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Sample records for before-and-after design before-phase

  1. A Study of Stranding of Juvenile Salmon by Ship Wakes Along the Lower Columbia River Using a Before-and-After Design: Before-Phase Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Skalski, J R.; Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Miller, Martin C.; Johnson, Gary E.; Williams, Greg D.; Southard, John A.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.

    2006-02-01

    Ship wakes produced by deep-draft vessels transiting the lower Columbia River have been observed to cause stranding of juvenile salmon. Proposed deepening of the Columbia River navigation channel has raised concerns about the potential impact of the deepening project on juvenile salmon stranding. The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers requested that the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory design and conduct a study to assess stranding impacts that may be associated with channel deepening. The basic study design was a multivariate analysis of covariance of field observations and measurements under a statistical design for a before and after impact comparison. We have summarized field activities and statistical analyses for the ?before? component of the study here. Stranding occurred at all three sampling sites and during all three sampling seasons (Summer 2004, Winter 2005, and Spring 2005), for a total of 46 stranding events during 126 observed vessel passages. The highest occurrence of stranding occurred at Barlow Point, WA, where 53% of the observed events resulted in stranding. Other sites included Sauvie Island, OR (37%) and County Line Park, WA (15%). To develop an appropriate impact assessment model that accounted for relevant covariates, regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between stranding probability and other factors. Nineteen independent variables were considered as potential factors affecting the incidence of juvenile salmon stranding, including tidal stage, tidal height, river flow, current velocity, ship type, ship direction, ship condition (loaded/unloaded), ship speed, ship size, and a proxy variable for ship kinetic energy. In addition to the ambient and ship characteristics listed above, site, season, and fish density were also considered. Although no single factor appears as the primary factor for stranding, statistical analyses of the covariates resulted in the following equations: (1) Stranding

  2. Quality of Reporting and Study Design of CKD Cohort Studies Assessing Mortality in the Elderly Before and After STROBE: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh Rao

    Full Text Available The STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement was published in October 2007 to improve quality of reporting of observational studies. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of the STROBE statement on observational study reporting and study design quality in the nephrology literature.Systematic literature review.European and North American, Pre-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD cohort studies.Studies assessing the association between CKD and mortality in the elderly (>65 years published from 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2013 were included, following systematic searching of MEDLINE & EMBASE.Time period before and after the publication of the STROBE statement.Quality of study reporting using the STROBE statement and quality of study design using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP tools.37 papers (11 Pre & 26 Post STROBE were identified from 3621 potential articles. Only four of the 22 STROBE items and their sub-criteria (objectives reporting, choice of quantitative groups and description of and carrying out sensitivity analysis showed improvements, with the majority of items showing little change between the period before and after publication of the STROBE statement. Pre- and post-period analysis revealed a Manuscript STROBE score increase (median score 77.8% (Inter-quartile range [IQR], 64.7-82.0 vs 83% (IQR, 78.4-84.9, p = 0.05. There was no change in quality of study design with identical median scores in the two periods for NOS (Manuscript NOS score 88.9, SIGN (Manuscript SIGN score 83.3 and CASP (Manuscript CASP score 91.7 tools.Only 37 Studies from Europe and North America were included from one medical specialty. Assessment of study design largely reliant on good reporting.This study highlights continuing deficiencies in the reporting of STROBE items and their sub-criteria in cohort

  3. Quality of Reporting and Study Design of CKD Cohort Studies Assessing Mortality in the Elderly Before and After STROBE: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anirudh; Brück, Katharina; Methven, Shona; Evans, Rebecca; Stel, Vianda S; Jager, Kitty J; Hooft, Lotty; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Caskey, Fergus

    2016-01-01

    The STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement was published in October 2007 to improve quality of reporting of observational studies. The aim of this review was to assess the impact of the STROBE statement on observational study reporting and study design quality in the nephrology literature. Systematic literature review. European and North American, Pre-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) cohort studies. Studies assessing the association between CKD and mortality in the elderly (>65 years) published from 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2013 were included, following systematic searching of MEDLINE & EMBASE. Time period before and after the publication of the STROBE statement. Quality of study reporting using the STROBE statement and quality of study design using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS), Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools. 37 papers (11 Pre & 26 Post STROBE) were identified from 3621 potential articles. Only four of the 22 STROBE items and their sub-criteria (objectives reporting, choice of quantitative groups and description of and carrying out sensitivity analysis) showed improvements, with the majority of items showing little change between the period before and after publication of the STROBE statement. Pre- and post-period analysis revealed a Manuscript STROBE score increase (median score 77.8% (Inter-quartile range [IQR], 64.7-82.0) vs 83% (IQR, 78.4-84.9, p = 0.05). There was no change in quality of study design with identical median scores in the two periods for NOS (Manuscript NOS score 88.9), SIGN (Manuscript SIGN score 83.3) and CASP (Manuscript CASP score 91.7) tools. Only 37 Studies from Europe and North America were included from one medical specialty. Assessment of study design largely reliant on good reporting. This study highlights continuing deficiencies in the reporting of STROBE items and their sub-criteria in cohort

  4. In vitro precision of fit of computer-aided designed and computer-aided manufactured titanium screw-retained fixed dental prostheses before and after ceramic veneering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulis, Joannis; Mericske-Stern, Regina; Enkling, Norbert; Katsoulis, Konstantinos; Blatz, Markus B

    2015-01-01

    To compare the precision of fit of full-arch implant-supported screw-retained computer-aided designed and computer-aided manufactured (CAD/CAM) titanium-fixed dental prostheses (FDP) before and after veneering. The null-hypothesis was that there is no difference in vertical microgap values between pure titanium frameworks and FDPs after porcelain firing. Five CAD/CAM titanium grade IV frameworks for a screw-retained 10-unit implant-supported reconstruction on six implants (FDI tooth positions 15, 13, 11, 21, 23, 25) were fabricated after digitizing the implant platforms and the cuspid-supporting framework resin pattern with a laser scanner (CARES(®) Scan CS2; Institut Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland). A bonder, an opaquer, three layers of porcelain, and one layer of glaze were applied (Vita Titankeramik) and fired according to the manufacturer's preheating and fire cycle instructions at 400-800 °C. The one-screw test (implant 25 screw-retained) was applied before and after veneering of the FDPs to assess the vertical microgap between implant and framework platform with a scanning electron microscope. The mean microgap was calculated from interproximal and buccal values. Statistical comparison was performed with non-parametric tests. All vertical microgaps were clinically acceptable with values veneered FDPs (20 μm; 13-31 μm), providing support for the null-hypothesis. Analysis within the groups showed significantly different values between the five implants of the FDPs before (P = 0.044) and after veneering (P = 0.020), while a monotonous trend of increasing values from implant 23 (closest position to screw-retained implant 25) to 15 (most distant implant) could not be observed (P = 0.169, P = 0.270). Full-arch CAD/CAM titanium screw-retained frameworks have a high accuracy. Porcelain firing procedure had no impact on the precision of fit of the final FDPs. All implant microgap measurements of each FDP showed clinically acceptable vertical misfit values before

  5. PHILOSOPHERS BEFORE AND AFTER SPACEFLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Grigenti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In my contribution, I will show the ways by which philosophers have treated the topic of space-travel before and after its implementation. I will discuss the following points: a Introduction: the human condition. b Philosophers before spaceflight: the Astolfo Protocol. c Philosophers after spaceflight: the Promethean suspect. In this paper I will emphasize the elements of two different and alternative visions of spaceflight that can be found in the Western tradition of philosophical thought.

  6. Mechanical characterization and optoelectronic measurement of parietal bone thickness before and after monocortical bone graft harvest: design and validation of a test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure, Boris; Geais, Laurent; Tranquart, François; Goga, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Parietal bone grafts are commonly used in craniomaxillofacial surgery. However, bone removal may weaken the parietal bone and lead to deleterious complications. The aim of our study was to design a test protocol for characterization of the impact resistance of parietal bone before and after monocortical bone graft harvest and to validate an optoelectronic measurement of parietal bone thickness. Twelve fresh human cadaver heads were used for the validation study. To evaluate impact resistance, we developed a pendulum Charpy impact testing machine. The impact force was gradually increased until failure (fracture) of the defined parietal bone area. According to the protocol, we measured the maximum absorbable energy or impact force to failure. With our test setup, measurement of the impact resistance of parietal bone was accurate to within 0.025 J. We defined a range of values and particularly a threshold value. The initial maximal impact must not to exceed 4 J. For more accuracy, we compared 5 nondestructive measurement methods using a surgical navigation system with optoelectronic tracking. We achieved an algorithm based on 2 methods that ensured a measurement resolution of 0.1 mm. Validation of this protocol will allow us to evaluate the loss of strength resulting from bone removal and the correlation between strength and thickness of the parietal bone.

  7. Physics before and after Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Capria, M Mamone

    2005-01-01

    It is now a century ago that one of the icons of modern physics published some of the most influential scientific papers of all times. With his work on relativity and quantum theory, Albert Einstein has altered the field of physics forever. It should not come as a surprise that looking back at Einstein''s work, one needs to rethink the whole scope of physics, before and after his time. This books aims to provide a perspective on the history of modern physics, spanning from the late 19th century up to today. It is not an encyclopaedic work, but it presents the groundbreaking and sometimes provocative main contributions by Einstein as marking the line between ''old'' and ''new'' physics, and expands on some of the developments and open issues to which they gave rise.

  8. Medical Advice for Sick-reported Students (MASS in intermediate vocational education schools: design of a controlled before-and-after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon K Van der Vlis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School absenteeism, including medical absenteeism, is associated with early school dropout and may result in physical, mental, social and work-related problems in later life. Especially at intermediate vocational education schools, high rates of medical absenteeism are found. In 2012 the Dutch intervention ‘Medical Advice for Sick-reported Students’ (MASS, previously developed for pre-vocational secondary education, was adjusted for intermediate vocational education schools. The aim of the study outlined in this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the MASS intervention at intermediate vocational education schools in terms of reducing students’ medical absenteeism and early dropping out of school. Additionally, the extent to which biopsychosocial and other factors moderate the effectiveness of the intervention will be assessed. Methods A controlled before-and-after study will be conducted within Intermediate Vocational Education schools. Schools are allocated to be an intervention or control school based on whether the schools have implemented the MASS intervention (intervention schools or not (control schools. Intervention schools apply the MASS intervention consisting of active support for students with medical absenteeism provided by the school including a consultation with the Youth Health Care (YHC professional if needed. Control schools provide care as usual. Data will be collected by questionnaires among students in both groups meeting the criteria for extensive medical absenteeism (i.e. ‘reported sick four times in 12 school weeks or for more than six consecutive school days’ at baseline and at 6 months follow-up. Additionally, in the intervention group a questionnaire is completed after each consultation with a YHC professional, by both the student and the YHC professional. Primary outcome measures are duration and cumulative incidence of absenteeism and academic performances. Secondary outcome

  9. Medical Advice for Sick-reported Students (MASS) in intermediate vocational education schools: design of a controlled before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Vlis, Madelon K; Lugtenberg, Marjolein; Vanneste, Yvonne T M; Berends, Wenda; Mulder, Wico; Bannink, Rienke; Van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein; de Kroon, Marlou L A

    2017-06-29

    School absenteeism, including medical absenteeism, is associated with early school dropout and may result in physical, mental, social and work-related problems in later life. Especially at intermediate vocational education schools, high rates of medical absenteeism are found. In 2012 the Dutch intervention 'Medical Advice for Sick-reported Students' (MASS), previously developed for pre-vocational secondary education, was adjusted for intermediate vocational education schools. The aim of the study outlined in this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the MASS intervention at intermediate vocational education schools in terms of reducing students' medical absenteeism and early dropping out of school. Additionally, the extent to which biopsychosocial and other factors moderate the effectiveness of the intervention will be assessed. A controlled before-and-after study will be conducted within Intermediate Vocational Education schools. Schools are allocated to be an intervention or control school based on whether the schools have implemented the MASS intervention (intervention schools) or not (control schools). Intervention schools apply the MASS intervention consisting of active support for students with medical absenteeism provided by the school including a consultation with the Youth Health Care (YHC) professional if needed. Control schools provide care as usual. Data will be collected by questionnaires among students in both groups meeting the criteria for extensive medical absenteeism (i.e. 'reported sick four times in 12 school weeks or for more than six consecutive school days' at baseline and at 6 months follow-up). Additionally, in the intervention group a questionnaire is completed after each consultation with a YHC professional, by both the student and the YHC professional. Primary outcome measures are duration and cumulative incidence of absenteeism and academic performances. Secondary outcome measures are biopsychosocial outcomes of the students. It

  10. Effectiveness of predictive computer programs in the design of noise barriers : a before and after approach, part I, the data acquisition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A digital data acquisition system has been designed to meet the need for a long duration noise analysis capability. By sampling the DC outputs from sound level meters, it has been possible to make twenty-four hour or longer recordings, in contrast to...

  11. Can new passenger cars reduce pedestrian lower extremity injury? A review of geometrical changes of front-end design before and after regulatory efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Bingbing; Zhou, Qing

    2016-10-02

    Pedestrian lower extremity represents the most frequently injured body region in car-to-pedestrian accidents. The European Directive concerning pedestrian safety was established in 2003 for evaluating pedestrian protection performance of car models. However, design changes have not been quantified since then. The goal of this study was to investigate front-end profiles of representative passenger car models and the potential influence on pedestrian lower extremity injury risk. The front-end styling of sedans and sport utility vehicles (SUV) released from 2008 to 2011 was characterized by the geometrical parameters related to pedestrian safety and compared to representative car models before 2003. The influence of geometrical design change on the resultant risk of injury to pedestrian lower extremity-that is, knee ligament rupture and long bone fracture-was estimated by a previously developed assessment tool assuming identical structural stiffness. Based on response surface generated from simulation results of a human body model (HBM), the tool provided kinematic and kinetic responses of pedestrian lower extremity resulted from a given car's front-end design. Newer passenger cars exhibited a "flatter" front-end design. The median value of the sedan models provided 87.5 mm less bottom depth, and the SUV models exhibited 94.7 mm less bottom depth. In the lateral impact configuration similar to that in the regulatory test methods, these geometrical changes tend to reduce the injury risk of human knee ligament rupture by 36.6 and 39.6% based on computational approximation. The geometrical changes did not significantly influence the long bone fracture risk. The present study reviewed the geometrical changes in car front-ends along with regulatory concerns regarding pedestrian safety. A preliminary quantitative benefit of the lower extremity injury reduction was estimated based on these geometrical features. Further investigation is recommended on the structural changes

  12. Nasal Mucociliary Transport Before and After Jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlund, Anna; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of nasal mucociliary transport in 11 healthy subjects before and after they jogged 8-10 kilometers indicated that the transport time was significantly longer after jogging than before jogging. (Author/CB)

  13. A community-based intervention for improving health-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors: a controlled before and after design study in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeid, Muzdalifat; Muganyizi, Projestine; Mpembeni, Rose; Darj, Elisabeth; Axemo, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Despite global recognition that sexual violence is a violation of human rights, evidence still shows it is a pervasive problem across all societies. Promising community intervention studies in the low- and middle-income countries are limited. This study assessed the impact of a community-based intervention, focusing on improving the community's knowledge and reducing social acceptability of violence against women norms with the goal to prevent and respond to sexual violence. The strategies used to create awareness included radio programs, information, education communication materials, and advocacy meetings with local leaders. The intervention took place in Morogoro region in Tanzania. The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design including cross-sectional surveys at baseline (2012) and endline (2014) with men and women aged 18-49 years. Main outcome measures were number of reported rape cases at health facilities and the community's knowledge and attitudes toward sexual violence. The number of reported rape events increased by more than 50% at health facilities during the intervention. Knowledge on sexual violence increased significantly in both areas over the study period (from 57.3 to 80.6% in the intervention area and from 55.5 to 71.9% in the comparison area; pimprovement in most of the attitude indicators in the intervention area, but not in the comparison area. However, the intervention had no significant effect on the overall scores of acceptance attitudes in the final assessment when comparing the two areas (-2.4, 95% CI: -8.4 to 3.6, p=0.42). The intervention had an effect on some indicators on knowledge and attitudes toward sexual violence even after a short period of intervention. This finding informs the public health practitioners of the importance of combined strategies in achieving changes.

  14. Before and After the Tax Administration Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    "PAY NOW, ARGUE LATER" RULE – BEFORE AND AFTER THE TAX. ADMINISTRATION ACT. C Keulder*. 1 Introduction. The levying of taxes is imperative for a government to ensure that it achieves its economic objectives1 which, amongst others, include the economic development of the country and regulating the levels ...

  15. VOICE QUALITY BEFORE AND AFTER THYROIDECTOMY

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    Dora CVELBAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Voice disorders are a well-known complication which is often associated with thyroid gland diseases and because voice is still the basic mean of communication it is very important to maintain its quality healthy. Objectives: The aim of this study referred to questions whether there is a statistically significant difference between results of voice self-assessment, perceptual voice assessment and acoustic voice analysis before and after thyroidectomy and whether there are statistically significant correlations between variables of voice self-assessment, perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Methods: This scientific research included 12 participants aged between 41 and 76. Voice self-assessment was conducted with the help of Croatian version of Voice Handicap Index (VHI. Recorded reading samples were used for perceptual assessment and later evaluated by two clinical speech and language therapists. Recorded samples of phonation were used for acoustic analysis which was conducted with the help of acoustic program Praat. All of the data was processed through descriptive statistics and nonparametric statistical methods. Results: Results showed that there are statistically significant differences between results of voice self-assessments and results of acoustic analysis before and after thyroidectomy. Statistically significant correlations were found between variables of perceptual assessment and acoustic analysis. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate the importance of multidimensional, preoperative and postoperative assessment. This kind of assessment allows the clinician to describe all of the voice features and provides appropriate recommendation for further rehabilitation to the patient in order to optimize voice outcomes.

  16. Plasma adiponectin before and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Hornum, Mads; Bjerre, Mette

    2012-01-01

    The role of plasma adiponectin (ADPN) in patients with impaired kidney function and following kidney transplantation (Tx) is debated. We aimed to: (i) determine whether pretransplant ADPN level is an independent risk factor for deterioration of glucose tolerance including development of new......-onset diabetes mellitus after Tx, (ii) describe which parameters that influence the ADPN concentration before and after Tx. Fifty-seven nondiabetic kidney allograft recipients and 40 nondiabetic uraemic patients were included. The Tx group was examined at baseline and 3 and 12 months after Tx. The uraemic...... analysis, whereas an ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed no predictive characteristic of ADPN for aggravation of the glucose tolerance after Tx. In conclusion, kidney transplantation is accompanied by a significant reduction in ADPN concentration. Several factors determine the ADPN concentration...

  17. Psychosocial challenges before and after organ transplantation

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    Schulz KH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Karl-Heinz Schulz,1,2 Sylvia Kroencke,1,2 1Department of Medical Psychology, 2University Transplant Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany Abstract: This review addresses psychosocial challenges before and after solid organ transplantation. Stressors, corresponding psychosocial changes of the recipient, and psychological interventions in the different phases of the transplant process are described. Furthermore, important aspects of the preoperative psychosocial evaluation are presented with a special focus on living donors and patients with alcoholic liver disease. For the postoperative period, adherence, quality of life, and return to work are highlighted. Finally, research and clinical implications are presented. Keywords: adherence, alcoholic liver disease, evaluation, living donation, quality of life, return to work

  18. Happiness: before and after the kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, Mikko; Margolis, Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how having children influences parents' subjective well-being ("happiness") has great potential to explain fertility behavior. We study parental happiness trajectories before and after the birth of a child, using large British and German longitudinal data sets. We account for unobserved parental characteristics using fixed-effects models and study how sociodemographic factors modify the parental happiness trajectories. Consistent with existing work, we find that happiness increases in the years around the birth of a first child and then decreases to before-child levels. Moreover, happiness increases before birth, suggesting that the trajectories may capture not only the effect of the birth but also the broader process of childbearing, which may include partnership formation and quality. Sociodemographic factors strongly modify this pattern. Those who have children at older ages or who have more education have a particularly positive happiness response to a first birth; and although having the first two children increases happiness, having a third child does not. The results, which are similar in Britain and Germany, suggest that having up to two children increases happiness, and mostly for those who have postponed childbearing. This pattern is consistent with the fertility behavior that emerged during the second demographic transition and provides new insights into low and late fertility.

  19. Rotavirus epidemiology before and after vaccine introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Andrêssa S F; Valle, Daniel A; Antunes, Gustavo R; Tibiriça, Sandra H C; Assis, Rosane Maria S de; Leite, José Paulo G; Carvalho, Iná P de; Rosa e Silva, Maria Luzia da

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and circulation of rotavirus genotypes before and after the introduction of oral vaccine against human rotavirus, and to check for a possible change in the age of occurence of the infection by RV-A. This was a cross-sectional study conducted between 2002-2011, in the city of Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 1,144 diarrheal stool specimens were obtained from nonhospitalized children aged between 0 and 5 years, and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for genotype characterization. Data on prevalence and age distribution of rotavirus cases were analyzed through the chi-squared test (p < 0.05), using SPSS, release 13.0. Rotavirus infection was detected in 9.35% (107/1,144) samples, with prevalence rates ranging from 11.12% (90/809) in the pre-vaccine to 5.07% (17/335) in the post-vaccine period (p = 0.001). Among the samples tested, the most frequently detected genotypes were G1P[6] (6/33 = 18.2%) in the period between 2002 and 2005 and G2P[4] in 2006 (11/33 = 33.3%) and in the period between 2007 and 2011 (5/33 = 15.2%). There was also a significant reduction in the number of cases of rotavirus disease in children aged between 0 and 36 months after the vaccine introduction. The study evidenced a significant decrease in the prevalence of rotavirus, mainly in children aged between 0 and 36 months in the 2007-2011 period, as well as a reduction in G1 genotype circulation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Opioid prescriptions before and after high-energy trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Stine T; Hallas, Jesper; Larsen, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the legal use of opioids in adult patients before and after high-energy trauma. DESIGN: The study was a retrospective database study. SETTING: Clinical care outside hospitals. PATIENTS: All patients who suffered high-energy trauma and were brought to Odense University...... Hospital (OUH), Denmark, in 2007 and 2008 were retrieved from the trauma database. These patients were linked with data on opioid use from the regional prescription database. In all, 938 patients were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Redemption of opioid prescription during the 6 months prior...

  1. Before and After Photos: Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Before and after photos: Treatment of hypertrophic scars ...

  2. Financial Services Advertising before and after the Crash of 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Stephen E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines institutional changes in advertising before and after the stock market "crash" of 1987 as represented in the "Wall Street Journal." Finds that financial institutions increased the frequency and size of ads after the crash. (RS)

  3. Medication and nutritional supplement use before and after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charline Fernanda Backes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery has been an effective alternative treatment for morbid obesity and has resulted in decreased mortality, better control over comorbidities and reduced use of drugs. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of bariatric surgery on medication drug and nutritional supplement use. DESIGN AND SETTING: Longitudinal study of before-and-after type, on 69 morbidly obese patients in a public hospital in Porto Alegre. METHODS: Through interviews, the presence of comorbidities and use of drugs with and without prescription were evaluated. RESULTS: Among the 69 patients interviewed, 85.5% had comorbidities in the preoperative period, with an average of 2.3 (± 1.5 per patient. The main comorbidities reported were hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. 84.1% of the patients were using prescribed drugs in the preoperative period. The mean drug use per patient was 4.8, which decreased to 4.4 after the procedure. The surgery enabled significant reduction in use of most antidiabetic (84%, antilipemic (77% and antihypertensive drugs (49.5%. On the other hand, there was a significant increase in use of multivitamins and drugs for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The dosages of most of the drugs that continued to be prescribed after surgery were decreased, but not significantly. CONCLUSION: After bariatric surgery, there were increases in the use of vitamins, gastric antisecretory drugs and antianemic drugs. Nevertheless, there was an overall reduction in drug use during this period, caused by suspension of drugs or dose reduction.

  4. Evaluation of serum nitric oxide before and after local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoda Aly Abd-El Moety

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Objectives: Evaluation of serum nitric oxide before and after local radiofrequency thermal ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Subjects: Twenty patients with proven hepatocellular carcinoma and 15 healthy patients as controls were enrolled in the study. Abbreviations: NO, nitrous oxide; HCC, ...

  5. The Experience of Pleasure before and after Hearing Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Gwladys

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss may lead to major changes in the social and emotional aspects of daily life. This follow-up study investigated the effect of hearing-aid use on emotional experience in adults with hearing impairment. Thirteen individuals with impaired hearing were tested before and after 6 months of hearing-aid use, and were compared with 19…

  6. Ocular torsion before and after 1 hour centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.; Graaf, B. de; Bles, W.; Bos, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess a possible otolith contribution to effects observed following prolonged expo-sure to hyper gravity, we used video-oculography to measure ocular torsion during static and dynamic conditions of lateral body tilt (roll) before and after one hour of centrifugation with a Gx-load of 3G. Static

  7. Ocular torsion before and after 1 hour centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Eric; De Graaf, Bernd; Bles, Willem; Bos, Jelte E.

    1996-01-01

    To assess a possible otolith contribution to effects observed following prolonged exposure to hypergravity, we used video oculography to measure ocular torsion during static and dynamic conditions of lateral body tilt (roll) before and after t h of centrifugation with a G(x)-load of 3 G. Static tilt

  8. Analysis of metabolomic patterns in thoroughbreds before and after exercise

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    Hyun-Jun Jang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Evaluation of exercise effects in racehorses is important in horseracing industry and animal health care. In this study, we compared metabolic patterns between before and after exercise to screen metabolic biomarkers for exercise effects in thoroughbreds. Methods The concentration of metabolites in muscle, plasma, and urine was measured by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy analysis and the relative metabolite levels in the three samples were compared between before and after exercise. Subsequently, multivariate data analysis based on the metabolic profiles was performed using orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA and variable important plots and t-test was used for basic statistical analysis. Results From 1H NMR spectroscopy analysis, 35, 25, and 34 metabolites were detected in the muscle, plasma, and urine. Aspartate, betaine, choline, cysteine, ethanol, and threonine were increased over 2-fold in the muscle; propionate and trimethylamine were increased over 2-fold in the plasma; and alanine, glycerol, inosine, lactate, and pyruvate were increased over 2-fold whereas acetoacetate, arginine, citrulline, creatine, glutamine, glutarate, hippurate, lysine, methionine, phenylacetylglycine, taurine, trigonelline, trimethylamine, and trimethylamine N-oxide were decreased below 0.5-fold in the urine. The OPLS-DA showed clear separation of the metabolic patterns before and after exercise in the muscle, plasma, and urine. Statistical analysis showed that after exercise, acetoacetate, arginine, glutamine, hippurate, phenylacetylglycine trimethylamine, trimethylamine N-oxide, and trigonelline were significantly decreased and alanine, glycerol, inosine, lactate, and pyruvate were significantly increased in the urine (p<0.05. Conclusion In conclusion, we analyzed integrated metabolic patterns in the muscle, plasma, and urine before and after exercise in racehorses. We found changed patterns of metabolites in

  9. Human bartonellosis: before and after Daniel Alcides Carrion

    OpenAIRE

    Takano Morón, Juan; Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Médico patólogo, doctor en Medina, profesor emérito.

    2014-01-01

    This is a review of bibliographic aspects associated to the knowledge about human bartonelosis before and after the death of Daniel Alcides Carrion. Emphasis is placed on stimulus in the development of medical research in Peru by the self-inoculation and subsequent death of Carrion especially in relation to human bartonellosis, conducted by Peruvian researchers and others around the world. The review includes the basic area of knowledge about the bacteria that causes the illness, the host res...

  10. Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, L; Hulbaek, M; Brostrøm, S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure vaginal pressure during various daily activities in patients before and after vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, searching data for evidence-based activity guidelines. Vaginal pressure (VP) was studied in 23 patients during activities such as rest...... was not related to the type of vaginal repair. The results imply that post-operative counselling should concentrate more on treating chronic cough and constipation than restrictions of moderate physical activities....

  11. Saliva in relation to dental erosion before and after radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensdottir, Thorbjörg; Buchwald, Christian; Nauntofte, Birgitte; Hansen, Hanne Sand; Bardow, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Low saliva flow and abnormal saliva composition are common conditions after radiotherapy for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer. Both conditions increase the susceptibility to dental caries and erosion, which may be further accelerated by changes in food preferences. The aim of this study was to determine changes in saliva flow and susceptibility to erosive challenges in pharyngeal cancer patients before and after radiotherapy to the head and neck. The erosive potential of sucking acidic candies with and without calcium was determined in nine patients (50-68 years) before and after receiving a radiation dose of 66 Gy to the head and neck area. The erosive potential was evaluated from saliva degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAp) and by dissolution of HAp in candy-stimulated saliva. Sucking acidic candies increased saliva flow rates ≈ 17-fold before as well as after radiotherapy (p HAp during (p HAp dissolution was significantly lower with the candy containing calcium compared with the control candy, both before and after radiotherapy (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05). Radiotherapy to the head and neck area significantly reduced saliva flow and altered saliva composition in a way that may increase the susceptibility to dental disease. However, saliva could be stimulated by acidic candies, which could be made nearly non-erosive even in irradiated patients.

  12. Effect of low-dose aspirin during pregnancy on fibrinolytic variables before and after parturition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Bremer (Henk); N. Rotmans (Nel); E.J.Ph. Brommer; H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of a daily oral dose of 60 to 80 mg of aspirin from 12 weeks gestation until delivery on fibrinolytic variables before and after parturition. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective controlled study labor was electively induced in 24 patients, eight receiving

  13. Phosphorus Spectroscopy of Calf Muscles before and after Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wcisło, Bożena; Cichocka, Monika; Urbanik, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine 31 PMRS reference spectrum and intracellular pH of calf muscles in the dominant limb of healthy, young, male volunteers before and after intense physical effort. Examinations were performed with a 1.5 T MR system. FID CSI (Free Induction Decay Chemical Shift Imaging) sequence was used with the following parameters: TR=4000 ms, FA=90°, NEX=2 and VOI (Volume Of Interest)=8×8×8 cm 3 (512 cm 3 ) involving in calf muscles. Raw data was preprocessed using SAGE (GE) software. Authors analyzed relative concentrations ratios of selected metabolites: PCr/ATP and PCr/P i . Intracellular pH and relative concentrations ratios of each metabolite (P i , PCr, α-ATP, β-ATP, γ-ATP, ATP) were also calculated relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites. Results were compared with a t-test. Based on statistical analysis of results significant differences (p<0.05) were demonstrated for some of the studied metabolites and for intracellular pH. Increase in PCr concentration in relation to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites and to ATP concentration was noted. However, β-ATP, α-ATP and ATP concentrations relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites become reduced. Decrease in pH after physical effort was demonstrated. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in concentrations of remaining metabolites before and after exercise. Increase in PCr concentration relative to P i concentration and decrease of P i and γ-ATP concentration relative to the sum of concentrations of all metabolites were demonstrated. The 31 PMRS method enables assessment of concentrations of phosphorus-containing metabolites as well as intercellular pH before and after exercise. This method is still under examination, but it has already shown promise as a diagnostic tool for the future

  14. [Human bartonellosis: before and after Daniel Alcides Carrion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano Morón, Juan

    2014-04-01

    This is a review of bibliographic aspects associated to the knowledge about human bartonelosis before and after the death of Daniel Alcides Carrion. Emphasis is placed on stimulus in the development of medical research in Peru by the self-inoculation and subsequent death of Carrion especially in relation to human bartonellosis, conducted by Peruvian researchers and others around the world. The review includes the basic area of knowledge about the bacteria that causes the illness, the host response to infection as well as the biphasic behavior of the disease. The revised bibliography includes contributions to the knowledge of the disease in the last 100 years, now known with the eponym "Carrion's disease".

  15. Evaluating the Subjective Straight Ahead Before and After Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. J.; Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Clement, G.

    2017-01-01

    This joint European Space Agency (ESA) - NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This study addresses the sensorimotor research gap to "determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing."

  16. Evolution of agricultural production of Zaire before and after 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiti, K.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the evolution of agricultural production of Zaire before and after 1960 with the help of variable quantifies of products, the cultured area and the exported quantifies of products. A comparative analysis of quantifies of studied products shows that after 1960, the agricultural production of basis foodstuffs of the Zairian population has fallen of the order of 91 % in comparison with the first period. This study shows that the system of peasantry introduced in 1936 by the INEAC, the rationalization of cultural methods connected to the governmental explain the agricultural expansion of Zaire before 1960.

  17. Respiratory function in iron deficiency anaemia before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanliev, P; Tzanev, B; Prokopov, V; Gigova, D

    1975-01-01

    The present studies concern the basic ventilatory indices, the arterial blood gases, the indices of the acid-base balance and the indices of the alveolar-capillary diffusion (DLCO, SS, Dm, theta Vc) in anemia before and after treatment. Substantial changes are recorded after treatment mainly in DLCO, SS and theta Vc. These changes are predominantly due to changes in the concentration of Hb. An evaluation of both methods for the standardization of DLCO at 14,6 g Hb/100 ml blood is also presented.

  18. Sexual Function before and after Total Hip Replacement: Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotem Meiri, BPT

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: The ability to move comfortably is included among the many physical and psychosocial factors influencing sexual functioning. Practitioners should be encouraged to question their THR patients about sexual concerns and to provide counseling related to physical and functional aspects of sexual activity. Rehabilitation that focuses specifically on activities of daily living of sex should include sexual counseling, therapeutic exercise, and advice regarding sexual positions. Rehabilitation provided by physical therapists may help decrease pain, and facilitate greater self‐awareness, self‐confidence, and improved body image, all of which encourage and affirm optimal sexual health. Meiri R, Rosenbaum TY, and Kalichman L. Sexual function before and after total hip replacement: Narrative review. Sex Med 2014;2:159–167.

  19. Morphometric evaluation of keratocystic odontogenic tumor before and after marsupialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Campos Telles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the morphometric evaluation of the epithelial lining and fibrous capsule in histological specimens of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs before and after marsupialization. Histological sections from six KOTs that had undergone marsupialization followed by enucleation were photographed. The thickness and features of the capsule and of the epithelial lining of the tumor were evaluated upon marsupialization and upon subsequent enucleation using Axion Vision software. The histological specimens taken upon marsupialization presented an epithelial lining that is typical of KOTs. After marsupialization, the enucleated specimens had a modified epithelial lining and a fibrous capsule that both presented a greater median thickness (p = 0.0277 and p = 0.0212, respectively, morphological changes, and significant enlargement. These modifications can facilitate full surgical treatment and may well be related to a low KOT recurrence rate.

  20. Retinal oxygen saturation before and after glaucoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Eri; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Shimazaki, Takeru; Sato, Shino; Ukegawa, Kaori; Nakano, Yuki; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2017-08-01

    This study compared retinal vessel oxygen saturation before and after glaucoma surgery. Retinal oxygen saturation in glaucoma patients was measured using a non-invasive spectrophotometric retinal oximeter. Adequate image quality was found in 49 of the 108 consecutive glaucoma patients recruited, with 30 undergoing trabeculectomy, 11 EX-PRESS and eight trabeculotomy. Retinal oxygen saturation measurements in the retinal arterioles and venules were performed at 1 day prior to and at approximately 10 days after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using a Student's t-test. After glaucoma surgery, intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased from 19.8 ± 7.7 mmHg to 9.0 ± 5.7 mmHg (p glaucoma surgery had an effect on the retinal venous oxygen saturation. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Saliva in relation to dental erosion before and after radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensdottir, Thorbjorg; von Buchwald, Christian; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Low saliva flow and abnormal saliva composition are common conditions after radiotherapy for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer. Both conditions increase the susceptibility to dental caries and erosion, which may be further accelerated by changes in food preferences. The aim...... of this study was to determine changes in saliva flow and susceptibility to erosive challenges in pharyngeal cancer patients before and after radiotherapy to the head and neck. Materials and methods: The erosive potential of sucking acidic candies with and without calcium was determined in nine patients (50...... rates ∼ 17-fold before as well as after radiotherapy (p radiotherapy. Also, saliva became more under-saturated with respect to HAp during (p

  2. Increased psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormones are necessary for fetal brain development, while hypothyroidism in adults has been associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. Nevertheless, our knowledge regarding the association and temporal relation between hypothyroidism and mental disorders......-hypothyroid controls were identified and followed over a mean period of 6 years (range 1-13). Additionally, we included 385 same sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders as well as treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotics and anxiolytics were recorded. Logistic and cox...... regression models were used to assess the risk of psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, respectively. Results: Prior to the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, such individuals had an increased prevalence of diagnoses with psychiatric disorders (Odds ratio, OR, 1.51; 95% confidence...

  3. Bacterial Contamination of Endodontic Materials before and after Clinical Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Media; Koller, Garrit; Niazi, Sadia; Patel, Shanon; Mannocci, Francesco; Bruce, Kenneth; Foschi, Federico

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination in endodontic consumables (gutta-percha points, rubber dams, paper mixing pads, caulking agents, and endodontic instrument sponges [EISs]) before and after clinical use and storage. Materials were randomly sampled in triplicates at 3 time points (t 0 , at package opening; t 1 , at 7 days; and t 2 , at 14 days) during their clinical usage. The gutta-percha points and caulking agent (25 mg) were added to 1 mL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The rubber dam, paper mixing pad, and EIS were added to 25 mL PBS. After vortexing, centrifuging, and removing the supernatant, the pellet was resuspended in 1 mL PBS, plated on fastidious anaerobic agar, and incubated aerobically and anaerobically. The grown colonies were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The total bacterial load was calculated in the remaining volume (800 μL) from each sample by quantitative polymerase chain reaction after DNA extraction. All tested materials showed a varied number of contaminated samples at the 3 time points (except EIS at t 0 ) using MALDI-TOF MS. The most isolated genera were Propionibacterium (42%) and Staphylococcus (32%). By using non-culture-based approaches, all tested materials at the 3 time points (except gutta-percha at t 0 and the caulking agent at t 0, t 1, and t 2 ) carried bacterial DNA. The majority of the tested materials harbored bacteria in their samples before and after clinical storage. Nosocomial infection derived from commonly used consumables could have an impact on the outcome of endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aroma Constituents in Shanxi Aged Vinegar before and after Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Xie, Jianchun; Hou, Li; Zhao, Mengyao; Zhao, Jian; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Shi; Sun, Bao-Guo

    2016-10-12

    Shanxi aged vinegar is one of the most famous Chinese traditional cereal vinegars produced by spontaneous solid-state fermentation. However, the aroma composition of Shanxi aged vinegar is still ambiguous. The Shanxi vinegars before and after aging were both analyzed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) in aroma extract dilution analysis. A total of 87 odor-active regions were found by GC-O, and 80 odor-active compounds were identified. By GC-MS/MS, in selected reaction monitoring mode, 30 important identifications were quantitated using authentic standards. In comparison, the aroma molecules for the vinegars before and after aging were almost the same; only their levels were altered, with mostly the esters and some compounds that produce pungent smells being lost and the levels of those from the Maillard reaction, especially the pyrazines (e.g., tetramethylpyrazine), being greatly increased. As for the aged vinegar, the compounds found to have high flavor dilution factors (>128) were 3-(methylthio)propanal, vanillin, 2,3-butanedione, tetramethylpyrazine, 3-methylbutanoic acid, γ-nonalactone, guaiacol, 3-(methylthio)propyl acetate, dimethyl trisulfide, phenylacetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, furfural, and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. However, the aroma compounds found at high concentrations (>25 μg/L) in the aged vinegar were acetic acid, followed by 2,3-butanedione, furfural, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, tetramethylpyrazine, furfuryl alcohol, and 3-methylbutanoic acid.

  5. Antioxidant status in neonatal jaundice before and after phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ayyappan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice refers to yellow coloration of the skin and the sclera (whites of the eyes of newborn babies that result from the accumulation of bilirubin in the skin and mucous membranes. Because bilirubin is potentially toxic to the central nervous system. Genetic disorders of bilirubin conjugation, particularly the common Gilbert′s syndrome, can also contribute to neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid per-oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with neonatal jaundice before and after phototherapy. Materials and Methods: The study includes 50 neonatal jaundice patients with average age 2-15 days. All patients of neonatal jaundice receiving phototherapy except feeding, cleaning. Subjects selected were from the patients attending Pediatrics Department. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT to monitor the bilirubin level. Results: The results show increased levels of bilirubin compared with controls (P < 0.001 shows the level of plasma MDA in control, before and after phototherapy. Represents the level of GPX was significantly increased in after the phototherapy group when compared with before phototherapy and control SPSS soft ware: (P < 0.001. Shows the reduced glutathione (GSH level in plasma was significantly decreased in the after phototherapy group when compared with before phototherapy and control (P < 0.001. And finally with ascorbic acid and CAT. Conclusion: It is evident from the study that increased oxidative stress in neonatal jaundice babies leads to decrease in the levels of antioxidants like GSH and ascorbic acid and disturb their metabolism, that weaken their ability to fight the growing stress. Intense oxidative stress and decreased antioxidants may contribute to neural cell death and alter the erythrocytomembrane structure processing in neonatal jaundice.

  6. Diarrheal Diseases Hospitalization in Yemen before and after Rotavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Amood AL-Kamarany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on diarrheal diseases hospitalization and to identify the rotavirus genotypes most prevalent before and after vaccine introduction among children ≤ 5 years of age. Rotarix™ ® rotavirus vaccine is currently licensed for infants in Yemen and was introduced in 2012. The vaccination course consists of two doses. The first dose is administrated at 6 weeks of age and the second dose is completed by 10 weeks. Based on a longitudinal observational study, we assessed the impact of vaccination on rotavirus hospitalization before and after vaccination among children ≤ 5 years of age at the Yemeni-Swedish Hospital (YSH in Taiz, Yemen. Prevaccination covered January 2009–July 2012 during which 2335 fecal samples were collected from children ≤ 5 years old. Postvaccination covered January 2013–December 2014 during which 1114 fecal samples were collected. Rotavirus was detected by Enzyme Linkage Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The incidence of rotavirus hospitalization decreased from 43.79% in 2009 to 10.54% in 2014. Hospitalization due to rotavirus diarrhea was reduced by 75.93%. Vaccine coverage increased from 23% in 2012 to 72% in 2014. Also, the results showed that the most predominant genotypes in prevaccination period were G2P[4] (55.0%, followed by G1P[8] (15.0%, while in postvaccination period G1P[8] (31% was the predominant genotype, followed by G9P[8] (27.5%. In conclusion, rotavirus vaccination in Yemen resulted in sharp reduction in diarrheal hospitalization. A successful rotavirus vaccination program in Yemen will rely upon efficient vaccine delivery systems and sustained vaccine efficacy against diverse and evolving rotavirus strains.

  7. EPR study on tomatoes before and after gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgieva, L.; Tzvetkova, E. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technology, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg

    2009-09-15

    The results from the EPR studies on fresh, air-dried and lyophilized tomato samples before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation fresh and air-dried tomatoes exhibit one singlet EPR line characterized with common g-factor of 2.0048{+-}0.0005, whereas freeze-dried tomato does not show any EPR spectrum. After irradiation, a typical 'cellulose-like' triplet EPR spectrum appears in all samples, attributed to cellulose free radicals, generated by gamma-irradiation. It consists of intense central line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 and two weak satellite lines separated ca. 3 mT left and right of it. In air-dried and lyophilized tomatoes the 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum is superimposed by an additional partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum. Fading measurements of the radiation-induced EPR signals indicate that the intensity of the EPR spectra of air-dried and freeze-dried tomato are reduced to about 50% after 50 days, whereas those of fresh irradiated tomatoes kept at 4 {sup o}C fade completely in 15 days. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of two satellite lines in the EPR 'cellulose-like' spectra of tomato samples can be used for identification of radiation processing.

  8. Measurement of deuteron beam polarization before and after acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ramazani Moghaddam Arani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Beam polarization measurement in scattering experiments with a high accuracy and the lowest possible cost is an important issue. In this regard, deuteron beam polarization was measured in the low-energy beam line easily with a relatively low cost procedure and in a very short time by Lamb Shift Polarimeter (LSP. Also, the beam polarization has been measured in high-energy beam line with BINA. In low-energy line, a polarized beam of deuterons delivered by POLIS was decelerated and focused on LSP detection system. Three resonances between 52mT and 63mT show the distribution of different spin states of polarized deuteron beam. In high-energy beam line, polarization can be measured employing BINA via the H(d,dp reaction. The asymmetry ratio, was obtained as a function of azimuthal angle, φ, for several polar scattering angles. Knowing values of the analyzing powers, the ratio has been used to extract the polarization results. The obtained results show that polarization of deuteron beam that is accelerated up to the energy of 130 MeV is almost the same before and after acceleration

  9. Anemia and iron deficiency before and after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Wilson; Modotti, Caue; Nonino, Carla Barbosa; Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency and anemia are changes often associated with obesity. Bariatric surgery is responsible for increasing the iron loss and reducing its absorption. The objective of this study was to evaluate anemia and iron deficiency before and after bariatric surgery and to relate them to possible predisposing factors. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients submitted to open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in which clinical and laboratory data were obtained up to 48 months postoperatively. Patients were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of anemia and to the presence or absence of iron deficiency (even without anemia), and all data were compared between these groups. Preoperatively, 21.5% of patients had anemia and 20% had iron deficiency. The number of patients with anemia did not vary through the 4 years of the study, but ferritin levels significantly decreased with time (Pdeficiency. Anemia and iron deficiency are frequent in obese patients and must be treated before surgery. Medical and nutritional surveillance is important in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery. Management of each condition must be directed at correcting the 2 major sources of iron deficiency and anemia: food intolerance (mostly meat intolerance) and losses (frequently due to menstruation). These are the factors more related to iron deficient anemia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral manifestations of allograft recipients before and after renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Rezvani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is considered the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. In this study, the prevalence of oral lesions was studied in a cohort of renal transplant recipients before and after transplantation. Fifty-nine kidney transplant recipients were examined one week before and four months after transplantation. The information gathered included age, sex, smoking history, duration on dialysis, drugs and their doses. There were 41 males (69.5% and 18 females (30.5% with a mean age of 37 years. Before surgery, two patients had non-specific lesions and two other patients had leukoedema. Following transplantation, 24 patients (40.7% did not have any specific lesion. In six patients, we observed non-specific erythematous lesions (10.2%. Other recorded observations are as follows: Gingival hyperplasia in five patients (8.5%, oral candidiasis of the erythematous type in five patients (8.5%, hairy leukoplakia in four patients (6.8% and leukoedema in seven patients (11.9%. In our study patients, the prevalence of oral lesions increased after transplantation, although it was lower than that reported in other studies. This could be due to the differences in sample size, differences between Iranian race and other races and different pharmaceutical formulation of the drug produced in Iran.

  11. EPR study on tomatoes before and after gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksieva, K.; Georgieva, L.; Tzvetkova, E.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2009-09-01

    The results from the EPR studies on fresh, air-dried and lyophilized tomato samples before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation fresh and air-dried tomatoes exhibit one singlet EPR line characterized with common g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005, whereas freeze-dried tomato does not show any EPR spectrum. After irradiation, a typical "cellulose-like" triplet EPR spectrum appears in all samples, attributed to cellulose free radicals, generated by gamma-irradiation. It consists of intense central line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines separated ca. 3 mT left and right of it. In air-dried and lyophilized tomatoes the "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum is superimposed by an additional partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum. Fading measurements of the radiation-induced EPR signals indicate that the intensity of the EPR spectra of air-dried and freeze-dried tomato are reduced to about 50% after 50 days, whereas those of fresh irradiated tomatoes kept at 4 °C fade completely in 15 days. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of two satellite lines in the EPR "cellulose-like" spectra of tomato samples can be used for identification of radiation processing.

  12. Feasibility of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy measurement before and after thoracentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Matthias Daniel; Weyer, Sören; Pauly, Karolin; Napp, Andreas; Dreher, Michael; Leonhardt, Steffen; Marx, Nikolaus; Schauerte, Patrick; Mischke, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is applied to measure changes in tissue composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate its feasibility in measuring the fluid shift after thoracentesis in patients with pleural effusion. 45 participants (21 with pleural effusion and 24 healthy subjects) were included. Bioelectrical impedance was analyzed for "Transthoracic," "Foot to Foot," "Foot to Hand," and "Hand to Hand" vectors in low and high frequency domain before and after thoracentesis. Healthy subjects were measured at a single time point. The mean volume of removed pleural effusion was 1169 ± 513 mL. The "Foot to Foot," "Hand to Hand," and "Foot to Hand" vector indicated a trend for increased bioelectrical impedance after thoracentesis. Values for the low frequency domain in the "Transthoracic" vector increased significantly (P impedance change in the low frequency domain using the "Foot to Hand" vector (r = -0.7). Bioelectrical impedance changes in correlation with the thoracic fluid level. It was feasible to monitor significant fluid shifts and loss after thoracentesis in the "Transthoracic" vector by means of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. The trial is registered with Registration Numbers IRB EK206/11 and NCT01778270.

  13. Spousal similarity in life satisfaction before and after divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Jessica; Lucas, Richard E

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has explored possible origins of individual differences in subjective well-being, focusing largely on stable, internal characteristics of traits as predictors of life satisfaction (Diener & Lucas, 1999). Although past work has demonstrated that life satisfaction is largely stable over the life span, other evidence has also demonstrated the lasting impact of life events. In this study, we use married couples as a test of the impact of life circumstances on life satisfaction, focusing on similarity in life satisfaction before and after divorce. If life satisfaction is impacted by shared life circumstances, married couples (who share life circumstances) should show greater similarity in life satisfaction before divorce than after. We tested this possibility using a dyadic latent-state-trait model that examined cross-spouse similarity in the stable and changing components of life satisfaction. Using a nationally representative panel study from Germany (Wagner, Frick & Schupp, 2007), we showed that similarity declined substantially following divorce. This suggests that life satisfaction is related to shared life circumstances. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Commercial sexual practices before and after legalization in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M

    2010-08-01

    The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them.

  15. Harvested rainwater quality before and after treatment in six ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is an alternative method of providing water for indoor domestic use, but the water quality after treatment and distribution at individual residences is not well documented. In this study, water quality parameters were measured at the cistern and indoor cold-water taps of six residential RWH systems that use various treatment processes. Potential human pathogens (Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus niger) were found frequently in cisterns and in treated rainwater delivered at the tap; Legionella pneumophila was not detected as frequently, but it persisted in a system after its first detection. The observed decreases in bacterial concentrations from the cistern to the tap after filtration/ ultraviolet (UV) treatment and distribution were less than expected; this suggests deficiencies in the effectiveness of the filtration/UV processes employed and/or degradation in water quality in the distribution system due to the absence of a disinfectant residual. Determination of the disinfection efficiency occuring in home treatment processes. Molecular analysis of rainwater before and after treatment. First study to include the monitoring of opportunistic fungal pathogens.

  16. Pelvic Pain and Quality of Life Before and After Laparoscopic Bowel Resection for Rectosigmoid Endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riiskjær, Mads; Forman, Axel; Kesmodel, Ulrik S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgery for rectosigmoid endometriosis carries a substantial risk of short- and long-term complications, which has to be counterbalanced against the potential effect of the procedure. Prospective data are scarce in the field of deep infiltrating endometriosis surgery. OBJECTIVE......: The study aimed to assess pelvic pain and quality of life before and after laparoscopic bowel resection for rectosigmoid endometriosis. DESIGN: The study involved prospectively collected data regarding pelvic pain and quality of life before and after surgery. SETTINGS: It was conducted at a tertiary...... endometriosis referral unit at Aarhus University Hospital. PATIENTS: A total of 175 women were included. INTERVENTION: Patients underwent laparoscopic bowel resection for endometriosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Questionnaires for pain (Numerical Rating Scale) and quality of life (RAND Short Form-36) were answered...

  17. Cholescintigraphy in patients with acute cholecystitis before and after percutaneous gallbladder drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Stage, J G; Grønvall, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate gallbladder function by use of cholescintigraphy in patients with acute cholecystitis before and after percutaneous gallbladder drainage. DESIGN: A cholescintigraphy was performed in 40 patients with acute cholecystitis before and after the performance of percutaneous...... gallbladder drainage. During the post-drainage cholescintigraphies, a cholecystokinin stimulation was performed to investigate gallbladder emptying in 12 selected patients. Gallbladder pressure and volume were measured before drainage in another group of 12 patients with acute cholecystitis. RESULTS...... treatment. Post-drainage cholescintigraphy revealed a mean gallbladder ejection fraction of 24%, which is significantly lower than the corresponding value in normal individuals and gallstone patients without cholecystitis (n = 12). Gallbladder pressure and volume were markedly increased compared with normal...

  18. Patients' self-esteem before and after chemical peeling procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Platsidaki, Eftychia; Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Markantoni, Vasiliki; Armyra, Kalliopi; Potouridou, Irene; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, Georgios

    2017-12-29

    Chemical peeling is a safe method, widely used to treat a variety of skin conditions and reduce the aging effects. This study aims to evaluate self-esteem among adolescents who undergo chemical peelings. One hundred and twenty six patients constituted the study group. Sixty seven individuals had undergone chemical peeling for therapeutic reasons and 59 individuals for cosmetic reasons. To assess patients' self-esteem, the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES) was used before and after treatment. The control group included 71 healthy, age- and sex-matched volunteers from the general population. They were also asked to complete the RSES, after the same time interval as the patients. The healthy controls (23.01 ± 3.12) presented statistically significantly higher self-esteem than both the groups of individuals who would be submitted to chemical peeling. Furthermore, patients who would undergo peeling for therapeutic reasons (21.58 ± 3.20) had statistically significantly higher self-esteem than those who would undergo the procedure for cosmetic reasons (18.97 ± 3.36). After the chemical peeling sessions, the self-esteem of patients treated for therapeutic reasons (23.48 ± 2.43) and of patients treated for cosmetic reasons (22.83 ± 3.34) improved statistically significantly, while the self-esteem of the healthy controls remained stable, as expected. Patients who undergo chemical peelings tend to have low levels of self-esteem. Although facial lesions in skin diseases such as acne, acne scars, rosacea, and melasma seem to have negative effect on individuals' self-consciousness, patients who would be submitted to chemical peeling in order to treat wrinkles, loss of radiance, and skin tone clarity have even lower self-esteem. Chemical peelings were shown to favorably affect patient's self-esteem since all patients showed an increase in self-esteem after treatment, while the control group experienced no change.

  19. Circulating chemokine ligand levels before and after successful kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Elmoselhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokine ligands (CCLs play a pivotal role in tissue injury before and after kidney transplantation. Meanwhile, transplantation improves patient’s survival and diminishes morbidity. It is hypothesized, then, that kidney transplantation diminishes pre-transplant (pre-TX levels of circulating inflammatory CCLs. This retrospective study compared circulating levels and profiles of CCLs before transplantation (pre-TX and after transplantation (post-TX. Methods Nineteen CCLs (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, 21, 24, 26, 27, CXCL 5, 8, 10, 12 and 13 were measured in 47 stable post-TX recipients, and their stored pre-TX plasma was analyzed by multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay. Twenty normal controls were included for comparisons. Normalized data was presented as mean ± SD and non-normalized data as median (5–95 % CI. Significance was measured at p < 0.01. Arbitrary upper and lower margins for each CCL at the 95 % CI or 2SD levels in each group were chosen to calculate the percentile of patients in the other group who exceeded these limits. Significant CCL levels present in more than 75 % of patients in a group that exceeded the arbitrary upper or lower set margins in the other two groups were labeled as preferentially characteristic for the respective group. Results More than 75 % of pre- and post-TX patients had levels that exceeded the upper control for CCL1, 11, 15 and CCL15, CCL26 and CXCL13 levels, respectively. More than 75 % of pre- and post-TX patients exceeded the lower control for CCL3, 21, and CCL5 limits, respectively. More than 75 % of post-TX patients demonstrated elevated levels of CCL2, 3, 21, 26 and CXCL13 above the upper pre-TX cut offs. Meanwhile, more than 75 % of post-TX patients exceeded the lower pre-TX levels for CCL1, 4, 5, 8, 13, 15, 17, 24 and CXCL8 and10. Pre-TX was preferentially characterized by elevated CCL1 and 15 and diminished CCL3 and 21. Post-TX was preferentially

  20. Evaluating the Subjective Straight Ahead Before and After Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D. J.; Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Clement, G.

    2017-01-01

    ) and to the subject's head/body reference (egocentric). This task is successively performed with the subject's body aligned with the gravitational vertical, and with subject's body tilted in roll using a tilt chair; (3) Linear Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex: The subject is asked to fixate actual visual targets at near and far distances in the true straight-ahead direction, and to evaluate the distance of these targets. The subject is asked to continue fixating the same imagined targets in darkness while he/she is passively accelerated up and down on a spring-loaded vertical linear accelerator. Results. In the control subject population, the perceived tilt angles, translations, and distances were remarkably close to the actual values. The pointing tasks indicated that the orientation of arm saccades was influenced by both the gravitational vertical and the body idiotropic vector. Repeating the testing did not reveal any significant changes. Preliminary results obtained in three crewmembers before and after flight will also be presented. Applications. A change in an individual's egocentric reference might have negative consequences on evaluating the direction of an approaching object or on the accuracy of reaching movements or locomotion. Consequently, investigating how microgravity affects the target location will have theoretical, operational, and even clinical implications for future space exploration missions. The use of vibrotactile feedback as a sensorimotor countermeasure is applicable to balance therapy applications for patients with vestibular loss and the elderly to mitigate risks due to loss of spatial orientation.

  1. HIV stigma experiences and stigmatisation before and after a HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduction community “hub” intervention would change the HIV stigma experiences of people living with HIV (PLWH) and the stigmatisation by the community in an urban area in South Africa. A convergent parallel mixed-method design with a ...

  2. Monitoring of Deformation in Ground Before and After Tunnel Excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Mehmet; Hilmi Erkoç, Muharrem

    2017-04-01

    As population increase in metropolitan city, we need transportation and transmission tunnel. In this context, the engineers and administors attach impotance to building and planning underground-tunnel. Moreover, we must at regular intervals monitoring to deformation in underground-tunnel for quality and safety. Firstly, a deformation monitoring network is designed as perpendicular to the tunnel main axis. Secondly, the prescribed number of deformation measurements must be made. Finally, the deformation analysis is evaluated and its results is interpreted. This study investigates how deformation in monitoring network during and after tunnel excavate change.For this purpose, a deformation monitoring network of 18 object point and 4 reference point was established. Object points networks was designed steeply to the tunnel main axis as 3 cross section. Each cross section consisted of 3 point left, 2 point right and 1 point at the flowing line. Initial conditional measurement was made before tunnel excavation. Then the deformation measurement was made 5 period (1 period measured after tunnel excavate). All data sets were adjusted according to free adjustment method. The results from the investigation considering the tunnel line, a symmetrical subsidence was observed. The following day of tunnel excavation, we were observed %68 per of the total deformation. At the end of the last period measurements, %99 per of the total deformation was detected. Keywords: Tunnel, Deformation, Subsidence, Excavation

  3. Medication before and after a spinal cord lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Elmo K; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2014-01-01

    for each Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System group were registered for all patients, who were discharged from Department for Spinal Cord Injuries during 2010. The changes in medication per se were calculated for different parts of the population: non-traumatic, traumatic patients......OBJECTIVE: To map the impact of spinal cord lesion (SCL) on medication. STUDY DESIGN: Registration of medication for 72 patients before SCL and at discharge from the Department for Spinal Cord Injuries. SETTING: Department for Spinal Cord Injuries, East Denmark. METHODS: The changes in medication......, men, women, paraplegia, tetraplegia, American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) A, B or C, AIS D, age 0-45, 46-60 and 60+. In addition, comparisons of changes in medication were made between complementary parts of the population. RESULTS: The overall increase in medication after SCL...

  4. Acoustic analysis of snoring before and after palatal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T M; Swift, A C; Calverley, P M A; Ho, M S; Earis, J E

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of palatal surgery for nonapnoeic snoring, 35 patients were block randomised to undergo one of two different palatoplasty procedures. Patients were admitted pre-operatively for audio recording of snoring sound and video recording of sleeping position, and between 1.0 and 4.1 months (mean 2.5) and between 5.9 and 17.5 months (mean 9.7) post-operatively. Sound files, comprising the inspiratory sound of the first 100 snores whilst sleeping in a supine position, were analysed using specifically designed software. Snore duration (s), loudness (dBA), periodicity (%) and energy ratios for the frequency bands 0-200 Hz, 0-250 Hz and 0-400 Hz were calculated. Subjective outcomes were noted. Operation type, body mass index, age, peak nasal inspiratory flow rate, Epworth sleep score and alcohol intake were considered as confounding variables. No patient was cured from snoring. Paired t-test analysis demonstrated statistically significant changes between pre- and early post-operative recordings for snore periodicity and energy ratios in the frequency ranges 0-200 Hz, 0-250 Hz and 0-400 Hz. In conclusion, only the 0-250-Hz energy ratio measurements maintained a statistically significant improvement at the time of the late post-operative recording, despite an obvious drift back to pre-operative levels. No confounding variables were identified. The subjective and objective results correlated poorly. Post-operative changes in the acoustic parameters of snoring sound, following palatal surgery, are demonstrable but short-lived.

  5. Bicycle injury documentation before and after charting intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Kathy; Nichols, Michele; Bates, Robin; Meredith, Mark; Hunter, John; King, William D

    2008-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that routinely completed free-text emergency department medical records contain limited information necessary for injury surveillance. We instituted an injury documentation sheet into our emergency department records to evaluate the impact on completeness of bicycle injury documentation rates. The pretest/posttest study design used E-codes to identify bicycle-related injuries. A standardized data collection tool was utilized to review these charts. Time periods before (January 1 to December 31, 2004) and after (January 1 to June 30, 2005) institution of a standardized documentation sheet were reviewed. Data were entered into the computer program, Epistat, and scores were used for comparison. Initial review (n = 667) revealed mean age of patients 8.6 years, with 46% African American and 67% male. Helmet usage was documented in 49% of the charts (81 were wearing helmets; 245 were not wearing helmets). Mechanism of injury was documented as bicycle alone in 587, bicycle versus car in 13, and bicycle versus stationary object in 64. After implementation of an injury data sheet (n = 205), it was found that the mean age was 9.24 years, with 51% African American and 43% male. Helmet use was documented in 77% of cases (26 wearing helmets; 132 not wearing). Mechanism was documented as bicycle alone in 125, bicycle versus car in 66, and bicycle versus stationary object in 14. Helmet use was much more frequently documented after the initiation of an injury documentation reminder sheet (z = 6.97; P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval, 20.2-35.8). The use of standard injury documentation prompts increased completeness of documentation. With improved documentation, more accurate injury surveillance can be performed.

  6. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buratta Livia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA and healthy nutrition (NUTR. Method. Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Results. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Conclusion. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program.

  7. Stage of Change and Motivation to a Healthier Lifestyle before and after an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livia, Buratta; Elisa, Reginato; Claudia, Ranucci; Roberto, Pippi; Cristina, Aiello; Emilia, Sbroma Tomaro; Chiara, Perrone; Alberto, Tirimagni; Angelo, Russo; Pierpaolo, De Feo; Claudia, Mazzeschi

    2016-01-01

    Lifestyle modification programs are different but typically include both nutritional aspects and physical activity as main domains with different behavioral and/or psychological strategies designed to affect change. A fundamental role in modifying unhealthy habits is played by personal motivation for change. The present study sought to investigate, in a group of 100 overweight/obese outpatients with and/or without TMD2, treatment seeking, the effect of an intensive lifestyle program on medical measures and motivational profile for physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition (NUTR). Subjects participated in an intensive multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention at C.U.R.I.A.MO. Before and after the intervention, patients received a comprehensive evaluation of their clinical, anthropometric, and metabolic states and motivation to lifestyle changes. Data showed differences before and after intervention in both medical and motivational measures. Before the intervention patients reported to be ready, open, and determined to change and gave importance to healthy habits. After the intervention patients continued to be determined but increased the actions toward the change showing a higher degree of maintenance and of acquisition of habits especially in the physical domain of the new lifestyle. Data support the notion that the motivation should be followed during all the lifestyle interventions to support the change on both domains of the lifestyle program.

  8. Sun exposure before and after a diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure before and after a diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) have been based primarily on questionnaires. Objective measures are needed....

