchanged MCM-22, and hydrogen form mordenite (MOR), X zeolite, Y zeolite, hypBEB, ZSM- 12, and MCM-22. These calculations showed that barium exchanged X zeolite was the most selective toward 2

  9. Beginning SQL Server 2008 Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Walters, R


    Beginning SQL Server 2008 Administration is essential for anyone wishing to learn about implementing and managing SQL Server 2008 database. From college students, to experienced database administrators from other platforms, to those already familiar with SQL Server and wanting to fill in some gaps of knowledge, this book will bring all readers up to speed on the enterprise platform Microsoft SQL Server 2008. * Clearly describes relational database concepts* Explains the SQL Server database engine and supporting tools* Shows various database maintenance scenarios What you'll learn* Understand c

  10. Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Darrin


    Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace takes you through the process of using the RPG Maker VX Ace game development engine to create your very own role playing game. The book has been designed with the complete beginner in mind who has little to no experience with the engine. Tutorials and exercises will take you from installing the software to putting the final touches upon your first project. Game design can be quite a daunting challenge, as it generally involves a large amount of programming know-how on top of having to plan everything out that makes a good game what it is. RPG Maker VX Ace

  11. Beginning Django E-Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    McGaw, James


    Beginning Django E-Commerce guides you through producing an e-commerce site using Django, the most popular Python web development framework. Topics covered include how to make a shopping cart, a checkout, and a payment processor; how to make the most of Ajax; and search engine optimization best practices. Throughout the book, you'll take each topic and apply it to build a single example site, and all the while you'll learn the theory behind what you're architecting. * Build a fully functional e-commerce site. * Learn to architect your site properly to survive in an increasingly competitive onl

  12. Beginning Windows 8.1

    CERN Document Server

    Halsey, Mike


    Windows 8 has been described by Microsoft as its 'boldest' Windows release ever and the 8.1 update enhances the paradigm further. Beginning Windows 8.1 takes you through the new features and helps you get more out of the familiar to reveal the fullest possibilities for this amazing new operating system. You will learn, with non-technical language used throughout, how to get up and running in the new Windows interface, minimize downtime, maximize productivity, and harness the features you never knew existed to take control of your computer and enjoy the peace of mind and excitement that comes w

  13. Engineering drawing from the beginning

    CERN Document Server

    Cousins, M F


    Engineering Drawing from the Beginning, Volume 2 discusses the methods for communicating technical engineering concepts through illustrations and drawings. This volume covers the more advance techniques in engineering drawing. The coverage of the text includes the helix, which is the path traced by a point moving uniformly around the surface of a right cylinder that is moving axially. The book also covers drawings of solid objects such as prisms, pyramids, and cones, along with hollow objects made from sheet material. In Chapter 5, the text presents the conventional representations of common

  14. Beginning AutoCAD 2005

    CERN Document Server

    McFarlane, Bob


    Beginning AutoCAD 2005 is a course based on learning and practising the essentials of 2D drawing using AutoCAD. Bob McFarlane's hands-on approach is uniquely suited to independent learning and use on courses. The focus on 2D drawing in one book, ensures the reader gets a thorough grounding in the subject, with a greater depth of coverage than tends to be available from general introductions to AutoCAD. As a result, this book provides a true, step-by-step, detailed exploration of the AutoCAD functions required at each stage of producing a 2D drawing - an approach often

  15. Beginning with the Goldman Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Lin: In October 2003, U.S. Goldman Sachs Group. Inc. issued a report entitled "Dreaming with BRICs: The Path to 2050" that evoked huge response in the world. What interest us are not only the BRICs phenomenon, but also China on the list of BRICs. The report made high-sounding prediction of the economic prospects of Brazil, Russia and India. Its predict of China's economic prospect is also interesting. Therefore we attach importance to the report and conclusion thereof. Today we will hold a discussion on the report. Now let us begin our discussion.

  16. Research Results Ultra-fast Energy Transfer from Monomer to Dimer within a Trimeric Molecule New Progress in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Key Progress in Research on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in China A New Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Bio-Invasion New Findings in Anti-viral infection and Control of Inflammation Major Headway in Avian Origin Research New Progress in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Biochips Topological Insulator Research Made Important Progress Major Progress in Biodiversity Achieved New Developments of Direct Methods in Protein Crystallography Major Progress in China-UK Collaboration on the Causal Relationship between Volcanic Activity and Biological Distinction News in Brief: NSFC set up "Research Fund for Young Foreign Scholars" How Often Does Human DNA Mutate? Research Progress on Colossal Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect (United States)


    Ultra-fast Energy Transfer from Monomer to Dimer within a Trimeric Molecule New Progress in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Key Progress in Research on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle in China A New Progress in Research on the Mechanism of Bio-Invasion New Findings in Anti-viral infection and Control of Inflammation Major Headway in Avian Origin Research New Progress in Gold-Nanoparticle-Based Biochips Topological Insulator Research Made Important Progress Major Progress in Biodiversity Achieved New Developments of Direct Methods in Protein Crystallography Major Progress in China-UK Collaboration on the Causal Relationship between Volcanic Activity and Biological Distinction News in Brief: NSFC set up "Research Fund for Young Foreign Scholars" How Often Does Human DNA Mutate? Research Progress on Colossal Anisotropic Magneto Resistive Effect

  17. Geometrically induced magnetic catalysis and critical dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Flachi, Antonino; Vitagliano, Vincenzo


    We discuss the combined effect of magnetic fields and geometry in interacting fermionic systems. At leading order in the heat-kernel expansion, the infrared singularity (that in flat space leads to the magnetic catalysis) is regulated by the chiral gap effect and the catalysis is deactivated by effect of the curvature. We discover that an infrared singularity may reappear from higher-order terms in the heat kernel expansion leading to a novel form of geometrically induced magnetic catalysis (absent in flat space). The dynamical mass squared is then modified not only due to the chiral gap effect by an amount proportional to the curvature, but also by a magnetic shift $\\propto (4-D)eB$ where $D$ represents the number of space-time dimensions. We argue that $D=4$ is a critical dimension across which the behaviour of the magnetic shift changes qualitatively.

  18. Progress towards bioorthogonal catalysis with organometallic compounds. (United States)

    Völker, Timo; Dempwolff, Felix; Graumann, Peter L; Meggers, Eric


    The catalysis of bioorthogonal transformations inside living organisms is a formidable challenge--yet bears great potential for future applications in chemical biology and medicinal chemistry. We herein disclose highly active organometallic ruthenium complexes for bioorthogonal catalysis under biologically relevant conditions and inside living cells. The catalysts uncage allyl carbamate protected amines with unprecedented high turnover numbers of up to 270 cycles in the presence of water, air, and millimolar concentrations of thiols. By live-cell imaging of HeLa cells and with the aid of a caged fluorescent probe we could reveal a rapid development of intense fluorescence within the cellular cytoplasm and therefore support the proposed bioorthogonality of the catalysts. In addition, to illustrate the manifold applications of bioorthogonal catalysis, we developed a method for catalytic in-cell activation of a caged anticancer drug, which efficiently induced apoptosis in HeLa cells.

  19. Request for Symposia Support: Advances in Olefin Polymerization Catalysis (United States)


    included, but were not limited to, heterogeneous catalysis , homogeneous catalysis , advances in catalyst activation, methods for polymer topological...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This Advances in Olefin Polymerization Catalysis symposium was held at the 247th ACS National Meeting and Exposition...March 19, 2014 in Dallas, Texas and consisted of twelve (12) invited/contributed talks. The hosting ACS division was the Division of Catalysis Science

  20. Next-Generation Catalysis for Renewables: Combining Enzymatic with Inorganic Heterogeneous Catalysis for Bulk Chemical Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennestrøm, Peter Nicolai Ravnborg; Christensen, C.H.; Pedersen, S.


    chemical platform under different conditions than those conventionally employed. Indeed, new process and catalyst concepts need to be established. Both enzymatic catalysis (biocatalysis) and heterogeneous inorganic catalysis are likely to play a major role and, potentially, be combined. One type...... of combination involves one-pot cascade catalysis with active sites from bio- and inorganic catalysts. In this article the emphasis is placed specifically on oxidase systems involving the coproduction of hydrogen peroxide, which can be used to create new in situ collaborative oxidation reactions for bulk...

  1. Catalysis by nonmetals rules for catalyst selection

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Oleg V


    Catalysis by Non-metals: Rules of Catalyst Selection presents the development of scientific principles for the collection of catalysts. It discusses the investigation of the mechanism of chemosorption and catalysis. It addresses a series of properties of solid with catalytic activity. Some of the topics covered in the book are the properties of a solid and catalytic activity in oxidation-reduction reactions; the difference of electronegativities and the effective charges of atoms; the role of d-electrons in the catalytic properties of a solid; the color of solids; and proton-acid and proton-ba

  2. Bioinspired catalysis metal-sulfur complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Weigand, Wolfgang


    The growing interest in green chemistry calls for new, efficient and cheap catalysts. Living organisms contain a wide range of remarkably powerful enzymes, which can be imitated by chemists in the search for new catalysts. In bioinspired catalysis, chemists use the basic principles of biological enzymes when creating new catalyst analogues. In this book, an international group of experts cover the topic from theoretical aspects to applications by including a wide variety of examples of different systems. This valuable overview of bioinspired metal-sulfur catalysis is a must-have for all sci

  3. Heterogeneous catalysis at nanoscale for energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Franklin (Feng); Kamat, Prashant V


    This book presents both the fundamentals concepts and latest achievements of a field that is growing in importance since it represents a possible solution for global energy problems.  It focuses on an atomic-level understanding of heterogeneous catalysis involved in important energy conversion processes. It presents a concise picture for the entire area of heterogeneous catalysis with vision at the atomic- and nano- scales, from synthesis, ex-situ and in-situ characterization, catalytic activity and selectivity, to mechanistic understanding based on experimental exploration and theoretical si

  4. Keynotes in energy-related catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliaguine, S


    Catalysis by solid acids, which includes (modified) zeolites, is of special relevance to energy applications. Acid catalysis is highly important in modern petroleum refining operations - large-scale processes such as fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, alkylation and olefin oligomerization rely on the transformation of hydrocarbons by acid catalysts. (Modified) zeolites are therefore essential for the improvement of existing processes and for technical innovations in the conversion of crude. There can be little doubt that zeolite-based catalysts will play a major role in the futu

  5. RNA catalysis and the origins of life (United States)

    Orgel, Leslie E.


    The role of RNA catalysis in the origins of life is considered in connection with the discovery of riboszymes, which are RNA molecules that catalyze sequence-specific hydrolysis and transesterification reactions of RNA substrates. Due to this discovery, theories positing protein-free replication as preceding the appearance of the genetic code are more plausible. The scope of RNA catalysis in biology and chemistry is discussed, and it is noted that the development of methods to select (or predict) RNA sequences with preassigned catalytic functions would be a major contribution to the study of life's origins.

  6. Multiscale Structure-Performance Relationships in Supported Palladium Catalysis for Multiphase Hydrogenations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.W.


    The performance of heterogeneous catalysts in multiphase reactions in general is governed by different types of extrinsic and intrinsic structural effects on all length scales, i.e., on the macro- (m to cm), meso- (mm to µm), and microlevel (nm). This PhD research, with a catalysis-engineering appro

  7. Beginning of Viniculture in France (United States)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.


    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  8. Direct sp(3)C-H acroleination of N-aryl-tetrahydroisoquinolines by merging photoredox catalysis with nucleophilic catalysis. (United States)

    Feng, Zhu-Jia; Xuan, Jun; Xia, Xu-Dong; Ding, Wei; Guo, Wei; Chen, Jia-Rong; Zou, You-Quan; Lu, Liang-Qiu; Xiao, Wen-Jing


    Sequence catalysis merging photoredox catalysis (PC) and nucleophilic catalysis (NC) has been realized for the direct sp(3) C-H acroleination of N-aryl-tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ). The reaction was performed under very mild conditions and afforded products in 50-91% yields. A catalytic asymmetric variant was proved to be successful with moderate enantioselectivities (up to 83 : 17 er).

  9. Center for Catalysis at Iowa State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, George A.


    The overall objective of this proposal is to enable Iowa State University to establish a Center that enjoys world-class stature and eventually enhances the economy through the transfer of innovation from the laboratory to the marketplace. The funds have been used to support experimental proposals from interdisciplinary research teams in areas related to catalysis and green chemistry. Specific focus areas included: • Catalytic conversion of renewable natural resources to industrial materials • Development of new catalysts for the oxidation or reduction of commodity chemicals • Use of enzymes and microorganisms in biocatalysis • Development of new, environmentally friendly reactions of industrial importance These focus areas intersect with barriers from the MYTP draft document. Specifically, section Processing and Conversion has a list of bulleted items under Improved Chemical Conversions that includes new hydrogenation catalysts, milder oxidation catalysts, new catalysts for dehydration and selective bond cleavage catalysts. Specifically, the four sections are: 1. Catalyst development (7.4.12.A) 2. Conversion of glycerol (7.4.12.B) 3. Conversion of biodiesel (7.4.12.C) 4. Glucose from starch (7.4.12.D) All funded projects are part of a soybean or corn biorefinery. Two funded projects that have made significant progress toward goals of the MYTP draft document are: Catalysts to convert feedstocks with high fatty acid content to biodiesel (Kraus, Lin, Verkade) and Conversion of Glycerol into 1,3-Propanediol (Lin, Kraus). Currently, biodiesel is prepared using homogeneous base catalysis. However, as producers look for feedstocks other than soybean oil, such as waste restaurant oils and rendered animal fats, they have observed a large amount of free fatty acids contained in the feedstocks. Free fatty acids cannot be converted into biodiesel using homogeneous base-mediated processes. The CCAT catalyst system offers an integrated and cooperative catalytic

  10. Supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Wasserscheid, P.


    The concept of supported ionic liquid-phase (SILP) catalysis has been demonstrated for gas- and liquid-phase continuous fixed-bed reactions using rhodium phosphine catalyzed hydroformylation of propene and 1-octene as examples. The nature of the support had important influence on both the catalytic...

  11. Heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Lind

    This thesis present a highly sensitive silicon microreactor and examples of its use in studying catalysis. The experimental setup built for gas handling and temperature control for the microreactor is described. The implementation of LabVIEW interfacing for all the experimental parts makes...

  12. Surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, L.


    In this dissertation we study the surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis. For heterogeneous reactions, such as gas-solid catalytic reactions, the reactions take place at the interfaces between the two phases: the gas and the solid catalyst. Large amount of reaction heats are released

  13. Hydroxide catalysis bonding of silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, A.A. van; Ende, D.A. van den; Bogenstahl, J.; Rowan, S.; Cunningham, W.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; Nijmeijer, H.


    For bonding silicon carbide optics, which require extreme stability, hydroxide catalysis bonding is considered [Rowan, S., Hough, J. and Elliffe, E., Silicon carbide bonding. UK Patent 040 7953.9, 2004. Please contact Mr. D. Whiteford for further information:]. This techn

  14. Diffusion and Surface Reaction in Heterogeneous Catalysis (United States)

    Baiker, A.; Richarz, W.


    Ethylene hydrogenation on a platinum catalyst, electrolytically applied to a tube wall, is a good system for the study of the interactions between diffusion and surface reaction in heterogeneous catalysis. Theoretical background, apparatus, procedure, and student performance of this experiment are discussed. (BB)

  15. Homogeneous Catalysis by Transition Metal Compounds. (United States)

    Mawby, Roger


    Examines four processes involving homogeneous catalysis which highlight the contrast between the simplicity of the overall reaction and the complexity of the catalytic cycle. Describes how catalysts provide circuitous routes in which all energy barriers are relatively low rather than lowering the activation energy for a single step reaction.…

  16. Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Haumann, Marco;


    Applications of ionic liquids to replace conventional solvents in homogeneous transition-metal catalysis have increased significantly during the last decade. Biphasic ionic liquid/organic liquid systems offer advantages with regard to product separation, catalyst stability, and recycling but util...

  17. Catalysis looks to the future. Panel on new directions in catalytic science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Catalysts play a vital role in providing society with fuels, commodity and fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and means for protecting the environment. To be useful, a good catalyst must have a high turnover frequency (activity), produce the right kind of product (selectivity), and have a long life (durability), all at an acceptable cost. Research in the field of catalysis provides the tools and understanding required to facilitate and accelerate the development of improved catalysts and to open opportunities for the discovery of new catalytic processes. The aim of this report is to identify the research opportunities and challenges for catalysis in the coming decades and to detail the resources necessary to ensure steady progress. Chapter 2 discusses opportunities for developing new catalysts to meet the demands of the chemical and fuel industries, and the increasing role of catalysis in environmental protection. The intellectual challenges for advancing the frontiers of catalytic science are outlined in Chapter 3. The human and institutional resources available in the US for carrying out research on catalysis are summarized in Chapter 4. The findings and recommendations of the panel for industry, academe, the national laboratories, and the federal government are presented in Chapter 5.

  18. Development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis. (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ming; Lackner, Aaron D; Toste, F Dean


    During the past decade, the use of Au(I) complexes for the catalytic activation of C-C π-bonds has been investigated intensely. Over this time period, the development of homogeneous gold catalysis has been extraordinarily rapid and has yielded a host of mild and selective methods for the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. The facile formation of new bonds facilitated by gold naturally led to efforts toward rendering these transformations enantioselective. In this Account, we survey the development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis by our research group as well as related work by others. We also discuss some of our strategies to address the challenges of enantioselective gold(I) catalysis. Early on, our work with enantioselective gold-catalyzed transformations focused on bis(phosphinegold) complexes derived from axially chiral scaffolds. Although these complexes were highly successful in some reactions like cyclopropanation, the careful choice of the weakly coordinating ligand (or counterion) was necessary to obtain high levels of enantioselectivity for the case of allene hydroamination. These counterion effects led us to use the anion itself as a source of chirality, which was successful in the case of allene hydroalkoxylation. In general, these tactics enhance the steric influence around the reactive gold center beyond the two-coordinate ligand environment. The use of binuclear complexes allowed us to use the second gold center and its associated ligand (or counterion) to exert a further steric influence. In a similar vein, we employed a chiral anion (in place of or in addition to a chiral ligand) to move the chiral information closer to the reactive center. In order to expand the scope of reactions amenable to enantioselective gold catalysis to cycloadditions and other carbocyclization processes, we also developed a new class of mononuclear phosphite and phosphoramidite ligands to supplement the previously widely

  19. Biodiesel forming reactions using heterogeneous catalysis (United States)

    Liu, Yijun

    other comparisons between the catalytic behaviors of liquid and solid acids suggests a common mode of operation of their Bronsted acid sites in carrying out esterification of a carboxylic acid with alcohol. The hypothesized Eley-Rideal type heterogeneous reaction mechanism involving a nucleophilic attack between adsorbed carboxylic acid and unadsorbed alcohol as the rate-limiting step was found to fit well the experimental observations and successfully predict the esterification rate obtained with SAC-13 as reaction progresses. The SAC-13 catalysis assay was also extended to carboxylic acids of higher molecular weights. A set of carboxylic acids with various alkyl chain lengths was used to investigate the structural effect of reacting carboxylic acids on heterogeneous catalyzed esterification. It was found that the reactivity of carboxylic acids was controlled by steric factors as the alkyl chain linearly lengthened. Despite their increased hydrophobicity, large carboxylic acids hardly impacted the deactivating effect of water on Bronsted acid sites. However, catalyst reusability and regeneration showed significant dependency on the size of the carboxylic acid used. With the use of larger reacting carboxylic acids, SAC-13 underwent more significant activity loss in consecutive reaction cycles due to stronger adsorption of the larger organics in the polymeric domains of the Nafion resin. In parallel to the research activity on acid catalyzed esterification, the use of strong solid bases with organic functionality (quarternary ammonium, QN+) was investigated from a fundamental perspective. Using triacetin as a model compound for TG molecules, the effectiveness of this Bronsted base functionality in transesterification was demonstrated even at mild reaction conditions. But its catalytic behavior including catalyst selectivity and deactivation was significantly affected by the nature of the adopted support. A purposive design of the immobilizing matrix is expected to

  20. Did time begin? Will time end?

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H


    Did time begin at a Big Bang? Will the present expansion of the universe last for a finite or infinite time? These questions sound philosophical but are becoming, now in the twenty-first century, central to the scientific study of cosmology. The answers, which should become clarified in the next decade or two, could have profound implications for how we see our own role in the universe. Since the original publication of Stephen Hawking's {\\it A Brief History of Time} in 1988, the answers to these questions have progressed as a result of research by the community of active theoretical physicists including myself. To present the underlying ideas requires discussion of a wide range of topics in cosmology, especially the make up of the energy content of the universe. A brief summary of my conclusions, that of three different possibilities concerning the history and future of time, the least likely is the conventional wisdom (time began and will never end) and most likely is a cyclic model (time never begins or en...

  1. When Did Plate Tectonics Begin (United States)

    Brown, M.


    Present-day plate tectonics on Earth is characterized by asymmetric (one-sided) subduction, but how do we recognize the imprint of subduction in the geologic record? How do we weigh global (commonly younger) vs local (commonly older) datasets or distinguish initiation from episodic from continuous subduction? How reliable are data gaps? Characteristics of the Paleozoic record of subduction include calc-alkaline magmatism, blueschist/UHP metamorphism and collisional orogenesis, and ophiolites as representatives of former ocean lithosphere. Are these characteristic rocks preserved in Proterozoic, Archean and Hadean crust? Does a hotter mantle, higher heat production and weaker lithosphere modify or eliminate these features? What preceded subduction and how do we recognize that regime? Are rock associations or geochemical fingerprints reliable? Does reworking and overprinting modify geochemical fingerprints? Proposals for the start of plate tectonics have been based on: persistence of isotope anomalies/fractionated chemical domains in the mantle; changes in chemistry of magmatic rocks, rates of crustal growth vs reworking, and sites of growth; the metamorphic record, particularly the first appearance of contrasting thermal gradients or eclogite (including evidence from mineral inclusions in diamonds) or UHP metamorphic rocks; stabilization of cratonic lithosphere and formation of supercratons, and the beginning of the Proterozoic supercontinent cycle; the end of the flat Earth, emergence of continents, development of significant topography, changes in the style of orogeny and the rise in atmospheric oxygen; and, the appearance of passive margins and changes in the style of sedimentation. Estimates of the timing have varied from the Hadean to Neoproterozoic. I will summarize evidence for a growing consensus that the late Mesoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic was a 700 Myr long period of transition to continuous (?) subduction and global (?) mobile-lid plate tectonics.

  2. Virtual Special Issue on Catalysis at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruski, Marek; Sadow, Aaron; Slowing, Igor; Marshall, Christopher L.; Stair, Peter C.; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Harris, Alex; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Biener, Juergen; Matranga, Christopher; Wang, Congjian; Schaidle, Josh; Beckham, Gregg T.; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Deutsch, Todd; Alia, Shaun; Narula, Chaitanya; Overbury, Steven H.; Toops, Todd J.; Bullock, R. Morris; Peden, Charles HF; Wang, Yong; Allendorf, Mark D.; Norskov, Jens K.; Bligaard, Thomas


    Catalysis research at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Laboratories covers a wide range of research topics in heterogeneous catalysis, homogeneous/ molecular catalysis, electrocatalysis, and surface science. Since much of the work at National Laboratories is funded by DOE, the research is largely focused on addressing DOE’s mission to ensure America’s security and prosperity by addressing its energy, environmental, and nuclear challenges through trans-formative science and technology solutions. The catalysis research carried out at the DOE National Laboratories ranges from very fundamental catalysis science, funded by DOE’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), to applied research and development (R&D) in areas such as biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals, fuel cells, and vehicle emission control with primary funding from DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. National Laboratories are home to many DOE Office of Science national scientific user facilities that provide researchers with the most advanced tools of modern science, including accelerators, colliders, supercomputers, light sources, and neutron sources, as well as facilities for studying the nanoworld and the terrestrial environment. National Laboratory research programs typically feature teams of researchers working closely together, often joining scientists from different disciplines to attack scientific and technical problems using a variety of tools and techniques available at the DOE national scientific user facilities. Along with collaboration between National Laboratory scientists, interactions with university colleagues are common in National Laboratory catalysis R&D. In some cases, scientists have joint appoint-ments at a university and a National Laboratory.

  3. Virtual Special Issue on Catalysis at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruski, Marek; Sadow, Aaron D.; Slowing, Igor I.; Marshall, Christopher L.; Stair, Peter; Rodriguez, Jose; Harris, Alex; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Biener, Juergen; Matranga, Christopher; Wang, Congjun; Schaidle, Joshua A.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Ruddy, Daniel A.; Deutsch, Todd; Alia, Shaun M.; Narula, Chaitanya; Overbury, Steve; Toops, Todd; Bullock, R. Morris; Peden, Charles H. F.; Wang, Yong; Allendorf, Mark D.; Nørskov, Jens; Bligaard, Thomas


    Catalysis research at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Laboratories covers a wide range of research topics in heterogeneous catalysis, homogeneous/molecular catalysis, biocatalysis, electrocatalysis, and surface science. Since much of the work at National Laboratories is funded by DOE, the research is largely focused on addressing DOE’s mission to ensure America’s security and prosperity by addressing its energy, environmental, and nuclear challenges through transformative science and technology solutions. The catalysis research carried out at the DOE National Laboratories ranges from very fundamental catalysis science, funded by DOE’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), to applied research and development (R&D) in areas such as biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals, fuel cells, and vehicle emission control with primary funding from DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. National Laboratories are home to many DOE Office of Science national scientific user facilities that provide researchers with the most advanced tools of modern science, including accelerators, colliders, supercomputers, light sources, and neutron sources, as well as facilities for studying the nanoworld and the terrestrial environment. National Laboratory research programs typically feature teams of researchers working closely together, often joining scientists from different disciplines to tackle scientific and technical problems using a variety of tools and techniques available at the DOE national scientific user facilities. Along with collaboration between National Laboratory scientists, interactions with university colleagues are common in National Laboratory catalysis R&D. In some cases, scientists have joint appointments at a university and a National Laboratory.

  4. Bimetallic redox synergy in oxidative palladium catalysis. (United States)

    Powers, David C; Ritter, Tobias


    Polynuclear transition metal complexes, which are embedded in the active sites of many metalloenzymes, are responsible for effecting a diverse array of oxidation reactions in nature. The range of chemical transformations remains unparalleled in the laboratory. With few noteworthy exceptions, chemists have primarily focused on mononuclear transition metal complexes in developing homogeneous catalysis. Our group is interested in the development of carbon-heteroatom bond-forming reactions, with a particular focus on identifying reactions that can be applied to the synthesis of complex molecules. In this context, we have hypothesized that bimetallic redox chemistry, in which two metals participate synergistically, may lower the activation barriers to redox transformations relevant to catalysis. In this Account, we discuss redox chemistry of binuclear Pd complexes and examine the role of binuclear intermediates in Pd-catalyzed oxidation reactions. Stoichiometric organometallic studies of the oxidation of binuclear Pd(II) complexes to binuclear Pd(III) complexes and subsequent C-X reductive elimination from the resulting binuclear Pd(III) complexes have confirmed the viability of C-X bond-forming reactions mediated by binuclear Pd(III) complexes. Metal-metal bond formation, which proceeds concurrently with oxidation of binuclear Pd(II) complexes, can lower the activation barrier for oxidation. We also discuss experimental and theoretical work that suggests that C-X reductive elimination is also facilitated by redox cooperation of both metals during reductive elimination. The effect of ligand modification on the structure and reactivity of binuclear Pd(III) complexes will be presented in light of the impact that ligand structure can exert on the structure and reactivity of binuclear Pd(III) complexes. Historically, oxidation reactions similar to those discussed here have been proposed to proceed via mononuclear Pd(IV) intermediates, and the hypothesis of mononuclear Pd

  5. Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Effective Mentoring Techniques (United States)

    Slabodnik-Rivas, Kathryn


    The purpose of this study was to examine the value of mentoring techniques as perceived by beginning teachers. One specific school district in Southern California using the Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) program was the focus of this study. There were 12 beginning teachers involved in their second year of the BTSA program. The…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Electrochemical promotion (EP of catalysis has already been recognized as “a valuable development in catalytic research” (J. Pritchard, 1990 and as “one of the most remarkable advances in electrochemistry since 1950” (J. O’M. Bockris, 1996. Laboratory studies have clearly elucidated the phenomenology of electrochemical promotion and have proven that EP is a general phenomenon at the interface of catalysis and electrochemistry. The major progress toward practical utilization of EP is surveyed in this paper. The focus is given on the electropromotion of industrial ammonia synthesis catalyst, the bipolar EP and the development of a novel monolithic electropromoted reactor (MEPR in conjunction with the electropromotion of thin sputtered metal films. Future perspectives of electrochemical promotion applications in the field of hydrogen technologies are discussed.

  7. Tandem Catalysis Utilizing Olefin Metathesis Reactions. (United States)

    Zieliński, Grzegorz K; Grela, Karol


    Since olefin metathesis transformation has become a favored synthetic tool in organic synthesis, more and more distinct non-metathetical reactions of alkylidene ruthenium complexes have been developed. Depending on the conditions applied, the same olefin metathesis catalysts can efficiently promote isomerization reactions, hydrogenation of C=C double bonds, oxidation reactions, and many others. Importantly, these transformations can be carried out in tandem with olefin metathesis reactions. Through addition of one portion of a catalyst, a tandem process provides structurally advanced products from relatively simple substrates without the need for isolation of the intermediates. These aspects not only make tandem catalysis very attractive from a practical point of view, but also open new avenues in (retro)synthetic planning. However, in the literature, the term "tandem process" is sometimes used improperly to describe other types of multi-reaction sequences. In this Concept, a number of examples of tandem catalysis involving olefin metathesis are discussed with an emphasis on their synthetic value.

