WorldWideScience

Sample records for beets

  1. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dehydrated beets (beet powder). 73.40 Section 73.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.40 Dehydrated beets (beet powder). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets...

  2. Registration of sugar beet doubled haploid line KDH13 with resistance to beet curly top

    Science.gov (United States)

    KDH13 is a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris) doubled haploid line (PI 663862) released as a genetic stock by USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Beet Sugar Development Foundation, Denver, CO. KDH13 is resistant to beet curly top (BCT) caused by Beet curly top virus which is transmitted by the ...

  3. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets,...

  4. Impact of gene flow from cultivated beet on genetic diversity of wild sea beet populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch; Lehnen; Clegg; Pohl-Orf; Schuphan; Ellstrand

    1999-10-01

    Gene flow and introgression from cultivated plants may have important consequences for the conservation of wild plant populations. Cultivated beets (sugar beet, red beet and Swiss chard: Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because they are cross-compatible with the wild taxon, sea beet (B.vs. ssp. maritima). Cultivated beet seed production areas are sometimes adjacent to sea beet populations; the numbers of flowering individuals in the former typically outnumber those in the populations of the latter. In such situations, gene flow from cultivated beets has the potential to alter the genetic composition of the nearby wild populations. In this study we measured isozyme allele frequencies of 11 polymorphic loci in 26 accessions of cultivated beet, in 20 sea beet accessions growing near a cultivated beet seed production region in northeastern Italy, and 19 wild beet accessions growing far from seed production areas. We found one allele that is specific to sugar beet, relative to other cultivated types, and a second that has a much higher frequency in Swiss chard and red beet than in sugar beet. Both alleles are typically rare in sea beet populations that are distant from seed production areas, but both are common in those that are near the Italian cultivated beet seed production region, supporting the contention that gene flow from the crop to the wild species can be substantial when both grow in proximity. Interestingly, the introgressed populations have higher genetic diversity than those that are isolated from the crop. The crop-to-wild gene flow rates are unknown, as are the fitness consequences of such alleles in the wild. Thus, we are unable to assess the long-term impact of such introgression. However, it is clear that gene flow from a crop to a wild taxon does not necessarily result in a decrease in the genetic diversity of the native plant.

  5. Impact of gene flow from cultivated beet on genetic diversity of wild sea beet populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch; Lehnen; Clegg; Pohl-Orf; Schuphan; Ellstrand

    1999-10-01

    Gene flow and introgression from cultivated plants may have important consequences for the conservation of wild plant populations. Cultivated beets (sugar beet, red beet and Swiss chard: Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) are of particular concern because they are cross-compatible with the wild taxon, sea beet (B.vs. ssp. maritima). Cultivated beet seed production areas are sometimes adjacent to sea beet populations; the numbers of flowering individuals in the former typically outnumber those in the populations of the latter. In such situations, gene flow from cultivated beets has the potential to alter the genetic composition of the nearby wild populations. In this study we measured isozyme allele frequencies of 11 polymorphic loci in 26 accessions of cultivated beet, in 20 sea beet accessions growing near a cultivated beet seed production region in northeastern Italy, and 19 wild beet accessions growing far from seed production areas. We found one allele that is specific to sugar beet, relative to other cultivated types, and a second that has a much higher frequency in Swiss chard and red beet than in sugar beet. Both alleles are typically rare in sea beet populations that are distant from seed production areas, but both are common in those that are near the Italian cultivated beet seed production region, supporting the contention that gene flow from the crop to the wild species can be substantial when both grow in proximity. Interestingly, the introgressed populations have higher genetic diversity than those that are isolated from the crop. The crop-to-wild gene flow rates are unknown, as are the fitness consequences of such alleles in the wild. Thus, we are unable to assess the long-term impact of such introgression. However, it is clear that gene flow from a crop to a wild taxon does not necessarily result in a decrease in the genetic diversity of the native plant. PMID:10583835

  6. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  7. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  8. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

  9. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  10. Whole Genome Sequencing of Sugar Beet and Transcriptional Profiling of Beet Curly Top Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) doubled haploid line (KDH13) has been sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2000 next generation sequencing platform. This line (PI663862) was released by USDA-ARS as a genetic stock resistant to beet curly top. Sequencing of a standard paired end...

  11. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Abe Tatsuya; Horiuchi Kenichi; Kikuchi Hiroto; Aritsuka Tsutomu; Takata Yusuke; Fukushi Eri; Fukushi Yukiharu; Kawabata Jun; Ueno Keiji; Onodera Shuichi; Shiomi Norio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet...

  12. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  13. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment quantity. (b) The allotment for cane sugar will be 45.65 percent of...

  14. Comparison of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA from five morphologically distinct Beta vulgaris cultivars: sugar beet, fodder beet, beet root, foliage beet, and Swiss chard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, W; Michaelis, G

    1990-04-01

    Two cytoplasms, N and S, are used in the breeding of sugar beet, Beta vulgaris var. altissima. These cytoplasms can be distinguished by their mitochondrial DNA. In an attempt to detect new cytoplasms, we compared the restriction profiles of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA from five different cultivars of Beta vulgaris. All restriction patterns of chloroplast DNA were identical. With the exception of sugar beet with S-cytoplasm, all cultivars studied showed the same restriction profile of mitochondrial DNA, indicating that these cultivars all contain the N-cytoplasm. These results are discussed with regard to the large morphological differences of the cultivars and the cytoplasmic variability found in natural populations of the wild beet, Beta maritima.

  15. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  16. The anaerobic digestion of sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini, Sri

    2014-01-01

    World-wide there are substantial quantities of sugar beet pulp, which arises as a residue after the processing of whole beet to extract sugar for refining as a foodstuff or for use in fermentation, in particular for the production of ethanol for the biofuel market. In both cases the resulting pulp residue is still rich in pentose sugars and fibre, and the research considered anaerobic digestion (AD) as a potential technology for the conversion of this material into renewable energy in the for...

  17. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  18. Effect of γ-rays on tissue culture growth and beet mosaic content of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callus tissue of sugar beet containing beet mosaic virus was exposed to 3-27 Gy γ-rays 15 days following transplantation to a fresh nutrient medium. The virus was accumulated in irradiated callus tissue more readily than in the control: the accumulation increased with the dose increase. The virus titration was increased and the tissue growth inhibited by the effect of γ-rays

  19. Molecular and Morpho-Physiological Characterization of Sea, Ruderal and Cultivated Beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta vulgaris genetic resources are essential for broadening genetic base of sugar beet and developing cultivars adapted to adverse environmental conditions. Wild beets (sea beets, B. vulgaris spp. maritima and their naturalized introgressions with cultivated beets known as ruderal beets) harbor su...

  20. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  1. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium analysis in elite sugar beet breeding lines and wild beet accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, Ibraheem; Willems, Glenda; Tschoep, Hendrik; Bürkholz, Alexandra; Barnes, Steve; Boer, Martin; Malosetti, Marcos; Horemans, Stefaan; van Eeuwijk, Fred

    2014-03-01

    Linkage disequilibrium decay in sugar beet is strongly affected by the breeding history, and varies extensively between and along chromosomes, allowing identification of known and unknown signatures of selection. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns were investigated in 233 elite sugar beet breeding lines and 91 wild beet accessions, using 454 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 418 SNPs, respectively. Principal coordinate analysis suggested the existence of three groups of germplasm, corresponding to the wild beets, the seed parent and the pollen parent breeding pool. LD was investigated in each of these groups, with and without correction for genetic relatedness. Without correction for genetic relatedness, in the pollen as well as the seed parent pool, LD persisted beyond 50 centiMorgan (cM) on four (2, 3, 4 and 5) and three chromosomes (2, 4 and 6), respectively; after correction for genetic relatedness, LD decayed after wild beet accessions, there was a strong LD decay: on average LD disappeared after 1 cM when LD was calculated with a correction for genetic relatedness. Persistence of LD was not only observed between distant SNPs on the same chromosome, but also between SNPs on different chromosomes. Regions on chromosomes 3 and 4 that harbor disease resistance and monogermy loci showed strong genetic differentiation between the pollen and seed parent pools. Other regions, on chromosomes 8 and 9, for which no a priori information was available with respect to their contribution to the phenotype, still contributed to clustering of lines in the elite breeding material.

  2. Bioenergy productivity of sugar beet irrigated with reclaimed wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquale Campi; Alejandra Navarro; A. Domenico Palumbo; Marcello Mastrangelo; Antonio Lonigro; Marcello Mastrorilli

    2015-01-01

    The use of treated wastewater to irrigate the sugar beet (Beta Vulgaris L. var. saccharifera) for bioethanol could play a strategic role to contrast the use of natural water resources and increase the productivity of the crop. The 2-year experiment (2013-2014) was performed on sugar beet irrigated with fresh water and wastewater at different steps of the reclamation process (secondary and tertiary treatments). The data obtained showed that the root sugar beet yield and ethanol production unde...

  3. Hydrogenolysis of sugar beet fiber by supported metal catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Guha, Samar K.; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Hara, Kenji; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet fiber is an agricultural by-product in the sugar manufacturing and an available biomass source with a rich hemicellulose component. So far, there has been no report on the catalytic conversion of the beet fiber for the synthesis of chemicals. In this work, the hydrogenolysis of the beet fiber was studied by using supported metal catalysts under pressurized hydrogen conditions. Activated carbon supported Ru was found to show the highest catalytic activity to give arabitol as a major...

  4. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  5. Biosynthetic origin of geosmin in red beets (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guiping; Edwards, Charles G; Fellman, John K; Mattinson, D Scott; Navazio, John

    2003-02-12

    Geosmin provides the characteristic but sometimes undesirable "earthy" flavor to red table beets. To date, it is not known whether geosmin is a byproduct of beet metabolism or synthesized by soil-borne microorganisms and taken up by the beets during maturation. Analysis of mature beet roots revealed that peels contained 6 times the amount of geosmin compared to the bodies and cores. Sterilized beet seeds were aseptically grown in a basal medium prior to analysis for the presence of geosmin. Using a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSPME) method, the relative recovery of geosmin from beet seedling extracts was 72.0 +/- 4.2% with (-)-menthone as the internal standard. The presence of geosmin in aseptically grown beet seedlings was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using authentic geosmin as the standard. During aseptic growth, the concentration of geosmin in seedlings remained constant for up to 5 months but increased at 6 months. Geosmin added to the growth medium was not absorbed by the seedlings. These studies support the conclusion that red beets are capable of endogenous synthesis of geosmin.

  6. Enzymatic modification of pectic polysaccharides obtained from sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonans and arabinans, purified from an autoclave extract of sugar beet pulp, as well as an acid extracted beet pectin (ABP) were treated with enzymes in order to modify their physico-chemical properties. The enzymes used were arabinofuranosidase B (AF), endo-arabinanase plus arabinofura

  7. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates in the pl

  8. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  9. Estimating genetic variation in sugar beets and wild beets using pools of individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, T; Säll, T; Fridlund, B; Hjerdin, A; Tuvesson, S; Halldén, C

    1997-08-01

    The study describes the genetic structure in sugar beets and in wild beets (Beta vulgaris) using 30 RFLP markers. Samples consisting of pooled plant material of 100 individuals from each line and population were used to analyse 120 sugar beet breeding lines and 91 wild beet populations. Greater variation was found among the wild populations than among the breeding lines. Although the two major groups of breeding lines, monogerm and multigerm, had approximately equal amounts of genetic variation, in the monogerm group more of this variation was partitioned among the lines than within the lines. Furthermore, despite most of the variation being shared by the two groups, the two groups were found to be separated along the first two components in a principal component analysis. Computer simulations were carried out to evaluate the usefulness of the pooled-sample strategy employed in the investigation. These simulations showed the use of pooled samples to be a better alternative than that of analysing a few plants individually.

  10. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium analysis in elite sugar beet breeding lines and wild beet accessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adetunji, I.; Willems, G.; Tschoep, H.; Bürkholz, A.; Barnes, S.; Boer, M.P.; Malosetti, M.; Horemans, S.; Eeuwijk, van F.

    2014-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium decay in sugar beet is strongly affected by the breeding history, and varies extensively between and along chromosomes, allowing identification of known and unknown signatures of selection. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns were investigated in 233 eli

  11. Advances in development of transgenic resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagl Nevena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragments of viral cDNA containing the coat protein gene of beet necrotic yellow vein virus were cloned in plant transformation vector pCAMBIA3301M with the bar gene as selectable marker. Vector pC3301MCPL carrying coat protein gene with leader sequence, and pC3301MCPS with coat protein gene, were used in Agrobacterium - mediated transformation of sugar beet. The transformation method used was based on the fact that sugar beet develops axillary shoots in in vitro conditions, when placed on media with citokinins. Since this ability is not genotype or ploidy dependant it is widely used for sugar beet vegetative multiplication. Sterile seedlings, with removed cotyledons and lower half of hypocotyl, were used as starting material. After transformation ex-plants were put on micropropagation medium with cephotaxime and phosphinotricyn (ppt, where axillary shoots started to develop. Since concentration of ppt was not selective enough, after two subcultivations it was increased twofold. Only one sample, transformed with pC3301MCPS preserved morphogenetic potential for micropropagatio, and it was tested for presence of COS fragment and bar gene bz PCR with soecific primers.

  12. "We Were Beet Workers, and that Was All": Beet Field Laborers in the North Platte Valley, 1902-1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of the men, women, and children who labored in the beet fields of the North Platte Valley changed significantly as the sugar beet industry went through a period of rapid expansion prior to 1920 and then reached a relatively stable plateau. During the period of expansion, laborers were attracted by promises of reasonable wages, good…

  13. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium analysis in elite sugar beet breeding lines and wild beet accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, Ibraheem; Willems, Glenda; Tschoep, Hendrik; Bürkholz, Alexandra; Barnes, Steve; Boer, Martin; Malosetti, Marcos; Horemans, Stefaan; van Eeuwijk, Fred

    2014-03-01

    Linkage disequilibrium decay in sugar beet is strongly affected by the breeding history, and varies extensively between and along chromosomes, allowing identification of known and unknown signatures of selection. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns were investigated in 233 elite sugar beet breeding lines and 91 wild beet accessions, using 454 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 418 SNPs, respectively. Principal coordinate analysis suggested the existence of three groups of germplasm, corresponding to the wild beets, the seed parent and the pollen parent breeding pool. LD was investigated in each of these groups, with and without correction for genetic relatedness. Without correction for genetic relatedness, in the pollen as well as the seed parent pool, LD persisted beyond 50 centiMorgan (cM) on four (2, 3, 4 and 5) and three chromosomes (2, 4 and 6), respectively; after correction for genetic relatedness, LD decayed after wild beet accessions, there was a strong LD decay: on average LD disappeared after 1 cM when LD was calculated with a correction for genetic relatedness. Persistence of LD was not only observed between distant SNPs on the same chromosome, but also between SNPs on different chromosomes. Regions on chromosomes 3 and 4 that harbor disease resistance and monogermy loci showed strong genetic differentiation between the pollen and seed parent pools. Other regions, on chromosomes 8 and 9, for which no a priori information was available with respect to their contribution to the phenotype, still contributed to clustering of lines in the elite breeding material. PMID:24292512

  14. Low level of gene flow from cultivated beets (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) into Danish populations of sea beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. maritima (L.) Arcangeli)

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, N.S.; Siegismund, H.R.; Meyer, V.; Jørgensen, R. B.

    2005-01-01

    Gene flow from sugar beets to sea beets occurs in the seed propagation areas in southern Europe. Some seed propagation also takes place in Denmark, but here the crop–wild gene flow has not been investigated. Hence, we studied gene flow to sea beet populations from sugar beet lines used in Danish seed propagation areas. A set of 12 Danish, two Swedish, one French, one Italian, one Dutch, and one Irish populations of sea beets, and four lines of sugar beet were analysed. To evaluate the genetic...

  15. Study of sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Rysanek Pavel; Homa Ihmed; Zouhar Miloslav

    2006-01-01

    Sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae are very widespread in the Czech Republic. Beet soil-borne virus (BSBV) is present in almost all fields used for sugar beet growing, beet virus Q (BVQ) is present in about 50% of fields but beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is present in some limited regions only. It means that mixed infections of sugar beet by at least two viruses are quite common in the field. P. betae also occurs in almost all fields where sugar beet is now grown. Only...

  16. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin eZachow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 47.4% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8% than for sugar beet (≤57.5%. Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  17. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  18. [Rapid determination of beet sugar content using near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Ren, Jian; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Zhao, Li-Ying; Li, Mao-Mao

    2014-10-01

    In order to classify and set different prices on basis of difference of beet sugar content in the acquisition process and promote the development of beet sugar industry healthily, a fast, nondestructive, accurate method to detect sugar content of beet was determined by applying near infrared spectroscopy technology. Eight hundred twenty samples from 28 representative varieties of beet were collected as calibration set and 70 samples were chosen as prediction set. Then near infrared spectra of calibration set samples were collected by scanning, effective information was extracted from NIR spectroscopy, and the original spectroscopy data was optimized by data preprocessing methods appropriately. Then partial least square(PLS)regression was used to establish beet sugar quantitative prediction mathematical model. The performances of the models were evaluated by the root mean square of cross-validation (RMSECV), the coefficient of determination (R2) of the calibration model and the standard error of prediction (SEP), and the predicted results of these models were compared. Results show that the established mathematical model by using first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate transformation (SNV) coupled with partial least squares has good predictive ability. The R2 of calibration models of sugar content of beet is 0.908 3, and the RMSECV is 0.376 7. Using this model to forecast the prediction set including 70 samples, the correlation coefficient is 0.921 4 between predicted values and measured values, and the standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.439, without significant difference (p > 0.05) between predicted values and measured values. These results demonstrated that NIRS can take advantage of simple, rapid, nondestructive and environmental detection method and could be applied to predict beet sugar content. This model owned high accuracy and can meet the precision need of determination of beet sugar content. This detection method could be used to classify

  19. The Assessment of Red Beet as a Natural Colorant, and Evaluation of Quality Properties of Emulsified Pork Sausage Containing Red Beet Powder during Cold Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Moon, Sung-Sil; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Gap-Don

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess red beet as a natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage and to investigate the effect of red beet on quality characteristics of emulsified pork sausage during 20 d of cold storage. Red beet was prepared as a powder and a substitute with sodium nitrite at 0.5% and 1.0% levels in emulsified pork sausage. Red beet significantly increased the moisture content and pH (p

  20. A complete physical map of a wild beet (Beta procumbens) translocation in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Daniela; Cai, Daguang; Kleine, Michael; Fan, Longjiang; Wang, Sheng; Jung, Christian

    2006-05-01

    Two sugar beet lines carry homologous translocations of the wild beet Beta procumbens. Long-range restriction mapping with rare cutting enzymes revealed that both translocations are different in size, however, an overlapping region of about 350 kb could be identified. Both lines are resistant to the beet cyst nematode but only TR520 carries the previously cloned resistance gene Hs1pro-1. Hence, a second gene for nematode resistance (Hs1-1) must be located within this region. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from line TR520. The library was screened with a number of B. procumbens specific probes and 61 BAC clones were identified. Five BAC clones formed a minimal tiling path of 580 kb to cover the overlapping region between both translocations including the translocation breakpoint. The five BACs from the overlapping region and one additional BAC distal from that contig were sequenced. The total sequence length from the five BACs of the overlapping region amounted to 524 kb which is 74.35% of the total insert size of these BACs. The frequency of retrotransposon sequences ranged between 14.7 and 43.3%. A total of 133 ORFs were identified, none of these showed similarity to known disease resistance genes. Of these, 12 ORFs showed homology to genes involved in biotic stress resistance reactions or to transcription factors. This paper demonstrates how genome specific probes can be employed for cloning an alien gene introgression into a cultivated species.

  1. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

  2. PRICE VARIABILITY AND FINANCIAL RISK FOR SUGAR BEET GROWERS

    OpenAIRE

    Nganje, William E.; Stoltman, Gwen

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a portfolio framework to characterize and analyze the impact of price risk faced by sugar beet growers in the Red River Valley and derives implications for capital markets. Other sources of risk incorporated in the analysis are yields and production cost. Results from stochastic simulation analysis reveal that sugar beet growers incur significant price and financial risk. The hypothesis that the loan rate for sugar truncates the distribution of net returns and protects gro...

  3. Conventional coefficient of elasticity for sugar beet roots

    OpenAIRE

    M. Brzowska-Bakalarz

    1998-01-01

    One of the more important mechanical characteristics of sugar beet roots is the conventional coefficient of elasticity. It is a modulus describing elasticity a basic parameter classifying quality of raw material that is strictly connected with the tissue turgor. A static experiment on compression was carried out using Instron testers on a range of sugar beet varieties grown with differentiated doses and types of nitrogen fertilizers, and tested in differentiated periods. The present studies w...

  4. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic diversity in weed beet and sugar beet accessions compared to wild relatives: new insights into the genetic relationships within the Beta vulgaris complex species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénart, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jean-François; De Cauwer, Isabelle; Cuguen, Joël

    2008-05-01

    Hybridization between cultivated species and their wild relatives is now widely considered to be common. In the Beta vulgaris complex, the sugar beet seed multiplication areas have been the scene of inadvertent pollination of sugar beet seed bearers by wild ruderal pollen donors, generating a weedy form of beet which infests sugar beet fields in European countries. Up to now, investigations of evolutionary dynamics of genetic diversity within the B. vulgaris complex were addressed using few genetical markers and few accessions. In this study, we tackled this issue using a panel of complementary markers: five nuclear microsatellite loci, four mitochondrial minisatellite loci and one chloroplastic PCR-RFLP marker. We sampled 1,640 individuals that illustrate the actual distribution of inland ruderal beets of South Western France, weed beets and wild sea beets of northern France as well as the diversity of 35 contemporary European diploid cultivars. Nuclear genetic diversity in weed beets appeared to be as high as those of ruderal beets and sea beets, whereas the narrowness of cultivar accessions was confirmed. This genetic bottleneck in cultivars is even more important in the cytoplasmic genome as only one haplotype was found among all sugar beet cultivars. The large majority of weed beet populations also presented this unique cytoplasmic haplotype, as expected owing to their maternal cultivated origin. Nonetheless, various cytoplasmic haplotypes were found within three populations of weed beets, implying wild-to-weed seed flows. Finally, our findings gave new insights into the genetical relationships between the components of the B. vulgaris complex: (1) we found a very strong genetic divergence between wild sea beet and other relatives, which was unexpected given the recent evolutionary history and the full cross-compatibility of all taxa and (2) we definitely confirmed that the classification into cultivated, wild, ruderal and weed forms according to their

  5. Investigation of the Insecticide Seed Dressing on the Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Igrc Barčić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of three year trials with various sugar beet seed treatments on the most important sugar beet pests, wireworms, flea beetles, sugar beet weevil and aphids are presented. The task of the investigation was to establish whether or not the sugar beet seed should be treated with insecticides and when granulars should be applied. In threeyear investigations 6 trials on different localities were carried out. Gaucho 70WS, Montur 190 FS, Geocid ST 35, Carbofuran 500 FS and a combination of Geocid ST 35 and Geocid G-5 were applied. The results showed that the imidacloprid seed treatment was satisfactory efficient on wireworms ensuring 20-42% more plants than on untreated plots. The efficacy of all treatments on the flea beetles was sufficient: Gaucho 70 WS 63-70%, the combined carbofuran treatment 65-67%, Geocid ST 35 54-55% and Montur 190 FS 52-55%. Therefore on imidacloprid and carbofuran treated crops the foliar treatment against flea beetles is mostly unnecassary. Insecticides based on imidacloprid showed a very good efficacy on aphids until 64 days after the sowing time with a somewhat longer residual action than the standard carbofuran treatments. All investigated insecticides were not satisfactorily efficient against sugar beet weevil. The seed dressing with a systemic insecticide is a justified measure. But, if the attack of wirevorms is strong or if a positive sugar beet weevil forecast is present, granulars shoud be applied additionaly.

  6. Inventory of beet cyst nematode on sugar beet farms of three machine rings in Finland 2004-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Eronen, Liisa

    2008-01-01

    The effect of harvester ring in the spreading of beet cyst nematodes was studied during the growing season 2004 to 2006. Three rings, three farms per ring and three fields per farm were taken to inventory.