  9. Pelvic organ function before and after laparoscopic bowel resection for rectosigmoid endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riiskjaer, M; Greisen, S; Glavind-Kristensen, M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess urinary, sexual, and bowel function before and after laparoscopic bowel resection for rectosigmoid endometriosis. DESIGN: Prospectively collected data regarding the function of the pelvic organs. SETTING: Tertiary endometriosis referral unit, Aarhus University Hospital. SAMPLE......: A cohort of 128 patients who underwent laparoscopic bowel resection for endometriosis. METHODS: The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ), Sexual Function-Vaginal Changes Questionnaire (SVQ), and the Low Anterior Resection Syndrome (LARS) questionnaire were answered before.......40; P = 0.002) of increased incontinence problems (I-score) 1 year after surgery. CONCLUSION: A significant and clinically relevant improvement in urinary and sexual function 1 year after laparoscopic bowel resection for endometriosis was found. Except for anastomotic leakage, this could be observed...

  10. Students' Perspectives on Interprofessional Teamwork Before and After an Interprofessional Pain Education Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Lynn Coletta; Rhodes, Diane C; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Fiedor, Jaclyn

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To evaluate changes in pharmacy and nursing student perspectives before and after completion of an interprofessional education (IPE) course. Methods. A pre- and post-perception scale descriptive prospective study design utilizing Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) and Collaboration and Satisfaction about Care Decisions (CSACD) with self-reported statements of knowledge and importance of professional roles was used. Results. Significant improvement was shown for IEPS and CSACD overall and for both pharmacy and nursing students. Post-scores improved from 2013 to 2014, with significant improvements for IEPS. Pharmacy student findings show an increase in knowledge and importance of their roles and those of nursing students. Nursing students grew significantly in their knowledge of the pharmacist's role only. Conclusion. An IPE course for nursing and pharmacy students, taught by diverse health professionals with a care plan and simulation assignments, fosters the Interprofessional Education Collaborative panel's competencies for IPE.

  11. Kinesiophobia is associated with pain intensity but not pain sensitivity before and after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, H. B.; Madsen, A. B.; Handberg, G.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical pain intensity, exercise performance, pain sensitivity and the effect of aerobic and isometric exercise on local and remote pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain with high and low levels of kinesiophobia. DESIGN: An experimental...... intensity compared with patients with a low degree of kinesiophobia [high degree of kinesiophobia: 7.3 (1.6) on NRS; low degree of kinesiophobia: 6.3 (1.6) on NRS; mean difference 1.0 (95% confidence interval 0.08 to 1.9) on NRS]. Aerobic and isometric exercises increased PPTs, but no significant group...... differences were found in PPTs before and after exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical pain intensity was significantly higher in patients with a high degree of kinesiophobia compared with patients with a low degree of kinesiophobia. Despite a difference in isometric exercise performance, the hypoalgesic responses...

  12. Cohort study of adherence to correct hand antisepsis before and after performance of clinical procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sussie; Lund, Elisabeth; Bibby, Bo Martin

    2009-01-01

    -based hand rub before performance (odds ratio [OR] 1.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.09-2.10]) and after performance (OR, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.27-2.36]) of clinical procedures. In general, the rate of adherence was significantly higher after the performance of clinical procedures, compared with before (OR, 1......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of adherence by hospital staff members to the correct use of alcohol-based hand rub before and after performance of clinical procedures. DESIGN: A cohort study conducted during the period from 2006 through 2007 and 2 cross-sectional studies conducted in 2006...... and after performance of a clinical procedure. RESULTS: A total of 496 participants were observed during 22,906 opportunities for hand hygiene (ie, 11,177 before and 11,729 after clinical procedures) that required the use of alcohol-based hand rub. The overall rates of adherence to the correct use...

  13. [3-dimensional CT cephalometry before and after mandibular angle osteotomy and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Chao; Li, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Lü, Chang-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Ji; Gui, Lai

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the change of skeleton structure and masseter after mandibular angle osteotomy and its clinical significance in preoperative design. 3-dimensional CT cephalometry was performed before and after surgery in 18 cases of prominent mandibular angle. Pre- and post-operative data were compared. Significant differences between the pre- and post-operative data were found in the mandibular angle, the distance between mandibular angle, length of ramus, ectropion angle of mandibular angle, triangle Go-Me-Go, the thickness, width and length of masseter. It indicates the skeleton structure is changed and some kind of atrophy happens in the masseter after operation. So we suggest partial resection of masseter should be unnecessary for mandibular angle osteotomy.

  14. Categorization of questions posed before and after inquiry-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena García González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Posing research questions is the central ability of the scientific thought. This article examines the ability of sixth grade children to pose researchable questions before and after a three months’ work on a didactic sequence based on the inquiry school model. According to their purpose, the questions asked by children, after reading a text, were classified into researchable questions -susceptible to be empirically explored-, questions about a cause, and questions on a piece of data. The results show that the amount and the type of questions the students were able to pose during the intervention changed, from most of questions on data or information, to most of researchable questions, subsequently, the importance of designing teaching approaches to foster this ability was proved.

  15. Poverty Levels and Debt Indicators among Low-Income Households before and after the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Wilmarth, Melissa J.; Henager, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the debt profile of low-income households before and after the Great Recession using the 2007, 2010, and 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). We used Heckman selection models to investigate three debt characteristics: (a) the amount of debt, (b) debt-to-income ratio, and (c) debt delinquency. Before and after the Great…

  16. Assessment of preclinical students' academic motivation before and after a three-day academic affair program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Wannakrairot, Pongsak

    2015-01-01

    Medical students' motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of an academic affair program upon preclinical year medical students' motivation to study. An intervention study was conducted using a pretest-posttest study design. A total of 296 preclinical year medical students who had just passed their first year and were about to attend their second year at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, participated in the study. The intervention comprised of dialogues for personality development, pictorial expression in groups, as well as small group lectures delivered by senior students giving information on how to prepare for the forthcoming classes. Students' academic motivation was measured before and after the intervention program, applying the transculturally translated Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Cronbach's alpha of Thai version AMS was 0.8992. The average scores in seven scales of AMS were compared between the pre- and posttest results, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences were confirmed by using the multivariate analysis of variance. Students' academic motivation increased after participation in the three-day academic program. There was also a significant increase in introjected extrinsic motivation, which can enhance the students' self-esteem and feeling of self-worth (Pmotivation toward accomplishment increased significantly (Pmotivation. Amotivation level declined significantly (Pmotivational constructs before and after the intervention was altogether significant (P=0.036, multivariate analysis of variance). After experiencing a three-day intervention, the new students' motivation advanced along the continuum of self-determination toward autonomous motivation. Therefore, it is considered to be worthwhile conducting an academic intervention to catalyze the evolution of

  17. Inflammatory cytokine levels in chronic venous insufficiency ulcer tissue before and after compression therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidler, Stephanie K.; Douillet, Christelle D.; Berndt, Daniel F.; Keagy, Blair A.; Rich, Preston B.; Marston, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated inflammatory cytokine levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of non3 healing chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) ulcers. The goal of this study was to determine the protein levels of a wide range of inflammatory cytokines in untreated CVI ulcer tissue before and after 4 weeks of high strength compression therapy. These levels were compared to cytokines present in healthy tissue. Methods Thirty limbs with untreated CVI and leg ulceration received therapy for 4 weeks with sustained high compression bandaging at an ambulatory wound center. Biopsies were obtained from healthy and ulcerated tissue before and after therapy. A multiplexed protein assay was used to measure multiple cytokines in a single sample. Patients were designated as rapid or delayed healers based on ulcer surface area change. Results The majority of pro-inflammatory cytokine protein levels were elevated in ulcer tissue compared to healthy tissue, and compression therapy significantly reduced these cytokines. TGF-β1 was up-regulated in ulcer tissue following compression therapy. Rapid healing ulcers had significantly higher levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IL-12p40 and GM-CSF before compression therapy, and IL-1 Ra after therapy. IFN-γ levels significantly decreased following therapy in the rapidly healing patients. Conclusion CVI ulcer healing is associated with a pro-inflammatory environment prior to treatment that reflects metabolically active peri-wound tissue that has the potential to heal. Treatment with compression therapy results in healing that is coupled with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and higher levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1 Ra. Clinical Relevance This data suggests that cytokines may provide targets in which topical therapeutic inhibition or promotion at appropriate time points in the healing process may provide novel therapeutic approaches to the healing of CVI ulcers. PMID:19341889

  18. [Incidence of unplanned extubations in a neonatal intensive care unit. A before and after study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrera Torres, M I; Moral Pumarega, M T; García Lara, N R; Melgar Bonís, A; Frías García, M E; Pallás Alonso, C R

    2014-05-01

    Unplanned extubations (UE) of mechanically ventilated newborns involves an undesirable increase in morbidity and mortality. A 2-stage study compared the frequency of UE in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit before and after the implementation of a program of preventive measures to decrease UE. A before and after prospective study included all mechanically ventilated newborns participating in the 2 stage study from May-December 2011 and June-December 2012. In stage 1, the rate of UE per 100 intubated patient days was calculated and the characteristics of unplanned extubated newborns, circumstances of UE occurrence and need for re-intubation were studied. Consequently, a program of preventive measures for UE was designed and implemented, with the same variables being analysed in stage 2. No differences were found in patient characteristics during the two stages. Stage 1, incidence of UE was 5/100 intubated patient days; Stage 2, 4.5 UE/100 intubated patient days (P=.657). In both stages, most UE occurred during patient handling with re-intubation incidence at 77.4% and 67.7%, respectively. The combined rate of both stages during summer months of July, August and September was 6.2 UE/100 intubation days, in contrast with the remaining months of both stages: UE incidence rate, 3.4 UE/100 intubation days (p=.043). The implementation of a preventive measures program did not significantly reduce the incidence of UE. The summer period showed the highest incidence of UE. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Flow motion waves with high and low frequency in severe ischaemia before and after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Ulrich; Schneider, Ernst; Bollinger, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Study of objective - The aim was to evaluate skin flux and prevalence of low and high frequency flow motion waves in patients with severe ischaemia due to peripheral arterial occlusive disease before and after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with and without local thrombolysis. Design - Flow motion was recorded by the laser Doppler technique at the dorsum of the foot before, one day, and one month after PTA. The results were separately analysed in patients with successful and unsu...

  20. Community Diarrhea Incidence Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Meléndez, Marlon; Liu, Lan; Enrique Zambrana, Luis; Paniagua, Margarita; Weber, David J.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Cáceres, Mercedes; Källeståll, Carina; Morgan, Douglas R.; Espinoza, Félix; Peña, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the incidence of watery diarrhea in the community before and after introduction of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in León, Nicaragua. A random sample of households was selected before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. All children < 5 years of age in selected households were eligible for inclusion. Children were followed every 2 weeks for watery diarrhea episodes. The incidence rate was estimated as numbers of episodes per 100 child-years of exposure time. A mixed effe...

  1. A study on chaos in crude oil markets before and after 2008 international financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate existence of chaos in crude oil markets (Brent and WTI) before and after recent 2008 international financial crisis. Largest Lyapunov exponent is estimated for prices, returns, and volatilities. The empirical results show strong evidence that chaos does not exist in prices and returns in both crude oil markets before and after international crisis. However, we find strong evidence of chaotic dynamics in both Brent and WTI volatilities after international financial crisis.

  2. Assessment of preclinical students’ academic motivation before and after a three-day academic affair program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Wannakrairot, Pongsak

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical students’ motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of an academic affair program upon preclinical year medical students’ motivation to study. Design and methods An intervention study was conducted using a pretest-posttest study design. A total of 296 preclinical year medical students who had just passed their first year and were about to attend their second year at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, participated in the study. The intervention comprised of dialogues for personality development, pictorial expression in groups, as well as small group lectures delivered by senior students giving information on how to prepare for the forthcoming classes. Students’ academic motivation was measured before and after the intervention program, applying the transculturally translated Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). Cronbach’s alpha of Thai version AMS was 0.8992. The average scores in seven scales of AMS were compared between the pre- and posttest results, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences were confirmed by using the multivariate analysis of variance. Results Students’ academic motivation increased after participation in the three-day academic program. There was also a significant increase in introjected extrinsic motivation, which can enhance the students’ self-esteem and feeling of self-worth (Pmotivation toward accomplishment increased significantly (Pacademic milestones, and a step ahead of autonomous motivation. Amotivation level declined significantly (Pacademic motivational constructs before and after the intervention was altogether significant (P=0.036, multivariate analysis of variance). Conclusion After experiencing a three-day intervention, the new students’ motivation advanced along the continuum of self-determination toward

  3. Assessment of preclinical students’ academic motivation before and after a three-day academic affair program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung MN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myo Nyein Aung,1 Juraiporn Somboonwong,2 Vorapol Jaroonvanichkul,1 Pongsak Wannakrairot3 1Medical Education Unit, 2Quality Management Division and Department of Physiology, 3Academic Affairs Division, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: Medical students’ motivation is an important driving factor for academic performance, and therefore medical teachers and educators are often highly interested in this topic. This study evaluated the impact of an academic affair program upon preclinical year medical students’ motivation to study.Design and methods: An intervention study was conducted using a pretest-posttest study design. A total of 296 preclinical year medical students who had just passed their first year and were about to attend their second year at the Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, participated in the study. The intervention comprised of dialogues for personality development, pictorial expression in groups, as well as small group lectures delivered by senior students giving information on how to prepare for the forthcoming classes. Students’ academic motivation was measured before and after the intervention program, applying the transculturally translated Academic Motivation Scale (AMS. Cronbach’s alpha of Thai version AMS was 0.8992. The average scores in seven scales of AMS were compared between the pre- and posttest results, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences were confirmed by using the multivariate analysis of variance.Results: Students’ academic motivation increased after participation in the three-day academic program. There was also a significant increase in introjected extrinsic motivation, which can enhance the students’ self-esteem and feeling of self-worth (P<0.001. Moreover, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment increased significantly (P<0.001. This is related to the enjoyment of passing academic milestones, and a step

  4. Microstructural evolution and mechanical characterization for the A508-3 steel before and after phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chuanyang; He, Yanming; Gao, Zengliang; Yang, Jianguo; Jin, Weiya; Xie, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear power, as a reliable clean and economical energy source, has gained great attention from all over the world. The A508-3 steel will be introduced as the structural materials for Chinese nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). This work investigated the temperature-dependence microstructural evolution during high-temperature heat treatments, and built the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties for the steel before and after phase transition. The results show that the original steel consists of the bainite, allotriomorphic ferrite, retained austenite and few Mo-rich M2C carbides. The phase-transition temperature of the steel is determined to be 750 °C. The tensile tests performed at 20-1000 °C indicate that both of the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decrease monotonously with increasing the temperature. Before phase transition, precipitation of cementite from the retained austenite and coarsening of cementite at the austenite-ferrite interphases should be responsible for their sharp decrease. After phase transition, the growth of austenite grain reduces the strength moderately. As for the elongation, however, it increases dramatically when the testing temperature is over 750 °C, due to the dissolution of cementite and formation of austenite. The obtained results will provide some fundamental data to understand and implement the In-Vessel Retention strategy.

  5. Muscle Activation During Landing Before and After Fatigue in Individuals With or Without Chronic Ankle Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Kathryn A.; Pietrosimone, Brian G.; Gribble, Phillip A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Ankle instability is a common condition in physically active individuals. It often occurs during a jump landing or lateral motion, particularly when participants are fatigued. Objective: To compare muscle activation during a lateral hop prefatigue and postfatigue in individuals with or without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 physically active participants volunteered for the study. Sixteen participants with CAI (8 men, 8 women; age = 20.50 ± 2.00 years, height = 172.25 ± 10.87 cm, mass = 69.13 ± 13.31 kg) were matched with 16 control participants without CAI (8 men, 8 women; age = 22.00 ± 3.30 years, height = 170.50 ± 9.94 cm, mass = 69.63 ± 14.82 kg) by age, height, mass, sex, and affected side. Intervention(s): Electromyography of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus was measured before and after a functional fatigue protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s): Activation of 4 lower extremity muscles was measured 200 milliseconds before and after landing from a lateral hop. Results: We observed no interactions. The group main effects for the peroneus longus demonstrated higher muscle activation in the CAI group (52.89% ± 11.36%) than in the control group (41.12% ± 11.36%) just before landing the lateral hop (F1,30 = 8.58, P = .01), with a strong effect size (d = 1.01). The gluteus maximus also demonstrated higher muscle activation in the CAI group (45.55% ± 12.08%) than in the control group (36.81% ± 12.08%) just before landing the lateral hop (F1,30 = 4.19, P = .049), with a moderate effect size (d = 0.71). We observed a main effect for fatigue for the tibialis anterior, with postfatigue activation higher than prefatigue activation (F1,30 = 7.45, P = .01). No differences were present between groups for the gluteus medius. Conclusions: Our results support the presence of a centralized feed

  6. CHEMICAL AND ENERGETIC CONTENT OF CORN BEFORE AND AFTER PRE-CLEANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Iara Furtado Costa Rodrigues

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The poultry industry normally has little control over the raw material that arrives at the processing plant. This experiment aimed to evaluate chemical and energetic quality of corn obtained in a feed mill before and after pre-cleaning. Twenty samples of 30 kg of corn each were taken from trucks delivering corn to the mill. The trucks were then unloaded and the material passed through a pre-cleaning process when another sample was taken. Samples were graded and physical properties evaluated: density (g/L, grain percentages of foreign material, impurities, fragments, broken, soft, insect damaged, fire-burnt, fermented, damaged, cracked and fine particles, as well as chemical composition analysis: Apparent metabolizable energy for poultry (AME, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF, starch (STA, water activity (WA, crude protein (CP, digestible and total lysine, methionine, cystine, threonine, tryptophan, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, histidine and arginine. The experiment was a randomized design with two treatments (before and after pre-cleaning and twenty replications. Data was analyzed using SAS ® and treatment differences obtained using F test. Correlations and principal components were calculated. There was a decrease in density after the pre-cleaning process, which was probably due to the removal of earth and stones rather than grain and its fractions. Significant increases were found for insect damage, fermented and damaged grain while fire-burn was significantly reduced after the pre-cleaning process. Starch increased after pre-cleaning which is a result of contaminants that normally are poor in this carbohydrate, but fiber levels increased too. Apparent metabolizable energy, aminoacids, digestible (P<0.05 and total (P<0.05 histidine, total lysine and methionine (P<0.1 levels were reduced after pre-cleaning. Density was higher when there were fewer impurities such as straw, husk or small grains. Broken corn was positively

  7. Electronic and Optical Properties of Aluminum Oxide Before and After Surface Reduction by Ar+ Bombardment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tahir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electronic and optical properties of a-Al2O3 after induced by 3-keV Ar+ sputtering have been studied quantitatively by use of reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS spectra. The band gap values of a-Al2O3 was determined from the onset values of the energy loss spectrum to the background level of REELS spectra as a function of time Ar+ bombardment. The bandgap changes from 8.4 eV before sputtering to 6.2 eV after 4 minutes of sputtering.The optical properties of α-Al2O3 thin films have been determined by comparing the experimental cross section obtained from reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy with the theoretical inelastic scattering cross section, deduced from the simulated energy loss function (ELF by using QUEELS-ε(k-REELS software. The peak assignments are based on ELF and compared with reported data on the electronic structure of α-Al2O3 obtained using different techniques. The results demonstrate that the electronic and optical properties before and after surface reduction will provide further understanding in the fundamental properties of α-Al2O3 which will be useful in the design, modeling and analysis of devices applications performance.

  8. Infraspinatus strength assessment before and after scapular muscles rehabilitation in professional volleyball players with scapular dyskinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Giovanni; De Santis, Elisa; Sperling, John W; Campi, Fabrizio; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that infraspinatus strength in professional volleyball players can be assessed with the scapula free (infraspinatus strength test, IST) and with the scapula retracted (infraspinatus scapula retraction test, ISRT) before and after scapular musculature training. A prospective study was performed in 31 professional volleyball players. Isometric strength (kg) of the infraspinatus with IST and with ISRT was recorded by a handheld dynamometer and compared with the values found after 3 and 6 months of rehabilitation. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to exclude articular and cuff pathology. Pain scores were assessed using a visual analog scale. The mean increase in the force values of IST was statistically significant after 3 months (P biomechanic effect of scapular dyskinesis results in specific infraspinatus dysfunction that arise with the ISRT. ISRT is practical and consistent to assess the infraspinatus strength in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis. A functional rehabilitation protocol, designed to restore scapular muscles balance and shoulder mobility, is essential in the training program to prevent shoulder dysfunction and improve sports performance. Copyright © 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of alpha band of the electroencephalogram before and after a task of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luan Correia; Andrade, Alzira; Lial, Lysnara; Moreira, Rayele; Lima, Ane Caroline; Magvinier, Astrogildo; Lira, Ricardo; Aragão, Anderson; Ulisses, Pedro Henrique; Crespo, Eric; Orsini, Marco; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2017-08-01

    The proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) sets up a feature of treatment developed with the objective to facilitate and improve the motor performance. The aim of this study was to investigate in healthy female individuals the effects of electrophysiological of a diagonal of the PNF upper limb. The sample consisted of 30 female participants aged between 18 to 28 years, randomly divided into 3 groups (G1, G2, and G3). The three groups had 2 moments of electroencephalographic signal detection, before and after the task. The statistical neurophysiological design allowed the analysis of the relative power of alpha band in three leads (Fz, F7, and F8). Thus, a three-way mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to investigate the factor inter subjects (groups) and intrasubjects (areas and moments), a two-way ANOVA to investigate the interactions between the three factors, and a one-way ANOVA to analyze separately the factors time and area. A P ≤0.05 was considered as significance level. The results showed significant increase of alpha band in the three groups analyzed, being more evident to the G2 group. Therefore, the PNF can be considered favorable also in relation to the cortical behavior, reinforcing its use in rehabilitation processes, especially in the clinical practice of physiotherapy.

  10. Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Hospitality Venues Before and After Passage of Statewide Smoke-Free Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Boursaw, Blake; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, North Dakota enacted a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting smoking in enclosed public places. Disparities in tobacco control exist in rural areas. This study's objective was to determine the extent to which the passage of a comprehensive, statewide, smoke-free law in a predominantly rural state influenced tobacco smoke pollution in rural and nonrural venues. A longitudinal cohort design study comparing the levels of tobacco smoke pollution before and after passage of the statewide smoke-free law was conducted in 64 restaurants and bars statewide in North Dakota. Particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter of law. Significant reductions in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred in each of the rural categories; however, no difference by rurality was noted in the analysis after passage of the law, in contrast to the study before passage. To our knowledge, this was the largest, single, rural postlaw study globally. A comprehensive statewide smoke-free law implemented in North Dakota dramatically decreased the level of tobacco smoke pollution in bars and restaurants. © 2016 The Authors. Public Health Nursing Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Study of Blood Leptin Levels before and After Treatment with Metformin in Diabetes Type Ii Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Didehdar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leptin is a fat tissue hormone that has 176 amino acids with a molecular weight of 16 KD . Leptin has effects on the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues resulting in decreased food absorption and increased energy consumption that finally reduces the body weight and BMI. The aim of this research was to investigate the blood levels of leptin before and after treatment with Metformin in type II diabetic patients. Methods: 25 type II diabetic patients without any previous drug treatment history were investigated. This study was a clinical trail before and after treatment with Metformin. Results: There was no particular difference in BMI, average body weight, fat mass and free fat mass before and after treatment. Similarly, the difference in concentration levels of blood glucose, cholesterol, tri-glycerides and LDL-cholesterol before and after treatment was not statistically significant. Also, there was no difference in the average concentration of leptin and insulin before and after treatment Conclusion: This result showed that although metformin decreased glucose and lipid levels during the treatment period, (1 month it did not have an effect on leptin, Insulin and other related factors during treatment.;

  12. Energy consumption and indoor climate in a residential building before and after comprehensive energy retrofitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen; Christen Mørck, Ove

    2016-01-01

    including new facades, new windows, additional insulation, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and a photovoltaic installation on the roof. The measured energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water before and after renovation was 139.1 kWh/m2/year and 95.6 kWh/m2/year respectively...... before and after the retrofit. In three of the flats in Traneparken measurements of ventilation conditions were performed using passive tracer gas technique together with continuous registration of the room air temperature, the relative humidity and the CO2-concentration using programmable data loggers....

  13. Exercise-induced increase in dog adipose tissue blood flow before and after denervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1986-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was examined during rest and exercise in the inguinal fat pads of four female dogs using the Xe wash-out technique. The experiments were performed before and after denervation of one of the pads. No difference between the resting flows in the two pads could...... be demonstrated either before or after denervation. The flow increased about two-fold on average from rest to exercise. This response was similar before and after denervation. It is concluded that direct sympathetic innervation is not involved in the regulation of adipose tissue blood flow during exercise....

  14. Requests for euthanasia in general practice before and after implementation of the Dutch Euthanasia Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alphen, Jojanneke E; Donker, Gé A; Marquet, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Background The Netherlands was the first country in the world to implement a Euthanasia Act in 2002. It is unknown whether legalising euthanasia under strict conditions influences the number and nature of euthanasia requests. Aim To investigate changes in the number of, and reasons for, requests for euthanasia in Dutch general practice after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Design of study Retrospective dynamic cohort study comparing 5 years before (1998–2002) and 5 years after (2003–2007) implementation of the Act. Method Standardised registration forms were used to collect data on requests for euthanasia via the Dutch Sentinel Practice Network. This network of 45 general practices is nationally representative by age, sex, geographic distribution, and population density. Results The mean annual incidence of requests before implementation amounted to 3.1/10 000 and thereafter to 2.8/10 000 patients. However, trends differed by sex. The number of requests by males decreased significantly from 3.7/10 000 to 2.6/10 000 (P = 0.008); the requests by females increased non-significantly from 2.6/10 000 to 3.1/10 000. Before and after implementation, cancer remained the major underlying disease for requesting euthanasia: 82% versus 77% for men; 73% versus 75% for females. Pain was a major reason for a request, increasing in the period before implementation (mean 27%), but declining in the period thereafter (mean 22%). Loss of dignity became a less important reason after implementation (from 18% to 10%, P = 0.04), predominantly due to a marked decrease in the number of females citing it as a reason (from 17% to 6%, P = 0.02). Conclusion There was no increase in demand for euthanasia after implementation of the Euthanasia Act. Pain as a reason for requesting euthanasia showed an increasing trend before implementation, but declined thereafter. Loss of dignity as a reason declined, especially in females. PMID:20353671

  15. Investigating the Level of Body Image Concern among the Applicants for Rhinoplasty before and after Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amirhosein Ghazizadeh Hashemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background In recent years, with the advancement of medical science, rhinoplasty techniques have grown rapidly and now rhinoplasty is one of the most common types of surgeries in the world. On the other hand, the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD among the patients referred for cosmetic surgery is a disorder which, if not detected by a doctor, can lead to irreparable injuries to the physician and patient. Materials and Methods The present research was carried out with pre-test and post-test design and convenience sampling method. The research population consisted of all rhinoplasty applicants who referred to the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT Clinic in Loghman Hospital in Tehran-Iran, during the years 2013-2015 and were treated by a team of surgeons. The study was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the level of body image concern (using the body image concern inventory [BICI] was evaluated in rhinoplasty applicants, and in the second stage, in a 3-month follow-up, the body image concern level was reassessed in patients undergoing cosmetic surgery and compared with preoperative stage. Results There was a significant difference in body image concern in rhinoplasty candidates before and after the surgery and after the cosmetic surgery, this body physical concern was increased (P0.05. Conclusion Psychological factors seem to play a role in the demands of both cosmetic surgery and its outcome. Therefore, the pre-rhinoplasty study of psychological components (including the level of body image concern is necessary to provide a timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment in case of disorder.

  16. Mechanical Behavior of Recycled Aggregate Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns before and after Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC is an environmentally friendly building material. This paper investigates the mechanical behavior of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tube (RACFST columns exposed to fire. Two groups of 12 columns were designed and tested, under axial compression, before and after fire, to evaluate the degradation of bearing capacity due to fire exposure. Six specimens were subjected to axial compression tests at room temperature and the other six specimens were subjected to axial compression tests after a fire exposure. The main parameters of the specimens include the wall thickness of the steel tube (steel content and the type of concrete materials. Several parameters as obtained from the experimental results were compared and analyzed, including the load-bearing capacity, deformation capacity, and failure characteristics of the specimens. Meanwhile, rate of loss of bearing capacity of specimens exposed to fire were calculated based on the standards EC4 and CECS28:90. The results show that concrete material has a large influence on the rate of loss of bearing capacity in the case of a relatively lower steel ratio. While steel content has little effect on the rate of loss of bearing capacity of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST columns after fire, it has a relatively large influence on the loss rate of bearing capacity of the RACFST columns. The loss of bearing capacity of the specimens from the experiment is more serious than that from the calculation. As the calculated values are less conservative, particular attention should be given to the application of recycled aggregate concrete in actual structures.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Recycled Aggregate Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns before and after Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenchao; Cao, Wanlin; Zhang, Jianwei; Wang, Ruwei; Ren, Lele

    2017-03-09

    Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is an environmentally friendly building material. This paper investigates the mechanical behavior of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tube (RACFST) columns exposed to fire. Two groups of 12 columns were designed and tested, under axial compression, before and after fire, to evaluate the degradation of bearing capacity due to fire exposure. Six specimens were subjected to axial compression tests at room temperature and the other six specimens were subjected to axial compression tests after a fire exposure. The main parameters of the specimens include the wall thickness of the steel tube (steel content) and the type of concrete materials. Several parameters as obtained from the experimental results were compared and analyzed, including the load-bearing capacity, deformation capacity, and failure characteristics of the specimens. Meanwhile, rate of loss of bearing capacity of specimens exposed to fire were calculated based on the standards EC4 and CECS28:90. The results show that concrete material has a large influence on the rate of loss of bearing capacity in the case of a relatively lower steel ratio. While steel content has little effect on the rate of loss of bearing capacity of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns after fire, it has a relatively large influence on the loss rate of bearing capacity of the RACFST columns. The loss of bearing capacity of the specimens from the experiment is more serious than that from the calculation. As the calculated values are less conservative, particular attention should be given to the application of recycled aggregate concrete in actual structures.

  18. Students’ Perception toward the Implementation of Peer-Assessment in Writing; Before and After Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Mubarok

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at elaborating students’ perception toward the implementation of peer assessment in writing class either before or after revision. Writing becomes one of skills which should be mastered by students in order to get higher level of literacy. Writing is a productive skill which asks students to arrange words and organize them into good writing which could be understood by readers. The success of writing is determined by the writing process itself starting from planning, first draft writing, revising, and editing. One of the strategies used in teaching writing is by implementing peer assessment. Peer assessment strategy becomes one of important parts in the process of writing because there will be feedback or suggestion from peers in doing a review. The number of the subject of this research was students in second semester of the English Education Department of UNISNU Jepara. This research was conducted on even semester. The total number of the students, which became respondents, was 37 students of English Education Department. The research design used was qualitative research which measured students’ perceptions of the implementation of peer assessment in writing: before and after revision. The result showed that before revision, students had negative perception toward their own writing. After revision, they had positive perceptions toward peer assessment strategy. Those included usefulness and meaningfulness, nature of feedback, reality of feedback, precision, validity, fairness, and personal goal-setting. Besides that, the score after revision (7.9 was higher than the score before revision (6.62. It meant that the result showed the increasing of students’ score after revision.

  19. Trends in Community Pharmacy Counts and Closures before and after the Implementation of Medicare Part D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepser, Donald G.; Xu, Liyan; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Medicare Part D provided 3.4 million American seniors with prescription drug insurance. It may also have had an unintended effect on pharmacy viability. This study compares trends in the number of pharmacies and rate of pharmacy closures before and after the implementation of Medicare Part D. Methods: This retrospective observational…

  20. Effect of cooling on sperm motility before and after frozen-thawed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The motility of semen subjected only to cooling for 24 h before freezing was optimal (70.0%) for artificial insemination. Moreover, semen subjected to cooling for 7 or 24 h before and after frozen-thawed could be used still with some considerations for artificial insemination. Keywords: Stallion, semen, motility, cooling, frozen- ...

  1. A Comparison of Questions and Tasks in Geography Textbooks before and after Curriculum Reform in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daihu; Wang, Ziying; Xu, Di

    2015-01-01

    This study centres on the questions and tasks in geography textbooks written before and after the curriculum reform in China. The aim of the study is to reveal the recent changes in amount, learning outcomes and types of questions and tasks in geography textbooks as well as the extent to which the ideas and intentions advocated by the curriculum…

  2. Use of symptom-relieving drugs before and after surgery for urinary incontinence in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Guldberg; Brostrøm, Søren; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2013-01-01

    To describe the use of symptom-relieving drugs (antimuscarinic drugs or duloxetine) before and after surgery for urinary incontinence (UI); and for those with use of antimuscarinic drugs or duloxetine before surgery, to estimate the risk of being a postoperative user, relative to those without use...

  3. Inflammatory status in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis: Guilty before and after balloon mitral valvuloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel Rahman

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Inflammatory pathogenesis of rheumatic fever, suggested by hsCRP, seems fixed both before, and after BMV. A basal increase in hsCRP before BMV is related to BMV success and an acute increase immediately after BMV seems related to trauma of balloon dilatations.

  4. Event-related EEG changes preceding saccadic eye movements before and after dry immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilovskaya, E S; Kirenskaya, A V; Novototski-Vlasov, V Yu; Kozlovskaya, I B

    2004-07-01

    Objectives of this work were to quantify antisaccade characteristics, presaccadic slow negative EEG-potentials, and event-related EEG frequency band power (theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2 and beta3) changes (ERD) in healthy volunteers before and after 6-day simulated weightlessness (dry immersion).

  5. School Lunch before and after Implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Taylor, Katie Weigt; Watkins, Tracee; Schepman, Stephen; Rushing, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study compares the mean nutrients selected and consumed in National School Lunch Program (NSLP) meals before and after implementation of the new nutrition standards mandated by the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) in July 2012. Four elementary schools achieving Healthier US Schools Challenge awards serving…

  6. Comparative Analysis Of Financial Performance Banking Before And After The Global Economic Crisis In 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indrastuti S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at the Regional Development Bank BPD in Indonesia. This study aims to examine and obtain empirical evidence about the comparative financial performance of regional banks after the global crisis with a view of its financial ratio which includes a ratio ROA CAR COF GMP LDR NIM ROA and ROE. This study further whether there was a significant difference in the time before and after the global economic crisis of 2008.The method used is a saturated or census sampling of the 26 Bank Pembangunan Daerah BPD. This study uses secondary data obtained from financial statement data Regional Development Bank for the period 2006 to 2010. The analytical tool used to determine differences in financial performance before and after the global economic crisis of 2008 was Paired sample T test for normally distributed data. If the data were not normally distributed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test.The results showed that the financial performance of the Bank Pembangunan Daerah BPD in the ratio of ROA CAR COF GMP LDR NIM and ROA before and after the global economic crisis in 2008 there are significant differences. While ROE ratios before and after the global economic crisis of 2008 was not a significant difference.

  7. Third-Graders' Conceptions about the Origin of Species before and after Instruction: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Anna Emilia; Barbetta, Valentina; Toneatti, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how third-graders' conceptions about the origin of species are affected by formal instruction and whether children can learn not only about evolution but also about natural selection. We interviewed the same group of third-grade children (8-9 years old) twice, before and after following a curriculum about these topics.…

  8. The frequency of drugs among Danish drivers before and after the introduction of fixed concentration limits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Anni; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Linnet, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Until July 2007, the driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) legislation in Denmark was based on impairment, evaluated on the basis of a clinical investigation and toxicological analyses, but in 2007 fixed concentration limits were introduced into the Danish traffic legislation. The objective...... for this study was to investigate the prevalence of medication and illicit drugs among Danish drivers before and after 2007....

  9. Quality of life before and after lung transplantation in patients with emphysema versus other indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TenVergert, EM; Vermeulen, KM; van Enckevort, PJ

    2001-01-01

    Whether lung transplantation improves Health-related Quality of Life in patients with emphysema and other end-stage lung diseases before and after lung transplantation was examined. Between 1992 and 1999, 23 patients with emphysema and 19 patients with other indications completed self-administered

  10. Entiat Experimental Forest: catchment-scale runoff data before and after a 1970 wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Woodsmith; Kellie B. Vache; Jeffrey J. McDonnell; J. David. Helvey

    2004-01-01

    Effects of wildfire on water quantity and quality are issues of major concern. Much has been learned from previous research, although site specific data from both before and after wildfire are rare. The Entiat Experimental Forest (EEF) in central Washington State provides such a hydrologic record. In August 1970 a severe wildfire occurred following 10 years of stream...

  11. Having a Pap smear, quality of life before and after cervical screening: a questionnaire study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, I. J.; van Ballegooijen, M.; Wauben, B.; Looman, C. W. N.; Habbema, J. D. F.; Essink-Bot, M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Korfage I, van Ballegooijen M, Wauben B, Looman C, Habbema J, Essink-Bot M. Having a Pap smear, quality of life before and after cervical screening: a questionnaire study. BJOG 2012;119:936944. Objective To assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impact of

  12. Comparison of Educational Goals in Chile Before and After 1973. Working Paper Series, No. 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirberg, Enrique

    This paper examines the educational goals in Chile before and after 1973 when the Chilean military led by Pinochet brutally eliminated the democratically elected government of Allende and the Unidad Popular. Reforms were initiated in 1967, 1968, 1969, and 1970, and at the time of the coup, were being implemented in all eight Chilean universities.…

  13. A Survey of Environmental Issues Treated in Science Education Curricula, Before and After 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    Surveys environmental science education projects (N=42) before and after 1974 to determine if they use methods typical for science education and to what extent the topics treated in the curricula represent the thinking of the environmental education community. One finding indicates adherence to typical science education instructional methods…

  14. Imaging of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors before and after Imatinib Mesylate Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, S.; Dundamadappa, S.K.; Karam, A.R. (Radiology Dept., Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, MA (United States)); Stay, R.M. (Radiology Dept., Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)); Sonnenberg, E. van (Radiology Dept., Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Boston, MA (United States))

    2009-10-15

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for the majority of gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. Recent advances in treatment using the molecular targeting agent imatinib mesylate have shown startling response rates and variegated imaging findings. We present the various imaging appearances of GIST on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both before and after treatment.

  15. Evaluation of physiological parameters before and after respiratory physiotherapy in newborns with acute viral bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    S Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Feitosa, Sérgio; de Castro Selestrin, Cláudia; Valenti, Vitor E; de Sousa, Fernando H; F Siqueira, Arnaldo A; Petenusso, Márcio; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute viral bronchiolitis is a respiratory disease with high morbidity that affects newborn in the first two years of life. Its treatment with physiotherapy has been highlighted as an important tool, however, there is no consensus regarding its effects on patients improvement. We aimed to evaluate the physiological parameters before and after the procedure respiratory therapy in newborn with acute viral bronchiolitis....

  16. Health problems in children and adolescents before and after a man-made disaster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Kerssens, J.J.; Yzermans, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: The aims of this study were to examine health problems of children (4-12 years old at the time of the disaster) and adolescents (13-18 years old at the time of the disaster) before and after exposure to a fireworks disaster in the Netherlands (May 2000), to compare these health problems

  17. Comparison of Hemoglobin Levels Before and After Hemodialysis and Their Effects on Erythropoietin Dosing and Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Sagheb; Fallahzadeh; Moaref; Fallahzadeh; Dormanesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemoglobin levels measured after hemodialysis, as compared to hemoglobin levels measured before hemodialysis, are suggested to be a more accurate reflection of the hemoglobin levels between hemodialysis sessions, and to be a better reference point for adjusting erythropoietin dosing. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the hemoglobin levels before and after hemodialysis, to calculate the required erythropoie...

  18. Flicker electroretinograms of eyes with cataract recorded with RETeval system before and after mydriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Gen; Baba, Takayuki; Oshitari, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of pupil size of eyes with cataracts on the flicker electroretinograms (ERGs) elicited and recorded with the RETeval system. Forty-one eyes of 41 patients (mean age, 76.5±7.3 years) that had grade 2 nuclear or cortical cataract without any other abnormalities were studied. Flicker ERGs were recorded before and after mydriatic drops instillation. The ERGs were elicited by the white light delivered at the frequency of 28.3 Hz and intensities of 2, 8, and 32 Td-s. The amplitudes and the implicit times of the flicker ERGs before and after mydriasis were compared. There were no significant differences between the amplitudes before and after mydriasis ( P =0.35, 2 Td-s; P =0.31, 8 Td-s; P =0.50, 32 Td-s). There were also no significant differences between the implicit times before and after mydriasis ( P =0.86, 2 Td-s; P =0.98, 8 Td-s; P =0.95, 32 Td-s). The mean amplitudes and implicit times of the nuclear and cortical cataracts groups before the mydriasis were also not significantly different from those after mydriasis for all stimulus intensities. The lack of significant differences in the amplitudes and the implicit times of the flicker ERG of cataractous eyes before and after mydriasis indicated that the RETeval flicker ERGs in cataractous eyes is less affected by the pupil diameter. With our earlier study, it was assumed that the effect of cataracts on the RETeval flicker ERGs was due to the opacity of the crystalline lens, and the influence of the cataract would not be reduced or increased by mydriasis.

  19. Application of Small Punch Test Method in Studies of the 14MoV63 Steel Before and After Revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłaput J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies of the chromium-molybdenum-vanadium steel designed for operation at elevated temperatures. The material was examined after long-term operation and after the revitalising heat treatment. Studies were performed by conventional methods and small punch test. Curves of ductile-brittle transition were plotted from the Charpy V-notch impact tests and were next compared with the curves of sudden loss of ductility obtained in the small punch test. Additionally, for the material before and after revitalisation, the values of temperatures Tpk and Tnuc were calculated using the method of inflection point.

  20. Attitudes of physical therapist students toward physical therapist assistants before and after full-time clinical internships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Cheryl L; Richter, Randy R

    2004-01-01

    Development of attitudes of physical therapists (PTs) toward physical therapist assistants (PTAs) begins during their professional education, and attitudes are influenced further by clinical experiences. The purpose of this study was to understand attitudes of student PTs toward PTAs. We surveyed 66 clinical intern students enrolled in an entry-level master of physical therapy program. PT students received the same survey before and after their full-time clinical internship. Eleven Likert scale items were used to assess students' attitudes toward PTAs in the areas of competence, financial remuneration, and job security. One item was designed to determine whether PT students' level of contact with PTAs influenced attitudes. A random sample of 13 (20.9%) students who returned surveys were asked to participate in a telephone interview designed to enrich the quantitative data. After item analysis, five of the scale items were eliminated from the analyses due to poor internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha of the remaining six scale items was 0.75. Survey results reveal that PT students maintain an overall positive attitude toward PTAs before and after full-time clinical internship. Qualitative interview data support this finding. Students' attitudes in specific areas of PTA competence were negative and positive, however. The negative attitude may have been based on the students' beliefs that PTAs are not competent to perform physical therapy in situations that are changing or unpredictable. Positive attitudes may have been reflective of the students' beliefs that PTAs are competent to implement established plans of care. Student ranking of four professional issues showed a significant difference before and after full-time clinical internships.

  1. Spectrum of HPV types before and after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, Ylva; Bjelkenkrantz, Kaj; Forslund, Ola

    2017-12-01

    To monitor residual disease after treatment of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cytology together with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing are commonly performed. To analyse the spectrum of HPV types before and after treatment. This register-based study included 446 women treated for CIN2 or 3, where cytology samples had been HPV-tested before and after treatment by the use of the MGP-PCR Luminex HPV L1-DNA-assay identifying 39 HPV types, including 12 high risk (HR) HPV types. Before and after treatment, 706 and 248 HPV isolates were detected of 36 and 34 different HPV types, respectively. Among all the HR HPV isolates, type-specific persistency was observed among 14% (76/542) after treatment, compared to 34% (31/92) of low-risk (LR) HPV isolates (pHPV isolates, 8.3% (6/72) persisted. Totally, 99% (440/446) and 40% (179/446) of the women were HPV-positive before and after treatment, respectively. At least one of the 12 HR HPV types was present in 91% (404/446) and 24% (109/446) of the women before and after treatment, respectively (pHPV types were present both before and after treatment among 23% (102/446) of the women, and 16% (71/446) manifested at least one persistent HR HPV type. The sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value of HR HPV testing for detection of residual high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was based on the first cytology after treatment, and was 91.7% (95% CI: 61.5%-99.8%), 84.1% (95% CI: 80.0%-87.7%) and 99.7% (95% CI: 98.2%-100.0%), respectively. About one out six treated women (16%) manifested at least one persistent HR HPV type, that was associated with recurrent or residual HSIL disease (odds ratio 58.1, 95% CI 7.4-457) (p=0.0001). Testing for HR HPV demonstrated high sensitivity (92%) for residual HSIL. The higher persistency rate of LR HPV types suggests that they are more likely to be outside the treated area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Statistical processing of natality data for the Czech Republic before and after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepetkova, Hana; Thinova, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    All available data regarding natality in Czechoslovakia (or the Czech Republic) before and after the Chernobyl accident are summarized. Data from the databases of the Czech Statistical Office and of the State Office for Nuclear Safety were used to analyze natality and mortality of children in the Czech Republic and to evaluate the relationship between the level of contamination and the change in the sex ratio at time of birth that was observed in some areas in November of 1986. Although the change in the ratio of newborn boys-to-girls ratio was statistically significant, no direct relationship between that ratio and the level of contamination was found. Statistically significant changes in the sex ratio also occurred in Czechoslovakia (or in the Czech Republic) in the past, both before and after the accident. Furthermore, no statistically significant changes in the rate of stillbirths and multiple pregnancies were observed after the Chernobyl accident

  3. Evaluation of quality of life before and after videothoracoscopic simpathectomy for primary hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncello, João Batista; Baroncello, Layla Regina Zambenedetti; Schneider, Emílio Gabriel Ferro; Martins, Guilherme Garcia

    2014-01-01

    To assess quality of life before and after thoracoscopic sympathectomy for treatment of primary hyperhidrosis. we conducted an observational, analytical, cross-sectional and quantitative study. We evaluated patients undergoing thoracoscopic sympathectomy for primary axillary hyperhidrosis, primary palmar hyperhidrosis, and axillary hyperhidrosis associated with palmar one. We applied a questionnaire on quality of life related to hyperhidrosis before and after the operation. The questionnaire was administered to 51 patients with a mean age of 32.4 years, 45 women and six men. The average quality of life related to hyperhidrosis in a score of 0-100 before sympathectomy was 34.6 and after the operation it was 77.1. Compensatory hyperhidrosis occurred in 84.3% of patients. thoracoscopic sympathectomy improves the quality of life of patients with primary hyperhidrosis, with results supported over time. Compensatory hyperhidrosis occurred in most patients, but did not significantly influence the improved quality of life.

  4. Societal costs and patients' experience of health inequities before and after diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Erik; Jørgensen, Tanja S.; Christensen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To comprehensively study the comorbidities, healthcare and public transfer (allowance) costs in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) before and after diagnosis. Methods Nationwide cohort study, using data from Danish registries from January 1998 through December 2014. A total of 10â...... 525 patients with PsA and 20â 777 matched general population comparator (GPC) subjects were included. Societal costs, employment status and occurrence of comorbidities in patients with PsA both before and after diagnosis were compared with GPC subjects. Results At baseline, patients with PsA had...... significantly more comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease (OR 1. 70 95% CI 1. 55 to 1. 86), respiratory diseases (OR 1. 73 95% CI 1. 54 to 1. 96) and infectious diseases (OR 2. 03 95% CI 1. 69 to 2. 42) compared with GPC subjects. At all time points, patients with PsA had higher total healthcare...

  5. On the stability of preferences and attitudes before and after experiencing an electric vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2013-01-01

    -wave stated preference experiment where data was collected before and after the respondents experienced an electric vehicle for three months. We estimate a hybrid choice model using jointly the stated choices before and after the test period. The results show that individual preferences change significantly......In this study, we investigate the extent to which experience affects individual preferences for specific electric vehicle characteristics, individual attitudes toward the environment, and the impact of the attitudes on the choice between an electric and a conventional vehicle. We use a two...... after a real experience with an electric vehicle in the household. In particular, there are major changes in the preference for driving range, top speed, fuel cost, battery life and charging in city centres and train stations. In line with other studies, we find that environmental concern has a positive...

  6. Soft tissue facial morphometry before and after total oral rehabilitation with implant-supported prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Dolci, Claudia; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Ferrario, Virgilio F; Sforza, Chiarella

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to assess a low-cost, noninvasive facial morphometric digitizer to assist the practitioner in three-dimensional soft-tissue changes before and after oral rehabilitation. Twenty-two patients aged 45 to 82 years, all with edentulous maxilla and mandible, were assessed both before and after receiving their definitive complete implant-supported prostheses (each received 4-11 implants in each dental arch; full-arch fixed prostheses were made). The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 soft-tissue facial landmarks were collected with a noninvasive digitizer; labial and facial areas, volumes, angles, and distances were compared without and with the prostheses. Dental prostheses induced significant reductions in the nasolabial, mentolabial, and interlabial angles, with increased labial prominence (P provisional prosthetic restoration, providing quantitative information to prepare the best definitive prosthesis.

  7. Japanese Mutual Funds before and after the Crisis Outburst: A Style- and Performance-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanos Papadamou; Nikolaos A. Kyriazis; Lydia Mermigka

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how mutual funds performed in Japan before and after the 2008 outburst of the global financial crisis, that is during the extension of an extraordinary unconventional monetary policy by the Bank of Japan. Style and performance analyses are employed in order to investigate whether active or passive management has been affected by unconventional times and to what extent. Evidence indicates that in four out of eight funds, asset selection presents a significant contributi...

  8. Different SPECT findings before and after Capgras' syndrome in interictal psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Hideki; Monji, Akira; Sasaki, Masayuki; Maekawa, Toshihiko; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Nitazaka, Yoko; Hirano, Yoji; Hirano, Shougo; Hashioka, Sadayuki; Kato, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ichiro; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2006-08-01

    We herein report a case of Capgras' syndrome observed in interictal psychosis in which the single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings before and after the appearance of the psychotic symptoms differed. SPECT with 99mTc-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxine (HMPAO) revealed worsening of hypoperfusion in the entire right hemisphere after onset of the psychotic symptoms. The enhanced hypoperfusion demonstrated by SPECT in the present case seems to indicate a right interhemispheric disconnection resulting in the occurrence of Capgras' syndrome.

  9. The comparative analysis of clinical symptomatology before and after the operation of otosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Terzić Negra; Živić Ljubica

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Otosclerosis is a progressive osteodystrophic disease of the osseous capsule of the labyrinth which leads to the fixation of the stapes and partial deafness. The progressive hearing loss followed by ear tingling - tinitus and vertigo is of great importance for this disease. The aim of the work was to determine the changes of clinical symptomatology before and after the operative treatment of otosceloris. Material and methods The study included 32 subjects between 25 and 60 years ...

  10. Plaque index differences before and after teeth brushing with and without propolis dentifrice

    OpenAIRE

    Allin Perama Iswari; Eriska Riyanti; Dede Hadidjah

    2010-01-01

    Dentifrices used to aid plaque removal from dental surfaces and gums while teeth brushing. Propolis is one of bee products that can be added into dentifrices and its property is to inhibit plaque-forming bacteria growth. The main objective of this study was to rule out any plaque index differences before and after teeth brushing with and without propolis contained dentifrices. It was a quasi-experimental research with the single blind-parallel method. Subjects were 30 students...

  11. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of salivary glands with gustatory stimulation - Comparison before and after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunyan; Gu, Yajia; Peng, Weijun; Mao, Jian; Lei, Yue; Shen, Xigang [Dept. of Radiology, Fudan Univ. Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Dept. of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China); Ou, Dan; He, Xiayun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Fudan Univ. Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Dept. of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China)

    2013-10-15

    Background: Xerostomia is the most prominent complication in patients with head and neck carcinoma after radiotherapy (RT). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) with gustatory stimulation may contribute to the evaluation of salivary gland function. Purpose: To investigate the value of DWI for quantifying physiological changes of the parotid gland during gustatory stimulation in patients before and after RT. Material and Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 28 consecutive patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before and after RT and clinical xerostomia was also assessed. A DWI sequence was performed once at rest and continually repeated seven times during stimulation with ascorbic acid. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps for parotid glands at different time points and the range of increase with stimulation were calculated. Paired two-tailed Student t tests were used to compare the ADC values before and after stimulation, and before and after RT. Results: Before RT, the ADC showed an initial increase (P<0.001) and then fluctuated during stimulation. After RT, as the clinical xerostomia changed from Grade 0 to Grade 2, the mean ADC at rest increased compared with the pre-RT value (P<0.001). A similar response to stimulation was observed, but the range of increase between the maximum ADC during stimulation and the baseline value at rest was higher post-RT than pre-RT (P=0.022). The minimum ADC during stimulation was higher than the baseline value post-RT (P=0.028), but there was no difference pre-RT (P=0.603). Conclusion: DWI combined with gustatory stimulation seems to display the physiological changes of the parotid gland following RT and may be a potential tool for non-invasively assessing salivary gland function.

  12. Anxiety, emotional suppression, and psychological distress before and after breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamitsu, Yumi; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Abe, Hajime; Tani, Tohru; Okawa, Masako; Buck, Ross

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of anxiety and emotional suppression on psychological distress in 21 patients with breast cancer and 72 patients with benign breast tumor. The patients with breast cancer who suppressed emotion and had chronically high levels of anxiety felt higher levels of emotional distress both before and after the diagnosis. Such patients need psychological interventions, including encouragement to express and communicate their emotions, immediately after disclosure of the diagnosis to help maintain psychological adjustment in the face of the disease.

  13. Serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight correlations before and after hemodialysis session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Pessoa Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate alanine aminotransferase levels before and after a hemodialysis session and to correlate these values with the hematocrit rate and weight loss during hemodialysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The serum alanine aminotransferase levels, hematocrit rate and body weight were measured and correlated before and after a single hemodialysis session for 146 patients with chronic renal failure. An receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve for the serum alanine aminotransferase levels collected before and after hemodialysis was plotted to identify hepatitis C virus-infected patients. RESULTS: The mean weight loss of the 146 patients during hemodialysis was 5.3% (p < 0.001. The mean alanine aminotransferase levels before and after hemodialysis were 18.8 and 23.9 IU/, respectively, denoting a significant 28.1% increase. An equally significant increase of 16.4% in the hematocrit rate also occurred after hemodialysis. The weight loss was inversely correlated with the rise in both the alanine aminotransferase level (r = 0.3; p < 0.001 and hematocrit rate (r = 0.5; p < 0.001. A direct correlation was found between the rise in alanine aminotransferase levels and the hematocrit during the hemodialysis session (r = 0.4; p < 0.001. Based on the ROC curve, the upper limit of the normal alanine aminotransferase level should be reduced by 40% relative to the upper limit of normal if the blood samples are collected before the hemodialysis session or by 60% if blood samples are collected after the session. CONCLUSION: In the present study, significant elevations in the serum alanine aminotransferase levels and hematocrit rates occurred in parallel to a reduction in body weight after the hemodialysis session. These findings suggest that one of the factors for low alanine aminotransferase levels prior to hemodialysis could be hemodilution in patients with chronic renal failure.

  14. [Body composition in patients with different degree of obesity before and after dietetic correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakova, D S; Gapparova, K M; Zaĭnudinov, Z M; Lapik, I A; Grigor'ian, O N; Chekhonina, Iu G

    2012-01-01

    The study included 400 patients with I-III obesity degree. All patients were tested before and after hypocaloric diet with energy value of 1600 kcal/day within 2 weeks. The bioimpedance analysis was spent on device "Inbody 720". The application of the hypocaloric diet is accompanied by clinically significant decrease in body weight in patients with obesity mainly due to the fatty component and visceral fat area and positive dynamics of clinical and biochemical parameters.

  15. Before and after the Hartz reforms: the performance of active labour market policy in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobi, Lena; Kluve, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    "Having faced high unemployment rates for more than a decade, the German government implemented a comprehensive set of labour market reforms during the period 2003-2005. This paper describes the economic and institutional context of the German labour market before and after these so-called Hartz reforms. Focussing on active policy measures, we delineate the rationale for reform and its main principles. As preliminary results of programme evaluation studies post-reform have become available ju...

  16. Self-Reported Nutrition Education Received by Australian Midwives before and after Registration

    OpenAIRE

    Arrish, Jamila; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2017-01-01

    Educating midwives to provide nutrition advice is essential. Limited research focuses on midwives' nutrition education. This paper explores self-reported nutrition education received by Australian midwives before and after registration. It draws on quantitative and qualitative data from a larger online survey conducted with the members of the Australian College of Midwives (response rate = 6.9%, n = 329). Descriptive and content analyses were used. Of the midwives, 79.3% (n = 261) reported re...

  17. Quality of soybean seeds treated with fungicides and insecticides before and after storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Thaís Francielle; Oliveira, João Almir; Carvalho, Rafaela Aparecida de; Resende, Laís Sousa; Lopes, Cassiano Gabriel Moreira; Ferreira, Valquíria de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The timing of seed treatment application is important to keep soybean seeds quality. Therefore, the aim of this study was verify the effect of fungicides and insecticides treatment in soybean seeds quality before and after storage. Seeds of NS 7494, NS 8693 and NS 7338 IPRO were utilized and analyses separately, through a factorial scheme 3x6, with three application moments: treated and assessed; treated, stored and assessed; stored, treated and assessed; and six combination of fung...

  18. Optical properties of orthodontic aligners?spectrophotometry analysis of three types before and after aging

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, Luca; Arreghini, Angela; Maccarrone, Roberta; Bianchi, Anna; Scalia, Santo; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim was to assess and compare absorbance and transmittance values of three types of clear orthodontic aligners before and after two cycles of in vitro aging. Methods Nine samples of orthodontic aligners from three different manufacturers (Invisalign, Align Technology, Santa Clara, CA, USA; All-In, Micerium, Avegno, GE, Italy; F22 Aligner, Sweden & Martina, Due Carrare, PD, Italy) were selected, and each sample was subjected to spectrophotometry analysis of both its transmittanc...

  19. Viscous Behavior of Dilute CMC Salt Solution Before and After Photodegradation

    OpenAIRE

    El Ashhab, F. [فتحي الأشهب; Sheha, L. [ٍالبني عبد العزيز شيحا; Sheltami, R. M. [رشا محمد الشلطامي; Feituri, Z. M. [زكريا الفيتوري

    2006-01-01

    Photodegradation curve of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in aqueous solution has been reported. Densities and solution viscosities of very dilute CMC salt solution before and after UV-irradiation have been measured. UV-irradiation of CMC decreases the values of density, specific, reduced and intrinsic viscosities, molar mass, hydrodynamic volume, expansion factor, real and ideal chain dimensions of CMC in solution. In contrary, it increases the solute-solvent interaction and decreases the solut...

  20. Evaluation of physiological parameters before and after respiratory physiotherapy in newborns with acute viral bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Rodrigo A.; Feitosa, Sérgio; Selestrin, Cláudia Ceasa; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia [UNESP; Sousa, Fernando Henrique [UNESP; siqueira, Arnaldo augusto Franco; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute viral bronchiolitis is a respiratory disease with high morbidity that affects newborn in the first two years of life. Its treatment with physiotherapy has been highlighted as an important tool, however, there is no consensus regarding its effects on patients improvement. We aimed to evaluate the physiological parameters before and after the procedure respiratory therapy in newborn with acute viral bronchiolitis. Method: This was a cross sectional observational study in 30 ne...

  1. Change of Landscape Structure before and after Winter Olympic Games in Nagano City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshio; Takeda, Toshiharu

    Recently it is desirable to realize the conservation of biodiversity and to create the city with symbiosis with nature even in local city. In this study, we chose Nagano City which was the site of the Winter Olympic Games as the subject of study, investigated the change of land cover by using Landsat TM data of the year 1985 and 1999 which were before and after the Winter Olympic Games, and grasped the change of landscape structure quantitatively by using landscape indices. As a result, we obtained the following conclusions. The expansion of urban area proceeded rapidly before and after the Winter Olympic Games. The area of artificial land cover in the city planning area has increased by 57%. In the meantime the areas of upland field and paddy field have decreased by 45% and 50% respectively. Therefore, agricultural land changed into urban area remarkably. It was found that the shape of paches of paddy field and upland field especially became small and the inequality of the paches decreased before and after the Winter Olympic Games. It became clear that the fragmentation has occurred in agricultural land such as paddy field, upland field and orchard.

  2. Speech Range Profile (SRP) Findings Before and After Mutational Falsetto (Puberphonia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökdoğan, Çağıl; Gökdoğan, Ozan; Tutar, Hakan; Aydil, Utku; Yılmaz, Metin

    2016-07-01

    Mutational falsetto is a temporary adolescent voice. Voice therapy support in mutational falsetto helps the individual to regain a healthy voice. Speech Range Profile (SRP) is considered to be a method requiring less time in the pretherapy and posttherapy evaluations of voice patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between the SRP results of male subjects experiencing mutational falsetto before and after therapy. Sixteen male participants have been included in this study. F0, MinF0, MaxF0, F0Range, F0Range (st), MindB SPL, and MaxdB SPL have been taken to evaluation. SRP recordings of all subjects have been performed. All the recordings have been repeated before and after therapy. A statistically significant difference has been observed between the F0 and MinF0 values before and after therapy (P < 0.001). SRP provides important information about frequency and intensity. In mutational falsetto, SRP is a useful technique in terms of evaluating success in therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Profitability Analysis of PT. Garuda Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. Before and After Privatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurasiah, I.; Anggara

    2017-03-01

    This study purposes to determine differences in the profitability of PT. Garuda Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. before and after privatization using Net Profit Margin (NPM), Return on Investmen (ROI) and Return on Equity (ROE). This research used a case study method with a qualitative approach. The data used are secondary data from official financial statements of PT. Garuda Indonesia (Persero) Tbk. periode 2008-2013, 3 years before privatization and 3 years after privatization. Data analysis was performed by reviewing the financial statement data, calculate & determine the value of profitability ratios before and after privatization, and determine the amount of the average difference before and after privatization. The result proved that the average ratio of profitability calculated by applying NPM, ROI and ROE in every year shows a decrease that caused imbalance components forming of NPM, ROI, ROE, where profit is getting down while the selling, total assets and equity increase more and more from the previous period. The implication for the next research is a research that focus on determine how long a company can emerged from the crisis by privatization decision.

  4. Patients with eating disorders showed no signs of coeliac disease before and after nutritional intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsa, Maria; Garoufi, Anastasia; Tsitsika, Artemis; Tsirogianni, Alexandra; Papasteriades, Chryssa; Kossiva, Lydia

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the presence of specific antibodies for coeliac disease in outpatients suffering from eating disorders before and after nutritional intervention. We also evaluated whether those patients should undergo regular screening for coeliac disease. The sample consisted of 154 patients with a mean age of 16.7 years - ranging from one to 19 years of age - suffering from eating disorders. Serology screening for coeliac disease and total immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels was evaluated in the 154 children before the nutritional intervention and in 104 patients after the intervention. The patients consumed an adequate amount of gluten in both phases. Postintervention evaluation revealed that 92 patients (88.5%) achieved a normal body weight, while the remaining 12 (11.5%) became obese. Postprandial abdominal discomfort and pain were resolved. The serology tests were negative in all patients, before and after intervention. None displayed IgA deficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first prospective study where patients underwent a screening serology for coeliac disease before and after nutritional intervention. No indication of the coexistence of eating disorders and coeliac disease was documented, and the patients in our study were unlikely to require regular screening for coeliac disease. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Assessment of asymmetric leg loading before and after total hip arthroplasty using instrumented shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, Alicia; Weenk, Dirk; Lecumberri, Pablo; Verdonschot, Nico; Pakvis, Dean; Veltink, Peter H

    2014-02-28

    Total hip arthroplasty is a successful surgical treatment in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip. Different questionnaires are used by the clinicians to assess functional capacity and the patient's pain, despite these questionnaires are known to be subjective. Furthermore, many studies agree that kinematic and kinetic parameters are crucial to evaluate and to provide useful information about the patient's evolution for clinicians and rehabilitation specialists. However, these quantities can currently only be obtained in a fully equipped gait laboratory. Instrumented shoes can quantify gait velocity, kinetic, kinematic and symmetry parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the instrumented shoes is a sufficiently sensitive instrument to show differences in mobility performance before and after total hip arthroplasty. In this study, patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty were measured before and 6-8 months after total hip arthroplasty. Both measurement sessions include 2 functional mobility tasks while the subject was wearing instrumented shoes. Before each measurement the Harris Hip Score and the Traditional Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index were administered as well. The stance time and the average vertical ground reaction force measured with the instrumented shoes during walking, and their symmetry index, showed significant differences before and after total hip arthroplasty. However, the data obtained with the sit to stand test did not reveal this improvement after surgery. Our results show that inter-limb asymmetry during a walking activity can be evaluated with the instrumented shoes before and after total hip arthroplasty in an outpatient clinical setting.