  8. Heterogenous catalysis mediated by plasmon heating. (United States)

    Adleman, James R; Boyd, David A; Goodwin, David G; Psaltis, Demetri


    We introduce a new method for performing and miniaturizing many types of heterogeneous catalysis involving nanoparticles. The method makes use of the plasmon resonance present in nanoscale metal catalysts to provide the necessary heat of reaction when illuminated with a low-power laser. We demonstrate our approach by reforming a flowing, liquid mixture of ethanol and water over gold nanoparticle catalysts in a microfluidic channel. Plasmon heating of the nanoparticles provides not only the heat of reaction but the means to generate both water and ethanol vapor locally over the catalysts, which in turn allows the chip and the fluid lines to remain at room temperature. The measured products of the reaction, CO(2), CO, and H(2), are consistent with catalytic steam reforming of ethanol. The approach, which we refer to as plasmon-assisted catalysis, is general and can be used with a variety of endothermic catalytic processes involving nanoparticles.

  9. Inverse magnetic catalysis in dense holographic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Preis, Florian; Schmitt, Andreas


    We study the chiral phase transition in a magnetic field at finite temperature and chemical potential within the Sakai-Sugimoto model, a holographic top-down approach to (large-N_c) QCD. We consider the limit of a small separation of the flavor D8-branes, which corresponds to a dual field theory comparable to a Nambu-Jona Lasinio (NJL) model. Mapping out the surface of the chiral phase transition in the parameter space of magnetic field strength, quark chemical potential, and temperature, we find that for small temperatures the addition of a magnetic field decreases the critical chemical potential for chiral symmetry restoration - in contrast to the case of vanishing chemical potential where, in accordance with the familiar phenomenon of magnetic catalysis, the magnetic field favors the chirally broken phase. This "inverse magnetic catalysis" (IMC) appears to be associated with a previously found magnetic phase transition within the chirally symmetric phase that shows an intriguing similarity to a transition ...

  10. Transition metal catalysis in confined spaces. (United States)

    Leenders, Stefan H A M; Gramage-Doria, Rafael; de Bruin, Bas; Reek, Joost N H


    Transition metal catalysis plays an important role in both industry and in academia where selectivity, activity and stability are crucial parameters to control. Next to changing the structure of the ligand, introducing a confined space as a second coordination sphere around a metal catalyst has recently been shown to be a viable method to induce new selectivity and activity in transition metal catalysis. In this review we focus on supramolecular strategies to encapsulate transition metal complexes with the aim of controlling the selectivity via the second coordination sphere. As we will discuss, catalyst confinement can result in selective processes that are impossible or difficult to achieve by traditional methods. We will describe the template-ligand approach as well as the host-guest approach to arrive at such supramolecular systems and discuss how the performance of the catalyst is enhanced by confining it in a molecular container.

  11. Nanoscale Advances in Catalysis and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yimin; Somorjai, Gabor A.


    In this perspective, we present an overview of nanoscience applications in catalysis, energy conversion, and energy conservation technologies. We discuss how novel physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials can be applied and engineered to meet the advanced material requirements in the new generation of chemical and energy conversion devices. We highlight some of the latest advances in these nanotechnologies and provide an outlook at the major challenges for further developments.

  12. Folded biomimetic oligomers for enantioselective catalysis


    Maayan, Galia; Michael D. Ward; Kirshenbaum, Kent


    Many naturally occurring biopolymers (i.e., proteins, RNA, DNA) owe their unique properties to their well-defined three-dimensional structures. These attributes have inspired the design and synthesis of folded architectures with functions ranging from molecular recognition to asymmetric catalysis. Among these are synthetic oligomeric peptide (“foldamer”) mimics, which can display conformational ordering at short chain lengths. Foldamers, however, have not been explored as platforms for asymme...

  13. USD Catalysis Group for Alternative Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefelmeyer, James D.; Koodali, Ranjit; Sereda, Grigoriy; Engebretson, Dan; Fong, Hao; Puszynski, Jan; Shende, Rajesh; Ahrenkiel, Phil


    The South Dakota Catalysis Group (SDCG) is a collaborative project with mission to develop advanced catalysts for energy conversion with two primary goals: (1) develop photocatalytic systems in which polyfunctionalized TiO2 are the basis for hydrogen/oxygen synthesis from water and sunlight (solar fuels group), (2) develop new materials for hydrogen utilization in fuel cells (fuel cell group). In tandem, these technologies complete a closed chemical cycle with zero emissions.

  14. Heterogenous Catalysis Mediated by Plasmon Heating


    Adleman, J.R.; Boyd, D. A.; Goodwin, D. G.; Psaltis, D.


    We introduce a new method for performing and miniaturizing many types of heterogeneous catalysis involving nanoparticles. The method makes use of the plasmon resonance present in nanoscale metal catalysts to provide the necessary heat of reaction when illuminated with a low-power laser. We demonstrate our approach by reforming a flowing, liquid mixture of ethanol and water over gold nanoparticle catalysts in a microfluidic channel. Plasmon heating of the nanoparticles provides not only the he...

  15. Heterogeneous Catalysis on a Disordered Surface


    Frachebourg, L.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S


    We introduce a simple model of heterogeneous catalysis on a disordered surface which consists of two types of randomly distributed sites with different adsorption rates. Disorder can create a reactive steady state in situations where the same model on a homogeneous surface exhibits trivial kinetics with no steady state. A rich variety of kinetic behaviors occur for the adsorbate concentrations and catalytic reaction rate as a function of model parameters.

  16. Spatially Assisted Schwinger Mechanism and Magnetic Catalysis. (United States)

    Copinger, Patrick; Fukushima, Kenji


    Using the worldline formalism we compute an effective action for fermions under a temporally modulated electric field and a spatially modulated magnetic field. It is known that the former leads to an enhanced Schwinger mechanism, while we find that the latter can also result in enhanced particle production and even cause a reorganization of the vacuum to acquire a larger dynamical mass in equilibrium which spatially assists the magnetic catalysis.

  17. Predictive Modeling in Actinide Chemistry and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    These are slides from a presentation on predictive modeling in actinide chemistry and catalysis. The following topics are covered in these slides: Structures, bonding, and reactivity (bonding can be quantified by optical probes and theory, and electronic structures and reaction mechanisms of actinide complexes); Magnetic resonance properties (transition metal catalysts with multi-nuclear centers, and NMR/EPR parameters); Moving to more complex systems (surface chemistry of nanomaterials, and interactions of ligands with nanoparticles); Path forward and conclusions.

  18. Spatially Assisted Schwinger Mechanism and Magnetic Catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Copinger, Patrick


    Using the worldline formalism we compute an effective action for fermions under a temporally modulated electric field and a spatially modulated magnetic field. It is known that the former leads to an enhanced Schwinger Mechanism, while we find that the latter can also result in enhanced particle production and even cause a reorganization of the vacuum to acquire a larger dynamical mass in equilibrium which spatially assists the Magnetic Catalysis.

  19. Spatially Assisted Schwinger Mechanism and Magnetic Catalysis (United States)

    Copinger, Patrick; Fukushima, Kenji


    Using the worldline formalism we compute an effective action for fermions under a temporally modulated electric field and a spatially modulated magnetic field. It is known that the former leads to an enhanced Schwinger mechanism, while we find that the latter can also result in enhanced particle production and even cause a reorganization of the vacuum to acquire a larger dynamical mass in equilibrium which spatially assists the magnetic catalysis.

  20. Catalysis in micellar and macromoleular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fendler, Janos


    Catalysis in Micellar and Macromolecular Systems provides a comprehensive monograph on the catalyses elicited by aqueous and nonaqueous micelles, synthetic and naturally occurring polymers, and phase-transfer catalysts. It delineates the principles involved in designing appropriate catalytic systems throughout. Additionally, an attempt has been made to tabulate the available data exhaustively. The book discusses the preparation and purification of surfactants; the physical and chemical properties of surfactants and micelles; solubilization in aqueous micellar systems; and the principles of

  1. The End Of The Beginning (United States)

    Seitz, Russell


    When, in the course of advancing the state of the art, one slams into a material barrier to the construction of one's appointed gadget, it is customary, and at times mandatory, to drop to one's knees and pray to DARPA for deliverance. Deliverance in the form of the right stuff. Something superbly strong, something utterly transparent, something remarkably light, and with dielectric properties rivaling a perfect vacuum. Ideally, this something should also be bulletproof, better at conducting heat than a silver spoon, insoluble in boiling acid, radiation hard, non-toxic, and cheap. Well, historically, nine out of ten isn't bad for a start. Indeed, it's better than nothing. So let me begin with some history. What we today call solid state physics began not as science but as technology. Victorian low technology to be exact. The first practical solid state electronic devices, demonstrated by Ferdinand Braun* at Leipzig on November 14, 1876, were based neither on theory nor on synthesis, nor on crystal growth. For in those days these things existed not. They were instead dug up, mined as lead ore. The performance of the galena (PbS) cat's whisker diode was marginal; it was rapidly superseded by the first, worse vacuum tube . So also, early infrared optics of rock salt gave way to synthetic crystals. But those early artifacts' performance demanded a physical explanation, and after a brief hiatus, in order for Willard Gibbs to break ground by inventing thermodynamics, the modern theory of solids arose to provide it. It all stemmed from the enterprise of explaining first the optical properties and then the electronic bebavior of crystals found in rocks. Today diamond, along perhaps with Iceland spar, remains the last optical material to be technically exploited as it is found in nature. It is a barbarous relic, a throwback to high technology's dim Neolithic past. For nowadays we are used to thinking about synthetic optical materials, like zinc sulfide or selenide, as being

  2. Continuous-variable entanglement via multiphoton catalysis (United States)

    Hu, Liyun; Liao, Zeyang; Zubairy, M. Suhail


    We theoretically investigate the performance of multiphoton catalysis applied on the two-mode squeezed state by examining the entropy of entanglement, logarithmic negativity, Eistein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR), and Hillery-Zubairy (HZ) correlations, and the fidelity of teleportation. It is found that the entanglement increases with the number of catalysis operations if the squeezing parameter is low initially. Our comparisons show that the HZ correlation presents a better performance than the EPR correlation for detecting the entanglement, and the improvement of HZ correlation definitely results in the improvement of entropy of entanglement rather than negativity; the region of enhanced EPR correlation is a subregion of all other entanglement properties. In addition, we consider the performances of the fidelity by comparing such operations applied before or after the amplitude damping channel. It is shown that the catalysis operation of m =n =1 before the channel presents the best performance in the initial-low squeezing regime. This may provide a useful insight for a long-distance quantum communication.

  3. Hybrid Amyloid Membranes for Continuous Flow Catalysis. (United States)

    Bolisetty, Sreenath; Arcari, Mario; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele


    Amyloid fibrils are promising nanomaterials for technological applications such as biosensors, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and optoelectronics. Here we show that amyloid-metal nanoparticle hybrids can be used both as efficient active materials for wet catalysis and as membranes for continuous flow catalysis applications. Initially, amyloid fibrils generated in vitro from the nontoxic β-lactoglobulin protein act as templates for the synthesis of gold and palladium metal nanoparticles from salt precursors. The resulting hybrids possess catalytic features as demonstrated by evaluating their activity in a model catalytic reaction in water, e.g., the reduction of 4-nitrophenol into 4-aminophenol, with the rate constant of the reduction increasing with the concentration of amyloid-nanoparticle hybrids. Importantly, the same nanoparticles adsorbed onto fibrils surface show improved catalytic efficiency compared to the same unattached particles, pointing at the important role played by the amyloid fibril templates. Then, filter membranes are prepared from the metal nanoparticle-decorated amyloid fibrils by vacuum filtration. The resulting membranes serve as efficient flow catalysis active materials, with a complete catalytic conversion achieved within a single flow passage of a feeding solution through the membrane.

  4. Computational approaches to homogeneous gold catalysis. (United States)

    Faza, Olalla Nieto; López, Carlos Silva


    Homogenous gold catalysis has been exploding for the last decade at an outstanding pace. The best described reactivity of Au(I) and Au(III) species is based on gold's properties as a soft Lewis acid, but new reactivity patterns have recently emerged which further expand the range of transformations achievable using gold catalysis, with examples of dual gold activation, hydrogenation reactions, or Au(I)/Au(III) catalytic cycles.In this scenario, to develop fully all these new possibilities, the use of computational tools to understand at an atomistic level of detail the complete role of gold as a catalyst is unavoidable. In this work we aim to provide a comprehensive review of the available benchmark works on methodological options to study homogenous gold catalysis in the hope that this effort can help guide the choice of method in future mechanistic studies involving gold complexes. This is relevant because a representative number of current mechanistic studies still use methods which have been reported as inappropriate and dangerously inaccurate for this chemistry.Together with this, we describe a number of recent mechanistic studies where computational chemistry has provided relevant insights into non-conventional reaction paths, unexpected selectivities or novel reactivity, which illustrate the complexity behind gold-mediated organic chemistry.

  5. Shape-controlled nanostructures in heterogeneous catalysis. (United States)

    Zaera, Francisco


    Nanotechnologies have provided new methods for the preparation of nanomaterials with well-defined sizes and shapes, and many of those procedures have been recently implemented for applications in heterogeneous catalysis. The control of nanoparticle shape in particular offers the promise of a better definition of catalytic activity and selectivity through the optimization of the structure of the catalytic active site. This extension of new nanoparticle synthetic procedures to catalysis is in its early stages, but has shown some promising leads already. Here, we survey the major issues associated with this nanotechnology-catalysis synergy. First, we discuss new possibilities associated with distinguishing between the effects originating from nanoparticle size versus those originating from nanoparticle shape. Next, we survey the information available to date on the use of well-shaped metal and non-metal nanoparticles as active phases to control the surface atom ensembles that define the catalytic site in different catalytic applications. We follow with a brief review of the use of well-defined porous materials for the control of the shape of the space around that catalytic site. A specific example is provided to illustrate how new selective catalysts based on shape-defined nanoparticles can be designed from first principles by using fundamental mechanistic information on the reaction of interest obtained from surface-science experiments and quantum-mechanics calculations. Finally, we conclude with some thoughts on the state of the field in terms of the advances already made, the future potentials, and the possible limitations to be overcome.

  6. The East German Research Landscape in Transition. Part B. Non-University Institutes (United States)


    meteorological education had been stripped of that role. Some basic research was continued, also in its two existing observatories (on the island of...Mulde and Saale rivers. - Standing water research Limnology of strip mining and quarries, development of renaturalization concepts as well as application...34 Carbondioxide Chemistry, #072 Catalysis, asymmetric, #097 Catalysis, complex, #096 Catalysis, heterogenic, #502 Cell Division Regulation and Gene

  7. Photon-Ion Catalysis Synergy Material and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The co-operation action mechanism and model of photon-ion catalysis synergy material composed of thallium and valency-variable rare earth elements and semiconductor oxide were proposed. The radiation catalysis reactions of water and oxygen assisted by the synergy material that could largely increase electron, free radical and negative ion products were discussed. The applications of photon-ion catalysis synergy material in areas of air cleaning material, antibacterial material, healthy material and energy resource material were suggested.

  8. Special Issue: Coinage Metal (Copper, Silver, and Gold Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Alexandra Correia Carabineiro


    Full Text Available The subject of catalysis by coinage metals (copper, silver, and gold comes up increasingly day-by-day. This Special Issue aims to cover the numerous aspects of the use of these metals as catalysts for several reactions. It deals with synthesis and characterization of copper, silver and gold based catalysis, their characterization and use, both for heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis, and some of their potential applications.

  9. A new era of catalysis: efficiency, value, and sustainability. (United States)

    Cheng, Soofin; Lin, Shawn D


    Value proposition: Global warming and climate change urge the chemical industry to develop new processes, in which sustainability is a necessity and requirement. Catalysis is recognized to be one of the key technologies in enabling sustainability. This special issue, assembled by guest editors Soofing Chen and Shawn D. Lin, highlights some of the best work presented at "The 6th Asia-Pacific Congress on Catalysis (APCAT-6)", with as major theme "New Era of Catalysis: Efficiency, Value, and Sustainability".

  10. Magnetic catalysis and inverse magnetic catalysis in nonlocal chiral quark models (United States)

    Pagura, V. P.; Gómez Dumm, D.; Noguera, S.; Scoccola, N. N.


    We study the behavior of strongly interacting matter under an external constant magnetic field in the context of nonlocal chiral quark models within the mean field approximation. We find that at zero temperature the behavior of the quark condensates shows the expected magnetic catalysis effect, our predictions being in good quantitative agreement with lattice QCD results. On the other hand, in contrast to what happens in the standard local Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, when the analysis is extended to the case of finite temperature, our results show that nonlocal models naturally lead to the inverse magnetic catalysis effect.

  11. Magnetic catalysis and inverse magnetic catalysis in nonlocal chiral quark models

    CERN Document Server

    Pagura, V P; Noguera, S; Scoccola, N N


    We study the behavior of strongly interacting matter under an external constant magnetic field in the context of nonlocal chiral quark models within the mean field approximation. We find that at zero temperature the behavior of the quark condensates shows the expected magnetic catalysis effect, our predictions being in good quantitative agreement with lattice QCD results. On the other hand, in contrast to what happens in the standard local Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, when the analysis is extended to the case of finite temperature our results show that nonlocal models naturally lead to the Inverse Magnetic Catalysis effect.

  12. Cobalt catalysis involving π components in organic synthesis. (United States)

    Gandeepan, Parthasarathy; Cheng, Chien-Hong


    Over the last three decades, transition-metal-catalyzed organic transformations have been shown to be extremely important in organic synthesis. However, most of the successful reactions are associated with noble metals, which are generally toxic, expensive, and less abundant. Therefore, we have focused on catalysis using the abundant first-row transition metals, specifically cobalt. In this Account, we demonstrate the potential of cobalt catalysis in organic synthesis as revealed by our research. We have developed many useful catalytic systems using cobalt complexes. Overall, they can be classified into several broad types of reactions, specifically [2 + 2 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloadditions; enyne reductive coupling; reductive [3 + 2] cycloaddition of alkynes/allenes with enones; reductive coupling of alkyl iodides with alkenes; addition of organoboronic acids to alkynes, alkenes, or aldehydes; carbocyclization of o-iodoaryl ketones/aldehydes with alkynes/electron-deficient alkenes; coupling of thiols with aryl and alkyl halides; enyne coupling; and C-H bond activation. Reactions relying on π components, specifically cycloaddition, reductive coupling, and enyne coupling, mostly afford products with excellent stereo- and regioselectivity and superior atom economy. We believe that these cobalt-catalyzed π-component coupling reactions proceed through five-membered cobaltacyclic intermediates formed by the oxidative cyclometalation of two coordinated π bonds of the substrates to the low-valent cobalt species. The high regio- and stereoselectivity of these reactions are achieved as a result of the electronic and steric effects of the π components. Mostly, electron-withdrawing groups and bulkier groups attached to the π bonds prefer to be placed near the cobalt center of the cobaltacycle. Most of these transformations proceed through low-valent cobalt complexes, which are conveniently generated in situ from air-stable Co(II) salts by Zn- or Mn-mediated reduction

  13. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement for Beginning Writers within a Response to Intervention Framework (United States)

    McMaster, Kristen L.; Parker, David; Jung, Pyung-Gang


    The purpose of this paper is to describe how Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) for beginning writers might be used within a Response to Intervention (RTI) framework. First, we describe CBM, and review research on CBM for beginning writers. Next, we discuss how CBM for beginning writers might fit within RTI, including use for universal screening…

  14. REALCAT: A New Platform to Bring Catalysis to the Lightspeed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sébastien


    Full Text Available Catalysis, irrespective of its form can be considered as one of the most important pillars of today’s chemical industry. The development of new catalysts with improved performances is therefore a highly strategic issue. However, the a priori theoretical design of the best catalyst for a desired reaction is not yet possible and a time- and money-consuming experimental phase is still needed to develop a new catalyst for a given reaction. The REALCAT platform described in this paper consists in a complete, unique, integrated and top-level high-throughput technologies workflow that allows a significant acceleration of this kind of research. This is illustrated by some preliminary results of optimization of the operating conditions of glycerol dehydration to acrolein over an heteropolyacid-based supported catalyst. It is shown that using REALCAT high-throughput tools a more than 10-fold acceleration of the operating conditions optimization process is obtained.

  15. New developments in FCC catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, C.P. [BASF Corporation, Iselin, NJ (United States)


    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit is one of the primary boiling point reduction units in the refinery that converts longer chain crude oil to useful products such as distillate, gasoline and LPG. As the quality of feedstock deteriorates, while specifications on the product side are becoming more and more stringent, the FCC unit is being severely challenged. Over the past few years BASF has introduced two new platform technologies that will assist in this challenge. This paper will present an overview of those platforms and also provide a brief update on the research underway to mitigate the current REO crisis. (orig.)

  16. Asymmetric catalysis in organic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, S.D.; Click, D.R.; Grumbine, S.K.; Scott, B.L.; Watkins, J.G.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of the project was to prepare new catalyst systems, which would perform chemical reactions in an enantioselective manner so as to produce only one of the possible optical isomers of the product molecule. The authors have investigated the use of lanthanide metals bearing both diolate and Schiff-base ligands as catalysts for the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones to secondary alcohols. The ligands were prepared from cheap, readily available starting materials, and their synthesis was performed in a ''modular'' manner such that tailoring of specific groups within the ligand could be carried out without repeating the entire synthetic procedure. In addition, they have developed a new ligand system for Group IV and lanthanide-based olefin polymerization catalysts. The ligand system is easily prepared from readily available starting materials and offers the opportunity to rapidly prepare a wide range of closely related ligands that differ only in their substitution patterns at an aromatic ring. When attached to a metal center, the ligand system has the potential to carry out polymerization reactions in a stereocontrolled manner.

  17. Creative Teaching: Why It Matters and where to Begin (United States)

    Rinkevich, Jennifer L.


    Current research indicates that creativity in teaching can and should be enhanced in order to promote student learning. This article begins by stressing the importance of creativity in education and the ways in which creative teaching benefits students. Next, it addresses key points for better understanding classroom creativity by identifying…

  18. Beginning Teachers' Challenges in Their Pursuit of Effective Teaching Practices (United States)

    Confait, Steve


    This article explores the context and experiences of three beginning teachers in their effort to improve their teaching and to implement and align themselves with their schools' expectations of effective teaching practices. Research findings emerging from a sociocultural-ethnographic framework revealed that participants challenged their own…

  19. Training Beginning Teachers How to Engage Families: A Case Study (United States)

    Hackett-Villalobos, Karen


    This qualitative study focuses on how beginning teachers attain skills to engage families in the educational process. Historical rationale, theoretical frameworks, and key research findings for family engagement training during the last three decades were reviewed, studied, and analyzed for themes. A review of scholarly literature is incorporated…

  20. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials – What’s Involved Video: A Place to Begin Family & Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip > Dry ... Trials – What’s Involved Video: A Place to Begin Family & Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip Survival ...

  1. Best Management Practices for Beginning Farmer Support (United States)

    Ochterski, Jim; Frenay, Erica


    Many beginning farmers have little previous contact with Extension, yet they will comprise an important part of our future base of support. We present those educational activities directed toward beginning farmers that represent high impact, outcome-based Extension programming, given an educator's time limitations. This checklist of insights will…

  2. Surface Science Foundations of Catalysis and Nanoscience

    CERN Document Server

    Kolasinski, Kurt K


    Surface science has evolved from being a sub-field of chemistry or physics, and has now established itself as an interdisciplinary topic. Knowledge has developed sufficiently that we can now understand catalysis from a surface science perspective. No-where is the underpinning nature of surface science better illustrated than with nanoscience. Now in its third edition, this successful textbook aims to provide students with an understanding of chemical transformations and the formation of structures at surfaces. The chapters build from simple to more advanced principles with each featuring exerc

  3. Concepts of Modern Catalysis and Kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Chorkendorff, I


    Until now, the literature has offered a rather limited approach to the use of fundamental kinetics and their application to catalytic reactions. Subsequently, this book spans the full range from fundamentals of kinetics and heterogeneous catalysis via modern experimental and theoretical results of model studies to their equivalent large-scale industrial production processes. The result is key knowledge for students at technical universities and professionals already working in industry. "...such an enterprise will be of great value to the community, to professionals as well as graduate an

  4. Catalysis of Schwinger Vacuum Pair Production

    CERN Document Server

    Dunne, Gerald V; Schützhold, Ralf


    We propose a new catalysis mechanism for non-perturbative vacuum electron-positron pair production, by superimposing a plane-wave X-ray probe beam with a strongly focused optical laser pulse, such as is planned at the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) facility. We compute the absorption coefficient arising from vacuum polarization effects for photons below threshold in a strong electric field. This set-up should facilitate the (first) observation of this non-perturbative QED effect with planned light sources such as ELI yielding an envisioned intensity of order 10^{26}W/cm^2.

  5. Catalysis on cobalt oxide-based nanocatalysts (United States)

    Zhang, Shiran

    Heterogeneous catalysis, being the focus of attention in the realm of catalysis, plays a vital role in modern chemical and energy industries. A prototype of heterogeneous catalyst consists of metal nanoparticles dispersed and supported on a substrate. Transition metal oxide is one of the key components of heterogeneous catalyst and is frequently used as catalyst support for noble metal nanoparticle catalysts due to low cost. As a result of the high cost of noble metal elements, it is particularly favorable to design and develop transition metal oxide-based nanocatalysts mainly made of earthabundant elements with no or less noble metal with comparable or better catalytic performance than noble metal-based nanocatalysts in a catalytic reaction. In some cases, surface chemistry and structure of nanocatalysts are not invariable during catalysis. They evolve in terms of surface restructuring or phase change, which contributes to the complexity of catalyst surface under different catalytic conditions. Transition metal oxides, especially reducible transition metal oxides, have multiple cationic valence states and crystallographic structures. New catalytic active phases or sites could be formed upon surface restructuring under certain catalytic conditions while they may not be preserved if exposed to ambient conditions. Thus, it is essential to characterize catalyst surface under reaction conditions so that chemistry and structure of catalyst surface could be correlated with the corresponding catalytic performance. It also suggests a new route to design nanocatalysts through restructuring catalyst precursor under certain catalytic conditions tracked with in-situ analytical techniques. Catalysis occurs on catalyst surface. For noble metal nanoparticle catalysts, only atoms exposed on surface participate in catalytic processes, while atoms in bulk do not. In order to make full use of noble metal atoms, it is crucial to maximize the dispersion. A configuration of noble metal

  6. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.


    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  7. The nature of the active site in heterogeneous metal catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Bligaard, Thomas; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk


    This tutorial review, of relevance for the surface science and heterogeneous catalysis communities, provides a molecular-level discussion of the nature of the active sites in metal catalysis. Fundamental concepts such as "Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi relations'' and "volcano curves'' are introduced...

  8. LI Can elected president of int'l catalysis association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Prof.LI Can,vice directorgeneral of the CAS Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics,was elected new president of the Executive Committee of the International Association for Catalysis Societies (IACS) at the 14th International Congress on Catalysis held from 13 to 18 July in Seoul,ROK.It is the first time for a Chinese scientist to serve the post.

  9. On model materials designed by atomic layer deposition for catalysis purposes


    Diskus, Madeleine


    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of model materials designed by atomic layer deposition toward applications in catalysis research. Molybdenum based catalysts promoted with cobalt were selected as target materials, considering their important roles in various industrial processes. Particular attention was paid to understand the growth dynamics of the ALD processes involved and further to characterize the obtained materials carefully. It was of main concern to verify the fe...

  10. Beginning teachers’ challenges in their pursuit of effective teaching practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Confait


    Full Text Available This article explores the context and experiences of three beginning teachers in their effort to improve their teaching and to implement and align themselves with their schools’ expectations of effective teaching practices. Research findings emerging from a sociocultural-ethnographic framework revealed that participants challenged their own beliefs about effective teaching practices in aligning themselves with their schools’ expectations. In complying with routine expectations, they embraced predominantly teacher-centred practices, rather than a student-centred approach. Given the ongoing effort to augment the quality of education in the Seychelles, beginning teachers’ implementation of and access to evidenced-based practices could be recognised as part of this endeavour.

  11. Mechanical catalysis on the centimetre scale. (United States)

    Miyashita, Shuhei; Audretsch, Christof; Nagy, Zoltán; Füchslin, Rudolf M; Pfeifer, Rolf


    Enzymes play important roles in catalysing biochemical transaction paths, acting as logical machines through the morphology of the processes. A key challenge in elucidating the nature of these systems, and for engineering manufacturing methods inspired by biochemical reactions, is to attain a comprehensive understanding of the stereochemical ground rules of enzymatic reactions. Here, we present a model of catalysis that can be performed magnetically by centimetre-sized passive floating units. The designed system, which is equipped with permanent magnets only, passively obeys the local causalities imposed by magnetic interactions, albeit it shows a spatial behaviour and an energy profile analogous to those of biochemical enzymes. In this process, the enzyme units trigger physical conformation changes of the target by levelling out the magnetic potential barrier (activation potential) to a funnel type and, thus, induce cascading conformation changes of the targeted substrate units reacting in parallel. The inhibitor units, conversely, suppress such changes by increasing the potential. Because the model is purely mechanical and established on a physics basis in the absence of turbulence, each performance can be explained by the morphology of the unit, extending the definition of catalysis to systems of alternative scales.