  7. Environmental implications of gene flow from sugar beet to wild beet--current status and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Detlef; Cuguen, Joel; Biancardi, Enrico; Sweet, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Gene flow via seed or pollen is a basic biological process in plant evolution. The ecological and genetic consequences of gene flow depend on the amount and direction of gene flow as well as on the fitness of hybrids. The assessment of potential risks of transgenic plants should take into account the fact that conventional crops can often cross with wild plants. The precautionary approach in risk management of genetically modified plants (GMPs) may make it necessary to monitor significant wild and weed populations that might be affected by transgene escape. Gene flow is hard to control in wind-pollinated plants like beet (Beta vulgaris). In addition, wild beet populations potentially can undergo evolutionary changes which might expand their geographical distribution. Unintended products of cultivated beets pollinated by wild beets are weed beets that bolt and flower during their first year of planting. Weed beets cause yield losses and can delay harvest. Wild beets are important plant genetic resources and the preservation of wild beet diversity in Europe has been considered in biosafety research. We present here the methodology and research approaches that can be used for monitoring the geographical distribution and diversity of Beta populations. It has recently been shown that a century of gene flow from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris has not altered the genetic diversity of wild Beta vulgaris L. ssp. maritima (L.) Arcang. in the Italian sugar beet seed production area. Future research should focus on the potential evolution of transgenic wild beet populations in comparison to these baseline data. Two monitoring models are presented describing how endpoints can be measured: (1) "Pre-post" crop commercialization against today's baseline and (2) "Parallel" to crop commercialization against GMP free reference areas/ populations. Model 2 has the advantage of taking ongoing changes in genetic diversity and population dynamics into account. Model 1 is more applicable if

  8. The Assessment of Red Beet as a Natural Colorant, and Evaluation of Quality Properties of Emulsified Pork Sausage Containing Red Beet Powder during Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Moon, Sung-Sil; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Gap-Don

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess red beet as a natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage and to investigate the effect of red beet on quality characteristics of emulsified pork sausage during 20 d of cold storage. Red beet was prepared as a powder and a substitute with sodium nitrite at 0.5% and 1.0% levels in emulsified pork sausage. Red beet significantly increased the moisture content and pH (pred beet powder (pred beet treatments slightly increased during 20 d of cold storage at 4℃ (pRedness dramatically increased with red beet powder (pred beet addition (pred beet powder (p>0.05). Texture and 2-thiobabituric acid reactive substance were also not affected by red beet addition (p>0.05). Therefore, red beet could be a good natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage but it needs additional processing, such as betalain concentration and extraction as a juice, to be used as an antioxidant in meat products. PMID:26761285

  9. The Assessment of Red Beet as a Natural Colorant, and Evaluation of Quality Properties of Emulsified Pork Sausage Containing Red Beet Powder during Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Moon, Sung-Sil; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Gap-Don

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess red beet as a natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage and to investigate the effect of red beet on quality characteristics of emulsified pork sausage during 20 d of cold storage. Red beet was prepared as a powder and a substitute with sodium nitrite at 0.5% and 1.0% levels in emulsified pork sausage. Red beet significantly increased the moisture content and pH (psausage decreased by the addition of red beet powder (p0.05). Texture and 2-thiobabituric acid reactive substance were also not affected by red beet addition (p>0.05). Therefore, red beet could be a good natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage but it needs additional processing, such as betalain concentration and extraction as a juice, to be used as an antioxidant in meat products.

  10. Molecular characterization of the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) resistance locus Hs1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.

    1995-01-01

    The white beet cyst nematode (BCN), Heterodera schachtii Schm. is a serious pest in sugar beet ( B. vulgaris L.) cultivation and is widely distributed throughout most of the beet-growing areas in the world (Cooke 1987). The economical losses due to infestation with the nematode are considerable (app

  11. Ft. Collins sugar beet germplasm evaluated for rhizomania and storage rot resistance in Idaho, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty-seven sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program and four check cultivars were screened for resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the causal agent of rhizomania, and storage rot. The rhizomania evaluation was conducted at the USDA-ARS...

  12. USDA-ARS Ft. Collins germplasm screened for resistance to Beet curly top, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasm lines produced by the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program and two commercial check cultivars [SV2012RR (susceptible) and HM PM90 (resistant)] were screened for resistance to Beet curly top virus (BCTV). The curly top evaluation was conducted at the ...

  13. Major genes for resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) in Beta vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Olga E.; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Keizer, L.C. Paul; Bock, Theo S.M. de; Lange, Wouter

    1996-01-01

    Inheritance of resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) was studied in segregating F2 and backcross families obtained from crosses between resistant plants of the sugar beet selection Holly-1-4 or the wild beet accession Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima WB42 and susceptible parents. Greenh

  14. Ft. Collins Sugar Beet Germplasm Evaluated for Resistance to Rhizomania and Storability in Idaho, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet germplasm and commercial check cultivars were evaluated in a sprinkler-irrigated sugar beet field near Kimberly, ID where sugar beet was grown in 2009. The field trial relied on natural inoculum for rhizomania development. The seed was treated with clothianidin (2.1 oz a.i. per 100,000 ...

  15. Reduction of soil tare by improved uprooting of sugar beet : a soil dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.

    2001-01-01

    The relative amount of soil in sugar beet lots, called soil tare, should be reduced to curtail the cost and negative aspects of soil tare. Highest soil tare occurs in beet lots harvested out of wet clay soil. The main problem is that commonly-used share lifters press the soil against the beet. There

  16. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    in standard gels. Protein reduced the hardness, stiffness and chewiness of the gels whereas there were some variation in the effect of protein on the adhesiveness of the gels. Sugar beet pectin in black currant juice formed a gel and a gelation also took place in milk. In luncheon meat a cohesive gel......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  17. Beet cultivation with saline effluent from fish farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welson L. Simões

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of salts along the soil profile, the biometric parameters and the yield of beet cultivars under different leaching fractions using saline effluent from fish farming, under the conditions of the Sub-middle São Francisco Valley. An experiment was conducted at the Caatinga Experimental Field of the Embrapa Semi-Arid, in 2013. The treatments were arranged in split plots composed of four leaching fractions (0, 5, 10 and 15% in the plots, with saline effluent from fish farming, and three table beet cultivars in the subplots: Scarlet Super, Early Wonder 200 and Fortuna. The analysed parameters were: salt distribution along the soil profile, number of leaves, length and width of leaves and petioles, total and commercial yields. The application of leaching fractions of 10 and 15% promoted better salt distribution along the soil profile. The beet cultivar Fortuna showed the highest commercial yield for a lower leaching fraction.

  18. Sugar Beet Performance Affected by Uniformity of N Fertigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nouri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In common with the majority of crop species, in sugar beet nutrition nitrogen is an important element due to its role in sucrose utilization and plant growth. Application of precision agriculture, in order to apply the right amount of input at the right time in the right area, is appropriate to decrease chemical use and increase plant growth. Problem statement: More often farmers apply fertilizers with low efficiency, low uniformity and high price such as spinner spreader, boom spreader or application with planting machines simultaneously. Fertigation can reduce labor cost and may improve uniformity, effectiveness and timeliness of application. Approach: The main objective of this study was to determine spatial variability of sugar beet performance affected by urea fertigation as well as established a management strategy based on spatial variability of tubers and soil total N. This study was conducted in Fesaran village, Isfahan Province of Iran and limited to sugar beet (monogerm seed. Urea applied through sprinklers. Soil samples were taken to determine soil total N as well as sugar beet tubers samples to specify yield. Results of soil and crop analysis were used to produce spatial variability maps through GS+ and ArcGIS 9.2 software. Semivariogram results were used to perform an ordinary kriging to obtain interpolated values of selected variables from the sample points through and across the study area. Results: It was found that there was a low spatial variability of soil total N and yield which indicates that the soil has a homogenous total N as well as homogenous yield through and across the field. Yield variability map of sugar beet properties demonstrated that the higher yield was seen in the southern part of the study area where laterals were closer to pump. Conclusion: The results of urea fertigation through sprinklers showed pipeline layout and pump station position impact on variability of sugar beet properties.

  19. Eficiency and wastewater used as fertilizer on sugar beet crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Some researchs about wastewater treatment have been show efficiency on DQO removal, however Nitrogen and Phosphorus removal are smaller than other nutrients. The use of wastewater as nutrient source can be interesting due high nutrients amount. This trial was carried out on Suggar beet plants at Horticulture Department of Centro Regional Universitário de Espírito Santo do Pinhal – UNIPINHAL, by using wastewater associated or no with fertilizer at different rates comparing with normal water. The results obtained showed that wastewater has higher amount of nutrients than normal water and increased the sugar beet root weight when associated or no with fertilizer NPK.

  20. Low level of gene flow from cultivated beets (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) into Danish populations of sea beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. maritima (L.) Arcangeli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, N S; Siegismund, H R; Meyer, V; Jørgensen, R B

    2005-04-01

    Gene flow from sugar beets to sea beets occurs in the seed propagation areas in southern Europe. Some seed propagation also takes place in Denmark, but here the crop-wild gene flow has not been investigated. Hence, we studied gene flow to sea beet populations from sugar beet lines used in Danish seed propagation areas. A set of 12 Danish, two Swedish, one French, one Italian, one Dutch, and one Irish populations of sea beets, and four lines of sugar beet were analysed. To evaluate the genetic variation and gene flow, eight microsatellite loci were screened. This analysis revealed hybridization with cultivated beet in one of the sea beet populations from the centre of the Danish seed propagation area. Triploid hybrids found in this population were verified with flow cytometry. Possible hybrids or introgressed plants were also found in the French and Italian populations. However, individual assignment test using a Bayesian method provided 100% assignment success of diploid individuals into their correct subspecies of origin, and a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MC MC) approach revealed clear distinction of individuals into groups according to their subspecies of origin, with a zero level of genetic admixture among subspecies. This underlines that introgression beyond the first hybridization is not extensive. The overall pattern of genetic distance and structure showed that Danish and Swedish sea beet populations were closely related to each other, and they are both more closely related to the population from Ireland than to the populations from France, the Netherlands, and Italy.

  1. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  2. Inhibition of beet molasses alcoholic fermentation by lactobacilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essia Ngang, J.J.; Letourneau, F.; Wolniewicz, E.; Villa, P. (Amiens Univ., 80 (France). Lab. de Chimie Organique et Cinetique)

    1990-08-01

    Alcohol production rate decreases as the concentration of bacterial contaminants increases. In complex medium, such as beet molasses, an alternative mechanism can be used by homofermentative lactic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei). Lactic acid and associated products, especially acetic acid, are liberated into the medium. The inhibition induced by these metabolites was reinforced by the presence of viable lactobacilli. (orig.).

  3. Structural confirmation of novel oligosaccharides isolated from sugar beet molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Takata, Yusuke; Fukushi, Eri; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kawabata, Jun; Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio

    2016-07-01

    Eleven oligosaccharides were isolated from sugar beet molasses using carbon-Celite column chromatography and HPLC. The constituent sugars and linkage positions were determined using methylation analysis, MALDI-TOF-MS, and NMR measurements. The configurations of isolated oligosaccharides were confirmed based on detailed NMR analysis. Based on our results, three of the 11 oligosaccharides were novel. PMID:26920296

  4. Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark and photofermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgür, E.; Mars, A.E.; Peksel, B.; Louwerse, A.; Yücel, M.; Gündüz, U.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Eroglu, I.

    2010-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production using renewable resources is a promising possibility to generate hydrogen in a sustainable way. In this study, a sequential dark and photofermentation has been employed for biohydrogen production using sugar beet molasses as a feedstock. An extreme thermophile Caldicel

  5. Study of sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rysanek Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae are very widespread in the Czech Republic. Beet soil-borne virus (BSBV is present in almost all fields used for sugar beet growing, beet virus Q (BVQ is present in about 50% of fields but beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV is present in some limited regions only. It means that mixed infections of sugar beet by at least two viruses are quite common in the field. P. betae also occurs in almost all fields where sugar beet is now grown. Only two populations of P. betae not transmitting any virus were found. Cystosori of P. betae can harbour viruses without loosing infectivity for a very long time. We were able to detect these viruses in plants grown in soil stored dry for 12 years. BNYVV can cause serious yield losses under mideuropean conditions reaching up to 50% of sugar yield, whereas harmfulness BSBV and BVQ is questionable, because they also occur in fields with no problems concerning sugar beet growing. The host range of these viruses was studied. Both infect all types of beet (sugar fodder, red beet, mangold and spinach and usually are detectable in root system only. Other chenopodiaceous plants are infected only by some virus strains. These strains are also able to spread into above-ground parts of plants.

  6. Biogas production from beta beets dependent on the type; Art- und sortenabhaengige Biogasproduktion aus Beta-Rueben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, Robert [Hochschule Wismar, Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Business and Design; Stollberg, Christian; Gerath, Horst; Kanswohl, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    Fodder and sugar beet silage as mono-substrate has been studied for their fermentation behaviour in semi-continuous biogas tests according to VDI guideline 4630. Especially the methane formation potential and the maximum loading rate of different beet varieties are in the focus of investigations. It has been shown that sugar beet silage can be used with a lower loading rate in the biogas digester as fodder beet silage. Here, the methane yields of sugar beet silages tend to be higher than the methane yields of the investigated fodder beet silage. The methane yields of the individual beet silage are not depending on the dry matter content of the investigated beets. In the co-fermentation of corn silage and beet silage, the proportion of beet silage at the dry matter content of the feed is crucial for a stable fermentation process. Furthermore sugar beet silage has economic advantages compared to silage from fodder beets due to a higher methane production potential. The deployment costs of sugar beet silage are significantly depending on the variety and choice of silage method and lie at the level of corn silage. In case of a digestion of the beet variety Mosaik as silage the deployment might be underneath the deployment costs of corn silage. (orig.)

  7. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-ancestor of all beet crops-and modern sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  8. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-ancestor of all beet crops-and modern sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

  9. Foam formation in biogas plants caused by anaerobic digestion of sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Lucie; Lehnig, Marcus; Schenk, Joachim; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The use of sugar beet in anaerobic digestion (AD) during biogas production can lead to process upsets such as excessive foaming in fermenters. In the present study, foam formation in sugar beet-fed digestates was studied in foaming tests. The increasing disintegration grade of sugar beet was observed to have a promoting effect on foaming in the digestate but did not affect the biogas yield. Chemical analysis of foam and digestate from sugar beet silage AD showed high concentrations of pectin, other carbohydrates and N-containing substances in the foam. Both pectin and sucrose showed little foaming in AD. Nevertheless, sucrose and calcium chloride had a promoting effect on foaming for pectin AD. Salts of divalent ions also enhanced the foam intensity in the case of sugar beet silage AD, whereas ammonium chloride and urea had a lessening effect on sugar beet-based foaming. PMID:25446785

  10. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

    OpenAIRE

    Gorash E. Y.; Victorova E. P.; Kupin G. A.; Aleshin V. N.; Lisovoy V. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose), possessing antit...

  11. Photoacoustic and optothermal studies of tomato ketchup adulterated by the red beet (Beta vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, D.; Westra, E.; Seters, J.; van Houten, S.; Huberts, D.; Colić-Barić, I.; Cozijnsen, J.; Boshoven, H.

    2005-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy and optothermal window (OW) technique were used to explore their potential to detect red beet added as a colorant to tomato ketchup. The associated changes of colour resulting in the changes of absorbance (and hence of PA and OT signals) were monitored in the 500 nm region corresponding to the absorption maximum of lycopene. Both methods were shown capable of quantifying about 1% of red beet (by mass) in the mixture of ketchup and red beet.

  12. Innovation in the area of power beets; Innovation im Bereich der Energierueben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felde, Andreas von [KWS Saat AG, Einbeck (Germany); Schaffner, Sebastian; Jeche, Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    The beet is no longer a newcomer among the biogas substrates. Many operators of biogas plants have recognized the benefits of the beet and exploit the positive properties of the sweet dry mass for the fermentation and for the design of the raw material concept. Meanwhile, the manifold procedures of processing and storage can be standardized more and more. In the past four years, the technology of treatment of sugar beets as a biogas substrate has developed enormously. The way of the sugar beet into the fermenter levels off itself.

  13. Transgenic sugar beet tolerant to imidazolinone obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishchenko, E M; Komarnitskii, I K; Kuchuk, N V

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet is highly sensitive to imidazolinone herbicides thus rotational restrictions exist. In order to develop imidazolinone tolerant sugar beets als gene from Arabidopsis thaliana encoding acetolactate synthase with S653N mutation was used for genetic transformation. Transgenic sugar beet plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of aseptic seedlings using vacuum-infiltration. The efficiency of genetic transformation was 5.8%. RT-PCR analysis of obtained plants revealed accumulation of specific als transcript. The resistance to imidazolinone was proved for developed transgenic sugar beet plants in vitro and in greenhouse conditions after spraying with imazethapyr (Pursuit, BASF).

  14. Quality evaluation and sugar beet postharvest conservation under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective the evaluation of sugar beets postharvest conservation under modified atmosphere and at environmental temperature (15 - 26° C. The experiment was entirely guided at a randomized design with three factorial sizes (small,, medium and large and two packings (PVC and without packing in three repetitions of five beets. They were appraised in the beginning and at the end of storage, for pH;Total Soluble Solids (TSS and TotalTitration Acidity (TTA contents. During the storage, the percentage of weight loss percentage was also appraised. It was observed that the packing reduced between in eight to ninefold the weight loss, and the small beets presented smaller weight loss than the large ones. After 14 days they were stored, the beets without packing were useless for trade due to withered advanced phase, with medium weight loss of 55%. The beets packed with PVC stayed with good appearance for 22 days of storage with medium loss weight of 15,82%. The pH, TSS and TTA contents didn’t present significant difference in packed beets, but at the 22nd day TTA was larger in small beets. On the average, pH was larger while TTA and TSS were smaller for large beets.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a conservação pós-colheita de beterrabas sob atmosfera modificada e à temperatura ambiente (15 - 26 ° C. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em fatorial três tamanhos (pequeno, médio e grande e duas embalagens (PVC e sem embalagem em três repetições de três beterrabas. Foram avaliados no início e final do armazenamento o pH, teores de Sólidos Solúveis Totais e Acidez Total Titulável, e durante o armazenamento a porcentagem de perda de peso. Observa-se que a embalagem reduziu de 8 a 9 vezes a perda de peso, sendo que as beterrabas pequenas apresentaram menor perda que as grandes. Aos 14 dias de armazenamento, as beterrabas sem embalagem apresentavam-se imprestáveis para comercializa

  15. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    was formed which bound the meat pieces together thereby making the product sliceable. However, in two of the food products some unwanted side effects were observed. The enzymes did not only catalyse the cross-linking, but also oxidised the anthocyanins in the black currant juice and short chained fatty acids......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  16. Determination of biotin content in beet molasses by Lactobacillus plantarum

    OpenAIRE

    Lončar Eva S.; Došenović Irena S.; Markov Siniša L.; Malbaša Radomir V.; Kolarov Ljiljana A.

    2005-01-01

    D-biotin content in beet molasses was determined by microbiological method using Lactobacillus plantarum, based on the comparison of the growth of this microorganism in molasses solutions with those in standard solutions of biotin. Incubation of the microorganism was performed on original Vitamin Biotin Testbouillon and laboratory prepared liquid culture medias. The amount of "real" biotin in molasses is low. The results depend upon the sample and volume of molasses solutions. Biotin contents...

  17. To the question of production of pectin from beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Zelepukin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since at present their needs for pectin confectionery and pharmaceutical enterprises in Russia is satisfied only in part, because of the import of this product, the problem is currently the domestic production of pectin is very urgent. Sugar production is one of the branches materialconsuming industrial production, requiring a significant amount of raw materials per unit of output. A positive feature of beet raw material is that protopectin content of up to 98% of the total amount of pectin, which makes the extraction process parameters of the desired product. Dried beet pulp coming from the warehouse, is ground for the intensification of the processes of extraction of pectin; further pulp is hydrolyzed; the resulting mixture is sent to a filter press for coarse and fine purification of the extract. Hydrolyse pulp after neutralization fed to cattle feed. The extract was fed to a thin filter cleaning. After purification, the extract fed to precipitate pectin. Then it is crushed, cleaned and dried. The dried pectin packaged and sent to storage. The proposed technological scheme will allow to receive beet pectin, satisfying the requirements of the pectin substances of food and medical supplies. Studies have been conducted to obtain pectin from dried pulp. The resulting pectin organoleptic had a gray tint, which have a negative effect on the quality of the product. The pulp used as a raw material, which is dried by means of flue gases. For comparison was obtained pectin from dried beet pulp, as a coolant which use steam. Pectin is derived from such a pulp had higher quality indicators.

  18. The capacity of sugar beet farms’ machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.

  19. Bioenergy productivity of sugar beet irrigated with reclaimed wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Campi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of treated wastewater to irrigate the sugar beet (Beta Vulgaris L. var. saccharifera for bioethanol could play a strategic role to contrast the use of natural water resources and increase the productivity of the crop. The 2-year experiment (2013-2014 was performed on sugar beet irrigated with fresh water and wastewater at different steps of the reclamation process (secondary and tertiary treatments. The data obtained showed that the root sugar beet yield and ethanol production under fresh water treatment (52.2 Mg ha–1 and 5446 L ha–1 were lower respect to that obtained from the secondary and tertiary wastewater treatments (66.7 Mg ha–1 and 6785 L ha–1, and 58.7 Mg h–1 and 6164 L ha–1, respectively, with the same irrigation volumes. These results can depend on the higher quantity of nutrient uptake when wastewater is used for irrigation. In particular, the average N applied (as nitrate and ammonium with irrigation during the growing seasons (2013 and 2014 was corresponding to the supply of 4, 28 and 20 kg ha–1, for the fresh water, secondary, and tertiary wastewater treatments, respectively.

  20. The addition of sugar beet to ethanol pathway in GHGenius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developed by Natural Resources Canada, the GHGenius model is used to estimate the life cycle emissions of primary greenhouse gases (GHGs) as well as the criteria pollutants from combustion sources. The model can be used to analyze the emissions from conventional and alternatively fuelled combustion engines and fuel cell powered trucks and vehicles, as well as light duty powered electric vehicles. Over 140 vehicle and fuel combinations can be used. This paper examined the effects of adding energy used to produce materials consumed in the production of alternative fuels in GHGenius energy balance calculations, as well as vehicle emission calculations on a carbon dioxide (CO2) eq/GJ of fuel consumed basis. This paper also examined the addition of sugar beet ethanol pathways to GHGenius. Energy balances were obtained and a number of process improvements to sugar beet ethanol processing were examined as sensitivity cases. GHGenius was used to calculate the energy consumption of each stage in the production cycle. Estimates included the energy required to produce the chemicals used in the ethanol processing procedure. Results were then compared with results obtained from gasoline, corn and wheat ethanols. Results of the study showed that energy balances were lower than corn or wheat ethanol. Feedstock transmission and processing requirements were also higher due to the higher moisture content of the feedstock. The results of several European studies considering the use of sugar beet ethanol were also included. 17 tabs., 9 figs

  1. Improving the economic performances of the beet-sugar industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanić Bojana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available General trend of free trade at the regional level as well as in the direction of European Union has motivated sugar factories located in Serbia to invest into technologies that are more efficient in order to make their products more competitive in the markets of Europe. Until 2005, the project of energy efficiency improvement in Serbian sugar factories was conducted in Crvenka and Žabalj. Now, they have energy consumption around 1 MJ/kg beet, in contrast to the previous consumption of 1.2 up to 1.5 MJ/kg beet. Further improvements are possible but investments would be high. A result of measurements taken during 2006, after the sugar factory "Donji Srem" - Pećinci was reconstructed showed that a considerable saving has been achieved. The first set of measurements showed that the energy consumption was 1.01 MJ/kg beet, which was 20% higher than intended, but at the same time energy savings were about 30% lower with respect to the values before the reconstruction.

  2. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets

    OpenAIRE

    Christin eZachow; Henry eMueller; Ralf eTilcher; Gabriele eBerg

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar be...

  3. Comparing salt tolerance of beet cultivars and their halophytic ancestor: consequences of domestication and breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Jelte; Cornelisse, Danny; Zhang, Yuancheng; Li, Hongxiu; Bruning, Bas; Katschnig, Diana; Broekman, Rob; Ji, Bin; van Bodegom, Peter

    2014-12-09

    Salt tolerance of higher plants is determined by a complex set of traits, the timing and rate of evolution of which are largely unknown. We compared the salt tolerance of cultivars of sugar beet and their ancestor, sea beet, in hydroponic studies and evaluated whether traditional domestication and more recent breeding have changed salt tolerance of the cultivars relative to their ancestor. Our comparison of salt tolerance of crop cultivars is based on values of the relative growth rate (RGR) of the entire plant at various salinity levels. We found considerable salt tolerance of the sea beet and slightly, but significantly, reduced salt tolerance of the sugar beet cultivars. This indicates that traditional domestication by selection for morphological traits such as leaf size, beet shape and size, enhanced productivity, sugar content and palatability slightly affected salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars. Salt tolerance among four sugar beet cultivars, three of which have been claimed to be salt tolerant, did not differ. We analysed the components of RGR to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance at the whole-plant level. The growth rate reduction at higher salinity was linked with reduced leaf area at the whole-plant level (leaf area ratio) and at the individual leaf level (specific leaf area). The leaf weight fraction was not affected by increased salinity. On the other hand, succulence and leaf thickness and the net assimilation per unit of leaf area (unit leaf rate) increased in response to salt treatment, thus partially counteracting reduced capture of light by lower leaf area. This compensatory mechanism may form part of the salt tolerance mechanism of sea beet and the four studied sugar beet cultivars. Together, our results indicate that domestication of the halophytic ancestor sea beet slightly reduced salt tolerance and that breeding for improved salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars has not been effective.

  4. Populations of weedy crop–wild hybrid beets show contrasting variation in mating system and population genetic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Jean-François; Fénart, Stéphane; Cordellier, Mathilde; Cuguen, Joël

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive traits are key parameters for the evolution of invasiveness in weedy crop–wild hybrids. In Beta vulgaris, cultivated beets hybridize with their wild relatives in the seed production areas, giving rise to crop–wild hybrid weed beets. We investigated the genetic structure, the variation in first-year flowering and the variation in mating system among weed beet populations occurring within sugar beet production fields. No spatial genetic structure was found for first-year population...