  6. The effect of music on pain and vital signs of children before and after endoscopy.

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    Sabzevari, Alireza; Kianifar, Hamidreza; Jafari, Seyed Ali; Saeidi, Masumeh; Ahanchian, Hamid; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Jarahi, Lida

    2017-07-01

    Gentle music has relaxing and pain reducing effects. In this study, the effect of music on patients' vital signs and pain was investigated before and after endoscopy. This clinical trial study was conducted on 100 children from seven to fourteen years of age in Gha'em Hospital, Mashhad in 2015. Children were divided into two equal groups (case group=50 and control group=50). The control group received endoscopy according to the standards, without any other procedure. For the case group, a classic musical piece by Clayderman was played during endoscopy (from the time of entering the endoscopy room to the end of the process). After conducting endoscopy, FALCC scale and Baker-Wong pain scale were filled for both groups. In addition, children's vital signs including: heart rate (pulse), diastolic and systolic blood pressure were measured before and after endoscopy for both groups. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS16 with the help of Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests. No significant difference was found in age, gender distribution of case or control groups (p>0.05). Heart rate and diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the music (case) group compared to the control group before endoscopy (p=0.012). In addition, pain score in patients of the music group was lower than the control group (pmusic for children during endoscopy can reduce pain and anxiety in patients before and after endoscopy.

  7. TRADING VOLUME ACTIVITY AND BID-ASK SPREAD BEFORE AND AFTER THE MERGER ANNOUNCEMENT

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    Lailatul Mubarokah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta stock exchange (JSX and Surabaya Stock exchange (SSX were the organizers of capital market inIndonesia. Thus, to srengthen the capital market in Indonesia SSX merged into JSX on November 30th, 2007.New information coming into market would influence the trading activities, including trading volume activity(TVA, and bid-ask spread. While, merger also influenced the total issuer of listed companies in Indonesiastock exchange (IDX. This research included an event study with quantitative method about the analysis oftotal issuer differences, TVA and bid-ask spread before and after the merger announcement of SSX into JSX. Itused t-test method and autoregressive distribution lag test. The result of research analysis showed the difference,significance and insignificance. Based on t-test, the total issuer, TVA, and bid-ask spread were notsignificant before and after the merger announcement of SSX into JSX shown by the higher value of sig.2 tailedthan level of significance and value of standard deviation before the merger announcement of SSX into JSXfrom each variable. Based on autoregressive distribution lag test, it showed significant response by hightrading volume of TVA and bid-ask spread and also high volume of buy-offer investor did on several days ofwindows period before and after the merger announcement of SSX into JSX.

  8. Non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy

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    Aurélie Bidet-Caulet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL - i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri - is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits.

  9. Histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis before and after different treatments*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Agostinho Gonçalves; Mayrink, Wilson; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; Silva, Luciana Maria; Domingos, Patrícia Luciana Batista; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The histopathology and immune responses of the healing process of leishmaniasis are still poorly studied. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to examine the histopathological and immunological aspects of lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis before and after different therapeutic methods. METHODS We studied 23 individuals grouped according to the treatments: Glucantime, Glucantime + Leishvacin and Glucantime + Leishvacin associated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. For analysis of the histopathological changes present in the dermis and epidermis, histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The samples were immunostained before and after treatment to analyze the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10 and IL-4. RESULTS Before treatment the presence of intense infiltrates of mononuclear cells was noticed and after treatment, even with a diagnosis of clinical cure, the subjects still showed a moderate inflammatory process. In the immunohistochemical analyses, we noticed a difference between the cytokines, with increased expression of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12 compared to IL 10 and IL-4, both before and after treatment and, comparatively, the difference in this expression was more intense before treatment. However, the cytokine expression analyzed by treatment group showed no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION We conclude that a clinical cure does not always coincide with the histopathological one, and that before treatment there is a predominance of Th1 cytokines. In terms of treatment type, there was no difference in the progression of healing for all the three types of treatment, indicating their clinical equivalence. PMID:23539001

  10. Histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis before and after different treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Agostinho Gonçalves; Mayrink, Wilson; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; Silva, Luciana Maria; Domingos, Patrícia Luciana Batista; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista de; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The histopathology and immune responses of the healing process of leishmaniasis are still poorly studied. This study aimed to examine the histopathological and immunological aspects of lesions of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis before and after different therapeutic methods. We studied 23 individuals grouped according to the treatments: Glucantime, Glucantime + Leishvacin and Glucantime + Leishvacin associated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. For analysis of the histopathological changes present in the dermis and epidermis, histological sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The samples were immunostained before and after treatment to analyze the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10 and IL-4. Before treatment the presence of intense infiltrates of mononuclear cells was noticed and after treatment, even with a diagnosis of clinical cure, the subjects still showed a moderate inflammatory process. In the immunohistochemical analyses, we noticed a difference between the cytokines, with increased expression of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-12 compared to IL 10 and IL-4, both before and after treatment and, comparatively, the difference in this expression was more intense before treatment. However, the cytokine expression analyzed by treatment group showed no statistically significant difference. We conclude that a clinical cure does not always coincide with the histopathological one, and that before treatment there is a predominance of Th1 cytokines. In terms of treatment type, there was no difference in the progression of healing for all the three types of treatment, indicating their clinical equivalence.

  11. Doppler echocardiographic indices in aortic coarctation: a comparison of profiles before and after stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ojaghi, Mahshid; Bassiri, Hossein Ali; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Chitsazan, Mitra; Gholami, Saeid

    2012-10-01

    Diagnosis of aortic coarctation is important as it is a difficult condition to evaluate, especially in adults. A Doppler echocardiographic index could provide a simple tool to evaluate coarctation. This study was performed to compare Doppler echocardiographic profiles before and after stenting and to assess the diagnostic value of a complete list of echocardiographic indices for detecting aortic coarctation. This prospective study was conducted on 23 patients with a diagnosis of aortic coarctation based on angiography. Echocardiographic assessment was done twice for all patients before and after stenting. Each time, two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic imaging modalities were performed and complete lists of indices were recorded for each case. After comparing the values of indices before and after stenting, diagnostic values of each index were calculated in order to diagnose significant coarctation. Twenty-three patients, including 16 males and seven females with a mean age of 26.14 ± 10.17 years, were enrolled in this study. Except for the mean velocity and mean pressure gradient of the abdominal aorta, the values of the other indices of the abdominal/descending aorta showed enough change after stenting to indicate significant diagnostic accuracy for detecting aortic coarctation. The velocity-time integral and the pressure half-time were among the indices with the highest accuracy rates for this purpose (all p aortic haemodynamics as a unique identification of each patient and it is presumed that these indices could be used as reliable indicators of response to treatment.

  12. Obstetric patients' health-related quality of life before and after intensive care.

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    Pia, Seppänen; Reijo, Sund; Tero, Ala-Kokko; Mervi, Roos; Jukka, Uotila; Mika, Helminen; Tarja, Suominen

    2018-03-23

    Intensive care admissions during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum period are relatively well investigated. However, very little is known about these obstetric patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) before and after critical care. The objective of this study was to assess obstetric patients' HRQoL before intensive care admission (baseline) and at 6 months after discharge (follow-up) DESIGN: This was a retrospective database study. In a 5-year period, the data of all women admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) during pregnancy, delivery, or up to 42 days postpartum were analysed. Four multidisciplinary ICUs of Finnish University hospitals participated. The HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) instrument with utility score (EQsum) and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). A total of 283 obstetric patients were identified from the clinical information system. Of these, 99 (35%) completed the EQ-5D questionnaires both at baseline and follow-up, and 65 of them (23%) completed EQ-VAS. The comparison of patients' EQsum scores before intensive care admission and after discharge showed that patients' HRQoL remained good (0.970 vs 0.972) (max 1.0) or increased (0.788 vs 0.982) in 80.8% of the patients. Patients reported improved overall health on the EQ-VAS at 6 months follow-up (EQ-VAS mean, 71.86 vs 88.20; p ≤ 0.001) (max 100). However, 19.2% of the patients had lower HRQoL (EQsum mean 0.987 vs 0.798) at follow-up. Following intensive care, 15% of the patients had more pain/discomfort, and 11% expressed more depression/anxiety. Multiparous patients were more likely to suffer from worsened depression/anxiety (p = 0.024). In the majority of the obstetric patients, HRQoL at 6 months follow-up remained good or had increased from baseline. However, nearly one-fifth of the patients had impaired HRQoL after discharge. Thus, intensive care management should take in to consideration follow-up program after intensive care of ICU-admitted obstetric

  13. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

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    Therese M Kearns

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35-60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10-42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus.We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818 at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%, falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297 to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157 at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any self-reported clinical

  14. Flicker electroretinograms of eyes with cataract recorded with RETeval system before and after mydriasis

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    Miura G

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gen Miura, Takayuki Baba, Toshiyuki Oshitari, Shuichi Yamamoto Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of pupil size of eyes with cataracts on the flicker electroretinograms (ERGs elicited and recorded with the RETeval system.Patients and methods: Forty-one eyes of 41 patients (mean age, 76.5±7.3 years that had grade 2 nuclear or cortical cataract without any other abnormalities were studied. Flicker ERGs were recorded before and after mydriatic drops instillation. The ERGs were elicited by the white light delivered at the frequency of 28.3 Hz and intensities of 2, 8, and 32 Td-s. The amplitudes and the implicit times of the flicker ERGs before and after mydriasis were compared.Results: There were no significant differences between the amplitudes before and after mydriasis (P=0.35, 2 Td-s; P=0.31, 8 Td-s; P=0.50, 32 Td-s. There were also no significant differences between the implicit times before and after mydriasis (P=0.86, 2 Td-s; P=0.98, 8 Td-s; P=0.95, 32 Td-s. The mean amplitudes and implicit times of the nuclear and cortical cataracts groups before the mydriasis were also not significantly different from those after mydriasis for all stimulus intensities.Conclusion: The lack of significant differences in the amplitudes and the implicit times of the flicker ERG of cataractous eyes before and after mydriasis indicated that the RETeval flicker ERGs in cataractous eyes is less affected by the pupil diameter. With our earlier study, it was assumed that the effect of cataracts on the RETeval flicker ERGs was due to the opacity of the crystalline lens, and the influence of the cataract would not be reduced or increased by mydriasis. Keywords: electroretinogram, ERG, flicker ERG, cataract, RETeval

  15. Effect of ankle taping and bracing on vertical ground reaction forces during drop landings before and after treadmill jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Schmitz, Randy J; Gale, Michael; McCaw, Steven T

    2002-12-01

    Single-group repeated-measures experimental design. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prophylactic ankle stabilization on vertical ground reaction forces before and after treadmill jogging. Previous research has demonstrated acute effects of ankle taping and bracing on ankle joint kinematics and vertical ground reaction forces during drop landings. Based on the number of investigations demonstrating increased range of motion of the braced or taped ankle following exercise, it may be plausible that the aforementioned landing alterations may return to normal following an exercise bout. Fourteen healthy recreational participants performed stiff and soft drop landings before and after a 20-minute treadmill exercise bout under 3 different ankle stabilizer conditions (no stabilizer, ankle brace, and ankle tape). A forceplate was used to collect ground reaction force data under the dominant foot. The first and second peak impact force, as well as the time to each of the 2 peak forces, were determined for each trial and used as dependent variables. The time to reach peak forces were significantly less under the ankle brace and tape conditions in comparison to the control (no-stabilizer) condition. It appears that ankle taping and bracing decrease the time to reach peak impact forces. These alterations indicate that during dynamic activity the musculoskeletal structures of the body may be subjected to loads within shorter time periods. Whether these effects are detrimental over time remains speculative at this point and requires further research.

  16. Signature pathways identified from gene expression profiles in the human uterine cervix before and after spontaneous term parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    HASSAN, Sonia S.; ROMERO, Roberto; TARCA, Adi L.; DRAGHICI, Sorin; PINELES, Beth; BUGRIM, Andrej; KHALEK, Nahla; CAMACHO, Natalia; MITTAL, Pooja; YOON, Bo Hyun; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; KIM, Chong Jai; SOROKIN, Yoram; MALONE, John

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to discover ‘signature pathways’ characterizing biological processes based on genes differentially expressed in the uterine cervix before and after spontaneous labor. Study Design The cervical transcriptome was previously characterized from biopsies taken before and after term labor. Pathway analysis was used to study the differentially expressed genes based on two gene-to-pathway annotation databases (KEGG and Metacore™). Over-represented and highly impacted pathways and connectivity nodes were identified. Results Fifty-two pathways in the Metacore™ database were significantly enriched in differentially expressed genes. Three of the top 5 pathways were known to be involved in cervical remodeling.Two novel pathways were: plasmin signaling and plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU) signaling. The same analysis in the KEGG database identified 4 significant pathways, of which impact analysis confirmed. Multiple nodes providing connectivity within the plasmin and PLAU signaling pathways were identified.. Conclusions Three strategies for pathway analysis were consistent in their identification of novel, unexpected as well as expected networks, suggesting that this approach is both valid and effective for the elucidation of biological mechanisms involved in cervical dilation and remodeling. PMID:17826407

  17. Quality of life in China rural-to-urban female migrant factory workers: a before-and-after study.

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    Zhu, Chunyan; Geng, Qingshan; Yang, Hongling; Chen, Li; Fu, Xianhua; Jiang, Wei

    2013-07-23

    Rural-to-urban female migrant workers have a lower quality of life compared to the general population. Improving these conditions remains highly challenging. This paper reports the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the female migrant workers in an educational project. In this before-and-after study, a community-based health education intervention was developed to improve female migrant workers' HRQoL and job satisfaction. A factory was selected as the location to implement the trial, using a before-and-after design. The education intervention included distribution and free access to study materials, monthly lectures, and counseling. The primary endpoint was HRQoL, and gynecological disease and job satisfaction were secondary endpoints. We assessed HRQoL at baseline and at 6-month follow-up using the Health Survey Short Form (SF-36). Compared to the baseline assessment, the participants at the 6-month survey reported higher General Health scores (standardized-β coefficients (Betas) of β = 0.056; P migrant workers, appears effective in improving HRQoL and job satisfaction.

  18. Evaluating a Web-Based MMR Decision Aid to Support Informed Decision-Making by UK Parents: A Before-and-After Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cath; Cheater, Francine M.; Peacock, Rose; Leask, Julie; Trevena, Lyndal

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this feasibility study was to evaluate the acceptability and potential effectiveness of a web-based MMR decision aid in supporting informed decision-making for the MMR vaccine. Design: This was a prospective before-and-after evaluation. Setting: Thirty parents of children eligible for MMR vaccination were recruited from…

  19. Effect of elastic bandage wraps on leg edema in patients before and after liver transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Susan; James, Shantell; Anderson, Janet D; Merchant, Mehwish; Benenati, Sonia; Henry, Samantha; Comrie, Gem; Pirani, Shamsa; Zellinger, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have evaluated the benefits of short-term use of compression therapy to prevent or minimize edema and/or pain in the legs of acutely ill, hospitalized patients without venous leg ulcers. To determine if the use of elastic bandage wraps of the leg in patients before and after liver transplant decreases edema formation and pain in the leg. Study Population-A convenience sample of inpatients before and after liver transplant. Pretest, posttest, randomized controlled trial with each participant serving as his or her own control. Intervention-Elastic bandage wrap applied to leg for 8 hours. Edema and pain in leg. In 13 patients before and 11 patients after liver transplant, the mean (SD) change in leg circumference after a single 8-hour application of an elastic bandage wrap was -2.6 (2.2) cm at the ankle and -3.1 (2.9) cm at midcalf for wrapped legs, as opposed to -0.4 (1.6) cm at the ankle and 1.0 (2.8) cm at midcalf for unwrapped legs (PLeg pain, measured on a visual analog scale, was significantly lower for the wrapped (mean [SD], 10.3 [26.5] mm) versus the unwrapped (20.3 [33.5] mm) leg (P=.04). In inpatients before and after liver transplant, the application of elastic bandage wraps to 1 leg for an 8-hour period led to significantly less edema formation and pain compared with the unwrapped leg. These results support the use of elastic bandage wraps in liver transplant patients to reduce leg edema and improve comfort.

  20. Health care resource use and costs in Crohn's disease before and after infliximab therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomes, Dustin E; Teshima, Christopher; Jacobs, Philip; Fedorak, Richard N

    2011-09-01

    Infliximab therapy in patients with Crohn's disease decreases resource use; however, the overall impact on health-related expenditures is unclear, especially beyond one year of study. A retrospective analysis of economic data one and two years before and after infliximab therapy was performed using patients who served as their own controls. Total health care resource use and direct health care costs were compared for patients with or without fistulae. Patients with one (n=66) and two (n=39) years of economic data before and after infliximab treatment had their resource use and direct health care costs estimated. In the year following initiation of infliximab therapy, there were significant decreases in health care use, reflected in total hospital days (495 to 155 [P<0.05]), inpatient colonoscopies (46 to 24 [P<0.05]), outpatient colonoscopies (58 to 33 [P<0.05]) and major surgeries (10 to 2 [P<0.05]). Direct health care costs of inpatient costs for luminal (-$1,747 [P<0.05]) and fistulizing disease (-$2,530 [P<0.05]), major surgeries (-$1240 [P<0.05]) and outpatient colonoscopies (-$184 [P<0.05]) were also significantly reduced before and after infliximab therapy. Total direct health care costs, including the drug cost of infliximab, increased ($21,416 [P<0.05]). In general, the trends in health care costs analyzed over four consecutive years paralleled the two consecutive-year analysis.  Infliximab therapy in patients with Crohn's disease resulted in a significant decrease in both resource use and health care costs, but an increase in total direct health care costs once the cost of infliximab was added.

  1. Saliva secretion difference before and after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women

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    Dewi Anggraeni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Menopause women can experience a decrease in saliva secretion (decrease. To understand the clear picture about saliva secretion, the volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity were then measured. The aim of this research was to obtain a picture about the difference of saliva secretion before and after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women. The type of the research used was a laboratory quasi-experiment with comparative descriptive form. The technique used in this research is the survey method, and samples were taken using the multistage cluster random sampling method, and t-student statistical analysis. This research was conducted with the saliva collected with spitting method on 45 menopause women. The results show that the average volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity before rinsing with baking soda was 1.79 ml, 0.18 ml/minute, 7.40 and 0.81 mm2/second. The average volume, flow rate, pH and viscosity after rinsing with baking soda were 2.66 ml; 0.27 ml/minute; 8.67 and 0.78 mm2/second. Statistical analysis t-student on α = 0.05 shows volume changes, flow rate, pH and saliva viscosity before and after rinsing with baking soda was 0.873; 0.086; 1.273 and 0.037 respectively. The conclusion shows a significant difference between saliva secretion before and after rinsing with baking soda, and saliva secretion after rinsing with baking soda on menopause women.

  2. Medical Errors Management Before and After Implementation of Accreditation in Hospital

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    Ghassem Abedi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: This study aimed to manage medical errors before and after the implementation of accreditation in public, private, and social security hospitals of Mazandaran, Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study has been done in 38 hospitals. Data were collected through documents reviewed relating to 2013 and 2014. The paired t-test and Friedman test were used by statistical software SPSS. Results: Results showed that the most and the least percent of reported errors, before accreditation, in sequence, were related to public clinical unit (55.9% and operating rooms (0.6%, and after accreditation in public clinical unit (46.6% and operating rooms (2.3% in teaching centers. The most errors (before accreditation occurred in the morning (62% and the least, in the evening (8.3% in teaching centers. Furthermore, after accreditation, the most errors occurred in the morning (64.8% and the least, in the night (17.3% in therapeutic hospitals. Paired t-test showed that there is no significant difference between medical errors before and after accreditation. Friedman test showed that structural/systemic errors reported were the most important medical errors in teaching centers after accreditation and therapeutic hospitals before accreditation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between the rate of reported errors before and after the implementation of accreditation. This illustrates that the role of management in controlling of medical errors has been poor, and stronger management should be applied in providing health care services.

  3. HMB-45 Study Before and After Narrow-Band (311 nm Ultraviolet B Treatment in Vitiligo

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    Moosavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Vitiligo is an acquired disease in which the loss of functional melanocytes results in depigmented macules and patches. Over the years, wide arrays of markers for melanocytes have been described, including human melanoma black 45 (HMB-45. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB therapy is one of the therapeutic modalities for vitiligo. Objectives We sought to detect HMB-45 staining after 30 sessions of NB-UVB therapy in vitiligo and perivitiliginous skin. Patients and Methods All the participants were planned to have 30 sessions of NB-UVB therapy with 724 lamps (FS, 72 T, 12-HO Daavlin MED at 311 nm wavelengths. The patients underwent skin sampling from lesional and perilesional area before and after 30 sessions of treatment. The skin biopsies were sent to the laboratory for light microscopy and immunohistochemical study. The evaluation of HMB-45 was based on the quantitative method, measuring the number of positive stained cells. Clinical response was defined as repigmentation in three categories: more than 75%; between 40% and 75%; and less than 40%. The data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17. Results Twenty-nine patients completed the study. The Wilcoxon test showed a meaningful relation between HMB-45 staining before and after NB-UVB treatment in perilesional skin. We did not find a meaningful relation between HMB-45 staining before and after treatment regarding the mean age, gender, mean duration of disease, and initial lesional area (P = 0.55, P = 0.41, P = 0.55, and P = 0.87, respectively. After 30 sessions of NB-UVB therapy, repigmentation was less than 40% in 8 (27.6%, 40 - 75% in 7 (24.1%, and more than 75% in 6 patients. Conclusions The HMB-45 stain strength significantly changed after treatment in perilesional skin.

  4. Severe antenatal depressive symptoms before and after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in Chengdu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Yin, Lei; Wang, Yuqiong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of severe antenatal depressive symptoms among pregnant women in Chengdu before and after the Wenchuan earthquake. An exploratory and comparative cross-sectional study. Four regional public hospitals in Chengdu located 90 km from the epicenter of the Wenchuan earthquake. The convenience sample was composed of 1,156 pregnant women at 12 to 24 weeks' gestation. The women were identified as having depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Marital conflict and parent-in-law conflict were assessed using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Stryker Adjustment Checklist (SAC), respectively. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) was used to measure the functional aspects of the perceived availability of social support. Using the EPDS with a cutoff score of 14/15 for severe symptoms of depression, 9.2% and 7.1% of the women screened positive before and after the earthquake. Women who had been married for a shorter time were more likely to have depressive symptoms before the earthquake; those who had lived in Chengdu for a shorter period and who had more infants were more likely to suffer after it. Marital conflict and lack of social support were consistent risk factors before and after the earthquake. Additional research is needed to investigate the long-term, earthquake-related psychopathology. Nurses should receive more education about disaster-related psychological health skills to provide more effective prenatal screening and intervene successfully to assist women to optimize their psychological health status after a disaster. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  5. Electromyographic investigation of unstable patella before and after its realignment operation

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    D D Baksi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellar dislocations are either due to superolateral contracture of the soft tissue or imbalance of the power between the vastus medialis (VM and the vastus lateralis (VL. The imbalance of muscle power as an etiology of patellar dislocation has not been studied. Hence, we studied the recurrent, habitual and permanent dislocations of the patella with an electromyogram (EMG of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and pes anserinus, before and after realignment operations, to document the muscle imbalance and effectiveness of the realignment operation. Materials and Methods: An electromyographic investigation was carried out on the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis in nine recurrent, 20 habitual, and 13 permanent dislocations of the patella, before and after their realignment operations. Pes anserinus transposition, which acted as a medial stabilizer of the patella, was also investigated with an EMG study, to understand its role on patellar stability at 0΀, 30΀, 60΀, 90΀, 120΀, 150΀, and full flexion of the knee. The age of the patients varied from nine to 30 (mean 15 years. There were 24 males and 18 females. Twenty-six patellar dislocations were on the right and 16 were on the left side. Results: Electromyographic pictures reveal subnormal activity of the vastus medialis in all types of dislocations and similar activities of the vastus lateralis in permanent and habitual dislocations recorded pre operatively, which recovered to almost normal values postoperatively, at the mean one-year follow-up. Pes anserinus, which was used for medial stabilization of the patella after its realignment, maintained normal EMG activity before and after the operation. Conclusion: This study is significant for understanding the imbalance of muscle activities in patients with an unstable patella, which can be rectified without recurrence after pes anserinus transposition.

  6. A pragmatic randomised trial of stretching before and after physical activity to prevent injury and soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamtvedt, Gro; Herbert, Robert D; Flottorp, Signe; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan; Håvelsrud, Kari; Barratt, Alex; Mathieu, Erin; Burls, Amanda; Oxman, Andrew D

    2010-11-01

    To determine the effects of stretching before and after physical activity on risks of injury and soreness in a community population. Internet-based pragmatic randomised trial conducted between January 2008 and January 2009. International. A total of 2377 adults who regularly participated in physical activity. Participants in the stretch group were asked to perform 30 s static stretches of seven lower limb and trunk muscle groups before and after physical activity for 12 weeks. Participants in the control group were asked not to stretch. Participants provided weekly on-line reports of outcomes over 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were any injury to the lower limb or back, and bothersome soreness of the legs, buttocks or back. Injury to muscles, ligaments and tendons was a secondary outcome. Stretching did not produce clinically important or statistically significant reductions in all-injury risk (HR=0.97, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.13), but did reduce the risk of experiencing bothersome soreness (mean risk of bothersome soreness in a week was 24.6% in the stretch group and 32.3% in the control group; OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.82). Stretching reduced the risk of injuries to muscles, ligaments and tendons (incidence rate of 0.66 injuries per person-year in the stretch group and 0.88 injuries per person-year in the control group; HR=0.75, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.96). Stretching before and after physical activity does not appreciably reduce all-injury risk but probably reduces the risk of some injuries, and does reduce the risk of bothersome soreness. anzctr.org.au 12608000044325.

  7. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar; Shoar, Saeed; Kaviani, Hosein; Samimi-Ardestani, Mehdi; Shabani, Amir; Esmaeili, Sara; Moghaddam, Yasaman

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics. Method In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences) were asked to participate anonymously in the study on the first and the last 3-days of their psychiatry clerkship. From 346 invited 4th-5th year medical students, 225 (65%) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires before and after a 4-week psychiatry clerkship. Results Positive response to choose psychiatry as a career was seen in 13.3% and 18.3% before and after psychiatry rotation, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant; about one-quarter of the students were turned on to psychiatry and 25% were discouraged during the clerkship. Individual pair wise comparisons revealed significant improvements only in two out of 13 measured aspects of psychiatry. Seventeen out of 38 (47.7%) students who identified psychiatry as the career of choice or strong possibility reported that one of their family members or close friends’ mental illness had an impact on their choice. Those students who considered psychiatry as the strong possibility claimed that they are more interested in humanities (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.49), and playing a musical instrument (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.57). Conclusion It may be concluded that exposure to psychiatry clerkship could influence medical students’ opinion about psychiatry positively, or negatively. Personal characteristics and individual interests of students may play an important role in choosing psychiatry as their future career. PMID:23682250

  8. Whole transcriptome analyses of six thoroughbred horses before and after exercise using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Kyung-Do

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thoroughbred horses are the most expensive domestic animals, and their running ability and knowledge about their muscle-related diseases are important in animal genetics. While the horse reference genome is available, there has been no large-scale functional annotation of the genome using expressed genes derived from transcriptomes. Results We present a large-scale analysis of whole transcriptome data. We sequenced the whole mRNA from the blood and muscle tissues of six thoroughbred horses before and after exercise. By comparing current genome annotations, we identified 32,361 unigene clusters spanning 51.83 Mb that contained 11,933 (36.87% annotated genes. More than 60% (20,428 of the unigene clusters did not match any current equine gene model. We also identified 189,973 single nucleotide variations (SNVs from the sequences aligned against the horse reference genome. Most SNVs (171,558 SNVs; 90.31% were novel when compared with over 1.1 million equine SNPs from two SNP databases. Using differential expression analysis, we further identified a number of exercise-regulated genes: 62 up-regulated and 80 down-regulated genes in the blood, and 878 up-regulated and 285 down-regulated genes in the muscle. Six of 28 previously-known exercise-related genes were over-expressed in the muscle after exercise. Among the differentially expressed genes, there were 91 transcription factor-encoding genes, which included 56 functionally unknown transcription factor candidates that are probably associated with an early regulatory exercise mechanism. In addition, we found interesting RNA expression patterns where different alternative splicing forms of the same gene showed reversed expressions before and after exercising. Conclusion The first sequencing-based horse transcriptome data, extensive analyses results, deferentially expressed genes before and after exercise, and candidate genes that are related to the exercise are provided in this

  9. Whole transcriptome analyses of six thoroughbred horses before and after exercise using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Do; Park, Jongsun; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Heui-Soo; Ahn, Kung; Do, Kyoung-Tag; Choi, Hansol; Kim, Hak-Min; Song, Sanghoon; Lee, Sunghoon; Jho, Sungwoong; Kong, Hong-Sik; Yang, Young Mok; Jhun, Byung-Hak; Kim, Chulhong; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Hwang, Seungwoo; Bhak, Jong; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Cho, Byung-Wook

    2012-09-12

    Thoroughbred horses are the most expensive domestic animals, and their running ability and knowledge about their muscle-related diseases are important in animal genetics. While the horse reference genome is available, there has been no large-scale functional annotation of the genome using expressed genes derived from transcriptomes. We present a large-scale analysis of whole transcriptome data. We sequenced the whole mRNA from the blood and muscle tissues of six thoroughbred horses before and after exercise. By comparing current genome annotations, we identified 32,361 unigene clusters spanning 51.83 Mb that contained 11,933 (36.87%) annotated genes. More than 60% (20,428) of the unigene clusters did not match any current equine gene model. We also identified 189,973 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) from the sequences aligned against the horse reference genome. Most SNVs (171,558 SNVs; 90.31%) were novel when compared with over 1.1 million equine SNPs from two SNP databases. Using differential expression analysis, we further identified a number of exercise-regulated genes: 62 up-regulated and 80 down-regulated genes in the blood, and 878 up-regulated and 285 down-regulated genes in the muscle. Six of 28 previously-known exercise-related genes were over-expressed in the muscle after exercise. Among the differentially expressed genes, there were 91 transcription factor-encoding genes, which included 56 functionally unknown transcription factor candidates that are probably associated with an early regulatory exercise mechanism. In addition, we found interesting RNA expression patterns where different alternative splicing forms of the same gene showed reversed expressions before and after exercising. The first sequencing-based horse transcriptome data, extensive analyses results, deferentially expressed genes before and after exercise, and candidate genes that are related to the exercise are provided in this study.

  10. Change of risk information disclosure in annual report. Before and after earthquake disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Takefumi

    2011-01-01

    This research examines how risk information disclosure is changing in annual report before and after East Japan Great Earthquake Disaster. Company voluntary disclose risk information in annual report. Manager can decide a style and items of risk information. This paper explores risk information disclosures of Tokyo Electric Power Company, Chubu Power Electric Company, Kansai Electric Power Company and Toyota Motor Corporation. The managers except Tokyo Electric Company are likely to disclose own catastrophe risk before the disaster. However, they do not try to reduce their risk. Corporations' risk information do not link with own risk management. (author)

  11. Immune function and phenotype before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, S R; Aladdin, H; Ullum, H

    1999-01-01

    Immune functions represented by equal CD4 counts before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (i.e., pre- and post-HAART) in the same HIV-infected patients, were examined. Twelve HIV-infected patients were included. Patients had equal CD4 counts pre- and post-HAART and were studied...... expression of CD38 on T cells, indicates that following long-term HAART, repopulation occurs with less activated cells with increased proliferative capacity. This finding may be of clinical importance in considering risk and vulnerability for progression of opportunistic infections post-HAART....

  12. Peculiarities of hormonal status of patients with exogenous constitutional obesity before and after nalorphine administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spesivtseva, V.G.; Berestov, L.A.; Shiyan, I.V.; Kokhanenko, Eh.M.

    1984-01-01

    By means of radioimmunoassay the peculiarities of hormonal status of 24 patients with exogenous constitutional obesity before and after nalorphine intravenous administration are studied. Nalorphine is found to stimulate the ACTH and hydrocortisone synthesis, to suppress the b-endorphine and synthesisprolactin to stimulate the STH secretion. A repeated nalorphine administration revealed latent peculiarities of the endocrine system connected with the pathogenesis of obesity. It is shown that the use of nalorphine is not followed by side-effects neither at a single administration nor in case of a three-days treatment

  13. Politics without parties : political change and democracy building in Egypt before and after the revolution

    OpenAIRE

    COLLOMBIER, Virginie

    2013-01-01

    This working paper is the first draft of a work in progress on party politics in contemporary Egypt. Written in early 2013, following the first round of free elections to take place after Hosni Mubarak had been ousted from power, it focuses on non-Islamist parties, their development and their role in political change before and after the popular uprising of 2011. It shows that since 2011, similarly throughout the 2000s, political mobilization in the non-Islamist sphere has mostly happened thr...

  14. The Role of Trust in Financial Customer-seller Relationships Before and After the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of trust in customer-seller relationships before and after the 2008 financial crisis. On the basis of two surveys comprising 1155 and 757 bank customers, respectively, it is shown that trust is less likely to mediate the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty...... provider. Hence, as a direct managerial implication, financial service managers should consider investing additional resources in satisfying their customers in the after crisis era. In addition, it is suggested that managers should seek to rebuild the positive relationship between trust and loyalty...

  15. Bacteriological status of beef carcasses at a commercial abattoir before and after slaughterline improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. R.; Roberts, T. A.; Whelehan, O. P.

    1987-01-01

    The bacteriological status of beef carcasses was monitored at a commercial abattoir before and after two stages of modernization to the beef slaughterline which included changing from cradle dressing to dressing on an overhead rail, and the introduction of hot water spray cleaning of carcasses. Although small significant (P less than 0.05) differences in bacterial count occurred among carcass sites within modernization stages, significant visit within stage variation and stage X site interactions prevented any significant change in overall count being observed among stages and carcass sites. Principal components analysis revealed small changes in the distribution of bacterial numbers on the sites sampled. PMID:3556439

  16. Idiopathic sudden hearing loss: Oxidative status before and after corticoid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavaleriu Bogdan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels after systemic corticoid therapy (Solu-Medrol, 250mg/day, for 7 days. The effects of corticoid treatment on superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activity were investigated. Fifteen patients diagnosed with sudden sensorineural hearing loss were enrolled. Serum markers of oxidative stress were measured using spectrophotometric methods. In ten cases, the SOD and GPX activities and malondialdehyde (MDA serum levels before and after corticoid treatment were investigated. Corticoid treatment enhanced antioxidant activity by increasing SOD and GPX activities and decreasing MDA serum levels.

  17. Macroscopic and stereomicroscopic comparison of hacking trauma of bones before and after carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni, Véronique; Nogueira, Luísa; Quatrehomme, Gérald

    2018-03-01

    This experimental study examined lesions produced by a hatchet on pig femurs before and after carbonization. A total of 30 lesions were produced and analyzed using stereomicroscopy and then reexamined after carbonization. Not only was the sharp-blunt mechanism of the hacking trauma (V-shape, regularity of one edge, irregularity of the other edge, upraising, lateral pushing back, fossae dug laterally to the edge) still recognizable after carbonization; in some instances, the carbonization actually enhanced the features observed. Carbonization also did not significantly alter the measurements of the lesions. Carbonization tends to alter the structure of the bone especially in areas weakened by the blunt trauma.

  18. The calcium endocrine system of adolescent rhesus monkeys and controls before and after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, Meena; Deftos, Leonard; Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Dotsenko, Rita; Bigbee, Allison; Grindeland, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The calcium endocrine system of nonhuman primates can be influenced by chairing for safety and the weightless environment of spaceflight. The serum of two rhesus monkeys flown on the Bion 11 mission was assayed pre- and postflight for vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, parameters of calcium homeostasis, cortisol, and indexes of renal function. Results were compared with the same measures from five monkeys before and after chairing for a flight simulation study. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were 72% lower after the flight than before, and more than after chairing on the ground (57%, P parathyroid hormone did not reach significance. Calcitonin showed modest decreases postflight (P animals.

  19. Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieke, Kirsten Inga; Rosenørn, Thomas; Pedersen, Jannik

    2013-01-01

    agglomerates were found to be collapsed after scrubber, reflected by their change in fractal dimension (fly) from 1.88 to 2.13. Soot was predominantly found internally mixed with other components, with a higher degree of internal mix-ing observed after scrubber. Soot nanostructural characteristics on the near...... atomic scale such as layer distance, lamella length, and tortuosity were not observed to be influenced by the scrub-ber. We also found that particles in the size range between 30 and 50 nm, which were abundant in the exhaust before and after scrubber, were not graphitic soot. Furthermore, we found...

  20. The paranasal sinuses before and after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, M.J.; Leung, S.F.; Ambrose, R.; Cheung, H.S.; Hasselt, C.A. van [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong). Prince of Wales Hospital

    1996-01-01

    A study comparing the pre- and post-radiotherapy computed tomographic scans of patients treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma revealed that the incidence of major mucosal abnormality was significantly increased and approximately doubled after radiotherapy. The most significant factor predicting major mucosal abnormality after radiotherapy was the presence of tumour in the sinus before treatment. In the maxillary sinus there was significant association of major mucosal abnormality before and after radiotherapy although this was not so for the other sinuses. The mucosal changes observed were evident as early as six months after radiotherapy. (author).

  1. SELECTIVE EVALUATION OF TWO URINARY ENZYMES (NAG AND AAP BEFORE AND AFTER UNILATERAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Nikoobakht

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological effects extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is not precisely known. We have evaluated two urinary enzymes activity N-acetyl-B-D-glucosamine (NAG and alanine amino peptidase (AAP before and after unilateral ESWL as markers for renal parenchymal damage. Forty eight patients with kidney stones (mean age 39 who had presented for the first time or at least one year after their previous lithotripsy underwent ESWL. Urinary specimens were collected before and after first, third and seventh days of lithotripsy and NAG, AAP were evaluated. These enzymes displayed the greatest activity 24 hours after ESWL with significant difference compared to the control group, (P < 0.05 versus 0.02. Elevation of urinary enzymes activity correlated with stone size particularly stones larger than 2 cm. These data suggest that there is some tubular and parenchymal damage induced by ESWL that needs time to get improved. The higher urinary enzyme activity in patients with larger stones ( > 2 cm is probably related to injury resulting from passage of smaller stones, produced after lithotripsy of a large stone, and it is suggested that these patients are treated with a safer procedure.

  2. Kidney injury in infants and children with iron-deficiency anemia before and after iron treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Rasha H; Kandil, Shaimaa M; Zeid, Mayada S; Zaki, Maysaa E; Fouda, Ashraf E

    2017-10-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the effects of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) on renal tubular functions before and after iron treatment for infants and children with IDA. We measured urinary levels of two kidney injury markers: neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP). Thirty-six infants and children with IDA and 20 matched healthy controls were included. We assessed different laboratory parameters, estimated glomerular filtration rate, urinary levels of NGAL, and L-FABP. Urinary kidney injury markers were measured in IDA patients before and after 3 months of oral iron therapy. IDA patients had significantly higher urinary NGAL and L-FABP levels compared to their healthy controls. After 3 months of oral iron treatment, there was a significant improvement (decrease) in urinary NGAL and L-FABP in infants and children with IDA. Urinary markers returned to normal levels (healthy control levels) in children with IDA, but not for infants with IDA compared to their healthy controls. Subclinical kidney injury was found in infants and children with IDA. This injury was completely reversible in older children with IDA and partially reversible in infants with IDA after iron therapy. Higher urinary levels of kidney injury molecules in IDA infants after iron treatment are suggestive of more sensitivity of these infants to oxidative stress caused by iron therapy or may be due to the immaturity of the kidney and more damage caused by IDA which may require more time to recover.

  3. Analysis of visual acuity before and after refraction in people over 50 in ophthalmic outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Shui

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the visual acuity of people over 50 years in ophthalmic clinic and visual impairment before and after refractive correction.METHODS: Totally 149 cases(298 eyesof refractive error were examined and corrected using autorefractor and retinal optometry. The information of age, sex, economy, income and living standard were collected by questionnaire.RESULTS: Out of 149 cases(298 eyes, 281 eyes(98.6%had refractive error. 119 eyes(42.3%had myopia, 94 eyes(33.5%had hyperopia and 68 eyes(24.2%had mixed astigmatism. The mean visual acuity was 0.42±0.21 and 0.63±0.32 respectively before and after correction. Corrected visual impairment was in 186 eyes(65.3%. Old age, low education, low income and rural area were risk factors for visual impairment. CONCLUSION: Uncorrected refractive error is an important cause of visual impairment in elderly people. It can be promoted by refractive correction, which may benefit for their living quality.

  4. Background parenchymal enhancement in breast MRI before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: correlation with tumour response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preibsch, H.; Wanner, L.; Bahrs, S.D.; Wietek, B.M.; Nikolaou, K.; Wiesinger, B. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Siegmann-Luz, K.C. [Diagnostic Center for Breast Cancer and Screening Mammography Brandenburg Ost, Koenigs Wusterhausen (Germany); Oberlecher, E.; Hahn, M. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tuebingen (Germany); Staebler, A. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Institute of Pathology and Neuropathology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    To correlate the decrease in background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and tumour response measured with MRI in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). One hundred and forty-six MRI examinations of 73 patients with 80 biopsy-proven breast cancers who underwent breast MRI before and after NAC were retrospectively analysed. All images were reviewed by two blinded readers, who classified BPE into categories (BEC; 1 = minimal, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, 4 = marked) before and after NAC. Histopathological and morphological tumour responses were analysed and compared. The distribution of BEC 1/2/3/4 was 25/46/18/11 % before and 78/20/2/0 % after NAC. On average, BPE decreased by 0.87 BEC. Cohen's kappa showed substantial agreement (k = 0.73-0.77) before and moderate agreement (k = 0.43-0.60) after NAC and moderate agreement (k = 0.62-0.60) concerning the change in BEC. Correlating the change in BPE with tumour response, the average decrease in BEC was 1.3 in cases of complete remission, 0.83 in cases with partial response, 0.85 in cases with stable disease and 0.40 in cases with progressive disease. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the decrease in BEC and tumour response (r = -0.24, p = 0.03). BPE decreased by, on average, 0.87 BEC following NAC for breast cancer. The degree of BPE reduction seemed to correlate with tumour response. (orig.)

  5. Sleep Patterns Before and After Weight Restoration in Females with Anorexia Nervosa: A Longitudinal Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Bernabè, Jasmine; Pellegrini, Massimo; Milanese, Chiara; Chignola, Elisa; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    To assess sleep patterns in female patients with anorexia nervosa before and after weight restoration. Sleep patterns were measured objectively using a Sense Wear Armband before and after weight restoration in 50 female patients with anorexia nervosa, and in 25 healthy females. At baseline, patients with anorexia nervosa exhibited lower total sleep time and sleep onset latency than controls, the former apparently associated with baseline BMI, duration of illness and age. However, after weight restoration, total sleep time and sleep onset latency were similar to controls, despite the persistence of longer periods of wake after sleep onset. In patients with anorexia nervosa, total sleep time and sleep onset latency appears to be reduced. This sleep disturbance seems to be influenced by the duration and severity of malnutrition, and appears to normalize with weight restoration. Even though a discontinuous sleep pattern seems to persist, this finding should be discussed with patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Characterization of the bacterial community in shower water before and after chlorination

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Marjolein C. F. M.

    2017-12-22

    Bathers release bacteria in swimming pool water, but little is known about the fate of these bacteria and potential risks they might cause. Therefore, shower water was characterized and subjected to chlorination to identify the more chlorine-resistant bacteria that might survive in a chlorinated swimming pool and therefore could form a potential health risk. The total community before and after chlorination (1 mg Cl2 L−1 for 30 s) was characterized. More than 99% of the bacteria in the shower water were Gram-negative. The dominant bacterial families with a relative abundance of ≥10% of the total (non-chlorinated and chlorinated) communities were Flavobacteriaceae (24–21%), Xanthomonadaceae (23–24%), Moraxellaceae (12–11%) and Pseudomonadaceae (10–22%). The relative abundance of Pseudomonadaceae increased after chlorination and increased even more with longer contact times at 1 mg Cl2L−1. Therefore, Pseudomonadaceae were suggested to be relatively more chlorine resistant than the other identified bacteria. To determine which bacteria could survive chlorination causing a potential health risk, the relative abundance of the intact cell community was characterized before and after chlorination. The dominant bacterial families in the intact community (non-chlorinated and chlorinated) were Xanthomonadaceae (21–17%) and Moraxellaceae (48–57%). Moraxellaceae were therefore more chlorine resistant than the other identified intact bacteria present.

  7. Importance of proprioceptive information for postural control in children with strabismus before and after strabismus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Bucci

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the role of proprioception in postural balance in children with strabismus before and after realignment of their visual axes by eye surgery. Postural recordings were made with the TechnoConcept® force platform in twenty three children. Several conditions were studied, whether the subjects had both eyes open, or either the dominant or the non-dominant eye open, without and with foam pads of 4 mm underfoot. Recordings were performed before and after strabismus surgery. The surface area, the length and the mean speed of the center of pressure (CoP were analyzed. Before strabismus surgery, all children showed better stability with both eyes open with respect to the condition with the non dominant eye open; furthermore postural stability improved in the presence of foam pads. After surgery, all postural parameters (surface area, length and mean speed of CoP decreased significantly, especially in the non-dominant eye viewing condition. We suggest that strabismic children use mainly proprioceptive information in order to control their posture, but also visual inputs, which are important for obtaining a good postural stability. The alignment of the visual axes after surgery provides enhanced postural stability, suggesting, again the major role of visual inputs in the control of posture. Proprioceptive plasticity after strabismus surgery may allow better visual rehabilitation.

  8. Lymphocyte subsets are influenced by positivity levels in healthy subjects before and after mild acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Nisini, Roberto; Castellani, Valeria; Vittorio, Pasquali; Alessandri, Guido; Vincenzo, Ziparo; Claudia, Ferlito; Valentina, Germano; Andrea, Picchianti Diamanti; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Milanetti, Francesca; Salerno, Gerardo; Vincenzo, Visco; Mario, Pietrosanti; Aniballi, Eros; Simonetta, Salemi; Angela, Santoni; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, the possible association of positivity (POS), recently defined as general disposition to view life under positive outlook, with immune markers and post-stress modifications, was analyzed. Circulating lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokine levels were evaluated before and after a standard mild acute stress test, in 41 healthy students, previously selected by a questionnaire for their level of POS (high [POS-H] and low [POS-L]). The CD3 + and CD4 + cell frequency was higher in the POS-H students before and after acute stress. CD4 + subpopulation analysis revealed baseline higher terminally differentiated frequency in the POS-H, whereas higher effector memory frequency was present in the POS-L students. Moreover, the frequency of post-stress B cells was higher in the POS-H students. The mild-stress test was associated to an increase of the IL-10 mean values, while mean values of the other cytokines tested did not change significantly. It is tempting to speculate that IL-10 may work as biomarker of response to acute mild stress and that POS-H may be associated to a better capacity of the immune system to contrast the disturbing effects of mild acute stress. Yet further studies on lymphocyte subset absolute number and function of larger and different populations are needed to definitively prove these preliminary observations. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychosocial findings in alcohol-dependent patients before and after three months of total alcohol abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ferrulli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorders (AUDs may be associated with several psychological and affective disorders. It is controversial, however, if these symptoms are a cause or rather a consequence of alcohol dependence. There are few data testing simultaneously psychosocial and affective disorders before and after a period of alcohol abstinence. The aim of this study was to perform multiple psychometric evaluations in alcohol-dependent patients before and after 12 weeks of abstinence. Twenty-five alcohol-dependent patients were included in the study. The following psychometric tests were administered at baseline (T0 and after 12 weeks (T1: Addiction Severity Index (ASI, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Social Behaviour Scale (SBS, Sheehan Disability Scale (DISS, Aggression Questionnaire (AQ. At T1, 16 (64% patients were abstinent, 5 (20% patients dropped out and 4 (16% patients relapsed. Compared to T0, patients totally abstinent at T1 showed a significant reduction of the scores related to BPRS, BPRS-E and its subscales (except BPRS 5, ASI 1, ASI 2, ASI 3, ASI 6, ASI 7, BSM, AQ, DISS 1, DISS 2, DISS 3 (p<0.05. No significant changes in ASI 4, ASI 5, DISS 4 and DISS 5, BPRS 5 scores were found at T1 compared to T0. The present study indicates that total alcohol abstinence improves psychometric features, such as alcohol addiction severity, psychiatric rating, social behaviour, aggressiveness, and disability. Larger controlled studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  10. Control of impact loading during distracted running before and after gait retraining in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T H; An, Winko W; Au, Ivan P H; Zhang, Janet H; Chan, Zoe Y S; MacPhail, Aislinn J

    2018-07-01

    Gait retraining using visual biofeedback has been reported to reduce impact loading in runners. However, most of the previous studies did not adequately examine the level of motor learning after training, as the modified gait pattern was not tested in a dual-task condition. Hence, this study sought to compare the landing peak positive acceleration (PPA) and vertical loading rates during distracted running before and after gait retraining. Sixteen recreational runners underwent a two-week visual biofeedback gait retraining program for impact loading reduction, with feedback on the PPA measured at heel. In the evaluation of PPA and vertical loading rates before and after the retraining, the participants performed a cognitive and verbal counting task while running. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significant interaction between feedback and training on PPA (F = 4.642; P = 0.048) but not vertical loading rates (F > 1.953; P > 0.067). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significantly lower PPA and vertical loading rates after gait retraining (P  0.68). Visual feedback after gait retraining reduced PPA and vertical loading rates during distracted running (P  0.36). Gait retraining is effective in lowering impact loading even when the runners are distracted. In dual-task situation, visual biofeedback provided beneficial influence on kinetics control after gait retraining.

  11. The changes of serum levels of sexual hormones before and after uterine artery embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wenbo; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Zhuang Wenquan; Yao Shuzhong; Yu Shenping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum hormones before and after uterine artery embolization. Methods: 27 cases of uterine fibroids were performed with uterine artery embolization (UAE). In all cases, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estriol (E2) were measured before and after the UAE. Results: The serum levels of FSH before embolization were (8.63 +- 10.33) IU/L and (15.8 +- 27.89) IU/L months after embolization. The serum levels of LH before embolization were (11.77 +- 12.21) IU/L and (25.79 +- 37.24) IU/L3 months after embolization. The serum levels of E2 before embolization were (160 +- 67) pg/ml and (184 +- 87) pg/ml 3 months after embolization. There was no statistical difference between the measurements of FSH, LH, E2 before UAE and after UAE (P > 0.05, t TEST). But FSH, LH, E2 appeared to have menopause change in two cases. Conclusions: Uterine artery embolization would not affect the serum levels of FSH, LH and E2

  12. Blood Eosinophil and Basophil Values Before and After Surgery for Eosinophilic-type Sinonasal Polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescia, Giuseppe; Parrino, Daniela; Zanotti, Claudia; Tealdo, Giulia; Barion, Umberto; Sfriso, Paolo; Marioni, Gino

    2018-01-01

    Background Blood eosinophil and basophil levels have recently been considered for the purpose of endotyping chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Histologically, eosinophilic-type CRSwNPs have been associated with high recurrence rates after treatment. Objective The present study was the first to compare blood eosinophil and basophil counts in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP patients before and after endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods The study concerned 79 consecutive patients with histologically confirmed eosinophilic-type CRSwNP treated with endoscopic sinus surgery. Results A significant drop in mean blood eosinophil counts and percentages occurred from before to after endoscopic sinus surgery in the cohort as a whole. Mean blood eosinophil counts and percentages were also reduced after surgery in the subcohorts of CRSwNP patients with (i) asthma, (ii) aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), and (iii) no allergy. Although blood eosinophil and basophil counts correlated directly before and after surgery, a statistical reduction in blood basophil counts and percentages after surgery emerged only in the subcohort of nonallergic CRSwNP patients. Conclusion Endoscopic sinus surgery can clear polyps, remove inflammatory tissue, and reduce inflammatory cytokine levels. Consistently with the biological mechanism described, endoscopic sinus surgery could coincide with a reduction in blood eosinophils in eosinophilic-type CRSwNP.

  13. Characterization of the bacterial community in shower water before and after chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marjolein C F M; Keuten, Maarten G A; Knezev, Aleksandra; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Rietveld, Luuk C; de Kreuk, Merle K

    2018-04-01

    Bathers release bacteria in swimming pool water, but little is known about the fate of these bacteria and potential risks they might cause. Therefore, shower water was characterized and subjected to chlorination to identify the more chlorine-resistant bacteria that might survive in a chlorinated swimming pool and therefore could form a potential health risk. The total community before and after chlorination (1 mg Cl 2 L -1 for 30 s) was characterized. More than 99% of the bacteria in the shower water were Gram-negative. The dominant bacterial families with a relative abundance of ≥10% of the total (non-chlorinated and chlorinated) communities were Flavobacteriaceae (24-21%), Xanthomonadaceae (23-24%), Moraxellaceae (12-11%) and Pseudomonadaceae (10-22%). The relative abundance of Pseudomonadaceae increased after chlorination and increased even more with longer contact times at 1 mg Cl 2 L -1 . Therefore, Pseudomonadaceae were suggested to be relatively more chlorine resistant than the other identified bacteria. To determine which bacteria could survive chlorination causing a potential health risk, the relative abundance of the intact cell community was characterized before and after chlorination. The dominant bacterial families in the intact community (non-chlorinated and chlorinated) were Xanthomonadaceae (21-17%) and Moraxellaceae (48-57%). Moraxellaceae were therefore more chlorine resistant than the other identified intact bacteria present.

  14. Routine interventions in childbirth before and after initiation of an Action Research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Viola; Roshani, Leyla; Berg, Marie; Bondas, Terese; Downe, Soo; Dencker, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Unnecessary routine interventions in uncomplicated labour and birth, like cardiotocography (CTG), amniotomy, use of scalp electrode and oxytocin treatment, are associated with further interventions that could harm the woman and the infant. A four year Action Research (AR) project was done on a labour ward to enhance the capacity of local midwives in the promotion of physiological labour and birth. To describe the use of interventions during labour and birth in healthy women at term with spontaneous onset of labour, before and after initiation of an Action Research project. A retrospective before and after comparative study of clinical records from 2009 (before) and 2012 (after), based on a random selection of records from primiparous and multiparous women. Outcome measures were duration of admission CTG, frequency of admission CTG over 30min, frequency of amniotomy, use of scalp electrode, and frequency of oxytocin augmentation in spontaneous labour. 903 records were included. The duration of admission CTG (p=0.001), frequency of admission CTG duration over 30min (p=project. There were no significant differences in frequency of amniotomy, duration of total CTG, postpartum bleeding, sphincter tears, Apgar score project, several interventions were reduced during labour and birth. Controlled studies in other settings are needed to assess the impact of collaborative action on decreasing unnecessary interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Perceptual Signs of Voice before and after Vocal Hygiene Program in Adults with Dysphonia

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    Seyyedeh Maryam khoddami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vocal abuse and misuse are the most frequent causes of voice disorders. Consequently some therapy is needed to stop or modify such behaviors. This research was performed to study the effectiveness of vocal hygiene program on perceptual signs of voice in people with dysphonia.Methods: A Vocal hygiene program was performed to 8 adults with dysphonia for 6 weeks. At first, Consensus Auditory- Perceptual Evaluation of Voice was used to assess perceptual signs. Then the program was delivered, Individuals were followed in second and forth weeks visits. In the last session, perceptual assessment was performed and individuals’ opinions were collected. Perceptual findings were compared before and after the therapy.Results: After the program, mean score of perceptual assessment decreased. Mean score of every perceptual sign revealed significant difference before and after the therapy (p≤0.0001. «Loudness» had maximum score and coordination between speech and respiration indicated minimum score. All participants confirmed efficiency of the therapy.Conclusion: The vocal hygiene program improves all perceptual signs of voice although not equally. This deduction is confirmed by both clinician-based and patient-based assessments. As a result, vocal hygiene program is necessary for a comprehensive voice therapy but is not solely effective to resolve all voice problems.

  16. TCF7L2 polymorphisms and inflammatory markers before and after treatment with fenofibrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabagambe Edmond K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is implicated in causing diabetes. We tested whether transcription factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms (rs12255372 and rs7903146, consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, are associated with plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers before and after three weeks of daily treatment with fenofibrate. Methods Men and women in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study (n = 1025, age 49 ± 16 y were included. All participants suspended use of lipid-lowering drugs for three weeks and were then given 160 mg/day of fenofibrate for three weeks. Inflammatory markers and lipids were measured before and after fenofibrate. ANOVA was used to test for differences across TCF7L2 genotypes. Results Under the additive or dominant model, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the concentrations of inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 across TCF7L2 genotypes in the period before or after treatment. For both rs12255372 and rs7903146, homozygote T-allele carriers had significantly higher (P Conclusion Overall these data show no association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms and the inflammatory markers suggesting that the effects of TCF7L2 on diabetes may not be via inflammation.

  17. Three-dimensional airways volumetric analysis before and after fast and early mandibular osteodistraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramieri, Valerio; Basile, Emanuela; Bosco, Giulio; Caresta, Elena; Papoff, Paola; Cascone, Piero

    2017-03-01

    Newborns with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) and syndromic micrognathia show microgenia and glossoptosis, which cause reduction of the airway and breathing difficulty from birth. Our goal is to analyze quantitative and qualitative volumetric changes before and after fast and early mandibular osteodistraction (FEMOD) and to compare radiological data. The sample was composed of 4 patients, who satisfied inclusion criteria for completeness of data. Computed tomography pre- and post-operation were performed, then a volumetric assessment was made with Dolphin Imaging. Polysomnography was performed before and after FEMOD. Pre- and post-operative CT scan data were compared. The analysis of all three sections showed a significant increase of volumetric parameters. The retroglossal volume average increase was 346%, and the retropalatal volume average increase was 169%. These data matched the improvement recorded by polysomnography. The data confirm FEMOD as an efficient treatment to improve airways and breathing problem in patients affected by Pierre Robin sequence and syndromic micrognathia. The three-dimensional volume rendering could be a useful method to evaluate and quantify the increase in airways volume. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Variability of prefrontal neuronal discharges before and after training in a working memory task.

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    Xue-Lian Qi

    Full Text Available Variability of neural discharges can be revealing about the computations and network properties of neuronal populations during the performance of cognitive tasks. We sought to quantify neuronal variability in the prefrontal cortex of naïve monkeys that were only required to fixate, and to examine how this measure was altered by learning and execution of a working memory task. We therefore performed analysis of a large database of recordings in the same animals, using the same stimuli, before and after training. Our results indicate that the Fano Factor, a measure of variability, differs across neurons depending on their functional properties both before and after learning. Fano Factor generally decreased after learning the task. Variability was modulated by task events and displayed lowest values during the stimulus presentation. Nonetheless, the decrease in variability after training was present even prior to the presentation of any stimuli, in the fixation period. The greatest decreases were observed comparing populations of neurons that exhibited elevated firing rate during the trial events. Our results offer insights on how properties of the prefrontal network are affected by performance of a cognitive task.

  19. Variability of prefrontal neuronal discharges before and after training in a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xue-Lian; Constantinidis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Variability of neural discharges can be revealing about the computations and network properties of neuronal populations during the performance of cognitive tasks. We sought to quantify neuronal variability in the prefrontal cortex of naïve monkeys that were only required to fixate, and to examine how this measure was altered by learning and execution of a working memory task. We therefore performed analysis of a large database of recordings in the same animals, using the same stimuli, before and after training. Our results indicate that the Fano Factor, a measure of variability, differs across neurons depending on their functional properties both before and after learning. Fano Factor generally decreased after learning the task. Variability was modulated by task events and displayed lowest values during the stimulus presentation. Nonetheless, the decrease in variability after training was present even prior to the presentation of any stimuli, in the fixation period. The greatest decreases were observed comparing populations of neurons that exhibited elevated firing rate during the trial events. Our results offer insights on how properties of the prefrontal network are affected by performance of a cognitive task.

  20. Before and After How has the SNO NC measurement changed things?

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, J N; Peña-Garay, C; Bahcall, John N.; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    We present "Before and After" global oscillation solutions, as well as predicted "Before and After" values and ranges for eight future solar neutrino observables. The ``Before'' case includes all solar neutrino data (and some theoretical improvements) available prior to April 20, 2002 and the ``After'' case includes, in addition, the new SNO data on the CC, NC, and day-night asymmetry. The LMA solution is the only currently allowed MSW oscillation solution at a CL of 98.8 %. The LOW solution is allowed only at 2.5 sigma, SMA at 3.7 sigma, and pure sterile oscillations at 5.4 sigma. Small mixing angles are ``out''(pure sterile is ``way out''); MSW with large mixing angles is definitely ``in''. Vacuum oscillations are allowed, but not robustly, at 2.1 sigma. Precise maximal mixing is excluded at 3.2 sigma for MSW solutions and at 2.8 sigma for vacuum solutions. Most of the predicted values for future observables for the BOREXINO, KamLAND, and future SNO measurements are changed only by minor amounts by the incl...

  1. ESTIMATION OF MALONDIALDEHYDE AND VITAMIN-E LEVELS IN NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA BEFORE AND AFTER PHOTOTHERAPY

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    Sidrah, Tandrapad Priyanka, Asiya Naaz, Lakshmi Chaitanya G, Sridevi D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common and benign problem in neonates worldwide. It is observed during the 1st week of life in approximately 60% of term neonates and 80% of preterm neonates. Phototherapy is most widely used as therapy for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Phototherapy is related to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. The present study is undertaken to establish the relation between anti-oxidant status and the marker of lipid peroxidation in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia before and after phototherapy. Objectives: To estimate the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde and vit-E levels in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia before and after phototherapy. Material and Methods: A total of 30 patients were eligible for the study who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Blood sample was collected from neonates of preterm/full term age 1 to 10 days with hyperbilirubinemia undergoing phototherapy. Total Bilirubin, Direct Bilirubin, MDA and vit-E levels were estimated in serum by thiobarbituric acid (TBA method and Backer and Frank’s Method respectively. Results: The present study showed increase in Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin, MDA and decrease in vit-E levels before phototherapy when compared to control group and same subjects after phototherapy showed decrease in Total bilirubin and Direct bilirubin, MDA and a further decrease in vit-E levels. Conclusion: From these results it is concluded though phototherapy had a beneficial effect in treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, supplementation of vit-E is necessary in addition to phototherapy.

  2. Dynamics of seated computer work before and after prolonged constrained sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeleine, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    This laboratory study investigated seated computer work before and after prolonged constrained sitting. Discomfort ratings and kinetic and kinematics data were recorded in nine healthy males performing computer work for 5 min before and after 96 min of sitting. The displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions and lumbar curvature (LC) were calculated. The root mean square, standard deviation, and sample entropy values were computed from the CoPs and LC signals to assess the magnitude, amount of variability, and regularity of sitting dynamics, respectively. The discomfort increased for the buttocks (p = .02).The standard deviation and sample entropy values of the CoPs and LC signals, respectively, increased (p .15) after prolonged constrained sitting compared with before. This present study showed that during seated computer work, prolonged constrained sitting affected the amount of variability and the regularity of sitting postural control, whereas the magnitude was not affected. The importance of the dynamics of sitting control may challenge the idea of a static and ideal seated posture at work.