  12. Beginning Mac OS X Snow Leopard programming

    CERN Document Server

    Trent, Michael


    Michael Trent is a technical reviewer for numerous books and magazine articles and the coauthor of Beginning Mac OS X Programming with Drew McCormack. Drew McCormack is an experienced computational scientist, founder of the ""The Mental Faculty""-an independent company developing software for the Mac and iPhone-and the coauthor of Beginning Mac OS X Programming with Michael Trent. Wrox Beginning guides are crafted to make learning programming languages and technologies easier than you think, providing a structured, tutorial format that will guide you through all the techniques involved.

  13. Beginning Programming with Java For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd, Barry


    One of the most popular beginning programming books, now fully updated Java is a popular language for beginning programmers, and earlier editions of this fun and friendly guide have helped thousands get started. Now fully revised to cover recent updates for Java 7.0, Beginning Programming with Java For Dummies, 3rd Edition is certain to put more first-time programmers and Java beginners on the road to Java mastery.Explores what goes into creating a program, putting the pieces together, dealing with standard programming challenges, debugging, and making the program work Offers new options for

  14. Kokes Awards for the 22nd North American Catalysis Society Meeting, June 5-10, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabio H. Ribeiro


    The biennial North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meetings are the premiere conferences in the area of catalysis, surface science, and reaction engineering. The 22nd meeting will be held the week of June 5-10, 2011 in Detroit, Michigan. The objective of the Meetings is to bring together leading researchers for intensive scientific exchange and interactions. Financial support that offsets some of the associated costs (specifically, registration fee, airline tickets, and hotel accommodations) would encourage graduate students, and for the first time undergraduate students, to attend and participate meaningfully in this conference. The funds sought in this proposal will help support the Richard J. Kokes Travel Award program. Graduate students eligible for these merit-based Awards are those who study at a North American university and who will present at the Meeting. We have currently 209 applications and we expect to be able to fund about half of them. The NACS has traditionally sought to encourage graduate student, and this year for the first time undergraduate studies, participation at the National Meetings and providing financial support is the most effective means to do so. Their attendance would contribute significantly to their scientific training and communication and presentation skills. They would be exposed to the leading researchers from the US and abroad; they would meet their peers from other universities; they would learn about cutting-edge results that could benefit their research projects; and they may become interested in becoming active participants in the catalysis community. These young investigators represent the next generation of scientists and engineers, and their proper training will lead to future scientific breakthroughs and technological innovations that benefit the US economy. Advances in catalysis can come in the form of more energy-efficient and environmentally-friendly chemical processes, improved fuel cell performance, efficient

  15. Progress on Porous Ceramic Membrane Reactors for Heterogeneous Catalysis over Ultrafine and Nano-sized Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong; MENG Lie; CHEN Rizhi; JIN Wanqin; XING Weihong; XU Nanping


    Heterogeneous catalysts with ultrafine or nano particle size have currently attracted considerable attentions in the chemical and petrochemical production processes,but their large-scale applications remain challenging because of difficulties associated with their efficient separation from the reaction slurry.A porous ceramic membrane reactor has emerged as a promising method to solve the problem concerning catalysts separation in situ from the reaction mixture and make the production process continuous in heterogeneous catalysis.This article presents a review of the present progress on porous ceramic membrane reactors for heterogeneous catalysis,which covers classification of configurations of porous ceramic membrane reactor,major considerations and some important industrial applications.A special emphasis is paid to major considerations in term of application-oriented ceramic membrane design,optimization of ceramic membrane reactor performance and membrane fouling mechanism.Finally,brief concluding remarks on porous ceramic membrane reactors are given and possible future research interests are also outlined.

  16. The Application of Molecular Sieve in Catalysis%分子筛的催化应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗五魁; 陈峰; 叶楠


    In this paper,the authors expounded research situation of molecular sieve in catalysis field in recent years.Finally,the authors emphatically introduced application of catalysis of molecular in conversion reaction of low carbon olefin,dehydrocyclization of alkane,aromatization of hydrocarbon,isomerization of hydrocarbon,reaction of oxidation reduction and methyl alcohol transformation to low carbon olefin.%综述了近年来分子筛在催化领域的研究情况,着重介绍了其在低碳烯烃转化反应、烷烃的脱氢环化、烃类的芳构化、烃类的异构化、氧化还原反应及甲醇转化为低碳烯烃等方面的催化应用。

  17. Magnetic catalysis (and inverse catalysis) at finite temperature in two-color lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgenfritz, E -M; Petersson, B; Schreiber, A


    Two-color lattice QCD with N_f=4 staggered fermion degrees of freedom (no rooting trick is applied) with equal electric charge q is studied in a homogeneous magnetic background field B and at non-zero temperature T. In order to circumvent renormalization as a function of the bare coupling we apply a fixed-scale approach. We study the influence of the magnetic field on the critical temperature. At rather small pseudo-scalar meson mass (m_pi \\approx 175 MeV \\approx T_c(B=0)) we confirm magnetic catalysis for sufficiently strong magnetic field strength, while at T=195 MeV and weak magnetic field (qB {\\lesssim} 0.8 GeV^2) we find a rise of the Polyakov loop with qB and thus, indications for an inverse magnetic catalysis.

  18. Organic photoredox catalysis for the oxidation of silicates: applications in radical synthesis and dual catalysis. (United States)

    Lévêque, Christophe; Chenneberg, Ludwig; Corcé, Vincent; Ollivier, Cyril; Fensterbank, Louis


    Metal free photooxidation of alkyl bis(catecholato)silicates with the organic dye 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(carbazol-9-yl)-4,6-dicyano-benzene (4CzIPN) allows the smooth formation of alkyl radicals. The latter can be efficiently engaged either with radical acceptors to provide homolytic addition products or in photoredox/nickel dual catalysis reactions to obtain cross-coupling products.

  19. Catalysis in solid oxide fuel cells. (United States)

    Gorte, R J; Vohs, J M


    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and solid oxide electrolyzers (SOEs) hold much promise as highly efficient devices for the direct interconversion of chemical and electrical energy. Commercial application of these devices, however, requires further improvements in their performance and stability. Because the performance of SOFC and SOE electrodes depends on their microstructures, electronic and ionic conductivities, and chemical reactivities, the needed improvements require the expertise of various disciplines, with catalytic science playing an important role. Highly active and thermally stable catalysts are required to limit the internal losses in the devices, increase the range of fuels they can use, and decrease the temperatures at which they operate. In this article we review some of the most important recent advances in catalysis for SOFC and SOE electrodes and highlight additional improvements that are needed.

  20. Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    DeTar, Carleton; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas


    We report on the first observation of magnetic catalysis at zero temperature in a fully nonperturbative simulation of the graphene effective field theory. Using lattice gauge theory, a nonperturbative analysis of the theory of strongly-interacting, massless, (2+1)-dimensional Dirac fermions in the presence of an external magnetic field is performed. We show that in the zero-temperature limit, a nonzero value for the chiral condensate is obtained which signals the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. This result implies a nonzero value for the dynamical mass of the Dirac quasiparticle. This in turn has been posited to account for the quantum-Hall plateaus that are observed at large magnetic fields.

  1. A simplified electrostatic model for hydrolase catalysis. (United States)

    Pessoa Filho, Pedro de Alcantara; Prausnitz, John M


    Toward the development of an electrostatic model for enzyme catalysis, the active site of the enzyme is represented by a cavity whose surface (and beyond) is populated by electric charges as determined by pH and the enzyme's structure. The electric field in the cavity is obtained from electrostatics and a suitable computer program. The key chemical bond in the substrate, at its ends, has partial charges with opposite signs determined from published force-field parameters. The electric field attracts one end of the bond and repels the other, causing bond tension. If that tension exceeds the attractive force between the atoms, the bond breaks; the enzyme is then a successful catalyst. To illustrate this very simple model, based on numerous assumptions, some results are presented for three hydrolases: hen-egg white lysozyme, bovine trypsin and bovine ribonuclease. Attention is given to the effect of pH.

  2. Prebiotic RNA Synthesis by Montmorillonite Catalysis (United States)

    Jheeta, Sohan; Joshi, Prakash C.


    This review summarizes our recent findings on the role of mineral salts in prebiotic RNA synthesis, which is catalyzed by montmorillonite clay minerals. The clay minerals not only catalyze the synthesis of RNA but also facilitate homochiral selection. Preliminary data of these findings have been presented at the "Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA)" conference at the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 5-6 September 2013. The objective of this meeting was to recognize the significance of RNA in LUCA. We believe that the prebiotic RNA synthesis from its monomers must have been a simple process. As a first step, it may have required activation of the 5'-end of the mononucleotide with a leaving group, e.g., imidazole in our model reaction (Figure 1). Wide ranges of activating groups are produced from HCN under plausible prebiotic Earth conditions. The final step is clay mineral catalysis in the presence of mineral salts to facilitate selective production of functional RNA. Both the clay minerals and mineral salts would have been abundant on early Earth. We have demonstrated that while montmorillonite (pH 7) produced only dimers from its monomers in water, addition of sodium chloride (1 M) enhanced the chain length multifold, as detected by HPLC. The effect of monovalent cations on RNA synthesis was of the following order: Li+ > Na+ > K+. A similar effect was observed with the anions, enhancing catalysis in the following order: Cl- > Br- > I-. The montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis was not affected by hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. We thus show that prebiotic synthesis of RNA from its monomers was a simple process requiring only clay minerals and a small amount of salt.

  3. Prebiotic RNA Synthesis by Montmorillonite Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohan Jheeta


    Full Text Available This review summarizes our recent findings on the role of mineral salts in prebiotic RNA synthesis, which is catalyzed by montmorillonite clay minerals. The clay minerals not only catalyze the synthesis of RNA but also facilitate homochiral selection. Preliminary data of these findings have been presented at the “Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA” conference at the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 5–6 September 2013. The objective of this meeting was to recognize the significance of RNA in LUCA. We believe that the prebiotic RNA synthesis from its monomers must have been a simple process. As a first step, it may have required activation of the 5'-end of the mononucleotide with a leaving group, e.g., imidazole in our model reaction (Figure 1. Wide ranges of activating groups are produced from HCN under plausible prebiotic Earth conditions. The final step is clay mineral catalysis in the presence of mineral salts to facilitate selective production of functional RNA. Both the clay minerals and mineral salts would have been abundant on early Earth. We have demonstrated that while montmorillonite (pH 7 produced only dimers from its monomers in water, addition of sodium chloride (1 M enhanced the chain length multifold, as detected by HPLC. The effect of monovalent cations on RNA synthesis was of the following order: Li+ > Na+ > K+. A similar effect was observed with the anions, enhancing catalysis in the following order: Cl− > Br− > I−. The montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis was not affected by hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. We thus show that prebiotic synthesis of RNA from its monomers was a simple process requiring only clay minerals and a small amount of salt.

  4. Aquinas and Contemporary Cosmology: Creation and Beginnings (United States)

    Carroll, William E.

    Discussions in the Middle Ages about creation and the temporal beginning of the world involved sophisticated analyses in theology, metaphysics, and natural philosophy. Mediaeval insights on this subject, especially Thomas Aquinas' defense of the intelligibility of an eternal, created universe, can help to clarify reflections about the philosophical and theological implications of contemporary cosmological theories: from the "singularity" of the Big Bang, to "quantum tunneling from nothing," to multiverse scenarios. Thomas' insights help us to see the value of Georges Lemaître's insistence that his cosmological reflections must be kept separate from an analysis of creation. This essay will look at different senses of "beginning" and examine the claim that creation, in its fundamental meaning, tells us nothing about whether there is a temporal beginning to the universe. Multiverse models, like that recently proposed by Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow, may challenge certain views of a Grand Designer, but not of a Creator.

  5. Selective Oxidation and Ammoxidation of Olefins by Heterogeneous Catalysis. (United States)

    Grasselli, Robert K.


    Shows how the ammoxidation of olefins can be understood in terms of free radicals and surface bound organometallic intermediates. Also illustrates the close intellectual relationships between heterogeneous catalysis and organometallic chemistry. (JN)

  6. Density functional theory studies of transition metal nanoparticles in catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Rankin, Rees; Zeng, Zhenhua


    Periodic Density Functional Theory calculations are capable of providing powerful insights into the structural, energetics, and electronic phenomena that underlie heterogeneous catalysis on transition metal nanoparticles. Such calculations are now routinely applied to single crystal metal surfaces...... and to subnanometer metal clusters. Descriptions of catalysis on truly nanosized structures, however, are generally not as well developed. In this talk, I will illustrate different approaches to analyzing nanocatalytic phenomena with DFT calculations. I will describe case studies from heterogeneous catalysis...... and electrocatalysis, in which single crystal models are combined with Wulff construction-based ideas to produce descriptions of average nanocatalyst behavior. Then, I will proceed to describe explicitly DFT-based descriptions of catalysis on truly nanosized particles (

  7. Bridging heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis concepts, strategies, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Can


    This unique handbook fills the gap in the market for an up-to-date work that links both homogeneous catalysis applied to organic reactions and catalytic reactions on surfaces of heterogeneous catalysts.

  8. Catalysis of Radical Reactions: A Radical Chemistry Perspective. (United States)

    Studer, Armido; Curran, Dennis P


    The area of catalysis of radical reactions has recently flourished. Various reaction conditions have been discovered and explained in terms of catalytic cycles. These cycles rarely stand alone as unique paths from substrates to products. Instead, most radical reactions have innate chains which form products without any catalyst. How do we know if a species added in "catalytic amounts" is a catalyst, an initiator, or something else? Herein we critically address both catalyst-free and catalytic radical reactions through the lens of radical chemistry. Basic principles of kinetics and thermodynamics are used to address problems of initiation, propagation, and inhibition of radical chains. The catalysis of radical reactions differs from other areas of catalysis. Whereas efficient innate chain reactions are difficult to catalyze because individual steps are fast, both inefficient chain processes and non-chain processes afford diverse opportunities for catalysis, as illustrated with selected examples.

  9. Applications of metal-organic frameworks in heterogeneous supramolecular catalysis. (United States)

    Liu, Jiewei; Chen, Lianfen; Cui, Hao; Zhang, Jianyong; Zhang, Li; Su, Cheng-Yong


    This review summarizes the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a versatile supramolecular platform to develop heterogeneous catalysts for a variety of organic reactions, especially for liquid-phase reactions. Following a background introduction about catalytic relevance to various metal-organic materials, crystal engineering of MOFs, characterization and evaluation methods of MOF catalysis, we categorize catalytic MOFs based on the types of active sites, including coordinatively unsaturated metal sites (CUMs), metalloligands, functional organic sites (FOS), as well as metal nanoparticles (MNPs) embedded in the cavities. Throughout the review, we emphasize the incidental or deliberate formation of active sites, the stability, heterogeneity and shape/size selectivity for MOF catalysis. Finally, we briefly introduce their relevance into photo- and biomimetic catalysis, and compare MOFs with other typical porous solids such as zeolites and mesoporous silica with regard to their different attributes, and provide our view on future trends and developments in MOF-based catalysis.

  10. Nanostructured Membranes for Enzyme Catalysis and Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles (United States)

    Macroporous membranes functionalized with ionizable macromolecules provide promising applications in toxic metal capture at high capacity, nanoparticle synthesis, and catalysis. Our low-pressure membrane approach is marked by reaction and separation selectivity and their tunabil...

  11. Ivor Horton's beginning visual C++ 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Ivor


    Learn C++ with the best tutorial on the market! Horton's unique tutorial approach and step-by-step guidance have helped over 100,000 novice programmers learn C++. In Ivor Horton's Beginning Visual C++ 2013, Horton not only guides you through the fundamentals of the standard C++ language, but also teaches you how C++ is used in the latest Visual Studio 2013 environment. Visual Studio 2013 includes major changes to the IDE and expanded options for C++ coding. Ivor Horton's Beginning Visual C++ 2013 will teach you the latest techniques to take your Visual C++ coding to an all-new level.C++ langua

  12. Beginning Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Paul


    Get up to speed on the extensive changes to the newest release of Microsoft SQL Server The 2012 release of Microsoft SQL Server changes how you develop applications for SQL Server. With this comprehensive resource, SQL Server authority Robert Vieira presents the fundamentals of database design and SQL concepts, and then shows you how to apply these concepts using the updated SQL Server. Publishing time and date with the 2012 release, Beginning Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Programming begins with a quick overview of database design basics and the SQL query language and then quickly proceeds to sho

  13. 3. International conference on catalysis in membrane reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 3. International Conference on Catalysis in Membrane Reactors, Copenhagen, Denmark, is a continuation of the previous conferences held in Villeurbanne 1994 and Moscow 1996 and will deal with the rapid developments taking place within membranes with emphasis on membrane catalysis. The approx. 80 contributions in form of plenary lectures and posters discuss hydrogen production, methane reforming into syngas, selectivity and specificity of various membranes etc. The conference is organised by the Danish Catalytic Society under the Danish Society for Chemical Engineering. (EG)

  14. Support for Speakers and Attendees at 2008 GRC Conference Catalysis (to be held at Colby Sawyer College, New London, New Hampshire on June 22-27, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart L. Soled and Nancy Ryan Gray


    The GRC on Catalysis is one of the most prestigious catalysis conferences as it brings together leading researchers from around the world to discuss their latest, most exciting work in catalysis. The 2008 conference will continue this tradition. The conference will cover a variety of themes including new catalytic materials, theoretical and experimental approaches to improve understanding of kinetics and transport phenomena, and state of the art nanoscale characterization probes to monitor active sites. The conference promotes interactions among established researchers and young scientists. It provides a venue for students to meet, talk to and learn from some of the world leading researchers in the area. It also gives them a platform for displaying their own work during the poster sessions. The informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the presentations and posters, and ability to meet many outstanding colleagues makes this an excellent conference.

  15. Work Environment Predictors of Beginning Teacher Burnout (United States)

    Goddard, Richard; O'Brien, Patrick; Goddard, Marion


    This study investigated elements of school environments that explain variance in burnout scores in a sample of university graduates from Brisbane, Australia, two years after they commenced work as teachers. Using a longitudinal survey methodology, 79 beginning teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) on four occasions over a two-year…

  16. A Graphophonic Investigation of Beginning Level Texts (United States)

    Walker, Kevin Clark


    This study attempted to provide a systematic framework for phonics instruction for beginning readers in literature-based classrooms based on relative frequency of phoneme-grapheme occurrences found in three distinct corpora. The first corpus contained an academic word list. The second corpus contained the running text from 363 books identified as…

  17. An ENSO beginning in the year 2000?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    Several models have been developed over the last few decades to predict the advent of new ENSO events several months in advance of the actual event. None of the models have predicted a warm event beginning by the year 2000. Positive SST anomalies...

  18. Emotional Intelligence and Beginning Teacher Candidates (United States)

    Justice, Madeline; Espinoza, Sue


    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Texas will need over 82,000 new teachers by 2008. Many teachers are leaving the profession within 5 years of being employed. Closing a revolving door, teacher preparation programs are discussing this phenomenon. One hundred sixty beginning teacher candidates were surveyed using the Emotional Skills…

  19. Beginning Fencing, Physical Education: 5551.53. (United States)

    McInerney, Marjorie

    This course outline is a guide for teaching the principles and basic fundamentals of beginning fencing in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures and demonstrations, skills practice, films, and class competition, which focus on mastery of skills, rules and etiquette, care and repair of equipment, safety, and development of techniques and…

  20. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... who care about them. Home > About Sjögren's When a person is diagnosed with Sjögren’s, they often don' ... Sjögren’s. From there, we hope you will have a place to begin as you develop a partnership ...

  1. On New Beginnings and Democratic Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen


    Full Text Available This paper sets out to discuss the enigma of revolutionary new political beginnings of constitutional orders. The problem is that when a political community is constituted, the act of constituting per definition is unconstitutional or extra-legal. For this reason the question of new beginnings is a political and not a legal question. The question of what the authority of the constituent act is presents an important question since the constitution is the fundamental law from which the legitimacy or authority of all other laws is derived. The problem for this paper is whether and in what way it is possible to think new beginnings that are not merely institutionalizations of factual relations of domination or arbitrary acts of violence. This problem is discussed on basis of two revolutionary theories in the tradition of constituent power—Emmanuel Sieyès and Hannah Arendt—that both understand power to emanate from below and not from above whereby they both, though in different way, present arguments against the understanding that new beginnings merely are institutionalizations of relations of domination and arbitrary acts of violence. The question of whether and to what extent they are successful and whether their theories are democratic will finally be discussed.

  2. Common pitfalls of beginning therapists utilizing enactments. (United States)

    Butler, Mark H; Davis, Sean D; Seedall, Ryan B


    Empirical data, clinical observation, and theoretical rationales support use of enactments as a fundamental mechanism of change in relationship therapies. Yet beginning therapists may lack an adequate conceptual framework and operational training essential to effectively utilize enactments. Inadequate training may contribute to ineffective execution, and in turn to negative results, which could lead to abandonment of enactments. This study sought to identify proficiencies and nonproficiencies of beginning therapists in conducting enactments. Twenty beginning therapists from three Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education (COAMFTE)-accredited programs were briefly trained in an indirect therapy style that incorporates enactments. Twenty-six therapist enactments were coded using a comprehensive observational measure designed to assess proficiencies and nonproficiencies in executing enactment phases, component tasks, and subcomponent operations. Results suggest that beginning therapists struggle with numerous clinical operations conceptually linked to the successful engagement of relationships in marriage and family therapy. In light of these findings, specific recommendations for additional enactment training in COAMFTE-accredited programs are offered.

  3. Symposium: A Beginning in the Humanities (United States)

    Brooks, Peter; Fry, Paul H.; Carnochan, W. B.; Culler, Jonathan; Lerer, Seth; Marshall, Donald G.; Johnson, Barbara; Steiner, Wendy; Haack, Susan; Nussbaum, Martha C.


    2001 marked Yale's 300th birthday. It seemed an opportunity for reflection on the evolution of the institution, and particularly on the vicissitudes of the humanities over those three centuries. This article presents essays which represent a selection from the symposium, "Beginning With the Humanities," held at the Whitney Humanities Center on…

  4. Controlled Fluoroalkylation Reactions by Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tanmay; Iqbal, Naeem; You, Youngmin; Cho, Eun Jin


    Owing to their unique biological, physical, and chemical properties, fluoroalkylated organic substances have attracted significant attention from researchers in a variety of disciplines. Fluoroalkylated compounds are considered particularly important in pharmaceutical chemistry because of their superior lipophilicity, binding selectivity, metabolic stability, and bioavailability to those of their nonfluoroalkylated analogues. We have developed various methods for the synthesis of fluoroalkylated substances that rely on the use of visible-light photoredox catalysis, a powerful preparative tool owing to its environmental benignity and mechanistic versatility in promoting a large number of synthetically important reactions with high levels of selectivity. In this Account, we describe the results of our efforts, which have led to the development of visible-light photocatalytic methods for the introduction of a variety of fluoroalkyl groups (such as, -CF3, -CF2R, -CH2CF3, -C3F7, and -C4F9) and arylthiofluoroalkyl groups (such as, -CF2SPh, -C2F4SAr, and -C4F8SAr) to organic substances. In these studies, electron-deficient carbon-centered fluoroalkyl radicals were successfully generated by the appropriate choice of fluoroalkyl source, photocatalyst, additives, and solvent. The redox potentials of the photocatalysts and the fluoroalkyl sources and the choice of sacrificial electron donor or acceptor as the additive affected the photocatalytic pathway, determining whether an oxidative or reductive quenching pathway was operative for the generation of key fluoroalkyl radicals. Notably, we have observed that additives significantly affect the efficiencies and selectivities of these reactions and can even change the outcome of the reaction by playing additional roles during its course. For instance, a tertiary amine as an additive in the reaction medium can act not only as a sacrificial electron donor in photoredox catalysis but also as a hydrogen atom source, an elimination

  5. The Role of Environmental Factors in Beginning Teachers' Professional Learning Related to Differentiated Instruction (United States)

    De Neve, Debbie; Devos, Geert


    Little research has investigated factors that facilitate beginning teachers' participation in professional learning activities related to differentiated instruction (DI). This study examines environmental factors for DI learning activities in a sample of 272 beginning teachers from 72 primary schools. Multilevel analyses show that teacher…

  6. The Learning Needs of Beginning Teachers in the United Arab Emirates (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ali S.


    Beginning teachers have legitimate learning needs that cannot be grasped in advance or outside the school context. These needs are documented in Western literature, but the skills required by beginning teachers in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have not been investigated. The present study responds to this research gap. Data were collected through…

  7. Induction and mentoring – counselling to sustain beginning teacher in a lifelong professional career

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde; Mølgaard, Dorthe Busk; Andersen, Bente Kjeldbjerg


    We present a review-study. Our aim is to analyse the literature pertaining to induction programs and mentoring for beginning teachers. Research question: What are the documented influences of induction programs and mentoring in sustaining beginning teachers in a lifelong professional career...

  8. Teaching Beginning Braille Reading Using an Alphabet or Uncontracted Braille Approach (United States)

    Day, Janice Neibaur; McDonnell, Andrea P.; O'Neill, Rob


    This study examined the effects of using a research based print reading program modified to accommodate beginning braille readers using an alphabet or uncontracted braille reading approach with five beginning braille readers. Four of the 5 participants displayed a clear increase in their ability to read high frequency words when they began using…

  9. Catalysis of Forster Resonances in Rubidium (United States)

    Win, A. L.; Williams, W. D.; Sukenik, C. I.


    When two ultracold Rydberg atoms collide they may change their quantum state if the total electronic energy of the two atoms before and after the collision is about the same. This process can be made resonant by tuning the energy levels of the atoms with an electric field, via the Stark shift, so that the energy difference between incoming and outgoing channels vanishes. This condition is known as a ``Forster resonance.'' We have studied a particular Forster resonance in rubidium: 34p + 34p --> 34s + 35s, by investigating the time dependence of the state change in an ultracold environment. Furthermore, we have added 34d state atoms to the mix and observed an enhancement of 34s atom production. We attribute this enhancement to a catalysis effect whereby the 34d atoms alter the spatial distribution of 34p atoms that participate in the energy transfer interaction. We will present results from the experiment and compare them to model calculations. Present address: Department of Physics, Smith College, Northampton, MA.

  10. Ferroelectric based catalysis: Switchable surface chemistry (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab


    We describe a new class of catalysts that uses an epitaxial monolayer of a transition metal oxide on a ferroelectric substrate. The ferroelectric polarization switches the surface chemistry between strongly adsorptive and strongly desorptive regimes, circumventing difficulties encountered on non-switchable catalytic surfaces where the Sabatier principle dictates a moderate surface-molecule interaction strength. This method is general and can, in principle, be applied to many reactions, and for each case the choice of the transition oxide monolayer can be optimized. Here, as a specific example, we show how simultaneous NOx direct decomposition (into N2 and O2) and CO oxidation can be achieved efficiently on CrO2 terminated PbTiO3, while circumventing oxygen (and sulfur) poisoning issues. One should note that NOx direct decomposition has been an open challenge in automotive emission control industry. Our method can expand the range of catalytically active elements to those which are not conventionally considered for catalysis and which are more economical, e.g., Cr (for NOx direct decomposition and CO oxidation) instead of canonical precious metal catalysts. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  11. Constant domain-regulated antibody catalysis. (United States)

    Sapparapu, Gopal; Planque, Stephanie; Mitsuda, Yukie; McLean, Gary; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Paul, Sudhir


    Some antibodies contain variable (V) domain catalytic sites. We report the superior amide and peptide bond-hydrolyzing activity of the same heavy and light chain V domains expressed in the IgM constant domain scaffold compared with the IgG scaffold. The superior catalytic activity of recombinant IgM was evident using two substrates, a small model peptide that is hydrolyzed without involvement of high affinity epitope binding, and HIV gp120, which is recognized specifically by noncovalent means prior to the hydrolytic reaction. The catalytic activity was inhibited by an electrophilic phosphonate diester, consistent with a nucleophilic catalytic mechanism. All 13 monoclonal IgMs tested displayed robust hydrolytic activities varying over a 91-fold range, consistent with expression of the catalytic functions at distinct levels by different V domains. The catalytic activity of polyclonal IgM was superior to polyclonal IgG from the same sera, indicating that on average IgMs express the catalytic function at levels greater than IgGs. The findings indicate a favorable effect of the remote IgM constant domain scaffold on the integrity of the V-domain catalytic site and provide a structural basis for conceiving antibody catalysis as a first line immune function expressed at high levels prior to development of mature IgG class antibodies.

  12. Substrate catalysis enhances single-enzyme diffusion. (United States)

    Muddana, Hari S; Sengupta, Samudra; Mallouk, Thomas E; Sen, Ayusman; Butler, Peter J


    We show that diffusion of single urease enzyme molecules increases in the presence of urea in a concentration-dependent manner and calculate the force responsible for this increase. Urease diffusion measured using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy increased by 16-28% over buffer controls at urea concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 1 M. This increase was significantly attenuated when urease was inhibited with pyrocatechol, demonstrating that the increase in diffusion was the result of enzyme catalysis of urea. Local molecular pH changes as measured using the pH-dependent fluorescence lifetime of SNARF-1 conjugated to urease were not sufficient to explain the increase in diffusion. Thus, a force generated by self-electrophoresis remains the most plausible explanation. This force, evaluated using Brownian dynamics simulations, was 12 pN per reaction turnover. These measurements demonstrate force generation by a single enzyme molecule and lay the foundation for a further understanding of biological force generation and the development of enzyme-driven nanomotors.