  5. Genetic localization of four genes for nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) resistance in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, R; Schondelmaier, J; Steinrücken, G; Jung, C

    1996-06-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is highly susceptible to the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.). Three resistance genes originating from the wild beets B. procumbens (Hs1 (pro-1)) and B. webbiana (Hs1 (web-1), Hs2 (web-7)) have been transferred to sugar beet via species hybridization. We describe the genetic localization of the nematode resistance genes in four different sugar beet lines using segregating F2 populations and RFLP markers from our current sugar beet linkage map. The mapping studies yielded a surprising result. Although the four parental lines carrying the wild beet translocations were not related to each other, the four genes mapped to the same locus in sugar beet independent of the original translocation event. Close linkage (0-4.6 cM) was found with marker loci at one end of linkage group IV. In two populations, RFLP loci showed segregation distortion due to gametic selection. For the first time, the non-randomness of the translocation process promoting gene transfer from the wild beet to the sugar beet is demonstrated. The data suggest that the resistance genes were incorporated into the sugar beet chromosomes by non-allelic homologous recombination. The finding that the different resistance genes are allelic will have major implications on future attempts to breed sugar beet combining the different resistance genes.

  6. Molecular genetic tagging of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-derived resistance to the sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance in commercial sugar beet hybrids to the sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN) principally has been based on the Hs1 gene from the wild beet Beta procumbens, yet incorporation of this resistance has been detrimental to crop yield in nematode-free fields. Accessions of B. vulgaris ssp maritima w...

  7. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  8. Characterization of cell wall degrading enzymes from Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 and their use to degrade sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Pectin, arabinan, biorefinery, mode of action, branched arabinose oligomers, ferulic acid esterase, arabinohydrolase, pretreatment Sugar beet pulp is the cellulose and pectin-rich debris remaining after sugar extraction from sugar beets. In order to use sugar beet pulp for biorefinery pu

  9. 75 FR 29969 - Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... crops, and in the environment? Which are the most likely weeds, if any, to gain glyphosate resistance and why would they gain such resistance with the use of glyphosate- tolerant sugar beet? What are the... Status of Sugar Beet Genetically Engineered for Tolerance to the Herbicide Glyphosate AGENCY: Animal...

  10. The identification of allergen proteins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris pollen causing occupational allergy in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris seeds in greenhouses, workers frequently develop allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize possible allergens in sugar beet pollen. Methods Sera from individuals at a local sugar beet seed producing company, having positive SPT and specific IgE to sugar beet pollen extract, were used for immunoblotting. Proteins in sugar beet pollen extracts were separated by 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and IgE-reactive proteins analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results A 14 kDa protein was identified as an allergen, since IgE-binding was inhibited by the well-characterized allergen Che a 2, profilin, from the related species Chenopodium album. The presence of 17 kDa and 14 kDa protein homologues to both the allergens Che a 1 and Che a 2 were detected in an extract from sugar beet pollen, and partial amino acid sequences were determined, using inclusion lists for tandem mass spectrometry based on homologous sequences. Conclusion Two occupational allergens were identified in sugar beet pollen showing sequence similarity with Chenopodium allergens. Sequence data were obtained by mass spectrometry (70 and 25%, respectively for Beta v 1 and Beta v 2, and can be used for cloning and recombinant expression of the allergens. As for treatment of Chenopodium pollinosis, immunotherapy with sugar beet pollen extracts may be feasible.

  11. The most important sugar beet pests in Ukraine and integral measures for their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorenko Vitaly P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The report delivers the origins of the insect complex formation on sugar beet fields in Ukraine. Biological, ethological and ecological peculiarities of the most numerous pest species have been shown. Regularities of many-year dynamics of pests, the problems of phytosanitary state of agrocenosis of sugar beet fields and conceptual grounds of pest control in contemporary conditions have been substantiated.

  12. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  13. Pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility, and genetic diversity in verticillium dahliae from sugar beet and historical strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt of sugar beet is a disease problem that has received very little attention in the literature, but has been reported to reduce sucrose production and purity. To improve our understanding of Verticillium wilt, a survey of sugar beet plants with wilt symptoms (leaves with yellow or n...

  14. Estimating plant stem emerging points (PSEPs) of sugar of beets in early growth stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtiby, Henrik; Mosgaard Giselsson, Thomas; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2012-01-01

    Successful intra--row mechanical weed control of sugar beet 
(beta vulgaris) in early growth stages requires precise 
knowledge about location of crop plants.
A computer vision system for locating Plant Stem Emerging Point (PSEP) 
of sugar beet in early growth stages was developed and tested...

  15. Foliar application effects of beet vinasse on rice yield and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejada, M.; Garcia-Martinez, A. M.; Benitez, C.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Bautista, J.; Parrado, J.

    2009-07-01

    This study presents an account of rice (oriza sativa cv. Puntal) yield quality parameters as influenced by the foliar application of an industrial byproduct (beet vinasse). Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Subsp.vurgaris) vinasse is a product of great agricultural interest, because of its organic matter content, N and K concentrations. (Author)

  16. Beet curly top resistance of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System plant introductions, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty wild beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang) accessions from the Beta collection of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System were screened for resistance to Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) in 2009. The curly top evaluation was conducted at the USDA-ARS North Farm in Kimberly...

  17. Beet curly top resistance of USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System plant introductions, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-six wild beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang) accessions from the Beta collection of the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System were screened for resistance to Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and other closely related Curtovirus species in 2010. The curly top evaluation was...

  18. Length of efficacy for control of curly top in sugar beet with seed foliar insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curly top in sugar beet caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is an important yield limiting disease that can be reduced via neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides. However the length of efficacy of these insecticides is poorly understood, so a series of field experiments was conducted with the ...

  19. Soil dynamics of the origination of soil tare during sugar beet lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Koolen, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    High soil tare of sugar beet on wet clay soil after uprooting with share lifters is usually attributed to the fact that the soil becomes sticky due to mechanical impact during uprooting. Results of field experiments have shown good potential for obtaining low soil tare of sugar beet on wet clay soil

  20. Pectic substances from sugar beet pulp: structural features, enzymatic modification, and gel formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.

    1997-01-01

    Pectic substances are present in high proportions in sugar beet pulp. This by-product is therefore a potential raw material for the pectin industry. However, sugar beet pectin has poor physico-chemical properties compared with pectins from other sources. In order to improve these properties, pectins

  1. Effects of neem-based insecticides on beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHOILM.GREENBERG; ALLANT.SHOWLER; TONG-XIANLIU

    2005-01-01

    Three commercial neem [Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae)]-based insecticides, Agroneem, Ecozin, and Neemix, and a non-commercial neem leaf powder,were evaluated for oviposition deterrence, antifeedant effect on larvae, and toxicity to eggs and larvae of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),on cotton leaves in the laboratory. Oviposition deterrence in no-choice, and two- and fivechoice assays, was observed for the neem-based insecticide treatments when compared with a non-treated control. Neem-based insecticides also deterred feeding by beet armyworm larvae. Direct contact with neem-based insecticides decreased the survival of beet armyworm eggs. Survival of beet armyworm larvae fed for 7 days on leaves treated with neembased insecticides was reduced to 27, 33, 60, and 61% for neem leaf powder, Ecozin,Agroneem, and Neemix, respectively. Possibilities for adoption of neem-based insecticides in commercial cotton for beet armyworm control are discussed.

  2. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative cross-linking of feruloylated pectic polysaccharides from sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz

    beet pulp as a potential starting material for production of pectin derived products which could help maintain the competitiveness of the sugar beet based industry. The overall objective of this study has been focusing on understanding the kinetics of enzyme catalyzed oxidative crosslinking......Sugar beet pulp is a byproduct from sugar production consisting mainly of cellulose and pectic polysaccharide. Its utilization has been mostly as feedstock due to its high content of energy and fiber. This study emphasizes on the utilization of the pectin and arabinan fractions extracted from sugar...... of feruloylated polysaccharide from sugar beet and relating the kinetics of this crosslinking to the properties of the cross-linked products. Several hypotheses have been formulated in order to accomplish our objective. The first part of the study utilized arabinan-oligosaccharide fraction from sugar beet pulp...

  3. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  4. Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid in garden beets (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Edward; Zhou, Haihong; Krasinska, Karolina M; Chien, Allis; Becker, Christopher H

    2006-05-01

    Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (L-Aze) is a toxic and teratogenic non-protein amino acid. In many species, including man, L-Aze is misincorporated into protein in place of proline, altering collagen, keratin, hemoglobin, and protein folding. In animal models of teratogenesis, it causes a wide range of malformations. The role of L-Aze in human disease has been unexplored, probably because the compound has not been associated with foods consumed by humans. Herein we report the presence of L-Aze in the garden or table beet (Beta vulgaris).

  5. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5. PMID:27180098

  6. Biochemical, Physiological and Morphological Responses of Sugar Beet to Salinization

    OpenAIRE

    Eisa, Sayed S.; Ali, Safwat H.

    2001-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and morphological responses of sugar beet grown on sandy soil under three levels of NaCl salinity in irrigation water, i.e. control, 3000 & 6000 ppm was studied in pot experiment. Results showed that root fresh weight linearly decreased by increasing NaCl salinity levels up to 6000 ppm, but sucrose percentage in root was significantly increased. On the other hand, increasing NaCl levels resulted in significant increase of Na content in both of shoot and root Meanwhi...

  7. Detecting creeping thistle in sugar beet fields using vegetation indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Wajahat; Garcia-Ruiz, Francisco Jose; Nielsen, Jon;

    2015-01-01

    and divided into six different groups based on illumination, scale and age. The feature set was made up of 14 indices. Mahalanobis Distance (MD) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) were used to classify the species. Among the features, excess green (ExG), green minus blue (GB) and color index....... Stepwise linear regression selected nine out of 14 features and offered the highest accuracy of 97%. The results of LDA and MD were fairly close, making them both equally preferable. Finally, the results were validated by annotating images containing both sugar beet and thistles using the trained...

  8. ESST Proceedings Rotterdam 2009. Beet Quality. Sustainability of beet sugar production. Energy usage - future challenges. General process technology developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the conference of the European Society for Sugar Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) between 17th and 20th June, 2009 in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) the following lectures were held: (1) Sugar beet quality during long-term storage in clamp and field (A.W.M. Huijbregts); (2) Methods used in the Netherlands to limit frost damage and to process frost-deteriorated beets (J. Strujis, M. Jaspers, M. van Dijk); (3) Biotech in sugarbeet and sugarcane: Current status (T.K. Schwartz, C. Richard); (4) Separation of water through gas hydrate (T. Boech Andersen); (5) Optimised standard of sugar manufacturing - first calculations (F. Lorenz, T. Frankenfeld); (6) Reconsidering vapour compression for sugar crystallization (A. Dolls, M. Bruhns); (7) The development of sustainability standards in the sugar industry (P. Rein); (8) Bioethanol: sugar beet, sugar cane or second generation? (W.J. Corre, J.G. Conijin); (9) The sustainability of beet sugar production in comparison with other sugar crops (P. Christodoulou, V. Kazantzi, S. Bezergianni, K. Gounaris); (10) Alternative products from sugar beets (J. Iciek, S. Wawro); (11) Alternative products from sugar beets (M. Wojtczak); (12) Increase of sugar yield by electrodialysis (J.P. Jenen, P.B. Hansen, M.P. Carter); (13) Optimal dosing of alkalizing agents in the juice purification (G. Roesner, W. Hein, F. Emerstorfer); (14) Affinity based separation technologies and their role in the current and future sugar industry (V. Kochergin); (15) Four to three-stage sugarhouse with two white sugar products (J. Jeppesen, M. Carter); (16) Practical experience of juice decalcification using a weak acid cation exchange resin plant incorporating fractal fluid distribution (E. West, P. Burroughs, P. Seymour); (17) A new process for the production of 'seed crystals' - Process development and field report from the factories (M. Walter, B. Ekelhof, S. Heppner, D. Wullbrandt); (18) Application possibilities and Properties

  9. Distribution, host plants and natural enemies of sugar beet root aphid (Pemphigus fuscicornis In Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2003-2004, field surveys were realized to observe the distribution of sugar beet aphid, Pemphigus fuscicornis (K o c h (Sternorrhyncha Pemphigidae in southwestern Slovakia. The research was carried out at 60 different localities with altitudes 112-220 m a. s. l. Sugar beet root aphid was recorded at 30 localities. The aphid was recorded in Slovakia for the first time, but its occurrence was predicted and symptoms and harmfulness overlooked by now. The presence of P. fuscicornis was investigated on roots of various plants from Chenopodiaceae. The most important host plants were various species of lambsquarters (above all Chenopodium album. Furthermore sugar beet (Beta vulgaris provar. altissima, red beet (B. vulgaris provar. conditiva and oraches (Atriplex spp act as host plants. Infestation of sugar beet by P. fuscicornis never exceeded 5% at single locality in Slovakia. Dry and warm weather create presumptions for strong harmfulness. In Slovakia, Chenopodium album is a very important indicator of sugar beet aphid presence allowing evaluation of control requirements. During the study, the larvae of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae were detected as important natural enemies of sugar beet aphid. The species occurred at each location evaluated.

  10. Development of Beet Sugar Production in Ryazan Region in the Context of Ensuring Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansurov Ruslan Evgenyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on the current state of the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region in the context of the need of improving its efficiency. The study let the author determine that currently the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region does not ensure domestic demand in sand sugar. However, there are reserves of providing more efficient use of soil and climate capacity as well as the productivity potential of the region. When applying the technology of field beet piling, the period of sugar production at sugar factories may be extended up to 200 days. At this, up to 51 thousand tons of sand sugar can be produced. This amount will completely cover the annual demand for sugar in Ryazan region. In order to further study the feasibility of this approach, zoning was carried out and let allocate the zones of beet seeding. As a result, it was determined that a number of areas are far removed from the place of treatment, and in terms of transportation costs minimization the sugar beet cultivation in these areas is not rational. As an alternative, the author proposes to consider the possibility of building a new sugar factory in Ryazhsky district with the processing capacity of 1,000 tons of sugar beet per day. Taking this into account, the recommended acreage of sugar beet by districts and zones of raw material supply were obtained through corresponding calculations.

  11. Integrated hydrolyzation and fermentation of sugar beet pulp to bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezić, Tonči; Oros, Damir; Marković, Iva; Kracher, Daniel; Ludwig, Roland; Santek, Božidar

    2013-09-28

    Sugar beet pulp is an abundant industrial waste material that holds a great potential for bioethanol production owing to its high content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. Its structural and chemical robustness limits the yield of fermentable sugars obtained by hydrolyzation and represents the main bottleneck for bioethanol production. Physical (ultrasound and thermal) pretreatment methods were tested and combined with enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase and pectinase to evaluate the most efficient strategy. The optimized hydrolysis process was combined with a fermentation step using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in a single-tank bioreactor. Optimal sugar beet pulp conversion was achieved at a concentration of 60 g/l (39% of dry weight) and a bioreactor stirrer speed of 960 rpm. The maximum ethanol yield was 0.1 g ethanol/g of dry weight (0.25 g ethanol/g total sugar content), the efficiency of ethanol production was 49%, and the productivity of the bioprocess was 0.29 g/l·h, respectively. PMID:23851274

  12. ROOT YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET INVESTIGATED HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of the production values of 10 sugar beet hybrids was conducted at the location Dalj from 2009-2012. Hybrids included in the experiment are owned by four selection houses and represented in wide production. Weather conditions in the years of investigation differed greatly. One was an average, one with increased, and two with small amounts of rainfall in relation to long-term average. Monthly air temperatures during the vegetation were increased in all four years. Root yield and quality of sugar beet varied considerably depending on the year and the hybrid. The best hybrid on the average of the investigation, by the highest root, was Severina (86.66 t ha-1. Three more hybrids: Coyote, Boomerang and Predator are in the same range. There are no significant differences in this indicator. Hybrid Colonia KWS (15.40% had the highest content of sugar in the root and Asketa, Gazeta, Severina and Protecta with no significant differences. Hybrid Colonia KWS was known for the low content of AmN and Na. Sugar yield, significantly higher than other hybrids in the study, has been realized with hybrids Severina (11.05 t ha-1 and Colonia KWS (10.78 t ha-1.

  13. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D. [Firat University, Chemical Engineering Department, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating. (author)

  14. Presence of mycotoxins in sugar beet pulp silage collected in France

    OpenAIRE

    Rouillé, Benoît; Lyan, Bernard; Morgavi, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a major by-product of the sugar industry, is a common feed component in cattle diets that is preserved on-farm as silage. This study was designed to investigate if sugar beet pulp silage could be a vehicle of common mycotoxins found in silages and other regulated mycotoxins. Samples (n = 40) favouring mouldy spots, if present, on the front face of open silages were collected in 2011 from 5 regions representing the main French sugar beet producing areas. Mycotoxins were extrac...

  15. The phytosanitary form and fighting measures diseases and pests of sugar beet from Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Timus Asea M.; Croitoru Nichita J.

    2006-01-01

    Sugar beet is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Republic of Moldova. The North and Central regions have good enough pedoclimatic conditions. The genetic potential of sorts and hybrids can be created through the application of modern technologies in order to grow at least 32-35 tons/ha of sugar beet roots. In the Republic of Moldova, sugar beet vegetates between 160 and 180 days in the first year and needs approximately an amount of 2400-2900°C, average of 15.3-15.4°C. Each p...

  16. New findings on the biogas production from sugar beets; Neue Erkenntnisse zur Biogasproduktion aus Zuckerrueben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Hinnerk; Schlaefer, Ottmar; Sievers, Michael [CUTEC-Institut GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Trommler, Marcus; Postel, Jan [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Felde, Andreas von; Harling, Hinrich; Rother, Beate [KWS Saat AG, Einbeck (Germany); Franke, Henning; Tkocz, Lisa [INPUT Ingenieure GmbH, Sehnde (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Main purpose of the project is the process improvement to acquire the full potential of sugar beet based biomethane production. This covers the optimization of breeding and cultivation, as well as improvements of the overall logistic and production process. The project results show that breeding of regional adapted sugar beets can lead to higher yields in cultivation as well as technical enhancements within the biogas production chain can lower the production costs. Both approaches are part of an overall optimization of sugar beets for biomethane production. Project findings indicate a competitive position in comparison to biomethane based on different agricultural feedstock. (orig.)

  17. UK Sugar Beet Farm Productivity Under Different Reform Scenarios: A Farm Level Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Renwick, Alan W.; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Reader, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect that the imminent reform in the European Union (EU) sugar regime may have on farm productivity in the United Kingdom (UK). We perform the analysis on a sample of sugar beet farms representative of all the UK sugar beet regions. To estimate the changes in productivity, we estimate a multi-output cost function representing the cropping part of the farm, which is the component that would be mostly affected by the sugar beet reform. We use this cos...

  18. Evaluation of some natural products on sugar beet contamined with coliform bacteria group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria Maria Alves de Almeida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet crop has great importance because its ability on sugar production that can be extracted and crystallized. The use of wastewater in the irrigation has increased because this water has some nutrients sources. However the use of wastewater may cause some health problems due to the presence of coliform bacteria group. In this trial, the objective was to contribute for the sugar beet decontamination. Some products as lemon juice, NaClO and ascetic acid were used by sugar beet immersion during a little time. In conclusion, the lemon juice showed best results by reducing coliform bacteria group.

  19. Populations of weedy crop-wild hybrid beets show contrasting variation in mating system and population genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Jean-François; Fénart, Stéphane; Cordellier, Mathilde; Cuguen, Joël

    2010-05-01

    Reproductive traits are key parameters for the evolution of invasiveness in weedy crop-wild hybrids. In Beta vulgaris, cultivated beets hybridize with their wild relatives in the seed production areas, giving rise to crop-wild hybrid weed beets. We investigated the genetic structure, the variation in first-year flowering and the variation in mating system among weed beet populations occurring within sugar beet production fields. No spatial genetic structure was found for first-year populations composed of F1 crop-wild hybrid beets. In contrast, populations composed of backcrossed weed beets emerging from the seed bank showed a strong isolation-by-distance pattern. Whereas gametophytic self-incompatibility prevents selfing in wild beet populations, all studied weed beet populations had a mixed-mating system, plausibly because of the introgression of the crop-derived Sf gene that disrupts self-incompatibility. No significant relationship between outcrossing rate and local weed beet density was found, suggesting no trends for a shift in the mating system because of environmental effects. We further reveal that increased invasiveness of weed beets may stem from positive selection on first-year flowering induction depending on the B gene inherited from the wild. Finally, we discuss the practical and applied consequences of our findings for crop-weed management.

  20. Populations of weedy crop-wild hybrid beets show contrasting variation in mating system and population genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Jean-François; Fénart, Stéphane; Cordellier, Mathilde; Cuguen, Joël

    2010-05-01

    Reproductive traits are key parameters for the evolution of invasiveness in weedy crop-wild hybrids. In Beta vulgaris, cultivated beets hybridize with their wild relatives in the seed production areas, giving rise to crop-wild hybrid weed beets. We investigated the genetic structure, the variation in first-year flowering and the variation in mating system among weed beet populations occurring within sugar beet production fields. No spatial genetic structure was found for first-year populations composed of F1 crop-wild hybrid beets. In contrast, populations composed of backcrossed weed beets emerging from the seed bank showed a strong isolation-by-distance pattern. Whereas gametophytic self-incompatibility prevents selfing in wild beet populations, all studied weed beet populations had a mixed-mating system, plausibly because of the introgression of the crop-derived Sf gene that disrupts self-incompatibility. No significant relationship between outcrossing rate and local weed beet density was found, suggesting no trends for a shift in the mating system because of environmental effects. We further reveal that increased invasiveness of weed beets may stem from positive selection on first-year flowering induction depending on the B gene inherited from the wild. Finally, we discuss the practical and applied consequences of our findings for crop-weed management. PMID:25567926

  1. DNA markers closely linked to nematode resistance genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) mapped using chromosome additions and translocations originating from wild beets of the Procumbentes section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C; Koch, R; Fischer, F; Brandes, A; Wricke, G; Herrmann, R G

    1992-03-01

    Genes conferring resistance to the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) have been transferred to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) from three wild species of the Procumbentes section using monosomic addition and translocation lines, because no meiotic recombination occurs between chromosomes of cultured and wild species. In the course of a project to isolate the nematode resistance genes by strategies of reverse genetics, probes were cloned from DNA of a fragmented B. procumbens chromosome carrying a resistance gene, which had been isolated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One probe (pRK643) hybridized with a short dispersed repetitive DNA element, which was found only in wild beets, and thus may be used as a molecular marker for nematode resistance to progeneis of monosomic addition lines segregating resistant and susceptible individuals. Additional probes for the resistance gene region were obtained with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based strategy using repetitive primers to amplify DNA located between repetitive elements. One of these probes established the existence of at least six different chromosomes from wild beet species, each conferring resistance independently of the others. A strict correlation between the length of the wild beet chromatin introduced in fragment addition and translocation lines and the repeat copy number has been used physically to map the region conferring resistance to a chromosome segment of 0.5-3 Mb.

  2. Detection of alien chromatin conferring resistance to the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) in cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris L.) using in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Jung, C; Heslop-Harrison, J S; Kleine, M

    1997-05-01

    Chromatin originating from wild beets of the genus Beta, section Procumbentes, has been investigated in nematode-resistant hybrid-derived lines of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by in situ hybridization using satellite, telomeric and ribosomal DNA repeats, a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and total genomic DNA as probes. The allen chromosome was detected in three monosomic addition lines (2n = 18 + 1) by genomic in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with a genome-specific satellite repeat and YAC DNA enabled the visualization of Procumbentes chromosomes, and in double-target hybridization it was shown that they do not carry 18S-5.8S-25S rRNA and 5S rRNA genes. The wild beet-specific satellite repeat and the telomere sequence from Arabidopsis thaliana were used to perform a structural analysis of the wild beet chromosome fragments of two resistant fragment addition lines. It was shown that one physical end of the chromosome fragments consists of telomeric repeats. Comparison of fragment sizes indicated that the small chromosome fragments harbouring the resistance gene most likely resulted from the loss of one wild beet chromosome arm and an internal deletion of the remaining arm.

  3. In Vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides and partially methyl esterified/acetylated homogalacturo

  4. Effect of genotype on sugar beet yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadić N.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a considerable number of both domestic and foreign sugar beet genotypes on root yield and quality was investigated. The data demonstrated the most favorable results of some genotypes for root yield and sugar content. Trials were conducted on rhizomania infested soil, thus tolerant genotypes were used. Susceptible cultivars represented the control. In the trial root yield was high and sugar content low. On average, in the genotypes tested, root yield varied from 73.98 to 93.30 t/ha and sugar content from 11.90 to 13.36%, depending on weather conditions. Root yield of the genotypes investigated varied from 30.61 to 112.64 t/ha and sugar content from 10.60 to 14.20%. The Swedish cultivar Dorotea (tolerant to both rhizomania and cercospora was the most yielding. The least yielding (susceptible to both rhizomania and cercospora was the domestic cultivar Dana.