  3. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Vainionpää

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  4. Flicker electroretinograms recorded with mydriasis-free RETeval system before and after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, G; Sato, E; Yamamoto, S

    2017-11-01

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to compare the amplitudes and peak times of the flicker electroretinograms (ERGs) recorded before and after cataract surgery with the RETeval system (LKC Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) from eyes without dilation.Patients and methodsThirty-two eyes of 32 patients (77.3±6.5 years) that had grade 2 Emery-Little nuclear or cortical cataract without any other abnormalities were studied. Flicker ERGs were recorded with the RETeval system under mydriatic-free conditions. Skin electrodes were used to pick-up the ERGs that were elicited by white light delivered at a rate of 28.3 Hz and intensity of 2, 8, and 32 Td-s. The amplitudes and peak times of the flicker ERGs before and after cataract surgery were compared.ResultsThe mean amplitudes were significantly increased after the removal of the cataractous lenses at the three stimulus intensities (2 Td-s, Pflicker ERGs elicited by 2 and 8 Td-s were significantly shortened after the surgery (2 td-s, Pflicker ERGs even if the cataract is mild. In addition, the results indicate that as stimulus intensity increases, the peak times is less affected by a cataract. The clarity of the crystalline lens should be considered when interpreting the flicker ERGs recorded with the RETeval system.

  5. Constipation-Related Health Care Utilization in Children Before and After Hospitalization for Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, John R; Steiner, Michael J; DeJong, Neal; Rodean, Jonathan; Hall, Matt; Richardson, Troy; Berry, Jay G

    2018-01-01

    We studied constipation-related health care among children before and after constipation admission. Index admissions for constipation in 2010-2011 were identified in the Truven Marketscan Database, which includes children receiving Medicaid in 10 states. We measured number of and spending for outpatient constipation visits 12 months before and after index hospitalizations. We also measured spending for constipation hospitalizations and rehospitalization rate. There were 780 index constipation admissions. The median number of outpatient constipation visits was 1 (interquartile range [IQR] = 0, 3) in the 12 months before and 2 (IQR [0, 4]) after admission ( P = .001). Median outpatient spending for constipation was $110 (IQR [0, 429]) before and $132 (IQR [0, 431]) after admission ( P = .2). Median spending for index constipation admissions was $5295 (IQR [2756, 8267]); 78 children (10%) were rehospitalized for constipation within 12 months. Constipation-related health care utilization increased after constipation admission. Median spending for one constipation admission was 50 times the median spending for 12 months of outpatient constipation visits.

  6. Enamel Thickness before and after Orthodontic Treatment Analysed in Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Seeliger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the continuous development of materials and techniques of adhesive bonding, the basic procedure remains relatively constant. The technique is based on three components: etching substance, adhesive system, and composite material. The use of etchants during bonding orthodontic brackets carries the risk of damage to the enamel. Therefore, the article examines the effect of the manner of enamel etching on its thickness before and after orthodontic treatment. The study was carried out in vitro on a group of 80 teeth. It was divided into two subgroups of 40 teeth each. The procedure of enamel etching was performed under laboratory conditions. In the first subgroup, the classic method of enamel etching and the fifth-generation bonding system were used. In the second subgroup, the seventh-generation (self-etching bonding system was used. In both groups, metal orthodontic brackets were fixed and the enamel was cleaned with a cutter fixed on the micromotor after their removal. Before and after the treatment, two-dimensional optical coherence tomography scans were performed. The enamel thickness was assessed on the two-dimensional scans. The average enamel thickness in both subgroups was not statistically significant.

  7. Pulse changes in patients with cervical spondylosis before and after acupuncture treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyu; Guo, Minfang; Lu, Xiaozuo

    2016-02-01

    To study changes in pulse diagram parameters (PDP) in patients with cervical spondylosis (CS) before and after acupuncture treatment, explore the characteristics of PDP and the relationship between PDP changes and therapeutic effectiveness, and provide evidence for outcome prediction and objective evaluation of CS treatment before and after acupuncture treatment. Patients with CS were treated with acupuncture and measured with a pulse acquisition device based on image (PADBI) before the first and after the tenth acupuncture sessions. Changes in PDP from before until after the acupuncture sessions and patient impressions were analyzed to judge the effect of acupuncture treatment for. The PDP values in effective patients were closer to normal values. This indicated that Qi stagnation and blood stasis of the patients was improved. The PDP changes from before to after the first acupuncture treatment were more obvious than those from before to after the tenth acupuncture treatment. This result indicates that the speed of symptom improvement decreased significantly after several acupuncture courses. Analysis of correlation between efficacy and PDP showed that the changes in PDP in five patients was abnormal, which mainly manifested as values of h1, u, p, Pp, and t1, and no significant changes or differences were increased with standard values. This indicated that the symptoms of CS were not improved in these patients. PADBI can provide evidence for outcome prediction of acupuncture treatment in patients with CS. PADBI can provide evidence for objective evaluation of acupuncture treatment of CS.

  8. Social phobia and quality of life in morbidly obese patients before and after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirijello, Antonio; D'Angelo, Cristina; Iaconelli, Amerigo; Capristo, Esmeralda; Ferrulli, Anna; Leccesi, Laura; Cossari, Anthony; Landolfi, Raffaele; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Morbidly obesity is characterized by physical and psychological comorbidities which are associated with reduced quality of life. Bariatric surgery has been linked to a reduction of psychopathology other than to a reduction of weight and improvement in physical functioning. Aim of the present study was to compare psychological features of two groups of morbidly obese patients, before and after bariatric surgery, assessing social phobia and quality of life. A total of 46 morbidly obese patients were enrolled in the study. Of them, 20 were waiting for bilio-pancreatic diversion (group A), while 26 had already undergone surgical procedure (group B). Psychometric evaluation assessed social phobia, fear for the body-shape and quality of life, using appropriate psychometric tests. The percentage of patients showing social phobia was significantly higher compared to a sample of healthy controls (p=0.004), both in group A (p=0.003) and in group B (p=0.029). No differences in percentage of patients affected by social phobia were found between groups. A significantly higher percentage of patients affected by distress about the body (pphobia in a population of morbidly obese patients, both before and after surgery. A general reduction of quality of life was also observed, with a partial improvement after surgery. Future studies are needed to clarify the relationship between social phobia and quality of life in surgically-treated morbidly obese patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alterations of the blood pool in the femoral head before and after renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Inoue, Shigehiro; Shibatani, Masahiko; Kubo, Toshikazu; Kubota, Takao; Ushijima, Yo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ION) is thought to be an ischemic event. The purpose of this study is to investigate alterations of the blood pool in the femoral head before and after renal transplantation. After renal transplantation, all patients received the same immunosuppressive therapy: corticosteroids, cyclosporin-A, and azathioprine. We performed 3-phase bone scintigraphy on 16 renal allograft recipients within 1 week before renal transplantation, and between week 4 and 9 after renal transplantation. Regions of interest (ROI) were assigned bilaterally in the femoral head, diaphysis, and soft tissue. The head-to-diaphysis ratios (HD ratios) were then calculated. Idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head occurred in 2 femoral heads of 1 patient. The HD ratio before renal transplantation (mean HD±SD, 1.52±0.30) and the HD ratio after renal transplantation (1.28±0.30) were significantly different (P=0.000024). The HD ratios before and after renal transplantation were significantly different, indicating that the administration of steroids diminished the blood pool in the femoral head. A low HD ratio before renal transplantation revealed a poor blood pool in the femoral head, which may be a risk factor for ION. (author)

  10. Optical properties of orthodontic aligners--spectrophotometry analysis of three types before and after aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca; Arreghini, Angela; Maccarrone, Roberta; Bianchi, Anna; Scalia, Santo; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to assess and compare absorbance and transmittance values of three types of clear orthodontic aligners before and after two cycles of in vitro aging. Nine samples of orthodontic aligners from three different manufacturers (Invisalign, Align Technology, Santa Clara, CA, USA; All-In, Micerium, Avegno, GE, Italy; F22 Aligner, Sweden & Martina, Due Carrare, PD, Italy) were selected, and each sample was subjected to spectrophotometry analysis of both its transmittance and absorbance a total of 27 times. Samples were subsequently aged in vitro at a constant temperature in artificial saliva supplemented with food colouring for two cycles of 14 days each. The spectrophotometry protocol was then repeated, and the resulting data were analysed and compared by means of ANOVA (p aligners tested yielded lower transmittance and higher absorbance values after aging, but the difference was not significant in any case. That being said, the F22 aligners were found to be most transparent, both before and after aging, followed by Invisalign and All-In, and these differences were statistically significant. Commercial aligners possess significantly different optical, and therefore aesthetic, properties, both as delivered and following aging.

  11. Vocal loading-related changes in male teachers' voices investigated before and after a working day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Kankare, Elina

    2006-01-01

    Vocal loading-related changes have mainly been investigated in female voice users. The present study investigated male teachers' voices before and after a working day. A questionnaire was used to select 22 male teachers as subjects from a larger group. Ten reported suffering often from symptoms of vocal fatigue (MC = multiple complaints group), 12 reported few vocal complaints (FC group). The subjects recorded a text reading sample at habitual loudness and loudly, and sustained vowel [a:] before and after an approximately 6-hour working day. Text samples were analyzed for total sound pressure level (SPL) and SPL at three frequency regions (50-1,000 Hz, 1-2 kHz, 2-5 kHz), fundamental frequency (F0) and alpha ratio [(SPL 1-5 kHz) - SPL (50 Hz-1 kHz)]. Jitter and shimmer were calculated from the vowel. The subjects filled in a questionnaire about vocal sensations. The MC group reported more symptoms of vocal fatigue, and the symptoms increased during the working day. F0 and SPL increased in both groups. Alpha ratio increased in the MC group but remained the same in the FC group. The MC group had higher values of jitter and shimmer. Jitter diminished in the FC group but did not change significantly in the MC group. The differences between the groups reflect either different strategies for coping with vocal loading or different loading-induced changes in the vocal organ.

  12. Evaluation of fecal microorganisms of children with cleft palate before and after palatoplasty

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    Narciso Almeida Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study isolated and quantified intestinal bacteria of children with cleft palate before and after palatoplasty. A prospective study was conducted from May 2007 to September 2008 on 18 children with cleft palate, aged one to four years, of both genders, attending a tertiary cleft center in Brazil for palatoplasty, to analyze the effect of surgical palate repair on the concentration of anaerobes Bacteroides sp, Bifidobacterium sp and microaerophiles Lactobacillus sp in feces of infants with cleft palate before and 24 hours after treatment with cefazolin for palatoplasty. There was significant reduction of Lactobacillus sp (p < 0.002, Bacteroides sp (p < 0.001 and Bifidobacterium sp (p = 0.021 after palatoplasty, revealing that surgery and utilization of cefazolin significantly influenced the fecal microbiota comparing collections before and after surgery. However, due to study limitations, it was not possible to conclude that other isolated factors, such as surgical stress, anesthetics and other medications used in palatoplasty might have a significant influence on the microbiota. Considering the important participation of the intestinal microbiota on both local and systemic metabolic and immunological activities of the host, professionals should be attentive to the possible influence of these changes in patients submitted to cleft repair.

  13. Evaluation of gross motor function before and after virtual reality application

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    Luiza da Silva Pereira Tannus

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Recently virtual reality has been aggregated to the therapeutic possibilities for patients who need functionality gains, such as individuals with cerebral palsy (CP. Aim: to evaluate the effects of virtual reality on the gross motor function of individuals with CP. Methods: longitudinal study, realized in a special education school, with five individuals with CP (7.4 years of age ± 1.14 of both sexes, evaluated using the B, D and E dimensions of the GMFM 88, before and after the application of three Wii Fit Plus(r console games: Hula Hoop, Slide Penguin and Soccer Heading. These games were applied for four minutes per game, at the beginner level, twice a week, for twelve consecutives weeks. The normality of the sample was evaluated through the Shapiro-Wilk's test. The results obtained before and after the Wii Fit(r application were compared using descriptive statistics. Results: all the individuals obtained improvements in the dimensions evaluated after the virtual reality application, with a 5.14% general improvement, varying between 1.9% and 9.6%. The standing (D and walking, running and jumping (E dimensions were the dimensions which obtained higher improvement percentages. Conclusion: considering the study limitations, the results obtained suggest that virtual reality can promote benefits in the gross motor function of individuals with cerebral palsy.

  14. [Study of SCE frequency before and after tubal sterilization with phenol mucilage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F Q

    1991-05-01

    SCE frequency was compared in the chromosomes of lymphocytes before and after chemical occlusive tubal sterilization with phenol mucilage compound made by 2 manufacturers. 88 women were recruited in the study, 50% of the cases were injected with either of the 2 compounds. Blood samples were drawn both before and from 7-490 days the sterilization procedures. SCE frequencies were counted from lymphocyte cell cultures by 7 chromosome groupings. The results showed that differences in the mean and range of SCE frequency in each cell before and after sterilization were not statistically significant. The difference of SCE frequencies for different time spans between the 2 blood tests was not statistically significant either, nor were significant differences observed between the cases using the 2 different compounds. It was concluded that the dosage of phenol mucilage compound used for chemical occlusive sterilization did not induce any increase in SCE frequency. Therefore, these compounds did not cause damage to DNA primary structure in human lymphocytes. If the sterilization procedures are done properly, few complications or failures would occur. This procedure could, hopefully, become a widely used permanent method of contraception among rural women.

  15. Marginal microleakage of class V composite restorations before and after AFP gel application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari Abdolrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: The most effective preventing tooth decay method is fluoride compounds applications. Some studies suggested that APF gels caused changes on the superficial physical properties of composite. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of class V composite restorations before and after AFP gel application.   Materials and Methods: The class V cavities in buccal surfaces of 45 molar teeth were made in such a way that occlusal margin was placed in enamel and cervical margin in cement. In group 1, at first fluoride-therapy and then cavity preparation and restoration by composite resin was done. In group 2, at first the class V cavities were prepared and restored, then fluoride-therapy was carried out. In group 3, cavities were prepared and restored with no fluoride-therapy. The dye penetration rate in occlusal and cervical margins was examined by stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test.   Results: There was no statistically significant difference between groups ( P=0.975.   Conclusion: Fluoride-therapy using AFP gel before and after class V composite restorations, had no significant effect on the microleakage of dentin and enamel margins.

  16. 18F-FDG PET imaging before and after capsulotomy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Yihui; Sun Bomin; Zhang Haiying; Lin Xiangtong; Zuo Chuantao; Zhao Jun; Liu Yongchang

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of surgery in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with 18 F-FDG PET imaging. Methods: 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET images were obtained in 9 patients with OCD (6 male and 3 female) before and after 3 to 4 weeks of bilateral capsulotomy, PET images were also performed in 10 controls. Each OCD patient was also evaluated both before and after the surgery by various neuropsychiatric tests including Y-BOCS, HAMA and HAMD. Results: Compare with normal controls, 9 cases of OCD demonstrated high 18 F-FDG uptake in frontal, cingulate, orbital gyri, caudate and thalamus. After capsulotomy, 6 of 9 cases showed better results, the metabolic ratios were also significant decreased in the following areas: anterior cingule gyrus: right (P < 0.001) left (P < 0.05), caudate nuclei: right (P < 0.01) left (P < 0.05), anterolateral orbital frontal cortex: right (P < 0.01) left (P < 0.05), there is no significant changes in bilateral thalamus. Meanwhile, the OCD scales also have significant decreased values in Y-BOCS (P < 0.05) and HARS (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results indicated that cingule-striatum-pallidum-thalamic circuit is closely related to OCD, and glucose metabolism in these areas decreases significantly after bilateral capsulotomy

  17. Liver volume, portal vein flow, and clearance of indocyanine green and antipyrine in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J; Court-Payen, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine liver volume, portal vein flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) and antipyrine clearance in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid drug treatment.......The aim of the study was to examine liver volume, portal vein flow, and indocyanine green (ICG) and antipyrine clearance in hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid drug treatment....

  18. 3D angiography in the evaluation of intracranial aneurysms before and after treatment. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauriola, Walter; Nardella, Michele; Strizzi, Vincenzo; Florio, Francesco; Cali, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to evaluate the advantages of 3D angiography as compared to 2D angiography in assessing intracranial aneurysms before and after treatment and, in particular, in selecting and planning the correct treatment. Materials and methods: Thirty intracranial aneurysms were retrospectively reviewed before and after treatment. The study population consisted of 12 men and 18 women (age range: 35-77 years; mean age: 58 years). Eighteen aneurysms were treated surgically, 10 endovascularly and 2 with combined treatment. The 2D and 3D finding before and after the treatment were compared , and the pre-treatment angiographic images were compared with surgical findings. The following parameters were assessed and compared: aneurysmal sac and neck size, vascular involvement and evaluation of post-treatment residual mass. Results: On the 2D DSA images, visualisation of the sac and neck was optimal in 45% and 15% of cases, adequate in 10% and 35% of cases and inadequate in 5% and 50% of cases, respectively. On the 3D DSA images, visualisation of the sac and neck was optimal in 100% of cases. Three-dimensional DSA was able to detect 8 aneurysms with vessel involvement in all cases (100%). Of these, four (50%) went undetected on 2D DSA; in two cases, two-dimensional DSA erroneously detected the presence of vascular involvement (false positive). Three-dimensional angiography proved superior to 2D angiography in the evaluation of the residual aneurysms treated with clipping. Finally, 3D DSA was able to reduce the number of the radiographic projections, the quantity of contrast medium, the time and associated risks necessary for a precise evaluation of the aneurysm. Conclusions: In our first experience, 3D DSA proved useful in reducing the risks and diagnostic time as well as in selecting and planning the treatment. Moreover, it improved the operating conditions of both surgical and endovascular treatment. Technological advances in this field will enable the

  19. Earthquake Complex Network Analysis Before and After the Mw 8.2 Earthquake in Iquique, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasten, D.

    2017-12-01

    The earthquake complex networks have shown that they are abble to find specific features in seismic data set. In space, this networkshave shown a scale-free behavior for the probability distribution of connectivity, in directed networks and theyhave shown a small-world behavior, for the undirected networks.In this work, we present an earthquake complex network analysis for the large earthquake Mw 8.2 in the north ofChile (near to Iquique) in April, 2014. An earthquake complex network is made dividing the three dimensional space intocubic cells, if one of this cells contain an hypocenter, we name this cell like a node. The connections between nodes aregenerated in time. We follow the time sequence of seismic events and we are making the connections betweennodes. Now, we have two different networks: a directed and an undirected network. Thedirected network takes in consideration the time-direction of the connections, that is very important for the connectivityof the network: we are considering the connectivity, ki of the i-th node, like the number of connections going out ofthe node i plus the self-connections (if two seismic events occurred successive in time in the same cubic cell, we havea self-connection). The undirected network is made removing the direction of the connections and the self-connectionsfrom the directed network. For undirected networks, we are considering only if two nodes are or not connected.We have built a directed complex network and an undirected complex network, before and after the large earthquake in Iquique. We have used magnitudes greater than Mw = 1.0 and Mw = 3.0. We found that this method can recognize the influence of thissmall seismic events in the behavior of the network and we found that the size of the cell used to build the network isanother important factor to recognize the influence of the large earthquake in this complex system. This method alsoshows a difference in the values of the critical exponent γ (for the probability

  20. A Dual Approach to Understanding Facial Perception Before and After Blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bater, Kristin L; Ishii, Masaru; Nellis, Jason C; Joseph, Andrew; Papel, Ira D; Kontis, Theda C; Byrne, Patrick J; Boahene, Kofi D O; Ishii, Lisa E

    2018-01-01

    Blepharoplasty consistently ranks among the most common facial plastic surgery procedure sought by both men and women. Despite the popularity of blepharoplasty, there has been little research focused on quantifying how eyelid surgery changes facial perceptions. To quantify the effect of blepharoplasty on facial perceptions and measure patient-reported ratings of fatigue before and after surgery to compare observer and patient perceptions. A web-based survey experiment was conducted from January to February 2017, featuring photographs of female patients before and after blepharoplasty. Observers were randomly shown independent images of each patient and asked to rate perceived age, attractiveness, health, and energy level. Respondents saw only preoperative or postoperative photographs of each patient to reduce bias due to priming. Patient-reported outcomes were also collected. A multivariate mixed effects regression model was used to quantify the changes in each domain after surgery. Ordinal rank change was calculated to provide a measure of clinical effect size across the domains. To analyze patient-reported outcomes, a Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney tests were performed to determine if there were differences in patient-perceived tiredness based on operative status. A total of 401 participants (243 women, 152 men, and 6 not specified; mean age 25.9 years [range, 18-73 years]) successfully completed the survey and evaluated before-and-after photographs of 10 female patients (mean age, 59.8 years). The multivariable mixed effects model revealed that individuals are perceived as appearing significantly younger (-1.04 years; 95% CI, -1.70 to -0.37 years) and more attractive (coefficient, 4.92; 95% CI, 3.91-5.93) after blepharoplasty. Ratings of perceived health (coefficient, 4.33; 95% CI, 3.28-5.37) and energy level (coefficient, 9.83; 95% CI, 8.51-11.16) also improved significantly. After undergoing blepharoplasty, patients had significantly improved

  1. Ocular parameters before and after steep Trendelenburg positioning for robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizumoto K

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kyoichi Mizumoto,1 Masahiko Gosho,2 Masayoshi Iwaki,1 Masahiro Zako3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Clinical Trial and Clinical Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Asai Hospital, Seto, Aichi, Japan Purpose: Intraocular pressure (IOP increases in patients in a steep Trendelenburg position during robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP. We hypothesized that a steep Trendelenburg position during RALP, an unusual systemic condition involving a transiently increased IOP, may induce ocular pathology that can be detected by detailed evaluations long after the surgery. This study aims to explore ocular structural and functional parameters in patients before and in the long term after the surgery. Patients and methods: A comparative observational study was performed. A total of 44 eyes of 22 male patients scheduled for RALP at Aichi Medical University from August 2012 to July 2013 were included. Clinical parameters before and after RALP were compared. Peri­operative IOP was measured immediately post-induction of anesthesia in the flat supine position (T1, immediately post-steep Trendelenburg position (T2, and prior to returning to a flat supine position while in a steep Trendelenburg position (T3. The thicknesses of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell complex (GCC, and central fovea were measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Humphrey perimetry was performed before and at 3 and 6 months after surgery. Results: The average IOPs (mmHg at each stage were T1=10.4, T2=21.7, and T3=29.6, and differed significantly. The mean visual acuity (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution, IOP, mean deviation, and pattern standard deviation measured by the Humphrey field analyzer showed no statistically significant difference before and after surgery. The ganglion

  2. Patient Communication, Satisfaction, and Trust Before and After Use of a Standardized Birth Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Clare-Marie; Monardo, Rosie; Soon, Reni; Lum, Jennifer; Tschann, Mary; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2017-11-01

    The birth plan was developed as a way for pregnant women to communicate their desires and expectations for labor and delivery. Standardized birth plans have been used by some birth facilities as a communication tool. In this quality improvement project, we sought to describe communication, trust, and satisfaction scores after delivery in a group of patients who used a standardized birth plan. All pregnant women at 24 or more weeks of gestation were asked to complete a short, standardized birth plan. Communication, trust, and satisfaction were assessed before and after delivery. Descriptive analyses showed that communication, trust, and satisfaction scores were high following delivery. Scores for all three factors increased significantly following delivery though increases were modest. Most patients (84%) indicated they would use a birth plan with a subsequent delivery.

  3. War and Post-conflict in Guatemala: Seeking Justice Before and After the Peace Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Ixchel Benítez Jiménez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By suggesting that the mobilization of civil society groups has been the driving factor behind the progress of legal justice in post-war Guatemala, this article argues that the recent achievements in this field were possible by several institutional changes over time which provided some degree of access to political and legal opportunities. A review of the oral and documental sources allows tracking some transformations before and after the peace agreements, which favored or inhibited the attribution of criminal responsibility for serious human rights violations committed during the war period. These changes in the political sphere, or resulting from the interaction between pro-justice advocates and their particular context, have enabled the legal activist community to position themselves as crucial stakeholders in the peacebuilding process. In addition, it has allowed them to play a prominent role in the activation of justice through judicialization strategies in this post-conflict period.

  4. Energy Use and Indoor Climate in Two Schools Before and After Deep Energy Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2013-01-01

    Denmark is participating in IEA ECBCS Annex 61 “Development and demonstration of concepts for deep energy retrofit in government/public buildings”. The purpose of the Annex is to improve the decision-making process to achieve deep energy retrofits of government/public buildings, starting with the...... insulation of piping and improved control (Building Energy Management Systems – BEMS). This paper presents preliminary results of analysis and monitoring of energy use and indoor climate in the two public schools before and after deep energy renovation....... with the determination of working bundles of technologies and corresponding business models using combined public and private funding. Denmark will contribute to the project with 7 buildings in total, i.e. 2 schools and 5 kinder-gartens¬/institutions, which will undergo deep energy renovation over the next few years...

  5. Blogging Bouazizi: The Role of Cyberactivists Before and After Tunisia’s Jasmine Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Gordner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the changing role of cyberactivists before and after the Jasmine Revolution through case studies of three prominent figures: Houssem Aoudi (Cogite, Wasaibi, Sami Ben Gharbia (Nawaat.org, and Haythem el Mekki (MosaiqueFM, Attessia TV. The main argument presented here is that the attainment of freedom of the Internet and the success of the revolt created new opportunities for formal political involvement for the cyberactivists as they transited from dissidents under the Ben Ali regime to citizen-participants of a nascent democratic order. A subsidiary argument is that a new generation of Tunisian leadership came to the fore of Tunisia’s private and public spheres to advance the stated aims of the revolution, including inter alia combating unemployment, securing civil liberties, stemming corruption, and the ever deepening of pro-democracy reforms.

  6. Effect of pressurized hot water extraction on antioxidants from grape pomace before and after enological fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Salinas, José R; Bulnes, Pedro; Zúñiga, María Carolina; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís; Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Agosin, Eduardo; Pérez-Correa, José R

    2013-07-17

    Grape pomace was extracted with pressurized hot water at laboratory scale before and after fermentation to explore the effects of fermentation and extraction temperature (50-200 °C) and time (5 and 30 min) on total extracted antioxidant levels and activity and to determine the content and recovery efficiency of main grape polyphenols, anthocyanins, and tannins. Fermented pomace yielded more total antioxidants (TAs), antioxidant activity, and tannins, than unfermented pomace but fewer anthocyanins. Elevating the extraction temperature increased TA extraction and antioxidant activity. Maximum anthocyanin extraction yields were achieved at 100 °C and at 150 °C for tannins and tannin-anthocyanin adducts. Using higher temperatures and longer extraction times resulted in a sharp decrease of polyphenol extraction yield. Relevant proanthocyanidin amounts were extracted only at 50 and 100 °C. Finally, TA recovery and activity were not directly related to the main polyphenol content when performing pressurized hot water grape pomace extraction.

  7. [Diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency, with or without anemia, before and after bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jericó, Carlos; Bretón, Irene; García Ruiz de Gordejuela, Amador; de Oliveira, Ana Carla; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Tinahones, Francisco J; Vidal, Josep; Vilarrasa, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) is an increasingly used therapeutic option for severe obesity which allows patients to achieve sustained weight loss over time and resolution or improvement in most associated pathological conditions. Major mid- and long-term complications of BS include iron deficiency and iron-deficient anemia, which may occur in up to 50% of cases and significantly impair patient quality of life. These changes may be present before surgery. The aim of this review was to prepare schemes for diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency and iron-deficient anemia before and after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of diamond-like carbon films before and after pulsed laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouagner, D.; Beleznai, Cs; Girardeau-Montaut, J. P.; Templier, C.; Gonnord, H.

    2000-02-01

    In this work, we correlate the structural properties of DLC films with their photoelectric properties. DLC layers are deposited on silicon wafers by RF plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (RF PACVD). The films are irradiated with picosecond Nd 3+-YAG laser pulses at different wavelengths (213 and 266 nm) and energies (few μJ to mJ). Photoelectric sensitivity values are reported and compared with those of metals. The DLC coatings are characterized before and after irradiation by IR spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometry in order to observe laser-induced structural modifications of the layers. In situ measurements of work function variations at the surface induced by laser pulses are also reported.

  9. Economic Conditions of Young Adults Before and After the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Transition to adulthood has undoubtedly changed in the last few decades. For youth today, an important marker of adulthood is self-actualization in their professional career, and, consequently, also the achievement of stable financial conditions. Economic conditions of youth are greatly subject to fluctuations in the economy, and the subsequent governmental response. Using the Luxembourg Income Study, this work investigates the trends in income from work of young adults before and after the Great Recession of 2008 in five countries-US, UK, Norway, Germany, and Spain. The findings showed deterioration in economic conditions of young men, but with differences across countries. Young women suffered less from the crisis, and in some countries, their economic situation improved. The general negative trend was especially pronounced for those with high education, which is primarily because they stayed in education longer.

  10. Quality of nursing documentation before and after the Hospital Accreditation in a university hospital 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Aline Tsuma Gaedke; da Silva, Marcos Barragan; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the quality of nursing documentation by comparing the periods before and after the preparation for the hospital accreditation, using the Quality of Nursing Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes - Brazilian version (Q-DIO- Brazilian version). Method: observational study of interventions conducted in a university hospital. Nursing documentation of 112 medical records for the period before and 112 for the period after the hospital accreditation were compared using the Q-DIO instrument - Brazilian version. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: there was a significant improvement in the quality of nursing documentation. When the total score of the instrument was evaluated, a significant improvement was observed in 24 out of the 29 items (82.8%). Conclusion: there was commitment to the shift of culture by means of the interventions carried out, which resulted in the conquest of the quality seal ensured by the Joint Commission International. PMID:27878216

  11. Analysis of Serum proteom before and after Intravenous Injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sik Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To observe changes in the serum proteins before and after intravenous injection of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. Methods : Blood was collected before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture and only the serum was centrifuged. Then differences in the spots on the scanned image after running 2-Dimensional electrophoresis were located and conducted mass analysis and protein identification. Results : Following results were obtained from the comparative analysis of serum proteins before and after the administration of wild ginseng herbal acupuncture. 1. 28 spots were identified before and after the administration. 2. In confirming manifestation degree, spots with more than two-times increase were 204, 803, 1505, 2205, 3105, 7104, 9001 spots, with more than one-time increase were 1101, 1302, 2013, 3009, 3010, 4002, 4009, 6706, 7103, 8006, 8101, and spots with decrease were 205, 801, 3205, 5202, 6105. 3. After conducting protein identification, proteins 205, 804, 1302, 4009, 6105, 6106 are unidentified yet, and 1101 is unnamed protein. Protein 204 is identified as complement receptor CR2-C3d, 801 as YAP1 protein, 803 as antitrypsin polymer, 1505 as PRO0684, 2013 and 3010 as proapolipoprotein, 2205 as USP48, 2403 as vitamin D binding protein, 3009 as complement component 4A preprotein, 3105 as immunoglobulin lambda chain, 3205 as transthyretin, 4002 as Ras-related protein Ral-A, 4204 as beta actin, 5202 and 7104 as apolipoprotein L1, 6704 as alpha 2 macroglobulin precursor, 7103 as complement component 3 precursor, 8006 as testis-specific protein Y, 8101 as transferrin, 9001 as (Alpha-Oxy, Beta-(C112gdeoxy T-State Human Hemoglobin, and 9003 as human hemoglobin. 4. Immune protein CR2-C3d, which acts against microbes and pathogenic organisms, and Antitrypsin(803, which is secreted with inflammatory response in the lungs, were increased by more than 200% after the administration of herbal acupuncture. 5

  12. Evaluation of fecal microorganisms of children with cleft palate before and after palatoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Narciso Almeida; Borgo, Hilton Coimbra; da Silva Dalben, Gisele; Bachega, Maria Irene; Pereira, Paulo Câmara Marques

    2013-01-01

    This study isolated and quantified intestinal bacteria of children with cleft palate before and after palatoplasty. A prospective study was conducted from May 2007 to September 2008 on 18 children with cleft palate, aged one to four years, of both genders, attending a tertiary cleft center in Brazil for palatoplasty, to analyze the effect of surgical palate repair on the concentration of anaerobes Bacteroides sp, Bifidobacterium sp and microaerophiles Lactobacillus sp in feces of infants with cleft palate before and 24 hours after treatment with cefazolin for palatoplasty. There was significant reduction of Lactobacillus sp (p used in palatoplasty might have a significant influence on the microbiota. Considering the important participation of the intestinal microbiota on both local and systemic metabolic and immunological activities of the host, professionals should be attentive to the possible influence of these changes in patients submitted to cleft repair.

  13. Hematologic profile of hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Fernandes de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hematophagous Desmodus rotundus bats play an important role in the rabies lifecycle. This study describes the hematological profile of these bats before and after experimental infection with rabies virus. Methods Cells counts were performed in a Neubauer chamber. Results The average values of erythrocytes and leucocytes counts in blood before experimental infections were 9.97 × 106mm3 and 4.80 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 69.9% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 26.9%. Following the experimental infections, the average numbers of erythrocytes and leucocytes was 9.43 × 106mm3 and 3.98 × 103mm3, respectively. Neutrophils represented 40% of white blood cells and the lymphocytes represented 59%. Conclusions The hematological profile given in this study can serve as reference values for D. rotundus bats.

  14. EVALUATION OF AGGREGATIBACTER ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS LEVELS IN LOCALIZED AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS BEFORE AND AFTER PERIODONTAL SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranyan Ravi, Priya Kesavan, Manovijay Balagangadharan, Raja Arasapan, Nisha N, Ann Joseph Anthraper

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The role of microorganisms in the etiology of periodontal disease is well understood. The association of specific organisms in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease was established by the specific plaque hypothesis. This study examined the effects of periodontal surgery on Aggregatibacteractinomycetemcomitans (Aa levels in localized aggressive periodontitis before and after periodontal surgery. Method: A clinical study was done on 24 male and 16 female patients who underwent surgical periodontal therapy. Bacterial counts were assessed from the plaque samples and gingival specimens. Results: Mean reduction of pre and post operative bacterial counts were statistically significant at 1%.COnclusion: A reduction of bacterial count was observed in plaque and gingival tissue samples after surgery.

  15. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in men with liver cirrhosis before and after liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno T. Zacharias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the influence of end-stage liver disease and orthotopic liver transplantation in the pituitary function and hormone metabolism before and after liver transplantation.Methods: In a prospective study, serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol (E2 and prolactin (PRL of 30 male patients with cirrhosis were determined two to four hours before and six months after liver transplantation. The results were compared according to the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD.Results: male patients with liver cirrhosis have hypogonadism. FSH was normal, but inappropriately low due to androgen failure; E2 and PRL, on their turn, were high. After liver transplantation, FSH and LH levels increased (p 18. The severity of cirrhosis had no influence on FSH, PRL and LH.

  16. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in men with liver cirrhosis before and after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Bruno T; Coelho, Julio C U; Parolin, Mônica B; Matias, Jorge E F; Freitas, Alexandre C T de; Godoy, José Luiz de

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of end-stage liver disease and orthotopic liver transplantation in the pituitary function and hormone metabolism before and after liver transplantation. In a prospective study, serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2) and prolactin (PRL) of 30 male patients with cirrhosis were determined two to four hours before and six months after liver transplantation. The results were compared according to the Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD). male patients with liver cirrhosis have hypogonadism. FSH was normal, but inappropriately low due to androgen failure; E2 and PRL, on their turn, were high. After liver transplantation, FSH and LH levels increased (p 18. The severity of cirrhosis had no influence on FSH, PRL and LH.

  17. Do supranational EU institutions make a difference? EU asylum law before and after ‘communitarization’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll Servent, Ariadna; Trauner, Florian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article examines whether the empowerment of the European Union's (EU) supranational institutions has had an impact on the development of EU asylum. By systematically investigating EU asylum law before and after ‘communitarization’, it argues that its ‘policy core’ has maintained a high degree of continuity. An advocacy coalition under the leadership of the interior ministers managed to co-opt pivotal actors in the newly empowered European Commission and European Parliament. By contenting themselves with changes of secondary order, these EU institutions accepted and institutionalized the restrictive and weakly integrated core of EU asylum set by the Council in the first negotiation round. Their role and decisions were driven not only by the negotiation dynamics and political expediency, but also by new inter- and intra-institutional norms fostering consensual practices. PMID:26924934

  18. Avascular bone necrosis: MR imaging findings before and after core decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, G.; Keulers, P.; Forst, J.; Neuerburg, J.; Kilbinger, M.; Guenther, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    17 patients with avascular epiphyseal necrosis were examined by MRI using T 1 -weighted spin echo sequences before and after gadopentetate dimeglumine application, T 2 -weighted spin echo sequences and in some patients with fat-saturated 2D gradient echo sequences up to 22 months after core decompression. All patients but one recovered from symptoms after core decompression. Although the signal morphology of the necrotic area remained unchanged in the majority of the cases, a decrease of the joint effusion was observed as well as an ongoing signal increase after gadopentetate dimeglumine application. The last examinations displayed similar signal characteristics as on the preoperative scans; however, a reduction of the necrotic zone became evident. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Coronal CT of the paranasal sinuses before and after functional endoscotic sinus surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantoni, M.; Larsen, P.; Hansen, H.; Tos, M.; Berner, B.; Oerntoft, S.

    1996-01-01

    Coronal CT of the paranasal sinuses and the ostiomeatal complex (OMC) was performed before and 12 months after bilateral functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) in 30 patients with sinusitis and 12 patients with nasal polyposis. The extent of sinus mucosal thickening was graded, and the patency of the OMC was evaluated. After FESS, the percentage of open OMCs had increased from 42% to 83% in the sinusitis group, and from 8% to 45% in the polyposis group. There was only a small improvement in mucosal score in sinuses with opened OMC, so that the overall extent of sinus opacification before and after FESS was almost the same. Despite this, 91% of the patients reported clinical relief of symptoms. Preoperative coronal CT of the paranasal sinuses serves as an anatomical map for the surgeon, but there is no benefit of routine postoperative CT. (orig.)

  20. The calcium endocrine system of adolescent rhesus monkeys and controls before and after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, Meena; Deftos, Leonard; Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Dotsenko, Rita; Bigbee, Allison; Grindeland, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The calcium endocrine system of nonhuman primates can be influenced by chairing for safety and the weightless environment of spaceflight. The serum of two rhesus monkeys flown on the Bion 11 mission was assayed pre- and postflight for vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, parameters of calcium homeostasis, cortisol, and indexes of renal function. Results were compared with the same measures from five monkeys before and after chairing for a flight simulation study. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were 72% lower after the flight than before, and more than after chairing on the ground (57%, P endocrine system were similar to the effects of chairing on the ground, but were more pronounced. Reduced intestinal calcium absorption, losses in body weight, increases in cortisol, and higher postflight blood urea nitrogen were the changes in flight monkeys that distinguished them from the flight simulation study animals.

  1. Osteonecroses in children with chronical renal diseases before and after kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, H.C.; Mehls, O.; Willich, E.; Twittenhof, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    From 1969 to 1980 202 children suffering from chronic renal insufficiency underwent treatment in the Children's Hospital of Heidelberg University. In 36 patients kidney transplantations were performed. Two children developed femoral head necroses before transplantation without corticosteroid therapy. Three patients developed femoral head necroses in one or both sides within one to 24 months after kidney transplantation. All children with femoral head necrosis were suffering from congenital renal disease and had a history of servere renal osteodystrophy which was followed by severe coxa vara. Coxa vara and the resulting faulty loading seem to be essential factors for the development of femoral head necrosis in patients with renal insufficiency before and after kidney transplantation. (orig.) [de

  2. Anaphylaxis Preparedness among Preschool Staff before and after an Educational Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A. Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Children with severe food allergies may spend many hours in the preschool setting. Little is known about anaphylaxis recognition and management preparedness among preschool staff. The objective of this study was to assess anaphylaxis preparedness among preschool staff. Methods. Anonymous questionnaires were administered before and after a 40-minute educational seminar on anaphylaxis recognition and management. Results. In total, 181 individuals participated in the preintervention survey and 171 participated in the postintervention survey. The comfort level with recognizing anaphylaxis and administering an epinephrine autoinjector significantly increased after the intervention (P<.001 for both. Of the 5 steps needed to administer an epinephrine autoinjector, staff named a mean (SD of 3 (1.3 steps in the correct order compared with 4.2 (1.1 steps after the educational intervention (P<.001. Conclusion. This study shows that a brief education intervention can significantly increase caregiver comfort regarding identifying anaphylaxis and administering an epinephrine autoinjector.

  3. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  4. Tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking hospitality workers before and after a state smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-04-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3,000 cancer deaths per year. Although several countries and states in the United States have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of nonsmoking employees (n = 24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking before the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues.

  5. Cine MR imaging before and after realignment surgery for patellar maltracking - comparison with axial radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossmann, J.; Muhle, C.; Buell, C.C.; Zieplies, J.; Melchert, U.H.; Brinkmann, G.; Schroeder, C.; Heller, M.

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of motion-triggered cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and conventional radiographs for the assessment of operative results of patellar realignment. Fifteen patients with recurrent patellar dislocation or patellar subluxation were evaluated with conventional axial radiographs before and after realignment surgery by measuring the congruence angle (CA), lateral patellofemoral angle (LPFA), and lateral displacement (d). In eight patients the patellofemoral joint was additionally evaluated pre- and postoperatively with motion-triggered cine MR imaging by determining the bisect offset (BSO), lateral patellar displacement (LPD), and patellar tilt angle (PTA). Significant differences between the pre- and postoperative measurements were found for all MR imaging parameters (BSO, LPD, PTA: p<0.01) but not for the conventional X-ray parameters (CA: p=0.70, LPFA: p=0.56; d: p=0.04). Motion-triggered cine MR imaging was superior to conventional tangential radiographs for assessing the effectiveness of patellar realignment surgery. (orig.)

  6. Pain during sexual activity before and after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolver, Mette A; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    included. Overall, 23% of patients complained preoperatively of pain during sexual activity. Sexual life was affected in moderate-to-severe degree in 17%. Ten percent had pain during sexual activity 6 months after hernia repair. The prevalence of men with pain during sexual activity was not increased after......BACKGROUND: Sexual life may be impaired by pain during sexual activity in patients with inguinal hernia. On the other hand, inguinal hernia repair has also been reported to cause sexual dysfunction in terms of pain during sexual activity and ejaculation. The primary aim of this study...... was to estimate the prevalence of pain during sexual activity before and after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, and the secondary, to describe pain location, frequency of pain during sexual activity, and to which degree sexual life was affected by the pain. Furthermore, to examine whether preoperative pain...

  7. Rectal sonography before and after radiation treatment in inoperable cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutinger, J.; Bernaschek, G.; Tatra, G.

    1989-01-01

    Transrectal sonography is helpful in the classification of parametrial infiltration prior to treatment as well as in the follow-up. In this study, we performed rectal sonography in cases of inoperable cervical cancer to objectify the reduction of the infiltration of the uterine cervix and of the parametrium. Rectosonography was performed in 10 patients with histologically confirmed cancer of the uterine cervix before and after radiation treatment. The patients were treated with brachytherapy and teletherapy with an average radiation dose of 7680 rad. The whole therapy was finished after 6 to 9 weeks. Rectosonography enabled us to objectify the effect of radiation therapy. The length and width of parametrial infiltration could be measured in relation to the pelvis wall. Furthermore, the configuration of the parametrium could be imaged. Therefore, in cervical cancer, rectosonography is a valuable method to check and the documentate the effect of treatment and to diagnose recurrency. (orig.) [de

  8. Characterization of two clays - attapulgite and sepiolite - before and after acid activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Soares, G.A.

    2009-01-01

    Among the special clays, two of them are distinguished by their large surface area: attapulgite and sepiolite. Although, being natural clays, when they are removed from the formation sites, their structural channels may be filled of impurities. The process done to clean these channels is called acid activation. The present work aim to treated samples from both clays by using 3M and 5M HCl solution under ultrasonic waves for 1 hour. The characterization of the clays before and after activation was carried out by SEM/EDS, XRD and surface area measure by method BET. The acid treatments employed were too aggressive, in special that with 5M HCl solution, which results in partial lixiviation of these clays. (author)

  9. Comparison of angiography and intravascular ultrasound before and after balloon angioplasty of the femoropopliteal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankeren, Winnifred van; Gussenhoven, Elma J.; Pieterman, Herman; Sambeek, Marc R. H. M. van; Lugt, Aad van der

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare angiographic and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) data before and after balloon angioplasty (PTA) of the femoropopliteal artery.Methods: Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on corresponding angiographic and IVUS levels obtained from 135 patients.Results: IVUS detected more lesions, calcified lesions, and vascular damage than angiography. Sensitivity of angiography was good for the presence of a lesion (84%), moderate for eccentric lesions (53%) and for vascular damage (52%), and poor for calcified lesions (30%). The increase in angiographic diameter stenosis was associated with a decrease in lumen area and increase in percentage area stenosis on IVUS.Conclusions: Angiography is less sensitive than IVUS for detecting lesion eccentricity, calcified lesions, and vascular damage. Presence of a lesion and amount of plaque were underestimated angiographically. Only before PTA was good agreement found between angiographic diameter stenosis and lumen size on IVUS.

  10. Gravity changes before and after the 2010 Ms7.1 Yushu earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yiqing

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Absolute and relative gravity observations from 1998–2010 from the China Crustal Movement Observation Network, a major national scientific project, have been used to model the gravity field and its variations associated with the April 14, 2010 Ms7. 1 Yushu earthquake. The evolution of the regional gravity field and its relationship with seismicity before and after the Yushu earthquake are studied. The observed gravity changes are closely related to the active Ganzi-Yushu Fault, and gravity measurements can be used to observe the migration of material accompanying active faults and crustal tectonics. The dynamic variation of the gravity field reflects its evolution prior to and during the Yushu earthquake. The gravity measurements near its epicenter are as large as 80×10 −8 m/s2, and they show wave-like increases with time prior to the Yushu earthquake.

  11. Acoustic analysis with vocal loading test in occupational voice disorders: outcomes before and after voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebudek-Bogusz, Ewa; Kotyło, Piotr; Politański, Piotr; Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2008-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of acoustic analysis with vocal loading test for evaluating the treatment outcomes in occupational voice disorders. Fifty-one female teachers with dysphonia were examined (Voice Handicap Index--VHI, laryngovideostroboscopy and acoustic analysis with vocal loading) before and after treatment. The outcomes of teachers receiving vocal training (group I) were referred to outcomes of group II receiving only voice hygiene instructions. The results of subjective assessment (VHI score) and objective evaluation (acoustic analysis) improved more significantly in group I than in group II. The post-treatment examination revealed a decreased percentage of subjects with deteriorated jitter parameters after vocal loading, particularly in group I. Acoustic analysis with vocal loading test can be a helpful tool in the diagnosis and evaluation of treatment efficacy in occupational dysphonia.

  12. The influence of external perturbations on running kinematics and muscle activity before and after accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudum, Anita; Birklbauer, Jürgen; Müller, Erich

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, the running pattern of the lower extremity was examined while being perturbed through tubes attached between the ankles and the lower back to analyze influences on the running pattern variability before and after a varied running intervention. 3D-kinematics, joint coupling and electromyography (EMG), as well as their variability, were analyzed in ten healthy male participants during treadmill running (10.5 km·h(-1)). Pre- and post-tests each consisted of 2 x 30 min treadmill running (one with and one without tubes). The results showed major acute effects on EMG and kinematics, as well as joint coordination variability, due to the constraints (p running below normal running level (p constraint serves to acutely increase variability, but may lead to reduced variability when applied for a longer period of time.

  13. Cine MR imaging before and after realignment surgery for patellar maltracking - comparison with axial radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossmann, J. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der Univ. Kiel (Germany); Muhle, C. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der Univ. Kiel (Germany); Buell, C.C. [Rheumaklinik, Bad Bramstedt (Germany); Zieplies, J. [Lubinus Klinik, Kiel (Germany); Melchert, U.H. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der Univ. Kiel (Germany); Brinkmann, G. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der Univ. Kiel (Germany); Schroeder, C. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der Univ. Kiel (Germany); Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der Univ. Kiel (Germany)

    1995-04-01

    Comparison of motion-triggered cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and conventional radiographs for the assessment of operative results of patellar realignment. Fifteen patients with recurrent patellar dislocation or patellar subluxation were evaluated with conventional axial radiographs before and after realignment surgery by measuring the congruence angle (CA), lateral patellofemoral angle (LPFA), and lateral displacement (d). In eight patients the patellofemoral joint was additionally evaluated pre- and postoperatively with motion-triggered cine MR imaging by determining the bisect offset (BSO), lateral patellar displacement (LPD), and patellar tilt angle (PTA). Significant differences between the pre- and postoperative measurements were found for all MR imaging parameters (BSO, LPD, PTA: p<0.01) but not for the conventional X-ray parameters (CA: p=0.70, LPFA: p=0.56; d: p=0.04). Motion-triggered cine MR imaging was superior to conventional tangential radiographs for assessing the effectiveness of patellar realignment surgery. (orig.)

  14. Complement activation in plasma before and after infliximab treatment in Crohn disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Nielsen, E; Agnholt, J; Thorlacius-Ussing, O

    2003-01-01

    complicated by fistulizing ano-rectal disease was collected before and after three Infliximab infusions (5 mg kg(-1)). RESULTS: Before treatment, the C3-activation capacities (C3-AC) in plasma from patients with Crohn disease were comparable with values obtained from healthy controls. The classical C pathway......-mediated C3-AC, mannan-binding lectin C4-AC, leucocyte count, C-reactive protein concentration and Crohn Disease Activity Index decreased significantly 8 weeks after the first infusion of Infliximab (P ... in plasma from patients with Crohn disease; the decrease observed in the classical pathway-mediated C3-AC after treatment with Infliximab reflects a general down-regulation in immune activation....

  15. Norethindrone acetate or dienogest for the treatment of symptomatic endometriosis: a before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellini, Paolo; Bracco, Benedetta; Mosconi, Paola; Roberto, Anna; Alberico, Daniela; Dhouha, Dridi; Somigliana, Edgardo

    2016-03-01

    To assess the proportion of patients satisfied with their treatment before and after a systematic change from norethindrone acetate to dienogest as the first-line progestin for symptomatic endometriosis. Before and after study. Academic department. The last 90 new consecutive endometriosis patients in whom norethindrone acetate was used, and the first 90 new consecutive endometriosis patients in whom dienogest was used. Norethindrone acetate at the oral dose of 2.5 mg once a day until June 6, 2013, then dienogest at the oral dose of 2 mg once a day thereafter. Degree of satisfaction with treatment after 6 months of progestin therapy and assessment of any variations in pain symptoms, psychological status, sexual function, or health-related quality of life associated with the introduction of dienogest. The proportion of satisfied plus very satisfied women after 6 months of treatment was 71% in the "before" period (norethindrone acetate) and 72% in the "after" period (dienogest). The implementation of dienogest was not associated with statistically significant ameliorations in overall pain relief, psychological status, sexual functioning, or health-related quality of life. Treatment was well tolerated by 58% of norethindrone acetate users compared with 80% of dienogest users. After dienogest implementation, the absolute risk reduction in the occurrence of any side effect was 13.9% (95% confidence interval, 0.8%-28.6%). Considering the large difference in the cost of the two drugs, dienogest should be suggested selectively in women who do not tolerate norethindrone acetate. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fracture Load Before and After Veneering Zirconia Posterior Fixed Dental Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Verónica; Castillo-Oyagüe, Raquel; López-Suárez, Carlos; Gonzalo, Esther; Peláez, Jesús; Suárez-García, María-Jesús

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the fracture load of 3-unit zirconia-based posterior fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) before and after veneering the frameworks. Forty standardized stainless-steel master dies were fabricated (height: 5 mm, convergence: 6º, chamfer: 1 mm) and randomly screwed in pairs onto metal bases. The bases were randomly divided into two groups (n = 20 each) according to the zirconia CAD/CAM system used for constructing 3-unit structures for FDPs: group 1 (L): Lava All-ceramic, group 2 (Z): IPS e.max ZirCAD. Half of the zirconia structures per group were randomly selected and veneered, while the remaining half was left unveneered. The specimens were luted in standard fashion onto the stainless steel master dies using conventional glass ionomer cement. All specimens were tested for fracture load (FL). Specimens were subjected to a three-point bending test until fracture by applying an axial compressive load at the central fossa of the pontics with a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. Wilcoxon's rank-sum test and Weibull statistics were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). L structures recorded significantly higher values of load to fracture than the Z group both before and after veneering. Within each ceramic group, no differences were found between unveneered and veneered frameworks. Although further studies are necessary to corroborate these findings, both zirconia systems could be recommended for restoring posterior teeth on the basis of the fracture load values recorded in this experiment (>1000 N). The veneering procedure did not affect the overall load to fracture in any group. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. Adhesion and internalization differences of COM nanocrystals on Vero cells before and after cell damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn

    2016-02-01

    The adhesion and internalization between African green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells (before and after oxidative damage by hydrogen peroxide) and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) nanocrystals (97 ± 35 nm) were investigated so as to discuss the molecular and cellular mechanism of kidney stone formation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the Vero–COM nanocrystal adhesion; the nanocrystal-cell adhesion was evaluated by measuring the content of malonaldehyde (MDA), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the expression level of cell surface osteopontin (OPN) and the change of Zeta potential. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry were used for the observation and quantitative analysis of crystal internalization. In the process of adhesion, the cell viability and the SOD activity declined, the MDA content, Zeta potential, and the OPN expression level increased. The adhesive capacity of injured Vero was obviously stronger than normal cells; in addition the injured cells promoted the aggregation of COM nanocrystals. The capacity of normal cells to internalize crystals was obviously stronger than that of injured cells. Cell injury increased adhesive sites on cell surface, thereby facilitating the aggregation of COM nanocrystals and their attachment, which results in enhanced risk of calcium oxalate stone formation. - Graphical abstract: The adhesion and internalization differences between Vero cells before and after oxidative damage and calcium oxalate monohydrate nanocrystals were comparatively studied. - Highlights: • Adhesion capacity of injured Vero cells was stronger than normal cells. • Internalization capacity of injured Vero cells was weaker than normal cells. • Injured cells promoted the aggregation of COM nanocrystals. • COM adhesion could aggravate cell injury in both normal and injured cells.

  18. Neural correlates of distraction in borderline personality disorder before and after dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Niedtfeld, Inga; Schmitt, Ruth; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2017-02-01

    Neural underpinnings of emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by limbic hyperactivity and disturbed prefrontal activity. It is unknown whether neural correlates of emotion regulation change after a psychotherapy which has the goal to improve emotion dysregulation in BPD, such as dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT). We investigated distraction as a main emotion regulation strategy before and after DBT in female patients with BPD. Thirty-one BPD patients were instructed to either passively view or memorize letters before being confronted with negative or neutral pictures in a distraction task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. This paradigm was applied before and after a 12-week residential DBT-based treatment program. We compared the DBT group to 15 BPD control patients, who continued their usual, non-DBT-based treatment or did not have any treatment, and 22 healthy participants. Behaviorally, BPD groups and healthy participants did not differ significantly with respect to alterations over time. On the neural level, BPD patients who received DBT-based treatment showed an activity decrease in the right inferior parietal lobe/supramarginal gyrus during distraction from negative rather than neutral stimuli when compared to both control groups. This decrease was correlated with improvement in self-reported borderline symptom severity. DBT responders exhibited decreased right perigenual anterior cingulate activity when viewing negative (rather than neutral) pictures. In conclusion, our findings reveal changes in neural activity associated with distraction during emotion processing after DBT in patients with BPD. These changes point to lower emotional susceptibility during distraction after BPD symptom improvement.

  19. Paediatric resuscitation training: is e-learning the answer? A before and after pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Fenton M

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether an e-learning resuscitation programme was able to improve the knowledge and competence of doctors and nurses in providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation to children in a simulated cardiac arrest. A prospective before and after pilot study comprising of a simulated paediatric resuscitation before and after participants undertook an e-learning programme. Participants were emergency department doctors and new graduate nurses from The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Australia. Primary outcome measures were the ability to perform successful basic life support (BLS) and advanced life support (ALS) according to published guidelines. Secondary outcome measures were the individual steps in performing the overall resuscitation and subjective feedback from participants. Fifty-six clinicians were enrolled in the study (29 doctors and 27 nurses). Thirty-seven were re-tested (25 doctors and 12 nurses). The mean time between tests was 49 days (17 standard deviation). The e-learning module led to an improvement in participants' ability to perform BLS by 51% (P < 0.001) and ALS by 57% (P= 0.001) overall resulting in an overall competence of 89% (BLS) and 65% (ALS). There were also significant improvements in time to rhythm recognition (P= 0.006), time to first defibrillation (P= 0.009) and participants' self-reported knowledge and confidence in BLS and ALS (P < 0.001). E-learning does improve both the knowledge and competence of doctors and nurses in providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation to children in the simulation environment. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. A comparative study on OCT before and after the operation for vitreomacular traction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qi Song

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To make a contrast and then analyze the difference of optical coherence tomography(OCTbefore and after vitreomacular traction syndrome(VTSwas performed. METHODS: The clinical date of 11 evaluable eyes of 11 patients with VTS who were diagnosed by OCT and underwent 25G vitreous surgery from January 2013 to January 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up for an average of 6mo, to observe the visual acuity and OCT examination of the patient before and after operation. We compared the changes of retinal thickness and local morphology before and after operation.RESULTS: After vitreous retraction, 6 eyes improved, 2 eyes do not improve. One eye received macular membrane traction, in the operation the macular epiretinal membrane peeling, retrial membrane stripping and the triamcinolone acetonide intravitreal injection were given, but after the operation, the vision does not improve. Two eyes received vitreous combined with retinal macular membrane traction. In the operation, macular epiretinal membrane stripping was given, after the operation, visual acuity improved. The proportion of those with visual acuity of 0.1 or more increased from 46% before to 73% after the operation. Before operations, the mean central macular thickness was 619.27±195.13μm, 239.12±143.84μm after, which decreased significantly(PCONCLUSION: Vitrectomy can effectively relieve the vitreous traction of the macula, and can prevent further decline in visual acuity and reduce macular edema as well as improve the visual acuity of some patients. So, OCT has important guiding significance on the diagnosis and prognosis of this group.

  1. Marginal integrity of two zirconia-based crowns before and after porcelain veneering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Nikzad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The marginal integrity of fixed restorations always is a major matter of concern for dental clinicians. Any cause of distortion, including veneering processes, in the marginal integrity is supposed to be detrimental for long-term success of fixed dental prostheses. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the marginal adaptation of two different full ceramic restoration systems (Zirkouzahu&Cercon and possible changes in marginal integrity following the multiple veneering process. Materials and Methods: Twelve all-ceramic crowns in the form of coping were fabricated on a pre-made standard metal die with finish line of shoulder preparation from two commercial systems: Cercon® and Zirkonzahn®. The specimens were not cemented. The Crown/Die discrepancy were measured by means of a precise stereo microscope (accuracy±0.1 μm, at various points (n=12 selected along circumferential margin of the restorations. Same procedure was accomplished after applying the veneering porcelain. The mean gap dimensions were calculated and data were analyzed by multivariate (b test. Results: Mean marginal gap dimensions before and after veneering porcelain firing cycles, for Cercon® were (59.67±13.46 µm and (63.75±14.16 µm and for Zirkonzahn® were (65.81±24.37 µm and (64.74±21.94 µm, respectively. Hotelling trace Multivariate(b test method showed that the rate of mismatching marginal integrity in two groups (Cercon® and Zirkonzahn® had no significant difference before and after porcelain firing (P>0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, the marginal integrity of both systems were seems to be within the clinically acceptable standard dimension, i.e. 120μm.The marginal gap of both all-ceramic systems were not affected by veneering porcelain firing cycles.

  2. Change in antihypertensive drug prescribing after guideline implementation: a controlled before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helin-Salmivaara Arja

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antihypertensive drug choices and treatment levels are not in accordance with the existing guidelines. We aimed to assess the impact of a guideline implementation intervention on antihypertensive drug prescribing. Methods In this controlled before and after study, the effects of a multifaceted (education, audit and feedback, local care pathway quality programme was evaluated. The intervention was carried out in a health centre between 2002 and 2003. From each health care unit (n = 31, a doctor-nurse pair was trained to act as peer facilitators in the intervention. All antihypertensive drugs prescribed by 25 facilitator general practitioners (intervention GPs and 53 control GPs were retrieved from the nationwide Prescription Register for three-month periods in 2001 and 2003. The proportions of patients receiving specific antihypertensive drugs and multiple antihypertensive drugs were measured before and after the intervention for three subgroups of hypertension patients: hypertension only, with coronary heart disease, and with diabetes. Results In all subgroups, the use of multiple concurrent medications increased. For intervention patients with hypertension only, the odds ratio (OR was 1.12 (95% CI 0.99, 1.25; p = 0.06 and for controls 1.13 (1.05, 1.21; p = 0.002. We observed no statistically significant differences in the change in the prescribing of specific antihypertensive agents between the intervention and control groups. The use of agents acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system increased in all subgroups (hypertension only intervention patients OR 1.19 (1.06, 1.34; p = 0.004 and controls OR 1.24 (1.15, 1.34; p Conclusions A multifaceted guideline implementation intervention does not necessarily lead to significant changes in prescribing performance. Rigorous planning of the interventions and quality projects and their evaluation are essential.

  3. Radiographic quantitative assessment of cranial tibial subluxation before and after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stanley E; Lewis, Daniel D; Pozzi, Antonio; Seibert, Rachel L; Winter, Matthew D

    2011-03-01

    To determine the influence of stifle joint flexion angle, cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) integrity, tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO), and cranial tibial subluxation on the distance between the location of the origin and insertion of the CrCL (CrCL(d)) in dogs. 4 pairs of pelvic limbs from adult dog cadavers weighing 23 to 34 kg. Procedures-Mediolateral projection radiographs of each stifle joint were obtained with the joint flexed at 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, and 150°. Radiopaque markers were then placed at the sites of origin and insertion of the CrCL. Afterward, radiography was repeated in the same manner, before and after CrCL transection, with and without TPLO. Following CrCL transection, radiographs were obtained before and after inducing overt cranial tibial subluxation. Interobserver variation in measuring the CrCL(d) without fiduciary markers was assessed. The effect of CrCL integrity, cranial tibial subluxation, flexion angle, and TPLO on CrCL(d) was also determined. Interobserver agreement was strong, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.859. The CrCL(d) was significantly shorter (Cranial tibial subluxation caused a 25% to 40% increase in CrCL(d). No effect of TPLO on CrCL(d) was found, regardless of CrCL integrity, forced stifle joint subluxation, or flexion angle. Overt cranial tibial subluxation in CrCL-deficient stifle joints can be detected on mediolateral projection radiographs by comparing CrCL(d) on neutral and stressed joint radiographs at joint angles between 105° and 150°, regardless of whether a TPLO has been performed.