  13. Information Search Process Model: How Freshmen Begin Research. (United States)

    Swain, Deborah E.


    Investigates Kuhlthau's Search Process Model for information seeking using two Freshmen English classes. Data showed that students followed the six stages Kuhlthau proposed and suggest extensions to the model, including changing the order of the tasks, iterating and combining steps, and revising search goals based on social and interpersonal…

  14. Beginnings of microbiology and biochemistry: the contribution of yeast research. (United States)

    Barnett, James A


    With improvements in microscopes early in the nineteenth century, yeasts were seen to be living organisms, although some famous scientists ridiculed the idea and their influence held back the development of microbiology. In the 1850s and 1860s, yeasts were established as microbes and responsible for alcoholic fermentation, and this led to the study of the rôle of bacteria in lactic and other fermentations, as well as bacterial pathogenicity. At this time, there were difficulties in distinguishing between the activities of microbes and of extracellular enzymes. Between 1884 and 1894, Emil Fischer's study of sugar utilization by yeasts generated an understanding of enzymic specificity and the nature of enzyme-substrate complexes.

  15. Ethnographic Methodology in a Study of Word Recognition Strategies of Adult Beginning Readers. (United States)

    Schumacher, Sally

    Ethnography is a research methodology that belongs to a genre of research called by various names, including educational anthropology, participant observation, case study, field study, and naturalistic inquiry. Ethnography was used as the research methodology for a nine-month study of adult beginning readers in Virginia. The research design was a…

  16. Kinetic evolutionary behavior of catalysis-select migration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yuan-Gang; Lin Zhen-Quan; Ke Jian-Hong


    We propose a catalysis-select migration driven evolution model of two-species (A- and B-species) aggregates,where one unit of species A migrates to species B under the catalysts of species C,while under the catalysts of species D the reaction will become one unit of species B migrating to species A.Meanwhile the catalyst aggregates of species C perform self-coagulation,as do the species D aggregates.We study this catalysis-select migration driven kinetic aggregation phenomena using the generalized Smoluchowski rate equation approach with C species catalysis-select migration rate kernel K(k;i,j) =Kkij and D species catalysis-select migration rate kernel J(k;i,j) =Jkij.The kinetic evolution behaviour is found to be dominated by the competition between the catalysis-select immigration and emigration,in which the competition is between JD0 and KC0 (D0 and C0 are the initial numbers of the monomers of species D and C,respectively).When JD0 - KC0 > 0,the aggregate size distribution of species A satisfies the conventional scaling form and that of species B satisfies a modified scaling form.And in the case of JDo - KCo < 0,species A and B exchange their aggregate size distributions as in the above JD0 - KC0 > 0 case.

  17. Inverse Magnetic Catalysis in Bottom-Up Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Nick; Scott, Marc


    We explore the effect of magnetic field on chiral condensation in QCD via a simple bottom up holographic model which inputs QCD dynamics through the running of the anomalous dimension of the quark bilinear. Bottom up holography is a form of effective field theory and we use it to explore the dependence on the coefficients of the two lowest order terms linking the magnetic field and the quark condensate. In the massless theory, we identify a region of parameter space where magnetic catalysis occurs at zero temperature but inverse magnetic catalysis at temperatures of order the thermal phase transition. The model shows similar non-monotonic behaviour in the condensate with B at intermediate T as the lattice data. This behaviour is due to the separation of the meson melting and chiral transitions in the holographic framework. The introduction of quark mass raises the scale of B where inverse catalysis takes over from catalysis until the inverse catalysis lies outside the regime of validity of the effective descr...

  18. Innovative Catalysis in Organic Synthesis Oxidation, Hydrogenation, and C-X Bond Forming Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G


    Authored by a European team of leaders in the field, this book compiles innovative approaches for C-X bond forming processes frequently applied in organic synthesis. It covers all key types of catalysis, including homogeneous, heterogeneous, and organocatalysis, as well as mechanistic and computational studies. Special attention is focused on the improvement of efficiency and sustainability of important catalytic processes, such as selective oxidations, hydrogenation and cross-coupling reactions.The result is a valuable resource for both advanced researchers in academia and industry, as well a

  19. State of Supported Nickel Nanoparticles during Catalysis in Aqueous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, Zizwe; Kasakov, Stanislav; Shi, Hui; Vjunov, Aleksei; Fulton, John L.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Zhao, Chen; Wang, Yong; Lercher, Johannes A.


    The state of Ni supported on HZSM-5 zeolite, silica, and sulfonated carbon was determined during aqueous phase catalysis of phenol hydrodeoxygenation using in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). On sulfonated carbon and HZSM-5 supports, the NiO and Ni(OH)2 were readily reduced to Ni(0) under reaction conditions (~35 bar H2 in aqueous phenol solutions containing up to 0.5 wt. % phosphoric acid at 473 K). On the silica support, less than 70% of the Ni was converted to Ni(0) under reaction conditions, which is attributed to the formation of Ni phyllosilicates. Over a broad range of reaction conditions there was no leaching of Ni from the supports. In contrast, rapid leaching of the Ni(II) from HZSM-5 was observed, when 15 wt. % aqueous acetic acid was substituted for the aqueous phenol solution. Once the metallic state of Ni was established there was no leaching in 15 wt. % acetic acid at 473 K and 35 bar H2. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The STEM was supported under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program: Chemical Imaging Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830. STEM was performed at EMSL, a DOE Office of Science user facility sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at PNNL.

  20. High-Spin Cobalt Hydrides for Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Patrick L. [Yale University


    Organometallic chemists have traditionally used catalysts with strong-field ligands that give low-spin complexes. However, complexes with a weak ligand field have weaker bonds and lower barriers to geometric changes, suggesting that they may lead to more rapid catalytic reactions. Developing our understanding of high-spin complexes requires the use of a broader range of spectroscopic techniques, but has the promise of changing the mechanism and/or selectivity of known catalytic reactions. These changes may enable the more efficient utilization of chemical resources. A special advantage of cobalt and iron catalysts is that the metals are more abundant and cheaper than those currently used for major industrial processes that convert unsaturated organic molecules and biofeedstocks into useful chemicals. This project specifically evaluated the potential of high-spin cobalt complexes for small-molecule reactions for bond rearrangement and cleavage reactions relevant to hydrocarbon transformations. We have learned that many of these reactions proceed through crossing to different spin states: for example, high-spin complexes can flip one electron spin to access a lower-energy reaction pathway for beta-hydride elimination. This reaction enables new, selective olefin isomerization catalysis. The high-spin cobalt complexes also cleave the C-O bond of CO2 and the C-F bonds of fluoroarenes. In each case, the detailed mechanism of the reaction has been determined. Importantly, we have discovered that the cobalt catalysts described here give distinctive selectivities that are better than known catalysts. These selectivities come from a synergy between supporting ligand design and electronic control of the spin-state crossing in the reactions.

  1. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Heterogeneous Catalysis Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, C.E.


    Raman spectroscopy is valuable characterization technique for the chemical analysis of heterogeneous catalysts, both under ex-situ and in-situ conditions. The potential for Raman to shine light on the chemical bonds present in a sample makes the method highly desirable for detailed catalyst characte

  2. Tough transitions? Mediating beginning urban teachers' practices through coteaching (United States)

    Wassell, Beth; Lavan, Sarah Kate


    The coteaching model for teacher preparation has emerged in recent years as an alternative to the traditional student teaching or practicum experience. Several studies have investigated the process of coteaching and its impact on participants during the actual experience; however, few depict participants' experiences once they obtain positions and begin to teach independently. This collective case study explored two urban high school teachers' (Jen and Ian) practices during the induction period after taking part in the coteaching model for student teaching. Using a sociocultural analytic framework, we found that the participants' agency as beginning teachers was not constrained by their coteaching experiences. Rather, they were able to continue to draw on some of the successful practices they had in coteaching, such as shared reflection, shared responsibility, cogenerative dialogues, and building relationships with students. In addition to describing the coherence and contradictions between Ian's and Jen's practices during coteaching and in their beginning years of inservice teaching, we also discuss the ways that they became collaborators in our ethnographic research.

  3. Behaviorism and the beginnings of close reading. (United States)

    Gang, Joshua


    Many of close reading's most enduring assumptions and techniques have their origins in psychological behaviorism. Beginning with I. A. Richards's critical work from the 1920s, this article demonstrates the central place of behaviorist ideas in New Critical theories of poetry. Despite explicitly disparaging Richards's behavioristic poetics, Brooks's Well Wrought Urn and Wimsatt and Beardsley's "intentional fallacy" perpetuated behaviorism's influence on literary criticism. This article traces how the New Critics translated behavioristic psychology into poetic formalism and discusses the implications of this for contemporary critical practice.

  4. Beginning programming with Java for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd, Barry


    A practical introduction to programming with Java Beginning Programming with Java For Dummies, 4th Edition is a comprehensive guide to learning one of the most popular programming languages worldwide. This book covers basic development concepts and techniques through a Java lens. You'll learn what goes into a program, how to put the pieces together, how to deal with challenges, and how to make it work. The new Fourth Edition has been updated to align with Java 8, and includes new options for the latest tools and techniques. Java is the predominant language used to program Android and cloud app

  5. Beginning database design from novice to professional

    CERN Document Server

    Churcher, Clare


    Beginning Database Design, Second Edition provides short, easy-to-read explanations of how to get database design right the first time. This book offers numerous examples to help you avoid the many pitfalls that entrap new and not-so-new database designers. Through the help of use cases and class diagrams modeled in the UML, you'll learn to discover and represent the details and scope of any design problem you choose to attack. Database design is not an exact science. Many are surprised to find that problems with their databases are caused by poor design rather than by difficulties in using th

  6. Beginning Python from novice to professional

    CERN Document Server

    Hetland, Magnus Lie


    ""Beginning Python: From Novice to Professional"" is the most comprehensive book on the Python ever written. Based on ""Practical Python,"" this newly revised book is both an introduction and practical reference for a swath of Python-related programming topics, including addressing language internals, database integration, network programming, and web services. Advanced topics, such as extending Python and packaging/distributing Python applications, are also covered. Ten different projects illustrate the concepts introduced in the book. You will learn how to create a P2P file-sharing applicati

  7. Beginning C# Object-Oriented Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Dan


    Beginning C# Object-Oriented Programming brings you into the modern world of development as you master the fundamentals of programming with C# and learn to develop efficient, reusable, elegant code through the object-oriented programming (OOP) methodology. Take your skills out of the 20th century and into this one with Dan Clark's accessible, quick-paced guide to C# and object-oriented programming, completely updated for .NET 4.0 and C# 4.0. As you develop techniques and best practices for coding in C#, one of the world's most popular contemporary languages, you'll experience modeling a "real

  8. Beginning programming with Python for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul


    Learn Python-the fun and easy way-and get in the programming game today! Python is one of the fastest growing programming languages, and no wonder. It requires three to five times less time than developing in Java, is a great building block for learning both procedural and object-oriented programming concepts, and is an ideal language for data analysis. Beginning Programming with Python For Dummies is the perfect guide to this dynamic and powerful programming language-even if you''ve never coded before! Author John Paul Mueller draws on his vast programming knowledge and experience to guide yo

  9. Did time begin? Will time end?


    Frampton, Paul H.


    Did time begin at a Big Bang? Will the present expansion of the universe last for a finite or infinite time? These questions sound philosophical but are becoming, now in the twenty-first century, central to the scientific study of cosmology. The answers, which should become clarified in the next decade or two, could have profound implications for how we see our own role in the universe. Since the original publication of Stephen Hawking's {\\it A Brief History of Time} in 1988, the answers to t...

  10. Catalysis induced by radiations; Catalisis inducida por radiaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez B, J.; Gonzalez J, J. C., E-mail: jaime.jimenez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In Mexico is generated a great quantity of residuals considered as dangerous, for its capacity of corrosion, reactivity, toxicity to the environment, inflammability and biological-infectious potential. It is important to mention that the toxic compounds cannot be discharged to the sewerage systems and much less to the receiving bodies of water. The usual treatment that receives the dangerous residuals is the incineration and the bordering. The incineration is an efficient form of treating the residuals, but it can be dioxins source and benzofurans, being the phenol and chloro phenol the precursors of these compounds. At the present time the radiolytic degradation of organic compounds has been broadly studied, especially the 4-chloro phenol and of same form the photo catalysis of organic compounds. However the combination of both processes, called radio catalysis is barely reported. In this work the results of the experiments realized for to degrade the 4-chloro phenol by means of radio catalysis are reported. (Author)

  11. Gold Nanoparticle-Biological Molecule Interactions and Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G. Heddle


    Full Text Available This review gives a brief summary of the field of gold nanoparticle interactions with biological molecules, particularly those with possible catalytic relevance. Gold nanoparticles are well known as catalysts in organic chemistry but much is unknown regarding their potential as catalysts of reactions involving biological molecules such as protein and nucleic acids. Biological molecules may be the substrate for catalysis or, if they are the ligand coating the gold particle, may be the catalyst itself. In other cases biological molecules may form a template upon which gold nanoparticles can be precisely arrayed. As relatively little is currently known about the catalytic capabilities of gold nanoparticles in this area, this review will consider templating in general (including, but not restricted to, those which result in structures having potential as catalysts before going on to consider firstly catalysis by the gold nanoparticle itself followed by catalysis by ligands attached to gold nanoparticles, all considered with a focus on biological molecules.

  12. New and future developments in catalysis activation of carbon dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Suib, Steven L


    New and Future Developments in Catalysis is a package of books that compile the latest ideas concerning alternate and renewable energy sources and the role that catalysis plays in converting new renewable feedstock into biofuels and biochemicals. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes will be discussed in a unified and comprehensive approach. There will be extensive cross-referencing within all volumes. This volume presents a complete picture of all carbon dioxide (CO2) sources, outlines the environmental concerns regarding CO2, and critica

  13. A Possible Macroscopic-Photo-Catalysis Mechanism in Solar Furnace (United States)

    Ho, Tsohsiu; Qing, Cheng-Rui; Chen, Ying-Tian


    Based on the experimental results of Chen et al. to use the solar furnace and medium frequency induction furnace to extract boron impurity from metallurgical silicon, we propose a strong radiation catalysis mechanism to explain the difference of reaction rates in these two furnaces. The postulate assuming the photons striking on the material not only increase the thermal energy of the molecules of reactants but also lower down the energy barrier of the reaction to speed up the chemical reaction. It is believed the photon catalysis mechanism is universal in most of high temperature chemical reactions and looking forward to more evidences for the postulate proposed in this article.

  14. A Possible Macroscopic-Photo-Catalysis Mechanism in Solar Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HO Tsohsiu; QING Cheng-Rui; CHEN Ying-Tian


    Based on the experimental results of Chen et use the solar furnace and medium frequency induction furnace to extract boron impurity from metallurgical silicon, we propose a strong radiation catalysis mechanism to explain the difference of reaction rates in these two furnaces.The postulate assuming the photons striking on the material not only increase the thermal energy of the molecules of reactants but also lower down the energy barrier of the reaction to speed up the chemical reaction.It is believed the photon catalysis mechanism is universall in most of high temperature chemical reactions and looking forward to more evidences for the postulate proposed in this article.

  15. Role of catalysis in sustainable production of synthetic elastomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek K Srivastava; Madhuchhanda Maiti; Ganesh C Basak; Raksh V Jasra


    Elastomer business plays a significant role in the transportation industry. In fact, elastomers make the world move. Due to limited availability of natural rubber, synthetic elastomers bridge the gap between demand and supply in today’s growing tyre and automobile industry.With more than ∼10000 KTA total world productions, the impact of synthetic elastomer business cannot be overlooked. The need of synthetic elastomers for tyre and automobile industries is stringently specific. Catalysis plays an inevitable role in achieving the growing demand of specific synthetic elastomers. The present study will describe how catalysis plays a significant role in the sustainable development of elastomers with special reference to polybutadiene rubber.

  16. Enantioselective conjugate additions of α-amino radicals via cooperative photoredox and Lewis acid catalysis. (United States)

    Ruiz Espelt, Laura; McPherson, Iain S; Wiensch, Eric M; Yoon, Tehshik P


    We report the highly enantioselective addition of photogenerated α-amino radicals to Michael acceptors. This method features a dual-catalyst protocol that combines transition metal photoredox catalysis with chiral Lewis acid catalysis. The combination of these two powerful modes of catalysis provides an effective, general strategy to generate and control the reactivity of photogenerated reactive intermediates.

  17. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): the end of the beginning or the beginning of the end? (United States)

    Bradley, Ray; Liberski, Paweł P


    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a zoonosis being the origin of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and an important cattle disease in its own right. This association has driven both the research into the disease and extensive epidemiological investigations of practical value. Not only has the occurrence of BSE has a serious effect on animal health and public health, it has also seriously interrupted trade in cattle and cattle products from affected countries. Since 2001, several additional European countries, Japan, Israel and Canada have reported BSE in native-born stock and this has led to a concern about the BSE status of countries that have imported cattle and cattle products from any affected country. A single case recently reported in the USA was in a cow imported from Canada, thus extending the risk of BSE occurrence into the North American continent as a whole. Extensive feed and offal bans have protected the food and feed chains in all countries with BSE, even though initially they tended to be leaky. Application of newly-developed, approved 'Rapid' tests for misfolded PrP in central nervous tissue of targeted, high-risk animals and slaughter cattle now provides the tools whereby the real incidence of the disease (and to a degree, infection) can be determined in an active surveillance programme. 'Rapid' testing also enables the progress of epidemics to be monitored in response to applied measures. In the EU, over 10 million cattle are tested annually. Analysis of the extensive data shows that it is the beginning of the end of the BSE epidemic in the UK; most European countries, Israel and Japan are close behind. The epidemic in North America (two cases to date) is at the beginning. Significant measures had already been adopted there to reduce the risk from recycling of infection via feed but it remains to be seen if they are watertight. Advice has been given to ensure that public health is protected and to monitor the epidemic by strategic use of

  18. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips > Surgery Tips Survival Tips Brochures & Resource Sheets Books, CDs & More! About the Foundation Mission Breakthrough Goal > ... Social Network Host an SSF Event SSF Store - Books, CDs & More Wake Up, Koala! Provider/Researcher Research ...

  19. Versatile cooperative ligand effects in group 9 transition metal catalysis: Applications in transfer hydrogenation & hydrogen autotransfer reactions, ketene & ketene imine synthesis and hydroformylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Z.


    Cooperative ligand effects of transition metal complexes have a profound impact on the reaction outcome of catalytic reactions, and development of (new) cooperative metal-ligand systems is a hot topic in current catalysis research. Conventional ligands with hydride-accepting/delivering activities ar

  20. Examining the Discourse on the Limit Concept in a Beginning-Level Calculus Classroom (United States)

    Gucler, Beste


    Existing research on limits documents many difficulties students encounter when learning about the concept. There is also some research on teaching of limits but it is not yet as extensive as the research on student learning about limits. This study explores the discourse on limits in a beginning-level undergraduate calculus classroom by focusing…

  1. Beginning inflation in an inhomogeneous universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, William E. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kleban, Matthew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Linde, Andrei [SITP and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); SITP and Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, California 94305 (United States)


    Using numerical solutions of the full Einstein field equations coupled to a scalar inflaton field in 3+1 dimensions, we study the conditions under which a universe that is initially expanding, highly inhomogeneous and dominated by gradient energy can transition to an inflationary period. If the initial scalar field variations are contained within a sufficiently flat region of the inflaton potential, and the universe is spatially flat or open on average, inflation will occur following the dilution of the gradient and kinetic energy due to expansion. This is the case even when the scale of the inhomogeneities is comparable to the initial Hubble length, and overdense regions collapse and form black holes, because underdense regions continue expanding, allowing inflation to eventually begin. This establishes that inflation can arise from highly inhomogeneous initial conditions and solve the horizon and flatness problems, at least as long as the variations in the scalar field do not include values that exceed the inflationary plateau.

  2. Beginning iPhone Games Development

    CERN Document Server

    Cabera, P; Marsh, Ian; Smith, Ben; Wing, Eric


    iPhone games are hot! Just look at the numbers. Games make up over 25 percent of total apps and over 70 percent of the most popular apps. Surprised? Of course not! Most of us have filled our iPhone or iPod touch with games, and many of us hope to develop the next best-selling, most talked-about game. You've probably already read and mastered Beginning iPhone 3 Development; Exploring the iPhone SDK, the best-selling, the second edition of Apress's highly acclaimed introduction to the iPhone and iPod touch by developers Dave Mark and Jeff LaMarche. This book is the game-specific equivalent, prov

  3. U.S. begins merging satellite programs (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. government has moved closer to merging and streamlining two separate environmental satellite programs operated by the Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).Earlier this month, the government installed the Integrated Polar Acquisition and Control Subsystem in a Commerce Department facility in Suitland, Maryland. Beginning next summer, the system will operate the two environmental satellites in DOD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. Under merger plans, NOAA will be responsible for operating the DOD satellite system as well as its own. The elimination of separate systems could save $678 million through fiscal year 1999, according to James Mannen, Director of the federal government's Integrated Program Office

  4. Before the beginning our universe and others

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Martin


    "Although we cannot observe them (and they may be forever inaccessible), other universes are a natural expectation from current cosmology. Moreover, many features of our universe that otherwise seem baffling fall into place once we recognize this." Sir Martin Rees, the British Astronomer Royal, gives a vivid, occasionally acid tour of current astrophysics and cosmology, with insights into scientific politics, such as the enormous increase in the cost of the space telescope because of its association with the Space Shuttle. He also offers keen observations on personalities such as Subrahmayan Chandrasekhar and Isaac Newton, Yakov Zeldovich and Albert Einstein. Joseph Silk calls Before the Beginning "an unusual blend of wit, asperity and cosmology ... a combination of clarity and conciseness."

  5. Digital media and the beginning designer. (United States)

    Goldman, Glenn


    Use and creation of computer graphics can be effectively taught to beginning design students in the context of discipline-specific design projects. In particular, a case study of the pedagogy implemented by the New Jersey Institute of Technology's College of Architecture + Design provides examples of how teachers harness the students' desire to create and provide educational opportunities for undergraduates to learn about the use of digital media in the processes and products of design. Employing a carefully constructed sequence, students are exposed to (and use) computer applications for raster imaging, vector drawing, 3D modeling and rendering, and eventually building information modeling and time-based sequential representation all while producing original work through analysis and synthesis.

  6. How to Begin a Quality Improvement Project. (United States)

    Silver, Samuel A; Harel, Ziv; McQuillan, Rory; Weizman, Adam V; Thomas, Alison; Chertow, Glenn M; Nesrallah, Gihad; Bell, Chaim M; Chan, Christopher T


    Quality improvement involves a combined effort among health care staff and stakeholders to diagnose and treat problems in the health care system. However, health care professionals often lack training in quality improvement methods, which makes it challenging to participate in improvement efforts. This article familiarizes health care professionals with how to begin a quality improvement project. The initial steps involve forming an improvement team that possesses expertise in the quality of care problem, leadership, and change management. Stakeholder mapping and analysis are useful tools at this stage, and these are reviewed to help identify individuals who might have a vested interest in the project. Physician engagement is a particularly important component of project success, and the knowledge that patients/caregivers can offer as members of a quality improvement team should not be overlooked. After a team is formed, an improvement framework helps to organize the scientific process of system change. Common quality improvement frameworks include Six Sigma, Lean, and the Model for Improvement. These models are contrasted, with a focus on the Model for Improvement, because it is widely used and applicable to a variety of quality of care problems without advanced training. It involves three steps: setting aims to focus improvement, choosing a balanced set of measures to determine if improvement occurs, and testing new ideas to change the current process. These new ideas are evaluated using Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, where knowledge is gained by testing changes and reflecting on their effect. To show the real world utility of the quality improvement methods discussed, they are applied to a hypothetical quality improvement initiative that aims to promote home dialysis (home hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis). This provides an example that kidney health care professionals can use to begin their own quality improvement projects.

  7. Integration of heterogeneous and biochemical catalysis for production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. (United States)

    Wheeldon, Ian; Christopher, Phillip; Blanch, Harvey


    The past decade has seen significant government and private investment in fundamental research and process development for the production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars. This investment has helped create new metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches, novel homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, and chemical and biological routes that convert sugars, lignin, and waste products such as glycerol into hydrocarbon fuels and valuable chemicals. With the exception of ethanol, economical biofuels processes have yet to be realized. A potentially viable way forward is the integration of biological and chemical catalysis into processes that exploit the inherent advantages of each technology while circumventing their disadvantages. Microbial fermentation excels at converting sugars from low-cost raw materials streams into simple alcohols, acids, and other reactive intermediates that can be condensed into highly reduced, long and branched chain hydrocarbons and other industrially useful compounds. Chemical catalysis most often requires clean feed streams to avoid catalyst deactivation, but the chemical and petroleum industries have developed large scale processes for C-C coupling, hydrogenation, and deoxygenation that are driven by low grade heat and low-cost feeds such as hydrogen derived from natural gas. In this context, we suggest that there is a reasonably clear route to the high yield synthesis of biofuels from biomass- or otherwise derived-fermentable sugars: the microbial production of reactive intermediates that can be extracted or separated into clean feed stream for upgrading by chemical catalysis. When coupled with new metabolic engineering strategies that maximize carbon and energy yields during fermentation, biomass-to-fuels processes may yet be realized.

  8. Cooperative catalysis with first-row late transition metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.I. van der Vlugt


    Cooperative catalysis with first-row transition metals holds much promise for future developments regarding sustainable, selective transformations, including e.g. alkenes, dienes and a variety of small molecules such as CO2, N2 and water. This non-exhaustive analysis of the current state-of-the-art

  9. Magnetic Catalysis of Chiral Symmetry Breaking: A Holographic Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin Filev


    Zeeman splitting of the energy levels, and the existence of pseudo, Goldstone modes. An analytic derivation of the Gell-Mann-Oaks-Renner relation for the D3/D7 set up is reviewed. In the D3/D5 case, the pseudo-Goldstone modes satisfy nonrelativistic dispersion relation. The studies reviewed confirm the universal nature of the magnetic catalysis of mass generation.

  10. Self-catalysis growth of zinc oxide nanopillar array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhihao; DUAN Yueqin; WU Yang; BIE Lijian; FAN Shoushan


    Zn nanodot array was prepared by using a nano-masking with porous alumina membrane as mask. Based on such a nanodot array, a self-catalysis method was developed for fabricating ZnO nanopillars on Si substrate. The resultant nanopillars show a two-dimensional, and regular array with uniform size and orientation.

  11. Density functional theory in surface science and heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Scheffler, M.; Toulhoat, H.


    Solid surfaces are used extensively as catalysts throughout the chemical industry, in the energy sector, and in environmental protection. Recently, density functional theory has started providing new insight into the atomic-scale mechanisms of heterogeneous catalysis, helping to interpret the large...

  12. Dynamic control of chirality in phosphine ligands for enantioselective catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Depeng; Neubauer, Thomas M; Feringa, Ben L


    Chirality plays a fundamental role in biology and chemistry and the precise control of chirality in a catalytic conversion is a key to modern synthesis most prominently seen in the production of pharmaceuticals. In enantioselective metal-based catalysis, access to each product enantiomer is commonly


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Catalysis of organic reactions by unfunctionalized surfactant aggregates (micelles, vesicles) in aqueous solution is largely determined by medium effects induced at the micellar binding sites and by entropy effects due to compartimentalization. The efficiency of these catalytic effects responds to c

  14. Examining the role of glutamic acid 183 in chloroperoxidase catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, X.; Conesa, A.; Punt, P.J.; Hager, L.P.


    Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to investigate the role of glutamic acid 183 in chloroperoxidase catalysis. Based on the x-ray crystallographic structure of chloroperoxidase, Glu-183 is postulated to function on distal side of the heme prosthetic group as an acid-base catalyst in facilitatin

  15. Synergy between experimental and computational approaches to homogeneous photoredox catalysis. (United States)

    Demissie, Taye B; Hansen, Jørn H


    In this Frontiers article, we highlight how state-of-the-art density functional theory calculations can contribute to the field of homogeneous photoredox catalysis. We discuss challenges in the fields and potential solutions to be found at the interface between theory and experiment. The exciting opportunities and insights that can arise through such an interdisciplinary approach are highlighted.

  16. Robustness of the rotary catalysis mechanism of F1-ATPase. (United States)

    Watanabe, Rikiya; Matsukage, Yuki; Yukawa, Ayako; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki


    F1-ATPase (F1) is the rotary motor protein fueled by ATP hydrolysis. Previous studies have suggested that three charged residues are indispensable for catalysis of F1 as follows: the P-loop lysine in the phosphate-binding loop, GXXXXGK(T/S); a glutamic acid that activates water molecules for nucleophilic attack on the γ-phosphate of ATP (general base); and an arginine directly contacting the γ-phosphate (arginine finger). These residues are well conserved among P-loop NTPases. In this study, we investigated the role of these charged residues in catalysis and torque generation by analyzing alanine-substituted mutants in the single-molecule rotation assay. Surprisingly, all mutants continuously drove rotary motion, even though the rotational velocity was at least 100,000 times slower than that of wild type. Thus, although these charged residues contribute to highly efficient catalysis, they are not indispensable to chemo-mechanical energy coupling, and the rotary catalysis mechanism of F1 is far more robust than previously thought.

  17. Heterogeneous Catalysis: On Bathroom Mirrors and Boiling Stones (United States)

    Philipse, Albert P.