  5. Flora and Fauna in Roundup Tolerant Fodder Beet Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, N.; Pedersen, Marianne Bruus

    three times. The results are reported at http://www.sns.dk/natur/bioteknologi/ roundup_art.htm. In 2000, six different fields were visited but only once (in June), in order to examine flora and fauna in field cultivated on different soil types, under different weather conditions and under different....... Thus, the conservation potential in RR-beets can be improved if dosage is reduced. At the studied sites there was a scope for dosage reduction without yield loss. Use of insecticides in fields with delayed weed control will counteract the benefits to the fauna from the herbicide regime. In the present...... study insecticide was only used as seed dressing. A dense and diverse weed flora is believed to benefit the fauna in several ways. Firstly, occurrence and density of the host affect herbivorous insect species thriving on specific weed species. Secondly, the microclimate and habitat structure of weedy...

  6. Distribution, host plants and natural enemies of sugar beet root aphid (Pemphigus fuscicornis) In Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Tóth Peter; Tancik Ján I.; Tóthová Monika; Pačuta Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    During 2003-2004, field surveys were realized to observe the distribution of sugar beet aphid, Pemphigus fuscicornis (K o c h) (Sternorrhyncha Pemphigidae) in southwestern Slovakia. The research was carried out at 60 different localities with altitudes 112-220 m a. s. l. Sugar beet root aphid was recorded at 30 localities. The aphid was recorded in Slovakia for the first time, but its occurrence was predicted and symptoms and harmfulness overlooked by now. The presence of P. fuscicornis was i...

  7. Retrospection concerning the sugar beet protection on Fundulea zone, district Calarasi, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Doncila Anton I.

    2006-01-01

    The paper represents a synthesis concerning sugar beet protection in the specific conditions (soil and climatic) of Fundulea zone. The presented aspects refer to the beet diseases, pests and weeds (primary and secondary concerning economic importance) since these organisms are continually limiting root and sugar yields. At the same time, it refers to the present control possibilities, the aim being the efficiancy and environmental demands. The basis of the synthesis are main data and results ...

  8. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  9. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Karlovsky Petr; Steingrobe Bernd; Ratzinger Astrid; Hettwer Ursula; Khorassani Reza; Claassen Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrom...

  10. Osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses: Mass transfer kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Filipčev Bojana V.; Lević Ljubinko B.; Koprivica Gordana B.; Mišljenović Nevena M.; Kuljanin Tatjana A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a study of osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses of different concentrations (40, 60 and 80%) at 50°C and under atmospheric pressure. The best results were obtained at the sugar beet molasses of 80% as an osmotic medium. The most important kinetic parameters of the process were determined: water loss, solid uptake, weight reduction, normalized solid content and normalized moisture content. The kinetic parameters were determined after 1, 3 and 5 hours. M...

  11. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Do...

  12. Competition and critical periods in spring sugar beet cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansilla Martínez José

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High yields with low costs require that sugar beets be kept free of weeds, during critical periods, using labor or chemical treatments. Since the critical periods for this crop in Castilla - La Mancha (Spain are unknown, the first goal of this study was to determine the effect of early and late competition on yield. The second goal was to determine the critical periods, while taking into consideration the semiarid climatic conditions of this region. Two irrigation farms located in the province of Albacete are dedicated to sugar beet cultivation. These two farms were chosen to carry out the tests March (140,000-150,000 seeds ∙ ha-1 and harvested in October. Two simultaneous and complementary experiments were carried out in each year and farm. Two scenarios were considered with eight different treatments each. In the first one (With Weeds Until - WWU, plots were infested by weeds up to a certain date. In the second one (Free of Weeds Until - FWU, plots were kept free of weeds up to a certain date. For each test, a randomised experimental blocked field was designed and there were four repetitions, each of them containing eight elemental plots (12 m2. Each plot was weeded by hand or weeds were left to grow till a definite date.The results indicated that a 1% loss of yield was reached in the early competition after 14 days, while a loss of 5% was reached after a period of 41 days after it was infested. The results also indicated that in late competition, if a crop is kept clean for 124 days and it is infested afterwards, a 1% loss is reached. However, the loss increases to 5% if the plot is kept clean for 111 days. For a 1% loss the critical period is 110 days and 70 days for a 5% loss.

  13. BELVEDERE® Extra – a new high performance- herbicide in beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donati, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat, chamomile, mercury, foolsparsleey and volunteer rapes are only some of the most important weeds in fooder and sugar beets. For the control of classical weed societies farmers can fall back on a limited number of active ingredients. Generally, Phenmedipham (PMP, Desmedipham (DMP and Ethofumesate are the basis of a spray sequence. They are complemented with other active ingredients depending on the specific weed situation. The newly formulated BELVEDERE® Extra combines the three mentioned active ingredients in an optimal ratio. Hence, the herbicide covers a very broad weed spectrum with an excellent efficacy on Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat. BELVEDERE® EXTRA is a liquid, selective, and systemic herbicide. It is formulated as suspoemulsion so that a high efficacy is achieved while preserving a very good selectivity. The product allows for flexible control of leaf activity as an additive (e.g. OLEO FC is appended. Ethofumesate, which is mainly effective via the roots of the plant, belongs to a different HRAC group than Phenmedipham and Desmedipham. The high concentration of 200 g/L Ethofumesate leads to an effective resistance management especially regarding Fathen and other important weeds. Since 23rd of September 2013 BELVEDERE® extra is registered for post emergence splitting application (3 applications against annual dicotyledonous weeds. The maximum application rate per treatment is 1,3 L/ha. In combination with GOLTIX® TITAN® (Metamitron + Quinmerac or Goltix® Gold (Metamitron the weed spectrum is broadened. Basically, a timely application whose application rates are adapted to the location is essential for a good efficacy of beet herbicides.

  14. How far can sodium substitute for potassium in red beet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Levine, L. H.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Sodium (Na) movement between plants and humans is one of the more critical aspects of bioregenerative systems of life support, which NASA is studying for the establishment of long-term bases on the Lunar or Martian surface. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which Na can replace potassium (K) in red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris) without adversely affecting metabolic functions such as water relations, photosynthetic rates, and thus growth. Two cultivars, Ruby Queen and Klein Bol, were grown for 42 days at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0%, 75%, 95%, and 98% Na substitution for K in a modified half-strength Hoagland solution. Total biomass of Ruby Queen was greatest at 95% Na substitution and equal at 0% and 98% Na substitution. For Klein Bol, there was a 75% reduction in total biomass at 98% Na substitution. Nearly 95% of the total plant K was replaced with Na at 98% Na substitution in both cultivars. Potassium concentrations in leaves decreased from 120 g kg-1 dwt in 0% Na substitution to 3.5 g kg-1 dwt at 98% Na substitution. Leaf chlorophyll concentration, photosynthetic rate, and osmotic potential were not affected in either cultivar by Na substitution for K. Leaf glycinebetaine levels were doubled at 75% Na substitution in Klein Bol, but decreased at higher levels of Na substitution. For Ruby Queen, glycinebetaine levels in leaf increased with the first increase of Na levels and were maintained at the higher Na levels. These results indicate that in some cultivars of red beet, 95% of the normal tissue K can be replaced by Na without a reduction in growth.

  15. Sugar beet production in the European Union and their future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Řezbová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to analyze the yield (t/ha and the production costs of white (polarized sugar and sugar beet in the main European producer countries in order to identify main development trends. The partial objectives of this study are: to analyse the production costs (variable costs of sugar and sugar beet of the main European producers (France, Germany, Poland, United Kingdom, Czech Republic, to compare sugar beet yield of Tereos France and Tereos TTD a.s., to analyse sugar beet yield potential and their trends. The used methods are chain and basic indexes and regression analysis of time series/trend data - for predicting on next tree years. The main producers of sugar beet in the European Union (i.e. France, Germany, Poland, United Kingdom, and Czech Republic can not achieve goal of sugar yield 15t/ha while maintaining the amount of variable (direct costs at 15 EUR/tone of sugar beet in the business year 2015/2016. Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSM 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“.

  16. Some remarks on evaluation of drying models of red beet particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drying behaviour of red beet particles was investigated in a laboratory type dryer, at constant air velocity 1 m/s and at constant temperature 60 deg. C. The effect of initial material load, particle shape and size on the dehydration characteristics of red beet was investigated. The drying experiments were conducted at three levels of initial material load of 5.33, 10.67 and 16 kg/m2. The following particle shapes were investigated: slices, cubes, and prisms. Red beet roots were cut into 3, 6 and 9 mm slice thickness, 6, 9 and 12 mm cube thickness, and 3, 6 and 9 mm prisms thickness. Length of square based prisms equalled 50 mm. The results have shown that, the initial material load, particle shape and size influence on the drying behaviour of red beet particles. The experimental dehydration data of red beet particles obtained were fitted to the semi-theoretical, empirical and theoretical models. The accuracies of the models were measured using the correlation coefficient (R), mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE), reduced chi-square (χ2), and t-statistic method. All models except that used by Wang and Singh described the drying characteristics of red beet particles satisfactorily. The effect of the characteristic dimension of the particle and initial material load on the drying models parameters were also determined.

  17. Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Kouloumpis, Victor [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis, E-mail: theocharis.tsoutsos@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether the potential transformation of the existing sugar plants of Northern Greece to modern bioethanol plants, using the existing cultivations of sugar beet, would be an environmentally sustainable decision. Using Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment, all processes for bioethanol production from sugar beets were analyzed, quantitative data were collected and the environmental loads of the final product (bioethanol) and of each process were estimated. The final results of the environmental impact assessment are encouraging since bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production for the use of the same quantity of sugar beets. If the old sugar plants were transformed into modern bioethanol plants, the total reduction of the environmental load would be, at least, 32.6% and a reduction of more than 2 tons of CO{sub 2}e/sugar beet of ha cultivation could be reached. Moreover bioethanol production was compared to conventional fuel (gasoline), as well as to other types of biofuels (biodiesel from Greek cultivations). - Highlights: > Bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production from sugar beets. > In most cases, sugar beets, as an already industrialized plant has organizational virtues. > Bioethanol could be a sustainable independent way of energy production, alternative to biodiesel.

  18. Frequency, Damage and Comparative Phonology of Annual Ground Cherry (Physalis divaricata L. Weed in Sugar Beet Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazari NAZARI ALAM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground cherry (Physalis divaricata L. is one of the most important summer weeds in sugar beet crop in the west of Iran. In order to estimate the damage rate of this weed, field studies were conducted to quantify the effect of ground cherry density on sugar beet yield and to determine relationships among different weed densities (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m-2 and sugar beet yield in 2008. The experiment design was randomized complete blocks with three replications. In addition, the neighborhood effect of ground cherry was assessed in a completely randomized design. Neighborhood effect was surveyed from zero to 125 cm apart from each beet plant to ground cherry. Density of ground cherry was estimated as the systematic method in 30 sugar beet fields that were chosen randomly.Phonology of ground cherry was recorded based on the GDD (Growth Degree Day and date. Results showed that two weed plants m2 of this weed resulted in 34% damage to sugar beet. Ground cherry significantly reduced yield of sugar beet when sown 50 cm apart from crop plant. Crop damage of sugar beet was 41% when ground cherry seeds were sown at zero cm apart from each sugar beet plant. Flowering of ground cherry occurred in the middle of June when it received 61.45-75 GDD and it was distinguished that ground cherry is a neutralized weed to the long day.

  19. Construction and characterization of a BAC library for the molecular dissection of a single wild beet centromere and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) genome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindullis, F; Dechyeva, D; Schmidt, T

    2001-10-01

    We have constructed a sugar beet bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of the chromosome mutant PRO1. This Beta vulgaris mutant carries a single chromosome fragment of 6-9 Mbp that is derived from the wild beet Beta procumbens and is transmitted efficiently in meiosis and mitosis. The library consists of 50,304 clones, with an average insert size of 125 kb. Filter hybridizations revealed that approximately 3.1% of the clones contain mitochondrial or chloroplast DNA. Based on a haploid genome size of 758 Mbp, the library represents eight genome equivalents. Thus, there is a greater than 99.96% probability that any sequence of the PROI genome can be found in the library. Approximately 0.2% of the clones hybridized with centromeric sequences of the PRO1 minichromosome. Using the identified BAC clones in fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments with PRO1 and B. procumbens chromosome spreads, their wild-beet origin and centromeric localization were demonstrated. Comparative Southern hybridization of pulsed-field separated PROI DNA and BAC inserts indicate that the centromeric region of the minichromosome is represented by overlapping clones in the library. Therefore, the PRO1 BAC library provides a useful tool for the characterization of a single plant centromere and is a valuable resource for sugar beet genome analysis.

  20. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm3y-1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm3y-1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm3y-1 plant is $400 m-3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m-3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm3y-1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm3y-1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm3y-1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m-3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm3y-1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm3y-1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm3y-1 and 0.038 hm3y-1ethanol plants are $400 m-3 and $450 m-3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a sugar-beet-based ethanol plant in North

  1. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorash E. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose, possessing antitoxic, antioxidant, radiation protective, cholesterol-lowering and lipid correcting qualities, and also a source of vitamins C, B9 (folic acid and P-active substances, possessing antioxidant properties. Due to high content in food red beet of a complex of microelements – iron, zinc, manganese and copper, and a complex of macro elements – potassium and magnesium, it can be recommended for prophylaxis and treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis and other diseases of heart and vascular system, and for prophylaxis of iron-deficiency anemia. Thus, the research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances showed that food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety are a high quality component ingredient for creation of food products of specialized and functional purpose

  2. Somaclonal variation of sugar beet resistant to pathogenic root rot Fusarium oxysporum var. orthoceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urazaliev Kairat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. - one of the most important crop in the world. In Kazakhstan, it is a traditional and major source of domestic sugar. The industry of cultivation and production of sugar beet is one of the priority areas of agricultural development of the country. In this paper, we studied the regeneration ability of different genotypes of sugar beet explants on selective media with the culture filtrate of the pathogen fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. From the roots and shoots of sugar beet the pathogen Fusarium root rot was isolated. Was obtained pure cultures of the isolated pathogen. As a result, of morphological and cultural descriptions, as well as microbiological analysis it was revealed that the isolated pathogen is Fusarium Oxysporum. The results showed the pathogenicity of the fungus. For regeneration in vitro of the sugar beet genotypes resistant to the pathogen the culture media was optimized to the culture filtrate of the fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. The frequency of shoot regeneration, depending on the genotype, was 1,0-12,5 %. On these explants the multiple shoot formations were observed.

  3. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of [14C]-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of [14C]-sucrose during steady-state 14CO2 labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, [14C]-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, [14C]-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of 14CO2 to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited

  4. Influence of additive from sugar beet on white bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Nada K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The additive of acceptable sensory, physical and chemical and microbiological characteristics was made from cossettes. Great water binding capacity related to microcrystals of cellulose qualifies this additive as a desired one in bread making process. Bread was baked in the laboratory and patent flour was used. The additive with particles smaller than 95 (m was supplemented in the quantities of 2, 5 and 10%. The data related to the influence of the quantity of additive on white bread quality point that parallel to increasing the amount of the additive in the dough, yield of dough and bread were also increased. Negative effects are detected as volume depression and inferior bread crumb quality and altered crumb color. The decrease in bread quality is small if 2% of additive was applied, but significant with 5 and 10%. The bread freshness was highly graded 48 hours after baking due to the ability of the additive to retain water. On the whole, bread of superior quality supplemented by 5 and 10% of the additive from sugar beet fiber can be easily made by fortifying flour with gluten and by adding appropriate dough conditioner.

  5. PIEteR: a field specific bio-economic production model for decision support in sugar beet growing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    To support decisions in sugar beet growing, a model, PIEteR, was developed. It simulates growth and production of the crop in a field specific way, making a tailor-made approach in decision taking possible.PIEteR is based on causal regression analysis of Dutch data of mostly experimental sugar beet

  6. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  7. Molecular characterization of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in Greece and transgenic approaches towards enhancing rhizomania disease resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavli, O.I.

    2010-01-01

    Rhizomania disease of sugar beet, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), is responsible for severe economic losses. Due to the widespread occurrence of BNYVV and the absence of other practical and efficient control measures, economic viability of the crop is to the largest extent depende

  8. Metabolome profiling to understand the defense response to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG 2-2 IIIB, is an important disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The molecular processes that mediate sugar beet resistance to R. solani are largely unknown and identifying the metabolites associated with R. solani infection ma...

  9. Sugar beet breeding lines evaluated for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in Fort Collins, CO, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine beet sugar beet breeding lines (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) from the USDA-Agricultural Research Service breeding program at Fort Collins, CO, were screened for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rcrr) at the Colorado State University ARDEC facility in Fort Collins, CO. The...

  10. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors. This applies to all domestic sugar marketed for human consumption in the United States...

  11. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is issuing this notice to publish the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to...

  12. Evaluation of baker's yeast strains exhibiting significant growth on Japanese beet molasses and compound analysis of the molasses types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroaki; Tamura, Masahiko; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2014-06-01

    Cane molasses, most of which is imported, is used as a raw material for production of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Japan. On the other hand, beet molasses is scarcely used for this purpose, but it can be of great advantage to cane molasses because it is domestically produced in relatively high amounts as a by-product of beet sugar processing. However, the yield of baker's yeast is sometimes low with Japanese beet molasses compared to imported cane molasses. For the production of baker's yeast with Japanese beet molasses, we evaluated S. cerevisiae strains, including industrial and laboratory strains, to group them according to the growth profile on beet and cane molasses. To discuss the factors affecting growth, we further analyzed the major compounds in both types of molasses. Beet molasses seems to contain compounds that promote the growth of beet molasses-favoring strains rather than inhibit the growth of cane molasses-favoring strains. It was assumed that α-amino acid was one of the growth promotion factors for beet molasses-favoring strains. PMID:24333188

  13. Potassium Uptake Efficiency and Dynamics in the Rhizosphere of Maize, Wheat, and Sugar Beet Evaluated with a Mechanistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant species differ in nutrient uptake efficiency. With a pot experiment, we evaluated potassium (K) uptake efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown on a low-K soil. Sugar beet and wheat maintained higher shoot K concentrations, indica...

  14. DNA fingerprinting in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) - identification of double-haploid breeding lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Boblenz, K; Metzlaff, M; Kaemmer, D; Weising, K; Kahl, G

    1993-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of simple repetitive sequences complementary to the synthetic oligonucleotides (GACA)4, (GATA)4, (GTG)5 and (CA)8 in the genomes of several cultivars of Beta vulgaris and in the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima were investigated. Hybridization experiments revealed that all four motifs were present, though at different abundances, in the genomes of all of the investigated beet cultivars. Considerable intraspecific variation of the resulting DNA fingerprints was observed. The extent of polymorphism depends on the oligonucleotide probe. The most informative banding patterns were obtained with the (GATA)4 probe hybridized to HinfI-, HaeIII-, or RsaI-restricted DNA, respectively. DNA fingerprinting with (GATA)4 allowed a clear differentiation of double-haploid breeding lines (DH lines). We demonstrated that the application of oligonucleotide probes for DNA fingerprinting is a sensitive tool for genome diagnosis in cultivated beet.

  15. A new cytoplasmic male sterile genotype in the sugar beet Beta vulgaris L.: a molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, V; McIntosh, L; Theurer, C; Hirschberg, J

    1989-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from fertile (N) and possibly new cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) genotypes was studied in the sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. It was found by restriction endonuclease analysis that BMC-CMS, a cytoplasm that was derived from the wild beet Beta maritima, contained a unique type of mtDNA which is distinguishable from both the N and S-CMS, the only other CMS genotype that is currently availabe in B. vulgaris L. The organization of three genes: coxI, coxII and cob, was analyzed by hybridization with heterologous probes from maize. These genes have a similar structure in N and BMC-CMS that is different from S-CMS. It is concluded that BMC-CMS is a novel CMS genotype in the sugar beet.

  16. Fine-scale geographical structure of genetic diversity in inland wild beet populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Jean-François; Fénart, Stéphane; Godé, Cécile; Deledicque, Sylvie; Touzet, Pascal; Cuguen, Joël

    2009-08-01

    Introgression arising from crop-to-wild gene flow provides novel sources of genetic variation in plant species complexes. Hybridization within the Beta vulgaris species complex is of immediate concern; crop lineages (B. vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) hybridize easily with their wild relatives (B. vulgaris ssp. maritima) thereby threatening wild beet gene diversity with genetic swamping. Hybridization 'hotspots' occur in European seed production areas because inland ruderal wild beets occur and reproduce in sympatry with cultivated beets. We studied gene flow occurring between seed-producing cultivars and ruderal wild B. vulgaris in southwestern France to determine whether feral beets, arising from unharvested cultivated seed, represent an opportunity for crop-to-wild gene flow. We surveyed 42 inland ruderal beet populations located near seed production fields for nucleo-cytoplasmic variation and used a cytoplasmic marker diagnostic of cultivated lines. Occurrence of cultivated-type cytoplasm within ruderal populations clearly reflected events of crop seed escape. However, we found no genetic signatures of nuclear cultivated gene introgression, which suggests past introgression of cultivated cytoplasm into a wild nuclear background through seed escape rather than recent direct pollen flow. Overall, patterns of genetic structure suggested that inland ruderal wild beet populations act as a metapopulation, with founding events involving a few sib groups, followed by low rates of seed or pollen gene flow after populations are established. Altogether, our results indicate that a long-lived seed bank plays a key role in maintaining cultivated-type cytoplasm in the wild and highlight the need for careful management of seed production areas where wild and cultivated relatives co-occur.

  17. Distribution and harmfulness of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yuncker at sugar beet fields in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002-2004, field surveys of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck e r in croplands were done in southwestern Slovakia. From among 150 localities surveyed, 80 were found infested by the field dodder. Within crop plants, C. campestris infested sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, alfalfa (Medicago sativa tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, potato (Solanum tuberosum, lentil (Lens esculenta, parsley (Pastinaca sativa and onion (Allium cepa. Besides the crops, 18 weed species were also recorded. The species from the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae were the most important and acted as a significant reservoir of field dodder in cropland. C. campestris was not found in cold climatic regions with altitude higher than 240 m. The impact of field dodder infestation on sugar beet yield was studied during the year of 2004 in two localities (Šalov and Žitavce in southwestern Slovakia. The presence of field dodder markedly reduced both, quantity and quality of sugar beet yield. Weight of heavily infested beets was reduced from 21.6 to 37.4% and sugar content from 12.0 to 15.2%. Such decline of both parameters was also recorded when field dodder was removed together with leaves of sugar beet during growing season at the end of July. The aim of the infested leaves removal was to decrease mass of field dodder seeds. Although the leaf area of sugar beet regenerates, the decrease of quality and quantity was observed. The decline was the same at both localities, no matter whether the fields were irrigated (Šalov or not (Žitavce.

  18. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  19. Drying trials and protein enrichment by microbial growth on cane and beet molasses distillery stillage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteuzzi, D.; Rosa, M.D.; Brigidi, P.; Lerici, C.R.; Sina, P.

    1985-02-01

    It is well known that molasses stillage is difficult to dry because of its high hygroscopicity. This investigation was made to try to affect the drying capacity of beet molasses stillage by the addition of gelling agents. Increase in crude protein and essential amino acid content of beet molasses was obtained by growing Brevibacterium flavum and Candida utilis. The results obtained showed that drying performance is probably due to an optimum combination of the chemico-physical properties of the raw material. 7 references.

  20. Biological control of Polymyxa betae, fungal vector of rhizomania disease of sugar beets in greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Naraghi Laleh; Heydari Asghar; Askari Hassan; Pourrahim Reza; Marzban Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    Rhizomania is one of the most important diseases of sugar beet around the world – including in Iran. The disease causes a severe decrease in sugar yield and is a limiting factor in sugar beet cultivation. Control of the disease is very difficult due to the long-term survival of its fungal vector (Polymyxa betae) in the soil. In this study, we investigated the effects of antagonistic fungal isolates on the population of the resting structure (cystosorus) of P. betae, under greenhouse condition...

  1. Changes in functional properties of sugar beet and citrus pectins by irradiation with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in functional properties of pectin extracted from sugar beet or citrus peel by electron beam in solid state or aqueous solution were investigated. Citrus pectin (CP) was degraded at both solid state and aqueous solution by irradiation with electron beam. Sugar beet pectin (SBP) was degraded at solid state but in aqueous solution at high concentrate was polymerized by irradiation with electron beam. SBP polymerized by electron beam formed hydrogel. This hydrophilic polymer was useful as water absorbent. Moreover, it was confirmed that the emulsification stability and acidified milk beverage stabilization of SBP was enhanced by electron beam. (author)

  2. Influence of the Different Level Ammonium on NRA and GSA in Sugar Beet(Vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Ammonium nitrogen inhibited NR activity in sugar beet,NR activity was lower in endogenous substrate after ammonium nitrogen was used,and the correlation between NR activity and ammonium nitrogen levels was negative.But NR activity raised with the ammonium nitrogen levels raising in exogenous.Ammonium nitrogen prompted GS activity:the correlation between GS activity and ammonium nitrogen was positive,GS activity raised with ammonium nitrogen levels raising,GS activity of roots and leaves had same change trend in sugar beet in the whole growth duration after ammonium nitrogen was used,but GS activity in roots was higher than that in leaves.

  3. Dominee Nicolaas Beets: "De familie Kegge" (1851) in het perspectief van de afschaffing van de slavernij

    OpenAIRE

    Rutgers, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Edward W. Said, Culture and Imperialism (1993) offers opportunities for rereading and re-interpretation of canonical historical literary works by way of focussing on the relation between culture and empire. Nicolaas Beets, “De familie Kegge,” seems to be a good example for this “contrapuntal reading.” The short novel protests in a mild way against slavery and behaviour of slave owners and plantation owners in the Caribbean. In later work Beets proves to have become a fierce anti-slav...