  4. Parenteral Nutrition Electrolyte Abnormalities and Associated Factors Before and After Nutrition Support Team Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Katie; Utech, Anne; Velez, Maria Eugenia; Walker, Renee

    2018-02-01

    Studied since the 1940s, refeeding syndrome still has no universal definition, thus making comparison of studies difficult. Negative outcomes (eg, metabolic abnormalities) may occur with the use of specialized nutrition, such as parenteral nutrition (PN). Less than half of medical institutions have a nutrition support team (NST) managing PN. Interdisciplinary team management of PN may reduce negative outcomes of PN. The objective of this study was to show the value of the NST by measuring differences in PN variables, especially electrolyte abnormalities (EAs), before and after NST initiation at a large medical center and to identify factors associated with EAs among adult subjects receiving PN. During this retrospective study, computerized medical charts (N = 735) from 2007-2010 were reviewed for electrolyte changes (particularly potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus) the first 3 days following PN initiation in hospitalized adults. Changes in EAs with other variables were compared before and after NST implementation. Equivalent samples sizes were collected to better evaluate the impact of the team. Following the implementation of the NST, fewer EAs were seen in PN patients (53%; χ 2  = 10.906, P = .004); significantly less potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium intravenous piggyback supplementation (88.8% vs 94%; χ 2  = 5.05, P = .026) was used; and mortality within 30 days of PN cessation was significantly less (12.7% vs 10.6%, P = .012). Our study complements existing research, finding that an NST was associated with a decreased occurrence of EAs and mortality in the hospitalized adult receiving PN. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  5. Melatonin, cortisol, prolactin, and calcitonin secretion in primary hyperparathyroidism before and after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brismar, K; Werner, S; Bucht, E; Wetterberg, L

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the diurnal secretion of melatonin, cortisol, prolactin, and calcitonin during chronic parathyroid hormone-dependent hypercalcemia. Eight women, aged 40-76 years, with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) were studied before and after surgical removal of a parathyroid adenoma. The hormone concentrations in blood were determined at 08, 12, 16, 22, 02, 04, and 06 h. Concomitantly, the excretion of melatonin and cortisol in urine between 07-19 h and 19-07 h, and the clearance of calcium and creatinine were measured. Nyctohemeral serum prolactin and calcitonin were unaffected by moderate parathyroid hormone-dependent hypercalcemia. In contrast, serum cortisol and melatonin were significantly higher during active disease than after surgical cure. Mean 24-h variation of serum cortisol was 349 +/- 34 nmol/liter vs. 223 +/- 17 nmol/liter and mean serum melatonin was 0.13 +/- 0.04 nmol/liter vs. 0.06 +/- 0.02 nmol/liter. Endogenous creatinine clearance was similar before and after surgery, while the clearance of melatonin and cortisol significantly increased after surgery, indicating an increased tubular reabsorption of both hormones during active disease. Fasting morning glucose concentrations were also significantly decreased after successful surgery, 6.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 5.2 +/- 0.5 mmol/liter. It is suggested that the relative hypercortisolism may be the cause of the glucose intolerance in primary hyperparathyroidism. Three to 4 months after surgical cure the serum melatonin levels were significantly lower than those seen in age-matched controls, indicating a melatonin insufficiency in patients successfully treated for PHPT. The meaning of this finding is not yet understood but might be of importance in the development of primary hyperparathyroidism.

  6. Relationship Between Vertical Jump Height and Swimming Start Performance Before and After an Altitude Training Camp.

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    García-Ramos, Amador; Padial, Paulino; de la Fuente, Blanca; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan; Feriche, Belén

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed (a) to analyze the development in the squat jump height and swimming start performance after an altitude training camp, (b) to correlate the jump height and swimming start performance before and after the altitude training period, and (c) to correlate the percent change in the squat jump height with the percent change in swimming start performance. Fifteen elite male swimmers from the Spanish Junior National Team (17.1 ± 0.8 years) were tested before and after a 17-day training camp at moderate altitude. The height reached in the squat jump exercise with additional loads of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of swimmers' pretest body weight and swimming start performance (time to 5, 10, and 15 m) were the dependent variables analyzed. Significant increases in the jump height (p ≤ 0.05; effect size [ES]: 0.35-0.48) and swimming start performance (p training period were observed. The start time had similar correlations with the jump height before training (r = -0.56 to -0.77) and after training (r = -0.50 to -0.71). The change in the squat jump height was inversely correlated with the change in the start time at 5 m (r = -0.47), 10 m (r = -0.73), and 15 m (r = -0.62). These results suggest that altitude training can be suitable to enhance explosive performance. The correlations obtained between the squat jump height and start time in the raw and change scores confirm the relevance of having high levels of lower-body muscular power to optimize swimming start performance.

  7. Value of Cine-MRI sequences before and after injection in the diagnosis of acute myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidi, Asma; Zairi, Ihsen; Mzoughi, Khadija; Zakhama, Lilia; Kamoun, Ikram; Ben Halima, Afef; Ridene, Imen

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become the examination of choice in case of suspicion of acute myocarditis. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging is very important to establish this diagnosis. Cine MRI sequences are useful for the study of the myocardial contractility.   The purpose is to estimate the value of cine MRI sequences before and after injection for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis compared with late gadolinium enhanced sequences. We prospectively included 40 patients having a high suspicion of acute myocarditis and examined using a 1.5 Tesla CMR. Cine MRI sequences before and after injection were performed. The protocol also include  T2-weighted  short- tau-inversion-recovery (STIR T2) fast spin echo MRI and LGE imaging eight minutes after injection with visual adjustment of inversion time. Delayed enhancement was found among 23 patients. Fifteen patients (65 %) presented a spontaneous hyper signal detected visually on Cine MRI sequences before injection and 11 patients (48 %) on STIR T2. The hyper signal on Cine MRI sequences after injection of gadolinium was the same topography that the late raising at 23 patients. In addition, we highlighted a significant difference between this hyper signal before injection and the left ventricle ejection fraction (p=0.022) as well as with the telesystolic volume of the left ventricle (LV) indexed by the body mass (p=0.039). Our study suggests that Cine MRI sequences after injection are of equal performance in the diagnosis of acute myocarditis as the LGE sequences and its contibution is important when we want to shorten the examination or when inversion time isn't optimal.

  8. Training and support to improve ICD coding quality: A controlled before-and-after impact evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyers, Robin; Ward, Grant; Du Plooy, Shane; Fourie, Stephanus; Evans, Juliet; Mahomed, Hassan

    2017-05-24

    The proposed National Health Insurance policy for South Africa (SA) requires hospitals to maintain high-quality International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for patient records. While considerable strides had been made to improve ICD coding coverage by digitising the discharge process in the Western Cape Province, further intervention was required to improve data quality. The aim of this controlled before-and-after study was to evaluate the impact of a clinician training and support initiative to improve ICD coding quality. To compare ICD coding quality between two central hospitals in the Western Cape before and after the implementation of a training and support initiative for clinicians at one of the sites. The difference in differences in data quality between the intervention site and the control site was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was also used to determine the odds of data quality improvement after the intervention and to adjust for potential differences between the groups. The intervention had a positive impact of 38.0% on ICD coding completeness over and above changes that occurred at the control site. Relative to the baseline, patient records at the intervention site had a 6.6 (95% confidence interval 3.5 - 16.2) adjusted odds ratio of having a complete set of ICD codes for an admission episode after the introduction of the training and support package. The findings on impact on ICD coding accuracy were not significant. There is sufficient pragmatic evidence that a training and support package will have a considerable positive impact on ICD coding completeness in the SA setting.

  9. Training and support to improve ICD coding quality: A controlled before-and-after impact evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Dyers

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The proposed National Health Insurance policy for South Africa (SA requires hospitals to maintain high-quality International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD codes for patient records. While considerable strides had been made to improve ICD coding coverage by digitising the discharge process in the Western Cape Province, further intervention was required to improve data quality. The aim of this controlled before-and-after study was to evaluate the impact of a clinician training and support initiative to improve ICD coding quality. Objective. To compare ICD coding quality between two central hospitals in the Western Cape before and after the implementation of a training and support initiative for clinicians at one of the sites. Methods. The difference in differences in data quality between the intervention site and the control site was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was also used to determine the odds of data quality improvement after the intervention and to adjust for potential differences between the groups. Results. The intervention had a positive impact of 38.0% on ICD coding completeness over and above changes that occurred at the control site. Relative to the baseline, patient records at the intervention site had a 6.6 (95% confidence interval 3.5 - 16.2 adjusted odds ratio of having a complete set of ICD codes for an admission episode after the introduction of the training and support package. The findings on impact on ICD coding accuracy were not significant. Conclusion. There is sufficient pragmatic evidence that a training and support package will have a considerable positive impact on ICD coding completeness in the SA setting.

  10. Hospitalisation of older people before and after long-term care entry in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Michal; Broad, Joanna B; Zhang, Tony Xian; Kerse, Ngaire; Gott, Merryn; Connolly, Martin J

    2016-07-01

    global population projections forecast large growth in demand for long-term care (LTC) and acute hospital services for older people. Few studies report changes in hospitalisation rates before and after entry into LTC. This study compares hospitalisation rates 1 year before and after LTC entry. the Older Persons' Ability Level (OPAL) study was a 2008 census-type survey of LTC facilities in Auckland, New Zealand. OPAL resident hospital admissions and deaths were obtained from routinely collected national databases. all 2,244 residents (66% = female) who entered LTC within 12 months prior to OPAL were included. There were 3,363 hospitalisations, 2,424 in 12 months before and 939 in 12 months after entry, and 364 deaths. In the 6 to 12 months before LTC entry, the hospitalisation rate/100 person-years was 67.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62.5-72.1). Weekly rates then rose steeply to over 450/100 person-years in the 6 months immediately before LTC entry. In the 6 months after LTC entry, the rate fell to 49.1 (CI 44.9-53.3; RR 0.73 (CI 0.65-0.82, P < 0.0001)) and decreased further 6 to 12 months after entry to 41.1 (CI 37.1-45.1; rate ratio [RR] 0.61 (CI 0.54-0.69, P < 0.0001)). increased hospitalisations a few months before LTC entry suggest functional and medical instability precipitates LTC entry. New residents utilise hospital beds less frequently than when at home before that unstable period. Further research is needed to determine effective interventions to avoid some hospitalisations and possibly also LTC entry. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Changes in memory before and after stroke differ by age and sex, but not by race.

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    Wang, Qianyi; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Rist, Pamela M; Walter, Stefan; Capistrant, Benjamin D; Glymour, M Maria

    2014-01-01

    Post-stroke memory impairment is more common among older adults, women and blacks. It is unclear whether post-stroke differences reflect differential effects of stroke per se or differences in prestroke functioning. We compare memory trajectories before and after stroke by age, sex and race. Health and Retirement Study participants aged ≥50 years (n = 17,341), with no stroke history at baseline, were interviewed biennially up to 10 years for first self- or proxy-reported stroke (n = 1,574). Segmented linear regression models were used to compare annual rates of memory change before and after stroke among 1,169 stroke survivors, 405 stroke decedents and 15,767 stroke-free participants. Effect modification was evaluated with analyses stratified by baseline age (≤70 vs. >70), sex and race (white vs. nonwhite), and using interaction terms between age/sex/race indicators and annual memory change. Older (>70 years) adults experienced a faster memory decline before stroke (-0.19 vs. -0.10 points/year for survivors, -0.24 vs. -0.13 points/year for decedents, p memory decrements (-0.64 vs. -0.26 points, p memory decline (-0.15 vs. -0.07 points/year, p = 0.003) after stroke onset, compared to younger adults. Female stroke survivors experienced a faster prestroke memory decline than male stroke survivors (-0.14 vs. -0.10 points/year, p memory scores than nonwhites, race was not associated with rate of memory decline during any period of time; i.e. race did not significantly modify the rate of decline before or after stroke or the immediate effect of stroke on memory. Older age predicted worse memory change before, at and after stroke onset. Sex and race differences in post-stroke memory outcomes might be attributable to prestroke disparities, which may be unrelated to cerebrovascular disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Infinitival before and after-clauses in European Portuguese: temporal and aspectual properties

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    Purificação Silvano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to discuss temporal and aspectual features of sentences with clauses introduced by the connectives antes de + Infinitivo (‘before’ + Infinitive and depois de + Infinitivo (‘after’ + Infinitive combined with situations in the Pretérito Perfeito in European Portuguese. Our discussion is based on the widespread view that these clauses are locating adverbials (cf. Kamp and Reyle (1993 with temporal information of anteriority, in the case of antes de, and posteriority, in the case of depois de. However, this analysis is not as straightforward as one would expect, because, while before-clauses consistently render the same temporal relation (of anteriority, after-clauses may convey a temporal relation of inclusion, in addition to the standard posteriority relation. We put forward the hypothesis that aspectual characteristics play an important role in these differences, insofar as allowing a temporal reading that at first sight is not predicted from the semantic nature of the connective. In order to maintain a uniform treatment of before and after-clauses with respect to their temporal features, accounting simultaneously for the differences that emerge in their linguistic behaviour, we claim, along with Beaver & Condoravdi (2003 and Condoravdi (2010, that the locating time interval provided by these clauses is bounded to the left, but not to the right, that is, what is focused is the initial frontier of the situation that provides the time interval, leaving the final one undetermined. Furthermore, we show that, although the temporal mechanisms are parallel, the interference of aspectual properties leads to interesting differences in the final interpretation of before and after-sentences.

  13. Parenting stress in parents of children with refractory epilepsy before and after vagus nerve stimulation implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sung-Tse; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Kuo, Yung-Ting; Shen, Ein-Yiao; Tsai, Pei-Chieh; Ho, Che-Sheng; Wu, Wen-Hsiang; Chen, Juei-Chao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate parenting stress in parents of children with refractory epilepsy before and after their children received vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) implantation. Parents of children with refractory epilepsy completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) under a psychologist's assessment before and at least 12 months after their children received VNS implantation. The PSI questionnaire measures parenting stress in two domains; a parent domain with seven subscales, and a child domain with six. Age, gender, epilepsy comorbidity, VNS implantation date, seizure frequency, and anticonvulsant history before and after VNS implantation were obtained from reviews of medical charts. In total, 30 parents completed the first and follow-up PSI questionnaires. Seventeen of their children (56.7%) were boys. The children aged from 1 to 12 years (7.43 ± 3.59 years, mean ± SD). After VNS implantation, the mean total parenting stress scores decreased from 282.1 ± 38.0 to 272.4 ± 42.9. A significant decrease was found on the spouse subscale of the parent domain. For the parents of boys, the mean total parenting stress scores decreased significantly. The mean total parenting stress scores also decreased significantly for parents of epileptic children without autism and who did not taper off the number of different anticonvulsants used after VNS. VNS is an advisable choice to treat refractory epilepsy. Our study showed that 12 months or more after VNS implantation, seizure frequency and parenting stress typically decreased. However, in some special cases the parenting stress may increase, and external help may be required to support these patients and their parents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. US residency training before and after the 1997 Balanced Budget Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsberg, Edward; Rockey, Paul H; Rivers, Kerri L; Brotherton, Sarah E; Jackson, Gregory R

    2008-09-10

    Graduate medical education (GME) determines the size and characteristics of the future workforce. The 1997 Balanced Budget Act (BBA) limited Medicare funding for additional trainees in GME. There has been concern that because Medicare is the primary source of GME funding, the BBA would discourage growth in GME. To examine the number of residents in training before and after the BBA, as well as more recent changes in GME by specialty, sex, and type and location of education. Descriptive study using the American Medical Association/Association of American Medical Colleges National GME Census on physicians in Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited programs to examine changes in the number and characteristics of residents before and after the BBA. Differences in the number of physicians in ACGME-accredited training programs overall, by specialty, and by location and type of education. The number of residents and fellows changed little between academic year (AY) 1997 (n = 98,143) and AY 2002 (n = 98,258) but increased to 106,012 in AY 2007, a net increase of 7869 (8.0%) over the decade. The annual number of new entrants into GME increased by 7.6%, primarily because of increasing international medical graduates (IMGs). United States medical school graduates (MDs) comprised 44.0% of the overall growth from 2002 to 2007, followed by IMGs (39.2%) and osteopathic school graduates (18.8%). United States MD growth largely resulted from selection of specialties with longer training periods. From 2002 to 2007, US MDs training in primary care specialties decreased by 2641, while IMGs increased by 3286. However, increasing subspecialization rates led to fewer physicians entering generalist careers. After the 1997 BBA, there appears to have been a temporary halt in the growth of physicians training in ACGME programs; however, the number increased from 2002 to 2007.

  15. Hindlimb kinematics before and after laser fibrotomy in horses with fibrotic myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicek, J; Lopes, M A F; Wilson, D A; Reed, S; Keegan, K G

    2012-12-01

    Fibrotic myopathy can cause incapacitating gait abnormalities. Transection of the fibrotic mass followed by early post operative exercise is the best treatment for fibrotic myopathy. A laser may be used to transect the fibrotic mass. Assessment of the effectiveness of therapies for fibrotic myopathy has been limited to subjective evaluation. To objectively assess gait abnormalities associated with fibrotic myopathy before and after laser fibrotomy followed by early post operative exercise. Kinematic evaluation of horses with fibrotic myopathy walking and trotting on a treadmill was used to investigate hindfeet trajectories (n = 8) and lameness (n = 5) before and after laser fibrotomy Hoof flight trajectory length (HFTL), relative protraction length (% PL), maximum hoof height during swing (MXHH), hoof height at end of protraction (HH(pro)) and retraction (HH(ret)) were measured and differences between fibrotic myopathy affected and nonaffected limbs were calculated. Lameness was quantified by measuring maximum and minimum pelvic height differences between right and left halves of the stride. Before surgery the foot of the fibrotic myopathy affected limb had abnormal trajectories characterised as increased HFTL, MXHH and HH(pro) and decreased % PL and HH(ret) and the 5 horses objectively evaluated for lameness were lame in the fibrotic myopathy affected limb. Immediately after surgery the difference between affected and nonaffected limbs decreased for HFTL, % PL and HH(pro). Six to 11 weeks after surgery, the HFTL difference increased but was still smaller than before surgery, which was interpreted as partial recurrence of the gait abnormality; all horses objectively evaluated for lameness were either improved (n = 1) or not lame (n = 4) in the previously affected, operated limb. Fibrotic myopathy affects the foot flight and leads to asymmetric vertical excursion of the pelvis. Laser fibrotomy followed by early post operative exercise can minimise these

  16. Renal Artery Doppler Findings in the Patients with Polyhydramnios before and after the Conservative Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, Melek; İpek, Ali; Kurt, Aydın; Sayit, Aslı Tanrıvermis; Karaoglanoglu, Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the foetal renal blood flow with colour Doppler ultrasonography. Patients with polyhydramnios were investigated for the foetal renal artery pulsatility index (PI) at the beginning of the treatment, and after the conservative treatment in those who reached the normal amniotic fluid index. In this prospective study, 39 foetuses with polyhydramnios were evaluated at gestational weeks 26 to 36. The foetal development parameters, right and left foetal renal artery PIs, and amniotic fluid index were measured at the beginning of the treatment in all of these patients. Of these patients, 19 who responded to the conservative treatment were also revaluated when their amniotic fluid index reached normal levels, and statistical analyses were performed for the renal artery PIs before and after the treatment. In this study, 19 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria as patients with polyhydramnios who responded to conservative treatment. For these patients, the mean foetal renal artery PI was 2.08 (range 1.5-3.0) at the first sonographic examination, and the mean foetal renal artery PI was 1.94 (range 1.53-2.69) after the conservative treatment. However, there was no statistically significant difference between these two groups (p=0.117). In this study, no statistically significant difference was found in the foetal renal artery PIs of the patients with polyhydramnios before and after the conservative treatment. These results suggest that the renal artery blood flow may not have any effect on the renal artery PI; therefore, these findings indicate that the renal artery PI cannot be used as a marker in the evaluation of polyhydramnios.

  17. Prospective evaluation of quality of life in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis before and after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Luciano N; Avanzi, Osmar

    2014-12-01

    Prospective observational study. To assess patient quality of life before and after surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and determine whether an association exists between quality of life and curve magnitude, curve correction, and type of instrumentation. Assessment of AIS surgery outcomes has always been based on analysis of radiographic measurements and postoperative curve correction. However, there is a current trend toward greater emphasis on patient-centered outcomes. Assessment of treatment success on the basis of these outcomes requires prospective use of quality-of-life surveys before and after AIS treatment. Prospective study of 33 patients undergoing surgical treatment of AIS. Mean age was 15.6 years and mean Cobb angle was 70.5 degrees. Patients were randomly allocated into one of 2 instrumentation groups (hybrid and pedicle screws alone), and the Scoliosis Research Society-30 questionnaire (SRS-30) and Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires were administered preoperatively and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Statistical testing was performed to determine whether survey scores correlated with Cobb angle, curve correction, or type of instrumentation. SRS-30 and SF-36 scores improved significantly. The greatest changes occurred in the self-image and satisfaction with management domains of the SRS-30 survey. SRS-30 and SF-36 scores showed worsening pain and decreased function at 3-month follow-up, but significant improvement from baseline at 12 months. Total SRS-30 scores were significantly improved at 6- and 12-month follow-up, as were subscores in the general health, vitality, and social functioning domains of SF-36. Curve magnitude, percent curve correction, and type of instrumentation had no significant influence on final SRS-30 and SF-36 scores. Surgical treatment of AIS improved patient quality of life, as shown by significant improvement on all SRS-30 and SF-36 domains. Questionnaire scores did not correlate

  18. Sleep Problems Before and After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belguzar Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare patients’ sleep problems before and after acute myocardial infarction (AMI and also to determine factors affecting sleep problems in patients undergoing AMI. METHOD: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Coronary Intensive Care Unit in a training hospital between January 1 and April 30, 2007. The sample of the study was composed of 26 patients with a first-ever AMI. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to determine the patient and illness-related descriptive characteristics and the Post Sleep Inventory Scale (PSIS. The Shapiro-Wilks test, descriptive statistics, paired samples t test, Mann Whitney U test, Wilcoxon test, reliability analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean age of the study group was 53.2 ± 12.6 years and approximately 81% were males. The patients’ mean bedtime (t= -3.422, p= 0.001, quality of nocturnal sleep (t= -3.221, p= 0.001, awakening (t =-3.533, p<0.001 and total PSIS scores (t= -5.652, p<0.001 were significantly higher after AMI compared to before AMI. The mean PSIS scores of patients undergoing AMI were statistically significant different by gender (z= -2.164, p= 0.030 and working status (z= -2.171, p= 0.030. There was a negative correlation between the PSIS score and haemoglobin and haematocrit values (r= -0.503, p<0.01; r= -0.473, p<0.05; respectively. CONCLUSION: There were differences in the patients’ reported sleep problems between before and after AMI. The results of this study showed that sleep problems were more common among women, patients not working and those with anemia. Nurses should be aware of the sleep problems and factors that affect to sleep problems. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 687-694

  19. Evaluation of cranial tibial and extensor carpi radialis reflexes before and after anesthetic block in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudury, Eduardo Alberto; de Figueiredo, Marcella Luiz; Fernandes, Thaiza Helena Tavares; Araújo, Bruno Martins; Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Silva, Amanda Camilo; Santos, Cássia Regina Oliveira; Rocha, Nadyne Lorrayne Farias Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats before and after anesthetic block of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus, respectively, to determine whether they depend on a myotatic reflex arc. Methods Fifty-five cats with a normal neurologic examination that were referred for elective gonadectomy were divided into group 1 (29 cats) for testing the extensor carpi radialis reflex, and group 2 (26 cats) for testing the cranial tibial reflex. In group 1, the extensor carpi radialis reflex was tested after anesthetic induction and 15 mins after brachial plexus block with lidocaine. In group 2, the cranial tibial, withdrawal and patellar reflexes were elicited in 52 hindlimbs and retested 15 mins after epidural anesthesia. Results In group 1, before the anesthetic block, 55.17% of the cats had a decreased and 44.83% had a normal extensor carpi radialis reflex. After the block, 68.96% showed a decreased and 27.59% a normal reflex. No cat had an increased or absent reflex before anesthetic block. In group 2, prior to the anesthetic block, 15.38% of the cats had a decreased cranial tibial reflex and 84.62% had a normal response, whereas after the block it was decreased in 26.92% and normal in 73.08% of the cats. None of the cats had an increased or absent reflex. Regarding the presence of both reflexes before and after anesthetic block, there was no significant difference at 1% ( P = 0.013). Conclusions and relevance The extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats are not strictly myotatic reflexes, as they are independent of the reflex arc, and may be idiomuscular responses. Therefore, they are not reliable for neurologic examination in this species.

  20. Evaluation of functional parameters in the occlusion of complete denture wearers before and after prosthetic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna, Kuć; Teresa, Sierpińska; Maria, Gołębiewska

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate functional parameters of the occlusion in complete denture wearers before and after prosthetic treatment. The sample used as the basis for the present study consisted of 50 healthy Caucasian patients (35 women and 15 men), aged from 44 to 86 years (mean=69.18±10), with a total deficiency of teeth. All patients received new complete dentures. Each patient underwent lateral radiograph with the presence of complete dentures, both before (initially existing dentures) and after the prosthetic treatment (new restorations). Cephalometric analysis was based on the Ricketts and McNamara criteria. In order to assess the functional parameters of the occlusion T-scan III analysis was conducted. The following parameters were measured: occlusion - and disclusion time. Statistically significant differences of functional parameters obtained before and 3 months after the treatment were noted in the whole study group. Both before and after therapy occlusion time was longer in women than in men. No statistically significant link was noted between functional parameters in occlusion and age of the patients, denture wearing time, and edentulous period. Some relationships were noted between occlusion time and cephalometric parameters associated with anterior facial height. Reconstruction of the surface of artificial teeth and vertical occlusal dimension affects the sustainability of parameters of occlusion and balance of forces in centric occlusion. The progressive shortening of occlusion time during the period of monitoring may be considered as a sign of progressive adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flute and Shank Dimensions of Reciprocating Instruments before and after Simulated Root Canal shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Felipe C; Brito, Ana Pp; Veloso, Heloisa Hp; de Alencar, Ana Hg; Decurcio, Daniel de A; de Figueiredo, José Ap; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    This study analyzed the effect of the dimensions of the flute and shank in the first 4 mm of instrument tips on the deformation and dimensional changes of reciprocating instruments after root canal shaping (RCS). The reciprocating instruments used were Reciproc ® R25, R40, and R50; WaveOne ® Small, Primary, and Large; and Unicone ® #20, #25, and #40. Scanning electron microscopy images of the first 4 mm of the tip were acquired at 30× magnification before and after simulated curved root canals were shaped. Each instrument was used only once. The images were transferred to the AxioVision ® software to measure the flute area (μm 2 ), shank area (μm 2 ), flute length (μm), and cross-sectional diameter (μm). Student's t test for paired samples was used to compare differences before and after RCS, and analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test, to compare differences between instruments of similar sizes. The instruments were classified according to deformations after RCS. Reciproc ® instruments had larger flutes and smaller shanks. The Reciproc ® R40 had significant differences in cross-sectional diameter at 0.5 mm from the tip. Reciproc ® had no plastic deformations. Unicone ® #20 instruments had significant differences in cross-sectional diameter at 1.5 and 3.0 mm from the tip, and #25 instruments had differences at 1.5 and 3.0 mm and in length of the second and third flutes. One #20 and three #40 instruments had plastic deformations. The differences in length of the first and fourth flutes of WaveOne ® Primary and in cross-sectional diameter at 2.0 mm from the tip of WaveOne ® Large were significant. Two of three WaveOne ® Large instruments had plastic deformations. Reciproc ® instruments had greater flute areas and lengths and smaller shanks than Unicone ® and WaveOne ® instruments of similar sizes. Reciproc ® instruments had a greater flute-to-shank ratio. WaveOne ® instruments had the lowest flute-to-shank ratio. Unicone ® instruments

  2. Prescription errors before and after introduction of electronic medication alert system in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Usha; Kannikeswaran, Nirupama; Murray, Kyle P; Zidan, Marwan A; Chamberlain, James M

    2015-06-01

    Prescription errors occur frequently in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs).The effect of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) with electronic medication alert system (EMAS) on these is unknown. The objective was to compare prescription errors rates before and after introduction of CPOE with EMAS in a PED. The hypothesis was that CPOE with EMAS would significantly reduce the rate and severity of prescription errors in the PED. A prospective comparison of a sample of outpatient, medication prescriptions 5 months before and after CPOE with EMAS implementation (7,268 before and 7,292 after) was performed. Error types and rates, alert types and significance, and physician response were noted. Medication errors were deemed significant if there was a potential to cause life-threatening injury, failure of therapy, or an adverse drug effect. There was a significant reduction in the errors per 100 prescriptions (10.4 before vs. 7.3 after; absolute risk reduction = 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2 to 4.0). Drug dosing error rates decreased from 8 to 5.4 per 100 (absolute risk reduction = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.8 to 3.4). Alerts were generated for 29.6% of prescriptions, with 45% involving drug dose range checking. The sensitivity of CPOE with EMAS in identifying errors in prescriptions was 45.1% (95% CI = 40.8% to 49.6%), and the specificity was 57% (95% CI = 55.6% to 58.5%). Prescribers modified 20% of the dosing alerts, resulting in the error not reaching the patient. Conversely, 11% of true dosing alerts for medication errors were overridden by the prescribers: 88 (11.3%) resulted in medication errors, and 684 (88.6%) were false-positive alerts. A CPOE with EMAS was associated with a decrease in overall prescription errors in our PED. Further system refinements are required to reduce the high false-positive alert rates. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Measurements of cesium in Arctic beluga and caribou before and after the Fukushima accident of 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, T J; Gamberg, M; Loseto, L; Pellerin, E; Bergman, L; Mercier, J-F; Genovesi, L; Cooke, M; Todd, B; Sandles, D; Whyte, J; Wang, X

    2016-10-01

    Concern from northern communities following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident of March 2011 has prompted a reassessment of the safety of their traditional foods with respect to radioactivity levels. To this end, a study was conducted to measure the levels of radionuclides in Arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). The main radionuclide of concern is cesium-137, which is easily transferred through the lichen-caribou food chain. Previous studies have been conducted on the cesium-137 levels in Canadian caribou herds from 1958 to 2000, allowing researchers to determine the amount of cesium-137 in caribou specifically attributable to atmospheric weapons testing and the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. In this study, samples of lichens, mushrooms, caribou, beluga and beluga prey collected before and after the Fukushima accident were analyzed for radioactivity levels. Samples were processed and measured using gamma ray spectroscopy to identify the radionuclides present and determine the radioactivity concentration. Both calibration standards and Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the efficiency of the detectors for the samples, taking into account differences in individual sample sizes as well as matrices. In particular, a careful analysis of the atomic composition of lichens and mushrooms was performed to ensure the efficiencies for these sample types were correct. A comparison of the concentrations from before and after the accident indicated that there was no increase in radioactivity as a result of the atmospheric plume from the Fukushima accident. Some cesium-137, likely attributable to fallout from atmospheric weapons testing of the 1950s and 1960s (since there was no cesium-134 measured in the samples), was measured in the post Fukushima caribou and beluga whale samples; however, this amount was determined to be insignificant for any radiological concern (9.1 ± 1.8 and 0.63 ± 0.23 Bq kg -1  ww respectively

  4. Radiocesium in Canadian Arctic Beluga and Caribou Before and After the Fukushima Accident of 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocki, Trevor J.; Pellerin, Eric; Bergman, Lauren; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Genovesi, Linda; Cooke, Michael; Todd, Bonnie; Sandles, Diane; Whyte, Jeff [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, AL6302D, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0K9 (Canada); Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Whitehorse, Yukon (Canada); Loseto, Lisa [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Wang, X. [Environment Canada, Burlington Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011, northern Canadians expressed concerns about the levels of radioactive contaminants in important traditional foods. Therefore, a study has been conducted to measure the levels of radionuclides in Arctic caribou and beluga whales. The main radionuclide of concern is cesium-137, which has a half-life of 30 years and is chemically similar to potassium, thereby easily accumulating in plants and animals. Cesium-137 was released into the atmosphere during nuclear weapons tests in the 1950's-60's and during nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl. Previous studies have been made on the cesium-137 levels in Canadian caribou herds from 1958 to 2000, allowing researchers to determine the amount of cesium-137 in caribou specifically attributable to atmospheric weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident. Samples of lichens, mushrooms, caribou and beluga whales taken before and after the Fukushima accident were freeze dried, homogenized, and measured using gamma ray spectroscopy to identify the radionuclides present and determine the radioactivity concentration in the samples. To determine the efficiency of the detectors for the different sized samples, physical calibration standards were used and virtual simulations were also performed. A comparison of the caribou samples from before and after the accident has indicated no increase in radioactivity as a result of the Fukushima accident. Results are consistent with pre-Fukushima levels for these caribou. No Cs-137 was found in the pre-Fukushima beluga whale samples, even if all the measurements were combined into one spectrum. In the individual post-Fukushima beluga whale samples, Cs-137 was also not found. However, when the post-Fukushima beluga whale measurements were combined, an insignificant amount of radioactive Cs-137 was found. The amount of this Cs-137 was about 200 times smaller than the natural radioactive potassium in the samples. Most likely the

  5. [Corrosion property and oxide film of dental casting alloys before and after porcelain firing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Wu, Feng-ming

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the types and compositions of oxide films formed during porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) firing on three kinds of dental casting alloys, and to investigate the corrosion property of these alloys in Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium (DMEM) cell culture fluid, before and after PFM firing. Specimens of three dental casting alloys (Ni-Cr, Co-Cr and Ni-Ti) before and after PFM firing were prepared, and were immersed in DMEM cell culture fluid. After 30 days, the type and concentration of released metal ions were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for analysis of oxide film on the alloys. One way-ANOVA was adopted in data analysis. The total amount of metal ions released from the three dental alloys was found to be highest in Ni-Cr alloy [(2.829 ± 0.694) mg/L], followed by Co-Cr [(2.120 ± 0.418) mg/L] and Ni-Ti alloy [(1.211 ± 0.101) mg/L]. The amount of Ni ions released from Ni-Cr alloys [(1.531 ± 0.392) mg/L] was higher than that from Ni-Ti alloys [(0.830 ± 0.052) mg/L]. The amount of Cr, Mo ions released from Co-Cr alloy [Cr: (0.048 ± 0.011) mg/L, Mo: (1.562 ± 0.333) mg/L] was higher than that from Ni-Cr alloy [Cr: (0.034 ± 0.002) mg/L, Mo: (1.264 ± 0.302) mg/L] and Ni-Ti alloy [Cr: (0.013 ± 0.006) mg/L, Mo: (0.151 ± 0.026) mg/L] (P metal irons released from the three dental alloys decreased [Ni-Cr: (0.861 ± 0.054) mg/L, Co-Cr: (0.695 ± 0.327) mg/L, Ni-Ti: (0.892 ± 0.115) mg/L] (P alloys after PFM firing. The amount of ions released from Ni-Cr alloy was the highest among the three dental casting alloys, this means Ni-Cr alloy is prone to corrode. The PFM firing process changed the alloys' surface composition. Increased Ni, Cr and Mo were found in oxide film, and the increase in Cr(2)O(3) can improve the corrosion-resistance of alloys.

  6. Carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in drained tropical peat before and after hydrological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Limin, Suwido; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Vasander, Harri

    2008-12-01

    Present tropical peat deposits are the outcome of net carbon removal from the atmosphere and form one of the largest terrestrial organic carbon stores on the Earth. Reclamation of pristine tropical peatland areas in Southeast Asia increased strikingly during the last half of the 20th century. Drainage due to land-use change is one of the main driving factors accelerating carbon loss from the ecosystem. Dams were built in drainage-affected peatland area canals in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, in order to evaluate major patterns in gaseous carbon dioxide and methane fluxes and in peat hydrology immediately before and after hydrologic restoration. The sites included peat swamp forest and deforested burned area, both affected by drainage for nearly 10 years. Higher annual minimum soil water table levels prevailed on both sites after restoration; the deforested site water table level prevailed considerably longer near the peat surface, and the forest water table level remained for a longer period in the topmost 30 cm peat profile after restoration. Forest soil gas fluxes were clearly higher in comparison to the deforested area. Cumulative forest floor CO2 emissions (7305-7444 g x m(-2) x yr(-1); 166.0-169.2 mol CO2 x m(-2) x yr(-1)) and the deforested site CO2 emissions (2781-2608 g x m(-2) x yr(-1); 63.2-59.3 mol CO2 x m(-2) x yr(-1)) did not markedly reflect the notably differing hydrological conditions the year before and after restoration. The forest floor was a weak CH4 sink (-0.208 to -0.368 g x m(-2) x yr(-1); -13.0 to -22.9 mmol CH4 x m(-2) x yr(-1)) and the deforested site a comparable CH4 source (0.197-0.275 g x m(-2) x yr(-1); 12.3-17.1 mmol CH4 x m(-2) x yr(-1)) in the study period. In general, higher soil water table levels had a relatively small effect on the annual CH4 emission budgets. In the two site types the gas flux response into hydrological conditions in degraded tropical peat can be attributed to differing CO2 and CH4 dynamics, peat physical

  7. Changes over time in mental well-being, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity in a community-based lifestyle intervention: a before and after study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R.; Robertson, W.; Towey, M.; Stewart-Brown, S.; Clarke, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: There is a theoretical basis for believing that healthy lifestyle interventions can improve mental well-being and evidence to show that mental well-being is protective of future health. This study contributes to the evidence base by examining changes in mental well-being associated with the One Body One Life (OBOL) healthy lifestyle programme in a community setting in the West Midlands. Study design: Quantitative, before and after the evaluation. Methods: We conducted a before and...

  8. Neuroimaging-use trends in nonacute pediatric headache before and after clinical practice parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, William D; Kayyali, Husam R; Alexander, John J; Simon, Steven D; Morriss, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine trends in diagnostic neuroimaging-use rates in nonacute pediatric headache before and after publication of clinical practice guidelines. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was conducted of neuroimaging rates for 725 children and adolescents who were aged 3 to 18 years with nonacute headache and normal neurologic examination and were evaluated in a single pediatric neurology clinic during study years 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004. Following recommendations of current practice parameters, patients with conditions that justify consideration for neuroimaging (eg, progressive headache, abnormal neurologic examination) were excluded from this analysis. We recorded the origin of any neuroimaging request at the time of the clinic visit and any abnormal neuroimaging findings that led to major clinical consequences. Overall, the mean rate of neuroimaging for patients with nonacute headache was 45%. Use rates remained steady during the 13-year study period (range: 41%-47%). The majority of neuroimaging studies were ordered originally by primary care providers. The proportion of neuroimaging studies that were ordered by primary care providers increased significantly from 1992 to 2004. In the evaluation of patients who had nonacute pediatric headache and were referred to a child neurology clinic, neuroimaging-use rates remained stable during the past decade. An increasing proportion of neuroimaging studies are ordered by primary care providers. The influence of evidence-based medicine on medical decision-making may be partly responsible for curbing increases in neuroimaging overuse. The perceived value of neuroimaging by physicians and consumers deserves ongoing study.

  9. Blood volume of nonsplenectomized and splenectomized cats before and after acute hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznock, E.M.; Strack, D.

    1982-01-01

    Blood volume (BV) was determined in awake, nonsplenectomized (NSPX) and splenectomized (SPX) cats before and after hemorrhage (6 ml/kg). Each NSPX cat had a determined BV at least 10 ml/kg greater than the same cat after splenectomy. The mean BV of SPX cats was 43.4 +/- 8.94. ml kg (4.3% of body weight). The calculated RBC masses of NSPX and SPX cats were 17.0 +/- 4.07 and 12.2 +/- 1.12 ml/kg, respectively. Each NSPX cat had apparent RBC masses of 5 ml/kg greater than that of the same cat after splenectomy was done. At 1 hour after a hemorrhage, the BV and RBC masses determined in SPX cats were 46.7 +/- 12.1 and 9.7 +/- 1.90 ml/kg, respectively. Extravascular-to-intravascular fluid flux (calculated from RBC masses and plasma protein dilution) was approximately 0.80% of body weight. The indirect method with 51 Cr-labeled RBC for BV determination was accurate and precise in awake, SPX cats; in awake, NSPX cats, the 51 Cr-labeled RBC dilution method was precise, but not accurate. The spleen in the cat resulted in marked overestimations of BV and RBC masses

  10. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Comparison of adhesion molecule levels before and after levothyroxine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgir, Ferda; Bilgir, Oktay; Calan, Mehmet; Calan, Ozlem; Isikyakar, Tolgay

    2014-06-01

    Adhesion molecules are involved in inflammation, atherosclerosis and malignancy. This study measured levels of adhesion molecules before and after levothyroxine therapy in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHO). Levels of soluble (s) intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, s vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM) VCAM-1 and sE-selectin were analysed in patients diagnosed with SHO, prior to administration of 50 µg/day levothyroxine orally for 3 months. Subsequently, levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and sE-selectin were reanalysed then compared with the pretreatment levels. In 30 patients with SHO, levels of sICAM-1 were found to be significantly higher than those in healthy controls, (P = 0.001). Post-treatment sICAM-1 levels were significantly lower than pretreatment levels (P = 0.001). No significant differences were found in sVCAM-1 or sE-selectin levels between healthy controls and patients with SHO before treatment, or between patients with SHO pre- and post-treatment. Patients with SHO had significantly higher levels of sICAM-1 compared with controls. Levels became normal after treatment with levothyroxine. These findings emphasize the need for levothyroxine therapy in cases of SHO to normalize sICAM-1 levels. Such treatment helps to prevent the future development of atherosclerosis or cancer. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EMOTIONAL DISORDERS STRUCTURE IN PATIENTS BEFORE AND AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Mikhaylichenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Being based on a private experience, authors considered necessary to study features of emotional disorders that will allow understanding the mechanism of mental adaptation to disease at patients before and after OLT. In comparative research of structure of emotional frustration at the patients making the most numerous groups of patients before transplantation of a liver (viral hepatitis and autoimmune liver diseases, 129 persons, from them 75 before OLT are included at entering into a waiting list and 54 to through 22 ± 9 days after OLT. Distinctions in structure of emotional frustration are revealed: at patients with autoimmune liver diseases be- fore OLT and viral hepatitis after OLT the semiology combined with disturbing-depressive experiences and hypochondriac fixings is brightly expressed neurotic, them distinguishes high level of personal uneasiness. For patients with autoimmune liver diseases after OLT and viral hepatitis before OLT are characteristic moderately expressed neurotic frustration of an asthenia circle and low level of personal and situational anxiety. 

  12. Quantitative law describing market dynamics before and after interest-rate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-06-01

    We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)∼(t-T)(-Ω) , with Ω positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n'(|t-T|) of "preshocks" before the interest-rate change at time T . This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the "sign effect," in which "bad news" has a larger impact than "good news." Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a "market under-reaction" that lasts at least one trading day.

  13. Mechanical and Microstructural Evaluations of Lightweight Aggregate Geopolymer Concrete before and after Exposed to Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Omar A; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2013-10-09

    This paper presents the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of a lightweight aggregate geopolymer concrete (LWAGC) synthesized by the alkali-activation of a fly ash source (FA) before and after being exposed to elevated temperatures, ranging from 100 to 800 °C. The results show that the LWAGC unexposed to the elevated temperatures possesses a good strength-to-weight ratio compared with other LWAGCs available in the published literature. The unexposed LWAGC also shows an excellent strength development versus aging times, up to 365 days. For the exposed LWAGC to the elevated temperatures of 100 to 800 °C, the results illustrate that the concretes gain compressive strength after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Afterward, the strength of the LWAGC started to deteriorate and decrease after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 400 °C, and up to 800 °C. Based on the mechanical strength results of the exposed LWAGCs to elevated temperatures of 100 °C to 800 °C, the relationship between the exposure temperature and the obtained residual compressive strength is statistically analyzed and achieved. In addition, the microstructure investigation of the unexposed LWAGC shows a good bonding between aggregate and mortar at the interface transition zone (ITZ). However, this bonding is subjected to deterioration as the LWAGC is exposed to elevated temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 °C by increasing the microcrack content and swelling of the unreacted silicates.

  14. Quantitive study for retinal function before and after photocoagulation in patients with diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xue Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the retinal function in patients with diabetic macular edema after photocoagulation. METHODS: A total of 30 eyes in 19 patients with diabetic macular edema(DME, who were diagnosed through fundus fluorescein angiography, consecutively recruited from March 2010 to March 2014 and were treated with macular grid pattern photocoagulation. Multifocal electroretinogram(mfERGsystem(version 3.15was performed before and after photocoagulation therapy for 3mo. All data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The amplitude densities of a-ware and b-ware for the fovea increased after macular grid pattern photocoagulation therapy, and there were significantly changes relative to its preoperation(t=-3.7683, Pt=-3.6570, Pt=1.7103, P>0.05; t=1.5623, P>0.05 . Compared with pretreatment, the amplitude densities of a-ware and b-ware at macular were statistically larger(t=4.8337, Pt=-2.0376, Pt=-2.1892, Pt=-3.5024, Pt=-1.4387, P>0.05; t=-0.1766, P>0.05. It was significant longer in the latency of a-wave and b-wave at paramacular after photocoagulation(t=-2.0905, Pt=-2.5646, PCONCLUSION: The laser photocoagulation treatment for DME can improve the retinal function at fovea, which benefits the vision acuity. Unfortunately,it induces extensively damaging effects on the macula and paramacular.

  15. Changes in cigarette expenditure minimising strategies before and after a cigarette tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Boyle, Raymond G

    2018-01-01

    Smokers use cigarette expenditure minimising strategies (CEMS) to alleviate the effect of tax increases on their cigarette expenses. We examined changes in smokers' CEMS use before and after a 2013 Minnesota $1.75 cigarette tax increase. Data were from representative samples of smokers who participated in the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey 2010 (n=948) and 2014 (n=1229). Participants indicated CEMS used in the past year from a list. Weighted multiple logistic regressions were used to examine changes in prevalence of each CEMS use over time adjusting for demographics and cigarette consumption. Characteristics associated with CEMS use in 2014 were examined. Between 2010 and 2014, more smokers tried to save money on cigarettes by rolling their own cigarettes (from 19% to 29%), using other tobacco products (from 13% to 25%), and buying cigarettes from cheaper places (from 48% to 55%). Yet, fewer smokers used coupons/promotions (from 63% to 50%) and bought cigarettes by the carton (from 39% to 32%). These changes varied somewhat by race/ethnicity and education, for example, more smokers with tax increase. Regulations that would reduce CEMS use could boost the effectiveness of cigarette tax increases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Welding-induced microstructure in austenitic stainless steels before and after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoenescu, R.; Schaeublin, R.; Gavillet, D.; Baluc, N.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the microstructure of welded joints made of austenitic stainless steels have been investigated. The materials were welded AISI 304 and AISI 347, so-called test weld materials, and irradiated with neutrons at 300 deg. C to 0.3 and 1.0 dpa. In addition, an AISI 304 type from a decommissioned pressurised water reactor, so-called in-service material, which had accumulated a maximum dose of 0.35 dpa at about 300 deg. C, was investigated. The microstructure of heat-affected zones and base materials was analysed before and after irradiation, using transmission electron microscopy. Neutron diffraction was performed for internal stress measurements. It was found that the heat-affected zone contains, relative to the base material, a higher dislocation density, which relates well to a higher residual stress level and, after irradiation, a higher irradiation-induced defect density. In both materials, the irradiation-induced defects are of the same type, consisting in black dots and Frank dislocation loops. Careful analysis of the irradiation-induced defect contrast was performed and it is explained why no stacking fault tetrahedra could be identified

  17. Welding-induced microstructure in austenitic stainless steels before and after neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoenescu, R.; Schäublin, R.; Gavillet, D.; Baluc, N.

    2007-02-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the microstructure of welded joints made of austenitic stainless steels have been investigated. The materials were welded AISI 304 and AISI 347, so-called test weld materials, and irradiated with neutrons at 300 °C to 0.3 and 1.0 dpa. In addition, an AISI 304 type from a decommissioned pressurised water reactor, so-called in-service material, which had accumulated a maximum dose of 0.35 dpa at about 300 °C, was investigated. The microstructure of heat-affected zones and base materials was analysed before and after irradiation, using transmission electron microscopy. Neutron diffraction was performed for internal stress measurements. It was found that the heat-affected zone contains, relative to the base material, a higher dislocation density, which relates well to a higher residual stress level and, after irradiation, a higher irradiation-induced defect density. In both materials, the irradiation-induced defects are of the same type, consisting in black dots and Frank dislocation loops. Careful analysis of the irradiation-induced defect contrast was performed and it is explained why no stacking fault tetrahedra could be identified.

  18. Clinical variables associated with suicide attempts in schizophrenia before and after the first episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togay, Bilge; Noyan, Handan; Tasdelen, Rumeysa; Ucok, Alp

    2015-09-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate variables associated with suicide attempts in schizophrenia before and after the first episode. We evaluated history of past sucide attempts, clinical symptoms, level of functioning and cognitive performances of 172 patients with first-episode schizophrenia at first admission. Information was collected regarding clinical symptom severity, treatment compliance, and suicide attempts during the follow-up. We found that 16.5% of the patients attempted suicide before admission, and 6.2% of them attempted suicide during the follow-up. The patients who had attempted suicide before admission were mostly women, and more likely to be hospitalized in first year of follow up. BPRS-depression subscale score at admission and alcohol/substance use appeared as independent variables that found associated with suicide attempts prior to admission in logistic regression analysis. The patients who attempted suicide during the follow-up had significantly higher BPRS-depression subcale scores at sixth months of follow-up. Treatment compliance during the first 6 months and duration of remission was lower in this group. Our findings suggest that longer duration of first hospital treatment, the presence of depressive symptoms, and nonadherence to treatment in early phases of follow up after FES are predictors of suicide attempts. On the other hand, keeping remission during the follow-up protects against suicide attempts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clearance of aerosolized 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentacetate before and after smoke inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.R.; Grossman, Z.D.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.; Warner, F.

    1988-01-01

    The pulmonary clearance of aerosolized /sup 99m/Tc-diethylenetriaminepentacetate (DTPA) was studied in mongrel dogs immediately after exposure to wood smoke to see if a sensitive, objective way of assessing the degree of pulmonary injury might be found. Animals were studied in four groups as follows: control, following five minutes, two minutes, and 15 seconds of smoke exposure. Chest roentgenograms and 133 Xe scans were taken before and after smoke exposure. The DTPA clearance was more sensitive in detecting injury than either of these imaging techniques. The DTPA clearance rates increased in a dose responsive way following smoke inhalation: 2.4 percent and 12.1 percent excreted per minute for control animals and those exposed to five minutes of smoke, respectively. Seven patients in a clinical trial of DTPA following smoke exposure are described; their DTPA clearance rates were all normal, although five were active cigarette smokers. Despite encouraging results in animal experiments, DTPA clearance studies may be of little practical value in the clinical setting of acute inhalation injury

  20. Equity Returns and Volatilities Before and After the 2007-08 Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Lidija

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the linkages among equity markets of four European countries (Germany, France, Italy, UK and the USA in terms of market returns and transmission of volatilities. We use daily exchange traded funds (ETF data from January 2002 to March 2016 and utilize both a Multivariate Autoregressive Moving Average model (MARMA and a Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity model (GARCH. We divided the data into three separate periods: before the 2007-08 financial crisis, during the crisis and after the crisis. The results show the existence of significant co-movement of returns in all three selected periods although some important differences before and after the financial crisis are noted. Findings also include marked increases in integration of the markets and thus diminishing diversification opportunities for investors. Volatilities appear to react strongly to market movements and their shocks fade away slowly in all five countries during the crisis period. There is also strong evidence of volatility spillovers particularly during and after the crisis periods.

  1. Hospital employee assault rates before and after enactment of the california hospital safety and security act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Nocera, Maryalice; Smith, Jamie B; Blando, James; Goldmacher, Suzi; O'Hagan, Emily; Valiante, David; Harrison, Robert

    2009-02-01

    This study examines changes in violent event rates to hospital employees before and after enactment of the California Hospital Safety and Security Act in 1995. We compared pre- and post-initiative employee assault rates in California (n = 116) emergency departments and psychiatric units with those in New Jersey (n = 50), where statewide workplace violence initiatives do not exist. Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations was used to compare assault rates between a 3-year pre-enactment period (1993-1995) and a 6-year post-enactment period (1996-2001) using New Jersey hospitals as a temporal control. Assault rates among emergency department employees decreased 48% in California post-enactment, compared with emergency department employee assault rates in New Jersey (rate ratio [RR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31, 0.90). Emergency department employee assault rates decreased in smaller facilities (RR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.96) and for-profit-controlled hospitals (RR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.79) post-enactment. Among psychiatric units, for-profit-controlled hospitals (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.85) and hospitals located in smaller communities (RR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.92) experienced decreased assault rates post-enactment. Policy may be an effective method to increase safety to health care workers.

  2. Presence of Serum Ferritin before and after Bariatric Surgery: Analysis in Dentate and Edentulous Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foratori, Gerson Aparecido; Andrade, Francisco Juliherme Pires de; Mosquim, Victor; Sales Peres, Matheus de Carvalho; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Sales Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Society has changed its own lifestyle, specially its eating habits and physical activities, leading to excessive weight and a sedentary behavior, which has contributed to obesity increase. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to obesity, allowing weight loss and its maintenance. However, it has been related high levels of iron deficiency after surgery. A person's nutritional status might be affected by total or partial tooth loss. The aim of this longitudinal prospective cohort study was to evaluate the levels of serum ferritin before and after bariatric surgery and to identify if there is a relation with tooth loss. The sample was composed of 50 patients selected and assisted at Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in Jaú city, Brazil. The use and necessity of prosthesis, dental absence or presence, and serum ferritin dosage were evaluated. Student's t test, Univariate analysis, Chi-square and Odds Ratio were adopted (psurgery (p = 0.436). After surgery, the serum ferritin levels were higher in edentulous patients (prosthesis users) when compared to the pre-surgical levels, and the post-surgical levels presented significant difference regarding the dentate patients (p = 0.024). It can be concluded that rehabilitated patients in postoperative period showed better levels of serum ferritin after surgical intervention.

  3. Presence of Serum Ferritin before and after Bariatric Surgery: Analysis in Dentate and Edentulous Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Aparecido Foratori

    Full Text Available Society has changed its own lifestyle, specially its eating habits and physical activities, leading to excessive weight and a sedentary behavior, which has contributed to obesity increase. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to obesity, allowing weight loss and its maintenance. However, it has been related high levels of iron deficiency after surgery. A person's nutritional status might be affected by total or partial tooth loss. The aim of this longitudinal prospective cohort study was to evaluate the levels of serum ferritin before and after bariatric surgery and to identify if there is a relation with tooth loss. The sample was composed of 50 patients selected and assisted at Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in Jaú city, Brazil. The use and necessity of prosthesis, dental absence or presence, and serum ferritin dosage were evaluated. Student's t test, Univariate analysis, Chi-square and Odds Ratio were adopted (p<0.05. There was no significant difference regarding the serum ferritin levels between dentate and edentulous patients prior to surgery (p = 0.436. After surgery, the serum ferritin levels were higher in edentulous patients (prosthesis users when compared to the pre-surgical levels, and the post-surgical levels presented significant difference regarding the dentate patients (p = 0.024. It can be concluded that rehabilitated patients in postoperative period showed better levels of serum ferritin after surgical intervention.

  4. Quantification of reversible perfusion abnormality using exercise-stress thallium SPECT before and after coronary revascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Kazuhiko; Nakata, Tomoaki; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi

    1994-01-01

    Reversible myocardial perfusion abnormality was quantified by bull's eye and unfolded surface mapping methods in exercise thallium SPECT before and after coronary revascularization in 47 patients with angina pectoris, including 34 patients with previous myocardial infarction (PMI) and 13 with effort angina (AP). There was no difference in the incidence or extent of myocardial ischemia between the 2 groups before revascularization. However, the ischemic scores were significantly smaller in PMI group preoperatively than the reductions of the ischemic scores after revascularization. The ischemic scores, preoperatively estimated reversible perfusion abnormality was 32%, 69% and 48% of the improvement of the ischemic score (extent score, severity score, and ischemic area, respectively). Using the 3 ischemic scores, the improvement of perfusion abnormality was well predicted in 70-89% of AP patients but 35-57% of PMI patients. Thus, quantitative analysis in stress thallium SPECT is useful for detecting myocardial ischemia and evaluating the effect of coronary revascularization. However, about a half of myocardial viability was underestimated in one third of PMI patients by the conventional exercise-stress thallium SPECT study. (author)

  5. INSURANCE MARKET DEVELOPMENT BEFORE AND AFTER THE FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE CONTEXT OF ETHICS AND CORRUPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL ARMEAN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis can generate instability in any field. High levels of perceived corruption, unethical behavior or high unemployment rate can be several relevant examples that can influence well-being. The purpose of this study is to group and compare EU countries in two important moments: before and after the financial crisis using clusters analysis. Our contributions consist in a new effort to understand the life insurance market. For example, in 2006 countries such as: Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Spain, Sweden or the UK were remarked by the lowest perceived corruption and inflation, medium levels of the population growth and highest: ethical behavior of firms, human development, penetration rate and employment, while Romania and other countries were characterized by the lowest levels of development and highest perceived corruption and inflation. In 2014, Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden or the UK recorded the best values of our indicators. In addition, the situation of Romania has not improved significantly between 2006 and 2014.

  6. Ecotoxicological evaluation of selected pharmaceuticals to Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna before and after photooxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bożena; Jośko, Izabela; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the research was the determination of the toxicity of photocatalytically treated water contaminated by different pharmaceuticals: chloramphenicol (CPL), diclofenac (DCF) or metoprolol (MT). Daphtoxkit F™ with Dapnia magna and Microtox(®) with Vibrio fischeri were used to evaluate the toxicity of the water before and after treatment. D. magna showed higher sensitivity to the presence of pharmaceuticals than V. fischeri. Generally, both tested organisms revealed the greatest sensitivity to the presence of CPL. The application of photocatalytic oxidation has resulted in decreased toxicity. It may confirm the reduction of high toxic parent compounds to less toxic metabolites. The toxicity was reduced in the range from 30% to 100% depending on pharmaceutical tested. The highest reduction of toxicity to V. fischeri and D. magna was observed to MT and CPL respectively. Depending on bioassay the toxicity decrease as follows: CPL>DCF>MT for D. magna and CPL>MT>DCF for V. fischeri. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Presence of Serum Ferritin before and after Bariatric Surgery: Analysis in Dentate and Edentulous Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquim, Victor; Sales Peres, Matheus de Carvalho; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Chaim, Elinton Adami

    2016-01-01

    Society has changed its own lifestyle, specially its eating habits and physical activities, leading to excessive weight and a sedentary behavior, which has contributed to obesity increase. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to obesity, allowing weight loss and its maintenance. However, it has been related high levels of iron deficiency after surgery. A person’s nutritional status might be affected by total or partial tooth loss. The aim of this longitudinal prospective cohort study was to evaluate the levels of serum ferritin before and after bariatric surgery and to identify if there is a relation with tooth loss. The sample was composed of 50 patients selected and assisted at Amaral Carvalho Hospital, located in Jaú city, Brazil. The use and necessity of prosthesis, dental absence or presence, and serum ferritin dosage were evaluated. Student’s t test, Univariate analysis, Chi-square and Odds Ratio were adopted (psurgery (p = 0.436). After surgery, the serum ferritin levels were higher in edentulous patients (prosthesis users) when compared to the pre-surgical levels, and the post-surgical levels presented significant difference regarding the dentate patients (p = 0.024). It can be concluded that rehabilitated patients in postoperative period showed better levels of serum ferritin after surgical intervention. PMID:27695053

  8. Reproductive and Birth Outcomes in Haiti Before and After the 2010 Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Do, Mai

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine the relationship between exposure to the 2010 Haiti earthquake and pregnancy wantedness, interpregnancy interval, and birth weight. From the nationally representative Haiti 2012 Demographic and Health Survey, information on "size of child at birth" (too small or not) was available for 7280 singleton births in the previous 5 years, whereas information on birth weight was available for 1607 births. Pregnancy wantedness, short (<1 year) interpregnancy interval, and maternal-reported birth weight were compared before and after the earthquake and by level of damage. Multiple logistic regression and linear regression analyses were conducted. Post-earthquake births were less likely to be wanted and more likely to be born after a short interpregnancy interval. Earthquake exposure was associated with increased likelihood of a child being born too small: timing of birth (after earthquake vs. before earthquake, adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.45), region (hardest-hit vs. rest of country; aOR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.14- 1.80), and house damage (aOR: 1.27 95% CI: 1.02-1.58). Mean birth weight was 150 to 300 g lower in those exposed to the earthquake. Experience with the earthquake was associated with worse reproductive and birth outcomes, which underscores the need to provide reproductive health services as part of relief efforts.

  9. Memory before and after sleep in patients with moderate obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloepfer, Corinna; Riemann, Dieter; Nofzinger, Eric A; Feige, Bernd; Unterrainer, Josef; O'Hara, Ruth; Sorichter, Stephan; Nissen, Christoph

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on procedural and declarative memory encoding in the evening prior to sleep, on memory consolidation during subsequent sleep, and on retrieval in the morning after sleep. Memory performance (procedural mirror-tracing task, declarative visual and verbal memory task) and general neuropsychological performance were assessed before and after one night of polysomnographic monitoring in 15 patients with moderate OSA and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy subjects. Encoding levels prior to sleep were similar across groups for all tasks. Conventional analyses of averaged mirror tracing performance suggested a significantly reduced overnight improvement in OSA patients. Single trial analyses, however, revealed that this effect was due to significantly flattened learning curves in the evening and morning session in OSA patients. OSA patients showed a significantly lower verbal retention rate and a non-significantly reduced visual retention rate after sleep compared to healthy subjects. Polysomnography revealed a significantly reduced REM density, increased frequency of micro-arousals, elevated apnea-hypopnea index, and subjectively disturbed sleep quality in OSA patients compared to healthy subjects. The results suggest that moderate OSA is associated with a significant impairment of procedural and verbal declarative memory. Future work is needed to further determine the contribution of structural or functional alterations in brain circuits relevant for memory, and to test whether OSA treatment improves or normalizes the observed deficits in learning.

  10. Serum Leptin and Adiponectin Levels in Breast Cancer Before and After Post Mastectomy Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosseir, N.M.; Abdel -Messeih, Ph.L.; Mohamed, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Leptin and adiponectin are cytokines synthesized in adipose tissue and have been implicated as a link between obesity and breast cancer. Therefore, in this study we analyzed and compared: serum leptin, adiponectin, lipid profile including cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and body mass index (BMI) in breast cancer patients before and after Post Mastectomy Radio- therapy (PMRT).Serum leptin and adiponectin significantly increased and decreased respectively in patients after PMRT compared to the controls. BMI statistically decreased after radiotherapy while LDL-c increased in breast cancer patients; in both patients groups. HDL-c was statistically decreased but triglycerides showed significant increase in breast cancer patients. These results denoted that dyslipidemia may be associated with breast cancer risk and the evaluation of leptin and adiponectin can be used for follow up of patients under radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer

  11. Changes in the surface roughness and friction coefficient of orthodontic bracket slots before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomo; Lin, Jiuxiang; Ding, Peng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the surface roughness of bracket slots and the friction coefficient between the bracket and the stainless steel archwire before and after orthodontic treatment. There were four experimental groups: groups 1 and 2 were 3M new and retrieved brackets, respectively, and groups 3 and 4 were BioQuick new and retrieved brackets, respectively. All retrieved brackets were taken from patients with the first premolar extraction and using sliding mechanics to close the extraction space. The surface roughness of specimens was evaluated using an optical interferometry profilometer, which is faster and nondestructive compared with a stylus profilometer, and provided a larger field, needing no sample preparation, compared with atomic force microscopy. Orthodontic treatment resulted in significant increases in surface roughness and coefficient of friction for both brands of brackets. However, there was no significant difference by brand for new or retrieved brackets. These retrieval analysis results highlight the necessity of reevaluating the properties and clinical behavior of brackets during treatment to make appropriate treatment decisions. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Inflammation and Growth in Young Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome before and after Adenotonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Nachalon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with growth impairment that usually improves following effective treatment. In this study we investigated the mechanisms underlying the growth processes in young children diagnosed with OSA, before and after adenotonsillectomy (T&A. Methods. Young children (6–36 months old were enrolled and evaluated before and several months after T&A surgery for height, weight, circulating high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 levels. Caloric intake was assessed by a validated Short Food Frequency Questionnaire (SFFQ. Results. Following T&A, children added 4.81 cm and 1.88 kg to their height and weight, respectively (P<0.001 for both and had a significant increase in BMI Z score (P=0.002. Increased caloric intake of 377 kcal/day was noted (P<0.001, with increased protein and decreased fat intake. The decrease in CRP levels correlated with the increase in body weight in boys (P<0.05, adjusted for caloric intake. Conclusions. Adenotonsillectomy results in enhanced somatic growth in young children that correlates with a decrease in systemic inflammation and caloric intake increment. Our findings imply that systemic inflammation may have an important role in this OSA-related morbidity.

  13. The impact of the economic situation of the couples before and after divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alketa Molla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Divorce is not just a problem caused by social, but also economic consequences. Social implications are vital and cannot be overlooked. It is not easy to bring up children nowadays, even if both parents are employed and contribute both economically for their welfare. There are more difficulties for divorced parents, who are forced to make such a task. It is very difficult for this category to provide good living conditions for children, especially when they do not have a house to live, when they are unemployed, or in the cases when the other parent does not contribute economically. Often parents of divorced couples provide shelter and help, but this is not enough. Many divorced parents choose another country to ensure better living conditions for their children. Main objective of this article is to present the economic situation in which couples were before and after the divorce. The survey data are taken from the personal data of divorced from the Albanian Court of Elbasan.

  14. Ac-electrical conductivity of poly(propylene) before and after X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaafar, M.