    Though heterogeneous nucleation of liquid droplets on a smooth surface (such as a bathroom mirror) is a classical topic in nucleation theory, it is not well-known that this topic is actually a pedagogical example of heterogeneous catalysis: the one and only effect of the surface is to lower the activation Gibbs energy of droplet formation. In…

  18. Multiphoton catalysis with coherent state input: nonclassicality and decoherence (United States)

    Hu, Li-Yun; Wu, Jia-Ni; Liao, Zeyang; Zubairy, M. Suhail


    We propose a scheme to generate a new kind of non-Gaussian state—the Laguerre polynomial excited coherent state (LPECS)—by using multiphoton catalysis with coherent state input. The nonclassical properties of the LPECS are studied in terms of nonclassical depth, Mandel’s parameter, second-order correlation, quadrature squeezing, and the negativity of the Wigner function (WF). It is found that the LPECS is highly nonclassical and its nonclassicality depends on the amplitude of the coherent state, the catalysis photon number, and the parameters of the unbalanced beam splitter (BS). In particular, the maximum degree of squeezing can be enhanced by increasing the catalysis photon number. In addition, we examine the effect of decoherence using the WF, which shows that the negative region, the characteristic time of decoherence, and the structure of the WF are affected by catalysis photon number and the parameters of the unbalanced BS. Our work provides general analysis on how to prepare polynomial quantum states, which may be useful in the fields of quantum information and quantum computation.

  19. Scaffolding Catalysis: Expanding the Repertoire of Bifunctional Catalysts. (United States)

    Tan, Kian L; Sun, Xixi; Worthy, Amanda D


    Inducing an intramolecular reaction is a powerful means of accelerating reactions. Though this mechanism of catalysis is common in enzymes, it is underutilized in synthetic catalysts. This article outlines our group's recent efforts to use reversible covalent bonding to induce an intramolecular reaction, allowing for rate acceleration as well as control of the selectivity in the desymmetrization of 1,2-diols.

  20. Nitrogen doped carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dommele, S.


    Nitrogen containing Carbon Nanotubes (NCNT) have altered physical- and chemical properties with respect to polarity, conductivity and reactivity as compared to conventional carbon nanotubes (CNT) and have potential for use in electronic applications or catalysis. In this thesis the incorporation of

  1. VLT Data Flow System Begins Operation (United States)


    conceived as a complex digital facility to explore the Universe. In order for astronomers to be able to use this marvellous research tool in the most efficient manner possible, the VLT computer software and hardware systems must guarantee a smooth flow of scientific information through the entire system. This process starts when the astronomers submit well-considered proposals for observing time and it ends with large volumes of valuable astronomical data being distributed to the international astronomical community. For this, ESO has produced an integrated collection of software and hardware, known as the VLT Data Flow System (DFS) , that manages and facilitates the flow of scientific information within the VLT Observatory. Early information about this new concept was published as ESO Press Release 12/96 and extensive tests were first carried out at ESOs 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla, cf. ESO Press Release 03/97 [1]. The VLT DFS is a complete (end-to-end) system that guarantees the highest data quality by optimization of the observing process and repeated checks that identify and eliminate any problems. It also introduces automatic calibration of the data, i.e. the removal of external effects introduced by the atmospheric conditions at the time of the observations, as well as the momentary state of the telescope and the instruments. From Proposals to Observations In order to obtain observing time with ESO telescopes, also with the VLT, astronomers must submit a detailed observing proposal to the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) . It meets twice a year and ranks the proposals according to scientific merit. More than 1000 proposals are submitted each year, mostly by astronomers from the ESO members states and Chile; the competition is fierce and only a fraction of the total demand for observing time can be fulfilled. During the submission of observing proposals, DFS software tools available over the World Wide Web enable the astronomers to simulate

  2. Enzyme catalysis: tool to make and break amygdalin hydrogelators from renewable resources: a delivery model for hydrophobic drugs. (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Li, Jun; John, George


    We report a novel approach for the controlled delivery of an antiinflammatory, chemopreventive drug by an enzyme-triggered drug release mechanism via the degradation of encapsulated hydrogels. The hydro- and organogelators are synthesized in high yields from renewable resources by using regioselective enzyme catalysis, and a known chemopreventive and antiinflammatory drug, i.e., curcumin, is used for the model study. The release of the drug occurred at physiological temperature, and control of the drug release rate is achieved by manipulating the enzyme concentration and/or temperature. The byproducts formed after the gel degradation were characterized and clearly demonstrated the site specificity of degradation of the gelator by enzyme catalysis. The present approach could have applications in developing cost-effective controlled drug delivery vehicles from renewable resources, with a potential impact on pharmaceutical research and molecular design and delivery strategies.

  3. Iron Catalysis in Organic Synthesis: A Critical Assessment of What It Takes To Make This Base Metal a Multitasking Champion. (United States)

    Fürstner, Alois


    The current status of homogeneous iron catalysis in organic chemistry is contemplated, as are the reasons why this particular research area only recently starts challenging the enduring dominance of the late and mostly noble metals over the field. Centered in the middle of the d-block and able to support formal oxidation states ranging from -II to +VI, iron catalysts hold the promise of being able to encompass organic synthesis at large. They are expected to serve reductive as well as oxidative regimes, can emulate "noble tasks", but are also able to adopt "early" transition metal character. Since a comprehensive coverage of this multidimensional agenda is beyond the scope of an Outlook anyway, emphasis is laid in this article on the analysis of the factors that perhaps allow one to control the multifarious chemical nature of this earth-abundant metal. The challenges are significant, not least at the analytical frontier; their mastery mandates a mindset that differs from the routines that most organic chemists interested in (noble metal) catalysis tend to cultivate. This aspect notwithstanding, it is safe to predict that homogeneous iron catalysis bears the chance to enable a responsible paradigm for chemical synthesis and a sustained catalyst economy, while potentially providing substantial economic advantages. This promise will spur the systematic and in-depth investigations that it takes to upgrade this research area to strategy-level status in organic chemistry and beyond.

  4. Excess mutual catalysis is required for effective evolvability. (United States)

    Markovitch, Omer; Lancet, Doron


    It is widely accepted that autocatalysis constitutes a crucial facet of effective replication and evolution (e.g., in Eigen's hypercycle model). Other models for early evolution (e.g., by Dyson, Gánti, Varela, and Kauffman) invoke catalytic networks, where cross-catalysis is more apparent. A key question is how the balance between auto- (self-) and cross- (mutual) catalysis shapes the behavior of model evolving systems. This is investigated using the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, previously shown to capture essential features of reproduction, mutation, and evolution in compositional molecular assemblies. We have performed numerical simulations of an ensemble of GARD networks, each with a different set of lognormally distributed catalytic values. We asked what is the influence of the catalytic content of such networks on beneficial evolution. Importantly, a clear trend was observed, wherein only networks with high mutual catalysis propensity (p(mc)) allowed for an augmented diversity of composomes, quasi-stationary compositions that exhibit high replication fidelity. We have reexamined a recent analysis that showed meager selection in a single GARD instance and for a few nonstationary target compositions. In contrast, when we focused here on compotypes (clusters of composomes) as targets for selection in populations of compositional assemblies, appreciable selection response was observed for a large portion of the networks simulated. Further, stronger selection response was seen for high p(mc) values. Our simulations thus demonstrate that GARD can help analyze important facets of evolving systems, and indicate that excess mutual catalysis over self-catalysis is likely to be important for the emergence of molecular systems capable of evolutionlike behavior.

  5. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy > Social Security Disability & Sjögren’s Board of Directors Medical & Scientific Advisory Board Staff Staff Bios Annual Report ... SSF Store - Books, CDs & More Wake Up, Koala! Provider/Researcher Research Grants > Grant Application > Current Recipients > Past ...

  6. Synthetic strategies for controlling inter- and intramolecular interactions: Applications in single-molecule fluorescence imaging, bioluminescence imaging, and palladium catalysis (United States)

    Conley, Nicholas R.

    The field of synthetic organic chemistry has reached such maturity that, with sufficient effort and resources, the synthesis of virtually any small molecule which exhibits reasonable stability at room temperature can be realized. While representing a monumental achievement for the field, the ability to exert precise control over molecular structure is just a means to an end, and it is frequently the responsibility of the synthetic chemist to determine which molecules should actually be synthesized. For better or worse, there exists no competitive free market in academia for new molecules, and as a result, the decision of which compounds should be synthesized is seldom driven by the forces of supply and demand; rather, it is guided by the synthetic chemist's interest in an anticipated structure-function relationship or in the properties of a previously unstudied class of molecules. As a consequence, there exists a pervasive need for chemists with synthetic expertise in fields (e.g., molecular imaging) and subdisciplines of chemistry (e.g., physical chemistry) in which the identification of promising synthetic targets dramatically outpaces the synthetic output in that field or subdiscipline, and ample opportunities are available for synthetic chemists who choose to pursue such cross-disciplinary research. This thesis describes synthetic efforts that leverage these opportunities to realize applications in biological imaging and in palladium catalysis. In Part I, the synthesis and characterization of three novel luminophores and their imaging applications are discussed. The first is a molecular beacon that utilizes a fluorophorefluorophore pair which exhibits H-dimer quenching in the closed conformation. This probe offers several advantages over conventional fluorophore-quencher molecular beacons in the detection of oligonucleotides, both in bulk and at the single-molecule level. Secondly, a fluorescent, Cy3-Cy5 covalent heterodimer is reported, which on account of the

  7. The Beginning and End of the Universe (United States)

    Gardner, Jonathan


    Cosmology is the scientific study of how the Universe began more than 13 billion years ago, how its properties have changed, and what its future might be. The balance of forces and energy cause the Universe to expand, first accelerating, then decelerating and then accelerating again. Within this overall structure, the interplay of atoms and light with the mysterious dark matter and dark energy causes stars and galaxies to form and evolve, leading to galaxies like our own home, the Milky Way. Observational cosmology uses telescopes on Earth and in space to reach back in time to find the faint remaining echoes of the Big Bang and to trace the formation and evolution of the galaxies and structures that fill the Universe. In this lecture, Dr. Gradner will give an overview of cosmology, outlining the 13-billion year history of the Universe, and highlighting the very rapid progress this field has made i the last decade. He will discuss the role that NASA space telescopes have played in this progress and wil continue to play in the years to come. He will give a time-based history of the Universe, discussing the successive processes that formed matter, particles, atoms, stars and galaxies. In particular, he will focus on cosmological inflation, the rapid accelerated expansion that marks the beginning of the Universe, and dark energy, a tenuous substance that overcomes gravity and whose properties will determine its final fate.

  8. Diversity: How to Begin the Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Alston-Mills


    Full Text Available The perception of diversity and inclusion, as it relates to social justice, often evokes destructive responses, either spoken or unspoken. It is one of the ‘malicious problems’ found in the classroom, the workplace, and amongst other parts of our society. In challenging these problems with diversity and inclusion, conversations regarding the substantive aspects of oppression and inequitable distribution of power of one group over another must be initiated to educate or expand the thinking of our modern day society. Formulating solutions from these conversations, willing individuals must be able to name the issue, analyze its impact, and enact a positive change, while acknowledging the difficulties in creating conversations of an issue that is in dire need of revelation. This report provides a non-controversial presentation, beginning with reasons for resistance, followed by survival strategies, and ending with pro-active strategies to establish dialogue and to allow for personal stories. Further discussion will analyze aggressive behavior, examine critical core values for an individual and organization, discuss positive and effective methods for combating mistreatment, and empowerment strategies to respond positively to oppression. Strategies for engaging an organization are included, such as how to use these tools to co-create a vision for a welcoming environment in organizations, while acknowledging the uncomfortable atmosphere that surrounds the topic of cultural change. Accepting that this uncomfortable environment stems from fear itself, fear is a viable part of the process towards trust and resolution.

  9. Essential techniques for the beginning psychodynamic psychotherapist. (United States)

    Sublette, M Elizabeth; Novick, Jon


    The process of learning to conduct psychotherapy is extremely challenging, especially in the initial stages. It is not inappropriate for the novice to seek concrete guidance as to how to proceed in the initial work with the patient. Unfortunately, however, the therapist in training may be daunted by the psychodynamic/psychoanalytic literature, which is highly theoretical and bewildering in its diversity. The following material is a compilation of psychotherapy "pearls" that the authors have distilled from the psychotherapy literature, supervision with senior colleagues, and their own clinical experience. This article is intended as a primer of some technical aspects of psychodynamic work. An attempt has been made to select facets of technique that seem surprising to the inexperienced, as they are different from other types of conventional discourse. The authors have chosen to use "he" instead of "he/she" or "them" to make the paper stylistically more palatable. A bibliography is presented at the end as a guide for the beginning reader.

  10. Perspectives on electrostatics and conformational motions in enzyme catalysis. (United States)

    Hanoian, Philip; Liu, C Tony; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon; Benkovic, Stephen


    CONSPECTUS: Enzymes are essential for all living organisms, and their effectiveness as chemical catalysts has driven more than a half century of research seeking to understand the enormous rate enhancements they provide. Nevertheless, a complete understanding of the factors that govern the rate enhancements and selectivities of enzymes remains elusive, due to the extraordinary complexity and cooperativity that are the hallmarks of these biomolecules. We have used a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, pre-steady-state kinetics, X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), vibrational and fluorescence spectroscopies, resonance energy transfer, and computer simulations to study the implications of conformational motions and electrostatic interactions on enzyme catalysis in the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). We have demonstrated that modest equilibrium conformational changes are functionally related to the hydride transfer reaction. Results obtained for mutant DHFRs illustrated that reductions in hydride transfer rates are correlated with altered conformational motions, and analysis of the evolutionary history of DHFR indicated that mutations appear to have occurred to preserve both the hydride transfer rate and the associated conformational changes. More recent results suggested that differences in local electrostatic environments contribute to finely tuning the substrate pKa in the initial protonation step. Using a combination of primary and solvent kinetic isotope effects, we demonstrated that the reaction mechanism is consistent across a broad pH range, and computer simulations suggested that deprotonation of the active site Tyr100 may play a crucial role in substrate protonation at high pH. Site-specific incorporation of vibrational thiocyanate probes into the ecDHFR active site provided an experimental tool for interrogating these microenvironments and for investigating changes in electrostatics along the DHFR catalytic cycle

  11. Porous metal-organic frameworks for heterogeneous biomimetic catalysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Ou, Sha; Wu, Chuan-De


    Metalloporphyrins are the active sites in monooxygenases that oxidize a variety of substrates efficiently and under mild conditions. Researchers have developed artificial metalloporphyrins, but these structures have had limited catalytic applications. Homogeneous artificial metalloporphyrins can undergo catalytic deactivation via suicidal self-oxidation, which lowers their catalytic activity and sustainability relative to their counterparts in Nature. Heme molecules in protein scaffolds can maintain high efficiency over numerous catalytic cycles. Therefore, we wondered if immobilizing metalloporphyrin moieties within porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) could stabilize these structures and facilitate the molecular recognition of substrates and produce highly efficient biomimetic catalysis. In this Account, we describe our research to develop multifunctional porphyrinic frameworks as highly efficient heterogeneous biomimetic catalysts. Our studies indicate that porous porphyrinic frameworks provide an excellent platform for mimicking the activity of biocatalysts and developing new heterogeneous catalysts that effect new chemical transformations under mild conditions. The porous structures and framework topologies of the porphyrinic frameworks depend on the configurations, coordination donors, and porphyrin metal ions of the metalloporphyrin moieties. To improve the activity of porous porphyrinic frameworks, we have developed a two-step synthesis that introduces the functional polyoxometalates (POMs) into POM-porphyrin hybrid materials. To tune the pore structures and the catalytic properties of porphyrinic frameworks, we have designed metalloporphyrin M-H8OCPP ligands with four m-benzenedicarboxylate moieties, and introduced the secondary auxiliary ligands. The porphyrin metal ions and the secondary functional moieties that are incorporated into porous metal-organic frameworks greatly influence the catalytic properties and activities of porphyrinic frameworks in

  12. Advances in nanoscale alloys and intermetallics: low temperature solution chemistry synthesis and application in catalysis. (United States)

    Jana, Subhra


    Based on the bottom-up chemistry techniques, the size, shape, and composition controlled synthesis of nanoparticles can now be achieved uniformly, which is of great importance to the nanoscience community as well as in modern catalysis research. The low-temperature solution-phase synthesis approach represents one of the most attractive strategies and has been utilized to synthesize nanoscale metals, alloys and intermetallics, including a number of new metastable phases. This perspective will highlight the solution-based nanoparticle synthesis techniques, a low-temperature platform, for the synthesis of size and shape-tunable nanoscale transition metals, alloys, and intermetallics from the literature, keeping a focus on the utility of these nanomaterials in understanding the catalysis. For each solution-based nanoparticle synthesis technique, a comprehensive overview has been given for the reported nanoscale metals, alloys, and intermetallics, followed by critical comments. Finally, their enhanced catalytic activity and durability as novel catalysts have been discussed towards several hydrogenation/dehydrogenation reactions and also for different inorganic to organic reactions. Hence, the captivating advantages of this controllable low-temperature solution chemistry approach have several important implications and together with them this approach provides a promising route to the development of next-generation nanostructured metals, alloys, and intermetallics since they possess fascinating properties as well as outstanding catalytic activity.

  13. Correlation of the structure and applications of dealloyed nanoporous metals in catalysis and energy conversion/storage. (United States)

    Qiu, H-J; Xu, Hai-Tao; Liu, Li; Wang, Yu


    Nanoporous metals produced by dealloying have shown great promise in many areas such as catalysis/electrocatalysis, energy conversion/storage, sensing/biosensing, actuation, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Particularly, nanoscale metal ligaments with high electronic conductivity, tunable size and rich surface chemistry make nanoporous metals very promising as catalysts/electrocatalysts for energy conversion applications such as fuel cells and also as versatile three-dimensional substrates for energy-storage in supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In this review, we focus on the recent developments of dealloyed nanoporous metals in both catalysis/electrocatalysis and energy storage. In particular, based on the state-of-the-art electron microscopy characterization, we explain the atomic origin of the high catalytic activity of nanoporous gold. We also highlight the recent advances in rationally designing nanoporous metal-based composites and hierarchical structures for enhanced energy storage. Finally, we conclude with some outlook and perspectives with respect to future research on dealloyed nanoporous metals in catalysis- and energy-related applications.

  14. Using Blackboard and Skype for Mentoring Beginning Teachers (United States)

    Suk Hwang, Young; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos


    The purpose of this article is to examine the nature of the Blackboard and Skype-based electronic mentoring system for beginning teachers. The Quality Teachers for Quality Students project developed an electronic mentoring system between beginning teachers and experienced teachers to support beginning teachers' instructional and classroom…

  15. Factors Influencing Beginning Teacher Retention in the Diocese of St. Augustine Catholic Schools (United States)

    Bronsard, Patricia


    Researchers explored the problem of teacher retention, especially among beginning teachers, and noted a lack of consensus on why teachers leave teaching and how to retain the teachers. Private school studies include Catholic school data, but few researchers isolated the data or used data-gathering instruments to examine Catholic school issues,…

  16. Primary prevention for resettled refugees from Burma: where to begin? (United States)

    Haley, Heather-Lyn; Walsh, Meredith; Tin Maung, Nang H; Savage, Clara P; Cashman, Suzanne


    Developing effective primary prevention initiatives may help recently arrived refugees retain some of their own healthy cultural habits and reduce the tendency to adopt detrimental ones. This research explores recent arrivals' knowledge regarding eating behaviors, physical activity and sleep habits. Working collaboratively with community members, a healthy living curriculum was adapted and pilot tested in focus groups. A community-engaged approach to revising and implementing a health promotion tool was effective in beginning dialogue about primary prevention among a group of recently arrived refugees from Burma. Seven themes were identified as particularly relevant: food choices, living environment, health information, financial stress, mobility/transportation, social interaction and recreation, and hopes and dreams. Refugees desire more specific information about nutrition and exercise, and they find community health workers an effective medium for delivering this information. The outcomes of this study may inform future targeted interventions for health promotion with refugees from Burma.

  17. Goethe's bone and the beginnings of morphology. (United States)

    Opitz, John M


    Biology as a discipline per se and its agenda, seems not to have been burdened from its beginnings as heavily with neo-Platonism as its subspecialty morphology, conceptualized at the same time by Goethe and Burdach. One of the reasons may have been that biologists were then regarded as "mere" naturalists, "doing" anatomy and embryology, breeding, and field work (as did Darwin, Wallace, Bateson and a legion of others during the 19th century), whereas the, perhaps more elitist, morphologists, ab initio devoted themselves to the origin, even to the Kantian analysis of causes of development and its variability within and between species. Since Goethe included abnormal plant development in his studies, his definition of morphology as the science of the form, formation and transformation of living organisms may be modified to include the concept of malformation, although the embryological and comparative analysis of vertebrate/mammalian malformation had its real inception somewhat later with the younger Meckel. In view of the meaning attached by his French contemporaries to the term transformisme (eventually defined as evolution) one would err considering Goethe as a prophet of "descent;" he was not, referring primarily to the continuous state of flux of living beings. Nonetheless, Goethe and Burdach independently coined the concept of morphology and set its agenda, increasingly freed of Naturphilosophie, an agenda that dominated 19th century biology but which did not come to fruition in its causal analysis of form and its formation until the 20th century, after Mendel, Darwin and the pioneers of experimental embryology (a.o., Roux, Driesch, Spemann, Vogt). In his discovery of the intermaxillary bone in humans (Goethe's bone), he had a startling insight, against conventional wisdom, into the anatomical, hence developmental, similarity of primate/mammals. During his lifetime, this was still called analogie by his great French contemporary Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire who

  18. Classroom Management: Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Preparedness (United States)

    Woods, Sean A.


    Classroom management has been the focal point of many different studies and research projects. Unfortunately, it has also been cited as one of the top three reasons teachers leave the field of education not only today, but for the last 40 years (Berry, 2010). There is a need for an understanding of the implications of past classroom management…

  19. Nanoporous gold membranes: From morphological control to fuel cell catalysis (United States)

    Ding, Yi

    Porous noble metals are particularly attractive for scientific research and industrial applications such as catalysis, sensing, and filtration. In this thesis, I will discuss the fabrication, characterization, and application of a new class of porous metals, called nanoporous metals (NPM). NPM is made during selective dissolution (also called dealloying) of reactive components (e.g., silver) from multi-component alloys (e.g., Ag/Au alloy). Commercially available white gold leaf (Ag65Au35) can, for example, be etched into nanoporous gold (NPG) membrane by simply floating the leaf on concentrated nitric acid for periods of a few minutes. NPG leaf adopts a single crystal porous structure within individual grains. The microstructure of NPG, such as the pore size, is tunable between a few nanometers to sub-micron length scale by either thermal annealing or post-treatment in nitric acid for extended period of time. A new gas-liquid-solid interface electroless plating technique is developed to uniformly cover the NPG surface with other metals, such as silver and platinum. This technique allows new opportunities of making functionalized nanostructures. We show that a combination of silver plating and dealloying can be used to make multimodal porous metals, which are expected to have application in sensing field. Electroless platinum plating onto NPG shows very usual growth mode. TEM observation indicates that the platinum layer on NPG surface takes a novel form of layer-islanding growth (Stranski-Krastanov growth). Annealing the Pt/NPG composite smoothens the Pt islands and forms a 1 nm coherent Pt layer on the NPG backbone, possibly with dislocation formation at the Pt/Au interface. Furthermore, it was found that we could dissolve the gold away in aqueous gold etchant, leaving behind the 1 nm-thick Pt shell, a structure we call nanotubular mesoporous platinum (NMP). Pt plated NPG has a series of unique structural properties, such as high active surface area, thermally

  20. China to Host the Next International Congress on Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Chinese Chemical Society has successfully won the bid to host the 16^th International Congress on Catalysis (ICC), according to a news release of the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences on July 26. The Congress, which has been regarded as the most important gettogether for the international catalysis community, is going to be held from July 3 to 8, 2016 in Beijing and hopefully attract more than 3,000 experts from all over the world. It is the first time that China won the bid to host an ICC since it first joined the meeting in 1980. The Secretariat of the 16^th ICC will be located at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics.

  1. Carbon mediated catalysis:A review on oxidative dehydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Chen; Anders Holmen; Zhijun Sui; Xinggui Zhou


    Carbon mediated catalysis has gained an increasing attention in both areas of nanocatalysis and nanomaterials. The progress in carbon nanomaterials provides many new opportunities to manip-ulate the types and properties of active sites of catalysts through manipulating structures, function-alities and properties of carbon surfaces. The present review focuses on progresses in carbon medi-ated oxidative dehydrogenation reactions of ethylbenzene, propane, and butane. The state-of-the-art of the developments of carbon mediated catalysis is discussed in terms of fundamental studies on adsorption of oxygen and hydrocarbons, reaction mechanism as well as effects of carbon nano-material structures and surface functional groups on the catalytic performance. We highlight the importance and challenges in tuning of the electron density of carbon and oxygen on carbon surfac-es for improving selectivity in oxidative dehydrogenation reactions.

  2. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhang Ren


    Full Text Available Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis.

  3. Exactly Embedded Wavefunction Methods for Characterizing Nitrogen Reduction Catalysis (United States)


    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0038 Exactly Embedded Wavefunction Methods for Characterizing Nitrogen THOMAS MILLER CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Final...SUBTITLE Exactly Embedded Wavefunction Methods for Characterizing Nitrogen Reduction Catalysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550...of developing and applying exactly embedded density functional and wavefunction theory methods for the investigation of small-molecular activation

  4. Selective catalysis utilizing bifunctionalized MCM-41 mesoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strosahl, Kasey Jean [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Selective catalysis is a field that has been under intense investigation for the last 100 years. The most widely used method involves catalysts with stereochemical selectivity. In this type of catalysis, the catalyst controls which reactants will be transformed into the desired product. The secret to employing this type of catalysis, though, is to design the proper catalyst, which can be difficult. One may spend as much time developing the catalyst as spent separating the various products achieved. Another method of selective catalysis is now being explored. The method involves utilizing a multifunctional mesoporous silica catalyst with a gate-keeping capability. Properly functionalized mesoporous materials with well-defined pore morphology and surface properties can provide an ideal three-dimensional environment for anchoring various homogeneous catalysts. These materials can circumvent the multi-sited two-dimensional nature most heterogeneous systems have without adversely impacting the reactant diffusivity. These single-site nanostructured catalysts with ordered geometrical structure are advantageous in achieving high selectivity and reactivity. Mesoporous materials can be prepared to include pores lined homogeneously with tethered catalysts via co-condensation. Additionally, these materials can be reacted with another (RO)3Si~Z group by using the traditional grafting method; this group is anchored predominantly at the entrances to the pores rather than inside the pores. Thus, if these ~Z groups are chosen properly, they can select certain molecules to enter the pores and be converted to products (Scheme 1). In such multifunctional catalysts, the selectivity depends on the discrimination of the gatekeeper. Gate-keeping MCM-41 materials are at the forefront of catalytic substances.

  5. Asymmetric photoredox transition-metal catalysis activated by visible light (United States)

    Huo, Haohua; Shen, Xiaodong; Wang, Chuanyong; Zhang, Lilu; Röse, Philipp; Chen, Liang-An; Harms, Klaus; Marsch, Michael; Hilt, Gerhard; Meggers, Eric


    Asymmetric catalysis is seen as one of the most economical strategies to satisfy the growing demand for enantiomerically pure small molecules in the fine chemical and pharmaceutical industries. And visible light has been recognized as an environmentally friendly and sustainable form of energy for triggering chemical transformations and catalytic chemical processes. For these reasons, visible-light-driven catalytic asymmetric chemistry is a subject of enormous current interest. Photoredox catalysis provides the opportunity to generate highly reactive radical ion intermediates with often unusual or unconventional reactivities under surprisingly mild reaction conditions. In such systems, photoactivated sensitizers initiate a single electron transfer from (or to) a closed-shell organic molecule to produce radical cations or radical anions whose reactivities are then exploited for interesting or unusual chemical transformations. However, the high reactivity of photoexcited substrates, intermediate radical ions or radicals, and the low activation barriers for follow-up reactions provide significant hurdles for the development of efficient catalytic photochemical processes that work under stereochemical control and provide chiral molecules in an asymmetric fashion. Here we report a highly efficient asymmetric catalyst that uses visible light for the necessary molecular activation, thereby combining asymmetric catalysis and photocatalysis. We show that a chiral iridium complex can serve as a sensitizer for photoredox catalysis and at the same time provide very effective asymmetric induction for the enantioselective alkylation of 2-acyl imidazoles. This new asymmetric photoredox catalyst, in which the metal centre simultaneously serves as the exclusive source of chirality, the catalytically active Lewis acid centre, and the photoredox centre, offers new opportunities for the `green' synthesis of non-racemic chiral molecules.

  6. Catalysis at the Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Chemistry Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Howard; Alper


    1 Results Significant progress has been made in recent years in developing efficient, atom economical catalytic reactions of potential applicability to the pharmaceutical, petrochemical, and commodity chemical business sectors. In some cases, homogeneous catalytic processes offer advantages, but in others the use of heterogenized homogeneous catalysis provides a competitive advantage concerning recyclability and catalyst recovery. This presentation will consider new approaches to cyclization reactions a...