  4. Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed cross-linking of feruloylated arabinan from sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Arnous, Anis; Holck, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    the kinetics of HRP catalyzed cross-linking of FA esterified to α-(1,5)-linked arabinans are affected by the length of the arabinan chains carrying the feruloyl substitutions. The kinetics of the HRP-catalyzed cross-linking of four sets of arabinan samples from sugar beet pulp, having different molecular...... weights and hence different degrees of polymerization, were monitored by the disappearance of FA absorbance at 316 nm. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis confirmed that the sugar beet arabinans were feruloyl-substituted, and HPLC analysis verified that the amounts of diFAs increased when FA levels decreased...

  5. Continuous biogas production from fodder beet silage as sole substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, P.A.; Dobler, S.; Rohardt, S. [University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg (Germany). Research Centre of Environmental Bioengineering and Applied Biotechnology; Loock, R.; Buettner, B.; Noeldeke, P.; Brettschuh, A. [Loock Environmental Technologies, Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Since April 2000 a two-step anaerobic plant with two subsequent 500 m{sup 3} reactors has been producing biogas from fodder beet silage (pH 4.1) as the sole substrate. The plant is located at Kirchlengern near Bielefeld, Germany. Initially the reactors were inoculated with swine manure at 37{sup o}C. After a start-up phase the process was sustained at pH 7.5-8.0 by feeding with the silage as sole substrate twice a day. Parallel to the biogas plant at Kirchlengern four one-step laboratory reactors were continuously driven at temperatures of 37{sup o}C, 45{sup o}C, 60{sup o}C and 65{sup o}C. They were fed with the same silage, but only once per day (one impulse). The organic loading rate (OLR) was adjusted to 3.9 g volatile solids (VS)/(l*d) with a concomitant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 27 d. There was no problem with starting the reactors, but after 86 days the volumetric gas production of the 65{sup o}C reactor ceased and a high amount of approximately 130 mM propionate could be determined. By decreasing the temperature down to 60{sup o}C a stable reactor performance was recovered for a period of at least 250 further days. During impulse feeding it was observed that the quickest recovery of gas production could be observed at 37{sup o}C or at 45{sup o}C. Recovery of 75% gas volume (related to the value before or after impulse feeding) was obtained after 5.5 and 7.5 h of feeding time point whereas the 60{sup o}C reactor needed 16 h. Slight significant differences were seen in the spectrum of volatile fatty acids (VFA) reaching at 37{sup o} or 45{sup o}C its maximum with 10-30 mM total VFA at 2-3 h after feeding. After this the VFA level declined to nearly zero (except for the 60{sup o}C reactor). Therefore the 37{sup o}C reactor was favoured. A double experiment with a second 37{sup o}C reactor was started by a somewhat different inoculation procedure from the remaining 3 reactors, but revealed similar results. By increasing the temperature no significantly

  6. Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark and photofermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezguer, Ebru; Eroglu, Inci [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Mars, Astrid E.; Louwerse, Annemarie; Claassen, Pieternel A.M. [Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Peksel, Beguem; Yuecel, Meral; Guenduez, Ufuk [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biology, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Biological hydrogen production using renewable resources is a promising possibility to generate hydrogen in a sustainable way. In this study, a sequential dark and photofermentation has been employed for biohydrogen production using sugar beet molasses as a feedstock. An extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was used for the dark fermentation, and several photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodobacter capsulatus wild type, R. capsulatus hup{sup -} mutant, and Rhodopseudomonas palustris) were used for the photofermentation. C. saccharolyticus was grown in a pH-controlled bioreactor, in batch mode, on molasses with an initial sucrose concentration of 15 g/L. The influence of additions of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and yeast extract on sucrose consumption and hydrogen production was determined. The highest hydrogen yield (4.2 mol of H{sub 2}/mol sucrose) and maximum volumetric productivity (7.1 mmol H{sub 2}/L{sub c}.h) were obtained in the absence of NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The effluent of the dark fermentation containing no NH{sub 4}{sup +} was fed to a photobioreactor, and hydrogen production was monitored under continuous illumination, in batch mode. Productivity and yield were improved by dilution of the dark fermentor effluent (DFE) and the additions of buffer, iron-citrate and sodium molybdate. The highest hydrogen yield (58% of the theoretical hydrogen yield of the consumed organic acids) and productivity (1.37 mmol H{sub 2}/L{sub c}.h) were attained using the hup{sup -} mutant of R. capsulatus. The overall hydrogen yield from sucrose increased from the maximum of 4.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose in dark fermentation to 13.7 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose (corresponding to 57% of the theoretical yield of 24 mol of H{sub 2}/mole of sucrose) by sequential dark and photofermentation. (author)

  7. Two-step enzymatic fingerprinting of sugar beet pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoroza, C; Broxterman, S; Gruppen, H; Schols, H A

    2014-08-01

    A two-step enzymatic fingerprinting method was introduced to analyze a highly methylesterified and acetylated sugar beet pectin having a degree of methylesterification (DM) of 62 and acetylation of 30. A cocktail of pectolytic enzymes, including endo-polygalacturonase II (endo-PGII) and pectin lyase (PL), was used for the first digestion. The endo-PGII and PL resistant pectin fragments were isolated and subjected to a second digestion using fungal pectin methylesterase and endo-PGII. After the two sequential digestions, 78% of the total GalA residues present in the parental pectin were recovered as mono- and oligomers, which were used to quantitatively describe the parental SBP. For this reason, the descriptive parameters degree of blockiness (DBabs), degree of hydrolysis by PG (DHPG) and degree of hydrolysis by PL (DHPL) were established for both digestions. The first digestion revealed the presence of short blocks of nonesterified GalA residues and blocks of partly methylesterified and acetylated GalA residues in the parental SBP, in addition to blocks of highly methylesterified and acetylated GalA residues. The second digestion revealed the presence of blocks of methylesterified, partly methylesterified and/or acetylated GalA residues in a sequence not to be degradable by neither endo-PGII nor by PL. The acetyl groups were present in an blockwise manner. Application of the method to two differently prepared DM 50 SBPs showed that the two pectins differ in the ratio of blocks of nonesterified and blocks of partly methylesterified and acetylated GalA residues.

  8. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Branislav V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for better quality and cheaper products put on the need to industry to balance between the two kinds of needs, which are the reduction of production costs and to ensure a high quality product. This is the case with dried sugar beet pulp as a byproduct of sugar refining process. One of the possibilities to reduce energy consumption is savings in the process of thermal dehydration in the process of the conventional drying of pulp. Pulp drying is one third of total energy consumption in the sugar factory. Acidification of water extraction result in pulp that could be pressed better and in other hand in the juice with less non-sucrose compounds. Keeping the extraction process under certain conditions, directly affects on the quality of the extracted pulp and on effects of their further processing. This paper examines the impact of the extraction parameters of sugar from sugar beet and agents of acidification for water extraction (sulphurous acid, hydrogen peroxide on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp. Extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes by hydrogen peroxide at pH 5.5 to 8.5 does not cause changes in mechanical properties of sugar beet cossettes and in water retention coefficient, but increases the brightness of dried sugar beet pulp for about 5-7 units, which solubility in water does not depend on the applied concentration of extracting agents, but increases in dependence on the duration of the extraction. Sugar beet pulp extracted at pH 11.0 has reduced strength, they are highly hydrated, and under the force they lose their shape, binding a larger amount of water thus reducing the effect of their pressing. The changes in microstructure were probably accompanied by segmenting the linear parts of macromolecules and are reflected in the increase of water retention capacity and increase the solubility of dried sugar beet pulp for two to three times. Under the same conditions of extraction, sulphurous acid produces similar

  9. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets

    OpenAIRE

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar be...

  10. Inducing effect of PGRs on small regulatory si/miRNA in resistance to sugar beet cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankova, V A; Stefanovska, T R; Galkin, A P; Ponomarenko, S P; Blume, Ya B

    2012-01-01

    Sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmidt is an economically important plant parasite of sugar beet in Ukraine. The pest control options are limited. Sugar beet cyst nematode resistant varieties are not available on the market. Carbamate and organophosphate pesticides have been banned due to the high toxicity. The problem is aggravated by continuously increasing of oilseed rape (which is suitable host for H. schachtii) growing area due to biofuel demands. Several studies' results indicate that PGRs have role in management of plant parasitic nematodes but for sugar beet it is not studied well. We had an objective- studying of the role of four compositional PGRs created based of avermectin in suppression of sugar beet cyst nematode population on sugar beet and oilseed rape caused by enhancing of endogenous si/miRNA complementary to H. schachtii mRNA. Laboratory study was conducted in 2011 with using method DOT-blot hybridization si/miRNA with mRNA and by testing inhibitory activity in cell free system protein biosynthesis. That was shown that application of the PGRs enhances sugar beet and oilseeds rape plant immune-protective properties and resistance against plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schochtii through enhancement of synthesis of small regulatory si/miRNA related (complementary) to an mRNA structure of the parasitic organisms. As a result, translation of mRNA of the nematode is blocked and causes the mortality of plant parasite juveniles.

  11. Formation of Information Support in Management of Production of Beet Growing Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol Viktoriia V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main methodical approaches to formation of information support in management of production of sugar beet. It conducts analysis, systematisation and generalisation of theoretical developments of scientists with respect to definition of the “information support” notion, which allows formulation of the author’s vision. The article considers definitions of the expenditures notion as one of the central categories in management of production and types of cost value as objects of management. The article proves that business accounting is in close connection with the managerial system, which, consequently, determines a specific role of expenditures in enterprise management. It identifies topical directions of formation of information support in management of production of sugar beet. On the basis of the study of practice of sugar growing enterprises the article forms main data carriers within stages of the accounting process with the aim to carry out efficient management of sugar beet production. The prospect of further studies is improvement of information support in the beet growing industry through: development of accounting policy; system of primary documents by means of formation of product quality indicators; automation of formation of their indicators with the purpose of operative control; development of budgets for planning production indicators with the purpose of management and control.

  12. Nutritional value of biofuel residues from beet evaluated in sows and sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J.V.; Hvelplund, T.; Fernandez, J.A.;

    2011-01-01

    An alternative substrate in the biogas or bioethanol production may be the sugar containing juice obtained after fractionation of beets into a juice used for fermentation and into a pulp used for feeding. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the fresh pulp of top and root from ...

  13. Photoacoustic and optothermal studies of tomato ketchup adulterated by the Red Beet (Beta vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Westra, E.; Setters, J.; Houten, van S.; Huberts, D.; Colic-Baric, I.

    2005-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy and optothermal window (OW) technique were used to explore their potential to detect red beet added as a colorant to tomato ketchup. The associated changes of colour resulting in the changes of absorbance (and hence of PA and OT signals) were monitored in the 500 nm r

  14. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of beet western yellows virus on chickpea in Morocco.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortass, M.; Wilk, van der F.; Heuvel, van de J.F.J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A luteovirus isolate infecting chickpea in Morocco was experimentally transmitted by Myzus persicae to Physalis floridana, on which it produced mild symptoms. When tested in western blots against antisera to known legume luteoviruses, this isolate reacted strongly to beet western yellows virus (BWYV

  15. Changes in quality of selected red beet (Beta vulgaris L. cultivars during the growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska Zofia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Red beet (Beta vulgaris L. may be consumed at all stages of growth, both in the form of small early vegetable during spring and later, during winter, when stored. Therefore, knowledge of the dynamics of changes in the content of individual components in subsequent stages of growth is very important.

  16. Whole genome sequencing of sugarbeet and identification of differentially expressed genes regulating beet curly top resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of KDH13 doubled haploid line has been sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2000 NGS platform. This line (PI663862) was released by USDA-ARS as a genetic stock resistant to beet curly top. Sequencing of a standard paired end and a 2kb-insert mate-pair genomic libraries, constructed from a leaf ...

  17. Prebiotic potential of pectins and pectic oligosaccharides derived from lemon peel wastes and sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Schols, Henk; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) and lemon peel wastes (LPW) were used to obtain two mixtures of pectic oligosaccharides (denoted as SBPOS and LPOS, respectively). Oligogalacturonides in LPOS showed a larger molecular weight, higher degree of methylation and lower degree of acetylation than the ones in SBPO

  18. Biodegradable composites from polyester and sugar beet pulp with antimicrobial coating for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totally biodegradable, double-layered antimicrobial composite Sheets were introduced for food packaging. The substrate layers of the sheets were prepared from poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and sugar beet pulp (SBP) or poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and SBP by a twin-screw extruder. The ac...

  19. Prospects of utilization of sugar beet carbohydrates for biological hydrogen production in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Urbaniec, K.; Koukios, E.G.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced through dark anaerobic fermentation using carbohydrate-rich biomass, and through photofermentation using the organic acids produced from dark fermentation. Sugar beet is an ideal energy crop for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU due to its environmental profile a

  20. Assessment of strobilurin resistance in Cercospora beticola in on sugar beet in Michigan and Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. is the most important foliar disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) worldwide. CLS is controlled mainly with fungicides, including strobilurins (FRAC group 11). Resistance to strobilurins in C. beticola was first identified in 2011 from s...

  1. A Colletotrichum sp. causing root rot in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall of 2014 sugar beets were observed in a field in Washington State with shallow, dark, firm lesions on the surface. When examined under magnification, minute black “dots” were observed on the surface of the lesions. Isolations were made from the lesions and a Colletotrichum species was consist...

  2. Comparison of energy of irrigation regimes in sugar beet production in a semi-arid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topak, Ramazan; Sueheri, Sinan; Acar, Bilal [Department of Agricultural Structures and irrigation, Faculty of Agriculture, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    This study analyzed the effect of three levels of drip irrigation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production in the Middle Anatolian region of Turkey. Two deficit irrigation treatments 75% and 50% of measured soil water depletion were compared with a full irrigation control treatment. In this paper, root yield, NEY (net energy yield), EEP (efficiency of energy production) and EWUE (energy water use efficiency) were investigated. Energy consumption of irrigation was found to be about 60% of total energy input in sugar beet production under full and deficit irrigation treatments. It was found that sugar beet had the highest EEP value (6.29) under the partial deficit irrigation (representing 75% of full irrigation). However, it was observed that full and severe deficit irrigation (representing 50% of full irrigation) treatments had a lower value. Results of this study indicated that the partial deficit drip irrigation technique can be applied in sugar beet production. In practice, deficit irrigation technique can reduce irrigation water use up to 25% compared to full irrigation technique. In addition, partial deficit drip irrigation technique may save 11.2% of total energy inputs, 16.1% of irrigation energy inputs, 21.2% of total fuel use and 25% of fuel use in irrigation. (author)

  3. Screening for resistance to the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) in Allium cepa and its wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, B.; Sofiari, E.; Wietsma, W.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2000-01-01

    The beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) is the most important pest in tropical Allium cultivations. All shallot ( Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum) cultivars are susceptible to this pest. Therefore accessions from three wild Allium species, namely A. galanthum Kar. et Kir., A. fistulosum L. and

  4. Characterisation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) varieties using microsatellite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Esselink, G.; Everaert, I.; Riek, de J.; Vosman, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Sugar beet is an obligate outcrossing species. Varieties consist of mixtures of plants from various parental combinations. As the number of informative morphological characteristics is limited, this leads to some problems in variety registration research. Results - We have developed 25

  5. Effect of beet flour on films made from biological macromolecules: Native and modified plantain flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Tomy J; Guzmán, Romel; Medina Jaramillo, Carolina; Famá, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    Biological macromolecules such as starches of different amylaceous sources have been used in the formulation of edible films. However, there are few studies aimed at evaluating edible and intelligent films with response to pH changes from natural pigments, this despite the importance of these materials. In this context, films from native and modified plantain flour, plasticized with glycerol, with or without the addition of beet flour were developed. The chemical and structural composition of the flours, and its incidence on thickness, water solubility, contact angle, and mechanical and microstructural properties were evaluated, thus as its response to pH changes of the developed films. The observations showed that the incorporation of beet flour allowed to obtain intelligent films front to pH changes alkaline. Likewise, the betalains that were found in beet flour interacted more efficiently with the phosphated plantain flour, limiting well its immediate response to pH changes. In the same way, proteins and sugars of beet flour allowed to obtain more flexible films, due to the hydrogen bond interactions between these constituents and the plantain flours. This latter could justify the decrease of contact angle, and the increase on thickness and solubility of these films. PMID:26455401

  6. Metamitron-resistant Chenopodium album from sugar beet: cross-resistance profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechant, E; Bulcke, R

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, in several of the Belgian sugar beet growing regions, farmers have been confronted with unsatisfactory control of fat hen (Chenopodium album L.). Greenhouse bioassays conducted on reference C. album populations and on "suspected" populations from sugar beet fields where poor fat hen control had been observed, revealed that all "suspected" populations were resistant to metamitron, a key herbicide in the modern low rate weed control programs in sugar beet. These metamitron-resistant biotypes were all cross-resistant to atrazine. Since cross-resistance, particularly negative cross-resistance or reversed resistance, is known to play a major role in resistance management, other herbicides used in sugar beet and/or in rotational crops were tested to determine the cross-resistance profile of metamitron-resistant biotypes. Greenhouse bioassays were conducted using herbicides from different chemical families representing different modes of action. Cross-resistance was found for metribuzin, lenacil and chloridazon, all HRAC Group C1 herbicides that inhibit photosynthesis at PS II. The metamitron-resistant C. album populations examined showed negative cross-resistance to S-metolachlor (HRAC Group K3: inhibition of cell division), prosuifocarb (Group N: lipid synthesis, not AC-Case, inhibition), aclonifen and clomazone (both Group F3: inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis).

  7. Biochar derived from anaerobically digested sugar beet tailings: characterization and phosphate removal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ying; Gao, Bin; Inyang, Mandu; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Cao, Xinde; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Yang, Liuyan

    2011-05-01

    Two biochars were produced from anaerobically digested and undigested sugar beet tailings through slow-pyrolysis at 600°C. The digested sugar beet tailing biochar (DSTC) and raw sugar beet tailing biochar (STC) yields were around 45.5% and 36.3% of initial dry weight, respectively. Compared to STC, DSTC had similar pH and surface functional groups, but higher surface area, and its surface was less negatively charged. SEM-EDS and XRD analyses showed that colloidal and nano-sized periclase (MgO) was presented on the surface of DSTC. Laboratory adsorption experiments were conducted to assess the phosphate removal ability of the two biochars, an activated carbon (AC), and three Fe-modified biochar/AC adsorbents. The DSTC showed the highest phosphate removal ability with a removal rate around 73%. Our results suggest that anaerobically digested sugar beet tailings can be used as feedstock materials to produce high quality biochars, which could be used as adsorbents to reclaim phosphate. PMID:21450461

  8. Arabinose and ferulic acid rich pectic polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Arabinose and ferulic acid rich polysaccharides were extracted from sugar beet pulp using two extraction methods: a sequential extraction with H2O (2 times), NaOH/EDTA (2 times), and 4 M NaOH (2 times; method A) and a sequential extraction in which the NaOH/EDTA extraction was replaced by an autocla

  9. Effects of simulated acidic rainfalls on yields of field-grown radishes and garden beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L S; Cunningham, E A; Lewin, K F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of small additions of simulated acidic rain on radishes and garden beets grown under standard agronomic practices was determined. Only the foliage of plants was sprayed with simulated rain. The composition of the simulated rainfall approximated that of rain falling in the Long Island, NY area. (ACR)

  10. Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, Ralph; Hellert, Jan; Ringleb, Malte; Machens, Fabian; Kraus, Josef; Hehl, Reinhard

    2010-09-01

    The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable element system was introduced into sugar beet. The autonomous Ac and non-autonomous Ds element excise from the T-DNA vector and integrate at novel positions in the sugar beet genome. Ac and Ds excisions generate footprints in the donor T-DNA that support the hairpin model for transposon excision. Two complete integration events into genomic sugar beet DNA were obtained by IPCR. Integration of Ac leads to an eight bp duplication, while integration of Ds in a homologue of a sugar beet flowering locus gene did not induce a duplication. The molecular structure of the target site indicates Ds integration into a double strand break. Analyses of transposase transcription using RT-PCR revealed low amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The fourth intron of the transposase was found to be partially misspliced. Four different splice products were identified. In addition, the second and third exon were found to harbour two and three novel introns, respectively. These utilize each the same splice donor but several alternative splice acceptor sites. Using the SplicePredictor online tool, one of the two introns within exon two is predicted to be efficiently spliced in maize. Most interestingly, splicing of this intron together with the four major introns of Ac would generate a transposase that lacks the DNA binding domain and two of its three nuclear localization signals, but still harbours the dimerization domain. PMID:20512402

  11. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of 1% (wt/v) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), green, and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodo...

  12. USE OF GREEN MANURE CROPS AND SUGAR BEET VARIETIES TO CONTROL HETERODERA BETAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, E

    2014-01-01

    Although it is less studied than the white beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), the yellow beet cyst nematode (H. betae) has been found in many countries in Europe. For example in The Netherlands, France and Spain. H. betae causes yield losses on sandy soils. A high infestation can result in loss of complete plants. In The Netherlands, this nematode is especially found in the south eastern and north eastern part, where it occurs on 18% and 5% of the fields, respectively. From a project of the Dutch Sugar beet Research Institute IRS (SUSY) on factors explaining differences in sugar yield, this nematode was one of the most important factors reducing sugar yields on sandy soils. Until 2008, the only way to control H. betae was by reducing the number of host crops in the crop rotation. Host crops are crops belonging to the families of Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Leguminosea. In order to find more control measures, research was done to investigate the host status of different green manure crops and the resistance and tolerance of different sugar beet varieties to H. betae. White mustard (Sinapis alba) and oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleiferus) varieties resistant to H. schachtii were investigated for their resistance against H. betae. A climate room trial and a field trial with white mustard and oil seed radish were conducted in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Results show that H. betae could multiply on susceptible white mustard and susceptible oil seed radish, but not on the H. schachtii resistant varieties. In climate room trials in 2009, 2010 and 2011 and field trials in 2010, 2011 and 2012, the effect of different sugar beet varieties on the multiplication of H. betae and the effect of H. betae on yield at different infestation levels was investigated. Sugar beet varieties with resistance genes to H. schachtii (from Beta procumbens or B. maritima) were selected. Varieties with resistance genes from these sources were

  13. Long distance pollen-mediated gene flow at a landscape level: the weed beet as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénart, Stéphane; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Cuguen, Joël; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2007-09-01

    Gene flow is a crucial parameter that can affect the organization of genetic diversity in plant species. It has important implications in terms of conservation of genetic resources and of gene exchanges between crop to wild relatives and within crop species complex. In the Beta vulgaris complex, hybridization between crop and wild beets in seed production areas is well documented and the role of the ensuing hybrids, weed beets, as bridges towards wild forms in sugar beet production areas have been shown. Indeed, in contrast to cultivated beets that are bi-annual, weed beets can bolt, flower and reproduce in the same crop season. Nonetheless, the extent of pollen gene dispersal through weedy lineages remains unknown. In this study, the focus is directed towards weed-to-weed gene flow, and we report the results of a pollen-dispersal analysis within an agricultural landscape composed of five sugar beet fields with different levels of infestation by weed beets. Our results, based on paternity analysis of 3240 progenies from 135 maternal plants using 10 microsatellite loci, clearly demonstrate that even if weedy plants are mostly pollinated by individuals from the same field, some mating events occur between weed beets situated several kilometres apart (up to 9.6 km), with rates of interfield-detected paternities ranging from 11.3% to 17.5%. Moreover, we show that pollen flow appears to be more restricted when individuals are aggregated as most mating events occurred only for short-distance classes. The best-fit dispersal curves were fat-tailed geometric functions for populations exhibiting low densities of weed beets and thin-tailed Weibull function for fields with weed beet high densities. Thus, weed beet populations characterized by low density with geographically isolated individuals may be difficult to detect but are likely to act as pollen traps for pollen emitted by close and remote fields. Hence, it appears evident that interfield pollen-mediated gene flow

  14. Genetic diversity and physiological performance of Portuguese wild beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima from three contrasting habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Catarina Ribeiro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill, Comporta (CMP, marsh and Oeiras (OEI, coastland, and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB, are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP, the inland ruderal beet (VMT and the sugar beet (SB. A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e. the capacity to physiologically adjust

  15. Genetic Diversity and Physiological Performance of Portuguese Wild Beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from Three Contrasting Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isa C; Pinheiro, Carla; Ribeiro, Carla M; Veloso, Maria M; Simoes-Costa, Maria C; Evaristo, Isabel; Paulo, Octávio S; Ricardo, Cândido P

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB), are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP), the inland ruderal beet (VMT) and the sugar beet (SB). A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root) was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages, and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness) and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e., the capacity to physiologically adjust to

  16. Genetic Diversity and Physiological Performance of Portuguese Wild Beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from Three Contrasting Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isa C; Pinheiro, Carla; Ribeiro, Carla M; Veloso, Maria M; Simoes-Costa, Maria C; Evaristo, Isabel; Paulo, Octávio S; Ricardo, Cândido P

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB), are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP), the inland ruderal beet (VMT) and the sugar beet (SB). A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root) was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages, and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness) and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e., the capacity to physiologically adjust to

  17. Genetic Diversity and Physiological Performance of Portuguese Wild Beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from Three Contrasting Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isa C.; Pinheiro, Carla; Ribeiro, Carla M.; Veloso, Maria M.; Simoes-Costa, Maria C.; Evaristo, Isabel; Paulo, Octávio S.; Ricardo, Cândido P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB), are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP), the inland ruderal beet (VMT) and the sugar beet (SB). A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root) was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages, and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness) and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e., the capacity to physiologically adjust to

  18. CONVISO® SMART – a new solution to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds in ALStolerant sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgheim, Natalie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONVISO SMART is a new system to control monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds in ALS-inhibitor tolerant sugar beets. This system consists of an ALS-inhibiting herbicide and a sugar beet variety which is tolerant against the complementary herbicide due to classic breeding mechanisms. The herbicide CONVISO is a combination of the two active ingredients foramsulfuron and thiencarbazonemethyl. Whereas foramsulfuron is the leaf active compound, thiencarbazone-methyl is leaf as well as soil active. The product will be formulated as an oily dispersion (OD. The registration was requested with an application rate of 1 x 1 l/ha or 2 x 0.5 l/ha in ALS-inhibitor tolerant sugar beets. Application should be done from BBCH 10 – 14 of the weeds, especially of Chenopodium album as well as from BBCH 12 – 18 of the sugar beet. The estimated introduction of this system on the German market will be 2018. CONVISO is well active against the most important weeds in sugar beets, including Polygonum and Chenopodium species. Furthermore several difficult to control weeds as Aethusa cynapium and Mercurialis annua will be controlled by CONVISO. The addition of special herbicides to control those difficult weeds will no longer be necessary. The tolerance of the variety against CONVISO is very strong, which will be shown by the results of the weed free selectivity trials. Due to the high tolerance of the variety against CONVISO and the not occurring of negative herbicide effects, the full yield potential can be utilized.