    2001-01-01

    Study on the ac-electrical conductivity of poly(propylene), before and after X-ray irradiation within the temperature range 300-360 K are reported. The measurements have been performed in a wide range of frequencies (from 0 to 10 5 Hz) and under the effect of different X-ray irradiation doses (from 0 to 15 Gy). Cole-Cole diagrams have been used to show the frequency dependence of the complex impedance at different temperatures. The results exhibit semicircles which are consistent with existing equivalent circuit model. Analysis of the results reveal semiconducting features based mainly on a hopping mechanism. The study shows a pronounced effect of X-ray irradiation on the electrical conductivity at zero frequency σ DC . At the early stage of irradiation, σ DC increased as a result of free radical formation. As the irradiation progressed, it decreased as a result of crosslinking, then it increased again due to irradiation induced degradation, which motivates the generation of mobile free radicals. The study shows that this polymer is one among other polymers which its electrical conductivity is modified by irradiation

  15. Ac-electrical conductivity of poly(propylene) before and after X-ray irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, M.

    2001-05-01

    Study on the ac-electrical conductivity of poly(propylene), before and after X-ray irradiation within the temperature range 300-360 K are reported. The measurements have been performed in a wide range of frequencies (from 0 to 10 5 Hz) and under the effect of different X-ray irradiation doses (from 0 to 15 Gy). Cole-Cole diagrams have been used to show the frequency dependence of the complex impedance at different temperatures. The results exhibit semicircles which are consistent with existing equivalent circuit model. Analysis of the results reveal semiconducting features based mainly on a hopping mechanism. The study shows a pronounced effect of X-ray irradiation on the electrical conductivity at zero frequency σDC. At the early stage of irradiation, σDC increased as a result of free radical formation. As the irradiation progressed, it decreased as a result of crosslinking, then it increased again due to irradiation induced degradation, which motivates the generation of mobile free radicals. The study shows that this polymer is one among other polymers which its electrical conductivity is modified by irradiation.

  16. Gender differences in EEG coherent activity before and after training navigation skills in virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Loyo, J; Sanchez-Loyo, L M

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in electroencephalographic activity (EEG) changes during navigation task performance after training were assessed in young adults. Female and male subjects were matched on initial navigation performance. EEG recordings were obtained while subjects navigated in an immersive virtual environment without visual cues, before and after a navigational skills training (9 sessions). In spite of task performance was similar in both groups, females showed higher theta band coherent activity between frontal and parietal and frontal and central regions than males before training. Correlation in theta band between fronto-central, fronto-parietal, and centro-parietal regions was enhanced in the left hemisphere for females but in the right hemisphere for males after training. Females also demonstrated a decreased in correlation in theta band over the right hemisphere between centro-parietal regions, whereas males demonstrated a similar effect over the left hemisphere. Navigation training seems to promote fronto-central-parietal synchronization in both genders but in different hemisphere. These results are interpreted as reflecting verbal-analytical working memory functions in females and global-spatial working memory mode in males.

  17. Canine intersegmental hip joint forces and moments before and after cemented total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, S; Manley, P A; Vanderby, R; Kohles, S S; Hartman, L M; McBeath, A A

    1991-01-01

    Intersegmental forces and moments (i.e. resultant free body forces and moments computed at the joint centers) were studied in canine hindlimbs before and after cemented total hip replacement (THR). Five large, adult, mixed-breed dogs were selected. Their gait was recorded (while leash-walked) before surgery using high-speed cinematography and a force plate. Cemented total hip replacement was unilaterally performed on each dog. Gait was again recorded at one and four months after surgery. Segmental properties (mass, center of mass, and mass moment of inertia) of the hindlimbs were experimentally determined, and an inverse dynamics approach was used to compute intersegmental forces and moments in the sagittal plane. Significant reductions in intersegmental joint forces and moments were observed in the operated hindlimb one month after surgery, although kinematic gait parameters were unaltered. Decreases of 77.0% for vertical forces, 61.9% for craniocaudal forces, and 66.2% for extension moments were determined. Four months after surgery, the joint forces and moments had returned to their preoperative values. This experiment demonstrates that the dynamics of normal walking can be restored in a canine model by four months after THR. It also shows that kinetic (rather than kinematic) parameters are more descriptive of antalgic gait in the canine.

  18. Neuropsychological Outcome One Year after Carotid Revascularization: A before-and-after Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Hernanz, Laura; Garolera, Maite; Badenes, Dolors; Quintana, Salvador; Millán, Susana; Calzado, Noemi; de Francisco, Jorge; Royo, Josep; Aguilar, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of our study was to determine the clinical profile of patients considered cognitive ‘responders’ to surgery in order to establish clinical variables associated with a favorable cognitive performance. Materials and Methods A total of 70 patients were included in the study. A well-validated, comprehensive standardized neurocognitive battery of tests of about 2 hours was administered. Patients were examined twice, 1-week before surgery and 1-year postoperatively. The criterion to be included in the ‘responder’ group was the following: to obtain a positive difference between post-revascularization and pre-revascularization neuropsychological assessment ≥1 standard deviation in ≥2 tests. Results Twenty-seven patients (38.6%) were cognitive responders to treatment. In bivariate analysis between responders and non-responders, presence of atrophy (P=0.003), small vessels (P=0.577), symptoms (P=0.046), and age (P=0.030) were the factors statistically significant. When comparing cognitive performance before and after carotid revascularization, significant differences were observed in semantic fluency with a lower performance after 12 months (P=0.004, d=0.29), and in the Language index (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status) (P=0.005, d=0.34). Conclusion Patients without neurological symptoms, of a younger age and without atrophy and white matter small vessel lesions are better cognitive responders 1-year after carotid revascularization. PMID:29354625

  19. Isokinetic Identification of Knee Joint Torques before and after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Czaplicki

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the serial change of isokinetic muscle strength of the knees before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR in physically active males and to estimate the time of return to full physical fitness. Extension and flexion torques were measured for the injured and healthy limbs at two angular velocities approximately 1.5 months before the surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after ACLR. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in peak knee extension and flexion torques, hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q strength ratios, uninvolved/involved limb peak torque ratios, and the normalized work of these muscles between the four stages of rehabilitation were identified. Significant differences between extension peak torques for the injured and healthy limbs were also detected at all stages. The obtained results showed that 12 months of rehabilitation were insufficient for the involved knee joint to recover its strength to the level of strength of the uninvolved knee joint. The results helped to evaluate the progress of the rehabilitation and to implement necessary modifications optimizing the rehabilitation training program. The results of the study may also be used as referential data for physically active males of similar age.

  20. Welding-induced mechanical properties in austenitic stainless steels before and after neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoenescu, R.; Schäublin, R.; Gavillet, D.; Baluc, N.

    2007-03-01

    The effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of welded joints made of austenitic stainless steels have been investigated. The materials are welded AISI 304 and AISI 347, so-called test weld materials, irradiated with neutrons at 573 K to doses of 0.3 and 1.0 dpa. In addition, an AISI 304 from a decommissioned pressurised water reactor, so-called in-service material, which had accumulated a maximum dose of 0.35 dpa at about 573 K, was investigated. The mechanical properties of heat-affected zones and base materials were analysed before and after irradiation. Tensile parameters were determined at room temperature and at 573 K, for all materials and irradiation conditions. In the test weld materials it is found that radiation hardening is lower and loss of ductility is higher in the heat-affected zone than in the base material. In the in-service material radiation hardening is about the same in heat-affected zone and base material. After irradiation, deformation takes place by stacking faults and twins, at both room temperature and high temperature, contrary to unirradiated materials, where deformation takes place by twinning at room temperature and by dislocation cells at high temperature. No defect free channels are observed.

  1. Dioxin body burden among blood donors before and after the Belgian dioxin/PCB incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debacker, N.; Sasse, A.; Wouwe, N. Van; Windal, I.; Carbonnelle, S.; Overmeire, I. Van; Sartor, F.; Goeyens, L.; Oyen, H. Van [Scientific Inst. of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Eppe, G.; Xhrouet, C.; Pauw, E. De [Centre of Analysis of Residues in Traces, Luik (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    In spring 1999, Belgium faced a severe food contamination when about 50 kg of PCBs containing 1 g of dioxins were introduced in the food chain. The possible public health impact of this food chain contamination was subject of a debate between different scientists. According to Vrijens et al. and Bernard et al. there was no significant public health impact, whereas van Larebeke et al. presumed the opposite claiming a significant increase of cancer incidence. These risk assessments were based on measurements of dioxins/PCBs in contaminated foods and nutritional habits observed in a selected group of adolescents (14-18 years old) using simulation techniques or on the estimation of the incremental cancer risk associated with the incremental levels of exposure to dioxins/PCBs during the incident. In the meantime, an epidemiological survey has been carried out in order to measure the dioxin levels in plasma samples collected before and after the incident. The aim of this paper is to report the preliminary results of this epidemiological survey.

  2. Evaluation of patients with Alzheimer's disease before and after dental treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís de Souza Rolim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral infections may play a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Objective To describe the orofacial pain, dental characteristics and associated factors in patients with Alzheimer's Disease that underwent dental treatment. Method 29 patients with mild AD diagnosed by a neurologist were included. They fulfilled the Mini Mental State Exam and Pfeffer's questionnaire. A dentist performed a complete evaluation: clinical questionnaire; research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders; McGill pain questionnaire; oral health impact profile; decayed, missing and filled teeth index; and complete periodontal investigation. The protocol was applied before and after the dental treatment. Periodontal treatments (scaling, extractions and topic nystatin were the most frequent. Results There was a reduction in pain frequency (p=0.014, mandibular functional limitations (p=0.011 and periodontal indexes (p<0.05, and an improvement in quality of life (p=0.009 and functional impairment due to cognitive compromise (p<0.001 after the dental treatment. Orofacial complaints and intensity of pain also diminished. Conclusion The dental treatment contributed to reduce co-morbidities associated with AD and should be routinely included in the assessment of these patients.

  3. Use of ureteroscopy before and after expansion of lithotripter ownership in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Wolf, J Stuart; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Ye, Zaojun; Hollingsworth, John M

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether ureteroscopy (URS) rates decreased following the expansion of lithotripter ownership in Michigan. Historically, Michigan has had limited urologist investment in lithotripters owing to strict Certificate of Need legislation. However, 2 of the nation's largest lithotripsy providers formed Michigan subsidiaries in 2005 and 2006, thereby altering the ownership landscape. Urologists who acquired partnership shares were incentivized to perform shock wave lithotripsy preferentially over URS. Because of ownership expansion, the rates of URS might have decreased. From the Michigan files of the State Ambulatory Surgery Database, we abstracted the discharges for URS performed at hospital-based outpatient departments. We measured the differences between the patients who underwent URS in the year before (2004) and the year after (2007) ownership expansion. We then calculated the annual rates of URS in Michigan and evaluated for changes over time. A total of 5857 and 6294 URSs were performed in 2004 and 2007, respectively. Significant differences in age (P < .001), race (P < .001), primary payer (P < .001), and comorbidity status (P < .001) were observed between the patients who underwent URS before and after ownership expansion. However, the rates of URS in Michigan remained relatively flat despite the increased urologist ownership of lithotripters (P = .129 for the temporal trend). The introduction of physician ownership of lithotripter units in Michigan was not associated with decreased rates of URS but might have influenced treatment selection among certain patient groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Variability of isolated colonies in bean nodulating Rhizobium strains before and after exposure to high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raposeiras Rui

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Irregular response to bean plants to Rhizobium inoculation has been attributed to among other factors, low competitive ability, low N2 fixation efficiency and genetic instability of the symbiont. This genetic instability caused by high rates of genomic rearrangements and/or plasmid deletions can be accentuated by high temperatures. This fact may limit the utilization of these strains as inoculants, especially in tropical soils. In this study, the variability of isolated colonies derived from effective R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli (SLP1.3 and BR 10.026 and R tropici (SLA2.2 and BR322 strains was evaluated before and after exposure to high temperatures (four consecutive thermal shocks at 45masculineC. This evaluation involved plant dry matter analysis of inoculated plants and genotypic (plasmid profile and genomic patterns via RAPD analysis of the Rhizobium strains. The results evidenced that high temperature improve the natural performance variability especially between isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains. The plasmid profile of isolated colonies from R. tropici strains were identical regardless of temperature treatment whereas isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli alterations were detected especially after the thermal treatment. The genomic patterns generated by AP-PCR showed more alterations and genetic variation in isolated colonies from R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains indicating that R. tropici strains are more stable and lower affected by high temperature.

  5. MR imaging of avascular scaphoid nonunion before and after vascularized bone grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Suzanne E.; Tschering-Vogel, Dechen; Martin, Matthias [University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Department of Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, California (United States); Nagy, Ladislav [University Hospital of Bern, Inselspital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of chronic nonunion of the scaphoid with proximal pole avascular necrosis before and after insertion of a vascularized bone graft, using computed tomography (CT) as the imaging gold standard. A retrospective study was performed involving MR imaging (n=26), CT scans (n=37) and radiographs (n=52) of 13 men (mean age 29 years, age range 20-38 years) with avascular scaphoid nonunion. Avascular necrosis of the scaphoid proximal pole was confirmed intraoperatively (n=13). MR images were acquired preoperatively and following placement of a vascularized bone graft. Scaphoid MR signal characteristics were assessed for evidence of vascular bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the bone marrow of the proximal pole of the scaphoid and compared with the gold standard of CT. Surgical and clinical notes were reviewed with a minimum 3 year imaging and clinical follow-up in all patients. Graft incorporation with revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid was documented in 9 patients (69%). Graft failure with persistent pseudoarthrosis and avascular necrosis of the scaphoid was seen in 4 patients (31%). MR imaging is useful to determine whether vascularized bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid has occurred in the setting of avascular scaphoid nonunion. (orig.)

  6. MR imaging of avascular scaphoid nonunion before and after vascularized bone grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Suzanne E.; Tschering-Vogel, Dechen; Martin, Matthias; Steinbach, Lynne S.; Nagy, Ladislav

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of chronic nonunion of the scaphoid with proximal pole avascular necrosis before and after insertion of a vascularized bone graft, using computed tomography (CT) as the imaging gold standard. A retrospective study was performed involving MR imaging (n=26), CT scans (n=37) and radiographs (n=52) of 13 men (mean age 29 years, age range 20-38 years) with avascular scaphoid nonunion. Avascular necrosis of the scaphoid proximal pole was confirmed intraoperatively (n=13). MR images were acquired preoperatively and following placement of a vascularized bone graft. Scaphoid MR signal characteristics were assessed for evidence of vascular bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the bone marrow of the proximal pole of the scaphoid and compared with the gold standard of CT. Surgical and clinical notes were reviewed with a minimum 3 year imaging and clinical follow-up in all patients. Graft incorporation with revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid was documented in 9 patients (69%). Graft failure with persistent pseudoarthrosis and avascular necrosis of the scaphoid was seen in 4 patients (31%). MR imaging is useful to determine whether vascularized bone graft incorporation and revascularization of the proximal pole of the scaphoid has occurred in the setting of avascular scaphoid nonunion. (orig.)

  7. Australians' views on carbon pricing before and after the 2013 federal election

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Stacia J.; Walker, Iain; McCoy, Shannon K.; Teisl, Mario F.

    2015-12-01

    As climate policies change through the legislative process, public attitudes towards them may change as well. Therefore, it is important to assess how people accept and support controversial climate policies as the policies change over time. Policy acceptance is a positive evaluation of, or attitude towards, an existing policy; policy support adds an active behavioural component. Acceptance does not necessarily lead to support. We conducted a national survey of Australian residents to investigate acceptance of, and support for, the Australian carbon pricing policy before and after the 2013 federal election, and how perceptions of the policy, economic ideology, and voting behaviour affect acceptance and support. We found acceptance and support were stable across the election period, which was surprising given that climate policy was highly contentious during the election. Policy acceptance was higher than policy support at both times and acceptance was a necessary but insufficient condition of support. We conclude that acceptance is an important process through which perceptions of the policy and economic ideology influence support. Therefore, future climate policy research needs to distinguish between acceptance and support to better understand this process, and to better measure these concepts.

  8. Assessment of Myocardial Function in Children before and after Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElMarsafawy, Hala; Matter, Mohamed; Sarhan, Mohamed; El-Ashry, Rasha; Al-Tonbary, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Increased interest is focused on the long-term adverse effects of bone marrow transplantation. Subclinical cardiac involvement appears common in adults, but only a few reports have examined pediatric patients. A prospective case-control study of 19 children with normal cardiac function undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and echocardiographic measurements were obtained according to the guidelines of the American Society of Echocardiography before and 3 months after HSCT. Lateral mitral annulus before HSCT showed significant reduced mitral systolic annular velocity (P ICT) (P = 0.003) and IRT (P = 0.002) after HSCT, were observed. Investigation of lateral tricuspid annulus showed nearly similar results as the lateral mitral annulus. LV and RV Tei indices were higher before HSCT compared with control and remained high after HSCT. TDI detected subtle abnormalities in systolic and diastolic functions before and after HSCT, which suggests that a conditioning regimen may affect cardiac function. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Routine testing of liver function before and after elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: is it necessary?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Nasir Zaheer

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Liver function tests (LFTs) include alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilirubin. The role of routine testing before and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy was evaluated in this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 355 patients were retrospectively analyzed by examining the LFTs the day before, the day after, and 3 weeks after the surgery. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Student t test were performed to determine statistical significance. RESULTS: Alterations in the serum AST, ALT, and GGT were seen on the first postoperative day. Minor changes were seen in bilirubin and ALP. An overall disturbance in the LFTs was seen in more than two-thirds of the cases. Repeat LFTs performed after 3 weeks on follow-up were found to be within normal limits. CONCLUSION: Mild-to-moderate elevation in preoperative LFTs may not be associated with any deleterious effect, and, in the absence of clinical indications, routine preoperative or postoperative liver function testing is unnecessary.

  10. The Differences Cost of Equity Capital between Before and After Adoption of IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Sugiartha Sanjaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze and compare between cost of equity capital between before and after adoption of IFRS on Statement of Financial Accounting Standard Financial Instrument (PSAK for banking companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange. The period on this study was 2008-2009 for before adoption and 2013-2014 for after adoption. Data on this study was secondary data such as annual financial reporting and share price. Cost of equity capital was measured using Ohlson Model. Sample in this study was banking companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2008, 2009, 2013, and 2014. Selecting sample was by purposive sampling with specific criteria. Results of this study proved that cost of equity capital was lower for after adoption of IFRS on Statement of Financial Accounting Standard Financial Instrument for banking companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange than before adoption. It meant that adoption IFRS could reduce cost of equity capital. This result had an impact on reducing non performing loan, increasing loan to deposit ratio, and increasing net interest margin.

  11. Outcomes and Recidivism in Mandated Batterer Intervention Before and After Introducing a Specialized Domestic Violence Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutty, Leslie M; Babins-Wagner, Robbie

    2016-05-03

    Both specialized domestic violence (DV) courts and batterer intervention programs were developed to more adequately address intimate partner abuse and recidivism; however, little research has studied them concurrently. The current research examined clinical outcomes and police-reported recidivism in 382 men mandated to attend the Calgary Counselling Centre's Responsible Choices for Men's (RCM) groups between 1998 and 2009, before and after a specialized DV court was established in 2001. The study examines associations between categorical demographic and criminal justice variables, most of which were not correlated with post-group recidivism. Before the specialized court was implemented, 45 RCM members reported significantly more clinical issues at pretest than the 282 RCM members after court implementation (all scores adjusted by social desirability), although the effect sizes were negligible. Regarding group outcomes, depression, anxiety, and self-esteem (adjusted for social desirability) significantly improved on average for all RCM members irrespective of court implementation. Before the specialized DV court was developed, recidivism occurred after RCM program completion for a large proportion of men (41.2%), compared with only 8.2% after court implementation, a significant difference with a moderate effect size. The recidivism results are interpreted in the context of the significant justice and community collaborations entailed in creating the specialized DV court. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Flotation performances and surface properties of chalcopyrite with xanthate collector added before and after grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huiqing; Wu, Di; Abdelmonem, Mohamed

    In this study, effects of the collector added before grinding and after grinding on the subsequent flotation and mineral surface properties were investigated. The pH was controlled at 10 during the grinding and flotation processes opened to the atmosphere. With enough amounts of sodium butyl xanthate addition, adding the collector before grinding recovered more chalcopyrite than adding it after grinding in single mineral flotation. The Eh of each ground pulp before and after conditioning were measured and it was found that adding collector before grinding obtained higher and relatively suitable pulp potential for chalcopyrite flotation. Particle size analyses of the flotation products indicate that the different flotation recoveries occurred due to the different flotation losses in fine particles (<20 μm). XPS analyses focused on the fine particles of flotation feedings and found that more carbon and oxygen, and less iron were remained on mineral surfaces when the collector was added before grinding, due to the higher collector adsorption capacity, larger free oxygen adsorbance and less iron oxide/hydroxide species.

  13. [Benefit of isokinetic evaluations of knee before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in soccer players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, N; Rogez, J; Masquelier, B

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the evolution of the isokinetic performance of the knee flexor and extensor muscles in soccer players before and after intra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (Kennet-Jones). Two isokinetic evaluations were carried out before surgery and after rehabilitation (i.e. 4 months later) in 18 soccer players. The initial evaluation showed that the stabilizing muscles of the knee were affected differently after lesion of the external anterior crossed ligament. At the opposite of the flexor muscles, the performance of the knee extensor muscles of the injured leg was significantly reduced as compared with that of the healthy leg (peak torque at 90 degrees /s, -16%; power at 180 degrees /s, -14%; total work at 240 degrees /s, -11%). Even if 4 months after surgery, this deficit was accentuated (peak torque at 90 degrees /s, -26%; power at 180 degrees /s, -23%; total work at 240 degrees /s, -19%), the preoperative results of the knee extensor muscle do not condition the postoperative performance. After a rupture of the external anterior crossed ligament, a regular program of isokinetic evaluation of the knee seems to be relevant in the follow-up of the wounded athlete. The evaluation before surgery can be used as reference, and from a psychological point of view, this evaluation can create confidence in the athlete during hospitalization. A second evaluation 4 months after surgery can be used to quantify the muscular deficit to direct the exercises of rehabilitation.

  14. Hypothalamus-Anchored Resting Brain Network Changes before and after Sertraline Treatment in Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sertraline, one of the oldest antidepressants, remains to be the most efficacious treatment for depression. However, major depression disorder (MDD is characterized by altered emotion processing and deficits in cognitive control. In cognitive interference tasks, patients with MDD have shown excessive hypothalamus activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of antidepressant treatment (sertraline on hypothalamus-anchored resting brain circuitry. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on depressed patients (n=12 both before and after antidepressant treatment. After eight weeks of antidepressant treatment, patients with depression showed significantly increased connectivity between the hypothalamus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, putamen, caudate, and claustrum. By contrast, decreased connectivity of the hypothalamus-related areas was primarily located in the inferior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, cingulated gyrus, precuneus, thalamus, and cerebellum. After eight weeks of antidepressant therapy, 8 out of the 12 depressed subjects achieved 70% reduction or better in depressive symptoms, as measured on the Hamilton depression rating scale. Our findings may infer that antidepressant treatment can alter the functional connectivity of the hypothalamus resting brain to achieve its therapeutic effect.

  15. Observations on Salmonella contamination of commercial duck farms before and after cleaning and disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J; Callaby, Rebecca; Davies, Rob

    2017-04-01

    In the European Union, statutory control of Salmonella is in place in the chicken and turkey sectors, but not in the duck sector. In this study, 14 Salmonella-positive duck farms were sampled before and after cleaning and disinfection, and once the houses had been restocked with a new flock. The cleaning and disinfection programmes used were subdivided into two main categories: ones in which a final formaldehyde disinfection step was included (1) and ones in which it was not included (2). Several types of samples were collected during the study, and faecal samples were those more frequently positive (62% of faecal samples were positive for Salmonella in comparison to 2-23% of samples from all the other sample categories) (P Salmonella-positive samples between before cleaning and disinfection (41.1%) and after cleaning and disinfection (3.1%). After restocking, the number of Salmonella-positive samples increased significantly (P Salmonella. Farms in which disinfection programme 1 was used were 5.34 times less likely to have samples positive for Salmonella after cleaning and disinfection than farms which implemented programme 2. Formaldehyde acts effectively against Salmonella even in the presence of some residual organic matter. Limited residual contamination on farms after cleaning and disinfection represents a risk of infection for young ducklings, and thorough cleaning and disinfection procedures should be implemented to reduce the carry-over of infection between flocks.

  16. Caregivers' job satisfaction and empowerment before and after an intervention focused on caregiver empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Maria; Wadensten, Barbro; Häggström, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a training programme aimed at strengthening caregivers' self-esteem and empowering them, and also to study correlations between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction. Structural and psychological empowerment have received increased attention in nursing management, yet few intervention studies on this topic, based on theoretical assumptions, have been conducted in elderly care. Data on self-assessed psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were collected in an intervention (n = 14) and a comparison group (n = 32), before and after the intervention. When compared over time in the respective groups, there were significant improvements in the intervention group regarding the factor criticism (job satisfaction scale). There were no statistically significant differences in the comparison group. Total empowerment and all factors of empowerment correlated positively with total job satisfaction. Six out of eight factors of job satisfaction correlated positively with total empowerment. Caregivers' perception of criticism can improve through an intervention aimed at strengthening their self-esteem and empowering them. Implications for nursing management Intervention focused on psychological empowerment and especially caregivers' communication skills seems to be beneficial for caregivers. Recommendations are to increase the programme's length and scope and to include all staff at the unit. However, these recommendations need to be studied further.

  17. Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease: Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Human Gut Mucosa before and after Rifaximin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Cianci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Uncomplicated diverticular disease (UDD is a frequent condition in adults. The pathogenesis of symptoms remains unknown. Bacteria are able to interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs and to induce inflammation through both innate immunity and T-cell recruitment. We investigated the pattern of TLRs 2 and 4 and the intestinal homing in patients with UDD before and after a course of Rifaximin. Methods. Forty consecutive patients with UDD and 20 healthy asymptomatic subjects were enrolled. Among UDD patients, 20 were assigned to a 2-month course of treatment with Rifaximin 1.2 g/day for 15 days/month and 20 received placebo. Blood sample and colonic biopsies were obtained from patients and controls. The samples were collected and analyzed at baseline and at the end of treatment. Flow cytometry was performed using monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD103, TCR-gamma/delta, CD14, TLR2, and TLR4. Results. In UDD, TLR2 and TLR4 expression on immune cell subpopulations from blood and mucosa of the affected colon are altered as compared with controls. Rifaximin treatment induced significant modifications of altered conditions. Conclusions. Our data show the role of TLRs in the development of inflammation in UDD. TLRs distribution is altered in UDD and these alterations are reversed after antibiotic treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02068482.

  18. Flicker electroretinograms before and after intravitreal ranibizumab injection in eyes with central retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Shunsuke; Kachi, Shu; Ueno, Shinji; Piao, Chang-Hua; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2015-09-01

    To compare the amplitudes and implicit times of the flicker electroretinograms before and after an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) in eyes with a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). We reviewed the medical records of 15 consecutive patients who had macular oedema secondary to CRVO and had received an IVR at the Nagoya University Hospital from November 2013 to July 2014. Flicker ERGs were recorded with both the RETeval(™) system and a conventional ERG system before the IVR. One month after the IVR, recordings were repeated with only the RETeval(™) system. The mean implicit times of the flicker ERGs of the affected eyes recorded with the RETeval(™) system were significantly longer than that of the fellow eyes (32.2 ± 2.6 msec versus 28.1 ± 1.2 msec, p flicker ERGs of affected eyes were significantly shortened from 32.2 ± 2.6 to 30.6 ± 2.2 msec (p flicker ERGs after the IVR indicates an improvement of retinal function after anti-VEGF therapy for CRVO eyes. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Pregnancies and menstrual function before and after combined radiation (RT) and chemotherapy (TVPP) for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacher, M.J.; Toner, K.

    1986-01-01

    The menstrual cycle, pregnancies, and offspring were evaluated before and after initial combined radiation (RT) and chemotherapy with thiotepa, vinblastine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (TVPP), in 34 women between the ages of 18 and 44 (median 26.5 years) treated for Stage II and Stage III Hodgkin's disease. The median range of follow-up is 83.1 months (range 40.5-140). After therapy 94.1% (32/34) continued to menstruate. Two of the four patients over the age of 35 ceased to menstruate. All patients under the age of 35 continued to menstruate (30/30). Age at the time of diagnosis was the only factor affecting change in menses with a significant probability (p = .001) that women greater than 30 years of age will experience some change in menstrual pattern. Seventeen pregnancies occurred in 12 women after therapy; 2 had 4 elective abortions; 10 delivered 12 children with normal physical development; 1 will deliver six months from now. Twelve of thirteen patients who wanted to become pregnant have conceived. The ability to become pregnant and deliver normal children after intensive treatment with combined radiation and chemotherapy (RT/TVPP) was comparable to the patients' pretreatment record

  20. Trends in breast cancer mortality in Sweden before and after implementation of mammography screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Haukka

    Full Text Available Incidence-based mortality modelling comparing the risk of breast cancer death in screened and unscreened women in nine Swedish counties has suggested a 39% risk reduction in women 40 to 69 years old after introduction of mammography screening in the 1980s and 1990s.We evaluated changes in breast cancer mortality in the same nine Swedish counties using a model approach based on official Swedish breast cancer mortality statistics, robust to effects of over-diagnosis and treatment changes. Using mortality data from the NordCan database from 1974 until 2003, we estimated the change in breast cancer mortality before and after introduction of mammography screening in at least the 13 years that followed screening start.Breast mortality decreased by 16% (95% CI: 9 to 22% in women 40 to 69, and by 11% (95% CI: 2 to 20% in women 40 to 79 years of age.Without individual data it is impossible to completely separate the effects of improved treatment and health service organisation from that of screening, which would bias our results in favour of screening. There will also be some contamination of post-screening mortality from breast cancer diagnosed prior to screening, beyond our attempts to adjust for delayed benefit. This would bias against screening. However, our estimates from publicly available data suggest considerably lower benefits than estimates based on comparison of screened versus non-screened women.

  1. On capital flows and macroeconomic performance: Evidence before and after the financial crisis in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kandil

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper sheds light on the Turkish experience of capital account liberalization and its effect on key macroeconomic variables, using quarterly data in a multivariate VAR model. We also take into consideration the crisis breakpoint in 2001 and estimate the effect of shocks attributed to capital flows, using quarterly data during the sub-periods 1989:01–2001:01 and 2001:02–2009:03. The findings indicate that capital flows have varying effects on the Turkish economy before and after the crisis in 2001 and the evidence supports significant effects of liberalizing financial flows on macroeconomic performance, especially during the post-crisis period (2001:02–2009:03. Moreover, this latter period exhibited evidence of sterilization policy that has helped mopping up excess liquidity and containing inflationary pressures. These factors seem to signal deliberate efforts by the Central Bank of Turkey to stem the risk of appreciation of the real exchange rate and preserve export competitiveness during periods of high financial inflows, a trend that has been reversed recently by the surge in outflows and currency depreciation in many emerging markets in anticipation of imminent normalization of monetary policy in the United States.

  2. Incidental intracranial hemorrhage after uncomplicated birth: MRI before and after neonatal heart surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavani, F.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Clancy, R.R.; Licht, D.J.; Mahle, W.T.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) before and after neonatal heart surgery. We carried out pre- and postoperative MRI looking for brain lesions in 24 full-term new-borns with known congenital heart disease. They underwent heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), usually with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). The first MRI was 1-22 days after birth. There were 21 children born after uncomplicated vaginal delivery and three delivered by cesarean section (CS). ICH was seen in 13 (62%) of the vaginal delivery group but in none of the CS group. We saw subdural bleeding along the inferior surface of the tentorium in 11 (52%) and supratentorially in six (29%) of the 21 children with ICH. Small hemorrhages were present in the choroid plexus in seven (33%), in the parenchyma in one (5%) and in the occipital horn in one (5%). There were 26 foci of bleeding in these 21 patients (1.2 per patient). None was judged by formal neurologic examination to be symptomatic from the hemorrhage. Follow-up MRI after cardiac surgery was obtained in 23 children, showing 37 foci of ICH (1.6 per patient), but all appeared asymptomatic. Postoperatively, ICH had increased in 10 children (43%), was unchanged in seven (30%) and was less extensive in six (26%). (orig.)

  3. Incidental intracranial hemorrhage after uncomplicated birth: MRI before and after neonatal heart surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavani, F.; Zimmerman, R.A. [Neuroradiology Dept., The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Clancy, R.R.; Licht, D.J. [Dept. of Neurology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mahle, W.T. [Children' s Heart Hospital, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) before and after neonatal heart surgery. We carried out pre- and postoperative MRI looking for brain lesions in 24 full-term new-borns with known congenital heart disease. They underwent heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), usually with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). The first MRI was 1-22 days after birth. There were 21 children born after uncomplicated vaginal delivery and three delivered by cesarean section (CS). ICH was seen in 13 (62%) of the vaginal delivery group but in none of the CS group. We saw subdural bleeding along the inferior surface of the tentorium in 11 (52%) and supratentorially in six (29%) of the 21 children with ICH. Small hemorrhages were present in the choroid plexus in seven (33%), in the parenchyma in one (5%) and in the occipital horn in one (5%). There were 26 foci of bleeding in these 21 patients (1.2 per patient). None was judged by formal neurologic examination to be symptomatic from the hemorrhage. Follow-up MRI after cardiac surgery was obtained in 23 children, showing 37 foci of ICH (1.6 per patient), but all appeared asymptomatic. Postoperatively, ICH had increased in 10 children (43%), was unchanged in seven (30%) and was less extensive in six (26%). (orig.)

  4. Trends in fatal motor vehicle crashes before and after marijuana commercialization in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T; Thurstone, Christian; Hopfer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Legal medical marijuana has been commercially available on a widespread basis in Colorado since mid-2009; however, there is a dearth of information about the impact of marijuana commercialization on impaired driving. This study examined if the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive and alcohol-impaired, respectively, have changed in Colorado before and after mid-2009 and then compared changes in Colorado with 34 non-medical marijuana states (NMMS). Thirty-six 6-month intervals (1994-2011) from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System were used to examine temporal changes in the proportions of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were alcohol-impaired (≥0.08 g/dl) and marijuana-positive, respectively. The pre-commercial marijuana time period in Colorado was defined as 1994-June 2009 while July 2009-2011 represented the post-commercialization period. In Colorado, since mid-2009 when medical marijuana became commercially available and prevalent, the trend became positive in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive (change in trend, 2.16 (0.45), pmarijuana-positive drivers. In addition, education on the risks of marijuana-positive driving needs to be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Proliferative potential of malignant glioma cells before and after interstitial brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunishiro, Katsuzo; Matsumoto, Kengo; Higashi, Hisato; Adachi, Hisashi; Tamiya, Takashi; Furuta, Tomohisa; Ohtomo, Takashi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-05-01

    The viability of tumor cells in radionecrotic tissue after interstitial brachytherapy (BRTX) was evaluated using immunohistochemical markers of proliferative potential in primary and recurrent tumors. Tumor specimens from 30 patients with malignant gliomas (14 anaplastic astrocytomas, 16 glioblastomas) taken before and after BRTX were examined using MIB-1 monoclonal antibody. Histological examinations of specimens obtained by craniotomy or stereotactic biopsy after BRTX revealed tumor recurrence in 18 patients and radionecrosis in 12 patients including two with pure radionecrosis and 10 with a mixture of both tumor and radionecrosis. The MIB-1 index of the tumors with radionecrosis was 7.6{+-}5.5%, and that of the primary tumors was 17.0{+-}11.2%, showing a significant difference (p<0.05). There was no significant difference between the MIB-1 index of the primary tumors with local recurrence after BRTX and the primary tumors which underwent radionecrosis. Although morphologically viable tumor cells were found in the radionecrotic tissue, BRTX causes a reduction in the proliferative potential of these tumor cells. (author)

  6. Plasma catecholamine levels before and after paroxetine treatment in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Young; Yu, Bum-Hee; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Yoo, Ikki; Song, Hyemin; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-02-28

    Catecholamines such as norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine are closely related to the autonomic nervous system, suggesting that panic disorder may involve elevated catecholamine levels. This study investigated basal and posttreatment catecholamine levels in patients with panic disorder. A total of 29 patients with panic disorder and 23 healthy controls participated in the study. Panic disorder patients received paroxetine treatment for 12 weeks after clinical tests and examination had been conducted. We investigated the difference in basal levels of catecholamine and measured the changes in catecholamine levels before and after drug treatment in panic disorder patients. The basal plasma epinephrine (48.87±6.18 pg/ml) and dopamine (34.87±3.57 pg/ml) levels of panic disorder patients were significantly higher than those (34.79±4.72 pg/ml and 20.40±3.53 pg/ml) of the control group. However, basal plasma norepinephrine levels did not show statistically significant differences between patients and controls. After drug therapy, plasma catecholamine levels were nonsignificantly decreased and norepinephrine levels showed a tendency toward a decrease that did not reach significance. In conclusion, this study suggests the possibility of a baseline increase of plasma catecholamine levels and activation of sympathetic nervous systems in patients with panic disorder which may normalize after treatment with paroxetine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mathematical ability of first year undergraduate paramedic students-A before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Kathryn; Boyle, Malcolm; Kim, Visal; Stam, Nathan; Williams, Brett

    2015-11-01

    An ability to accurately perform drug calculations unassisted is an essential skill for all health professionals, with various occupational-specific stressors exacerbating mathematical deficiencies. The objective of this study was to determine the unaided mathematic ability of first year undergraduate paramedic students before and after mathematical and drug calculation tutorials. Students were administered a questionnaire containing demographic, drug calculation and arithmetic questions during week one of the semester before the tutorials. During the semester students participated in three 2-hour tutorials which included both mathematical and drug calculation questions without assistance of computational devices. At the end of semester was a summative drug calculation examination of which five key questions were compared to similar questions from the first questionnaire. Descriptive statistics describe the demographic data with a paired t-test comparing the questionnaire and exam results. Drug calculation and mathematical ability was markedly improved following the tutorials, mean score of correct answers before 1.74 (SD 1.4) and after 4.14 (SD 0.93), pability to complete mathematical and drug calculations without the assistance of computational devices. This improved significantly following appropriate education and practice. Further research is required to determine the retention of this ability over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biochemical Evaluation of Serum Adiponectin Level in Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients before and after Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shepiny, M.S.El.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, serum adiponectin level was evaluated in 35 primary breast cancer patients and 10 healthy females, before and after treatment to assess if there is a relation between it and breast cancer, and to find out if it has a prognostic value. Serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in all and postmenopausal breast cancer patients before taking any type of treatment, and non-significantly lower in locally advanced breast cancer patients after treatment by 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy than healthy controls. Non-significant elevations was shown after treatment by surgery, and also after completing treatment by surgery followed by taking 2 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy followed by treatment by radiotherapy in case of premenopausal locally advanced breast cancer patients. Triglycerides showed significantly higher level in all groups of patients. There was statistical negative correlation between serum adiponectin level and body mass index (BMI) in postmenopausal healthy controls, and between serum adiponectin level and BMI, triglycerides in all and postmenopausal breast cancer patients before taking any type of treatment. In conclusion, this study suggests that low serum adiponectin level is likely to be associated with increased breast cancer risk, particularly among postmenopausal women. The association between obesity and breast cancer risk might be partly explained by adiponectin

  9. Meaning in bone marrow transplant nurses' work: experiences before and after a "meaning-centered" intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris; Fillion, Lise; Duval, Stéphane; Brown, Jocelyn; Rodin, Gary; Howell, Doris

    2012-01-01

    When a clinical culture emphasizes cure, as in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) services, BMT nurses commonly experience enormous stress when patients are suffering or dying. In this context, it is unclear what meanings BMT nurses experience in their work and how they find meaning and sustain hope, given conflicting responsibilities to patients. This study aimed to explore BMT nurses' experiences of meaning and hope and the effects of a meaning-centered intervention (MCI) on these experiences using qualitative methodology. Fourteen BMT nurses engaged in a 5-session MCI, with 7 members each participating in 2 groups. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted at 1 month before and after the intervention. Interpretive phenomenology guided data analysis. The BMT nurses in the Princess Margaret Hospital experienced meaning in their involvement with their patients' suffering. The MCI seemed to inspire participants to engage more with patients and their suffering. Three subthemes reflected this influence: (a) greater awareness of boundaries between their personal and professional involvement, (b) enhanced empathy from an awareness of a shared mortality, and (c) elevated hope when nurses linked patients' suffering with meaning. This study confirms that patients' suffering constitutes nurses' search for meaning and hope in their work. The MCI offers a way in which to actively support nurses in this process. Nurses can learn to be more responsive to patients' suffering beyond limits of cure. A minimal intervention, such as the MCI, supports BMT nurses in finding positive personal meaning and purpose in their otherwise highly stressful work culture.

  10. Antioxidant activity and bioactive compound contents before and after in vitro digestion of new tomato hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Speranza, Giovanna; De Prisco, Rocco; Iodice, Carmine; Crudele, Egle; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    The antioxidant properties and bioactive compound contents of fresh new tomato hybrids before and after in vitro digestion were investigated. To this aim, the antioxidant activities of lipophilic, hydrophilic and polyphenolic extracts of tomato hybrids were determined by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), DMPD (N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods respectively, while the bioactive compound contents were estimated via Folin-Ciocalteu (polyphenols), pH differential (anthocyanins) and high-performance liquid chromatography (lycopene and β-carotene) methods. After the digestion process, a marked loss (ranging from 37 to 77%) of antioxidant capacity linked to the hydrophilic fraction was observed. In contrast, the lipophilic and methanolic fractions showed an increase in antioxidant activity (ranging from 9 to 40%) after gastric digestion, and a rapid decrease was observed after total digestion. Moreover, the presence of anthocyanins and carotenoids after simulated digestion was a notable result. The bioavailability of bioactive metabolites from nutraceutical food and their healthful properties in humans are strictly dependent on the digestion process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceived Ease of Access Before and After Recreational Marijuana Implementation in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, Scott B; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ma, Ming; James, Katherine A; Levinson, Arnold H

    2018-02-23

    As of January 1, 2017, eight states have approved laws for recreational marijuana use. While the social impacts of these changes remain under debate, the influence on adolescent marijuana use is a key policy and health issue across the U.S. To examine changes in adolescent marijuana-use behaviors in the first year after recreational marijuana implementation in Colorado, and to analyze the effect of retail marijuana store proximity on youth use and perceptions. Secondary analysis of Healthy Kids Colorado Survey data from 40 schools surveyed before and after recreational marijuana sales were implemented (2013 student n = 12,240; 2014 student n = 11,931). Self-reported marijuana use, ease of access, and perceived harms were compared between years and by proximity of recreational marijuana stores to surveyed schools. Adolescent marijuana use behaviors, wrongness of use, and perceptions of risk of harm were unchanged from baseline to one-year follow-up. Perceived ease of access to marijuana increased (from 46% to 52%). Proximity of recreational marijuana stores was not significantly associated with perceived ease of access to marijuana. Conclusions/Importance: In the first study of adolescent marijuana use and perceptions after state retail implementation of recreational marijuana, there was little change in adolescent marijuana use but a significant change in perception of ease of access. Public health workers and policymakers should continue to monitor these changes as essential for evaluating the impact of liberalization of marijuana policies.

  12. Analysis of Anomalous Characteristics of Geomagnetic Change before and after Eryuan M5.5 Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe, N.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the author uses two kinds of mobile geomagnetic data before and after Eryuan M5.5 earthquake on Mar. 3,2013, to analyze the characteristics of anomalous change in total geomagnetic intensity and geomagnetic vectors. (1) The observation results of total geomagnetic intensity show that before the Eryuan M5.5 earthquake, in the surveying area, for the successive surveying periods, the positive zones were approximately equal to the negative ones. Then, the whole surveying area gradually evolved into the positive one, and the high gradient belt appeared, which evolved into the high-gradient zone containing positive and negative values. The epicenter of the Eryuan M5.5 earthquake was located at the edge of positive high-gradient zone. After the earthquake occurred, the high gradient belt containing the positive and negative values was located far from the epicenter, and the positive and negative areas became balanced again. (2) The observed geomagnetic vector show that before the Eryuan M5.5 earthquake, the horizontal and vertical vectors of lithosphere magnetic field had significant variations in earthquake area. The zero lines of the declination, inclination and total intensity all crossed near the earthquake area. After the earthquake occurred, in the earthquake area, the significant variations of these vectors disappeared, and the high-gradient zone containing the positive and negative values gradually disappeared. The inclination and total intensity also disappeared, and the zero line of the declination did not appear in the earthquake area.

  13. Inequality in oral health-related quality of life before and after a major subsidization reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raittio, Eero; Lahti, Satu; Kiiskinen, Urpo; Helminen, Sari; Aromaa, Arpo; Suominen, Anna L

    2015-08-01

    In Finland, a dental subsidization reform, implemented in 2001-2002, abolished age restrictions on subsidized dental care. We investigated income-related inequality in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and its determinants among adult Finns before and after the reform. Three cross-sectional postal surveys, focusing on perceived oral health and the use of dental services among people born before 1971, were conducted in 2001 (n = 2,046), 2004 (n = 1,728), and 2007 (n = 1,560). Five measures, based on the Oral Health Impact Profile-14, were used as indicators of OHRQoL. Income-related inequality and associated factors were analysed using the concentration index and its decomposition. Prevalence, extent, and severity of oral health impacts were slightly lower in 2007 than in 2001. The oral health impacts were concentrated, at all study time points, among individuals with lower income. Most of the inequality was related to self-perceived general health, tooth loss, and income. Contributions of time since the last dental visit and satisfaction with the last treatment period to the inequality decreased from 2001 to 2007. However, the contributions of these factors were already small (10-20%) in 2001. In general, OHRQoL improved slightly; however, no clear or dramatic change in inequality in OHRQoL was seen after the reform. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  14. Hepcidin, interleukin-6 and hematological iron markers in males before and after heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Michael; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hossain, Bakhtiar; Olsson, Sigvard; Nilsson, Folke; Lundberg, Per-Arne; Rödjer, Stig; Hulthén, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Anemia of inflammation in patients with acute or chronic acute-phase activation is a common clinical problem. Hepcidin is a peptide shown to be the principal regulator of the absorption and systemic distribution of iron. Main inducers of hepcidin are iron overload, hypoxia and inflammation, where the latter has been linked to hepcidin via increased interleukin-6 (IL-6). This article addresses the impact and time course of postoperative acute-phase reaction in humans following heart surgery on prohepcidin, hepcidin, hematological markers and IL-6 concentrations. Serum concentrations of prohepcidin, hepcidin, IL-6 and hematological iron parameters were studied in five male patients without infection before and after heart surgery. This study, which is the first to report the impact on serum hepcidin and serum prohepcidin concentrations in patients following surgery, clearly demonstrates the induction of hypoferremia due to the postoperative acute-phase reaction. Significant changes were seen for serum iron concentration, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity and hemoglobin concentration. A significant increase in ferritin concentration was seen 96-144 h postoperatively. Additionally, there were significant alterations in both serum hepcidin after 96-144 h and serum prohepcidin after 48 h compared with preoperative values. Serum prohepcidin decreased, whereas serum hepcidin increased. In conclusion, changes in serum prohepcidin were followed by an increase in serum hepcidin. This speaks in favor of a chain of action where proteolytic trimming of serum prohepcidin results in increased serum hepcidin. However, hypoferremia appeared prior to the changes in serum prohepcidin and serum hepcidin.

  15. MRI findings in Tolosa-Hunt syndrome before and after systemic corticosteroid therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakirer, Sinan

    2003-01-01

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is characterized by painful ophthalmoplegia due to a granulomatous inflammation in the cavernous sinus. Corticosteroid therapy dramatically resolves both the clinical and radiological findings of THS. We present MRI findings of six patients with a clinical history of at least one episode of unilateral or bilateral orbital-periorbital pain, clinical findings of associated paresis of one or more of 3rd, 4th, 5th or 6th cranial nerves. All of the patients revealed an enlargement of the symptomatic cavernous sinus on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Five patients revealed total resolution of the clinical findings within 1-8 weeks, following systemic corticosteroid treatment. One patient revealed only minor regression of clinical findings within 2 weeks after the initiation of the treatment, so the cavernous sinus lesion was reevaluated as meningioma on MRI, and the patient underwent surgical resection of the mass with resultant histopathological finding of cavernous sinus meningioma. A follow-up MRI scan was performed for five patients at the end of 8-weeks of steroid therapy. Three of these five patients showed total resolution of the cavernous sinus lesions whereas two of them revealed a partial regression of the cavernous sinus lesions. MRI findings before and after systemic corticosteroid therapy are important diagnostic criteria to put the definitive diagnosis of THS and to differentiate it from other cavernous sinus lesions that simulate THS both clinically and radiologically

  16. Electrocortical Dynamics in Children with a Language-Learning Impairment Before and After Audiovisual Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Sabine; Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April A

    2016-05-01

    Detecting and discriminating subtle and rapid sound changes in the speech environment is a fundamental prerequisite of language processing, and deficits in this ability have frequently been observed in individuals with language-learning impairments (LLI). One approach to studying associations between dysfunctional auditory dynamics and LLI, is to implement a training protocol tapping into this potential while quantifying pre- and post-intervention status. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are highly sensitive to the brain correlates of these dynamic changes and are therefore ideally suited for examining hypotheses regarding dysfunctional auditory processes. In this study, ERP measurements to rapid tone sequences (standard and deviant tone pairs) along with behavioral language testing were performed in 6- to 9-year-old LLI children (n = 21) before and after audiovisual training. A non-treatment group of children with typical language development (n = 12) was also assessed twice at a comparable time interval. The results indicated that the LLI group exhibited considerable gains on standardized measures of language. In terms of ERPs, we found evidence of changes in the LLI group specifically at the level of the P2 component, later than 250 ms after the onset of the second stimulus in the deviant tone pair. These changes suggested enhanced discrimination of deviant from standard tone sequences in widespread cortices, in LLI children after training.

  17. Systematic prophylactic oxytocin injection and the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage: A before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, C; Simon, M; Closset, E; Ducloy-Bouthors, A-S; Schaffar, A; Deruelle, P; Gautier, S; Depret, S; Subtil, D

    2016-02-01

    Assess the impact of routine injection of 5 units of oxytocin as soon as the anterior shoulder is delivered on the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in a context of daily practice. Single-centre before-and-after study evaluating the effect of a change in the protocol for PPH prevention as applied in our obstetrical unit. During the first period, oxytocin (5 units) was to be injected only in case of PPH risk factors. During the second period, the injection was systematic. In the "before" study period, there were 1953 patients vaginal deliveries and 843 (43%) oxytocin injections, with a protocol compliance of 85%. In the "after" study period, 2018 women had vaginal deliveries and 1911 (95%) had an oxytocin injection (protocol compliance: 95%). The whole study period was associated with a reduced risk of moderate haemorrhage (13.4% vs. 9.2%, Phaemorrhage was observed (2.1% vs. 2.0%, P=0.79). After logistic regression, the study period remained associated with a significant reduction in the risk of moderate PPH (OR=0.72 [0.58-0.89]). Routine injection of 5 units of oxytocin makes it possible to reduce the risk of moderate PPH, but it does not affect the risk of severe PPH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL PERTURBATIONS ON RUNNING KINEMATICS AND MUSCLE ACTIVITY BEFORE AND AFTER ACCOMMODATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Haudum

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the running pattern of the lower extremity was examined while being perturbed through tubes attached between the ankles and the lower back to analyze influences on the running pattern variability before and after a varied running intervention. 3D-kinematics, joint coupling and electromyography (EMG, as well as their variability, were analyzed in ten healthy male participants during treadmill running (10.5 km·h-1. Pre- and post-tests each consisted of 2 x 30 min treadmill running (one with and one without tubes. The results showed major acute effects on EMG and kinematics, as well as joint coordination variability, due to the constraints (p < 0.05. After the intervention, a process of normalization of most kinematic and EMG parameters occurred; however, EMG variability, kinematic variability and joint coordination variability were reduced during tube running below normal running level (p < 0.05. The findings further indicate rapid kinematic adaptations while muscle activity appears to require longer practice to adapt. The constraint serves to acutely increase variability, but may lead to reduced variability when applied for a longer period of time

  19. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Florida physicians regarding dengue before and after an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblecki-Lewis, Susanne; Chang, Aileen; Jiddou-Yaldoo, Renee; Tomashek, Kay M; Stanek, Danielle; Anil, Leena; Lichtenberger, Paola

    2016-04-26

    Failure to recognize and appropriately manage dengue early in the clinical course may result in late initiation of supportive treatment for severe disease. In Florida, travel-related and autochthonous dengue occur and are likely under-recognized. The objective of this study was to evaluate physician knowledge of dengue and its management before and after an educational intervention in Florida. From 2012-13 we conducted 14 grand-rounds style lectures on dengue clinical management attended by 413 physicians, and analyzed data from the pre- and post-tests. Of those attending, 231 and 220 completed the pre-and post-tests, respectively. Overall, the mean pre-test score for knowledge-based questions was 74.3 and average post-test score was 94.2%, indicating a mean increase of 19.9% (P dengue recognition and management also increased. Non-US trained physicians and those who had treated more than ten dengue cases performed significantly better in the pre-test. Post-test scores did not differ by subgroup. The train-the-trainer approach with grand-rounds style presentations appear to be an effective intervention to improve knowledge of dengue among physicians.

  20. Study of Metal-Humic Catalysts before and After the Gas Desulphurization Process Using Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Danuta; Wieckowska, Jadwiga

    2017-12-01

    The study of metal-humic catalysts before and after the SO2 conversion has been carried out using thermal analysis. The thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis has been carried out using Perkin-Elmer TGA 7 and DTA 7 equipment in an argonic atmosphere. The heating rate of samples in the DTA was 10 °C/min., and in the TGA 40 °C/min. The following catalysts have been chosen for analysis: H-Pb2+/450 °C, H-B/450 °C, H-Sn2+/450 °C, H-Ce 4+. The study of metal-humic catalysts using thermal analysis has shown that, in the DTA curves of studied catalysts before SO2 conversion, endothermic peaks related to decomposition of metal carbonates, melting of metals or decomposition of metal-humic bonding. In the DTA curves after the SO2 conversion process, there are additional endothermic peaks related to the presence of sulphur in the metal-humic compounds and to thermal decomposition of those bonds.

  1. SPECT measurements of cerebral blood volume before and after acetazolamide in occlusive cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Momose, Toshimitsu; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Nishikawa, Junichi; Sasaki, Yasuhito.

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume before and after acetazolamide was measured by SPECT to evaluate cerebral vasodilatory capacity in eight patients with cerebrovascular disease and five control subjects. Two SPECT measurements were performed serially, and acetazolamide was administered between them. The ratio of increase in hemispheric blood volume was calculated, and it was compared with the results of cerebral blood flow and cerebral blood volume measurements. A cerebral vasodilatory capacity map, the image after acetazolamide minus the baseline image, was also produced. Acetazolamide increased hemispheric blood volume in all subjects. The ratio of increase was lower in the involved hemispheres of the patients with unilateral carotid disease than in the uninvolved hemispheres of the patients and control subjects. The ratio of concordance with blood flow and blood volume measurements was approximated at 80%. Cerebral vasodilatory capacity mapping revealed three defects compatible with the clinical data. SPECT measurements of cerebral blood volume after acetazolamide can be performed following baseline SPECT with no additional radiotracer, and may be helpful to assess hemodynamic status. (author)

  2. Usefulness of 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy before and after coronary intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Itaru; Hou, Nobuyoshi; Komori, Tsuyoshi; Tabuchi, Koujiro; Matsui, Ritsuo; Sueyoshi, Kouzou; Narabayashi, Isamu; Matsuda, Shigeki; Tamoto, Shigemi

    1997-01-01

    Dipyridamole-loading 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy was performed for patients with coronary artery disease who underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angiography (PTCA) in order to examine whether SPECT imaging prior to treatment is useful for the determination of prognosis after coronary intervention. Thirty-six patients including 9 with angina pectoris (AP), 22 with old myocardial infarction (OMI) and 5 OMI with AP were underwent dipyridamole-loading 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPECT before and after coronary intervention. The length of follow-up was 185±107 days after PTCA. Improvement of myocardial uptake was observed on myocardial SPECT in all cases with AP. Improvement of the myocardial uptake was observed 50% (4/8) of patients with OMI who had no myocardial viability. It was suggested that the improvement of myocardial uptake after PTCA was due to incomplete fill-in in cases with AP and that presence of fill-in was important for level of fill-in in patients with AP. The improvement of myocardial uptake in the scar tissue in patients with OMI contributed to the hibernating myocardium. We concluded that correct detection of hibernating myocardium was difficult despite the superior imaging capacity of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPECT. (author)

  3. Evaluation of physiological parameters before and after respiratory physiotherapy in newborns with acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Feitosa, Sérgio; de Castro Selestrin, Cláudia; Valenti, Vitor E; de Sousa, Fernando H; F Siqueira, Arnaldo A; Petenusso, Márcio; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-08

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a respiratory disease with high morbidity that affects newborn in the first two years of life. Its treatment with physiotherapy has been highlighted as an important tool, however, there is no consensus regarding its effects on patients improvement. We aimed to evaluate the physiological parameters before and after the procedure respiratory therapy in newborn with acute viral bronchiolitis. This was a cross sectional observational study in 30 newborns with acute viral bronchiolitis and indicated for physiotherapy care in a hospitalized Urgency and Emergency Unit. It was collected the clinical data of newborn through evaluation form, and we measured heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate (RR). We measured the variables before physiotherapy treatment, 3, 6 and 9 minutes after the physiotherapy treatment. There has been no change in HR, however, we observed a decrease in RR at 6 and 9 min compared to 3 min and increase in SpO2 at 3, 6 and 9 min compared to before physiotherapy. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an effective therapy for the treatment of newborn with Acute Viral Bronchitis.

  4. Japanese Mutual Funds before and after the Crisis Outburst: A Style- and Performance-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanos Papadamou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how mutual funds performed in Japan before and after the 2008 outburst of the global financial crisis, that is during the extension of an extraordinary unconventional monetary policy by the Bank of Japan. Style and performance analyses are employed in order to investigate whether active or passive management has been affected by unconventional times and to what extent. Evidence indicates that in four out of eight funds, asset selection presents a significant contribution to returns. The Selection Sharpe Ratios for sectoral and style analyses exhibit positive values added per unit of risk due to active management for the majority of our funds in the pre-Lehman default period. Nevertheless, none of them presents statistical significance according to the t-statistic. Moreover, over the post-Lehman default, only two out of eight funds achieved lower volatility levels and higher returns due to active management. A style drift to big capitalization stocks with low values of book to market ratio is to be held responsible for the outperformance. Overall, our findings imply that active management in a monetary easing environment does not add significant value to the mutual fund performance.

  5. MRI findings in Tolosa-Hunt syndrome before and after systemic corticosteroid therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakirer, Sinan E-mail: scakirer@yahoo.com

    2003-02-01

    Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is characterized by painful ophthalmoplegia due to a granulomatous inflammation in the cavernous sinus. Corticosteroid therapy dramatically resolves both the clinical and radiological findings of THS. We present MRI findings of six patients with a clinical history of at least one episode of unilateral or bilateral orbital-periorbital pain, clinical findings of associated paresis of one or more of 3rd, 4th, 5th or 6th cranial nerves. All of the patients revealed an enlargement of the symptomatic cavernous sinus on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Five patients revealed total resolution of the clinical findings within 1-8 weeks, following systemic corticosteroid treatment. One patient revealed only minor regression of clinical findings within 2 weeks after the initiation of the treatment, so the cavernous sinus lesion was reevaluated as meningioma on MRI, and the patient underwent surgical resection of the mass with resultant histopathological finding of cavernous sinus meningioma. A follow-up MRI scan was performed for five patients at the end of 8-weeks of steroid therapy. Three of these five patients showed total resolution of the cavernous sinus lesions whereas two of them revealed a partial regression of the cavernous sinus lesions. MRI findings before and after systemic corticosteroid therapy are important diagnostic criteria to put the definitive diagnosis of THS and to differentiate it from other cavernous sinus lesions that simulate THS both clinically and radiologically.

  6. Numerical relationship between surface deformation and a change of groundwater table before and after an earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akao, Yoshihiko

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of earthquakes upon a groundwater flow around a repositories for high-level radioactive wastes. Estimation of a groundwater flow change before and after an earthquake or a volcanic eruption is one of the issues for a long-term safety assessment of the repositories. However, almost any systematic investigation about the causality between a groundwater flow change and an earthquake or an eruption was not found, and as well no estimation formula has been published. The authors succeeded in obtaining a primitive relationship between a groundwater change and an earthquake in this study. The study consists of three stages. First, several survey reports which describe field observation results of groundwater anomalies caused by earthquakes or eruptions have been collected. The necessary data have been read from the literature and systematically arranged. Second, source mechanisms of the corresponding earthquakes were inspected and static displacements at the well positions were calculated by the dislocation theory in the seismology. Third, parametric studies among the parameters of groundwater anomalies and earthquakes were carried out to find a numerical relationship between a couple of them. Then, a preliminary relationship between water table change in a well and static displacement at the well position was found. The authors can conclude that temporary change of water table seems to depend on the norm of displacement vector. In this relationship, the maximum value of water table change would be approximately one hundred times of the displacement

  7. Background radiation measurements in the lower atmosphere before and after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papastefanou, C.; Manolopoulou, M.; Stoulos, S.; Ioannidou, A.; Gerasopoulos, E. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Nuclear Physics, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-01-01

    The background radiation measurements in the lower atmosphere at different altitudes above sea level up to 1100 m and over the land were made at a temperate latitude (40) in the Thessaloniki region, North Greece, before and after the Chernobyl accident (26 April 1986), using a portable {gamma}-ray scintillation detector and a Cutie-pie survey meter with an ionization chamber. The average value of the total background radiation at ground level was 87 nGy h{sup -1} (10.0 {mu}R h{sup -1}, 25 cps), i.e. 60% from terrestrial radiation, 55 nGy h{sup -1} (6.3 {mu}R h{sup -1}, 15 cps) and 40% from cosmic radiation, 32 nGy h{sup -1} (3.7 {mu}R h{sup -1}, 10 cps), before the Chernobyl accident, while, after it, the total background radiation was doubled, due to the long-lived radioactive fallout suspended in the atmosphere and or deposited onto the ground. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Impact of fear of falling for patients and caregivers: perceptions before and after participation in vestibular and balance rehabilitation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Julie A; Kretschmer, Laura W

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of fear of falling (FoF) on older patients with dizziness history and their caregivers to better determine holistic needs when developing a patient-family centered approach to falling risk reduction. A mixed-method design was used, incorporating a phenomenological qualitative approach to explore the impact of FoF in 14 patients and a family member or spouse of each patient. Quantitative analysis was used to further interpret results of interviews conducted before and after participation in a vestibular and balance rehabilitation program designed to reduce falling risk and improve balance confidence. Qualitative analysis of participant interviews pre and post vestibular rehabilitation revealed lifestyle changes for both participants and family caregivers due to FoF and the need for reducing falling concerns. Patient age showed statistically significant differences in levels of balance confidence, with younger participants (≤ 65 years) showing more concerns about the consequences of falling, even after rehabilitation, than older participants (> 65 years). The study highlights the impact of FoF on participation and activity levels of patients and family caregivers, as well as the need to thoroughly evaluate falling fears to achieve a holistic rehabilitation outcome.