  7. Malate dehydrogenase: a model for structure, evolution, and catalysis.



    Malate dehydrogenases are widely distributed and alignment of the amino acid sequences show that the enzyme has diverged into 2 main phylogenetic groups. Multiple amino acid sequence alignments of malate dehydrogenases also show that there is a low degree of primary structural similarity, apart from in several positions crucial for nucleotide binding, catalysis, and the subunit interface. The 3-dimensional structures of several malate dehydrogenases are similar, despite their low amino acid s...

  8. Catalysis in the alkylation reaction of 1-naphthol with epichlorohydrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Two new and improved procedures were developed for the synthesis of 1-(1-naphthyloxy-2,3-epoxypropane as an important intermediate in the production of the beta-blocker and antioxidant, 1-[(1-methylethylamino]-3-(1-naphthyloxy-2-propanol (propranolol. Both base homogeneous and heterogeneous PTC catalysis were employed. High yields and remarkable selectivity were achieved. The improved purity is particularly important, in view of the quality requirements for propranolol hydrochloride as an active pharmaceutical ingredient.

  9. From Inverse to Delayed Magnetic Catalysis in Strong Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Shijun


    We study magnetic field effect on chiral phase transition in a Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. In comparison with mean field approximation containing quarks only, including mesons as quantum fluctuations in the model leads to a transition from inverse to delayed magnetic catalysis at finite temperature and delays the transition at finite baryon chemical potential. The location of the critical end point depends on the the magnetic field non-monotonously.

  10. Decylacetate synthesis by enzyme catalysis in SC-CO2


    Oliveira,M.V.; Rebocho, Sílvia F.; Ribeiro, Adriano S.; Ferreira, Olga; Vidinha, Pedro; Barreiros, Susana; Macedo, Eugénia A.; LOUREIRO, José M.


    The main purpose of this work was the study of long chain esters production, using decyl acetate as model compound, by enzymatic catalysis in supercritical media, with the aim of developing a sustainable, clean and efficient process as an alternative to the traditional chemical processes. The combination of a sustainable and clean technology, as biocatalysis, with a green/natural solvent, as supercritical CO2, besides allowing the establishment of processes with less environmental costs, lead...

  11. In the beginning was the other

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Kirsten


    In much of educational philosophy and sciences the fundamental concepts are the subject conceived of as conscious and constituting and the learning process conceived of as a matter of cognition. This article asks what the effect would be on educational research method and educational theory...... in general if the fundamental concept were the subject in the sense of the psychoanalytic subject of the unconscious. The aim of the article is not a critique of any sound scientific effort to supply evidence for what can count as best practice and which methods would increase school effectiveness. Rather...... ineffective, and, conversely, any didactical method, no matter how "outmoded", can in practice turn out to be effective. In other words, both failure and success may mistakenly be ascribed to didactical methods rather than unconscious processes of transference. Psychoanalysis can provide educational research...

  12. Plasma Catalysis of Methane Decomposition in Pulse Microwave Discharge (United States)

    Potapkin, B.; Rusanov, V.; Jivotov, V.; Babaritski, A.; Potechin, S.; Etievant, C.


    Investigation of plasma catalysis effects in various chemical reactions, such as SO2 and hydrocarbons oxidation, ammonia and nitrogen oxides synthesis, has been of interest for many decades. Present work describes the first experimental observation and theoretical analysis of plasma catalysis effects in the case of endothermic methane decomposition into molecular hydrogen and carbon black. Process energy requirements are coverd mainly by low potential gas thermal energy while plasma is used for acceleration of chemical reactions via active species generation. The experiments were done as follows: (i) methane was preheated in a conventional heat exchanger up to about 40-65 ^oC where thermal methane decomposition is limited by process kinetics, (ii) methane was passed through a non-equilibrium pulse microwave discharge (9.04 GHz, pulse duration 1 μs). Experiments have shown a strong catalytic effect of plasma on methane decomposition. The degree of conversion after discharge increased drastically, despite gas cooling, because of heat absorption in the methane decomposition reaction. Theoretical analysis of process kinetics and energy balance gave clear evidence of the catalytic effect of plasma under experimental conditions. The estimated chain length was about 300. The possible mechanism of plasma catalysis, the ion-molecular chain Winchester mechanism, is proposed and described.

  13. Probing the chemistry of thioredoxin catalysis with force (United States)

    Wiita, Arun P.; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Walther, Kirstin A.; Gräter, Frauke; Berne, B. J.; Holmgren, Arne; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.; Fernandez, Julio M.


    Thioredoxins are enzymes that catalyse disulphide bond reduction in all living organisms1. Although catalysis is thought to proceed through a substitution nucleophilic bimolecular (SN2) reaction1,2, the role of the enzyme in modulating this chemical reaction is unknown. Here, using single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy3,4, we investigate the catalytic mechanism of Escherichia coli thioredoxin (Trx). We applied mechanical force in the range of 25–600 pN to a disulphide bond substrate and monitored the reduction of these bonds by individual enzymes. We detected two alternative forms of the catalytic reaction, the first requiring a reorientation of the substrate disulphide bond, causing a shortening of the substrate polypeptide by 0.79 ± 0.09 Å (± s.e.m.), and the second elongating the substrate disulphide bond by 0.17 ± 0.02 Å (±s.e.m.). These results support the view that the Trx active site regulates the geometry of the participating sulphur atoms with sub-ångström precision to achieve efficient catalysis. Our results indicate that substrate conformational changes may be important in the regulation of Trx activity under conditions of oxidative stress and mechanical injury, such as those experienced in cardiovascular disease5,6. Furthermore, single-molecule atomic force microscopy techniques, as shown here, can probe dynamic rearrangements within an enzyme’s active site during catalysis that cannot be resolved with any other current structural biological technique. PMID:17972886

  14. Crown ethers and phase transfer catalysis in polymer science

    CERN Document Server

    Carraher, Charles


    Phase transfer catalysis or interfacial catalysis is a syn­ thetic technique involving transport of an organic or inorganic salt from a solid or aqueous phase into an organic liquid where reaction with an organic-soluble substrate takes place. Over the past 15 years there has been an enormous amount of effort invested in the development of this technique in organic synthe­ sis. Several books and numerous review articles have appeared summarizing applications in which low molecular weight catalysts are employed. These generally include either crown ethers or onium salts of various kinds. While the term phase transfer catalysis is relatively new, the concept of using a phasetrans­ fer agent (PTA) is much older~ Both Schnell and Morgan employed such catalysts in synthesis of polymeric species in the early 1950's. Present developments are really extensions of these early applications. It has only been within the last several years that the use of phase transfer processes have been employed in polymer synthesis...

  15. Switching on elusive organometallic mechanisms with photoredox catalysis. (United States)

    Terrett, Jack A; Cuthbertson, James D; Shurtleff, Valerie W; MacMillan, David W C


    Transition-metal-catalysed cross-coupling reactions have become one of the most used carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bond-forming reactions in chemical synthesis. Recently, nickel catalysis has been shown to participate in a wide variety of C-C bond-forming reactions, most notably Negishi, Suzuki-Miyaura, Stille, Kumada and Hiyama couplings. Despite the tremendous advances in C-C fragment couplings, the ability to forge C-O bonds in a general fashion via nickel catalysis has been largely unsuccessful. The challenge for nickel-mediated alcohol couplings has been the mechanistic requirement for the critical C-O bond-forming step (formally known as the reductive elimination step) to occur via a Ni(III) alkoxide intermediate. Here we demonstrate that visible-light-excited photoredox catalysts can modulate the preferred oxidation states of nickel alkoxides in an operative catalytic cycle, thereby providing transient access to Ni(III) species that readily participate in reductive elimination. Using this synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis, we have developed a highly efficient and general carbon-oxygen coupling reaction using abundant alcohols and aryl bromides. More notably, we have developed a general strategy to 'switch on' important yet elusive organometallic mechanisms via oxidation state modulations using only weak light and single-electron-transfer catalysts.

  16. Compartmentalized Droplets for Continuous Flow Liquid-Liquid Interface Catalysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wei, Lijuan; Chen, Huan; Du, Zhiping; Binks, Bernard P; Yang, Hengquan


    To address the limitations of batch organic-aqueous biphasic catalysis, we develop a conceptually novel method termed Flow Pickering Emulsion, or FPE, to process biphasic reactions in a continuous flow fashion. This method involves the compartmentalization of bulk water into micron-sized droplets based on a water-in-oil Pickering emulsion, which are packed into a column reactor. The compartmentalized water droplets can confine water-soluble catalysts, thus "immobilizing" the catalyst in the column reactor, while the interstices between the droplets allow the organic (oil) phase to flow. Key fundamental principles underpinning this method such as the oil phase flow behavior, the stability of compartmentalized droplets and the confinement capability of these droplets toward water-soluble catalysts are experimentally and theoretically investigated. As a proof of this concept, case studies including a sulfuric acid-catalyzed addition reaction, a heteropolyacid-catalyzed ring opening reaction and an enzyme-catalyzed chiral reaction demonstrate the generality and versatility of the FPE method. Impressively, in addition to the excellent durability, the developed FPE reactions exhibit up to 10-fold reaction efficiency enhancement in comparison to the existing batch reactions, indicating a unique flow interface catalysis effect. This study opens up a new avenue to allow conventional biphasic catalysis reactions to access more sustainable and efficient flow chemistry using an innovative liquid-liquid interface protocol.

  17. Computer-based studies on enzyme catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, L.


    Theoretical simulations are becoming increasingly important for our understanding of how enzymes work. The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to contribute to this development by applying various computational methods to three enzymes of theβ-ketoadipate pathway, and to validate the mod

  18. Catalysis in electrochemistry from fundamental aspects to strategies for fuel cell development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Elizabeth


    Catalysis in Electrochemistry: From Fundamental Aspects to Strategies for Fuel Cell Development is a modern, comprehensive reference work on catalysis in electrochemistry, including principles, methods, strategies, and applications. It points out differences between catalysis at gas/surfaces and electrochemical interfaces, along with the future possibilities and impact of electrochemical science on energy problems. This book contributes both to fundamental science; experience in the design, preparation, and characterization of electrocatalytic materials; and the industrial application o

  19. Neuroimaging: beginning to appreciate its complexities. (United States)

    Parens, Erik; Johnston, Josephine


    For over a century, scientists have sought to see through the protective shield of the human skull and into the living brain. Today, an array of technologies allows researchers and clinicians to create astonishingly detailed images of our brain's structure as well as colorful depictions of the electrical and physiological changes that occur within it when we see, hear, think and feel. These technologies-and the images they generate-are an increasingly important tool in medicine and science. Given the role that neuroimaging technologies now play in biomedical research, both neuroscientists and nonexperts should aim to be as clear as possible about how neuroimages are made and what they can-and cannot-tell us. Add to this that neuroimages have begun to be used in courtrooms at both the determination of guilt and sentencing stages, that they are being employed by marketers to refine advertisements and develop new products, that they are being sold to consumers for the diagnosis of mental disorders and for the detection of lies, and that they are being employed in arguments about the nature (or absence) of powerful concepts like free will and personhood, and the need for citizens to have a basic understanding of how this technology works and what it can and cannot tell us becomes even more pressing.

  20. Reports from Ministry of Finance: China Nay Begin to Collect Carbon Tax in the Next Five Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The investigation team of Research Institute for Fiscal Science, Ministry of Finance, just published a report on the "Study on the Issue of Beginning to Levy Carbon Tax in China." The report said that the beginning of the collection of carbon tax could be considered in the next five years.

  1. Combining Zn Ion Catalysis with Homogeneous Gold Catalysis: An Efficient Annulation Approach to N-Protected Indoles. (United States)

    Wang, Yanzhao; Liu, Lianzhu; Zhang, Liming


    The Fischer indole synthesis is perhaps the most powerful method for indole preparation, but it often suffers from low regioselectivities with unsymmetric aliphatic ketone substrates and strong acidic conditions and is not suitable for α,β-unsaturated ketones. In this article, we disclose an efficient synthesis of N-protected indoles from N-arylhydroxamic acids/N-aryl-N-hydroxycarbamates and a variety of alkynes via a cooperative gold and zinc catalysis. The zinc catalysis is similar to the related zinc ion catalysis in metalloenzymes such as human carbonic anhydrase II and substantially enhances the O-nucleophilicity of N-acylated hydroxamines by forming the corresponding Zn chelates. The Zn chelates can attack gold-activated alkynes to form O-alkenyl-N-arylhydroxamates, which can undergo facile 3,3-sigmatropic rearrangements and subsequent cyclodehydrations to yield N-protected indole products. This new chemistry offers several important improvements over the Fischer indole synthesis: a) the reaction conditions are mildly acidic and can tolerate sensitive groups such as Boc; b) broader substrate scopes including substrates with pendant carbonyl groups (reactive in the Fischer chemistry) and alkyl chlorides (e.g., 3f); c) better regioselectivities for the formation of 2-substituted indoles under much milder conditions; d) 2-alkenylindoles can be prepared readily in good to excellent yields, but the Fischer chemistry could not; e) with internal alkynes both steric and electronic controls are available for achieving good regioselectivities, while the Fischer chemistry is in general problematic.

  2. Bottom-Up Meets Top-Down: Patchy Hybrid Nonwovens as an Efficient Catalysis Platform. (United States)

    Schöbel, Judith; Burgard, Matthias; Hils, Christian; Dersch, Roland; Dulle, Martin; Volk, Kirsten; Karg, Matthias; Greiner, Andreas; Schmalz, Holger


    Heterogeneous catalysis with supported nanoparticles (NPs) is a highly active field of research. However, the efficient stabilization of NPs without deteriorating their catalytic activity is challenging. By combining top-down (coaxial electrospinning) and bottom-up (crystallization-driven self-assembly) approaches, we prepared patchy nonwovens with functional, nanometer-sized patches on the surface. These patches can selectively bind and efficiently stabilize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The use of these AuNP-loaded patchy nonwovens in the alcoholysis of dimethylphenylsilane led to full conversion under comparably mild conditions and in short reaction times. The absence of gold leaching or a slowing down of the reaction even after ten subsequent cycles manifests the excellent reusability of this catalyst system. The flexibility of the presented approach allows for easy transfer to other nonwoven supports and catalytically active NPs, which promises broad applicability.

  3. The effect of hot electrons and surface plasmons on heterogeneous catalysis (United States)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Si Woo; Moon, Song Yi; Park, Jeong Young


    Hot electrons and surface-plasmon-driven chemistry are amongst the most actively studied research subjects because they are deeply associated with energy dissipation and the conversion processes at the surface and interfaces, which are still open questions and key issues in the surface science community. In this topical review, we give an overview of the concept of hot electrons or surface-plasmon-mediated hot electrons generated under various structural schemes (i.e. metals, metal-semiconductor, and metal-insulator-metal) and their role affecting catalytic activity in chemical reactions. We highlight recent studies on the relation between hot electrons and catalytic activity on metallic surfaces. We discuss possible mechanisms for how hot electrons participate in chemical reactions. We also introduce controlled chemistry to describe specific pathways for selectivity control in catalysis on metal nanoparticles.

  4. Chemistry and catalysis in supercritical media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumas, W.; Morgenstern, D.; Feng, S. [and others


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The aim of this research is to explore the potential of supercritical fluids as reaction media for stoichiometric and catalytic chemical transformations in an effort to develop new, environmentally-friendly methods for chemical synthesis or processing. This approach offers the possibility of opening up substantially different chemical pathways, increasing selectivity while enhancing reaction rates, facilitating downstream separations and mitigating the need for hazardous solvents. The authors describe investigations into a number of catalytic processes for which carbon dioxide represents a viable solvent replacement. In several cases they have observed significant enhancements in selectivity and/or reactivity relative to conventional organic solvents. They have investigated the following catalytic processes: (a) selective oxidation including dihydroxylation and epoxidation, (b) asymmetric hydrogenation and hydrogen transfer reduction, (c) Lewis acid catalyzed acylation and alkylation, and (c) coupling of amines with carbon dioxide to make isocyanates.

  5. Beginning Female Therapists' Experiences of Applying Theory into Their Practice.



    Although there is an extensive amount of literature on the developmental stages of beginning therapists and the challenges they face, little is known about one of their most difficult challenges; transferring theory learned in class to their practice. This study is a qualitative look at how beginning therapists learn to apply theory to their practice. Ten students who were beginning therapists with at least 75 hours of client contact hours were interviewed from four different universities wit...

  6. Apexification: the beginning of its end. (United States)

    Huang, G T-J


    Apexification is a procedure for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. It contrasts apexogenesis in terms of its outcome in that apical maturation and normal root thickness cannot be obtained. Apexification has been a routine practice for such teeth for many decades, and despite a literature replete with discussion, including recent artificial barrier methods with mineral trioxide aggregate, ultimately there has been no major breakthrough to improve this treatment. Recently, two new clinical concepts have emerged. One involves a revitalization approach to achieve tissue generation and regeneration. In this method, new living tissue is expected to form in the cleaned canal space, allowing continued root development in terms of both length and thickness. The other is the active pursuit of pulp/dentine regeneration via tissue engineering technology to implant or re-grow pulps. Although the technology is still at its infancy, it has the potential to benefit immature pulpless teeth by allowing continued growth and maturation. With this understanding, it may be predicted that apexification will become less needed in years to come. This study will overview the recent concept of pulp revitalization in the treatment of immature teeth with nonvital pulps and the emerging research on pulp tissue engineering and regeneration.

  7. Undisciplined beginnings, academic success, and discursive psychology. (United States)

    Billig, Michael


    This paper reflects on the conditions under which Discourse and social psychology, Common knowledge, and the author's Arguing and thinking were written. These books, which were independently conceived, were not specifically written as contributions to 'discursive psychology', for discursive psychology did not exist at that time. Their authors were rejecting conventional approaches to doing psychological research. The paper discusses what it takes for a new academic movement, such as discursive psychology, to be successfully established in the current climate of 'academic capitalism'. Two requirements are particularly mentioned: the necessity for a label and the necessity for adherents to be recruited. Of the three books, only Discourse and social psychology was outwardly recruiting its readers to a new way of doing social psychology. Arguing and thinking, with its celebration of ancient rhetoric, was much more ambiguous in its aims. It was turning away from present usefulness towards the past. By claiming to be 'an antiquarian psychologist' the author was rejecting disciplinary thinking. The paper also considers the intellectual costs of establishing a new specialism or sub-discipline. The 'first generation' may have freedom, but success can bring about a narrowing of perspectives and the development of orthodoxies for subsequent academic generations. This applies as much to the development of experimental social psychology as to discursive psychology. These processes are particular enhanced in the present socio-economic situation of contemporary universities, which make it more difficult for young academics to become, in the words of William James, 'undisciplinables'.

  8. Metal-free carbonylations by photoredox catalysis. (United States)

    Majek, Michal; Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel


    The synthesis of benzoates from aryl electrophiles and carbon monoxide is a prime example of a transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylation reaction which is widely applied in research and industrial processes. Such reactions proceed in the presence of Pd or Ni catalysts, suitable ligands, and stoichiometric bases. We have developed an alternative procedure that is free of any metal, ligand, and base. The method involves a redox reaction driven by visible light and catalyzed by eosin Y which affords alkyl benzoates from arene diazonium salts, carbon monoxide, and alcohols under mild conditions. Tertiary esters can also be prepared in high yields. DFT calculations and radical trapping experiments support a catalytic photoredox pathway without the requirement for sacrificial redox partners.

  9. Solar Photovoltaics Technology: The Revolution Begins . . . (United States)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence


    The prospects of current and coming solar-photovoltaic (PV) technologies are envisioned, arguing this solar-electricity source is at a tipping point in the complex worldwide energy outlook. The emphasis of this presentation is on R&D advances (cell, materials, and module options), with indications of the limitations and strengths of crystalline (Si and GaAs) and thin-film (a-Si:H, Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2, CdTe). The contributions and technological pathways for now and near-term technologies (silicon, III-Vs, and thin films) and status and forecasts for next- generation PV (organics, nanotechnologies, non-conventional junction approaches) are evaluated. Recent advances in concentrators with efficiencies headed toward 50%, new directions for thin films (20% and beyond), and materials/device technology issues are discussed in terms of technology progress. Insights into technical and other investments needed to tip photovoltaics to its next level of contribution as a significant clean-energy partner in the world energy portfolio. The need for R&D accelerating the now and imminent (evolutionary) technologies balanced with work in mid-term (disruptive) approaches is highlighted. Moreover, technology progress and ownership for next generation solar PV mandates a balanced investment in research on longer-term (the revolution needs revolutionary approaches to sustain itself) technologies (quantum dots, multi-multijunctions, intermediate-band concepts, nanotubes, bio-inspired, thermophotonics, solar hydrogen. . . ) having high-risk, but extremely high performance and cost returns for our next generations of energy consumers. Issues relating to manufacturing are explored-especially with the requirements for the next-generation technologies. This presentation provides insights into how this technology has developed-and where the R&D investments should be made and we can expect to be by this mid-21st century.

  10. 触媒抛光法影响因素的仿真分析%Simulation Analysis Influential Factors of Catalysis Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐振浩; 计时鸣; 张利


    触媒抛光法以金刚石石墨化原理为基础,充分利用铁、镍等过渡金属对金刚石的触媒作用,通过降低金刚石石墨化所需要的活化能,形成易于研磨的石墨,从而提高材料去除效率.触媒作用与温度有密切关系,但是直接测量触媒作用产生的热量是非常困难的.文章通过对触媒抛光过程中不同条件产生的热量进行有限元仿真分析,探讨各因素对触媒抛光法的影响.研究表明使用过渡金属作为研磨盘材料有利于触媒作用的实现,铸铁HT200是最为合适的研磨盘材料,研究还表明切削速度的提高也有助于触媒作用的实现.%Catalysis polishing is based on the principle of diamond graphitization, which make full use of Fe, Ni and other transition metals as catalysts for diamond, and it can lower the activation energy of diamond graphitization, produce easy-to-ground graphite, so that to enhance the efficiency of material removal. Catalysis is closely related to temperature, but it is hard to measure the temperature of catalysis directly. The paper adopted the finite element simulation analysis to research the heat generated in different conditions during the catalysis polishing, and explored the effect of various factors on catalysis polishing. Studies show that the use of transition metals as grinding plate is beneficial to the catalysis, cast iron HT200 is the most suitable material of grinding plate, and it also shows that cutting speed increase will help to the catalysis. [ Ch ,6 fig. 2 tab. 12 ref.

  11. Iron Catalysis in Organic Synthesis: A Critical Assessment of What It Takes To Make This Base Metal a Multitasking Champion


    Fürstner, Alois


    The current status of homogeneous iron catalysis in organic chemistry is contemplated, as are the reasons why this particular research area only recently starts challenging the enduring dominance of the late and mostly noble metals over the field. Centered in the middle of the d-block and able to support formal oxidation states ranging from −II to +VI, iron catalysts hold the promise of being able to encompass organic synthesis at large. They are expected to serve reductive as well as oxidati...

  12. Catalysis as a foundational pillar of green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, Paul T. [White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, Department of Chemistry, University of Nottingham Nottingham, (United Kingdom); Kirchhoff, Mary M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Trinity College, Washington, DC (United States); Williamson, Tracy C. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)


    Catalysis is one of the fundamental pillars of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The design and application of new catalysts and catalytic systems are simultaneously achieving the dual goals of environmental protection and economic benefit. Green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is an overarching approach that is applicable to all aspects of chemistry. From feedstocks to solvents, to synthesis and processing, green chemistry actively seeks ways to produce materials in a way that is more benign to human health and the environment. The current emphasis on green chemistry reflects a shift away from the historic 'command-and-control' approach to environmental problems that mandated waste treatment and control and clean up through regulation, and toward preventing pollution at its source. Rather than accepting waste generation and disposal as unavoidable, green chemistry seeks new technologies that are cleaner and economically competitive. Utilizing green chemistry for pollution prevention demonstrates the power and beauty of chemistry: through careful design, society can enjoy the products on which we depend while benefiting the environment. The economic benefits of green chemistry are central drivers in its advancement. Industry is adopting green chemistry methodologies because they improve the corporate bottom line. A wide array of operating costs are decreased through the use of green chemistry. When less waste is generated, environmental compliance costs go down. Treatment and disposal become unnecessary when waste is eliminated. Decreased solvent usage and fewer processing steps lessen the material and energy costs of manufacturing and increase material efficiency. The environmental, human health, and the economic advantages realized through green chemistry

  13. Integrating Environmental Education With Beginning Reading and Phonics Instruction (United States)

    Bolsem, Anne M.

    The practice of integrating methods of instruction shows signs of promise as teachers seek new ways to raise student achievement. Although researchers have focused on the efficacy of environment-based education, little research has been done to investigate a framework for integration. The research question that guided this case study was designed to explore the instructional practices teachers employ to integrate environmental education with beginning reading and phonics instruction. The conceptual framework is based on the seminal idea of using the environment as an integrating context, which postulates that the natural world becomes the overarching theme for teaching and learning. Data were obtained through interviews and lesson observations using a purposeful sample of 4 kindergarten and first grade teacher participants. A focus group interview also included the on-site naturalist. Inductive data analysis was used to discover categories and themes. Findings indicated that teachers integrate instruction primarily in the areas of vocabulary and writing after purposeful planning, collaboration, and a deep understanding of broader student goals. Findings also specified that teachers' integration strategies represent a combination of who the teachers are, what they believe, and what action they take in the classroom. Site-specific recommendations for action include ongoing professional development for teachers and support staff, time for collaboration, and review of teacher personal beliefs. Implications for social change include reflection and improvement of practice by teachers at the study site, as well as continued evaluation and discussion about teaching practices and teacher roles leading to more cohesive, enriching integrated instruction rooted in authentic, place-based experiences.

  14. Organocatalysis: Fundamentals and Comparisons to Metal and Enzyme Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Vogel


    Full Text Available Catalysis fulfills the promise that high-yielding chemical transformations will require little energy and produce no toxic waste. This message is carried by the study of the evolution of molecular catalysis of some of the most important reactions in organic chemistry. After reviewing the conceptual underpinnings of catalysis, we discuss the applications of different catalysts according to the mechanism of the reactions that they catalyze, including acyl group transfers, nucleophilic additions and substitutions, and C–C bond forming reactions that employ umpolung by nucleophilic additions to C=O and C=C double bonds. We highlight the utility of a broad range of organocatalysts other than compounds based on proline, the cinchona alkaloids and binaphthyls, which have been abundantly reviewed elsewhere. The focus is on organocatalysts, although a few examples employing metal complexes and enzymes are also included due to their significance. Classical Brønsted acids have evolved into electrophilic hands, the fingers of which are hydrogen donors (like enzymes or other electrophilic moieties. Classical Lewis base catalysts have evolved into tridimensional, chiral nucleophiles that are N- (e.g., tertiary amines, P- (e.g., tertiary phosphines and C-nucleophiles (e.g., N-heterocyclic carbenes. Many efficient organocatalysts bear electrophilic and nucleophilic moieties that interact simultaneously or not with both the electrophilic and nucleophilic reactants. A detailed understanding of the reaction mechanisms permits the design of better catalysts. Their construction represents a molecular science in itself, suggesting that sooner or later chemists will not only imitate Nature but be able to catalyze a much wider range of reactions with high chemo-, regio-, stereo- and enantioselectivity. Man-made organocatalysts are much smaller, cheaper and more stable than enzymes.

  15. Cohesion Features in ESL Reading: Comparing Beginning, Intermediate and Advanced Textbooks (United States)

    Plakans, Lia; Bilki, Zeynep


    This study of English as a second language (ESL) reading textbooks investigates cohesion in reading passages from 27 textbooks. The guiding research questions were whether and how cohesion differs across textbooks written for beginning, intermediate, and advanced second language readers. Using a computational tool called Coh-Metrix, textual…

  16. From Humble Beginnings: Evolving Mentoring within Professional Development for Academic Staff (United States)

    Donnelly, Roisin; McSweeney, Fiona


    This paper reports on a research case study into a form of mentoring for teachers in higher education in Ireland with 30 academic staff. It begins with an exploration of the concept and practice of mentoring in the world of higher education professional development; focus will be limited to an overview of the concept of teacher mentoring, an…

  17. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom (United States)

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne


    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  18. Schoolhouse Teacher Educators: Structuring Beginning Teachers' Opportunities to Learn about Instruction (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan; Spillane, James P.


    While few would disagree that a key component of educating teachers to teach happens on the job, research rarely explores the schoolhouse as a site for teacher education. This study thus focuses on inservice as distinct from preservice teacher education and explores how beginning teachers' learning about mathematics and literacy instruction…

  19. Agricultural Education Perceived Teacher Self-Efficacy: A Descriptive Study of Beginning Agricultural Education Teachers (United States)

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.