  19. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  20. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  1. The influence of zeolite on the quality of fresh beet pulp silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koljajić Viliman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different doses of natural zeolite addition on chemical composition and quality of beet pulp silages was investigated. Beet pulp was ensiled in the sugar factory in Požarevac immediately after they were obtained, or after 9 or 17 days. The two-factorial trial was conducted where the first factor (A was the time of ensiling expressed in days after the pulp was obtained (a1= O; a2 = 9; a3 = 17, while the second factor (B was the amount of zeolite added (b1= 0; b2 = 0.05; b3 = 0.25 and b4 = 1.25% in dry matter or 0; 50; 250 and 1250 g zeolite per 100 kg of raw beet pulp. Sample collection for standard chemical composition and quality estimation was taken 60 days after the beginning of the ensiling. The results from the literature show that adding technologically processed natural zeolite (Min-a-Zel, produced by ITNMS, Belgrade while ensiling beet pulp has significant influence on the increase of lactic acid production, decrease in bonded acetic acid content and lower pH value. The influence of explained doses of zeolite on standard chemical composition is smaller and mostly of relative value. The only real changes in chemical composition are the increase in dry matter and mineral content. In the ensiling of the beet pulp stored in the longer period of time, the more intensive fermentation processes were achieved and the production of organic acids was larger which has better conserving effects on silage.

  2. Identification of saponins from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by low and high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    We profiled triterpene saponins from the roots of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Huzar and Boryna using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 26 triterpene saponins, including 17 that had not been detected previously in this plant species and 7 saponins that were tentatively identified as new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of five different aglycones, of which gypsogenin and norhederagenin are reported for the first time in sugar beet. Thirteen of the saponins detected in sugar beet roots were substituted with dioxolane-type (4 saponins) or acetal-type (9 saponins) dicarboxylic acids. Among the 26 detected saponins, we identified 2 groups of isomers distinguished using high-resolution mass measurements that were detected only in the Huzar cultivar of sugar beet. PMID:27423042

  3. A sugar beet chlorophyll a/b binding protein promoter void of G-box like elements confers strong and leaf specific reporter gene expression in transgenic sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloos Dorothee U

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modification of leaf traits in sugar beet requires a strong leaf specific promoter. With such a promoter, expression in taproots can be avoided which may otherwise take away available energy resources for sugar accumulation. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was utilized to generate an enriched and equalized cDNA library for leaf expressed genes from sugar beet. Fourteen cDNA fragments corresponding to thirteen different genes were isolated. Northern blot analysis indicates the desired tissue specificity of these genes. The promoters for two chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes (Bvcab11 and Bvcab12 were isolated, linked to reporter genes, and transformed into sugar beet using promoter reporter gene fusions. Transient and transgenic analysis indicate that both promoters direct leaf specific gene expression. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that the Bvcab11 promoter is void of G-box like regulatory elements with a palindromic ACGT core sequence. The data indicate that the presence of a G-box element is not a prerequisite for leaf specific and light induced gene expression in sugar beet. Conclusions This work shows that SSH can be successfully employed for the identification and subsequent isolation of tissue specific sugar beet promoters. These promoters are shown to drive strong leaf specific gene expression in transgenic sugar beet. The application of these promoters for expressing resistance improving genes against foliar diseases is discussed.

  4. Substitution of potassium by sodium in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) : Nutrition with special reference to K-fixing soils

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeel, Abdul

    2008-01-01

    Plant growth does not response to the application of generally recommended levels of potassium (K) fertilizer in the soils with expandable three layer clay minerals. In the soils rich in illite and vermiculite clay minerals with high cation exchange capacity, a major part of applied K is fixed and becomes unavailable to plants immediately. It is known that several members of the family Chenopodiaceae such as sugar beet, spinach, red beet etc. are capable to use sodium (Na) as a...

  5. Substitution of beet sugar with plant Stevia rebaudiana and its effect on the sensory quality of selected products.

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠTA, Antonín

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to substitute beet sugar with Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni plant extract, and to assess effect of this substitution on sensory quality of selected products. Ten different samples of cherry jam were produced, using different combination of sweeteners in each of them. As sweeteners, beet sugar and Stevia leaf extract was used. This stevia leaf extract is even 400 times sweeter than common sugar. All samples of jam underwent sensory analysis and results have be...

  6. Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny of Cultivated and Wild Beets: Relationships Among Cytoplasmic Male-Sterility-Inducing and Nonsterilizing Cytoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Nishizawa, Satsuki; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), the maternally inherited failure to produce functional pollen, has been used in the breeding of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris). At least three different sources of CMS can be distinguished from one another as well as from normal fertile cytoplasm by polymorphisms in their mitochondrial genomes. Here we analyzed 50 accessions of cultivated and wild beets to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among male-sterility-inducing and normal cytoplasms...

  7. Biosynthesis, translocation, and accumulation of betaine in sugar beet and its progenitors in relation to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A D; Wyse, R

    1982-10-01

    Like other halophytic chenopods, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) can accumulate high betaine levels in shoots and roots. N,N,N-trimethylglycine impedes sucrose crystallization and so lowers beet quality. The objective of this research was to examine the genetic variability and physiological significance of betaine accumulation in sugar beet and its relatives. Three cultivated genotypes of B. vulgaris and two genotypes of the wild progenitor B. maritima L. were grown with and without gradual salinization (final NaCl concentration = 150 millimolar). At 6 weeks old, all five genotypes had moderately high betaine levels in shoots and roots when unsalinized (averages for all genotypes: shoots = 108 micromoles per gram dry weight; roots = 99 micromoles per gram dry weight). Salinization raised betaine levels of shoots and roots 2- to 3-fold, but did not greatly depress shoot or root growth. The genotype WB-167-an annual B. maritima type-always had approximately 40% lower betaine levels in roots than the other four genotypes, although the betaine levels in the shoots were not atypically low.THE SITE AND PATHWAY OF BETAINE SYNTHESIS WERE INVESTIGATED IN YOUNG, SALINIZED SUGAR BEET PLANTS BY: (a) supplying 1 micromole [(14)C]ethanolamine to young leaf blades or to the taproot sink of intact plants; (b) supplying tracer [(14)C]formate to discs of leaf, hypocotyl, and taproot tissues in darkness. Conversion of both (14)C precursors to betaine was active only in leaf tissue. Very little (14)C appeared in the phospholipid phosphatidylcholine before betaine was heavily labeled; this was in marked contrast to the labeling patterns in salinized barley. Phosphorylcholine was a prominent early (14)C metabolite of both [(14)C]ethanolamine and [(14)C]formate in all tissues of sugar beet. Betaine translocation was examined in young plants of sugar beet and WB-167 by applying tracer [methyl-(14)C]betaine to a young expanded leaf and determining the distribution of (14)C after 3 days. In

  8. Efficiency of water use in sugar beet and processing tomato cropped in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rinaldi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A more efficient crop water use in biomass and yield accumulation can represent great water saving in the waterlimited environments. Crop management – irrigation, sowing time, fertilization – could affect water (and irrigation water transformation efficiency in dry matter and commercial yield of beet and tomato in Southern Italy. This field research, carried out in two locations of Southern Italy (Foggia and Vasto in 1998-2002 period, compared for sugar beet irrigation regimes (optimal, 100% of ETc and reduced, 60% of ETc and sowing times (autumnal and spring; for tomato three irrigation regimes were compared, re-establishing 100% (ET100, 66 (ET66 and 33% (ET33 of crop evapotranspiration. Water and irrigation water transformation efficiency in harvestable yield (WUEhdm and IRRWUE hdm, in total dry matter (WUEdm and IRRWUEdm and sucrose (WUEsuc were calculated both at harvest and during crop cycle. The results showed a significant effect of sowing date on WUEhdm and WUEsuc of sugar beet (respectively 2.44 and 2.12 for autumnal sowing and 1.08 and 0.84 kg m-3 for spring sowing. Irrigation regimes did not show significant differences. “Irrigation x sowing times” interaction was significant for WUEdm, with a superiority of reduced vs. optimal only in spring sowing time. In tomato, WUEdm was not affected by the irrigation regime, while WUEhdm in ET66 treatment was more efficient treatment than ET100 (1.19 vs. 1.00 kg m-3. “Year” effect was significant for WUEdm and WUEhdm with lowest values in the driest year. IRRWUE was higher in tomato than in sugar beet, considering dry matter, fresh harvestable product and also from an economic point of view. The temporal analysis of water use efficiency showed WUEdm and WUEhdm greater in the middle of crop cycle in autumnal than in spring sugar beet, but not between the irrigation regimes. In tomato, the ET66 treatment resulted the most efficient in water using, especially at the end of crop cycle

  9. Applying Adaptive Agricultural Management & Industrial Ecology Principles to Produce Lower- Carbon Ethanol from California Energy Beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades, Anthy Maria

    The life cycle assessment of a proposed beet-to-ethanol pathway demonstrates how agricultural management and industrial ecology principles can be applied to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize agrochemical inputs and waste, provide ecosystem services and yield a lower-carbon fuel from a highly land-use efficient, first-generation feedstock cultivated in California. Beets grown in California have unique potential as a biofuel feedstock. A mature agricultural product with well-developed supply chains, beet-sugar production in California has contracted over recent decades, leaving idle production capacity and forcing growers to seek other crops for use in rotation or find a new market for beets. California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) faces risk of steeply-rising compliance costs, as greenhouse gas reduction targets in the transportation sector were established assuming commercial volumes of lower-carbon fuels from second-generation feedstocks -- such as residues, waste, algae and cellulosic crops -- would be available by 2020. The expected shortfall of cellulosic ethanol has created an immediate need to develop lower-carbon fuels from readily available feedstocks using conventional conversion technologies. The life cycle carbon intensity of this ethanol pathway is less than 28 gCO2e/MJEthanol: a 72% reduction compared to gasoline and 19% lower than the most efficient corn ethanol pathway (34 gCO2e/MJ not including indirect land use change) approved under LCFS. The system relies primarily on waste-to-energy resources; nearly 18 gCO2e/MJ are avoided by using renewable heat and power generated from anaerobic digestion of fermentation stillage and gasification of orchard residues to meet 88% of the facility's steam demand. Co-products displace 2 gCO2e/MJ. Beet cultivation is the largest source of emissions, contributing 15 gCO 2e/MJ. The goal of the study is to explore opportunities to minimize carbon intensity of beet-ethanol and investigate the potential

  10. Starch biosynthetic genes and enzymes are expressed and active in the absence of starch accumulation in sugar beet tap-root

    OpenAIRE

    Turesson, Helle; Andersson, Mariette; Marttila, Salla; Thulin, Ingela; Hofvander, Per

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Starch is the predominant storage compound in underground plant tissues like roots and tubers. An exception is sugar beet tap-root (Beta vulgaris ssp altissima) which exclusively stores sucrose. The underlying mechanism behind this divergent storage accumulation in sugar beet is currently not fully known. From the general presence of starch in roots and tubers it could be speculated that the lack in sugar beet tap-roots would originate from deficiency in pathways leading to starch...

  11. Osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses: Mass transfer kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipčev Bojana V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a study of osmotic dehydration of red cabbage in sugar beet molasses of different concentrations (40, 60 and 80% at 50°C and under atmospheric pressure. The best results were obtained at the sugar beet molasses of 80% as an osmotic medium. The most important kinetic parameters of the process were determined: water loss, solid uptake, weight reduction, normalized solid content and normalized moisture content. The kinetic parameters were determined after 1, 3 and 5 hours. Mass transfer coefficients were calculated using Hawkes and Flink's model and the results indicate that the diffusion of water and solids was the most intensive during the first three hours of dehydration.

  12. Reaction of some weed species to herbicides in sugar beet cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Domańska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1975-1980, on the Experimental Farm Chylice fields of the Warsaw Agricultural University, herbicide activity was evaluated on commonly appearing weed species in sugar beet cultivation. The most frequent weeds were: Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Polygonum convolvulus and Polygonum lapatifolium. Preemergence use of chloridazon and furthermore postemergence use of phenmedipham were most effective in control. Metolachlor or bentiocarb mixed with metamitron and chloridazon were effective too. It was found that 70% control of Chenopodium album increased crops of sugar beets by about 25% on the basis of two years experiments (1979-1980, differing in quantity and periods of rainfall, a visible dependence of herbicide effectiveness on climatic conditions was demonstrated.

  13. Disease variation and chemical control of Ramularia leaf spot in sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thach, Tine; Munk, Lisa; Hansen, Anne Lisbet;

    2013-01-01

    Data from 1999 to 2009 on Ramularia leaf spot caused by Ramularia beticola in sugar beet showed that it was a serious disease in sugar beet in 5 out of 11 seasons. The severity and significance of the disease was found to vary depending on events with precipitation, particularly in two specific...... weeks in July and September. Several fungicides were found to give effective control, and positive net yield responses were found in 9 out of 11 seasons. The average sugar yield response varied in individual years between 0.7 and 2.2 t ha−1. High levels of control of Ramularia leaf spot was obtained...... in field trials, a semi-field trial and an in vitro test using the compounds pyraclostrobin, epoxiconazole, difenoconazole and propiconazole. Dose response trials with epoxiconazole from two seasons showed both reduced efficacy and yield responses from low doses. They also proved that the optimal input...

  14. Control of sugar beet pests at early season by seed treatment with insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kereši Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2001-2004, experiments were conducted in the region of Bačka (northern Serbia to assess the efficiency of insecticide treatment of sugar beet seeds in controlling soil pests (larvae of Elateridae family and reducing the damage caused by beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris G e r m and flea beetle (Chaetocnema tibialis I l l i g. Several insecticides mostly systemic ones (carbofuran, thiamethoxam, fipronil, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and their combinations with pyrethroids in different doses were tested in field conditions. Stand density, percentages of plants damaged by B. punctiventris and C. tibialis, injury level and weight of juvenile plants served as parameters for evaluation of insecticide efficiency. Most of the insecticides applied to seeds provided a significantly better stand density compared with the untreated control. Because of their systemic action, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and their mixtures with pyrethroids provided very good protection of juvenile plants from C. tibialis and in some cases from B. punctiventris.

  15. Qualitative TLC determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sugar-beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILJANA D. SKRBIC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of polycyclic or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in sugar-beet from a local sugar factory in the district of Vojvodina. The sugar-beet was cultivated on areas near roads with intensive traffic. The procedure for the preparation and determination of these compounds included saponification of the sample, several liquid–liquid extraction systems and a silica gel column clean-up. The purified sample solution was analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC on silica gel with cyclohexane as the developing solvent. Benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(aanthracene and/or benzo(apyrene were detected at concentrations greater than the allowed limits in food.

  16. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  17. Sugar beet waste and its component ferulic acid inhibits external mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Almudena; Jakobsen, Iver; Egsgaard, Helge

    2011-01-01

    mycelium in soil whereas non-fermented waste (SB) had a strong inhibitory effect. The underlying mechanisms are not understood. We used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to identify differences in composition of water extracts of ASB and SB. The chromatograms showed that ferulic acid was present in SB...... and absent in ASB. We compared the effects of the water extracts of SB and ASB and ferulic acid upon the growth of Glomus intraradices in in vitro monoxenic cultures. Hyphal growth of the AM fungus G. intraradices was extremely reduced in ferulic acid and SB treatments. Moreover, AM hyphae appeared......External arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) mycelium plays an important role in soil while interacting with a range of biotic and abiotic factors. One example is the soil organic amendment sugar beet waste. The fermented Aspergillus niger–sugar beet waste (ASB) increases growth and P uptake by the AM...

  18. Hyper sausage neuron: Recognition of transgenic sugar-beet based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Li, Zhi; Hu, Fangrong; Chen, Tao; Du, Yong; Xin, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for identification of terahertz (THz) spectral of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) based on Hyper Sausage Neuron (HSN), and THz transmittance spectra of some typical transgenic sugar-beet samples are investigated to demonstrate its feasibility. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract features of the spectrum data, and instead of the original spectrum data, the feature signals are fed into the HSN pattern recognition, a new multiple weights neural network (MWNN). The experimental result shows that the HSN model not only can correctly classify different types of transgenic sugar-beets, but also can reject identity non similar samples in the same type. The proposed approach provides a new effective method for detection and identification of GMOs by using THz spectroscopy.

  19. Analysis of quality of sowing by pneumatic sowing machines for sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mursec

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents two sowing machines for interval sowing, differing in the mode of operation. The pneumatic vacuum sowing machine OLT and the pneumatic pressure sowing machine Aeromat - Becker for sowing sugar beet are compared. We were interested in adequacy of sowing at different working speeds. The purpose of the paper is to find out the optimum working speed for the individual sowing machine.Design/methodology/approach: The measurements were performed with two sowing machines which are most widely used in Slovenia; the sowing machines were tested in completely identical conditions at different speeds of sowing.Findings: The parameters such as working efficiency, depth of sowing, inter - row distance and distance between seeds in the sowing row were measured and calculated.Research limitations/implications: Cultivation of sugar beet depends primarily on expert and technically correct sowing. Distance between seeds in the sowing row must enable the plants to have optimum conditions for their growth and development. For successful sowing it is necessary to know adequacy of the soil for sowing, technical properties of the sowing machine and biotechnical characteristics of the seed.Practical implications: Sowing machines and expertly performed sowing are of great importance for cultivation of sugar beet. The principal aim of the paper is to establish whether the higher working speed influences the quality of sowing. The tests were aimed at defining the most suitable sowing speed for both sowing machines on the basis of measured data. Cultivation of sugar beet requires much money invested and work performed per unit of area. It is very important for the producers to be well familiarized with all agro - technical measures.Originality/value: Taking into account all measured parameters the optimum sowing speed of the pneumatic vacuum machine OLT is 8 km/h and the optimum sowing speed of the pneumatic pressure sowing machine Aeromat

  20. Identification and Plant Interaction of a Phyllobacterium sp., a Predominant Rhizobacterium of Young Sugar Beet Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Bart; Joos, H; Dierickx, S; VANTOMME, R; Swings, Jean; Kersters, Karel; Montagu, Marc Van

    1990-01-01

    The second most abundant bacterium on the root surface of young sugar beet plants was identified as a Phyllobacterium sp. (Rhizobiaceae) based on a comparison of the results of 39 conventional identification tests, 167 API tests, 30 antibiotic susceptibility tests, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic fingerprints of total cellular proteins with type strains of Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum and Phyllobacterium rubiacearum. It was found on 198 of 1,100 investigated pla...

  1. Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctoni solani K ü h n of sugar beet in province Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet root rot appears regularly each year, but its intensity depends on agro ecological conditions. The predominant causers of root rot in Vojvodina are fungi from Fusarium genus and species Macrophomina phaseolina. Over the last couple of years, more intense occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot has been observed. Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of root rot is present in sugar beet fields. During 2000-2005, on the territory of Vojvodina, the frequency of Rhizoctonia solani in phytopathological isolations from rotted sugar beet roots was between 0,0-18,2%. The intensity of the disease depends on localities, agro ecological conditions and genotypes. Symptoms of Rhizoctonia root rot were registered at some localities in all regions of Vojvodina: Srem, Banat and Bačka. The disease appearance is above all local. It occurs in small patches, on heavy, non-structured soil and on depressed wet parts of plots. Individual diseased plants can be found during July. Brown rot appears on sugar beet roots, with dried tissue on surface, which is present on the tail as well as on the middle part and the head of root. Tissues with described symptoms are deeper regarding the healthy part of root. On vertical root section, the necrotic changes are clearly visible comparing to tissue section without symptoms. The heavily infected tissue forms fissures on roots in most cases. Besides the above-mentioned symptoms on roots, the plant wilting and leaf handle necrosis as well as leaf dying are also observed. When rot spreads to the whole root head, plants quickly die.

  2. Co-existence with GM crops: grasses, clover and fodder beet

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, R. B.; Løjtnant, C.; Andersen, N.S.; Andersen, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    Co-existence with GM crops: grasses, clover and fodder beet In 2006 the global cultivation of genetically modified crops increased with 13% and reached 102 million hectares. The GM crops cultivated are mainly soybean, maize, cotton and oilseed rape, but other modified crops are appearing, e.g. in 2006 herbicide tolerant alfalfa was commercialized in US. Also in Europe, GM crop cultivation is increasing with the largest areas in Rumania and Spain followed by Portugal, France, Germany, Czec...

  3. The Application of Membrane Separation Processes as Environmental Friendly Methods in the Beet Sugar Production

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, Zita; Gyura, Julianna; Djuric, Mirjana; Vatai, Gyula; Eszterle, Matild

    2008-01-01

    The data collected on the impact of the traditional sugar beet processing on the environment pollution have shown that the greatest disadvantage is related to very high amount of required energy (mostly for the evaporation). The second important disadvantage is associated with the high level of water consumption (mostly for the extraction). The third disadvantage is connected to the purification of sugar juice and removal of non-sucrose compounds, undesired from the point of view of sugar qua...

  4. Metapopulation structure and fine-scaled genetic structuring in crop-wild hybrid weed beets

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, J-F; Cuguen, J.; Fénart, S

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the microspatial and temporal genetic variation in crop-wild hybrid weed beets that emerged from the seed bank in a cultivated field surveyed over two successive years. We demonstrate the occurrence of demes highly genetically differentiated, kin-structured, characterized by moderate effective population sizes, differing in propensity for selfing, and arising from nonrandom genetic subsets of the seed bank. Only one deme identified in the first survey year significantly co...

  5. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović Jelena M.; Šćiban Marina B.; Antov Mirjana G.; Kukić Dragana V.; Vasić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with...

  6. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Wadamori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW. Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW. The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  7. Technology of budgeting as a tool of managing sugar beet production

    OpenAIRE

    Biryuk Olena G.; Korol Viktoriya V.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers main methodical principles of development of the system of budgets of sugar beet production. The article analyses, systemises and generalises theoretical developments of scientists and takes into account practice of agricultural enterprises to prove that the most prospective of the process oriented approach to budgeting. It considers main directions of budgeting as a control tool. It identifies topical problems of the budgeting process in integration agro-industrial form...

  8. Occurence, spread and possibilities of invasive weeds control in sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinović Branko I.; Meseldžija Maja U.

    2006-01-01

    Floristically rich and diverse weed comunity of sugar beet is in our country represented by 150 weed species. They are not all equaly significant in weediness of this crop. Only a limited number of them participate in weed comunity composition. These are: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers. Digitaria sanguinalis (L) Scop., Hibiscus trionum L., R...

  9. The sensitivity of barley, field beans and sugar beet to soil compaction

    OpenAIRE

    Brereton, Jeremy Charles

    1986-01-01

    The sensitivity of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare, cv. Carnival), field beans (Vicia faba, ev. Maris Bead) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris,cv. Monoire) to topsoil compaction induced by tractor wheelings, post sowing, on a coarse gravelly loam of the Arrow series was investigated in 1983 and 1984. The study revealed that in both years topsoil compaction increased the dry bulk density, vane shear strength and cone resistance of the soil. Although compaction reduced only the plant population o...