  9. Performance of Vascular Exposure and Fasciotomy Among Surgical Residents Before and After Training Compared With Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Colin F; Garofalo, Evan; Puche, Adam; Chen, Hegang; Pugh, Kristy; Shackelford, Stacy; Tisherman, Samuel; Henry, Sharon; Bowyer, Mark W

    2017-06-01

    Surgical patient outcomes are related to surgeon skills. To measure resident surgeon technical and nontechnical skills for trauma core competencies before and after training and up to 18 months later and to compare resident performance with the performance of expert traumatologists. This longitudinal study performed from May 1, 2013, through February 29, 2016, at Maryland State Anatomy Board cadaver laboratories included 40 surgical residents and 10 expert traumatologists. Performance was measured during extremity vascular exposures and lower extremity fasciotomy in fresh cadavers before and after taking the Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma (ASSET) course. The primary outcome variable was individual procedure score (IPS), with secondary outcomes of IPSs on 5 components of technical and nontechnical skills, Global Rating Scale scores, errors, and time to complete the procedure. Two trained evaluators located in the same laboratory evaluated performance with a standardized script and mobile touch-screen data collection. Thirty-eight (95%) of 40 surgical residents (mean [SD] age, 31 [2.9] years) who were evaluated before and within 4 weeks of ASSET training completed follow-up evaluations 12 to 18 months later (mean [SD], 14 [2.7] months). The experts (mean [SD] age, 52 [10.0] years) were significantly older and had a longer (mean [SD], 46 [16.3] months) interval since taking the ASSET course (both P knowledge, correct procedural steps, and decreased errors from 60% to 19% after the ASSET course regardless of clinical year of training (P knowledge (the 2 IPS components most improved with training) indicates the resident's performance was within 1 nearest-neighbor classifier of experts after ASSET training. Five residents had no improvement with training. The Trauma Readiness Index for experts (mean [SD], 74 [4]) was significantly different compared with the trained residents (mean [SD], 48 [7] before training vs 63 [7] after training [P = .004

  10. Children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home before and after smoke-free legislation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ting; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Tsai, Tzu-I; Chang, Po-Yin

    2017-11-01

    In January 2009, Taiwan broadened smoke-free legislation, requiring mass transportation systems, indoor public areas and indoor workplaces with 3 or more people, to become smoke-free. We investigated the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home for children aged 3-11 years in Taiwan before and after the implantation of the legislation. We studied 7911 children from the 2005, 2009 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys (cross-sectional, nationally representative household surveys). Logistic regression modelling estimated adjusted ORs (AOR) and 95% CIs for children's SHS exposure at home in 2009 and 2013 (2005 as reference) for the overall sample and for each category of household socioeconomic status (SES) and household composition. Prevalence of children SHS exposure at home decreased from 51% (2005) to 32% (2009) and 28% (2013). Compared to 2005, children in 2009 and 2013 had lower likelihoods of SHS exposure at home with AOR of 0.45 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.51) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.46), respectively. All children had reduced SHS exposure at home after the legislation, irrespective of household SES and compositions. Low household income, low parental education level, living with grandparents or living with other adults was individually associated with increased SHS exposure. The proportion of children exposed to SHS at home in Taiwan declined substantially from 2005 to 2009 after smoke-free legislation, and fell further by 2013, irrespective of SES and household compositions. Still, inequality in SHS exposure at home by SES and household composition warrants future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Cadaveric validation study of computational fluid dynamics model of sinus irrigations before and after sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, John R; Zhao, Kai; Doan, Ngoc; Khalili, Sammy; Lee, John Y K; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N

    2016-04-01

    Investigations into the distribution of sinus irrigations have been limited by labor-intensive methodologies that do not capture the full dynamics of irrigation flow. The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for sinonasal irrigations through a cadaveric experiment. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed on 2 fresh cadavers to open all 8 sinuses, including a Draf III procedure for cadaver 1, and Draf IIb frontal sinusotomies for cadaver 2. Computed tomography maxillofacial scans were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively, from which CFD models were created. Blue-dyed saline in a 240-mL squeeze bottle was used to irrigate cadaver sinuses at 60 mL/second (120 mL per side, over 2 seconds). These parameters were replicated in CFD simulations. Endoscopes were placed through trephinations drilled through the anterior walls of the maxillary and frontal sinuses, and sphenoid roofs. Irrigation flow into the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses was graded both ipsilateral and contralateral to the side of nasal irrigation, and then compared with the CFD simulations. In both cadavers, preoperative and postoperative irrigation flow into maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses matched extremely well when comparing the CFD models and cadaver endoscopic videos. For cadaver 1, there was 100% concordance between the CFD model and cadaver videos, and 83% concordance for cadaver 2. This cadaveric experiment provided potential validation of the CFD model for simulating saline irrigation flow into the maxillary, frontal, and sphenoid sinuses before and after sinus surgery. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  12. Diurnal alterations in circadian genes and peptides in major depressive disorder before and after escitalopram treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Xia; Liu, Li-Jing; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Gao, Lei; Wang, Xin-Fu; Zhang, Jing-Tao; Lu, Lin

    2013-11-01

    Strong links exist between circadian disturbances and some of the most characteristic symptoms of clinical major depressive disorder (MDD). However, changes in the expression of clock genes or neuropeptides related to the regulation of circadian rhythm that may influence the susceptibility to recurrence after antidepressant treatment in MDD have not been investigated. Blood samples were collected at 4h intervals for 24h from 12 male healthy controls and 12 male MDD patients before and after treatment with escitalopram for 8 weeks. The outcome measures included the relative expression of clock gene mRNA (PERIOD1, PERIOD2, PERIOD3, CRY1, BMAL1, NPAS2, and GSK-3β), and the levels of serum melatonin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH). Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed disruptions in the diurnal rhythms of the expression of PERIOD1, PERIOD2, CRY1, BMAL1, NPAS2, and GSK-3β and disruptions in the diurnal rhythms of the release of melatonin, VIP, cortisol, ACTH, IGF-1, and GH. Several of these disruptions (i.e., PER1, CRY1, melatonin, VIP, cortisol, ACTH, and IGF-1) persisted 8 weeks after escitalopram treatment, similar to the increase in the 24h levels of VIP and decreases in the 24h levels of cortisol and ACTH. These persistent neurobiological changes may play a role in MDD symptoms that are thought to contribute to the vulnerability to recurrence and long-term maintenance therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Walking economy before and after the onset of claudication pain in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew W; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M; Stoner, Julie A; Montgomery, Polly S; Scott, Kristy J; Blevins, Steve M

    2010-03-01

    To determine the walking economy before and after the onset of claudication pain in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and to identify predictors of the change in walking economy following the onset of claudication pain. A total of 39 patients with PAD were studied, in which 29 experienced claudication (Pain group) during a constant load, walking economy treadmill test (speed = 2.0 mph, grade = 0%) and 10 were pain-free during this test (Pain-Free group). Patients were characterized on walking economy (ie, oxygen uptake during ambulation), as well as on demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, baseline exercise performance measures, and the ischemic window calculated from the decrease in ankle systolic blood pressure following exercise. During the constant load treadmill test, the Pain group experienced onset of claudication pain at 323 +/- 195 seconds (mean +/- standard deviation) and continued to walk until maximal pain was attained at 759 +/- 332 seconds. Walking economy during pain-free ambulation (9.54 +/- 1.42 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) changed (P change in walking economy after the onset of pain was associated with ischemic window (P change in walking economy (P = .36) from the second minute of exercise (9.20 +/- 1.62 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) to the nineteenth minute of exercise (9.07 +/- 1.54 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Painful ambulation at a constant speed is associated with impaired walking economy, as measured by an increase in oxygen uptake in patients limited by intermittent claudication, and the change in walking economy is explained, in part, by severity of PAD, diabetes, and hypertension.

  14. Comparing residential contamination in a Houston environmental justice neighborhood before and after Hurricane Harvey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Casillas, Gaston A; Baker, Erin; Stone, Kahler W; Kirsch, Katie R; Camargo, Krisa; Wade, Terry L; McDonald, Thomas J

    2018-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex environmental toxicants. Exposure to them has been linked to adverse health outcomes including cancer, as well as diseases of the skin, liver, and immune system. Based on an ongoing community engagement partnership with stakeholder groups and residents, we conducted a small longitudinal study to assess domestic exposure to PAHs among residents of Manchester, an environmental justice neighborhood located in the East End of Houston, TX. In December, 2016, we used fiber wipes to collect samples of household dust from 25 homes in Manchester. Following Hurricane Harvey, in September 2017, we revisited 24 of the 25 homes to collect soil samples from the front yards of the same homes. Wipes and soil were analyzed for the presence of PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. Principal component analysis plots, heatmaps, and PAH ratios were used to compare pre- and post-Hurricane Harvey samples. While direct comparison is not possible, we present three methods for comparing PAHs found in pre-hurricane fiber wipes and post-hurricane soil samples. The methods demonstrate that the PAHs found before and after Hurricane Harvey are likely from similar sources and that those sources are most likely to be associated with combustion. We also found evidence of redistribution of PAHs due to extreme flooding associated with Hurricane Harvey. Residents of the Manchester neighborhood of Houston, TX, are exposed to a range of PAHs in household dust and outdoor soil. While it was not possible to compare directly, we were able to use several methods to assess detected concentrations, changes in site-specific PAH allocations, and PAH origination. Additional research is needed to identify specific sources of domestic PAH exposure in these communities and continued work involving community members and policy makers should aim to develop interventions to reduce domestic exposure to and prevent negative health outcomes

  15. Sweet taste preferences before and after an intensive medical weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, K; Rothberg, A E; Arcori, L; Kaur, M; Fowler, C E; Herman, W H

    2016-06-01

    Medical weight loss could change sweet taste threshold and preferences. The decrease in sweet taste preferences may, in turn, help in the maintenance of weight loss. This study examined the association between sweet taste preferences at baseline and weight change during a medical weight management programme and the impact of diet-induced weight loss on sweet taste preferences. Adult patients with body mass index ≥32 kg m -2 were recruited from a medical weight management clinic. Sweet taste preference was assessed using a forced-choice, paired-comparison tracking method before and after a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Twenty participants were included in the analysis: mean age was 53.1 (standard deviation [SD]: 11.4) years, and 14 were female. The mean body mass index was 41.4 (SD: 7.5) kg m -2 . The median preferred sucrose concentration before VLCD was 0.45 M. Following VLCD, mean change in weight was -13.3 (SD: 6.6) kg, and percentage weight change was -11.3% (SD: 5.9%). Based on mixed models with and without adjustment for demographic factors, diabetes status and smoking history, preferred sucrose concentration at baseline did not predict change in longer-term body weight. The change of preferred sucrose concentration following 12 weeks of VLCD was not significant ( P -value 0.95). Change in weight during and after VLCD was not associated with sweet taste preferences at baseline. After diet-induced weight loss, sweet taste preferences did not change.

  16. Concomitant use of isotretinoin and contraceptives before and after iPledge in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Simone P; Kang, Elizabeth M; Kim, Clara Y; Governale, Laura A; Zhou, Esther H; Hammad, Tarek A

    2013-12-01

    The major concern associated with isotretinoin treatment is its high teratogenic potential. Therefore, ensuring use of contraception while on therapy is an important strategy for at-risk patients and has been emphasized in all risk management programs. iPledge, the latest and most rigorous isotretinoin program, requires, among other stipulations, monthly assessments of contraceptive use for patients undergoing isotretinoin treatment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate isotretinoin usage patterns and assess concomitant use of isotretinoin and contraceptives before and after iPledge. Female patients aged 13-45 years with a new prescription for isotretinoin products during 2004-2008 were identified in the IMS Health longitudinal prescription claims database. Monthly concomitant use of isotretinoin and contraceptives was estimated. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series data was used to assess changes in monthly proportion of concomitant use in the 24 months preceding versus following iPledge implementation. The number of isotretinoin prescriptions decreased after iPledge implementation. A small but significant increase in monthly proportion of patients concomitantly using isotretinoin and contraceptive therapies was observed immediately after iPledge implementation (1.3%, p-value = 0.02), particularly among younger patients (2.5%, p-value contraceptives coincident with the time of implementation of iPledge, particularly among younger women. Published 2013. This article is a U. S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2013. This article is a U. S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Evaluation of breast cancer knowledge among health promoters in Mexico before and after focused training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Nancy L; Kouri, Elena M; Ornelas, Héctor Arreola; Méndez, Oscar; Valladares, Laura Magaña; Knaul, Felicia Marie

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Mexico. We assessed the effectiveness of a train-the-trainer program in two Mexican states in improving knowledge among professional and nonprofessional community health workers. We worked with local organizations to develop and implement a train-the-trainer program to improve breast cancer knowledge among community health workers, including professional health promoters (PHPs) who were trained and then trained nonprofessional community health promoters (CHPs). We surveyed participants before and after training that included in-person and online classes and again approximately 3 months later. We used paired t tests and chi-square tests to compare survey responses at the different times. We also used logistic regression to assess whether promoter characteristics were associated with greater improvements in breast cancer knowledge after training. Overall, 169 PHPs (mean age, 36 years) completed training and provided a 10-hour training course to 2,651 CHPs, who also completed the pre- and post-training survey. For both PHPs and CHPs, post-training surveys demonstrated increases in an understanding of breast cancer as a problem; an understanding of screening, treatment, and insurance coverage issues; and knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms, and what constitutes a family history of breast cancer (all p < .05). These improvements were maintained 3 to 6 months after training. Train-the-trainer programs hold promise for leveraging community health workers, who far outnumber other health professionals in many low- and middle-income countries, to engage in health promotion activities for cancer and other noncommunicable diseases. ©AlphaMed Press.

  18. [Practice uptake in France before and after the 2010 French guidelines on kidney cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzaid, I; Hermieu, J-F; Hupertan, V; Dominique, S; Delmas, V; Ravery, V

    2014-04-01

    Compared to the 2007 edition, the 2010 French urological association onco-urology guidelines boarded the indications of partial nephrectomy (PN) as long as the procedure is technically feasible. The aim of this study was to assess national practice with respect to kidney surgery in the 2 years before and after current guidelines. The national database of the Agence Technique de l'Information sur l'Hospitalisation (ATIH) was queried for procedures performed between 2009 and 2010 (era 1) and between 2011 and 2012 (era 2). The coding system of the Classification Commune des Actes Médicaux (CCAM) was used to extract kidney related procedures. For each era, procedures were sorted into partial versus radical nephrectomy (RN), laparoscopic/robotic versus open approach, and private versus public hospital. The two eras were then compared. Overall, 28,000 and 28,907 procedures were reported in era 1 and 2 with mean 14,000 and 14,450 procedures per year respectively. PN increased from 30% to 35% (P<0.0001) between the two eras. This uptake was similar in public and private hospitals. Accordingly, laparoscopic/robotic approach has significantly increased between the two eras (35% versus 39%, P<0.0001) and even more importantly in public hospitals (P=0.0017). There was a significant increase in laparoscopic/robotic PN as well as a decrease in open RN over the years of the study period. This study showed the development of PN and the minimally invasive approach. Over the study period, minimally invasive procedure uptake was higher in public hospitals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Driving reaction time before and after surgery for disc herniation in patients with preoperative paresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Martin; Lechner, Ricarda; Foedinger, Bernhard; Haid, Christian; Kavakebi, Pujan; Galiano, Klaus; Obwegeser, Alois

    2015-05-01

    The effect of many types of surgeries on driving reaction time (DRT) has been reported. Although lumbar disc herniation is one of the most common spinal diseases, the effect on DRT has not been investigated. To assess the effect of left- and right-sided pareses caused by lumbar disc herniation on DRT before and after surgery. Controlled prospective clinical trial. Patients undergoing disc surgery. Impact of paresis caused by lumbar disc herniation and disc surgery on DRT. Forty-two consecutive patients (mean age, 50.3 years) were tested for DRT 1 day before surgery, postoperatively before hospital discharge, and 5 weeks after surgery. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain as well as pain medication and patients' driving frequency were recorded. Significant improvement of DRT after surgery was seen in patients with left- and right-sided pareses (p<.005). For the right-sided paresis group, the preoperative DRT was 761 ms (median, interquartile range [IQR]: 490), 711 ms (median, IQR: 210) immediately postoperatively, and 645 ms (median, IQR: 150) at follow-up (FU). For the left-sided paresis group, DRT was 651 ms (median, IQR: 270) preoperatively, 592 ms (median, IQR: 260) postoperatively, and 569 ms (median, IQR: 140) at FU. Significant differences between right- and left-sided pareses were identified preoperatively and at FU testing (p<.005). No correlation was found between VAS for leg or back pain and DRT. Historical control subjects had a DRT of 487 (median, IQR: 116), which differed significantly at all three test times (p<.001). A significant reduction in DRT in patients with right- and left-sided pareses was found after surgery, indicating a positive effect of surgery. The improvement in DRT seen immediately postoperatively and the lack of a generally accepted threshold for DRT would suggest that for both patient samples, it is safe to continue driving after hospital discharge. However, patients should be informed accordingly. Copyright © 2015

  20. Children's exposure to secondhand smoke at home before and after smoke-free legislation in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Ting; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Tsai, Tzu-I; Chang, Po-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In January 2009, Taiwan broadened smoke-free legislation, requiring mass transportation systems, indoor public areas and indoor workplaces with 3 or more people, to become smoke-free. We investigated the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home for children aged 3–11 years in Taiwan before and after the implantation of the legislation. Methods We studied 7911 children from the 2005, 2009 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys (cross-sectional, nationally representative household surveys). Logistic regression modelling estimated adjusted ORs (AOR) and 95% CIs for children's SHS exposure at home in 2009 and 2013 (2005 as reference) for the overall sample and for each category of household socioeconomic status (SES) and household composition. Results Prevalence of children SHS exposure at home decreased from 51% (2005) to 32% (2009) and 28% (2013). Compared to 2005, children in 2009 and 2013 had lower likelihoods of SHS exposure at home with AOR of 0.45 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.51) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.46), respectively. All children had reduced SHS exposure at home after the legislation, irrespective of household SES and compositions. Low household income, low parental education level, living with grandparents or living with other adults was individually associated with increased SHS exposure. Discussion The proportion of children exposed to SHS at home in Taiwan declined substantially from 2005 to 2009 after smoke-free legislation, and fell further by 2013, irrespective of SES and household compositions. Still, inequality in SHS exposure at home by SES and household composition warrants future research. PMID:27885169

  1. Self-Reported Cognitive Outcomes in Patients With Brain Metastases Before and After Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Ansa Maer; Scherwath, Angela; Ernst, Gundula; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Bremer, Michael; Steinmann, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with brain metastases may experience treatment-related cognitive deficits. In this study, we prospectively assessed the self-reported cognitive abilities of patients with brain metastases from any solid primary cancer before and after irradiation of the brain. Methods and Materials: The treatment group (TG) consisted of adult patients (n=50) with brain metastases who received whole or partial irradiation of the brain without having received prior radiation therapy (RT). The control group (CG) consisted of breast cancer patients (n=27) without cranial involvement who were treated with adjuvant RT. Patients were recruited between May 2008 and December 2010. Self-reported cognitive abilities were acquired before RT and 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after irradiation. The information regarding the neurocognitive status was collected by use of the German questionnaires for self-perceived deficits in attention (FEDA) and subjectively experienced everyday memory performance (FEAG). Results: The baseline data showed a high proportion of self-perceived neurocognitive deficits in both groups. A comparison between the TG and the CG regarding the course of self-reported outcomes after RT showed significant between-group differences for the FEDA scales 2 and 3: fatigue and retardation of daily living activities (P=.002) and decrease in motivation (P=.032) with an increase of attention deficits in the TG, but not in the CG. There was a trend towards significance in FEDA scale 1: distractibility and retardation of mental processes (P=.059) between the TG and the CG. The FEAG assessment presented no significant differences. An additional subgroup analysis within the TG was carried out. FEDA scale 3 showed significant differences in the time-related progress between patients with whole-brain RT and those receiving hypofractionated stereotactic RT (P=.025), with less decrease in motivation in the latter group. Conclusion: Self-reported attention declined in

  2. Comet 17P/Holmes: contrast in activity between before and after the 2007 outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Masateru; Kim, Yoonyoung; Warjurkar, Dhanraj S.; Ham, Ji-Beom [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Junhan [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Usui, Fumihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Vaubaillon, Jeremie J. [Observatoire de Paris, I.M.C.C.E., Denfert Rochereau, Bat. A., F-75014 Paris (France); Ishihara, Daisuke [Department of Physics, School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Hanayama, Hidekazu [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Sarugaku, Yuki; Hasegawa, Sunao [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Kasuga, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Jun-ichi [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Pyo, Jeonghyun [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Kuroda, Daisuke [National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, Kamogata-cho, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Sakamoto, Makoto; Narusawa, Shin-ya; Takahashi, Jun [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Akisawa, Hiroki, E-mail: ishiguro@astro.snu.ac.kr [Himeji City Science Museum, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2222 (Japan)

    2013-11-20

    A Jupiter-family comet, 17P/Holmes, underwent outbursts in 1892 and 2007. In particular, the 2007 outburst is known as the greatest outburst over the past century. However, little is known about the activity before the outburst because it was unpredicted. In addition, the time evolution of the nuclear physical status has not been systematically studied. Here, we study the activity of 17P/Holmes before and after the 2007 outburst through optical and mid-infrared observations. We found that the nucleus was highly depleted in its near-surface icy component before the outburst but that it became activated after the 2007 outburst. Assuming a conventional 1 μm sized grain model, we derived a surface fractional active area of 0.58% ± 0.14% before the outburst whereas the area was enlarged by a factor of ∼50 after the 2007 outburst. We also found that large (≥1 mm) particles could be dominant in the dust tail observed around aphelion. Based on the size of the particles, the dust production rate was ≳170 kg s{sup –1} at a heliocentric distance of r{sub h} = 4.1 AU, suggesting that the nucleus was still active around the aphelion passage. The nucleus color was similar to that of the dust particles and average for a Jupiter-family comet but different from that of most Kuiper Belt objects, implying that color may be inherent to icy bodies in the solar system. On the basis of these results, we concluded that more than 76 m of surface material was blown off by the 2007 outburst.

  3. Visual evoked potentials in overt hypothyroid patients before and after achievement of euthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual evoked potential (VEP measures the time taken for visual stimulus to travel from the eye to the occipital cortex. Hypothyroidism affects the central nervous system (CNS through its role in gene expression, myelin production, axonal transportation, and neurotransmitters. Delay in the conduction of impulses results in abnormal VEP. Objective: Correlate the electrophysiological findings of VEP in newly diagnosed treatment-naive hypothyroid patients before and after 3 months of treatment and to find the correlation with serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels. Materials and Methods: VEP was measured using Recorders and Medicare Systems Electromyograph Evoked Potential Mark II machine in 30 patients (serum TSH ≥10 mIU/L between 18 and 50 years of age who were followed up after 3 months of treatment. Results: The mean age (±standard deviation of the patients was 31.8 (±8.3 years. There was prolongation of VEP latencies which tends to decrease following hormone replacement therapy. It was found to be most significant for P100 (ms waveform (P < 0.001. The amplitude (P100-N75 mV which was decreased in hypothyroid patients showed improvement following achievement of euthyroidism. Significant positive correlation was found between P100, N75 latency and pretreatment serum TSH levels. Conclusion: Hypothyroid patients may have changes in the latencies and the amplitude of VEP which are reversible to a great extent with thyroxine replacement therapy. VEP thus acts as a dependable marker for CNS affection in thyroid diseases to detect subtle early changes and to assess the response to treatment in correlation with the clinical improvement.

  4. Self-Reported Cognitive Outcomes in Patients With Brain Metastases Before and After Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Ansa Maer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Scherwath, Angela [Department of Medical Psychology, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Ernst, Gundula [Department of Medical Psychology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Institute for Neuroradiology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Bremer, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Steinmann, Diana, E-mail: steinmann.diana@mh-hannover.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical School Hannover, Hannover (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Patients with brain metastases may experience treatment-related cognitive deficits. In this study, we prospectively assessed the self-reported cognitive abilities of patients with brain metastases from any solid primary cancer before and after irradiation of the brain. Methods and Materials: The treatment group (TG) consisted of adult patients (n=50) with brain metastases who received whole or partial irradiation of the brain without having received prior radiation therapy (RT). The control group (CG) consisted of breast cancer patients (n=27) without cranial involvement who were treated with adjuvant RT. Patients were recruited between May 2008 and December 2010. Self-reported cognitive abilities were acquired before RT and 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after irradiation. The information regarding the neurocognitive status was collected by use of the German questionnaires for self-perceived deficits in attention (FEDA) and subjectively experienced everyday memory performance (FEAG). Results: The baseline data showed a high proportion of self-perceived neurocognitive deficits in both groups. A comparison between the TG and the CG regarding the course of self-reported outcomes after RT showed significant between-group differences for the FEDA scales 2 and 3: fatigue and retardation of daily living activities (P=.002) and decrease in motivation (P=.032) with an increase of attention deficits in the TG, but not in the CG. There was a trend towards significance in FEDA scale 1: distractibility and retardation of mental processes (P=.059) between the TG and the CG. The FEAG assessment presented no significant differences. An additional subgroup analysis within the TG was carried out. FEDA scale 3 showed significant differences in the time-related progress between patients with whole-brain RT and those receiving hypofractionated stereotactic RT (P=.025), with less decrease in motivation in the latter group. Conclusion: Self-reported attention declined in

  5. [The comparative analysis of clinical symptomatology before and after the operation of otosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzić, Negra; Zivić, Ljubica

    2009-01-01

    Otosclerosis is a progressive osteodystrophic disease of the osseous capsule of the labyrinth which leads to the fixation of the stapes and partial deafness. The progressive hearing loss followed by ear tingling--tinitus and vertigo is of great importance for this disease. The aim of the work was to determine the changes of clinical symptomatology before and after the operative treatment of otoscleoris. The study included 32 subjects between 25 and 60 years of age affected by otosclerosis who had undergone surgical treatment at the VMA (Military Medical Academy) Clinic, Department of Otolaryngology in Belgrade. Besides the clinical examination and detailed case history, audiometry and tympanometry examinations were performed. During the postoperative period the clinical symptomatology was evaluated and audiometry examinations were performed in order to determine the effect of the surgical intervention. Of the total number of 32 subjects, partial deafness was present in all of them before the operation, whereas tinitus, vertiginous disturbances and otalgia were found in a certain number of the subjects. During the postoperative period a partial recovery was found in a larger number of the subjects in relation to the total hearing recovery. During the postoperative period tinitus of lower intensity was found in a greater number of the subjects, whereas the number of those without tinitus was smaller. The problem of vertiginous disturbances as well as otalgia were not found during the postoperative period. By following the changes of the clinical symptomatology we came to the conclusion that surgical treatment of otosclerosis results in the reduction and disappearance of subjective disturbances, tinitus, vertigo and otalgia and leads to the partial or complete hearing recovery.

  6. [Calcium distribution in the central cell of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Ru Shi; Ye, Lv; Tian, Hui

    2008-02-01

    Potassium antimonite precipitation was used to locate calcium in the central cell of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) before and after pollination. At 3d before anthesis, two polar nuclei of central cell separately located at two polarity of the cell, and few calcium precipitates (ppts) appeared in the polar nuclei and cytoplasm, but some ppts in its small vacuoles. At 2d before anthesis, two polar nuclei moved toward the middle of the cell and fused to form a secondary nucleus, and the ppts evidently increased in the nucleus and cytoplasm. At 1d before anthesis, secondary nucleus again moved toward micropylar end and located near the egg to prepare for fertilization. Calcium precipitates were mainly accumulated in the secondary nucleus. After pollination and before fertilization, the distribution of calcium ppts was similar to that before pollination. At 4h after pollination, the central cell was fertilized, and calcium ppts evidently increased in the cell and numerous were accumulated in its nucleus and cytoplasm. At 6h after pollination, the primary endosperm nucleus completed its first division and formed two dissociate endosperm nuclei, and still many calcium precipitates appeared in the nucleus and cytoplasm. With endosperm development, calcium ppts decreased in the endosperm cell. At 1d after emasculated and without pollination, the secondary nucleus of the cell still bordered on the egg and some calcium ppts appeared in the secondary nucleus. The results indicated that the temporal and spatial changes of calcium in the central cell may play an important physiological role during the development of the central cell and endosperm.

  7. Gene expression during Drosophila melanogaster egg development before and after reproductive diapause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Dean A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of egg development to the female life cycle in Drosophila, global patterns of gene expression have not been examined in detail, primarily due to the difficulty in isolating synchronised developmental stages in sufficient quantities for gene expression profiling. Entry into vitellogenesis is a key stage of oogenesis and by forcing females into reproductive diapause we are able to arrest oogenesis at the pre-vitellogenic stages. Releasing females from diapause allows collection of relatively synchronous developing egg populations and an investigation of some of the transcriptional dynamics apparent before and after reproductive diapause. Results Focusing on gender-biased transcription, we identified mechanisms of egg development suppressed during reproductive dormancy as well as other molecular changes unique to the diapausing female. A microarray based analysis generated a set of 3565 transcripts with at least 2-fold greater expression in females as compared to control males, 1392 such changes were biased during reproductive dormancy. In addition, we also detect 1922 up-regulated transcriptional changes after entry into vitellogenesis, which were classified into discrete blocks of co-expression. We discuss some of the regulatory aspects apparent after re-initiation of egg development, exploring the underlying functions, maternal contribution and evolutionary conservation of co-expression patterns involved in egg production. Conclusion Although much of the work we present is descriptive, fundamental aspects of egg development and gender-biased transcription can be derived from our time-series experiment. We believe that our dataset will facilitate further exploration of the developmental and evolutionary characteristics of oogenesis as well as the nature of reproductive arrest in Drosophila.

  8. Sexual behaviour reported by a sample of Italian MSM before and after HIV diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Camoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 we conducted a cross-sectional study involving hospital clinical centres in five Italian cities to compare the sexual behaviour of HIV-positive MSM (men who have sex with men before and after the diagnosis of HIV infection. Each centre was asked to enrol 30 HIV-positive persons aged > 18 years. The questionnaire was administered to 143 MSM on average 9 years after HIV diagnosis. After diagnosis there was a decrease in the number of sexual partners: the percentage of persons who reported having had more than 2 partners decreased from 95.8% before diagnosis to 76.2% after diagnosis. After diagnosis, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of persons who had never (or not always used a condom with their stable partner for anal sex from 69.2% before diagnosis to 26.6% after diagnosis and for oral-genital sex from 74.8% before diagnosis to 51.7% after diagnosis. Though at-risk behaviour seems to decrease after diagnosis, seropositive MSM continue to engage in at-risk practices: one fourth of them did not use a condom during sexually transmitted infections (STI episodes, 12.5% of the participants had had sex for money, and 8.4% had paid for sex. The study shows that our sample of Italian HIV-positive MSM, though aware of being infected, engage in sexual behaviours that could sustain transmission of HIV and other STIs. The results could constitute the first step in implementing national prevention programs for persons living with HIV.

  9. Characterization of Brazilian mango kernel fat before and after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Fabiana da Silva; Ramos, Clecio Souza; Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Mangifera indica Linn (family of Anacardiaceae) is a tree indigenous to India, whose both unripe and ripe fruits (mangoes) are widely used by the local population. After consumption or industrial processing of the fruits, considerable amounts of mango seeds are discarded as waste. The kernel inside the seed represents from 45% to 75% of the seed and about 20% of the whole fruit and lipid composition of mango seed kernels has attracted the attention of researches because of their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Our study showed that fat of the mango kernel obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane had a solid consistency at environmental temperature (27 deg C) because it is rich in saturated acid. The fat contents of the seed of Mangifera indica was calculated to 10% and are comparable to the ones for commercial vegetable oils like soybean (11-25%). One problem found in the storage of fast and oils is the attack by microorganisms and the sterilization process becomes necessary. Samples of kernel fat were irradiated with gamma radiation ( 60 Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere at 5 and 10 kGy (sterilization doses). The data of GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of four major fatty acids in the sample of mango kernel examined and that the chemical profile of the sample not altered after being irradiated. Moreover, analysis of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR H 1 ) was used to obtain the mango kernel fat parameters before and after gamma irradiation. The data interpretation of RMN H 1 indicated that there are significant differences in the acidity and saponification indexes of fat. However, it was found an increase of 14% in iodine index of fat after irradiation. This result means that some double bonds were formed on the irradiation process of the fat. (author)

  10. Sputum and serum microRNA-144 levels in patients with tuberculosis before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yan; Guo, Shuai; Li, Xue-Gang; Chi, Jing-Yu; Qu, Yi-Qing; Zhong, Hai-Lai

    2016-02-01

    To measure the expression levels of sputum and serum microRNA-144 (miR-144) before and after the treatment of patients with tuberculosis (TB). Details of the cases of a total of 124 TB patients were collected at Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between April 2014 and April 2015. Fifty-three of these patients had sputum positive for bacteria and a cavity on imaging (group A), 20 patients had sputum negative for bacteria and a cavity on imaging (group B), and 51 patients had sputum negative for bacteria and no cavity on imaging (group C). One hundred seventeen healthy people who attended the hospital for a physical examination were recruited as controls. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the levels of sputum and serum miR-144 before anti-TB treatment and at 1 month after treatment. Before treatment, sputum and serum miR-144 expression levels in the TB patients were both higher than those of the controls (both p<0.05). After treatment, sputum and serum miR-144 levels in the TB patients were significantly lower than those measured before treatment (both p<0.05). The levels of sputum and serum miR-144 in the improved TB patients decreased significantly after treatment compared to those measured before treatment (both p<0.001). Significant differences were found in sputum and serum miR-144 levels in the TB patients, with or without improvement, compared with the healthy controls (all p<0.05). Sputum and serum miR-144 levels were significantly upregulated in the TB patients, but were found to decrease significantly after anti-TB treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Anthropometric, haemodynamic, humoral and hormonal evaluation in patients with incidental adrenocortical adenomas before and after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, Giampaolo; Moretti, Angelica; Iacconi, Pietro; Miccoli, Paolo; Nami, Renato; Lucani, Barbara; Salvetti, Antonio

    2003-02-01

    To compare clinical and humoral parameters before and after surgery in patients with incidental adrenocortical adenomas. Six patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome and nine with non-functioning adenomas were investigated before and 12 Months after removal of the mass. Anthropometric (body weight, body mass index and waist to hip ratio), haemodynamic (blood pressure and heart rate), metabolic (lipids and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)), hormonal (cortisol, plasma renin activity, aldosterone, androgens and catecholamines) and bone metabolism (hydroxyproline, parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and ostase) parameters were evaluated. In the whole group, a significant decrease in body weight (69.7+/-3.5 vs 70.8+/-3.5 kg, P<0.03), in systolic (135.3+/-5.1 vs 145.6+/-4.9 mmHg, P<0.009) and diastolic (83.7+/-1.9 vs 91.0+/-3.5 mmHg, P<0.03) blood pressure and in glucose levels in response to OGTT (106.4+/-9.6 vs 127.5+/-6.5 mg/dl, P<0.05) was observed after surgery. All other parameters examined did not change significantly. This trend was also found in both groups separately. Analytical data showed a high frequency of overweight/obesity (66.6%), hypertension (66.6%) and impaired glucose profile (26.6%) in our patients, with a greater prevalence of these cardiovascular risk factors in the subclinical Cushing's syndrome group. After surgery, values normalized or improved in eight out of ten hypertensive patients and in three out of four patients with impaired glucose profile. Solid adrenocortical incidentalomas are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors which may be corrected after removal of the mass. Therefore, surgery may be an appropriate choice in patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome but also in those with solid non-functioning adenomas and coexistent cardiovascular risk factors.

  12. Computed Tomography Density Change in the Thyroid Gland Before and After Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Naoya; Maebayashi, Toshiya; Aizawa, Takuya; Sakaguchi, Masakuni; Okada, Masahiro; Matsushita, Junichi

    2018-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is an established adverse effect of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, and computed tomography (CT) density of the thyroid gland is lower in hypothyroid than euthyroid individuals. No previous studies have evaluated changes in CT densities of the thyroid gland caused by radiation therapy. The aim was to investigate the relationship between the change in CT density of the thyroid gland before and after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer and hypothyroidism. This retrospective study analyzed data of 24 patients treated by radiation therapy for head and neck cancers. After dosimetric analysis of received radiation therapy, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was used to manually contour the thyroid on pre-treatment CT images to enable determination of mean thyroid gland CT densities and received radiation doses. Pre- and post-treatment thyroid function was assessed on the basis of serum TSH concentrations. Multivariate and univariate analyses were used to determine what clinical factors are associated with post-radiation therapy decrease in CT density of the thyroid and Pearson's χ 2 test was used to assess correlations between these densities and TSH concentrations. Mean CT densities of the thyroid gland decreased from before to after radiation therapy in 73.9% of our patients (median decrease 16.8 HU). Serum TSH concentrations were significantly higher in patients with greater then median decreases in CT density than in those with lesser or no decreases. Post-radiation therapy hypothyroidism may be predicted by significant decreases in CT density of the thyroid gland. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of diaphragmatic movement before and after pulmonary rehabilitation using fluoroscopy imaging in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Eun Mi; Han, Soo Jeong; Modi, Hitesh N

    2015-01-01

    The diaphragm is the principal inspiratory muscle. The purpose of this study was to assess improvements in diaphragmatic movement before and after pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), using a fluoroscopy-guided chest X-ray. Among 117 patients with COPD receiving pulmonary rehabilitation who underwent the initial fluoroscopy-guided chest X-ray and pulmonary function test, 37 of those patients who underwent both initial and follow-up fluoroscopy and pulmonary function tests were enrolled in this study. After hospital education, participants received pulmonary rehabilitation through regular home-based training for at least 3 months by the same physiatrist. We assessed the changes in diaphragm area with fluoroscopy-guided posteroanterior chest X-rays between pre- and postpulmonary rehabilitation. To minimize radiation hazards for subjects, the exposure time for fluoroscopy to take chest X-rays was limited to less than 5 seconds. There were significant improvements (2,022.8±1,548.3 mm(2) to 3,010.7±1,495.6 mm(2) and 2,382.4±1,475.9 mm(2) to 3,315.9±1,883.5 mm(2); right side P=0.001 and left side P=0.019, respectively) in diaphragmatic motion area during full inspiration and expiration in both lungs after pulmonary rehabilitation. Pulmonary function tests showed no statistically significant difference between pre- and postpulmonary rehabilitation. The study suggests that the strategy to assess diaphragm movement using fluoroscopy is a relatively effective tool for the evaluation of pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD patients in terms of cost and time savings compared with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. Comparison of beta-endorphin and CGRP levels before and after treatment for severe schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban-Kowalczyk M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Małgorzata Urban-Kowalczyk,1 Janusz Śmigielski,2 Dominik Strzelecki1 1Department of Affective and Psychotic Disorders, 2Department of Geriatrics, Healthy Aging Research Centre (HARC, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Objectives: Links between endorphins and dopaminergic transmission have not been fully explored in schizophrenia. Both endorphins excess and deficiency were postulated. CGRP is probably involved in dopaminergic transmission. The aim of this study was the evaluation of beta-endorphin (BE and CGRP blood concentrations before and after treatment of severe schizophrenia. Methods: Seventy patients treated with various antipsychotics, with severe symptoms of schizophrenia (51 with positive symptoms, 19 with negative symptoms, 15 first-degree relatives, and 44 healthy controls were included in the study. BE and CGRP blood concentrations were measured during patients severe schizophrenia and in their stable mental state after treatment. The results were compared with relatives and controls. Results: BE and CGRP concentrations in patients with negative symptoms were higher than in relatives and in controls. BE levels in patients with positive symptoms were lower than in patients with negative symptoms (P<0.0000 and controls (P<0.0006. No significant changes in CGRP concentration were found in patient samples. CGRP levels in these samples were independent of treatment, but they were significantly higher than in relatives and controls. After the treatment, BE level decreased in patients with negative symptoms (P<0.0001 and increased in patients with positive symptoms (P<0.0000. No differences in BE concentration between patients in stable mental state, their relatives, and controls were found. Conclusion: Effective antipsychotic treatment results in “normalization” of BE level. Specific changes in BE concentration could be involved in dopaminergic transmission and related to some symptoms of schizophrenia. Keywords

  15. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.

  16. Masticatory performance and oral health-related quality of life before and after complete denture treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Saori; Shiga, Hiroshi

    2018-03-13

    To clarify the relationship between masticatory performance and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) before and after complete denture treatment. Thirty patients wearing complete dentures were asked to chew a gummy jelly on their habitual chewing side, and the amount of glucose extraction during chewing was measured as the parameter of masticatory performance. Subjects were asked to answer the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-J49) questionnaire, which consists of 49 questions related to oral problems. The total score of 49 question items along with individual domain scores within the seven domains (functional limitation, pain, psychological discomfort, physical disability, psychological disability, social disability and handicap) were calculated and used as the parameters of OHRQoL. These records were obtained before treatment and 3 months after treatment. Each parameter of masticatory performance and OHRQoL was compared before treatment and after treatment. The relationship between masticatory performance and OHRQoL was investigated, and a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed. Both masticatory performance and OHRQoL were significantly improved after treatment. Furthermore, masticatory performance was significantly correlated with some parameters of OHRQoL. The stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed functional limitation and pain as important factors affecting masticatory performance before treatment and functional limitation as important factors affecting masticatory performance after treatment. These results suggested that masticatory performance and OHRQoL are significantly improved after treatment and that there is a close relationship between the two. Moreover, functional limitation was found to be the most important factor affecting masticatory performance. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Empowering Post-Surgical Patients to Improve Opioid Disposal: A Before and After Quality Improvement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasak, Jessica M; Roth Bettlach, Carrie L; Santosa, Katherine B; Larson, Ellen L; Stroud, Jean; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2018-03-01

    Our country is in the midst of an opioid epidemic. Although the problem is multifactorial, one issue is the presence of excess prescription opioid medications circulating in our communities. Our objective was to determine whether dissemination of an educational brochure would improve the disposal of unused opioids after surgery. Eligible surgery patients from an upper extremity/peripheral nerve clinic were enrolled into this prospective before and after study between February 2017 and September 2017. Patients who reported opioid use preoperatively were excluded from this study. The same survey was administered to the group of patients who did not receive the intervention and to those who did receive the intervention. Our primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who disposed of unused opioid medications. A total of 334 patients were studied: 164 who did not receive the brochure and 170 who received the brochure. Seventy-six patients were excluded for preoperative opioid use. After dissemination of the brochure, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients who disposed of their unused opioids (11% vs 22%, p = 0.02). Of those who disposed of their opioids, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients from each group who disposed in a manner that was recommended by the brochure (43% vs 64%, p = 0.19). Dissemination of the educational brochure improved disposal of unused opioids after surgery. This low-cost, easily implemented intervention can improve disposal of unused opioids and ultimately, decrease the amount of excess opioids circulating in our communities. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Brazilian mango kernel fat before and after gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Fabiana da Silva; Ramos, Clecio Souza, E-mail: fasiaquino@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: clecio@dcm.ufrpe.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Aquino, Katia Aparecida da Silva, E-mail: aquino@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Mangifera indica Linn (family of Anacardiaceae) is a tree indigenous to India, whose both unripe and ripe fruits (mangoes) are widely used by the local population. After consumption or industrial processing of the fruits, considerable amounts of mango seeds are discarded as waste. The kernel inside the seed represents from 45% to 75% of the seed and about 20% of the whole fruit and lipid composition of mango seed kernels has attracted the attention of researches because of their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Our study showed that fat of the mango kernel obtained by Soxhlet extraction with hexane had a solid consistency at environmental temperature (27 deg C) because it is rich in saturated acid. The fat contents of the seed of Mangifera indica was calculated to 10% and are comparable to the ones for commercial vegetable oils like soybean (11-25%). One problem found in the storage of fast and oils is the attack by microorganisms and the sterilization process becomes necessary. Samples of kernel fat were irradiated with gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co) at room temperature and air atmosphere at 5 and 10 kGy (sterilization doses). The data of GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of four major fatty acids in the sample of mango kernel examined and that the chemical profile of the sample not altered after being irradiated. Moreover, analysis of Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR H{sup 1}) was used to obtain the mango kernel fat parameters before and after gamma irradiation. The data interpretation of RMN H{sup 1} indicated that there are significant differences in the acidity and saponification indexes of fat. However, it was found an increase of 14% in iodine index of fat after irradiation. This result means that some double bonds were formed on the irradiation process of the fat. (author)

  19. The severity of cutaneous leishmaniasis before and after the earthquake in Bam, southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Iraj; Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Aflatoonian, Behnaz; Kermanizadeh, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major disease with significant public health concerns in Iran. The objective of this study was to compare the severity of CL among the patients before and after the earthquake in the city and suburbs of Bam, southeastern Iran. This study was carried out as a descriptive-analytical manner by house-to-house visits in 2010 in Bam, southeastern Kerman province of Iran, where a massive earthquake has recently occurred. Overall, 1,481 individuals were selected as a cluster random sampling. Suspected lesions were detected by direct smear preparation and X(2) test was used for statistical significance at P < 0.05. Overall, 1,481 individuals (mean age; 25.7 ± 17.6 years) consisting of 51.4 % males and 48.6 % females were randomly selected. 549 individuals showed history of CL; 23.4 % belonged to before and 13.7 % belonged to after the earthquake. When the overall severity in terms of location, number, size and duration of lesions was considered, the lesions were less severe in the time period after the earthquake (P < 0.05) than those before the earthquake. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is currently considered as a growing public health concern worldwide, mainly due to creation of various risk factors particularly after a major natural disaster. Possibly the establishment of the CL health clinic to serve patients and to coordinate various activities had a major role in planning control strategies and thus reduction in severity of the CL disease.

  20. Renal function and morphology in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale M Y Smets

    Full Text Available Objectives of this study were to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR, renal structural changes and proteinuria in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone (HC administration. Eleven Beagle dogs ≥10 years old were treated with either hydrocortisone (HC group, n = 6 or placebo (control group, n = 5. Urinary markers, GFR and kidney biopsies were evaluated before (T0, during (T16 wks and after discontinuing HC administration (T24 wks. Results indicate that HC administration causes a significant increase in GFR. At all time points except T16 wks, proteinuria was higher in the control group than in the HC group, and there was no significant difference in urinary markers between groups. At T16 wks, proteinuria, urinary albumin-to-creatinine (c ratio, immunoglobulin G/c and retinol-binding protein/c were higher compared to baseline in the HC group. At T0, rare to mild renal lesions were detected in all HC dogs and rare to moderate changes in all control dogs. Glomerulosclerosis progressed in both groups until T24 wks. Tubular atrophy was detected in three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, but also in five control dogs throughout the study. At every time point, five HC dogs and all control dogs had rare to moderate interstitial inflammation. Rare to mild interstitial fibrosis was found in up to three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, and severe fibrosis in one HC dog at T24 wks. Up to four control dogs had rare to mild fibrosis at all time points. These findings indicate that clinically healthy, aged Beagle dogs may have considerable renal lesions and proteinuria, which could have implications for experimental or toxicological studies. Additional research is needed to elucidate glucocorticoid effects on renal structure, but functional changes such as hyperfiltration and proteinuria warrant attention to kidney function of canine patients with Cushing's syndrome or receiving exogenous glucocorticoids.

  1. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background: On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Results: Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. Conclusion: The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments. PMID:22294782

  2. Electronic medical record interventions and recurrent perioperative antibiotic administration: a before-and-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincker, Alexander; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Avidan, Michael; Candelario, Penka; Helsten, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Perioperative antibiotics decrease rates of surgical-site infections. Numerous interventions have improved administration of the first antibiotic dose; however, failures in the administration of subsequent doses frequently occur. We hypothesized that modifications to the electronic medical record (EMR) would improve the administration of the second antibiotic dose and that such improvements would be sustained over time. This historical cohort before-and-after study of multipronged alerts in the EMR analyzed 1,348 operations on adult patients. The operations lasted ≥ 240 min, utilized cefazolin as the perioperative antibiotic-constituting 1,348 second and 182 third intraoperative antibiotic doses-and did not involve cardiopulmonary bypass. A decision support intervention provided dosing recommendations when clinicians documented antibiotics. The reminder intervention displayed a continuous bar in the EMR, starting at the time the antibiotics were dosed and ending 15 min before subsequent doses were indicated. The primary endpoints of the study were the change in the proportion of correctly administered second dose of cefazolin, given in accordance with hospital guidelines in the month after implementing the intervention, and whether any improvements declined by three to seven months after implementation. Pre-intervention, 51.4% of second doses of cefazolin were correctly administered. In the immediate post-intervention period, 68.5% were correctly administered, representing a significant absolute improvement of 17.1% (95% confidence interval, 8.1 to 26.1; P pre-intervention). These inexpensive nonintrusive interventions to the EMR provided modest lasting improvements in proper administration of repeated doses of cefazolin. The fact that only approximately 70% compliance was reached highlights the difficulty in addressing this deficiency.

  3. Green tea catechins and their metabolites in human skin before and after exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kayleigh A; Dew, Tristan P; Watson, Rachel E B; Farrar, Mark D; Osman, Joanne E; Nicolaou, Anna; Rhodes, Lesley E; Williamson, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against sunburn inflammation in skin. Preliminary reports using less complete analysis suggest that certain catechins and their metabolites are found in skin biopsies and blister fluid after consumption of green tea; however, it is not known if they are affected by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation (UVR) or whether conjugated forms, with consequently altered bioactivity, are present. The present study tested the hypothesis that UVR affects the catechin levels in the skin of healthy volunteers after consumption of green tea and how catechins in the plasma are related to their presence in skin tissue samples. In an open oral intervention study, 11 subjects consumed green tea and vitamin C supplements daily for 3months. Presupplementation and postsupplementation plasma samples, suction blister fluid and skin biopsies were collected; the latter two samples were collected both before and after UVR. A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric assay was used to measure the intact catechin metabolites, conjugates and free forms. Seven green tea catechins and their corresponding metabolites were identified postsupplementation in skin biopsies, 20 in blister fluid and 26 in plasma, with 15 green tea catechin metabolites present in both blister fluid and plasma. The valerolactone, O-methyl-M4-O-sulfate, a gut microbiota metabolite of catechins, was significantly increased 1.6-fold by UVR in blister fluid samples. In conclusion, there were some common catechin metabolites in the plasma and blister fluid, and the concentration was always higher in plasma. The results suggest that green tea catechins and metabolites are bioavailable in skin and provide a novel link between catechin metabolites derived from the skin and gut microbiota. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  5. Comparing residential contamination in a Houston environmental justice neighborhood before and after Hurricane Harvey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Horney

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are complex environmental toxicants. Exposure to them has been linked to adverse health outcomes including cancer, as well as diseases of the skin, liver, and immune system. Based on an ongoing community engagement partnership with stakeholder groups and residents, we conducted a small longitudinal study to assess domestic exposure to PAHs among residents of Manchester, an environmental justice neighborhood located in the East End of Houston, TX.In December, 2016, we used fiber wipes to collect samples of household dust from 25 homes in Manchester. Following Hurricane Harvey, in September 2017, we revisited 24 of the 25 homes to collect soil samples from the front yards of the same homes. Wipes and soil were analyzed for the presence of PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS methods. Principal component analysis plots, heatmaps, and PAH ratios were used to compare pre- and post-Hurricane Harvey samples.While direct comparison is not possible, we present three methods for comparing PAHs found in pre-hurricane fiber wipes and post-hurricane soil samples. The methods demonstrate that the PAHs found before and after Hurricane Harvey are likely from similar sources and that those sources are most likely to be associated with combustion. We also found evidence of redistribution of PAHs due to extreme flooding associated with Hurricane Harvey.Residents of the Manchester neighborhood of Houston, TX, are exposed to a range of PAHs in household dust and outdoor soil. While it was not possible to compare directly, we were able to use several methods to assess detected concentrations, changes in site-specific PAH allocations, and PAH origination. Additional research is needed to identify specific sources of domestic PAH exposure in these communities and continued work involving community members and policy makers should aim to develop interventions to reduce domestic exposure to and prevent negative

  6. Prospective Study on Salivary Evening Melatonin and Sleep before and after Pinealectomy in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawik, Helen; Stoffel, Michael; Riedl, Lina; Veselý, Zdenko; Behr, Michael; Lehmberg, Jens; Pohl, Corina; Meyer, Bernhard; Wiegand, Michael; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-02-01

    Melatonin is secreted systemically from the pineal gland maximally at night but is also produced locally in many tissues. Its chronobiological function is mainly exerted by pineal melatonin. It is a feedback regulator of the main circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei and of many peripheral oscillators. Although exogenous melatonin is approved for circadian rhythm sleep disorders and old-age insomnia, research on endogenous melatonin in humans is hindered by the great interindividual variability of its amount and circadian rhythm. Single case studies on pinealectomized patients report on disrupted but also hypersomnic sleep. This is the first systematic prospective report on sleep with respect to pinealectomy due to pinealocytoma World Health Organization grade I without chemo- or radiotherapy. Before and after pinealectomy, 8 patients completed questionnaires on sleep quality and circadian rhythm (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire), 2 nights of polysomnography, salivary evening melatonin profiles, and qualitative assessment of 2 weeks of actigraphy and sleep logs. Six patients were assessed retrospectively up to 4 years after pinealectomy. Before pinealectomy, all but 1 patient showed an evening melatonin rise typical for indifferent chronotypes. After pinealectomy, evening saliva melatonin was markedly diminished, mostly below the detection limit of the assay (0.09 pg/mL). No systematic change in subjective sleep quality or standard measures of polysomnography was found. Mean pre- and postoperative sleep efficiency was 94% and 95%, and mean sleep-onset latency was 21 and 17 min, respectively. Sleep-wake rhythm during normal daily life did not change. Retrospective patients had a reduced sleep efficiency (90%) and more stage changes, although this was not significantly different from prospective patients. In conclusion, melatonin does seem to have a modulatory, not a

  7. Melatonin and cortisol secretion profile in patients with pineal cyst before and after pineal cyst resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Májovský, Martin; Řezáčová, Lenka; Sumová, Alena; Pospíšilová, Lenka; Netuka, David; Bradáč, Ondřej; Beneš, Vladimír

    2017-05-01

    A pineal cyst is a benign affection of the human pineal gland on the borderline between pathology and normality. Only a small percentage of patients present with symptoms and a surgical treatment is indicated in highly selected cases. A melatonin secretion in patients with a pineal cyst before and after a pineal cyst resection has not been studied yet and the effect of surgery on human metabolism is unknown. The present study examined melatonin, cortisol and blood glucose secretion profiles perioperatively in a surgical group of 4 patients. The control group was represented by 3 asymptomatic patients with a pineal cyst. For each patient, 24-h circadian secretion curves of melatonin, cortisol and glycemia were acquired. An analysis of melatonin profiles showed an expected diurnal pattern with the night peak in patients before the surgery and in the control group. In contrast, melatonin levels in patients after the surgery were at their minimum throughout the whole 24-h period. The cortisol secretion was substantially increased in patients after the surgery. Blood glucose sampling showed no statistically significant differences. Clinical results demonstrated statistically significant headache relief measured by Visual Analogue Scale in patients after the surgery. Despite the small number of examined patients, we can conclude that patients with a pineal cyst preserved the physiological secretion of the hormone melatonin while patients who underwent the pineal cyst resection experienced a loss of endogenous pineal melatonin production, which equated with pinealectomy. Surprisingly, cortisol secretion substantially increased in patients after the surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Before- and After-School Childcare and Children’s Risk of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parini M.; Cunningham, Solveig A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the U.S., half of children are regularly cared for before or after school by someone other than a parent. Objective Describe the relationship between childcare arrangements and obesity among school-aged children. Methods Data are from the 5th grade wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study- Kindergarten Cohort 1998–9, a nationally representative study of U.S. children who were in Kindergarten in 1998–1999 or first grade in 1999, collected in Spring 2004 (analytic sample= 9,617). We estimated survey-adjusted logistic regression models to examine the association between childcare arrangements before and after school and obesity. Results The prevalence of obesity was highest among 5th graders who received care from multiple sources and lowest among children who received care from non-relatives in either the child’s or the caregiver’s home (29.9%, 95% CI: 18.7%, 44.3%; and 17.3%, 95% CI: 12.1%, 24.0%). Childcare arrangement was not an independent risk factor for obesity for most children. However, Hispanic children who were cared for by a person who was not a relative had significantly higher odds of obesity compared to non-Hispanics in similar care arrangements (OR: 5.11, 95% CI: 2.00, 13.06). Conclusion Type of childcare before or after school was not an independent risk factor for obesity in most 5th graders, but implications of childcare for Hispanic children should be explored further. PMID:26860620

  9. Induced abortion frequency in Ankara, Turkey, before and after the legal regulation of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maral, Işil; Durukan, Elif; Albyrak, Selda; Oztimur, Neşe; Biri, Aydan; Bumin, M Ali

    2007-09-01

    To determine the effects of the 1983 law that legalized induced abortion on the number and place of abortions, and on the use of family planning (FP) methods before and after abortion, and to determine the demographic characteristics and reproductive health features according to the order of abortion. This study included 2455 married, widowed or divorced women presenting at Mother and Child Health-Family Planning Centres in Ankara. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Nearly three out of 10 (28.7%) of the women had undergone at least one induced abortion. In the age groups 45-54 and 55-64, 49 and 37.3%, respectively, had had one or more terminations of pregnancy (TOPs). The induced abortion rate increased following the enacting of the law. In the 15-24 and in the 55-64 age group, 55.6 and 89%, respectively, of the women had been aborted by a private physician. Before the index pregnancy, 63.1% were not using contraception compared with 37.3% thereafter. The rate of use of FP increased after the law was passed. Although the most common reason for having an abortion was unwanted pregnancy in all age groups and nearly 60.0% of the women aged less than 55 reported that they were not using any FP method at the time of the TOP, the proportion of women having undergone at least one of these procedures increased after the law was passed, indicating that abortion is used as a FP method.

  10. Bubble formation and endothelial function before and after 3 months of dive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Jean-Michel; Guerrero, François; Castagna, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that repeated compression-decompression cycles reduce diver susceptibility to decompression sickness (DCS). This study examined whether intensive scuba dive training would reduce bubble formation and modulate endothelial function as shown by skin circulation. There were 22 military divers who were studied before and after a 90-d program of physical training and open-sea air diving (mean 67 dives total). Skin blood flow in the forearm was measured at rest (baseline), during post-occlusive hyperemia (endothelium-dependent vasodilatation), and with local heating to 42 degrees C (maximal vasodilatation). Subjects were also examined by pulsed Doppler for venous bubbles 30, 60, and 90 min after surfacing from a hyperbaric exposure to 400 kPa (30 msw) for 30 min in a dry chamber. None of the divers experienced DCS during the training period. There was no change in weight, body mass index, maximal oxygen uptake, or endothelial function. Bubble grades by the Kisman Integrated Severity Score were significantly decreased immediately after the diving training period (3.6 +/- 9.2 vs. 16.4 +/- 14.3) and increased 3 mo after this period (10.3 +/- 13.9 vs. 3.6 +/- 9.2). The results highlight that repeated scuba dives and regular physical exercise activity reduce bubble formation and probably have a protective effect against DCS risk. Although this phenomenon has been observed for decades, the mechanism remains complex and the results cannot elucidate the effects of physical exercise and NO production. Bubble formation could activate the stress response which could be the basis for diving acclimatization.

  11. Clinical and manometric findings before and after low anterior resection: patients with rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad sadegh Fazeli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low anterior rectal resection is an option for low rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and manometric findings before and after low anterior resection in patients with rectal cancer. Methods: In a before-after prospective experimental study, 29 patients with colon cancer who were candidate for elective low anterior resection surgery in Imam Khomeini hospital were enrolled. In preoperative period, the data regarding the anorectal function were gathered and all the patients were assessed by an eight channel rectal manometer. After the surgery, patients were evaluated regarding current anorectal function and underwent rectal manometry for the second time. Results: The mean of defecation time was significantly higher in postoperative period compared with preoperative period (2.48±0.78 vs. 0.94±0.36 time per day. In postoperative period, gas incontinence was significantly higher in comparison to the preoperative period (27.59% vs. 0%. However, the fecal incontinence rates were comparable. Compared with preoperative period, max resting pressure was significantly reduced in postoperative period (53.20±17.45 vs. 64.32±17.33 mmHg. The same was true about max squeezing pressure (140.21±35.50 vs. 150.37±33.16 mmHg. Urgency also increased in postoperative period (48.28% vs. 0%. Conclusions: The results of this study revealed that following low anterior resection surgery for patients with rectal cancer, the defecation time, gas incontinence and urgency increase but max resting and squeezing pressure decrease.

  12. Prospective Assessment of Sleep Quality Before and After Primary Total Joint Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Blaine T; Kearns, Sean M; Bohl, Daniel D; Edmiston, Tori; Sporer, Scott M; Levine, Brett R

    2017-07-01

    Sleep disruption is a common, yet rarely addressed, complaint among patients who have undergone total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This study assessed sleep quality before and after primary TJA. A total of 105 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) prospectively completed questionnaires during the preoperative, early postoperative, and late postoperative periods. The survey included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, current sleeping habits, and patient perspectives of sleep quality and duration. In the early postoperative period (4.7±2.0 weeks), patients reported significant increases in sleep disturbance as denoted by increased length of time to fall asleep (P=.006) and mean nightly awakenings (P=.002) compared with the preoperative baseline. At late postoperative follow-up (40.8±19.5 weeks), patients' sleep quality subsequently improved above the preoperative baseline. Approximately 40% of patients tried a new sleeping method postoperatively, the most common being new pillow placement. No significant differences in pre- or postoperative sleeping trends were noted between THA and TKA patients. These findings suggest transient sleep disturbance is common in the early postoperative period, with subsequent improvement by 10-month follow-up after a primary TJA. Given the growing importance of patient satisfaction in health care systems, orthopedic surgeons must manage patients' expectations while working with them to optimize sleep quality after TJA. A multimodal approach with preoperative counseling, early postoperative sleep modifications, and possibly preemptive use of medications may improve transient sleep disturbance among TJA patients. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e636-e640.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Parkinsonism and AIDS: a clinical comparative study before and after HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Zuma de Rosso

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, after analyzing 28 HIV-positive patients with movement disorders we emphasized the decreasing not only of Parkinsonism but also of other involuntary movements in HIV patients in the last few years. The objective of this study is to compare the clinical results between HIV-positive patients with Parkinsonism before and after HAART. In 14 years (1986-1999 2,460 HIV-positive patients were seen in our Hospital 14 (0.6% of which presented with Parkinsonism. Eight years after (2000-2007 970 HIV positive patients were seen and only two (0.2% had Parkinsonism. We conclude that after the introduction of HAART there was an evident decrease in AIDS-related Parkinsonism.No ano de 2002, após analisarmos 28 pacientes HIV-positivos que apresentavam distúrbios do movimento, enfatizamos o declínio, não só do parkinsonismo, como também de outros movimentos involuntários em pacientes infectados pelo HIV nos últimos anos. O objetivo deste estudo é comparar os resultados clínicos entre pacientes HIV-positivos com parkinsonismo antes e depois da introdução do esquema HAART. Em 14 anos (1986-1999, 2.460 pacientes HIV-positivos foram avaliados em nosso Hospital dos quais 14 (0,6% apresentaram parkinsonismo. Nos oito anos seguintes (2000-2007, 970 pacientes HIV-positivos foram avaliados e somente dois (0,2% tinham parkinsonismo. Concluímos que após a introdução do esquema HAART houve evidente declínio do parkinsonismo secundário à AIDS.

  14. Quality of life in children with OCD before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidle, Bernhard; Ivarsson, Tord; Thomsen, Per Hove; Lydersen, Stian; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is a well-established outcome measure. In contrast to adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), little is known about the effects of treatment on QoL in children with OCD. This study aimed to assess QoL after cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in children and adolescents with OCD compared with the general population and to explore factors associated with potential changes in QoL after treatment. QoL was assessed in 135 children and adolescents (ages 7-17; mean 13 [SD 2.7] years; 48.1% female) before and after 14 CBT sessions, using self-report and a caregivers proxy report of the Questionnaire for Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents (KINDL-R). QoL was compared with an age- and gender-matched sample from the general population. Before treatment, QoL was markedly lower in children with OCD compared with the general population. QoL improved significantly in CBT responders (mean score change 7.4), to the same range as QoL in the general population. Non-responders reported no QoL changes after treatment, except for one patient. Comorbidity, family accommodation and psychosocial functioning were not associated with changes in QoL after treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the changes in QoL after treatment of paediatric OCD. The assessment of QoL beyond symptoms and function in children with OCD has been shown to be reliable and informative. The results of this study support the application of QoL assessment as an additional measure of treatment outcome in children and adolescents with OCD.