    The purpose of this study was to describe beginning agriculture teachers' perceived agricultural education teacher self-efficacy. Additionally, the researcher sought to describe the relationship among teachers' demographic characteristics and their agricultural education teacher self-efficacy. An instrument specific to agricultural education was…

  20. Conceptions of Competency: A Phenomenographic Investigation of Beginning Teachers in Malaysia (United States)

    Goh, Pauline Swee Choo


    I use phenomenography, which is an interpretive research approach, to seek and to discover what beginning teachers in Malaysia conceive and understand as competence in relation to what they do everyday as teachers. Phenomenographic approach is used because of its potential to capture variation of understanding, or way of constituting, the…

  1. The Algebra Content Knowledge of Beginning Teachers in California (United States)

    Caswell, Lisa M.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the competence of beginning California K-6 teachers in basic algebra topics, and to investigate their level of math anxiety and attitudes toward math. The sample for this study was beginning California elementary teachers in the Bay Area of California. An algebra content assessment and a self-report…

  2. Ideas in Practice: Graphing Calculators in Beginning Algebra (United States)

    Martin, Aimee


    This paper reports on a project to improve Beginning Algebra students' understanding of basic algebraic concepts through fully integrated use of the TI-83 graphing calculator. The methodology incorporated an intervention case study including approximately 700 Beginning Algebra students at an open-door community college of 8,500 students in the…

  3. Teach Like a Novice: Lessons from Beginning Teachers (United States)

    Eckert, Jonathan


    Classroom management is the greatest challenge for beginning teachers and continues to develop over their careers. Much can be learned from beginning teachers through reflection and the perspective that experience brings. Seven strategies can help improve classroom management: Maintain a growth mindset; try new ideas, reflect, then accept, reject,…

  4. Six Beginning Music Teachers' Music Teacher Role Identities (United States)

    Paise, Michele Paynter


    In this study, I used a qualitative approach to explore the music teacher role identities of six beginning music teachers prior to, during, and after their student teaching experience. Data collection included participant-observation, interviews, and e-mail communication. Specifically, I looked at what each of these beginning music teachers…

  5. Role Management Strategies of Beginning Teachers in Hong Kong (United States)

    Choi, Pik Lin; Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan


    Beginning teachers encounter new challenges as the role system in contemporary society has become more and more demanding. By means of the life history method, role management strategies of four Hong Kong beginning teachers employed to cope with role demands and intra-role conflicts were located in their biographical, workplace and wider…

  6. Beginning To Read among Monolingual and Bilingual Children. (United States)

    Valadez, Concepcion M.; And Others

    This study examined language and reading ability in English monolinguals, Spanish monolinguals, and two bilingual groups at the beginning of kindergarten and at the beginning of first grade. The study also compared the family background of the children on home literacy, parent education, and the parents' aspirations for their children. In…

  7. Computer and Software Use in Teaching the Beginning Statistics Course. (United States)

    Bartz, Albert E.; Sabolik, Marisa A.


    Surveys the extent of computer usage in the beginning statistics course and the variety of statistics software used. Finds that 69% of the psychology departments used computers in beginning statistics courses and 90% used computer-assisted data analysis in statistics or other courses. (CMK)

  8. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore (United States)

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.


    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  9. Safe Passages: Providing Online Support to Beginning Teachers. (United States)

    DeWert, Marjorie Helsel; Babinski, Leslie M.; Jones, Brett D.


    Examined the use of online collaborative consultation in providing social, emotional, practical, and professional support to beginning teachers. Beginning and experienced teachers and teacher educators communicated via an email list over 6 months. Qualitative and quantitative data indicated that these discussions provided teachers opportunities to…

  10. Probing the chemistry of thioredoxin catalysis with force



    Thioredoxins are enzymes that catalyse disulphide bond reduction in all living organisms1. Although catalysis is thought to proceed through a substitution nucleophilic bimolecular (SN2) reaction1,2, the role of the enzyme in modulating this chemical reaction is unknown. Here, using single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy3,4, we investigate the catalytic mechanism of Escherichia coli thioredoxin (Trx). We applied mechanical force in the range of 25–600 pN to a disulphide bond substrate and mo...

  11. Application of gold in the field of heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Siwei


    Gold has been long thought as an inert metal which finds most of its use in jewelry and monetary exchange. However, catalysis by gold has rapidly become a hot topic in chemistry ever since Haruta and Hutchings found gold to be an extraordinary good heterogeneous catalyst in certain reactions. Here in this paper, several model reactions which made gold historically famous as a catalyst and a currently hot topic will be demonstrated, such as oxidation of CO, selective oxidation, and hydrodechlorination. Conclusions on the chemical nature of gold will be made as well as future perspectives of designing gold as a better catalyst.

  12. Inorganic Chemistry in Hydrogen Storage and Biomass Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Making or breaking C-H, B-H, C-C bonds has been at the core of catalysis for many years. Making or breaking these bonds to store or recover energy presents us with fresh challenges, including how to catalyze these transformations in molecular systems that are 'tuned' to minimize energy loss and in molecular and material systems present in biomass. This talk will discuss some challenging transformations in chemical hydrogen storage, and some aspects of the inorganic chemistry we are studying in the development of catalysts for biomass utilization.

  13. Catalysis of Protein Disulfide Bond Isomerization in a Homogeneous Substrate† (United States)

    Kersteen, Elizabeth A.; Barrows, Seth R.; Raines, Ronald T.


    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) catalyzes the rearrangement of nonnative disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells, a process that often limits the rate at which polypeptide chains fold into a native protein conformation. The mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by PDI is unclear. In assays involving protein substrates, the reaction appears to involve the complete reduction of some or all of its nonnative disulfide bonds followed by oxidation of the resulting dithiols. The substrates in these assays are, however, heterogeneous, which complicates mechanistic analyses. Here, we report the first analysis of disulfide bond isomerization in a homogeneous substrate. Our substrate is based on tachyplesin I, a 17-mer peptide that folds into a _-hairpin stabilized by two disulfide bonds. We describe the chemical synthesis of a variant of tachyplesin I in which its two disulfide bonds are in a nonnative state and side chains near its N-and C-terminus contain a fluorescence donor (tryptophan) and acceptor (N_-dansyllysine). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer from 280 to 465 nm increases by 28-fold upon isomerization of the disulfide bonds into their native state (which has a lower E°_ = -0.313 V than does PDI). We use this continuous assay to analyze catalysis by wild-type human PDI and a variant in which the C-terminal cysteine residue within each Cys—Gly—His—Cys active site is replaced with alanine. We find that wild-type PDI catalyzes the isomerization of the substrate with kcat/KM = 1.7 _ 105 M–1M s–1, which is the largest value yet reported for catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization. The variant, which is a poor catalyst of disulfide bond reduction and dithiol oxidation, retains virtually all of the activity of wild-type PDI in catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization. Thus, the C-terminal cysteine residues play an insignificant role in the isomerization of the disulfide bonds in nonnative tachyplesin I. We conclude that

  14. Catalysis of protein disulfide bond isomerization in a homogeneous substrate. (United States)

    Kersteen, Elizabeth A; Barrows, Seth R; Raines, Ronald T


    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) catalyzes the rearrangement of nonnative disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells, a process that often limits the rate at which polypeptide chains fold into a native protein conformation. The mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by PDI is unclear. In assays involving protein substrates, the reaction appears to involve the complete reduction of some or all of its nonnative disulfide bonds followed by oxidation of the resulting dithiols. The substrates in these assays are, however, heterogeneous, which complicates mechanistic analyses. Here, we report the first analysis of disulfide bond isomerization in a homogeneous substrate. Our substrate is based on tachyplesin I, a 17-mer peptide that folds into a beta hairpin stabilized by two disulfide bonds. We describe the chemical synthesis of a variant of tachyplesin I in which its two disulfide bonds are in a nonnative state and side chains near its N and C terminus contain a fluorescence donor (tryptophan) and acceptor (N(epsilon)-dansyllysine). Fluorescence resonance energy transfer from 280 to 465 nm increases by 28-fold upon isomerization of the disulfide bonds into their native state (which has a lower E(o') = -0.313 V than does PDI). We use this continuous assay to analyze catalysis by wild-type human PDI and a variant in which the C-terminal cysteine residue within each Cys-Gly-His-Cys active site is replaced with alanine. We find that wild-type PDI catalyzes the isomerization of the substrate with kcat/K(M) = 1.7 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), which is the largest value yet reported for catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization. The variant, which is a poor catalyst of disulfide bond reduction and dithiol oxidation, retains virtually all of the activity of wild-type PDI in catalysis of disulfide bond isomerization. Thus, the C-terminal cysteine residues play an insignificant role in the isomerization of the disulfide bonds in nonnative tachyplesin I. We conclude

  15. Decarboxylative Fluorination of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids via Photoredox Catalysis. (United States)

    Ventre, Sandrine; Petronijevic, Filip R; MacMillan, David W C


    The direct conversion of aliphatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alkyl fluorides has been achieved via visible light-promoted photoredox catalysis. This operationally simple, redox-neutral fluorination method is amenable to a wide variety of carboxylic acids. Photon-induced oxidation of carboxylates leads to the formation of carboxyl radicals, which upon rapid CO2-extrusion and F(•) transfer from a fluorinating reagent yield the desired fluoroalkanes with high efficiency. Experimental evidence indicates that an oxidative quenching pathway is operable in this broadly applicable fluorination protocol.

  16. Electrified magnetic catalysis in 3D topological insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbar, E V; Shovkovy, I A; Sukhachov, P O


    The gap equations for the surface quasiparticle propagators in a slab of three-dimensional topological insulator in external electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to the slab surfaces are analyzed and solved. A new type of magnetic catalysis is revealed with the dynamical generation of both Haldane and Dirac gaps. Its characteristic feature manifests itself in the crucial role that the electric field plays in dynamical symmetry breaking and the generation of a Dirac gap in the slab. It is argued that, for a sufficiently large external electric field, the ground state of the system is a phase with a homogeneous surface charge density.

  17. Electrified magnetic catalysis in three-dimensional topological insulators (United States)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Miransky, V. A.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Sukhachov, P. O.


    The gap equations for the surface quasiparticle propagators in a slab of three-dimensional topological insulator in external electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to the slab surfaces are analyzed and solved. A different type of magnetic catalysis is revealed with the dynamical generation of both Haldane and Dirac gaps. Its characteristic feature manifests itself in the crucial role that the electric field plays in dynamical symmetry breaking and the generation of a Dirac gap in the slab. It is argued that, for a sufficiently large external electric field, the ground state of the system is a phase with a homogeneous surface charge density.

  18. Insights into Enzyme Catalysis and Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Cerebral Ketimine Reductase/μ-Crystallin Under Physiological Conditions. (United States)

    Hallen, André; Cooper, Arthur J L; Jamie, Joanne F; Karuso, Peter


    Mammalian ketimine reductase is identical to μ-crystallin (CRYM)-a protein that is also an important thyroid hormone binding protein. This dual functionality implies a role for thyroid hormones in ketimine reductase regulation and also a reciprocal role for enzyme catalysis in thyroid hormone bioavailability. In this research we demonstrate potent sub-nanomolar inhibition of enzyme catalysis at neutral pH by the thyroid hormones L-thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, whereas other thyroid hormone analogues were shown to be far weaker inhibitors. We also investigated (a) enzyme inhibition by the substrate analogues pyrrole-2-carboxylate, 4,5-dibromopyrrole-2-carboxylate and picolinate, and (b) enzyme catalysis at neutral pH of the cyclic ketimines S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine ketimine (owing to the complex nomenclature trivial names are used for the sulfur-containing cyclic ketimines as per the original authors' descriptions) (AECK), Δ(1)-piperideine-2-carboxylate (P2C), Δ(1)-pyrroline-2-carboxylate (Pyr2C) and Δ(2)-thiazoline-2-carboxylate. Kinetic data obtained at neutral pH suggests that ketimine reductase/CRYM plays a major role as a P2C/Pyr2C reductase and that AECK is not a major substrate at this pH. Thus, ketimine reductase is a key enzyme in the pipecolate pathway, which is the main lysine degradation pathway in the brain. In silico docking of various ligands into the active site of the X-ray structure of the enzyme suggests an unusual catalytic mechanism involving an arginine residue as a proton donor. Given the critical importance of thyroid hormones in brain function this research further expands on our knowledge of the connection between amino acid metabolism and regulation of thyroid hormone levels.

  19. On the origin of the cobalt particle size effects in Fischer−Tropsch catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Breejen, J.P.; Radstake, P.B.; Bezemer, G.L.; Bitter, J.H.; Froseth, V.; Holmen, A.; de Jong, K.P.


    The effects of metal particle size in catalysis are of prime scientific and industrial importance and call for a better understanding. In this paper the origin of the cobalt particle size effects in Fischer−Tropsch (FT) catalysis was studied. Steady-State Isotopic Transient Kinetic Analysis (SSITKA)

  20. Homogeneous vs heterogeneous polymerization catalysis revealed by single-particle fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Esfandiari, N Melody; Blum, Suzanne A


    A high-sensitivity and high-resolution single-particle fluorescence microscopy technique differentiated between homogeneous and heterogeneous metathesis polymerization catalysis by imaging the location of the early stages of polymerization. By imaging single polymers and single crystals of Grubbs II, polymerization catalysis was revealed to be solely homogeneous rather than heterogeneous or both.

  1. Inverse Magnetic Catalysis in hot quark matter within (P)NJL models

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, M; Providência, C; Lourenço, O; Frederico, T


    Apart from Magnetic Catalysis at low temperatures, recent LQCD studies have shown the opposite effect at temperatures near the transition region: instead of enhancing, the magnetic field suppresses the quark condensates (Inverse Magnetic Catalysis). In this paper, two approaches are discussed within NJL-type models with Polyakov Loop that reproduce both effects.

  2. Elucidation of mechanisms in manganese and iron based oxidation catalysis : Mechanistic insights and development of novel approaches applied to transition metal catalyzed oxidations catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelone, Davide


    Oxidation chemistry is central to life and to the modern chemical industry and hence understanding chemical oxidation is essential to developing new processes and elucidating biological oxidation mechanisms. Elucidating mechanisms in inorganic oxidation catalysis and simultaneously developing new to

  3. Asymmetric fluorination of α-branched cyclohexanones enabled by a combination of chiral anion phase-transfer catalysis and enamine catalysis using protected amino acids. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Phipps, Robert J; Toste, F Dean


    We report a study involving the successful merger of two separate chiral catalytic cycles: a chiral anion phase-transfer catalysis cycle to activate Selectfluor and an enamine activation cycle, using a protected amino acid as organocatalyst. We have demonstrated the viability of this approach with the direct asymmetric fluorination of α-substituted cyclohexanones to generate quaternary fluorine-containing stereocenters. With these two chiral catalytic cycles operating together in a matched sense, high enantioselectivites can be achieved, and we envisage that this dual catalysis method has the potential to be more broadly applicable, given the breadth of enamine catalysis. It also represents a rare example of chiral enamine catalysis operating successfully on α-branched ketones, substrates commonly inert to this activation mode.

  4. Enzyme catalysis-electrophoresis titration for multiplex enzymatic assay via moving reaction boundary chip. (United States)

    Zhong, Ran; Xie, Haiyang; Kong, Fanzhi; Zhang, Qiang; Jahan, Sharmin; Xiao, Hua; Fan, Liuyin; Cao, Chengxi


    In this work, we developed the concept of enzyme catalysis-electrophoresis titration (EC-ET) under ideal conditions, the theory of EC-ET for multiplex enzymatic assay (MEA), and a related method based on a moving reaction boundary (MRB) chip with a collateral channel and cell phone imaging. As a proof of principle, the model enzymes horseradish peroxidase (HRP), laccase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were chosen for the tests of the EC-ET model. The experiments revealed that the EC-ET model could be achieved via coupling EC with ET within a MRB chip; particularly the MEA analyses of catalysis rate, maximum rate, activity, Km and Kcat could be conducted via a single run of the EC-ET chip, systemically demonstrating the validity of the EC-ET theory. Moreover, the developed method had these merits: (i) two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than a fluorescence microplate reader, (ii) simplicity and low cost, and (iii) fairly rapid (30 min incubation, 20 s imaging) analysis, fair stability (<5.0% RSD) and accuracy, thus validating the EC-ET method. Finally, the developed EC-ET method was used for the clinical assay of MPO activity in blood samples; the values of MPO activity detected via the EC-ET chip were in agreement with those obtained by a traditional fluorescence microplate reader, indicating the applicability of the EC-ET method. The work opens a window for the development of enzymatic research, enzyme assay, immunoassay, and point-of-care testing as well as titration, one of the oldest methods of analysis, based on a simple chip.

  5. Historic moment as SESAME begins storage ring installation

    CERN Multimedia



    The first of the 16 cells of SESAME (link is external)’s storage ring was installed recently in the shielding tunnel in the Centre’s experimental hall in Allan, Jordan. SESAME will be the Middle East’s first synchrotron light source. The installation was led by SESAME’s Technical Director, Erhard Huttel, with help from members of CERN forming part of the CESSAMag (CERN-EC Support for SESAME Magnets) team as well as scientists and technicians from the SESAME region. Each cell consists of magnets (dipole, quadrupoles and sextupoles) and the vacuum chamber, supported by a girder. After many years in the making, commissioning of SESAME is scheduled to begin in 2016, serving a growing community of some 300 scientists from the region. The initial research programme will cover topics as diverse as the search for new cancer drugs to the exploration of the regions shared cultural heritage. SESAME is also a pioneer in promoting international cooperation in the region. The laboratory is expected

  6. Begin, After, and Later: a Maximal Decidable Interval Temporal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bresolin


    Full Text Available Interval temporal logics (ITLs are logics for reasoning about temporal statements expressed over intervals, i.e., periods of time. The most famous ITL studied so far is Halpern and Shoham's HS, which is the logic of the thirteen Allen's interval relations. Unfortunately, HS and most of its fragments have an undecidable satisfiability problem. This discouraged the research in this area until recently, when a number non-trivial decidable ITLs have been discovered. This paper is a contribution towards the complete classification of all different fragments of HS. We consider different combinations of the interval relations Begins, After, Later and their inverses Abar, Bbar, and Lbar. We know from previous works that the combination ABBbarAbar is decidable only when finite domains are considered (and undecidable elsewhere, and that ABBbar is decidable over the natural numbers. We extend these results by showing that decidability of ABBar can be further extended to capture the language ABBbarLbar, which lays in between ABBar and ABBbarAbar, and that turns out to be maximal w.r.t decidability over strongly discrete linear orders (e.g. finite orders, the naturals, the integers. We also prove that the proposed decision procedure is optimal with respect to the complexity class.

  7. [William Harvey and the beginnings of modern medical science]. (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo


    Modern medical science was born in the post-Renaissance age and began to consolidate towards the middle of the XVII century thanks to physicists, physiologists, and biologists, most of whom were direct or indirect pupils, of Galilei. The discovery of blood circulation by Harvey is now considered the only progress in physiology at the beginning of the XVII century, comparable to the current advances seen in physical sciences. The history of this achievement could be written from the view point of the progressive advance in knowledge. In his experiments, Harvey referred to the authentic, not the imaginary experiments, and put forward irrefutable quantitative arguments. We can therefore claim that his discovery of blood circulation was the first proper explanation of an organic process and the starting point leading to experimental physiology. Nevertheless, the second monograph of the English researcher, dealing with the generation of animals, published in 1651, has some passages that correspond to modern scientific reasoning yet in others he includes confused, vague and capricious assertions compatible with the prescientific era that the author was not able to escape completely. In conclusion, it seems justified to assert that modern medical science did not all rise suddenly, but was gradually structured starting from the middle of the XVII century following the path traced by William Harvey in light of Galilei's thought.

  8. Conduction and Reactivity in Heterogeneous-Molecular Catalysis: New Insights in Water Oxidation Catalysis by Phosphate Cobalt Oxide Films. (United States)

    Costentin, Cyrille; Porter, Thomas R; Savéant, Jean-Michel


    Cyclic voltammetry of phosphate cobalt oxide (CoPi) films catalyzing O2-evolution from water oxidation as a function of scan rate, phosphate concentration and film thickness allowed for new insights into the coupling between charge transport and catalysis. At pH = 7 and low buffer concentrations, the film is insulating below 0.8 (V vs SHE) but becomes conductive above 0.9 (V vs SHE). Between 1.0 to 1.3 (V vs SHE), the mesoporous structure of the film gives rise to a large thickness-dependent capacitance. At higher buffer concentrations, two reversible proton-coupled redox couples appear over the capacitive response with 0.94 and 1.19 (V vs SHE) pH = 7 standard potentials. The latter is, at most, very weakly catalytic and not responsible for the large catalytic current observed at higher potentials. CV-response analysis showed that the amount of redox-active cobalt-species in the film is small, less than 10% of total. The catalytic process involves a further proton-coupled-electron-transfer and is so fast that it is controlled by diffusion of phosphate, the catalyst cofactor. CV-analysis with newly derived relationships led to a combination of the catalyst standard potential with the catalytic rate constant and a lower-limit estimation of these parameters. The large currents resulting from the fast catalytic reaction result in significant potential losses related to charge transport through the film. CoPi films appear to combine molecular catalysis with semiconductor-type charge transport. This mode of heterogeneous molecular catalysis is likely to occur in many other catalytic films.

  9. Aggregation processes with catalysis-driven monomer birth/death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yu; Han An-Jia; Ke Jian-Hong; Lin Zhen-Quan


    We propose two solvable cluster growth models, in which an irreversible aggregation spontaneously occurs between any two clusters of the same species; meanwhile, monomer birth or death of species A occurs with the help of species B. The system with the size-dependent monomer birth/death rate kernel K(i,j) = Jijv is then investigated by means of the mean-field rate equation. The results show that the kinetic scaling behaviour of species A depends crucially on the value of the index v. For the model with catalysis-driven monomer birth, the cluster-mass distribution of species A obeys the conventional scaling law in the v ≤ 0 case, while it satisfies a generalized scaling form in the v>0 case; moreover, the total mass of species A is a nonzero value in the v< 0 case while it grows continuously with time in the v>0 case. For the model with catalysis-driven monomer death, the cluster-mass distribution also approaches the conventional scaling form in the v < 0 case, while the conventional scaling description of the system breaks down in the v ≥ 0 case. Additionally, the total mass of species A retains a nonzero quantity in the v <0 case, but it decreases to zero with time in the v ≥ 0 case.

  10. 席夫碱在催化剂领域的应用∗%Applications of Schiff Base in Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀然; 范彩虹; 唐关平; 许想姣


    Schiff base containing the characteristics of an imine and a methyleneimine group (-RC=N-) is a class of organic compound, which is formed by condensation of amine and reactive carbonyl groups. Because of its special properties in the field of catalysis, more and more attention has been focused on by chemists. The preparation and application of the metalcomplex catalysts of the Schiff base have been a very active field, which has achieved a lot of results. The different types of Schiff base complexes in the polymerization catalysis namely, progress in four areas of catalytic asymmetric cyclopropanation reaction, aspects of the catalytic oxidation of olefins, electric catalysis and some research results were described.%席夫碱主要是指含有亚胺或甲亚胺特性基团(-RC=N-)的一类有机化合物,通常席夫碱是由胺和活性羰基缩合而成,因其在催化领域有着特殊的性能,越来越多的受到化学家们的关注。席夫碱金属配合物催化剂的制备与应用研究一直是十分活跃的领域,已取得了诸多成果。本文介绍了不同类席夫碱金属配合物在催化领域即聚合反应、不对称催化环丙烷化反应、烯烃催化氧化反应、电催化反应四个领域的进展和一些研究成果。

  11. Developing Editing Skills in the Beginning Technical Writing Class. (United States)

    Forbes, Christopher J.


    Offers a plan for developing student editing skills in the beginning technical writing class. Suggests guidelines that parallel the revision-oriented heuristics of such scholars as Michael Flanigan and Linda Flower. (FL)

  12. Advances in nucleophilic phosphine catalysis of alkenes, allenes, alkynes, and MBHADs. (United States)

    Fan, Yi Chiao; Kwon, Ohyun


    In nucleophilic phosphine catalysis, tertiary phosphines undergo conjugate additions to activated carbon-carbon multiple bonds to form β-phosphonium enolates, β-phosphonium dienolates, β-phosphonium enoates, and vinyl phosphonium ylides as intermediates. When these reactive zwitterionic species react with nucleophiles and electrophiles, they may generate carbo- and heterocycles with multifarious molecular architectures. This article describes the reactivities of these phosphonium zwitterions, the applications of phosphine catalysis in the syntheses of biologically active compounds and natural products, and recent developments in the enantioselective phosphine catalysis.

  13. Nanoscale magnetic stirring bars for heterogeneous catalysis in microscopic systems. (United States)

    Yang, Shuliang; Cao, Changyan; Sun, Yongbin; Huang, Peipei; Wei, Fangfang; Song, Weiguo


    Nanometer-sized magnetic stirring bars containing Pd nanoparticles (denoted as Fe3 O4 -NC-PZS-Pd) for heterogeneous catalysis in microscopic system were prepared through a facile two-step process. In the hydrogenation of styrene, Fe3 O4 -NC-PZS-Pd showed an activity similar to that of the commercial Pd/C catalyst, but much better stability. In microscopic catalytic systems, Fe3 O4 -NC-PZS-Pd can effectively stir the reaction solution within microdrops to accelerate mass transfer, and displays far better catalytic activity than the commercial Pd/C for the hydrogenation of methylene blue in an array of microdroplets. These results suggested that the Fe3 O4 -NC-PZS-Pd could be used as nanoscale stirring bars in nanoreactors.

  14. Metal Carbonyl-Hydrosilane Reactions and Hydrosilation Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, A. R.


    Manganese carbonyl complexes serve as hydrosilation precatalysts for selectively transforming a carbonyl group into a siloxy methylene or a fully reduced methylene group. Substrates of interest include (1) aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, silyl esters, and esters, and (2) their organometallic acyl counterparts. Three relevant catalytic reactions are shown. Two types of manganese precatalysts have been reported: (a) alkyl and acyl complexes (L)(C0){sub 4}MnR [L = CO, PPh{sub 3}; R = COCH{sub 3}, COPh, CH{sub 3}] and (b) halides (CO){sub 5}MnX and [(CO){sub 4}MnX]{sub 2} (X = Br, I). The former promote hydrosilation and deoxygenation catalysis; the latter promote dehydrogenative silation of alcohols and carboxylic acids as well as hydrosilation and deoxygenation of some metallocarboxylic acid derivatives. In every case studied, these Mn precatalysts are far more reactive or selective than traditional Rh(I) precatalysts.

  15. Phosphate binding energy and catalysis by small and large molecules. (United States)

    Morrow, Janet R; Amyes, Tina L; Richard, John P


    Catalysis is an important process in chemistry and enzymology. The rate acceleration for any catalyzed reaction is the difference between the activation barriers for the uncatalyzed (Delta G(HO)(#)) and catalyzed (Delta G(Me)(#)) reactions, which corresponds to the binding energy (Delta G(S)(#) = Delta G(Me)(#)-Delta G(HO)(#)) for transfer of the reaction transition state from solution to the catalyst. This transition state binding energy is a fundamental descriptor of catalyzed reactions, and its evaluation is necessary for an understanding of any and all catalytic processes. We have evaluated the transition state binding energies obtained from interactions between low molecular weight metal ion complexes or high molecular weight protein catalysts and the phosphate group of bound substrate. Work on catalysis by small molecules is exemplified by studies on the mechanism of action of Zn2(1)(H2O). A binding energy of Delta G(S)(#) = -9.6 kcal/mol was determined for Zn2(1)(H2O)-catalyzed cleavage of the RNA analogue HpPNP. The pH-rate profile for this cleavage reaction showed that there is optimal catalytic activity at high pH, where the catalyst is in the basic form [Zn2(1)(HO-)]. However, it was also shown that the active form of the catalyst is Zn2(1)(H2O) and that this recognizes the C2-oxygen-ionized substrate in the cleavage reaction. The active catalyst Zn2(1)(H2O) shows a high affinity for oxyphosphorane transition state dianions and a stable methyl phosphate transition state analogue, compared with the affinity for phosphate monoanion substrates. The transition state binding energies, Delta G(S)(#), for cleavage of HpPNP catalyzed by a variety of Zn2+ and Eu3+ metal ion complexes reflect the increase in the catalytic activity with increasing total positive charge at the catalyst. These values of Delta G(S)(#) are affected by interactions between the metal ion and its ligands, but these effects are small in comparison with Delta G(S)(#) observed for catalysis

  16. A solvable two-species catalysis-driven aggregation model

    CERN Document Server

    Ke Jian Hong


    We study the kinetics of a two-species catalysis-driven aggregation system, in which an irreversible aggregation between any two clusters of one species occurs only with the catalytic action of another species. By means of a generalized mean-field rate equation, we obtain the asymptotic solutions of the cluster mass distributions in a simple process with a constant rate kernel. For the case without any consumption of the catalyst, the cluster mass distribution of either species always approaches a conventional scaling law. However, the evolution behaviour of the system in the case with catalyst consumption is complicated and depends crucially on the relative data of the initial concentrations of the two species.

  17. Degradation of Residual Formaldehyde in Fabric by Photo-catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yadong; GUO Xiangli; KANG Yunqing; LI Xieji; CHEN Aizheng; YANG Weizhong; YIN Guangfu


    The residual formaldehyde (HCHO) in fabric was degraded using photo-catalysis assisted by the compound catalyst of nano-TiO2 and nano-ZnO. The effects of several factors on the degradation,such as the composing of catalyst, irradiation time, pH value and the H2CHO concentration of the immersed solution were investigated. Results showed that H2CHO of the immersed solution had degraded 93% after 5 h irradiation, and the degradation ratio of formaldehyde could be improved and the aging of the fabric can be avoided with the addition of ZnO nanoparticles and pH value of the immersed-fibric solution. The fabric with residual formaldehyde about 1 800 μg/g can be efficiently treated to satisfy the China National Standard(GB/2912.1-1998) with the photo-catalytic degradation.

  18. Is a renaissance of coal imminent?--challenges for catalysis. (United States)

    Traa, Yvonne


    In the introduction, the reserves and resources of coal and other fossil fuels are discussed, also with regard to the regional distribution and consumption. Then, coalification and the classification of coal are described. The main part of the article is devoted to the most important processes using coal where challenges for catalysis still exist, with a focus on recent literature. First, technologies based on the production of synthesis gas, i.e., Fischer-Tropsch synthesis as well as MTO/MTP (Methanol To Olefins/Methanol To Propylene), are discussed. Secondly, direct coal liquefaction is treated. The last part of the article is devoted to "clean" coal and gives an outlook on the future of coal.