  10. State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

  11. Comparative cytological investigations on protoplasts, tissue cultures and seedlings from Beta vulgaris (sugar-beet)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations were carried out with the aim of determining ploidy status, at short and long intervals, using suspension and protoplast cultures and seedlings of Beta vulgaris L. var. altissima cv. Hymona (sugar-beet). Two rapid-growing strains of sugar-beet were used, strain B.14.1, with a ploidy level of 8c to 64c (with maxima between 8c and 16c) and strain B.1.9, varying in DNA content from 16c to 128c (with a maximum frequency between 32c and 64c). Long-term studies of about two years resulted in constant ploidy spectrum, whereas short-term analyses under turbidostatic conditions showed more or less regular oscillations in the frequency distribution, with an amplitude of 20-40% of the medium ploidy level and with an oscillation period of 1-2 days. The isolation of protoplasts from the two strains and the measurement of their ploidy levels before and after isolation, and at longer periods thereafter, showed a shift in ploidy level immediately after isolation. Studies on the ploidy levels in seeds and seedlings of sugar-beet could yield evidence that heterogeneity in the ploidy patterns of cell cultures is not a feature of cultivated cells or tissue alone, but also occurs naturally during plant development. (author)

  12. Potential nitrosamine formation and its prevention during biological denitrification of red beet juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, E; Haug, M; Janzowski, C; Vetter, A; Eisenbrand, G

    1997-02-01

    High nitrate intake has been shown to result in an increased risk of endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds. Certain vegetables and vegetable juices contain high concentrations of nitrate. Biological denitrification using strains of Paracoccus denitrificans (P.d.) has been proposed as effective means to reduce nitrate contents in such vegetable juices. During this bacterial denitrification process, substantial nitrite concentrations are transiently formed. This study investigated whether N-nitrosation reactions might occur. The easily nitrosatable amine morpholine was added to red beet juice at high concentration (100 ppm) during denitrification 10 different batches of red beet juice served as raw material. Each batch was submitted to denitrification in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid. In the absence of ascorbic acid, formation of N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) was observed in the low ppb range (0.5-8 ppb). Addition of ascorbic acid (500 mg/litre) inhibited the formation of NMOR, except for those instances where the pH was less than 6 and/or nitrate turnover was low (high rates of nitrate turnover (> 200 mg NO3-/litre/hr), nitrosamine formation can reliably be prevented by ascorbic acid. The results show that bacterial denitrification of red beet juice high in nitrate can be accomplished without the risk of nitrosamine formation. PMID:9146735

  13. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

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    Karlovsky Petr

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

  14. Ethanol fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučurović Vesna M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP is a very simple and cheap immobilization method for retaining high cells density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, yeast cells were immobilized by adhesion onto SBP suspended in the synthetic culture media under different conditions such as: glucose concentration (100, 120 and 150 g/l, inoculum concentration (5, 10 and 15 g/l dry mass and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C. In order to estimate the optimal immobilization conditions the yeast cells retention (R, after each immobilization experiment was analyzed. The highest R value of 0.486 g dry mass yeast /g dry mass SBP was obtained at 30°C, glucose concentration of 150 g/l, and inoculum concentration of 15 g/l. The yeast immobilized under these conditions was used for ethanol fermentation of sugar beet molasses containing 150.2 g/l of reducing sugar. Efficient ethanol fermentation (ethanol concentration of 70.57 g/l, fermentation efficiency 93.98% of sugar beet molasses was achieved using S. cerevisiae immobilized by natural adhesion on SBP. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  15. Metapopulation structure and fine-scaled genetic structuring in crop-wild hybrid weed beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, J-F; Cuguen, J; Fénart, S

    2011-10-01

    This study explores the microspatial and temporal genetic variation in crop-wild hybrid weed beets that emerged from the seed bank in a cultivated field surveyed over two successive years. We demonstrate the occurrence of demes highly genetically differentiated, kin-structured, characterized by moderate effective population sizes, differing in propensity for selfing, and arising from nonrandom genetic subsets of the seed bank. Only one deme identified in the first survey year significantly contributed to the weed beets that emerged in the second year. Spatial structuring appears to be primarily due to gravity seed dispersal and limited pollen flow among weed beet demes. Within each genetic cluster identified by Bayesian assignments and multivariate analyses, F(IS) estimates and level of biparental inbreeding--revealed by progeny analyses--dropped to non-significant values. This suggests that random mating occurs at the scale of genetically distinct demes over a very short scale. Our results highlight the need to carefully depict genetic discontinuities in weed species, when attempting to describe their local genetic neighborhoods within which genetic drift and selective processes occur.

  16. Host effect on the genetic diversification of beet necrotic yellow vein virus single-plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Leal, Rodolfo; Bryan, Becky K; Rush, Charles M

    2010-11-01

    Theoretical models predict that, under restrictive host conditions, virus populations will exhibit greater genetic variability. This virus response has been experimentally demonstrated in a few cases but its relation with a virus's capability to overcome plant resistance is unknown. To explore the genetic host effects on Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) populations that might be related to resistance durability, a wild-type virus isolate was vector inoculated into partially resistant Rz1, Rz2, and susceptible sugar beet cultivars during a serial planting experiment. Cloning and sequencing a region of the viral RNA-3, involving the pathogenic determinant p25, revealed that virus diversity significantly increased in direct proportion to the strength of host resistance. Thus, whereas virus titers were highest, intermediate, and lowest in susceptible, Rz1, and Rz2 plants, respectively; the average number of nucleotide differences among single-plant populations was 0.8 (±0.1) in susceptible, 1.4 (±0.1) in Rz1, and 2.4 (±0.2) in Rz2 genotypes. A similar relationship between host restriction to BNYVV root accumulation and virus genetic variability was detected in fields of sugar beet where these specific Rz1- and Rz2-mediated resistances have been defeated.

  17. Attempts to induce haploids in anther cultures of sugar, fodder and wild species of beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Rogozińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, aimed at obtaining beet haploids from anthers, the effect of mineral media, potato and sugar beet extract and p-fluorophenylalanine (PFP in combination with growth substances was tested. Nutrient-starved plants as anther-donors, anther-starvation, cold treatment and photoperiod were also analysed. On all mineral media the anthers produced callus and roots; however, the percentage depended on the combination of growth substances used. The best medium for differentiation was that of Linsmaier and Skoog with 25 µM zeatin or 6-(3-methyl-2-butenylaminopurine with 5 µM naphthalene-l-acetic acid (25.5%. The addition of PFP caused an increase in the percentage of anther differentiation (41.6%. Besides callus and roots on one of the anthers (in ca. 140000 tested, vegetative buds were formed from which numerous plants were obtained (2n. Plant and anther nutrient starvation did not improve the anther response to differentiation, nor did it induce haploid development, similarly as cold treatment of inflorescences or isolated anthers. The anthers of wild species showed lower ability to differentiate than those of sugar or fodder beets. Cytological analyses showed formation of multicellular structures until ca. the 12-th day of anther culture; afterwards, they degenerated.

  18. Effect of Environment and Sugar Beet Genotype on Root Rot Development and Pathogen Profile During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Sebastian; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Storage rots represent an economically important factor impairing the storability of sugar beet by increasing sucrose losses and invert sugar content. Understanding the development of disease management strategies, knowledge about major storage pathogens, and factors influencing their occurrence is crucial. In comprehensive storage trials conducted under controlled conditions, the effects of environment and genotype on rot development and associated quality changes were investigated. Prevalent species involved in rot development were identified by a newly developed microarray. The strongest effect on rot development was assigned to environment factors followed by genotypic effects. Despite large variation in rot severity (sample range 0 to 84%), the spectrum of microorganisms colonizing sugar beet remained fairly constant across all treatments with dominant species belonging to the fungal genera Botrytis, Fusarium, and Penicillium. The intensity of microbial tissue necrotization was strongly correlated with sucrose losses (R² = 0.79 to 0.91) and invert sugar accumulation (R² = 0.91 to 0.95). A storage rot resistance bioassay was developed that could successfully reproduce the genotype ranking observed in storage trials. Quantification of fungal biomass indicates that genetic resistance is based on a quantitative mechanism. Further work is required to understand the large environmental influence on rot development in sugar beet. PMID:26474333

  19. Occurence, spread and possibilities of invasive weeds control in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Branko I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristically rich and diverse weed comunity of sugar beet is in our country represented by 150 weed species. They are not all equaly significant in weediness of this crop. Only a limited number of them participate in weed comunity composition. These are: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L Pers. Digitaria sanguinalis (L Scop., Hibiscus trionum L., Rubus caesius L. Echinochloa crus-gall L., Polygonum aviculare L., P. lapathifolium L., P. persicaria L., Setaria glauca (L P. B., S. viridis (L P. B., Solanum nigrum L. and Sorghum halepense (L Pers. In shooting period up to 4-8 weeks upon emergence, sugar beet is under the haviest harmfull inluence of weeds, especially invasive ones such as: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Iva xanthifolia L. Sorghum halepense (L Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. Sugar beet growing requires intensive cultural practices, i.e. basic and additional tillage and cultivation. Due to the widening of weed problems, frequent herbicide use in several applications is needed in the longer time period.

  20. Metapopulation structure and fine-scaled genetic structuring in crop-wild hybrid weed beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, J-F; Cuguen, J; Fénart, S

    2011-10-01

    This study explores the microspatial and temporal genetic variation in crop-wild hybrid weed beets that emerged from the seed bank in a cultivated field surveyed over two successive years. We demonstrate the occurrence of demes highly genetically differentiated, kin-structured, characterized by moderate effective population sizes, differing in propensity for selfing, and arising from nonrandom genetic subsets of the seed bank. Only one deme identified in the first survey year significantly contributed to the weed beets that emerged in the second year. Spatial structuring appears to be primarily due to gravity seed dispersal and limited pollen flow among weed beet demes. Within each genetic cluster identified by Bayesian assignments and multivariate analyses, F(IS) estimates and level of biparental inbreeding--revealed by progeny analyses--dropped to non-significant values. This suggests that random mating occurs at the scale of genetically distinct demes over a very short scale. Our results highlight the need to carefully depict genetic discontinuities in weed species, when attempting to describe their local genetic neighborhoods within which genetic drift and selective processes occur. PMID:21448229

  1. Host effect on the genetic diversification of beet necrotic yellow vein virus single-plant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Leal, Rodolfo; Bryan, Becky K; Rush, Charles M

    2010-11-01

    Theoretical models predict that, under restrictive host conditions, virus populations will exhibit greater genetic variability. This virus response has been experimentally demonstrated in a few cases but its relation with a virus's capability to overcome plant resistance is unknown. To explore the genetic host effects on Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) populations that might be related to resistance durability, a wild-type virus isolate was vector inoculated into partially resistant Rz1, Rz2, and susceptible sugar beet cultivars during a serial planting experiment. Cloning and sequencing a region of the viral RNA-3, involving the pathogenic determinant p25, revealed that virus diversity significantly increased in direct proportion to the strength of host resistance. Thus, whereas virus titers were highest, intermediate, and lowest in susceptible, Rz1, and Rz2 plants, respectively; the average number of nucleotide differences among single-plant populations was 0.8 (±0.1) in susceptible, 1.4 (±0.1) in Rz1, and 2.4 (±0.2) in Rz2 genotypes. A similar relationship between host restriction to BNYVV root accumulation and virus genetic variability was detected in fields of sugar beet where these specific Rz1- and Rz2-mediated resistances have been defeated. PMID:20649415

  2. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and α-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of α- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of α-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of α-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

  3. CaSO4 and cationic polyelectrolyte as possible pectin precipitants in sugar beet juice clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljanin Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three pectin preparations were isolated from fresh sugar beet pulp during the 150 minutes of extraction, at pH values of 1, 3.5 and 8.5. CaSO4 precipitant was added to 100 cm3 of 0.1% (wt solution of pectin. Studies were performed with 9 different concentrations of CaSO4 solution (50-450 mg dm-3 with the addition of a cationic polyelectrolyte (cationic PAM in concentrations of 3 and 5 mg dm-3. The efficiency of pectin precipitation was monitored by measuring the zeta potential of pectin preparations. Optimal amounts of precipitant CaSO4, without the use of a cationic polyelectrolyte, were as follows: 490-678 mg CaSO4/g pectin. After the use of a cationic polyelectrolyte, the optimal amounts of CaSO4 were smaller (353-512 mg/g pectin. These quantities are significantly lower than the average amount of CaO used in the conventional clarification process of sugar beet juice (about 9 g/g pectin of sugar beet juice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR -31055

  4. Arabidopsis thaliana Remorins Interact with SnRK1 and Play a Role in Susceptibility to Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmin Son

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Remorins, a family of plant-specific proteins containing a variable N-terminal region and conserved C-terminal domain, play a role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, including host-microbe interactions. However, their functions remain to be completely elucidated, especially for the Arabidopsis thaliana remorin group 4 (AtREM4. To elucidate the role of remorins in Arabidopsis, we first showed that AtREM4s have typical molecular characteristics of the remorins, such as induction by various types of biotic and abiotic stresses, localization in plasma membrane and homo- and hetero-oligomeric interaction. Next, we showed that their loss-of-function mutants displayed reduced susceptibility to geminiviruses, Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus, while overexpressors enhanced susceptibility. Moreover, we found that they interacted with SnRK1, which phosphorylated AtREM4.1, and were degraded by the 26S proteasome pathway. These results suggest that AtREM4s may be involved in the SnRK1-mediated signaling pathway and play a role as positive regulators of the cell cycle during geminivirus infection.

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of Beta macrocarpa and Identification of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in Response to Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Fan

    Full Text Available Rhizomania is one of the most devastating diseases of sugar beet. It is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV transmitted by the obligate root-infecting parasite Polymyxa betae. Beta macrocarpa, a wild beet species widely used as a systemic host in the laboratory, can be rub-inoculated with BNYVV to avoid variation associated with the presence of the vector P. betae. To better understand disease and resistance between beets and BNYVV, we characterized the transcriptome of B. macrocarpa and analyzed global gene expression of B. macrocarpa in response to BNYVV infection using the Illumina sequencing platform.The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 75,917 unigenes, with an average length of 1054 bp. Based on a BLASTX search (E-value ≤ 10-5 against the non-redundant (NR, NCBI protein, Swiss-Prot, the Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases, there were 39,372 unigenes annotated. In addition, 4,834 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were also predicted, which could serve as a foundation for various applications in beet breeding. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes revealed that 261 genes were differentially expressed in infected compared to control plants, including 128 up- and 133 down-regulated genes. GO analysis showed that the changes in the differently expressed genes were mainly enrichment in response to biotic stimulus and primary metabolic process.Our results not only provide a rich genomic resource for beets, but also benefit research into the molecular mechanisms of beet- BNYV Vinteraction.

  6. The phytosanitary form and fighting measures diseases and pests of sugar beet from Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timus Asea M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Republic of Moldova. The North and Central regions have good enough pedoclimatic conditions. The genetic potential of sorts and hybrids can be created through the application of modern technologies in order to grow at least 32-35 tons/ha of sugar beet roots. In the Republic of Moldova, sugar beet vegetates between 160 and 180 days in the first year and needs approximately an amount of 2400-2900°C, average of 15.3-15.4°C. Each phenological phase needs different temperatures: at least 4C° is necessary for planting and springing an amount of 650°C is necessary for foliar apparatus; an amount of 1150- 1800°C is necessary to grow the volume of roots and for sugar depositing the average of 2400 to 2600°C is necessary. The mentioned temperatures ensure a normal development of sugar beet plants. If these temperatures fluctuate, the pathogens and pests are stimulated to develop. The most frequent diseases of sugar beet are: Pythium de baryanum Hesse., Aphanomyces cochlioides Dresch. Peronospora schachtii Fuck., Phoma betae Fr. Cercospora beticola Sacc. Erysiphe communis Grev. f. betae Jacz., virosis - Beta virus 2, 3 si 4 etc. The main pests belong to the following categories: Homoptera: Aphis fabae Scop. (fam. Aphididae, Pemphigus fuscicornis Koch. (fam. Pemphigidae Coleoptera: Agriotes sp. (fam. Elateridae, Chaetocnema concinna M. Ch. breviuscula Fld., Cassida nebulosa L. (fam. Chrysomelidae, Atomaria linearis Step. (fam. Cryptophagidae; Bothynoderes punctiventris Germ., Tanymechus dilaticollis Gyll., T. palliatus F., Psalidium maxillosum F. (Curculionidae; Lepidoptera: Agrotis segetum Den. et Schiff., Authographa gamma L. Mamestra (Barathra brassicae L. (Noctuidae, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Pyralidae, Gnorimoschema ocellatella Boyd.; Diptera Pegomyia betae Curtis. (fam. Anthomyidae. Heterodera schachtii Schmidt (Heteroderidae. The most recommended insecticides for fighting the

  7. Transcript profiles uncover temporal and stress-induced changes of metabolic pathways in germinating sugar beet seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windhövel Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a cultivation area of 1.75 Mio ha and sugar yield of 16.7 Mio tons in 2006, sugar beet is a crop of great economic importance in Europe. The productivity of sugar beet is determined significantly by seed vigour and field emergence potential; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits. Both traits exhibit large variations within sugar beet germplasm that have been difficult to ascribe to either environmental or genetic causes. Among potential targets for trait improvement, an enhancement of stress tolerance is considered because of the high negative influence of environmental stresses on trait parameters. Extending our knowledge of genetic and molecular determinants of sugar beet germination, stress response and adaptation mechanisms would facilitate the detection of new targets for breeding crop with an enhanced field emergence potential. Results To gain insight into the sugar beet germination we initiated an analysis of gene expression in a well emerging sugar beet hybrid showing high germination potential under various environmental conditions. A total of 2,784 ESTs representing 2,251 'unigenes' was generated from dry mature and germinating seeds. Analysis of the temporal expression of these genes during germination under non-stress conditions uncovered drastic transcriptional changes accompanying a shift from quiescent to metabolically active stages of the plant life cycle. Assay of germination under stressful conditions revealed 157 genes showing significantly different expression patterns in response to stress. As deduced from transcriptome data, stress adaptation mechanisms included an alteration in reserve mobilization pathways, an accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and detoxification enzymes. The observed transcriptional changes are supposed to be regulated by ABA-dependent signal transduction pathway. Conclusion This study

  8. Human urine and wood ash as plant nutrients for red beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivation: impacts on yield quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Surendra K; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Weisell, Janne; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2010-02-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of human urine and wood ash fertilization on the yield and quality of red beet by measuring the microbial, nutrient, and antioxidant (betanin) content of the roots. Red beets were fertilized with 133 kg of N/ha as mineral fertilizer, urine and ash, and only urine with no fertilizer as a control. The mineral-fertilized plants and urine- and ash-fertilized plants also received 89 kg of P/ha. Urine and ash and only urine fertilizer produced 1720 and 656 kg/ha more root biomass, respectively, versus what was obtained from the mineral fertilizer. Few fecal coliforms and coliphage were detected in mineral-fertilized and urine- and ash-fertilized red beet roots. The protein and betanin contents in red beet roots were similar in all treatments. In conclusion, this study revealed that urine with or without ash can increase the yield of red beet and furthermore the microbial quality and chemical quality were similar to the situation in mineral-fertilized products. PMID:20050665

  9. BNYVV-derived dsRNA confers resistance to rhizomania disease of sugar beet as evidenced by a novel transgenic hairy root approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavli, R.; Panopoulos, N.J.; Goldbach, R.W.; Skaracis, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed sugar beet hairy roots, expressing dsRNA from the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus replicase gene, were used as a novel approach to assess the efficacy of three intron-hairpin constructs at conferring resistance to rhizomania disease. Genetically engineered roots

  10. Classification of sugar beet and volunteer potato reflection spectra with a neural network and statistical discriminant analysis to select discriminative wavelengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.; Hofstee, J.W.; Zande, van de J.C.; Meuleman, J.; Henten, van E.J.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the reflectance properties of volunteer potato and sugar beet and to assess the potential of separating sugar beet and volunteer potato at different fields and in different years, using spectral reflectance characteristics. With the ImspectorMobile, veg

  11. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sorathiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50% of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Results: Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding.

  12. Mechanical Property Characterization of Plasticized Sugar Beet Pulp and Poly(lactic acid) Green Composites using Acoustic Emission and Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbitol and glycerol were used to plasticize sugar beet pulp-poly (lactic acid) green composites. The plasticizer was incorporated into sugar beet pulp (SBP)at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% w/w at low temperature and shear and then compounded with PLA using twin-screw extrusion and injection molding. The...

  13. Sugar beet molasses as an ingredient to enhance the nutritional and functional properties of gluten-free cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčev, Bojana; Mišan, Aleksandra; Šarić, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet molasses is a raw material with high potential to be a functional ingredient in baked goods. This paper investigated the nutritional and functional properties of gluten-free cookies enriched with sugar beet molasses. At all enrichment levels and forms tested (liquid and dry), the addition of beet molasses improved the micronutrient pattern and antioxidative status of gluten-free cookies. The cookies prepared with molasses were significantly higher in potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, betaine, total phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging abilities. Molasses contributed to wider spectra of phenolic compounds. The dominating phenolic compounds in the molasses-enriched cookies were catechin, ferulic, syringic and vanillic acid. Molasses also contributed to the presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the cookies. Addition of molasses increased the content of hydroxymethyfurfural in the cookies, but not above values commonly reported for this product type. Molasses addition improved the overall acceptance of gluten-free cookies up to 30% enrichment level. PMID:26947667

  14. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via an interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Ellen G; Colquhoun, Ian J; Chau, Hoa K; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Waldron, Keith W; Morris, Victor J; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2016-01-20

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts have been compared. Pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp only weakly affected the viability of colon cancer cells. Alkali treatment increased the anti-cancer effect of sugar beet pectin via an induction of apoptosis. Alkali treatment decreased the degree of esterification (DE) and increased the ratio of rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) to homogalacturonan. Low DE per se did not play a significant role in the anti-cancer activity. However, the enzymatic removal of galactose and, to a lesser extent, arabinose from the pectin decreased the effect on cancer cells indicating that the neutral sugar-containing RGI regions are important for pectin bioactivity.

  15. Low level of gene flow from cultivated beets (¤Beta vulgaris¤ L. ssp. ¤vulgaris¤) into Danish populations of sea beet (¤Beta vulgaris¤ L. ssp. ¤maritima¤ (L.) Arcangeli)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.S.; Siegismund, H.R.; Meyer, V.;

    2005-01-01

    with cultivated beet in one of the sea beet populations from the centre of the Danish seed propagation area. Triploid hybrids found in this population were verified with flow cytometry. Possible hybrids or introgressed plants were also found in the French and Italian populations. However, individual assignment...... test using a Bayesian method provided 100% assignment success of diploid individuals into their correct subspecies of origin, and a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MC MC) approach revealed clear distinction of individuals into groups according to their subspecies of origin, with a zero level...

  16. Technical and economic assessments of storage techniques for long-term retention of industrial-beet sugar for non-food industrial fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ramirez, Juan Manuel

    Industrial beets may compete against corn grain as an important source of sugars for non-food industrial fermentations. However, dependable and energy-efficient systems for beet sugar storage and processing are necessary to help establish industrial beets as a viable sugar feedstock. Therefore, technical and economic aspects of beet sugar storage and processing were evaluated. First, sugar retention was evaluated in whole beets treated externally with either one of two antimicrobials or a senescence inhibitor and stored for 36 wk at different temperature and atmosphere combinations. Although surface treatment did not improve sugar retention, full retention was enabled by beet dehydration caused by ambient air at 25 °C and with a relative humidity of 37%. This insight led to the evaluation of sugar retention in ground-beet tissue ensiled for 8 wk at different combinations of acidic pH, moisture content (MC), and sugar:solids. Some combinations of pH ≤ 4.0 and MC ≤ 67.5% enabled retentions of at least 90%. Yeast fermentability was also evaluated in non-purified beet juice acidified to enable long-term storage and partially neutralized before fermentation. None of the salts synthesized through juice acidification and partial neutralization inhibited yeast fermentation at the levels evaluated in that work. Conversely, yeast fermentation rates significantly improved in the presence of ammonium salts, which appeared to compensate for nitrogen deficiencies. Capital and operating costs for production and storage of concentrated beet juice for an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 76 x 106 L y-1 were estimated on a dry-sugar basis as U.S. ¢34.0 kg-1 and ¢2.2 kg-1, respectively. Storage and processing techniques evaluated thus far prove that industrial beets are a technically-feasible sugar feedstock for ethanol production.

  17. Effect of sugar beet genotype on the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus P25 pathogenicity factor and evidence for a fitness penalty in resistance-breaking strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, Kathrin; Varrelmann, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), vectored by Polymyxa betae, causes rhizomania in sugar beet. For disease control, the cultivation of hybrids carrying Rz1 resistance is crucial, but is compromised by resistance-breaking (RB) strains with specific mutations in the P25 protein at amino acids 67-70 (tetrad). To obtain evidence for P25 variability from soil-borne populations, where the virus persists for decades, populations with wild-type (WT) and RB properties were analysed by P25 deep sequencing. The level of P25 variation in the populations analysed did not correlate with RB properties. Remarkably, one WT population contained P25 with RB mutations at a frequency of 11%. To demonstrate selection by Rz1 and the influence of RB mutations on relative fitness, competition experiments between strains were performed. Following a mixture of strains with four RNAs, a shift in tetrad variants was observed, suggesting that strains did not mix or transreplicate. The plant genotype exerted a clear influence on the frequency of RB tetrads. In Rz1 plants, the RB variants outcompeted the WT variants, and mostly vice versa in susceptible plants, demonstrating a relative fitness penalty of RB mutations. The strong genotype effect supports the hypothesized Rz1 RB strain selection with four RNAs, suggesting that a certain tetrad needs to become dominant in a population to influence its properties. Tetrad selection was not observed when an RB strain, with an additional P26 protein encoded by a fifth RNA, competed with a WT strain, supporting its role as a second BNYVV pathogenicity factor and suggesting the reassortment of both types.