  15. The Knowledge on Scabies among Students in a Pesantren in East Jakarta, Before and After Health Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica E.T. Rosandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractScabies is a skin disease commonly found in overcrowded and poor hygiene environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of students in pesantren X, East Jakarta, before and after conducting health education on scabies. The study design was a pre-post study and the data were taken on March 8, 2014. All students who came during the data collectionare the research subjects. Data was collected through a questionnaire consisting of 25 questions about the etiology, clinical symptoms, treatment, transmission, and prevention of scabies. The data were processed with SPSS version 20 and was tested with marginal homogeneity. The results showed that of 104 respondents, prior to health education, most students have a poor level of knowledge on the topic of etiology (68.3%, clinical symptoms (64.2%, treatment (51.9%, prevention (39,4%, and transmission (27.9%. After a health eduvation lecture, more than 50% of students showed a good level of knowledge on every topic on scabies (ranging from 65.4% and the highest 82.7% while the students with poor level of knowledge on every topic ranged from 4.8%9.6%. Marginal homogeneity test showed significant differences in knowledge before and after health education (p<0.01. In conclusion, health education is effective in increasing knowledge about scabies.Keywords: scabies, knowledge, pesantren students, health education AbstrakSkabies adalah penyakit kulit yang banyak terdapat di lingkungan padat penduduk dan kebersihan yang buruk.Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui tingkat pengetahuan siswa pesantren X, Jakarta Timur, sebelum dan sesudah penyuluhan skabies. Desain penelitian adalah pre-post study dan data diambil pada 8 Maret 2014. Semua siswa yang datang saat pengumpulan data dijadikan subyek penelitian. Data dikumpulkan dengan kuesioner berisi 25 pertanyaantentang etiologi, gejala klinis, pengobatan, penularan, dan pencegahan skabies. Data diolah dengan SPSS versi 20 dan

  16. New and Recurrent Concussions in High-School Athletes Before and After Traumatic Brain Injury Laws, 2005-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Comstock, R Dawn; Yi, Honggang; Harvey, Hosea H; Xun, Pengcheng

    2017-12-01

    To examine the trends of new and recurrent sports-related concussions in high-school athletes before and after youth sports traumatic brain injury laws. We used an interrupted time-series design and analyzed the concussion data (2005-2016) from High School Reporting Injury Online. We examined the trends of new or recurrent concussion rates among US representative high-school athletes participating in 9 sports across prelaw, immediate-postlaw, and postlaw periods by using general linear models. We defined 1 athlete exposure as attending 1 competition or practice. We included a total of 8043 reported concussions (88.7% new, 11.3% recurrent). The average annual concussion rate was 39.8 per 100 000 athlete exposures. We observed significantly increased trends of reported new and recurrent concussions from the prelaw, through immediate-postlaw, into the postlaw period. However, the recurrent concussion rate showed a significant decline 2.6 years after the laws went into effect. Football exhibited different trends compared with other boys' sports and girls' sports. Observed trends of increased concussion rates are likely attributable to increased identification and reporting. Additional research is needed to evaluate intended long-term impact of traumatic brain injury laws.

  17. AIDS morbidity and mortality in Brazilian children before and after highly active antiretroviral treatment implementation: an assessment of regional trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Matida, Luiza Harunari; Hearst, Norman; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze regional trends over time of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases and deaths in Brazilian children, before and after implementation of free access to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). We performed a nation-wide study with an ecologic design and a time-series analysis of AIDS incidence and mortality rates in children (0-12 years of age), using polynomial regression models. Data were obtained from official national databases on age group, residence region, and year of AIDS diagnosis and death (1984-2008). Between 1984 and 2008, 14,314 (2.7%) AIDS cases and 5041 deaths (2.3% of all AIDS-related deaths) were reported in Brazilian children. Incidence after 1996 was reduced by 23%, as compared with the pre-HAART era. The mortality rate observed in the HAART era was reduced by 63.6%. There was a significant reduction in the incidence in the Southeast and Central-West regions (P region showed an increase in the pre-HAART era (P region showed a stabilization trend (P region, the incidence of AIDS increased in the 0 to 4 years subgroup. A reduction of AIDS mortality in the Southeast (P regions (P regions maintained an increasing mortality trend (P regional differences continue to exist. These reflect structural factors, different transmission dynamics, and operational issues. There is a need for improving the health service network with special emphasis on the less developed regions.

  18. Health-related quality of life before and after management in adults referred to otolaryngology: rospective national study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, IRC; Guy, FH; Akeroyd, MA

    2012-01-01

    Objective An assessment of the effect of otolaryngological management on the health-related quality of life of patients. Design Application of the Health Utilities Index mark 3 (HUI-3) before and after treatment; application of the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) after treatment. Setting Six otolaryngological departments around Scotland. Participants A 9005 adult patients referred to outpatient clinics. Main outcome measures Complete HUI-3 data was collected from 4422 patients; complete GBI data from 4235; complete HUI-3 and GBI data from 3884. Results The overall change in health related quality of life from before to after management was just +0.02. In the majority of subgroups of data (classified by type of management) there was essentially no change in HUI-3 score. The major exceptions were those patients provided with a hearing aid (mean change 0.08) and those whose problem was managed surgically (mean change 0.04). The mean GBI score was 5.3 which is low. Those managed surgically reported a higher GBI score of 13.0. Conclusion We found that patients treated surgically or given a hearing aid reported a significant improvement in their health related quality of life after treatment in otolaryngology departments. In general, patients treated in other ways reported no significant improvement. We argue that future research should look carefully at patient groups where there is unexpectedly little benefit from current treatment methods and consider more effective methods of management. PMID:22212609

  19. Reliability of Verbal Handoff Assessment and Handoff Quality Before and After Implementation of a Resident Handoff Bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feraco, Angela M; Starmer, Amy J; Sectish, Theodore C; Spector, Nancy D; West, Daniel C; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    1) To develop validity evidence for the use of the Verbal Handoff Assessment Tool (VHAT) and examine the reliability of VHAT scores, and 2) to determine whether implementation of a resident handoff bundle (RHB) was associated with improved verbal patient handoffs among pediatric resident physicians. In a pre-post design, prospectively audio recorded verbal patient handoffs conducted at Boston Children's Hospital before and after implementation of the RHB were rated using the VHAT, which was developed for this study (primary outcome). Using generalizability theory, we evaluated the reliability of VHAT scores. Overall, VHAT scores increased after RHB implementation (mean 142 vs 191, possible score 0-500; P Verbal handoffs improved after implementation of a RHB, although gains were variable across the 2 clinical units. The VHAT shows promise as an assessment tool for resident handoff skills. If used for competency or entrustment decisions, a resident's mean VHAT score should be on the basis of observation of verbal handoff of ≥21 patients. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Trophic state in Voyageurs National Park lakes before and after implementation of a revised water-level management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Maki, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    We compiled Secchi depth, total phosphorus, and chlorophyll a (Chla) data from Voyageurs National Park lakes and compared datasets before and after a new water-level management plan was implemented in January 2000. Average Secchi depth transparency improved (from 1.9 to 2.1 m, p = 0.020) between 1977-1999 and 2000-2011 in Kabetogama Lake for August samples only and remained unchanged in Rainy, Namakan, and Sand Point Lakes, and Black Bay in Rainy Lake. Average open-water season Chla concentration decreased in Black Bay (from an average of 13 to 6.0 μg/l, p = 0.001) and Kabetogama Lake (from 9.9 to 6.2 μg/l, p = 0.006) between 1977-1999 and 2000-2011. Trophic state index decreased significantly in Black Bay from 59 to 51 (p = 0.006) and in Kabetogama Lake from 57 to 50 (p = 0.006) between 1977-1999 and 2000-2011. Trophic state indices based on Chla indicated that after 2000, Sand Point, Namakan, and Rainy Lakes remained oligotrophic, whereas eutrophication has decreased in Kabetogama Lake and Black Bay. Although nutrient inputs from inflows and internal sources are still sufficient to produce annual cyanobacterial blooms and may inhibit designated water uses, trophic state has decreased for Kabetogama Lake and Black Bay and there has been no decline in lake ecosystem health since the implementation of the revised water-level management plan.

  1. Medication dispensing errors and potential adverse drug events before and after implementing bar code technology in the pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Eric G; Cina, Jennifer L; Churchill, William; Patel, Nirali; Featherstone, Erica; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Keohane, Carol A; Whittemore, Anthony D; Bates, David W; Gandhi, Tejal K

    2006-09-19

    Many dispensing errors made in hospital pharmacies can harm patients. Some hospitals are investing in bar code technology to reduce these errors, but data about its efficacy are limited. To evaluate whether implementation of bar code technology reduced dispensing errors and potential adverse drug events (ADEs). Before-and-after study using direct observations. Hospital pharmacy at a 735-bed tertiary care academic medical center. A bar code-assisted dispensing system was implemented in 3 configurations. In 2 configurations, all doses were scanned once during the dispensing process. In the third configuration, only 1 dose was scanned if several doses of the same medication were being dispensed. Target dispensing errors, defined as dispensing errors that bar code technology was designed to address, and target potential ADEs, defined as target dispensing errors that can harm patients. In the pre- and post-bar code implementation periods, the authors observed 115,164 and 253,984 dispensed medication doses, respectively. Overall, the rates of target potential ADEs and all potential ADEs decreased by 74% and 63%, respectively. Of the 3 configurations of bar code technology studied, the 2 configurations that required staff to scan all doses had a 93% to 96% relative reduction in the incidence of target dispensing errors (P dispensing errors (P dispensing errors and potential ADEs substantially decreased after implementing bar code technology. However, the technology should be configured to scan every dose during the dispensing process.

  2. Engaging life in two Irish nursing home units for people with dementia: Quantitative comparisons before and after implementing household environments.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan-Brown, Mark

    2012-09-03

    Objectives: This study compares the Social Engagement and Interactive Occupation of residents with dementia in two Irish nursing homes, before and after conversion to a household model environment. The changes were an open plan design and a functioning unit kitchen, supported by a homemaker role and operational policies which reduced task-based work in favour of person-centred care offering choice. Method: A snapshot observation method was used to obtain quantitative data of resident activity using the Assessment Tool for Occupation and Social Engagement (ATOSE). Residents were assessed for four hours, on seven different weekdays, over a six-week period both pre- and post-renovation. The exception to this was the assessment of the traditional model unit (TMU) for Nursing Home 1 which was reduced to four days due to the early start of the building work. Results: The results were consistent for both nursing homes and data were aggregated. Residents spent more time in the communal living spaces and were more likely to be active and engaged in the household model units (HMUs) compared to the TMUs. Using the independent t-test, these changes were found to be highly significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Creating an HMU increased the Interactive Occupation and Social Engagement of residents in the communal areas of the two nursing homes. The physical environment change, in conjunction with supportive staff procedures and organizational initiatives, improved the well-being of residents with dementia. The outcomes must be viewed in context with financial implications.

  3. Changes in quality of life and perceptions of general health before and after operation of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Leila; Bigelow, Philip; McColl, Stephen; Majowicz, Shannon; Gohari, Mahmood; Waterhouse, Ryan

    2016-09-01

    Ontario is Canada's provincial leader in wind energy, with over 4000 MW of installed capacity supplying approximately five percent of the province's electricity demand. Wind energy is now one of the fastest-growing sources of renewable power in Canada and many other countries. However, its possible negative impact on population health, as a new source of environmental noise, has raised concerns for people living in proximity to wind turbines (WTs). The aims of this study were to assess the effect of individual differences and annoyance on the self-reported general health and health-related quality of life (QOL) of nearby residents, using a pre- and post-exposure design. Prospective cohort data were collected before and after WT operations, from the individuals (n = 43) in Ontario, Canada. General health and QOL metrics were measured using standard scales, such as SF12, life satisfaction scales developed by Diener (SWLS) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS-SWL). The mean values for the Mental Component Score of SF12 (p = 0.002), SWLS (p < 0.001), and CCHS-SWL (p = 0.044) significantly worsened after WT operation for those participants who had a negative attitude to WTs, who voiced concerns about property devaluation, and/or who reported being visually or noise annoyed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Within-Population Distribution of Trimethoprim Resistance in Escherichia coli before and after a Community-Wide Intervention on Trimethoprim Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Martin; Granholm, Susanne; Naseer, Umaer; Rydén, Patrik; Brolund, Alma; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year prospective intervention on the prescription of trimethoprim reduced the use by 85% in a health care region with 178,000 inhabitants. Here, we performed before-and-after analyses of the within-population distribution of trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic and population genetic methods were applied to multilocus sequence typing data of 548 consecutively collected E. coli isolates from clinical urinary specimens. Results were analyzed in relation to antibiotic susceptibility and the presence and genomic location of different trimethoprim resistance gene classes. A total of 163 E. coli sequence types (STs) were identified, of which 68 were previously undescribed. The isolates fell into one of three distinct genetic clusters designated BAPS 1 (E. coli phylogroup B2), BAPS 2 (phylogroup A and B1), and BAPS 3 (phylogroup D), each with a similar frequency before and after the intervention. BAPS 2 and BAPS 3 were positively and BAPS 1 was negatively associated with trimethoprim resistance (odds ratios of 1.97, 3.17, and 0.26, respectively). In before-and-after analyses, trimethoprim resistance frequency increased in BAPS 1 and decreased in BAPS 2. Resistance to antibiotics other than trimethoprim increased in BAPS 2. Analysis of the genomic location of different trimethoprim resistance genes in isolates of ST69, ST58, and ST73 identified multiple independent acquisition events in isolates of the same ST. The results show that despite a stable overall resistance frequency in E. coli before and after the intervention, marked within-population changes occurred. A decrease of resistance in one major genetic cluster was masked by a reciprocal increase in another major cluster. PMID:25288078

  5. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Kharekhasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) Before and After Mudabbar Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Abdullah; Hamiduddin; Khanam, Salma; Ali, Mohd Akhtar; Zaigham, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mudabbar/Tadbeere advia is referred to the processes performed on the drugs to detoxify, purify, and enhance therapeutic action and to reduce its doses before making the formulations in Unani medicine. It improves quality of drugs either by optimizing its desirable characteristics or minimizing the undesirable ones; it makes drug effective, safe, and specific. There is a need of comparative evaluation to understand its significance. Tadbeer of Kharekhasak (KK) khurd (Tribulus terrestris Linn. fruit) is described by Rabban Al-Tabari in Firdausul Hikmat, Akbar Arzani in Qarabadeene Qadri, etc., during the compounding of aphrodisiac formulations. Mudabbar Kharekhasak (MKK) used in Safoofe Kharekhasak mentioned in Al-Qarabadeene was evaluated in this work. Methods: Mudabbar/Tadbeer process was carried out by blending fresh KK. Juice with powdered dry KK and drying it under the sun. Juice used for process is thrice the weight of dry KK powder. The KK before and after the process was evaluated using physicochemical tests: powder characterization, extractive value, alcohol and water soluble matter, ash value, loss on drying (LOD) at 105°C, pH, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting, and diosgenin content. Results: Powder characterizations were set in. Increase in successive and nonsuccessive extractive values in various solvents, water/alcohol-soluble content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and sulfated ash of MKK was noted in comparison with KK. Decrease in LOD at 105°C and pH of MKK powder was observed. HPTLC fingerprinting data were developed for the identification and evaluation. Quantification of diosgenin content increased to 432.1 g/g in MKK as compared to 144.5 g/g in KK, suggesting significant increase in saponin content. Conclusion: Data obtained clearly indicated changes in MKK validating the classical Mudabbar process, probably to enhance/modify the action of drug. Standards for crude

  6. General quality of life of patients with acne vulgaris before and after performing selected cosmetological treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilicka, Karolina; Maj, Joanna; Panaszek, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Background Achieving a satisfying quality of life for a patient by applying individually matched therapy is, simultaneously, a great challenge and a priority for contemporary medicine. Patients with visible dermatological ailments are particularly susceptible to reduction in the general quality of life. Among the dermatological diseases, acne causes considerable reduction in the quality of life and changes in self-perception that lead to the worsening of a patient’s mental condition, including depression and suicidal thoughts. As a result, difficulties in contact with loved ones, as well as social and professional problems are observed, which show that acne is not a somatic problem alone. To a large extent, it becomes a part of psychodermatology, becoming an important topic of public health in social medicine practice. Pharmacological treatment of acne is a challenge for a dermatologist and often requires the necessity of cooperating with a cosmetologist. Cosmetological treatments are aimed at improving the condition of the skin and reduction or subsiding of acne skin changes. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the influence of selected cosmetological treatments on the general quality of life of patients with acne. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 101 women aged 19–29 years (x¯=22.5 years, SD =2.3 years). All subjects were diagnosed with acne vulgaris of the face. In the study group, the acne changes occurred over the course of 3–15 years (x¯=8.1 years, SD =2.7 years). Selected cosmetological treatments (intensive pulsing light, alpha-hydroxy acids, cavitation peeling, needle-free mesotherapy, diamond microdermabrasion and sonophoresis) were performed in series in the number depending on the particular patient’s chosen treatment, after excluding contraindications. General quality of life of the patients was estimated using the Skindex-29 and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaires, before and after the cosmetological

  7. Analysis of diaphragmatic movement before and after pulmonary rehabilitation using fluoroscopy imaging in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun EM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eun Mi Chun,1 Soo Jeong Han,2 Hitesh N Modi3 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Rehabilitation Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Scoliosis Research Institute, Department of Orthopedics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: The diaphragm is the principal inspiratory muscle. The purpose of this study was to assess improvements in diaphragmatic movement before and after pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, using a fluoroscopy-guided chest X-ray.Patients and methods: Among 117 patients with COPD receiving pulmonary rehabilitation who underwent the initial fluoroscopy-guided chest X-ray and pulmonary function test, 37 of those patients who underwent both initial and follow-up fluoroscopy and pulmonary function tests were enrolled in this study. After hospital education, participants received pulmonary rehabilitation through regular home-based training for at least 3 months by the same physiatrist. We assessed the changes in diaphragm area with fluoroscopy-guided posteroanterior chest X-rays between pre- and postpulmonary rehabilitation. To minimize radiation hazards for subjects, the exposure time for fluoroscopy to take chest X-rays was limited to less than 5 seconds.Results: There were significant improvements (2,022.8±1,548.3 mm² to 3,010.7±1,495.6 mm² and 2,382.4±1,475.9 mm² to 3,315.9±1,883.5 mm²; right side P=0.001 and left side P=0.019, respectively in diaphragmatic motion area during full inspiration and expiration in both lungs after pulmonary rehabilitation. Pulmonary function tests showed no statistically significant difference between pre- and postpulmonary rehabilitation.Conclusion: The study suggests that the strategy to assess diaphragm movement using fluoroscopy is a relatively effective tool for the evaluation of pulmonary

  8. Diffusion MRI for rectal cancer staging: ADC measurements before and after ultrasonographic gel lumen distension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmucci, S., E-mail: spalmucci@sirm.org; Piccoli, M.; Piana, S.; Foti, P.V.; Siverino, R.O.A.; Mauro, L.A.; Milone, P.; Ettorre, G.C.

    2017-01-15

    Objectives: To compare Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements in rectal neoplastic lesions before and after lumen distension obtained with sonography transmission gel. Methods: From January 2014 to July 2016, 25 patients (average age 63.7, range 41–85, 18 males) were studied for pre-treatment rectal cancer staging using a 1.5 T MRI. Diffusion MRI was obtained using echo-planar imaging with b = 800 value; all patients were studied acquiring diffusion sequences with and without rectal lumen distension obtained using sonography transmission gel. In both diffusion sequences, two blinded readers calculated border ADC values and small ADC values, drawing regions of interest respectively along tumour borders and far from tumour borders. Mean ADC values among readers − for each type of ADC measurement − were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. Correlation was assessed using Pearson analysis. Results: Border ADC mean value for diffusion MR sequences without endorectal contrast was 1.122 mm{sup 2}/sec, with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02–1.22; using gel lumen distension, higher border ADC mean value of 1.269 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 1.16–1.38) was obtained. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test revealed statistical difference (p < 0.01); a strong Pearson correlation was reported, with r value of 0.69. Small-ADC mean value was 1.038 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 0.91–1.16) for diffusion sequences acquired without endorectal distension and 1.127 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 0.98–1.27) for diffusion sequences obtained after endorectal gel lumen distension. Wilcoxon analysis did not show statistical difference (p = 0.13). A very strong positive correlation was observed, with r value of 0.81. Conclusions: ADC measurements are slightly higher using endorectal sonographic transmission gel; ROI should be traced far from tumour borders, to minimize gel filled-pixel along the interface between lumen and lesion. Further studies are needed to

  9. Surface characterizations of TiH{sub 2} powders before and after dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yeguang [School of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Wang, Chunming; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shaopeng; Xiao, Sufen [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Chen, Yungui, E-mail: ygchen60@aliyun.com [School of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Oxides characteristics of TiH{sub 2} and HDH-Ti are investigated by XPS depth profiles. • The relative contents of TiO{sub 2}, Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO are lower after dehydrogenation. • The decrease of Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} is more remarkable followed by TiO{sub 2}, TiO after dehydrogenation. • The H atoms of TiH{sub 2} react preferentially with Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by TiO{sub 2}, TiO. - Abstract: The oxide film of TiH{sub 2} and HDH-Ti powder are investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS depth profiles indicate that there exists mainly Ti{sup 2+}, Ti{sup 3+}, Ti{sup 4+} and Ti{sup 0} on TiH{sub 2} and HDH-Ti surface. The intensities of Ti 2p decrease for Ti{sup 4+}, first increase and then decrease for Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 2+}, and increase all the time for Ti{sup 0} in the surface layer of TiH{sub 2} and HDH-Ti with the sputtering depth increasing. The relative fractions of TiO{sub 2}, Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO for the Ti 2p of TiH{sub 2} and HDH-Ti first decrease and then slow down with the sputtering depth increasing. Meanwhile, the relative fractions of TiO{sub 2} and TiO of HDH-Ti are lower than that of TiH{sub 2} after the sputtering depth of about 5 nm, and the fraction of Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} of HDH-Ti is always lower that of TiH{sub 2}. In addition, the decrease of Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} is much pronounced, followed by TiO{sub 2} and TiO before and after dehydrogenation when the sputtering depth is more than 5 nm. The XPS depth profiles and calculation results suggest that the release of H atoms removes the part of oxygen on TiH{sub 2} surface, which results in the thinner oxide layer and low oxygen content of HDH-Ti powder.

  10. Substance Use and Psychological Distress Before and After the Military to Civilian Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefinko, Karen J; Hallsell, Troy A; Isaacs, Matthew B; Salgado Garcia, Francisco I; Colvin, Lauren W; Bursac, Zoran; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G; Little, Melissa A; Talcott, Gerald W; Klesges, Robert C

    2018-02-06

    Those currently serving in the military constitute a vulnerable population given their high-risk status for substance use, and population data suggest that veterans continue to engage in significant substance use long after their military service ends. Recent research suggests that the separation transition from active duty to civilian life may be critical in terms of the future functioning of the veteran. We sought to explore substance use prevalence, as well as potential emotional distress among veterans by retrospectively assessing substance use during active duty and following separation to examine possible changes in use over this period. This study assessed substance use and emotional distress in veterans (N = 80; 90% male) across the military to civilian transition. Repeated measures tests indicated that endorsement of alcohol use, cigarette use, and prescription drug misuse was similar during active duty and post-separation, and marijuana and hard drug use endorsement increased significantly in the 6-mo period post-separation. Further, comorbid use of different substances was common. Active duty levels of anxiety/depression and aggressive feelings were maintained from active duty to post-separation, and feeling alone and military-based trauma symptoms increased significantly. Finally, participants indicated that only a minority of the veterans they knew were doing emotionally well or did not have alcohol/substance use issues. These findings indicate a clear need for substance use and psychological intervention availability before and after transition to enable veterans to transition to civilian life effectively. Based on the many issues at work during the transition process, programs may do well to focus more specifically on identification of problems and raising awareness, rather than awaiting more severe issues in the future. Validation of the difficulties of the separation transition, veterans' feelings of isolation, and the importance of veteran

  11. Carbon uptake before and after the felling of an Eucalyptus forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Gabriel; Rodrigues, Abel; Mateus, Joao; Santos Pereira, Joao

    2010-05-01

    Espirra site (38°38'N,8°36'W) is located in a 300ha Eucalyptus globulus plantation, with a Mediterranean type climate with a mean annual precipitation of 709mm and a mean annual air temperature of 15.9°C. The plantation was established in 1986 with about 1100 trees ha-1. A 33m observation tower was installed in 2002, with an eddy covariance system. A harvesting of trees was made at the end of the 2nd rotation period, from November to December 2006. During the last four years of the second rotation the coppice were 20m height. Harvesting was planned in order to initiate a new 12 year productive cycle. In October 2008 a first thinning was made in three fourths of emerging stems from stumps. At this stage the forest trees had a mean height of 6m. during the period of analyses the total annual precipitation has varied between a minimum of 248mmYr-1 (2005) to a maximum of 796mm Yr-1 (2007), pattern typical of a Mediterranean climate. The diminution of precipitation (and also how it is distributed along the year) affects the forest uptake of Carbon .The GPP and the Reco show lower values in dry years, both in the adult forest as in the young one. The GPP of the growing eucalyptus has been affected by the dry year but also by the thinning that took place in Oct 2008. The Ecosystem total respiration shows high values after the felling ( the same order of magnitude as the forest before the felling) due to the leaves and branches that were left over the soil after the harvesting. Three years after the felling the GPP of the young forest is 61% the value of the adult forest (mean value, excluding the dry year). The seasonal pattern of RECO is similar before and after the felling, but in the young forest the GPP is lower and the NEE becomes positive in the summer time. In an annual base the growing eucalyptus forest only in the first year after felling was a source of carbon.

  12. [Prolonged topical natamycin 5 % therapy before and after keratoplasty for Fusarium keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkova, N; Köstler, J; Prahs, P; Helbig, H; Dietrich-Ntoukas, T

    2016-05-01

    to a high rate of recurrence a longer local and systemic antifungal therapy is required. In the case described here, there was a clear corneal graft without Fusarium recurrence 1 year after surgery and it is presumed the prolonged antifungal therapy before and after surgery was an important factor for this clinical outcome.

  13. Lower Leg Anterior and Lateral Intracompartmental Pressure Changes Before and After Classic Versus Skate Nordic Rollerskiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Katherine M; Petron, David J; Shultz, Barry B; Hicks-Little, Charlie A

    2015-08-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a debilitating condition resulting in loss of function and a decrease in athletic performance. Cases of CECS are increasing among Nordic skiers; therefore, analysis of intracompartmental pressures (ICPs) before and after Nordic skiing is warranted. To determine if lower leg anterior and lateral ICPs and subjective lower leg pain levels increased after a 20-minute Nordic rollerskiing time trial and to examine if differences existed between postexercise ICPs for the 2 Nordic rollerskiing techniques, classic and skate. Crossover study. Outdoor paved loop. Seven healthy Division I Nordic skiers (3 men, 4 women; age = 22.71 ± 1.38 y, height = 175.36 ± 6.33 cm, mass = 70.71 ± 6.58 kg). Participants completed two 20-minute rollerskiing time trials using the classic and skate technique in random order. The time trials were completed 7 days apart. Anterior and lateral ICPs and lower leg pain scores were obtained at baseline and at minutes 1 and 5 after rollerskiing. Anterior and lateral ICPs (mm Hg) were measured using a Stryker Quic STIC handheld monitor. Subjective measures of lower leg pain were recorded using the 11-point Numeric Rating Scale. Increases in both anterior (P = .000) and lateral compartment (P = .002) ICPs were observed, regardless of rollerskiing technique used. Subjective lower leg pain increased after the classic technique for the men from baseline to 1 minute postexercise and after the skate technique for the women. Significant 3-way interactions (technique × time × sex) were observed for the anterior (P = .002) and lateral (P = .009) compartment ICPs and lower leg pain (P = .005). Postexercise anterior and lateral ICPs increased compared with preexercise ICPs after both classic and skate rollerskiing techniques. Lower leg pain is a primary symptom of CECS. The subjective lower leg pain 11-point Numeric Rating Scale results indicate that increases in lower leg ICPs sustained during Nordic

  14. Predicting alcohol consumption during the month before and after beginning college

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    Stout Robert L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to determine predictors of drinking the month before and after beginning college, as well as changes in drinking between these two periods among adjudicated students. We conducted these analyses to inform individual and university-wide approaches to addressing underage drinking, particularly among the heaviest drinkers. Methods The sample consisted of 143 students entering college, adjudicated during their first semester, and interviewed during the same semester. The sample consisted of 43% women. Drinking data were collected through the Time-Line Follow-Back interview. Results The average number of drinking days (DD during the first month of college was 7.0 (SD = 4.7, the average number of drinks per drinking day (DDD was 7.4 (SD = 3.4, and the average volume of standard drink units consumed during this month was 56.3 (SD = 51.2. Students had volunteered for a two-year college facilitation study, and had been invited to participate after receiving a citation for violating university alcohol policies. Analyses consisted of nine backward elimination regression analyses with nine variables entered as predictors (one was a control variable. Age of first intoxication was related to every dependent measure. Men had a higher August DDD, September DDD, and September volume than women. Roommate drinking level was associated with September DDD and September volume. Out-of-state students had a lower August volume than in-state students. High school rank was inversely related to September drinking days. SAT score, declared major status, and fraternity/sorority status were not related to drinking according to these multivariate analyses. Conclusions Results suggest that approaches to underage drinking for adjudicated students may need to be tailored according to age of first intoxication. Results also suggest the drinking level of the heaviest drinking roommate may moderate individual level interventions. Further, interventions

  15. Esophageal dysphagia and reflux symptoms before and after oral IQoro(R) training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägg, Mary; Tibbling, Lita; Franzén, Thomas

    2015-06-28

    To examine whether muscle training with an oral IQoro(R) screen (IQS) improves esophageal dysphagia and reflux symptoms. A total of 43 adult patients (21 women and 22 men) were consecutively referred to a swallowing center for the treatment and investigation of long-lasting nonstenotic esophageal dysphagia. Hiatal hernia was confirmed by radiologic examination in 21 patients before enrollment in the study (group A; median age 52 years, range: 19-85 years). No hiatal hernia was detected by radiologic examination in the remaining 22 patients (group B; median age 57 years, range: 22-85 years). Before and after training with an oral IQS for 6-8 mo, the patients were evaluated using a symptom questionnaire (esophageal dysphagia and acid chest symptoms; score 0-3), visual analogue scale (ability to swallow food: score 0-100), lip force test (≥ 15 N), velopharyngeal closure test (≥ 10 s), orofacial motor tests, and an oral sensory test. Another twelve patients (median age 53 years, range: 22-68 years) with hiatal hernia were evaluated using oral IQS traction maneuvers with pressure recordings of the upper esophageal sphincter and hiatus canal as assessed by high-resolution manometry. Esophageal dysphagia was present in all 43 patients at entry, and 98% of patients showed improvement after IQS training [mean score (range): 2.5 (1-3) vs 0.9 (0-2), P < 0.001]. Symptoms of reflux were reported before training in 86% of the patients who showed improvement at follow-up [1.7 (0-3) vs 0.5 (0-2), P < 0.001). The visual analogue scale scores were classified as pathologic in all 43 patients, and 100% showed improvement after IQS training [71 (30-100) vs 22 (0-50), P < 0.001]. No significant difference in symptom frequency was found between groups A and B before or after IQS training. The lip force test [31 N (12-80 N) vs 54 N (27-116), P < 0.001] and velopharyngeal closure test values [28 s (5-74 s) vs 34 s (13-80 s), P < 0.001] were significantly higher after IQS training. The

  16. Biomarker expression in rectal cancer tissue before and after neoadjuvant therapy

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    Boogerd LS

    2018-03-01

    evaluation shows that CEA, EpCAM and c-Met are suitable targets for RC imaging, because all three are significantly enhanced in cancer tissue from primary tumors or LN metastases compared with normal adjacent tissue. Furthermore, the expression of CEA and EpCAM is not significantly changed after CRT. These data underscore the applicability of c-Met and especially, CEA and EpCAM as targets for image-guided RC surgery, both before and after CRT. Keywords: imaging, tumor markers, CEA, EpCAM, c-Met, preoperative chemo- and radiotherapy

  17. Human papillomavirus vaccine series completion in boys before and after recommendation for routine immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bradley; Hechter, Rulin; Sidell, Margo; Sy, Lina S; Slezak, Jeffrey; Chao, Chun; Patel, Nilesh; Tseng, Hung-Fu; Jacobsen, Steven

    2017-02-07

    Although the incidence of HPV-attributable cancers in males is rapidly increasing, HPV vaccine uptake in males remains poor. While quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (4vHPV) series initiation in males increased following the Advisory Committee Immunization Practices (ACIP) male routine use recommendation, its impact on 4vHPV series completion in males at ACIP-recommended intervals has not been evaluated in large male cohorts. We examined trends and correlates of 4vHPV completion since licensure in males in a large cohort of insured boys before and after the ACIP routine use recommendation. We grouped data from electronic medical records of males aged 9-17years from Kaiser Permanente Southern California health plan who initiated 4vHPV into 3 cohorts by 4vHPV initiation date: licensure and ACIP permissive use: 2009-2010; addition of anal cancer indication: 2010-2011; ACIP routine use: 2011-2013. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) between patient and provider characteristics and vaccination using Marginal Cox proportional hazards models. Of 80,800 boys initiating 4vHPV, 24.3% completed the series within 12months with minimal differences across cohorts. Completion decreased with increasing age at initiation (13-17vs. 11-12year olds: AHR=0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.80, 0.89) and was greater among patients with a primary care provider (AHR=1.28, 95%CI=1.17, 1.41), influenza vaccine recipients (AHR=1.50, 95% CI=1.43, 1.57), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (AHR=1.07, 95% CI=1.00, 1.15), and lower among non-Hispanic Blacks (AHR=0.72, 95% CI=0.65, 0.80) and Hispanics (AHR=0.86, 95% CI=0.81, 0.90) compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Despite the ACIP routine use recommendation in males, 4vHPV series completion remained low. 4vHPV initiation at 11-12years and identification of a provider responsible for the adolescents' health care may increase 4vHPV series completion. Given the rapidly increasing incidence of HPV-related cancers in males, it is important to

  18. High-skilled labour mobility in Europe before and after the 2004 enlargement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puliga, Michelangelo

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which international high-skilled mobility channels are forming is a question of great importance in an increasingly global knowledge-based economy. One factor facilitating the growth of high-skilled labour markets is the standardization of certifiable degrees meriting international recognition. Within this context, we analysed an extensive high-skilled mobility database comprising roughly 382 000 individuals from five broad profession groups (Medical, Education, Technical, Science & Engineering and Business & Legal) over the period 1997–2014, using the 13-country expansion of the European Union (EU) to provide insight into labour market integration. We compare the periods before and after the 2004 enlargement, showing the emergence of a new east–west migration channel between the 13 mostly eastern EU entrants (E) and the rest of the western European countries (W). Indeed, we observe a net directional loss of human capital from E → W, representing 29% of the total mobility after 2004. Nevertheless, the counter-migration from W → E is 7% of the total mobility over the same period, signalling the emergence of brain circulation within the EU. Our analysis of the country–country mobility networks and the country–profession bipartite networks provides timely quantitative evidence for the convergent integration of the EU, and highlights the central role of the UK and Germany as high-skilled labour hubs. We conclude with two data-driven models to explore the structural dynamics of the mobility networks. First, we develop a reconfiguration model to explore the potential ramifications of Brexit and the degree to which redirection of high-skilled labourers away from the UK may impact the integration of the rest of the European mobility network. Second, we use a panel regression model to explain empirical high-skilled mobility rates in terms of various economic ‘push–pull’ factors, the results of which show that government expenditure on

  19. Zolpidem prescribing practices before and after Food and Drug Administration required product labeling changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Norman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women have higher morning serum zolpidem concentrations than men after taking an evening dose, potentially leading to increased risk of harm. On 19 April 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration required labeling changes for zolpidem, recommending an initial dose of no greater than 5 mg (immediate release or 6.25 mg (controlled release per night in women. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to compare prescribing practices before and after the 2013 zolpidem labeling change. A secondary objective was to evaluate serious adverse events potentially related to zolpidem. Methods: Electronic medical records of adults receiving care through the University of Colorado Health system were accessed for study inclusion if patients were provided a first-time prescription for zolpidem either prior to or after the Food and Drug Administration labeling change. Patients were randomly chosen from eight strata based on age, gender, and date of zolpidem initiation (before/after the labeling change. Demographic and zolpidem prescribing data were collected. Low-dose zolpidem was considered 5 mg (immediate release or 6.25 mg (controlled release daily or less. Documentation of potentially related serious adverse events within the patients’ records was also evaluated. Results: A total of 400 patients were included in the study. The overall percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased from 44% to 58% after the labeling change (p = 0.0020. In a pre-specified subgroup analysis, the percentage of patients prescribed low-dose zolpidem increased in all groups, including young men (38%–50%, p = 0.23, elderly men (34%–40%, p = 0.53, and elderly women (60%–74%, p = 0.14, but the change was only significant in young women (42%–70%, p = 0.0045. Conclusion: After Food and Drug Administration–mandated labeling changes for zolpidem in 2013, the percentage of overall patients in our health

  20. Health care resource utilization before and after natalizumab initiation among patients with multiple sclerosis in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson C

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Crystal Watson,1 Christine Prosser,2 Sebastian Braun,2 Pamela B Landsman-Blumberg,3 Erika Gleissner,4 Sarah Naoshy1 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Global Market Access, Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Real World Evidence, Xcenda GmbH, Hanover, Germany; 3Applied Data Analytics, Xcenda LLC, Palm Harbor, FL, USA; 4Market Access, Biogen, Ismaning, Germany Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS, a progressive neurodegenerative disease, greatly impacts the quality of life and economic status of people affected by this disease. In Germany, the total annual cost of MS is estimated at €40,000 per person with MS. Natalizumab has shown to slow MS disease progression, reduce relapses, and improve the quality of life of people with MS.Objective: To evaluate MS-related and all-cause health care resource utilization and costs among German MS patients during the 12 months before and after initiation of natalizumab in a real-world setting.Methods: The current analysis was conducted using the Health Risk Institute research database. Identified patients were aged ≥18 years with ≥1 diagnosis of MS and had initiated natalizumab therapy (index, with 12-month pre– and post–index-period data. Patients were stratified by prior disease-modifying therapy (DMT usage or no DMT usage in the pre-index period. Outcome measures included corticosteroid use and number of sick/disability days, inpatient stays, and outpatient visits. Health care costs were calculated separately for pre- and post-index periods on a per-patient basis and adjusted for inflation.Results: In a final sample of 193 natalizumab-treated patients, per-patient MS-related corticosteroid use was reduced by 62.3%, MS-related sick days by 27.6%, and inpatient costs by 78.3% from the pre- to post-index period. Furthermore, the proportion of patients with MS-related hospitalizations decreased from 49.7% to 14.0% (P<0.001; this reduction was seen for patients with and without prior DMT use

  1. Endogenous hormones in postmenopausal females with breast cancer--before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Aniljeet S; Arora, Megha K; Seth, Shashi; Chauhan, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is usually present for many years (as long as 5-10 years) before it can be clinically diagnosed (theory of the 'dormant malignant cell'). This implies that breast cancer cells, during their subclinical period, are likely to have been exposed for a considerable time to endogenous sex hormones and endogenous hormonal milieu predicts the chances of breast cancer in females. So, we planned this study to evaluate the role of endogenous hormones in postmenopausal females excluding the patients on hormone replacement therapy as the relationship between breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy is well known. Hormone therapy is known to affect these hormone levels but whether treatment of breast cancer per se also decreases the hormone levels is not known. We planned the present study to determine hormone levels in patients before and after 4 months of treatment (chemotherapy/surgery and radiotherapy). Circulating hormone levels were measured using a chemiluminescence method. Their results were compared with a group of 25 age matched healthy controls. We found that serum prolactin, testosterone and estrogen levels were very significantly higher in patients before treatment (Group I) as compared to controls (Group III). Serum prolactin and serum estrogen levels were significantly higher and serum testosterone was very significantly higher in patients before treatment (Group I) when compared after 4 months of treatment (Group II). Only serum estrogen levels were significantly high in patients after treatment (Group II) as compared to controls (Group III). Serum progesterone levels showed no significant difference to any of the groups. We concluded that postmenopausal females with breast cancer have abnormalities in hormone levels. These abnormalities may be considered in the pathogenesis of the disease and should be taken into account in the treatment of patients of breast cancer. It might also be helpful to delay the onset of cancer by normalizing the

  2. Cyanide poisoning in Thailand before and after establishment of the National Antidote Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuma, Sahaphume; Pradoo, Aimon; Rittilert, Panee; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Krairojananan, Wannapa; Suchonwanich, Netnapis; Khomvilai, Sumana; Wananukul, Winai

    2018-04-01

    Antidote shortage is a global problem. In Thailand, the National Antidote Project (NAP) has operated since November 2010 to manage the national antidote stockpile, educate the healthcare providers on appropriate antidote use, and evaluate antidote usage. To evaluate the effect of NAP implementation on mortality rate and antidote use in cyanide poisoning cases arising from ingestion of cyanide or cyanogenic glycoside. This is a retrospective cohort of poisoning cases involving cyanide or cyanogenic glycoside ingestion reported to Ramathibodi Poison Center from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2015. Mortality rate, antidote use, and appropriateness of antidote use (defined as correct indication, proper dosing regimen, and administration within 90 min) before and after NAP implementation were compared. Association between parameters and fatal outcomes was analyzed. A total of 343 cases involving cyanide or cyanogenic glycoside ingestion were reported to Ramathibodi Poison Center. There were 213 cases (62.1%) during NAP (Project group) and 130 cases (37.9%) pre-NAP implementation (Before group). Implementation of NAP led to increased antidote use (39.9% in Project group versus 24.6% in Before group) and a higher rate of appropriate antidote use (74.1% in Project group versus 50.0% in Before group). All 30 deaths were presented with initial severe symptoms. Cyanide chemical source and self-harm intent were associated with death (OR: 12.919, 95% CI: 4.863-39.761 and OR: 10.747, 95% CI: 3.884-28.514, respectively). No difference in overall mortality rate (13 [10.0%] deaths before versus 17 [8.0%] deaths after NAP) was found. In subgroup analysis of 80 cases with initial severe symptoms, NAP and appropriate antidote use reduced mortality (OR: 0.327, 95% CI: 0.106-0.997 and OR: 0.024, 95% CI: 0.004-0.122, respectively). In the multivariate analysis of the cases with initial severe symptoms, presence of the NAP and appropriate antidote use independently reduced the risk of

  3. Coronary artery calcium before and after hospitalization with pneumonia: The MESA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-Medina, Vicente F; Dwivedi, Girish; Taljaard, Monica; Petrcich, William; Lima, Joao A; Yende, Sachin; Kronmal, Richard A; Chirinos, Julio A

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological analyses demonstrate that pneumonia survivors have a higher risk of myocardial infarction than people with similar load of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) but without pneumonia. This may be due to a higher baseline burden of ASCVD in patients with pneumonia that is not captured by the accounting of known ASCVD risk factors in epidemiological analyses or to unfavorable accelerating effects of pneumonia on atherosclerosis. We analyzed data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We identified 54 participants that were hospitalized for pneumonia during study follow-up and that also had assessment of coronary artery calcium (CAC, an objective marker of coronary atherosclerotic burden) before and after this hospitalization. We matched them to 54 participants who were not hospitalized for pneumonia but that had CAC assessments at the same study visits as the pneumonia cases. We compared baseline CAC scores and their progression between groups. Baseline CAC scores were similar in both groups (median [IQR]; 6.3 [0-356.8] in pneumonia participants vs. 10.8 [0-178.3] in controls; p = 0.25). After a median of 4.8 years, the direction and magnitude of CAC score change, and the slope of CAC score progression between groups was also similar (median change [IQR], 21.8 [0 to 287.29] in participants with pneumonia versus 15.8 [0 to 140.94] in controls, p = 0.28; difference in slope, 7.7, 95% CI -9.0 to 24.6, p = 0.18). However, among participants with high baseline ASCVD risk (i.e. ACC/AHA 10-year risk estimate ≥7.5%), participants with pneumonia showed a larger increase in CAC scores (median change [IQR]; 159.10 [38.55-407.34] versus 48.72 [0.97-246.99] in controls; p = 0.02) and a trend towards a steeper slope of CAC score progression (difference in slope, 19.7, 95% CI -6.6 to 45.6, p = 0.07). Pneumonia may accelerate the progression of atherosclerosis in people with high baseline ASCVD risk.

  4. Performance Metrics in Professional Baseball Pitchers before and after Surgical Treatment for Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert W; Dawkins, Corey; Vemuri, Chandu; Mulholland, Michael W; Hadzinsky, Tyler D; Pearl, Gregory J

    2017-02-01

    High-performance throwing athletes may be susceptible to the development of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS). This condition can be career-threatening but the outcomes of treatment for NTOS in elite athletes have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to utilize objective performance metrics to evaluate the impact of surgical treatment for NTOS in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers. Thirteen established MLB pitchers underwent operations for NTOS between July 2001 and July 2014. For those returning to MLB, traditional and advanced (PitchF/x) MLB performance metrics were acquired from public databases for various time-period scenarios before and after surgery, with comparisons made using paired t-tests, Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank tests, and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. Ten of 13 pitchers (77%) achieved a sustained return to MLB, with a mean age of 30.2 ± 1.4 years at the time of surgery and 10.8 ± 1.5 months of postoperative rehabilitation before the return to MLB. Pre- and postoperative career data revealed no significant differences for 15 traditional pitching metrics, including earned run average (ERA), fielding independent pitching, walks plus hits per inning pitched (WHIP), walks per 9 innings, and strikeouts to walk ratio (SO/BB). There were also no significant differences between the 3 years before and the 3 years after surgical treatment. Using PitchF/x data for 72 advanced metrics and 25 different time-period scenarios, the highest number of significant relationships (n = 18) was observed for the 8 weeks before/12 weeks after scenario. In this analysis, 54 (75%) measures were unchanged (including ERA, WHIP, and SO/BB) and 14 (19%) were significantly improved, while only 4 (6%) were significantly decreased (including hard pitch maximal velocity 93.1 ± 1.0 vs. 92.5 ± 0.9 miles/hr, P = 0.047). Six pitchers remained active in MLB during the study period, while the other 4 had retired due to

  5. Perceived confidence in the FAST exam before and after an educational intervention in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Andre K; Dawson, Matthew; Long, Deanne; Allred, Derrick; Madsen, Troy

    2010-02-27

    Trauma care in developing countries suffers from many limitations related to equipment shortages, disrepair, quality assurance, and lack of training. Health care providers in the three principal hospitals in Cusco, Peru have ultrasound machines, but they do not utilize this for the focused assessment of sonography in trauma (FAST) scan (only one of the three hospitals has a computed tomography scanner). The goal of this study was to assess the confidence of physicians in a developing country to conduct a FAST exam after an educational intervention. Participants were Peruvian health care workers who attended a 2-day conference on trauma. Participants completed a questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = no confidence, 5 = high confidence) to assess comfort with the FAST scan before and after a FAST teaching workshop, which included hands-on ultrasound training. Thirteen individuals, eight of whom were physicians, completed the training and survey. Results were analyzed using paired t test statistics and are reported as pre- and post-training mean scores (+/- standard error), with p orientation (pre: 3.9, post: 4.6, p = 0.008), and adjusting the depth and gain (pre: 3.1, post: 4.4, p = 0.001). Finally, participants rated their comfort with the specific views of the FAST scan: ability to find the correct subcostal view (pre: 3.3, post: 4.9, p < 0.001), right upper quadrant view (pre: 3.2, post: 4.6, p < 0.001), left upper quadrant view (pre: 3.2, post: 4.4, p = 0.001), and the pelvic view (pre: 3.2, post: 4.5, p < 0.001). After a training session in the use of ultrasound in trauma, health care workers in Cusco, Peru reported increased confidence in their FAST scan ability and in their comfort in using this exam for clinical decision-making. Future research should include objective testing of participants' skill as well as longitudinal follow-up to determine the extent to which the FAST scan has been incorporated into participants' evaluations of trauma

  6. High-skilled labour mobility in Europe before and after the 2004 enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M; Puliga, Michelangelo

    2017-03-01

    The extent to which international high-skilled mobility channels are forming is a question of great importance in an increasingly global knowledge-based economy. One factor facilitating the growth of high-skilled labour markets is the standardization of certifiable degrees meriting international recognition. Within this context, we analysed an extensive high-skilled mobility database comprising roughly 382 000 individuals from five broad profession groups (Medical, Education, Technical, Science & Engineering and Business & Legal) over the period 1997-2014, using the 13-country expansion of the European Union (EU) to provide insight into labour market integration. We compare the periods before and after the 2004 enlargement, showing the emergence of a new east-west migration channel between the 13 mostly eastern EU entrants (E) and the rest of the western European countries (W). Indeed, we observe a net directional loss of human capital from E → W, representing 29% of the total mobility after 2004. Nevertheless, the counter-migration from W → E is 7% of the total mobility over the same period, signalling the emergence of brain circulation within the EU. Our analysis of the country-country mobility networks and the country-profession bipartite networks provides timely quantitative evidence for the convergent integration of the EU, and highlights the central role of the UK and Germany as high-skilled labour hubs. We conclude with two data-driven models to explore the structural dynamics of the mobility networks. First, we develop a reconfiguration model to explore the potential ramifications of Brexit and the degree to which redirection of high-skilled labourers away from the UK may impact the integration of the rest of the European mobility network. Second, we use a panel regression model to explain empirical high-skilled mobility rates in terms of various economic 'push-pull' factors, the results of which show that government expenditure on education, per capita

  7. Functional imaging of parotid glands: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI before and after stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habermann, C.R.; Cramer, M.C.; Gossrau, P.; Adam, G. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Graessner, J. [Siemens AG, Hamburg (Germany). Medical Solutions; Reitmeier, F.; Jaehne, M. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Oto-, Rhino-, Laryngology; Fiehler, J. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Department of Neuroradiology; Schoder, V. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) for measuring different functional conditions of the parotid gland and to compare different measurement approaches. Materials and Methods: Parotid glands of 27 healthy volunteers were examined with a DW EPI sequence (TR 1,500 msec, TE 77 msec, field-of-view 250 x 250 mm, pixel size 2.10 x 1.95 mm, section thickness 5 mm) before and after oral stimulation with commercially available lemon juice. The b factors used were 0, 500, and 1,000 sec/mm{sup 2}. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were digitally transferred to MRIcro (Chris Rorden, University of Nottingham, Great Britain) and evaluated with a manually placed circular region of interest (ROI) containing 100-200 pixel. Additional ROIs including the entire parotid gland were placed on either side. The results of both measurements were compared, using the Student's t test based on the median ADC values for each person. A two-tailed p-value of less than.05 was determined to indicate statistical significance. To compare both measurement approaches, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was calculated. Results: Diffusion-weighted echo-planar MR imaging successfully visualized the parotid gland of all volunteers. In a first step, the median ADC value per person was computed. Using ROIs of 100-200 pixels, the mean was calculated to be 1.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands prior to simulation. After stimulation, the mean ADC was measured at 1.15 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec for both parotid glands. Evaluating the entire parotid gland, the ADC was 1.12 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.08 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec prior to simulation, whereas the ADC increased to 1.18 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec{+-}0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/sec after simulation with lemon juice. For both types of measurements, the increase in ADC after

  8. Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Kharekhasak (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) Before and After Mudabbar Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauheed, Abdullah; Hamiduddin; Khanam, Salma; Ali, Mohd Akhtar; Zaigham, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Mudabbar/ Tadbeere advia is referred to the processes performed on the drugs to detoxify, purify, and enhance therapeutic action and to reduce its doses before making the formulations in Unani medicine. It improves quality of drugs either by optimizing its desirable characteristics or minimizing the undesirable ones; it makes drug effective, safe, and specific. There is a need of comparative evaluation to understand its significance. Tadbeer of Kharekhasak (KK) khurd ( Tribulus terrestris Linn. fruit) is described by Rabban Al-Tabari in Firdausul Hikmat, Akbar Arzani in Qarabadeene Qadri, etc., during the compounding of aphrodisiac formulations. Mudabbar Kharekhasak (MKK) used in Safoofe Kharekhasak mentioned in Al-Qarabadeene was evaluated in this work. Mudabbar/Tadbeer process was carried out by blending fresh KK. Juice with powdered dry KK and drying it under the sun. Juice used for process is thrice the weight of dry KK powder. The KK before and after the process was evaluated using physicochemical tests: powder characterization, extractive value, alcohol and water soluble matter, ash value, loss on drying (LOD) at 105°C, pH, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting, and diosgenin content. Powder characterizations were set in. Increase in successive and nonsuccessive extractive values in various solvents, water/alcohol-soluble content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and sulfated ash of MKK was noted in comparison with KK. Decrease in LOD at 105°C and pH of MKK powder was observed. HPTLC fingerprinting data were developed for the identification and evaluation. Quantification of diosgenin content increased to 432.1 g/g in MKK as compared to 144.5 g/g in KK, suggesting significant increase in saponin content. Data obtained clearly indicated changes in MKK validating the classical Mudabbar process, probably to enhance/modify the action of drug. Standards for crude and MKK were established for future reference. Mudabbar

  9. First experience of brain tumour scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI before and after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiene, N.; Kulakiene, I.; Aleksandrovas, D.; Tamasauskas, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Morphological imaging techniques like computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely used to localize tumours. However, their use for prediction of histopathological diagnosis and tumour changes after treatment is difficult. Functional imaging using positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were introduced as non-invasive methods for the differentiation and evaluation of brain tumours, especially for their follow-up. The purpose of present study was to investigate the uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in case of malignant brain tumours before and after surgery. 25 patients (13 males and 12 females; age range 21-75 years; average age 48.76±17.25 years) with brain tumours were investigated. The histological diagnoses of the tumours were confirmed from surgical specimens. None of the patients had received any treatment before enrolment for the study. 99mTc-MIBI brain SPECT was performed 3.88±2.85 days before surgery and 9.88±2.24 days after surgery in all cases. SPECT scans were acquired in 64 projections over 360 deg. using a dual-head gamma camera (Siemens E.Cam) coupled with low energy collimator, 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 550 MBq 99mTc-MIBI. Data were recorded in a 64x64 matrix at a zoom factor of 1.78. SPECT images were reconstructed and analysed in the transversal, axial and coronal planes. The study results are presented in the table. Of the 25 tumors, only 19, majority glioblastoma (11) showed avid uptake in the pre- surgery scan. Tumors, II0 astrocytoma (1), oligoasrtrocytoma (1), III0 astrocytoma (3) were missed in the pre surgery scan. Comparison of pre- and postoperative images showed the reduction of 99mTc-MIBI uptake post-operatively except in one case of gliosarcoma where the uptake increased after surgery. In one case of III deg. astrocytoma the 99mTc-MIBI uptakes was observed only after the surgery. All post-operative images showed more intensive uptake in the scalp (zone of

  10. Hospitalizations and skilled nursing facility admissions before and after the implementation of a home-based primary care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajnberg, Ania; Wang, Karen H; Aniff, Mohamed; Kunins, Hillary V

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of an urban house calls program (HCP) on healthcare utilization. Retrospective chart review with pre/post analysis. Urban home-based primary care program. All participants (N=179) in a capitated insurance program enrolled in a HCP between October 2004 and August 2006. Enrollment into HCP. Hospitalizations and skilled nursing facility (SNF) admissions before and after enrollment. Patients with at least one hospitalization or SNF admission before and after enrollment were compared using the McNemar test. Median number of hospitalizations and SNF placements before and after HCP enrollment were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test. Sixty-one percent of patients had one or more hospitalizations before enrollment, whereas only 38% had one or more hospitalizations after enrollment (Plife are critical to help homebound older adults remain in their communities.

  11. Evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics by computed tomography perfusion imaging before and after cranioplasty in patients with brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Wang; Lan, Yu; Xiao Ming, Zhou; Zhi Ming, Li; Rui Rui, Zhao; Lei, Niu; Qing Lan, Sui; Hui Jian, Li

    2017-01-01

    To assess the clinical significance of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging by evaluating cerebral hemodynamic changes quantitatively and qualitatively both before and after cranioplasty in patients with brain injury. Sixteen patients with cerebral trauma underwent CTP imaging 2 days before and 10-15 days after cranioplasty. The cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time and time to peak were analysed in both the affected and corresponding contralateral regions, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, cortex and white matter. Quantitative analyses were performed before and after cranioplasty. The CBF in the cortex of the affected side was significantly increased after cranioplasty (p cranioplasty (p cranioplasty. CTP imaging can accurately reflect changes in cerebral hemodynamics before and after cranioplasty in patients with trauma. Cranioplasty can significantly improve CBF in the cortex on the affected side for a short time (10-15 days) to meet the prevailing metabolic demand.

  12. Cytological Study of Breast Carcinoma Before and After Oncotherapy with Special Reference to Morphometry and Proliferative Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koley, Sananda; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pathak, Swapan; Manna, Asim Kumar; Basu, Siddhartha

    2015-12-01

    Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers. Different morphological parameters were compared before and after oncotherapy by unpaired Student's t test. Statistically significant differences were found in morphometric parameters, e.g., mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear area, mean cell diameter, and mean cell area, and in the expression of proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA). Statistical analysis was done by obtaining p values. There are statistically significant differences between morphological parameter of breast carcinoma cells before and after oncotherapy.

  13. Concentrations of cardiac Troponin I before and after ovariohysterectomy in 46 female dogs with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelander, Lena; Hagman, Ragnvi; Häggström, Jens

    2008-09-11

    postoperative cTnI concentrations. Seven dogs (15%) had pre-or postoperative concentrations of cTnI of 1.0 microg/l or higher. Mild to moderate increases in cTnI appears to be common in dogs with pyometra before and after surgery, but the clinical importance of this finding is uncertain. None of the studied clinical variables were found to reliably predict increased preoperative cTnI concentrations. Because of the pre- and postoperative variation in cTnI concentrations, it was not possible to identify a negative effect of anaesthesia and surgery on myocardial cell integrity.

  14. Quality of nursing documentation before and after the Hospital Accreditation in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Aline Tsuma Gaedke; Silva, Marcos Barragan da; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu

    2016-11-21

    to analyze the quality of nursing documentation by comparing the periods before and after the preparation for the hospital accreditation, using the Quality of Nursing Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes - Brazilian version (Q-DIO- Brazilian version). observational study of interventions conducted in a university hospital. Nursing documentation of 112 medical records for the period before and 112 for the period after the hospital accreditation were compared using the Q-DIO instrument - Brazilian version. Data were statistically analyzed. there was a significant improvement in the quality of nursing documentation. When the total score of the instrument was evaluated, a significant improvement was observed in 24 out of the 29 items (82.8%). there was commitment to the shift of culture by means of the interventions carried out, which resulted in the conquest of the quality seal ensured by the Joint Commission International. analisar a qualidade dos registros de enfermagem, comparando o período antes e depois do preparo para a acreditação hospitalar, fazendo uso do Quality of Nursing Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes - Versão brasileira (Q-DIO-Versão brasileira). estudo observacional de intervenções realizado em um hospital universitário. Comparados os registros de enfermagem em 112 prontuários referentes ao período anterior a acreditação hospitalar e 112 ao período posterior, por meio do instrumento Q-DIO - Versão brasileira. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente. houve melhora significativa da qualidade dos registros de enfermagem. Quando avaliado o escore total do instrumento evidenciou melhora significativa em 24 dos 29 itens (82,8%). houve empenho à mudança de cultura por meio das intervenções realizadas, refletida na conquista do selo de qualidade da Joint Commission Internacional. analizar la calidad de los registros de enfermería, comparando los períodos antes y después de la preparación para la acreditación hospitalaria

  15. Disposition of Patients Before and After Establishment of Emergency Medicine Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payman Asadi

    2014-09-01

    hospitalization mean of the patient has remarkably decreased from 1.08±0.44 days to 0.35±0.05 days in 2009-2012 (p=0.021. The occupied bed mean before and after the presence of emergency medicine specialists were 12173±3453 and 6217±219, respectively, showed a descending trend into the past (p=0.018. Conclusion: It seems that presenting of emergency medicine specialists in health system leads to improve the service delivery to patients and decrease the waiting time.  Also with decreasing the waiting time of patients and timely disposition, more prepared beds can be accessible in the ED for future admission.

  16. Diagnosis of Neuropathic Components in Patients with Back Pain Before and After Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y-J; Koch, E M W; Breidebach, J B; Bornemann, R; Wirtz, D C; Pflugmacher, R

    2016-12-01

    Background: The perception of back pain subjective is hard for physicians to measure. For this reason, questionnaires are an important instrument to evaluate the pain 1. The main point of this study was to verify differentiation of pain symptoms in patients with different pain mechanisms. The most important parameter was the PainDetect questionnaire, which can differentiate between nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Additional parameters were measured before and after surgery to characterise pain symptoms in detail. Material and Methods: We selected patients with diagnosed vertebral compression fracture, herniated disc or with spinal cord compression. To characterise the preoperative condition on admittance, we collected the data from the physical examination, as well as clinical data, including X-ray, CT and MRI. To characterise the pain, we used the painDetect questionnaire, the Oswestry Index questionnaire (ODI) and the visual analogue scale (VAS). Depending on the diagnosis, patients were treated by surgery (radiofrequency kyphoplasty, nucleotomy, spondylodesis). At 2 to 3 days and 6 months after surgery, we repeated the questionnaire and compared the results with those before the operation. Data on patient satisfaction and adverse events were also collected. Results: This study included 62 patients with vertebral compression fracture (group 1: VBF, 89 % female, mean age 71 years) and 77 patients with herniated disc or spinal cord compression (group 2: non-VBF, 55 % female, mean age 53 years). There was no difference between both groups in preoperative pain intensity (acute, maximum, average): median ordinal scale 0 to 10; group 1: 6, 8, 7; group 2: 6, 9, 7. The total score in the painDetect questionnaire differed significantly between the two groups (median group 1 = 9, group 2 = 17; effect size r = 0.5; p = 0.000). The existence of neuropathic pain was presumed (> 90 %) in 3 % of the patients in group 1 and in 13 % of patients it

  17. Epidemiology of birth defects, perinatal mortality and thyroid cancer before and after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Scherb, H.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial and temporal trends of birth defects and perinatal mortality in Germany and Europe as well as in least and most contaminated regions have been compared and investigated by trends. In numerous data sets, especially from northern and eastern Europe, positive and significant trend variations with upward 'disturbances' in temporal relation associated with the Chernobyl accident 1986 have been identified and spatial associations with regional fallout have been found. A surprisingly consistent picture evolves of significantly raised stillbirth rates after Chernobyl of ca. 5 % in Poland, ca. 10 % in parts of Germany and Sweden, ca. 20 % in Denmark and Finland, and up to ca. 30% in Iceland and Hungary. Low as compared to higher contaminated regions show weaker or stronger effects, respectively. The additional relative risks for birth defects are in the same order of magnitude as the additional relative risks for stillbirth, namely 0,5%-20 %/kBq·m 2 . Using well-known conversion coefficients, the excess relative risk of 1 %/kBq·m 2 translates theoretically to a preliminary relative risk of 1,6/mSv/a. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma among children affected by Chernobyl fallout has increased dramatically in certain parts of Europe. Less evidence exists for a similar effect among adolescents and adults. The cancer registry of the Czech Republic provides an opportunity to study various determinants of the occurrence of thyroid cancer. After the Chernobyl accident, the thyroid cancer incidence of the Czech Republic reveals an additional annual increase of up to 5% depending on age and gender. The additional increases of thyroid cancer in the whole population of the Czech Republic are consistent with reports from other countries. To investigate trends in the sex distribution of newborns before and after the Chernobyl accident, gender-specific annual birth statistics were obtained from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden

  18. Concentrations of cardiac Troponin I before and after ovariohysterectomy in 46 female dogs with pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman Ragnvi

    2008-09-01

    total, 20 dogs (43% had increased pre- or postoperative cTnI concentrations. Seven dogs (15% had pre-or postoperative concentrations of cTnI of 1.0 μg/l or higher. Conclusion Mild to moderate increases in cTnI appears to be common in dogs with pyometra before and after surgery, but the clinical importance of this finding is uncertain. None of the studied clinical variables were found to reliably predict increased preoperative cTnI concentrations. Because of the pre- and postoperative variation in cTnI concentrations, it was not possible to identify a negative effect of anaesthesia and surgery on myocardial cell integrity.

  19. General quality of l