  19. Catalysis and Sulfa Drug Resistance in Dihydropteroate Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi-Kyung; Wu, Yinan; Li, Zhenmei; Zhao, Ying; Waddell, M. Brett; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Lee, Richard E.; Bashford, Donald; White, Stephen W. (SJCH)


    The sulfonamide antibiotics inhibit dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), a key enzyme in the folate pathway of bacteria and primitive eukaryotes. However, resistance mutations have severely compromised the usefulness of these drugs. We report structural, computational, and mutagenesis studies on the catalytic and resistance mechanisms of DHPS. By performing the enzyme-catalyzed reaction in crystalline DHPS, we have structurally characterized key intermediates along the reaction pathway. Results support an S{sub N}1 reaction mechanism via formation of a novel cationic pterin intermediate. We also show that two conserved loops generate a substructure during catalysis that creates a specific binding pocket for p-aminobenzoic acid, one of the two DHPS substrates. This substructure, together with the pterin-binding pocket, explains the roles of the conserved active-site residues and reveals how sulfonamide resistance arises.

  20. Quantum chemical study on asymmetric catalysis reduction of imine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Ming; (李明); TIAN; Anmin; (田安民)


    The quantum chemical method is employed to study the enantioselective reduction of imine with borane catalyzed by chiral oxazaborolidine. All the structures are optimized completely at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The catalysis property of oxazaborolidine is notable. The reduction goes mainly through the formations of the catalyst-borane adduct, the catalyst-borane-imine adduct, and the catalyst-amidoborane adduct and the dissociation of the catalyst-amidoborane adduct with the regeneration of the catalyst. The controlling step for the reduction is the dissociation of the catalyst-amidoborane adduct. The main reduced product predicted theoretically is (R )-sec- ondary amine, which is in agreement with the experiment.

  1. Highly efficient solid state catalysis by reconstructed (001) Ceria surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyov, VF; Ozaki, T; Atrei, A; Wu, LJ; Al-Mahboob, A; Sadowski, JT; Tong, X; Nykypanchuk, D; Li, Q


    Substrate engineering is a key factor in the synthesis of new complex materials. The substrate surface has to be conditioned in order to minimize the energy threshold for the formation of the desired phase or to enhance the catalytic activity of the substrate. The mechanism of the substrate activity, especially of technologically relevant oxide surfaces, is poorly understood. Here we design and synthesize several distinct and stable CeO2 (001) surface reconstructions which are used to grow epitaxial films of the high-temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7. The film grown on the substrate having the longest, fourfold period, reconstruction exhibits a twofold increase in performance over surfaces with shorter period reconstructions. This is explained by the crossover between the nucleation site dimensions and the period of the surface reconstruction. This result opens a new avenue for catalysis mediated solid state synthesis.

  2. Synthesis of Hydroxypropyl Guar Gum by Phase Transfer Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Chun XIONG; Ming Zhu CHANG; Jian Ming CHEN; Nan ZHOU; Gang WEI


    HGG (Hydroxypropyl guar gum) was synthesized by phase transfer catalysis for the first time. The effects of alkalinity, phase transfer catalyst, etherification, pH value, temperature,reaction time and stirring speed were investigated. An optimal synthetic reaction technology was established, namely, dose of guar gum is 100 g, propylene oxide 40-50 g, HTAC (hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride ) 1.3-1.7 g, pH value 10-10.5, temperature 45-50℃, and reaction time 3-4 hours. The result shows that the improved HGG has high viscosity. Its dissolution speed, content of insoluble residue, colloid light transparency and stability are apparently superior to guar flour.

  3. Immobilization of Homogeneous Catalysis on Phosphinated MCM-41

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Homogeneous catalysis Rh(PPh3)3Cl immobilized on MCM-41 modified with (OEt)3Si(CH2)3PPh2 results in a stable hydrogenation catalyst with turn over frequency (TOF) three times higher than that of Rh(PPh3)3C1 in the hydrogenation of cyclohexene. Leaching of the catalyst is only a minor factor with leaching rate 0.04 % for each cycle. However, immobilization of Rh(PPh3)2(CO)C1 on similar support can only have catalytic hydroformylation properties for the first few cycles. Decay of the catalyst is due to largh leaching rate with totally 22.4 % of Rh leached for the first three cycles.

  4. Immobilization of Homogeneous Catalysis on Phosphinated MCM-41

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHYU; Shin-Guang


    Homogeneous catalysis Rh(PPh3)3Cl immobilized on MCM-41 modified with (OEt)3Si(CH2)3PPh2 results in a stable hydrogenation catalyst with turn over frequency (TOF) three times higher than that of Rh(PPh3)3C1 in the hydrogenation of cyclohexene. Leaching of the catalyst is only a minor factor with leaching rate 0.04 % for each cycle. However, immobilization of Rh(PPh3)2(CO)C1 on similar support can only have catalytic hydroformylation properties for the first few cycles. Decay of the catalyst is due to largh leaching rate with totally 22.4 % of Rh leached for the first three cycles.  ……

  5. π Activation of Alkynes in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Gold Catalysis. (United States)

    Bistoni, Giovanni; Belanzoni, Paola; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco


    The activation of alkynes toward nucleophilic attack upon coordination to gold-based catalysts (neutral and positively charged gold clusters and gold complexes commonly used in homogeneous catalysis) is investigated to elucidate the role of the σ donation and π back-donation components of the Au-C bond (where we consider ethyne as prototype substrate). Charge displacement (CD) analysis is used to obtain a well-defined measure of σ donation and π back-donation and to find out how the corresponding charge flows affect the electron density at the electrophilic carbon undergoing the nucleophilic attack. This information is used to rationalize the activity of a series of catalysts in the nucleophilic attack step of a model hydroamination reaction. For the first time, the components of the Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model, donation and back-donation, are put in quantitative correlation with the kinetic parameters of a chemical reaction.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; SHE Yongbo; FU Kejian; ZHOU Yihua


    In this paper, the stereoselective homogeneous catalysis polymerization of phenylacetylene by using two kinds of catalysts W(CO)5CH3I and W(CO)4I2 produced from UV laser photolysis of W (CO)6 in CH3I, I2 -C6H6 and CHI3 -C6H6 respectively was studied . The effects of laser energy,laser irradiation time and lifetime of catalyst on the polymerization of phenylacetylene were discussed . The photoproducts of W (CO)6 in CH3I, I2 - C6H6 and CHI3 - C6H6 were determined by IR spectra. The structures of polyphenylacetylene obtained by W (CO)5CH3I and W (CO)4I2 catalysts were characterized by IR spectra and 1H NMR spectra.

  7. In Silico Design in Homogeneous Catalysis Using Descriptor Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi Rothenberg


    Full Text Available This review summarises the state-of-the-art methodologies used for designinghomogeneous catalysts and optimising reaction conditions (e.g. choosing the right solvent.We focus on computational techniques that can complement the current advances in high-throughput experimentation, covering the literature in the period 1996-2006. The reviewassesses the use of molecular modelling tools, from descriptor models based onsemiempirical and molecular mechanics calculations, to 2D topological descriptors andgraph theory methods. Different techniques are compared based on their computational andtime cost, output level, problem relevance and viability. We also review the application ofvarious data mining tools, including artificial neural networks, linear regression, andclassification trees. The future of homogeneous catalysis discovery and optimisation isdiscussed in the light of these developments.

  8. Cooperative catalysis with block copolymer micelles: A combinatorial approach

    KAUST Repository

    Bukhryakov, Konstantin V.


    A rapid approach to identifying complementary catalytic groups using combinations of functional polymers is presented. Amphiphilic polymers with "clickable" hydrophobic blocks were used to create a library of functional polymers, each bearing a single functionality. The polymers were combined in water, yielding mixed micelles. As the functional groups were colocalized in the hydrophobic microphase, they could act cooperatively, giving rise to new modes of catalysis. The multipolymer "clumps" were screened for catalytic activity, both in the presence and absence of metal ions. A number of catalyst candidates were identified across a wide range of model reaction types. One of the catalytic systems discovered was used to perform a number of preparative-scale syntheses. Our approach provides easy access to a range of enzyme-inspired cooperative catalysts.

  9. Mineral catalysis of a potentially prebiotic aldol condensation (United States)

    De Graaf, R. M.; Visscher, J.; Xu, Y.; Arrhenius, G.; Schwartz, A. W.


    Minerals may have played a significant role in chemical evolution. In the course of investigating the chemistry of phosphonoacetaldehyde (PAL), an analogue of glycolaldehyde phosphate, we have observed a striking case of catalysis by the layered hydroxide mineral hydrotalcite ([Mg2Al(OH)6][Cl.nH2O]). In neutral or moderately basic aqueous solutions, PAL is unreactive even at a concentration of 0.1 M. In the presence of a large excess of NaOH (2 M), the compound undergoes aldol condensation to produce a dimer containing a C3-C4 double-bond. In dilute neutral solutions and in the presence of the mineral, however, condensation takes place rapidly, to produce a dimer which is almost exclusively the C2-C3 unsaturated product.

  10. Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis. (United States)

    Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra


    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine.

  11. Lattice Field Theory Study of Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    DeTar, Carleton; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas


    We discuss the simulation of the low-energy effective field theory (EFT) for graphene in the presence of an external magnetic field. Our fully nonperturbative calculation uses methods of lattice gauge theory to study the theory using a hybrid Monte Carlo approach. We investigate the phenomenon of magnetic catalysis in the context of graphene by studying the chiral condensate which is the order parameter characterizing the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. In the EFT, the symmetry breaking pattern is given by $U(4) \\to U(2) \\times U(2)$. We also comment on the difficulty, in this lattice formalism, of studying the time-reversal-odd condensate characterizing the ground state in the presence of a magnetic field. Finally, we study the mass spectrum of the theory, in particular the Nambu-Goldstone (NG) mode as well as the Dirac quasiparticle, which is predicted to obtain a dynamical mass.

  12. Cooperative catalysis with block copolymer micelles: a combinatorial approach. (United States)

    Bukhryakov, Konstantin V; Desyatkin, Victor G; O'Shea, John-Paul; Almahdali, Sarah R; Solovyeva, Vera; Rodionov, Valentin O


    A rapid approach to identifying complementary catalytic groups using combinations of functional polymers is presented. Amphiphilic polymers with "clickable" hydrophobic blocks were used to create a library of functional polymers, each bearing a single functionality. The polymers were combined in water, yielding mixed micelles. As the functional groups were colocalized in the hydrophobic microphase, they could act cooperatively, giving rise to new modes of catalysis. The multipolymer "clumps" were screened for catalytic activity, both in the presence and absence of metal ions. A number of catalyst candidates were identified across a wide range of model reaction types. One of the catalytic systems discovered was used to perform a number of preparative-scale syntheses. Our approach provides easy access to a range of enzyme-inspired cooperative catalysts.

  13. Development of chiral sulfoxide ligands for asymmetric catalysis. (United States)

    Trost, Barry M; Rao, Meera


    Nitrogen-, phosphorus-, and oxygen-based ligands with chiral backbones have been the historic workhorses of asymmetric transition-metal-catalyzed reactions. On the contrary, sulfoxides containing chirality at the sulfur atom have mainly been used as chiral auxiliaries for diastereoselective reactions. Despite several distinct advantages over traditional ligand scaffolds, such as the proximity of the chiral information to the metal center and the ability to switch between S and O coordination, these compounds have only recently emerged as a versatile class of chiral ligands. In this Review, we detail the history of the development of chiral sulfoxide ligands for asymmetric catalysis. We also provide brief descriptions of metal-sulfoxide bonding and strategies for the synthesis of enantiopure sulfoxides. Finally, insights into the future development of this underutilized ligand class are discussed.

  14. Catalysis by Dust Grains in the Solar Nebula (United States)

    Kress, Monika E.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.


    In order to determine whether grain-catalyzed reactions played an important role in the chemistry of the solar nebula, we have applied our time-dependent model of methane formation via Fischer-Tropsch catalysis to pressures from 10(exp -5) to 1 bar and temperatures from 450 to 650 K. Under these physical conditions, the reaction 3H2 + CO yields CH4 + H2O is readily catalyzed by an iron or nickel surface, whereas the same reaction is kinetically inhibited in the gas phase. Our model results indicate that under certain nebular conditions, conversion of CO to methane could be extremely efficient in the presence of iron-nickel dust grains over timescales very short compared to the lifetime of the solar nebula.

  15. Catalysis of Electroweak Baryogenesis via Fermionic Higgs Portal Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Wei


    We investigate catalysis of electroweak baryogenesis by fermionic Higgs portal dark matter using a two Higgs doublet model augmented by vector-like fermions. The lightest neutral fermion mass eigenstate provides a viable dark matter candidate in the presence of a stabilizing symmetry Z_2 or gauged U(1)_D symmetry. Allowing for a non-vanishing CP-violating phase in the lowest-dimension Higgs portal dark matter interactions allows generation of the observed dark matter relic density while evading direct detection bounds. The same phase provides a source for electroweak baryogenesis. We show that it is possible to obtain the observed abundances of visible and dark matter while satisfying present bounds from electric dipole moment (EDM) searches and direct detection experiments. Improving the present electron (neutron) EDM sensitivity by one (two) orders of magnitude would provide a conclusive test of this scenario.

  16. Structural Models for Cytochrome P450�Mediated Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F.V. Lewis


    Full Text Available This review focuses on the structural models for cytochrome P450 that are improving our knowledge and understanding of the P450 catalytic cycle, and the way in which substrates bind to the enzyme leading to catalytic conversion and subsequent formation of mono-oxygenated metabolites. Various stages in the P450 reaction cycle have now been investigated using X-ray crystallography and electronic structure calculations, whereas homology modelling of mammalian P450s is currently revealing important aspects of pharmaceutical and other xenobiotic metabolism mediated by P450 involvement. These features are explored in the current review on P450-based catalysis, which emphasises the importance of structural modelling to our understanding of this enzyme's function. In addition, the results of various QSAR analyses on series of chemicals, which are metabolised via P450 enzymes, are presented such that the importance of electronic and other structural factors in explaining variations in rates of metabolism can be appreciated.

  17. Substrate recognition and catalysis by flap endonucleases and related enzymes. (United States)

    Tomlinson, Christopher G; Atack, John M; Chapados, Brian; Tainer, John A; Grasby, Jane A


    FENs (flap endonucleases) and related FEN-like enzymes [EXO-1 (exonuclease-1), GEN-1 (gap endonuclease 1) and XPG (xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group G)] are a family of bivalent-metal-ion-dependent nucleases that catalyse structure-specific hydrolysis of DNA duplex-containing nucleic acid structures during DNA replication, repair and recombination. In the case of FENs, the ability to catalyse reactions on a variety of substrates has been rationalized as a result of combined functional and structural studies. Analyses of FENs also exemplify controversies regarding the two-metal-ion mechanism. However, kinetic studies of T5FEN (bacteriophage T5 FEN) reveal that a two-metal-ion-like mechanism for chemical catalysis is plausible. Consideration of the metallobiochemistry and the positioning of substrate in metal-free structures has led to the proposal that the duplex termini of substrates are unpaired in the catalytically active form and that FENs and related enzymes may recognize breathing duplex termini within more complex structures. An outstanding issue in FEN catalysis is the role played by the intermediate (I) domain arch or clamp. It has been proposed that FENs thread the 5'-portion of their substrates through this arch, which is wide enough to accommodate single-stranded, but not double-stranded, DNA. However, FENs exhibit gap endonuclease activity acting upon substrates that have a region of 5'-duplex. Moreover, the action of other FEN family members such as GEN-1, proposed to target Holliday junctions without termini, appears incompatible with a threading mechanism. An alterative is that the I domain is used as a clamp. A future challenge is to clarify the role of this domain in FENs and related enzymes.

  18. Catalysis Science Initiative: Catalyst Design by Discovery Informatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgass, William Nicholas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Chemical Engineering; Abu-Omar, Mahdi [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States) Department of Chemistry; Caruthers, James [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Chemical Engineering; Ribeiro, Fabio [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Chemical Engineering; Thomson, Kendall [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Chemical Engineering; Schneider, William [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)


    Catalysts selectively enhance the rates of chemical reactions toward desired products. Such reactions provide great benefit to society in major commercial sectors such as energy production, protecting the environment, and polymer products and thereby contribute heavily to the country’s gross national product. Our premise is that the level of fundamental understanding of catalytic events at the atomic and molecular scale has reached the point that more predictive methods can be developed to shorten the cycle time to new processes. The field of catalysis can be divided into two regimes: heterogeneous and homogeneous. For the heterogeneous catalysis regime, we have used the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction (CO + H2O + CO2 + H2O) over supported metals as a test bed. Detailed analysis and strong coupling of theory with experiment have led to the following conclusions: • The sequence of elementary steps goes through a COOH intermediate • The CO binding energy is a strong function of coverage of CO adsorbed on the surface in many systems • In the case of Au catalysts, the CO adsorption is generally too weak on surface with close atomic packing, but the enhanced binding at corner atoms (which are missing bonding partners) of cubo-octahedral nanoparticles increases the energy to a near optimal value and produces very active catalysts. • Reaction on the metal alone cannot account for the experimental results. The reaction is dual functional with water activation occurring at the metal-support interface. It is clear from our work that the theory component is essential, not only for prediction of new systems, but also for reconciling data and testing hypotheses regarding potential descriptors. Particularly important is the finding that the interface between nano-sized metal particles and the oxides that are used to support them represent a new state of matter in the sense that the interfacial bonding perturbs the chemical state of both metals atoms and the support

  19. 钆、硫共掺杂TiO2光催化处理染料废水的研究%Research on the treatment of dye wastewater by Gd and S co-doped TiO2 photo-catalysis process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 汪恂; 朱雷; 肖锋


    Gd/S co-doped TiO2 photocatalysts have been prepared with Ti (OC4H9)4,GdNO3,H2NCSNH2 as raw mate-rials by sol-gel method. The experimental results show that a small amount of Gd doping can improve the photo-cata-lysis effect of TiO2,but excessive Gd doping will inhibit the photo-catalysis effect. When the calcination temperature is 650℃,and gadolinium and sulfur doping ratios are 0.2%and 1%,respectively,the TiO2 photocatalysts have the best effect,and its light response range expands significantly. X-ray diffraction characterization shows that Gd/S co-doped TiO2 has the highest photocatalytic capacity when TiO2 anatase crystal formation is doped with a small amount of rutile.%以钛酸四正丁酯、硝酸钆、硫脲为原料,采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了Gd、S掺杂TiO2光催化剂。实验结果表明:少量Gd的掺杂能提高TiO2的光催化效率,掺杂过多Gd对光催化剂有抑制作用。当煅烧温度为650℃,钆、硫的掺杂比分别为0.2%、1.0%时,TiO2光催化剂效果最好,而且其光响应范围也明显拓展。 XRD表征表明,当TiO2锐钛矿晶型中掺杂少量金红石相时,Gd、S共掺杂TiO2光催化性能最好。

  20. A Course in Heterogeneous Catalysis: Principles, Practice, and Modern Experimental Techniques. (United States)

    Wolf, Eduardo E.


    Outlines a multidisciplinary course which comprises fundamental, practical, and experimental aspects of heterogeneous catalysis. The course structure is a combination of lectures and demonstrations dealing with the use of spectroscopic techniques for surface analysis. (SK)

  1. Core–shell nanoparticles: synthesis and applications in catalysis and electrocatalysis (United States)

    Core–shell nanoparticles (CSNs) are a class of nanostructured materials that have recently received increased attention owing to their interesting properties and broad range of applications in catalysis, biology, materials chemistry and sensors. By rationally tuning the cores as ...

  2. Use Virtual Instrument to Improve Heterogeneous Catalysis%用虚拟仪器对多相催化反应的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱莲; 周显锋; 李治; 陈耀强


    用先进的虚拟仪器进行多相催化反应,从仪器技术方面对多相催化反应方法进行改进,用“多点”检测方法进行多相催化反应。具体研究了Ni/Al2O3催化剂上温度对甲烷催化部分氧化制合成气反应性能的影响。研究结果的正确性说明用虚拟仪器做多相催化反应实验,既实现了实验界面化,又使得实验便于控制,从而缩短了实验时间,提高了实验效率。%Virtual instrument is an instrument technique that is newborn in recent years. A large number of experiments must be done in all research related to the domain of chemical technique, so experimental apparatus is necessary. This paper suggest using advanced virtual instrument to improve heterogeneous catalysis in instrument technique aspect to conduct heterogeneous catalysis, put forward a proposal of using “multiple spot” detection to carry on heterogeneous catalysis. We study the effect of temperature on the reaction capability of methane conversion to synthesis gas by catalytic partial oxidation.The accuracy of the result show that doing heterogeneous catalysis with virtual instrument can realize visual experiment, control experiment easily and improve working efficiency.

  3. Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Shackelford, Adam


    Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js teaches any novice Node.js developer to configure, deploy, and maintain scalable small to large scale Node.js applications in Amazon Web Services. Hosting a Node.js application in a production environment usually means turning to PaaS hosting, but this approach brings problems. Deploying Node.js directly to AWS solves the problems you encounter in these situations, enabling you to cut out the middle man. You will begin with a basic RESTful web service in Node.js, using the popular Express.js framework, pre-built and ready to run in your local env

  4. [Respiratory stridency by larynx paralysis. Anusual beginning of miastenia]. (United States)

    Padilla Parrado, M; Morales Puebla, J M; Díaz Sastre, M A; Caro García, M A; Cabeza Alvarez, C I; Velázquez Pérez, J M; Menéndez Loras, L M


    A case of severe miastenia beginning with dyspnea, secondary to a bilateral larynx paralysis in aduction is presented. During the evolution of the severe miastenia the affectation of the larynx musculature does not result infrequent, but however, after having realized a bibliographic revision, the infrequency resulting in this disease of the beginning through a bilateral larynx paralysis in aduction was verified. A wide exposition of the clinic case, methods of exploration to obtain the diagnosis of severe miastenia, and the different treatment options actually in use to control these disease, are realized.

  5. Beginning ASPNET Web Pages with WebMatrix

    CERN Document Server

    Brind, Mike


    Learn to build dynamic web sites with Microsoft WebMatrix Microsoft WebMatrix is designed to make developing dynamic ASP.NET web sites much easier. This complete Wrox guide shows you what it is, how it works, and how to get the best from it right away. It covers all the basic foundations and also introduces HTML, CSS, and Ajax using jQuery, giving beginning programmers a firm foundation for building dynamic web sites.Examines how WebMatrix is expected to become the new recommended entry-level tool for developing web sites using ASP.NETArms beginning programmers, students, and educators with al

  6. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)


    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  7. Diversity of Chemical Mechanisms in Thioredoxin Catalysis Revealed by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy



    Thioredoxins (Trxs) are oxidoreductase enzymes, present in all organisms, that catalyze the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins. By applying a calibrated force to a substrate disulfide, the chemical mechanisms of Trx catalysis can be examined in detail at the single-molecule level. Here we use single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to explore the chemical evolution of Trx catalysis by probing the chemistry of eight different Trx enzymes. All Trxs show a characteristic Michaelis-Menten ...

  8. Liquid phase oxidation via heterogeneous catalysis organic synthesis and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clerici, Mario G


    Sets the stage for environmentally friendly industrial organic syntheses From basic principles to new and emerging industrial applications, this book offers comprehensive coverage of heterogeneous liquid-phase selective oxidation catalysis. It fully examines the synthesis, characterization, and application of catalytic materials for environmentally friendly organic syntheses. Readers will find coverage of all the important classes of catalysts, with an emphasis on their stability and reusability. Liquid Phase Oxidation via Heterogeneous Catalysis features contributions from an internation

  9. Inverse Magnetic Catalysis in Nambu--Jona-Lasinio Model beyond Mean Field

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Shijun


    We study inverse magnetic catalysis in the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model beyond mean field approximation. The feed-down from mesons to quarks is embedded in an effective coupling constant at finite temperature and magnetic field. While the magnetic catalysis is still the dominant effect at low temperature, the meson dressed quark mass drops down with increasing magnetic field at high temperature due to the dimension reduction of the Goldstone mode in the Pauli-Villars regularization scheme.

  10. BIOPHYSICS. Comment on "Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase". (United States)

    Chen, Deliang; Savidge, Tor


    Fried et al. (Reports, 19 December 2014, p. 1510) demonstrate electric field-dependent acceleration of biological catalysis using ketosteroid isomerase as a prototypic example. These findings were not extended to aqueous solution because water by itself has field fluctuations that are too large and fast to provide a catalytic effect. Given physiological context, when water electrostatic interactions are considered, electric fields play a less important role in the catalysis.

  11. Combination of sunlight irradiated oxidative processes for landfill leachate: heterogeneous catalysis (TiO2 versus homogeneous catalysis (H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Luiz Cobra Guimarães


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the treatment of landfill leachate liquid in nature, after the use of a combination of advanced oxidation processes. More specifically, it compared heterogeneous catalysis with TiO2 to homogeneous catalysis with H2O2, both under photo-irradiated sunlight. The liquid used for the study was the leachate from the landfill of the city of Cachoeira Paulista, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiments were conducted in a semi-batch reactor open to the absorption of solar UV radiation, with 120 min reaction time. The factors and their respective levels (-1, 0 and 1 were distributed in a experimental design 24-1 with duplicate and triplicate in the central point, resulting in an array with 19 treatment trials. The studied factors in comparing the two catalytic processes were: liquid leachate dilution, TiO2 concentration on the reactor plate, the H2O2 amount and pH level. The leachate had low photo-catalytic degradability, with NOPC reductions ranging from 1% to a maximum of 24.9%. When considering each factor alone, neither homogeneous catalysis with H2O2, nor heterogeneous catalysis with TiO2, could degrade the percolated liquid without significant reductions (5% level in total NOPC. On the other hand, the combined use of homogenous catalysis with H2O2 and heterogeneous catalysis H2O2 resulted in the greatest reductions in NOPC. The optimum condition for the NOPC reduction was obtained at pH 7, dilution of percolated:water at 1:1 (v v-1 rate; excess of 12.5% H2O2 and coating plate reactor with 0.025 g cm-2 TiO2.

  12. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha


    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  13. Phau Xyaum Nyeem Zaj Lus = Beginning Hmong Reader. (United States)

    Xiong, Ge

    A collection of lessons for beginning reading instruction in Hmong includes 22 lessons on (1) natural resources (soil, water, rock and stone, trees, non-flowering fruit trees, and flowering fruit trees); (2) Hmong agricultural practices (planting vegetable gardens, choosing seeds, seed development, corn, cuttings, and spreading and standing…

  14. A Beginning Rural Principal's Toolkit: A Guide for Success (United States)

    Ashton, Brian; Duncan, Heather E.


    The purpose of this article is to explore both the challenges and skills needed to effectively assume a leadership position and thus to create an entry plan or "toolkit" for a new rural school leader. The entry plan acts as a guide beginning principals may use to navigate the unavoidable confusion that comes with leadership. It also assists…

  15. Beginning Early Childhood Education Teachers' Classroom Management Concerns (United States)

    Akdag, Zeynep; Haser, Çigdem


    This paper reports an analysis of the classroom management concerns of pre-service early childhood education (ECE) teachers prior to beginning their career and further examines the difficulties they experienced in classroom management in their first year of teaching and their coping strategies. Sixteen pre-service ECE teachers enrolled in the same…

  16. Teaching Beginning Chemistry Students Simple Lewis Dot Structures (United States)

    Nassiff, Peter; Czerwinski, Wendy A.


    Students beginning their initial study of chemistry often have a difficult time mastering simple Lewis dot structures. Textbooks show students how to manipulate Lewis structures by moving valence electron dots around the chemical structure so each atom has an octet or duet. However, an easier method of teaching Lewis structures for simple…

  17. Dos and Don'ts for Beginning Teachers. (United States)

    Armstrong, Coleen


    Beginning teachers are advised to pace themselves; provide disciplinary options; learn to justify their teaching; be tolerant about student gripes; use the Socratic method to elicit thoughtful responses; refrain from killing discussion, solving students' personal problems, and insulting students' intelligence; listen to veteran teachers; begin…

  18. Separating Speed from Accuracy in Beginning Reading Development (United States)

    Juul, Holger; Poulsen, Mads; Elbro, Carsten


    Phoneme awareness, letter knowledge, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) are well-known kindergarten predictors of later word recognition skills, but it is not clear whether they predict developments in accuracy or speed, or both. The present longitudinal study of 172 Danish beginning readers found that speed of word recognition mainly developed…

  19. Beyond Decoding: Phonological Processing during Silent Reading in Beginning Readers (United States)

    Blythe, Hazel I.; Pagán, Ascensión; Dodd, Megan


    In this experiment, the extent to which beginning readers process phonology during lexical identification in silent sentence reading was investigated. The eye movements of children aged seven to nine years and adults were recorded as they read sentences containing either a correctly spelled target word (e.g., girl), a pseudohomophone (e.g., gerl),…

  20. Collaborative Lesson Planning as Professional Development for Beginning Primary Teachers (United States)

    Bauml, Michelle


    This qualitative case study describes how one beginning primary grade teacher benefited from collaborative lesson-planning meetings with her grade-level colleagues. The teacher accumulated knowledge of curriculum, pedagogy, and professional contexts as she participated in planning meetings each week during her first year of teaching. Furthermore,…