  18. Effect of sugar beet genotype on the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus P25 pathogenicity factor and evidence for a fitness penalty in resistance-breaking strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, Kathrin; Varrelmann, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), vectored by Polymyxa betae, causes rhizomania in sugar beet. For disease control, the cultivation of hybrids carrying Rz1 resistance is crucial, but is compromised by resistance-breaking (RB) strains with specific mutations in the P25 protein at amino acids 67-70 (tetrad). To obtain evidence for P25 variability from soil-borne populations, where the virus persists for decades, populations with wild-type (WT) and RB properties were analysed by P25 deep sequencing. The level of P25 variation in the populations analysed did not correlate with RB properties. Remarkably, one WT population contained P25 with RB mutations at a frequency of 11%. To demonstrate selection by Rz1 and the influence of RB mutations on relative fitness, competition experiments between strains were performed. Following a mixture of strains with four RNAs, a shift in tetrad variants was observed, suggesting that strains did not mix or transreplicate. The plant genotype exerted a clear influence on the frequency of RB tetrads. In Rz1 plants, the RB variants outcompeted the WT variants, and mostly vice versa in susceptible plants, demonstrating a relative fitness penalty of RB mutations. The strong genotype effect supports the hypothesized Rz1 RB strain selection with four RNAs, suggesting that a certain tetrad needs to become dominant in a population to influence its properties. Tetrad selection was not observed when an RB strain, with an additional P26 protein encoded by a fifth RNA, competed with a WT strain, supporting its role as a second BNYVV pathogenicity factor and suggesting the reassortment of both types. PMID:23282068

  19. A male sterility-associated mitochondrial protein in wild beets causes pollen disruption in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masayuki P; Shinada, Hiroshi; Onodera, Yasuyuki; Komaki, Chihiro; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2008-06-01

    In higher plants, male reproductive (pollen) development is known to be disrupted in a class of mitochondrial mutants termed cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) mutants. Despite the increase in knowledge regarding CMS-encoding genes and their expression, definitive evidence that CMS-associated proteins actually cause pollen disruption is not yet available in most cases. Here we compare the translation products of mitochondria between the normal fertile cytoplasm and the male-sterile I-12CMS(3) cytoplasm derived from wild beets. The results show a unique 12 kDa polypeptide that is present in the I-12CMS(3) mitochondria but is not detectable among the translation products of normal mitochondria. We also found that a mitochondrial open reading frame (named orf129) was uniquely transcribed in I-12CMS(3) and is large enough to encode the novel 12 kDa polypeptide. Antibodies against a GST-ORF129 fusion protein were raised to establish that this 12 kDa polypeptide is the product of orf129. ORF129 was shown to accumulate in flower mitochondria as well as in root and leaf mitochondria. As for the CMS-associated protein (PCF protein) in petunia, ORF129 is primarily present in the matrix and is loosely associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. The orf129 sequence was fused to a mitochondrial targeting pre-sequence, placed under the control of the Arabidopsis apetala3 promoter, and introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome. Transgenic expression of ORF129 resulted in male sterility, which provides clear supporting evidence that ORF129 is responsible for the male-sterile phenotype in sugar beet with wild beet cytoplasm.

  20. Characterization of a new antifungal non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) from sugar beet leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, A K; Brunstedt, J; Madsen, M T;

    2000-01-01

    cysteines at conserved positions, the protein can be classified as a member of the plant family of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). The protein is 47% identical to IWF1, an antifungal nsLTP previously isolated from leaves of sugar beet. A potential site for N-linked glycosylation present...... sequence of 26 amino acid residues. The protein shows a strong in vitro antifungal activity against Cercospora beticola (causal agent of leaf spot disease in sugar beet) and inhibits fungal growth at concentrations below 10 µg ml(-1)....

  1. In vitro gynogenesis in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.: effects of ovule culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Barański

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of factors affecting gynogenic response of red beet ovules is discussed. The ovule response frequencies were the highest in the following conditions: N6 (Chu 1975 mineral salts, 0.5 mg/l IAA, 0.2 mg/l BA, 27 or 32oC. The influence of genotype of donor plants was confirmed and it was found that the ovules excised from cultivar plants have a greater gynogenic ability than the ovules of hybrids or inbred lines.

  2. Robotic intra-row weed hoeing in maize and sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhards, Roland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A prototype of robotic intra-row weed hoeing in maize and sugar beet is presented in this study. Weeds in the crop rows were identified using a bi-spectral image analysis system and shape analysis. Positions of weeds in the images were recorded. Selective weed control in the row was performed with a modified finger weeder driven by electrical motors. Speed of the finger weeder was increased at positions where only weeds were classified. The system was triggered by an encoder and controlled by a micro-controller.

  3. Field Observations with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Transient (LIFT Method in Barley and Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Raesch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The laser-induced fluorescence transient (LIFT method is a non-invasive remote sensing technique for measurement of photosynthetic performance of plants under laboratory and field conditions. We report here a long-term comparative study to monitor the performance of different cultivars of barley and sugar beet during the growth season of these crops. The LIFT measurements provided useful results about photosynthetic light use efficiency on selected leaves in the canopy of the studied crops. The different canopy architectures, with different optical properties, influenced the LIFT measurements.

  4. CaSO4 and cationic polyelectrolyte as possible pectin precipitants in sugar beet juice clarification

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljanin Tatjana; Lončar Biljana; Pezo Lato; Nićetin Milica; Knežević Violeta; Jevtić-Mučibabić Rada

    2015-01-01

    Three pectin preparations were isolated from fresh sugar beet pulp during the 150 minutes of extraction, at pH values of 1, 3.5 and 8.5. CaSO4 precipitant was added to 100 cm3 of 0.1% (wt) solution of pectin. Studies were performed with 9 different concentrations of CaSO4 solution (50-450 mg dm-3) with the addition of a cationic polyelectrolyte (cationic PAM) in concentrations of 3 and 5 mg dm-3. The efficiency of pectin precipitation was monitored by measu...

  5. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović Branislav V.; Šereš Zita I.; Gyura Julianna F.; Sakač Marijana B.; Simović-Šoronja Dragana M.; Mišan Aleksandra Č.; Pajin Biljana S.

    2013-01-01

    Growing demand for better quality and cheaper products put on the need to industry to balance between the two kinds of needs, which are the reduction of production costs and to ensure a high quality product. This is the case with dried sugar beet pulp as a byproduct of sugar refining process. One of the possibilities to reduce energy consumption is savings in the process of thermal dehydration in the process of the conventional drying of pulp. Pulp drying is one third of total energy co...

  6. Yield of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and efficiency of weed management systems with glyphosate and conventional herbicides under German and Polish crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichterlein, Henrike; Matzk, Anja; Kordas, Leszek; Kraus, Josef; Stibbe, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    In sugar beet production, weed control is one of the most important and most expensive practices to ensure yield. Since glyphosate-resistant sugar beets are not yet approved for cultivation in the EU, little commercial experience exists with these sugar beets in Europe. Experimental field trials were conducted at five environments (Germany, Poland, 2010, 2011) to compare the effects of glyphosate with the effects of conventional weed control programs on the development of weeds, weed control efficiency and yield. The results show that the glyphosate weed control programs compared to the conventional methods decreased not only the number of herbicide applications but equally in magnitude decreased the dosage of active ingredients. The results also showed effective weed control with glyphosate when the weed covering was greater and sugar beets had a later growth stage of four true leaves. Glyphosate-resistant sugar beets applied with the glyphosate herbicide two or three times had an increase in white sugar yield from 4 to 18 % in comparison to the high dosage conventional herbicide systems. In summary, under glyphosate management sugar beets can positively contribute to the increasingly demanding requirements regarding efficient sugar beet cultivation and to the demands by society and politics to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products in the environment.

  7. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  8. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices. PMID:23052591

  9. Removal of phosphate from aqueous solution by biochar derived from anaerobically digested sugar beet tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ying; Gao, Bin; Inyang, Mandu; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Cao, Xinde; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Yang, Liuyan

    2011-06-15

    Biochar converted from agricultural residues or other carbon-rich wastes may provide new methods and materials for environmental management, particularly with respect to carbon sequestration and contaminant remediation. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the removal of phosphate from aqueous solution by biochar derived from anaerobically digested sugar beet tailings (DSTC). Batch adsorption kinetic and equilibrium isotherm experiments and post-adsorption characterizations using SEM-EDS, XRD, and FTIR suggested that colloidal and nano-sized MgO (periclase) particles on the biochar surface were the main adsorption sites for aqueous phosphate. Batch adsorption experiments also showed that both initial solution pH and coexisting anions could affect the adsorption of phosphate onto the DSTC biochar. Of the mathematical models used to describe the adsorption kinetics of phosphate removal by the biochar, the Ritchie N_th-order (N=1.14) model showed the best fit. Two heterogeneous isotherm models (Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich) fitted the experimental isotherm of phosphate adsorption onto the biochar better than the Langmuir adsorption model. Our results suggest that biochar converted from anaerobically digested sugar beet tailings is a promising alternative adsorbent, which can be used to reclaim phosphate from water or reduce phosphate leaching from fertilized soils. In addition, there is no need to regenerate the exhausted biochar because the phosphate-laden biochar contains abundance of valuable nutrients, which may be used as a slow-release fertilizer to enhance soil fertility and to sequester carbon. PMID:21497441

  10. Effect of trimethyllead chloride on slowly activating (SV) channels in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, Zenon; Burdach, Zbigniew; Przestalski, Stanisław; Karcz, Waldemar

    2012-12-01

    The patch-clamp technique was used to examine the effect of trimethyllead chloride (Met(3)PbCl) on SV channel activity in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproot vacuoles. It was found that in the control bath the macroscopic currents showed the typical slow activation and a strong outward rectification of the steady-state currents. An addition of Met(3)PbCl to the bath solution blocked, in a concentration-dependent manner, SV currents in red beet vacuoles. The time constant τ increased several times in the presence of 100 μM trimethyllead chloride at all voltages tested. When single channel properties were analyzed, only little channel activity could be recorded in the presence of 100 μM Met(3)PbCl. Trimethyllead chloride decreased significantly (by about one order of magnitude) the open probability of single channels. The recordings of single channel activity obtained in the presence and absence of Met(3)PbCl showed that organolead only slightly (by ca. 10%) decreased the unitary conductance of single channels. It was also found that Met(3)PbCl diminished significantly the number of SV channel openings, whereas it did not change the opening times of the channels. Taken together, these results suggest that Met(3)PbCl binding site is located outside the channel selectivity filter. PMID:23312295

  11. Utilization of concentrate after membrane filtration of sugar beet thin juice for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Pietrzak, Witold; Regiec, Piotr; Stencel, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The subject of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the concentrate obtained after membrane ultrafiltration of sugar beet thin juice for ethanol production and selection of fermentation conditions (yeast strain and media supplementation). Resulting concentrate was subjected to batch ethanol fermentation using two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ethanol Red and Safdistill C-70). The effect of different forms of media supplementation (mineral salts: (NH4)2SO4, K2HPO4, MgCl2; urea+Mg3(PO4)2 and yeast extract) on the fermentation course was also studied. It was stated that sugar beet juice concentrate is suitable for ethanol production yielding, depending on the yeast strain, ca. 85-87 g L(-1) ethanol with ca. 82% practical yield and more than 95% of sugars consumption after 72 h of fermentation. Nutrients enrichment further increased ethanol yield. The best results were obtained for media supplemented with urea+Mg3(PO4)2 yielding 91.16-92.06 g L(-1) ethanol with practical yield ranging 84.78-85.62% and full sugars consumption. PMID:23425583

  12. Effects of hydrothermal pretreatment of sugar beet pulp for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiński, K; Romanowska, I; Kowalska-Wentel, M; Cyran, M

    2014-08-01

    The effect of Liquid Hot Water treatment conditions on the degree of sugar beet pulp (SBP) degradation was studied. The SBP was subjected to hydrothermal processing at temperatures ranging from 120 to 200 °C. The relationship between processing temperature and parameters of liquid and solid fractions of resulting hydrolysates as well as the efficiency of their methane fermentation was determined. The highest concentration of free glucose (3.29 mg ml(-1)) was observed when the hydrolysis was conducted at 160 °C (it was 4-fold higher than that after processing at 120 °C). Total acids and aldehydes concentrations in the liquid fractions were increased from 0.005 mg ml(-1) for the untreated SBP to 1.61 mg ml(-1) after its processing at 200 °C. Parameters of the hydrolysates obtained by the LHW treatment decided of the efficiency of methane fermentation. The highest cumulative methane yield (502.50 L CH₄ kg(-1)VS) was obtained from the sugar beet pulp hydrolysate produced at 160 °C.

  13. Salt Stress Induced Proteome and Transcriptome Changes in Sugar Beet Monosomic Addition Line M14

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Yang; ChuanHong Kang; Sixue Chen; Haiying Li

    2012-01-01

    Sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 displays interesting phenotypes such as apomixis and salt stress tolerance.Here we reported proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of M14 leaves and roots under 500 mmol/L NaCI treatment for seven days.Proteins from control and treated samples were extracted and separated using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE).A total of 40 protein spots from leaf gels and 36 protein spots from root gels exhibited significant changes.Using mass spectrometry and database searching,38 unique proteins in leaves and 29 unique proteins in roots were identified.The proteins included those involved in metabolism,protein folding,photosynthesis,and protein degradation.In addition,cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH).Fifty-eight unigenes including 14 singletons and 44 contigs were obtained.Some salt-responsive genes were identified to function in metabolism,photosynthesis,stress and defense,energy,protein synthesis and protein degradation.This research has revealed candidate genes and proteins for detailed functional characterization,and set the stage for further investigation of the salt tolerance mechanisms in sugar beet.

  14. Sugar beet M14 glyoxalase I gene can enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; Ma, Chunquan; Pan, Yu; Gong, Shilong; Zhao, Chenxi; Chen, Sixue; Li, Haiying

    2013-05-01

    Glyoxalase I is the first enzyme of the glyoxalase system that can detoxify methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic compound increased rapidly under stress conditions. Here we report cloning and characterization of a glyoxalase I from sugar beet M14 line (an interspecific hybrid between a wild species Beta corolliflora Zoss and a cultivated species B. vulgaris L). The full-length gene BvM14-glyoxalase I has 1,449 bp in length with an open reading frame of 1,065 bp encoding 354 amino acids. Sequence analysis shows the conserved glyoxalase I domains, metal and glutathione binding sites and secondary structure (α-helixes and β-sheets). The BvM14-glyoxalase I gene was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues of sugar beet M14 line and up-regulated in response to salt, mannitol and oxidative stresses. Heterologous expression of BvM14-glyoxalase I could increase E. coli tolerance to methylglyoxal. Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing BvM14-glyoxalase I were generated. Both leaf discs and seedlings showed significant tolerance to methylglyoxal, salt, mannitol and H2O2. These results suggest an important role of BvM14-glyoxalase I in cellular detoxification and tolerance to abiotic stresses.

  15. Alkali-aided enzymatic viscosity reduction of sugar beet mash for novel bioethanol production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol fermentation of fresh sugar beet mash (SBM) could give a benefit on reducing energy input for sugar diffusion, juice separation, and water evaporation as used in conventional practices, thus offering promise as a low energy process. Actions of cell-wall degrading enzymes provide a mash with low viscosity, which can be easily fermented to ethanol. However, a several-fold higher enzyme loading was required for viscosity reduction of SBM compared with that of potato mash. In this study, the use of dilute alkali treatment (0.025-0.15 N NaOH, 25 oC, 1 h) in enhancing enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was evaluated. The results showed that higher NaOH concentration enhanced demethylation and deacetylation of SBM, resulting in greater performances of the enzymes on reducing viscosity. Efficient enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was observed with the 0.1 N NaOH treatment. On the other hand, untreated SBM was highly resistant to viscosity reduction, even though a 20-fold more enzyme loading was used. The resulting mash containing 12-13% (w/v) sucrose yielded 7-8% (v/v) ethanol after 24 h of fermentation (90% efficiency). Accordingly, alkali treatment can be applied for facilitating the use of fresh sugar beet for ethanol production.

  16. Sugar beet M14 glyoxalase I gene can enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; Ma, Chunquan; Pan, Yu; Gong, Shilong; Zhao, Chenxi; Chen, Sixue; Li, Haiying

    2013-05-01

    Glyoxalase I is the first enzyme of the glyoxalase system that can detoxify methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic compound increased rapidly under stress conditions. Here we report cloning and characterization of a glyoxalase I from sugar beet M14 line (an interspecific hybrid between a wild species Beta corolliflora Zoss and a cultivated species B. vulgaris L). The full-length gene BvM14-glyoxalase I has 1,449 bp in length with an open reading frame of 1,065 bp encoding 354 amino acids. Sequence analysis shows the conserved glyoxalase I domains, metal and glutathione binding sites and secondary structure (α-helixes and β-sheets). The BvM14-glyoxalase I gene was ubiquitously expressed in different tissues of sugar beet M14 line and up-regulated in response to salt, mannitol and oxidative stresses. Heterologous expression of BvM14-glyoxalase I could increase E. coli tolerance to methylglyoxal. Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing BvM14-glyoxalase I were generated. Both leaf discs and seedlings showed significant tolerance to methylglyoxal, salt, mannitol and H2O2. These results suggest an important role of BvM14-glyoxalase I in cellular detoxification and tolerance to abiotic stresses. PMID:23203352

  17. C4 protein of Beet severe curly top virus is a pathomorphogenetic factor in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungan; Hwang, Hyun-Sik; Buckley, Kenneth J; Park, Jong-Bum; Auh, Chung-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Giun; Lee, Sukchan; Davis, Keith R

    2010-12-01

    The Curtovirus C4 protein is required for symptom development during infection of Arabidopsis. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing C4 from either Beet curly top virus or Beet severe curly top virus produced phenotypes that were similar to symptoms seen during infection with wild-type viruses. The pseudosymptoms caused by C4 protein alone were novel to transgenic Arabidopsis and included bumpy trichomes, severe enations, disorientation of vascular bundles and stomata, swelling, callus-like structure formation, and twisted siliques. C4 induced abnormal cell division and altered cell fate in a variety of tissues depending on the C4 expression level. C4 protein expression increased the expression levels of cell-cycle-related genes CYCs, CDKs and PCNA, and suppressed ICK1 and the retinoblastoma-related gene RBR1, resulting in activation of host cell division. These results suggest that the Curtovirus C4 proteins are involved actively in host cell-cycle regulation to recruit host factors for virus replication and symptom development. PMID:20960205

  18. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  19. Pretreatment of Sugar Beet Pulp with Dilute Sulfurous Acid is Effective for Multipurpose Usage of Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharina, M; Emelyanov, V; Mokshina, N; Ibragimova, N; Gorshkova, T

    2016-05-01

    Sulfurous acid was used for pretreatment of sugar beet pulp (SBP) in order to achieve high efficiency of both extraction of carbohydrates and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids. The main advantage of sulfurous acid usage as pretreatment agent is the possibility of its regeneration. Application of sulfurous acid as hydrolyzing agent in relatively low concentrations (0.6-1.0 %) during a short period of time (10-20 min) and low solid to liquid ratio (1:3, 1:6) allowed effective extraction of carbohydrates from SBP and provided positive effect on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest obtained concentration of reducing substances (RS) in hydrolysates was 8.5 %; up to 33.6 % of all carbohydrates present in SBP could be extracted. The major obtained monosaccharides were arabinose and glucose (9.4 and 7.3 g/l, respectively). Pretreatment of SBP with sulfurous acid increased 4.6 times the yield of glucose during subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of remaining solids with cellulase cocktail, as compared to the untreated SBP. Total yield of glucose during SBP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis amounted to 89.4 % of the theoretical yield. The approach can be applied directly to the wet SBP. Hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp with sulfurous acid is recommended for obtaining of individual monosaccharides, as well as nutritional media.

  20. Alkali-aided enzymatic viscosity reduction of sugar beet mash for novel bioethanol production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Maki; Zhang, Zilian; Tokuyasu, Ken [National Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Takahashi, Hiroyuki [National Agricultural Research Center for Hokkaido Region, NARO, Shinsei, Memuro, Hokkaido 082-0081 (Japan)

    2010-09-15

    Ethanol fermentation of fresh sugar beet mash (SBM) could give a benefit on reducing energy input for sugar diffusion, juice separation, and water evaporation as used in conventional practices, thus offering promise as a low energy process. Actions of cell-wall degrading enzymes provide a mash with low viscosity, which can be easily fermented to ethanol. However, a several-fold higher enzyme loading was required for viscosity reduction of SBM compared with that of potato mash. In this study, the use of dilute alkali treatment (0.025-0.15 N NaOH, 25 C, 1 h) in enhancing enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was evaluated. The results showed that higher NaOH concentration enhanced demethylation and deacetylation of SBM, resulting in greater performances of the enzymes on reducing viscosity. Efficient enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was observed with the 0.1 N NaOH treatment. On the other hand, untreated SBM was highly resistant to viscosity reduction, even though a 20-fold more enzyme loading was used. The resulting mash containing 12-13% (w/v) sucrose yielded 7-8% (v/v) ethanol after 24 h of fermentation (90% efficiency). Accordingly, alkali treatment can be applied for facilitating the use of fresh sugar beet for ethanol production. (author)

  1. Molecular characterization of a new type of cytoplasmic male sterile sugar beet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢纬武; 康传红; 王继志; 王斌; 郭德栋

    1996-01-01

    A line (named Cl) of cytoplasmic sterility of sugar beet whose cytoplasm derived from Betacicla Turkey was obtained by interspecific hybrid. Its cytoplasm and a spontaneous male sterile cytoplasm from wild beet Beta maritima (named M) were compared with that of Owen’s sterile line (S-cms) and a common maintainer of them named N was used as control. RFLP and RAPD methods were mainly used in our experiments. The restriction fragment patterns of mtDNAs were found to be likely but for a few of specific low-lighted electrophoresis bands in Cl. The results of Southern hybridization of six heterogeneous mitochondrial genes as probes to digests of mtDNAs by six restriction enzymes showed to be analogous between S and M lines. But the Cl mtDNA was sorted out by hybridization of atpA probe. Difference of low-molecular-weight mitochondrial DNAs was found among the three sterile lines. Three RNA molecules weighing about 4.2kb stably existed in Cl mitochondria. Our results of RAPD also supported that the Cl cytoplas

  2. The disease prevalence and severity of Cercospora leaf spot in sugar beet cultivations in Kayseri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Handan ALTINOK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora leaf spot disease (Cercospora beticola Sacc., is one of the most economically important fungal diseases in sugar beet growing. Under appropriate climatic conditions, the disease can reach epidemic levels. Although some fungicides exist for disease control, resistance development by pathogen against fungicides is creating difficulties. Besides, use of resistant varieties which is considered as the most efficient and environment-friendly method is adversely affected by pathogen’s ability to exhibit high genetic variations and varying resistance levels against different races of pathogen restricts the success of resistance breeding studies. In order to reveal status of this disease in Kayseri province, surveys were conducted in 2010 and 2011 in sugar beet growing areas and disease prevalence and severity were determined. Approximately, 1500 da area in 90 fields were examined and about 700 da of this area found as infected with Cercospora leaf spot disease in both years of the survey. Highest disease prevalence and severity were found as 80 % and 45 %, respectively, in Sarıoğlan district, which is followed by central district, Develi and Bünyan. Among surveyed districts, lowest prevalence and severity were detected as approx. 65 % and 35 %, respectively, in Yeşilhisar.

  3. Effects of zinc toxicity on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagardoy, R; Morales, F; López-Millán, A-F; Abadía, A; Abadía, J

    2009-05-01

    The effects of high Zn concentration were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in a controlled environment in hydroponics. High concentrations of Zn sulphate in the nutrient solution (50, 100 and 300 microm) decreased root and shoot fresh and dry mass, and increased root/shoot ratios, when compared to control conditions (1.2 microm Zn). Plants grown with excess Zn had inward-rolled leaf edges and a damaged and brownish root system, with short lateral roots. High Zn decreased N, Mg, K and Mn concentrations in all plant parts, whereas P and Ca concentrations increased, but only in shoots. Leaves of plants treated with 50 and 100 microm Zn developed symptoms of Fe deficiency, including decreases in Fe, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, increases in carotenoid/chlorophyll and chlorophyll a/b ratios and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin cycle pigments. Plants grown with 300 microm Zn had decreased photosystem II efficiency and further growth decreases but did not have leaf Fe deficiency symptoms. Leaf Zn concentrations of plants grown with excess Zn were high but fairly constant (230-260 microg.g(-1) dry weight), whereas total Zn uptake per plant decreased markedly with high Zn supply. These data indicate that sugar beet could be a good model to investigate Zn homeostasis mechanisms in plants, but is not an efficient species for Zn phytoremediation.

  4. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  5. Introduction of AtNHX1 into beet improved salt-tolerance of transgenic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Aifang; Zhao Shilan; Yin Xiaoyan; Gao Feng; Zhang Juren

    2006-01-01

    AtNHX1 gene encoding the Na+/H+ antiport on the vacuole membrane of Arabidopsis was transferred into small bud tips of 1-3mm in length derived from immature inflorescence cultures of six genotypes of beet ( Beta vulgaris L. ) by the infection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and transgenic plants with improved salt-tolerance were obtained. When transgenic plants at 5-leaf stage were potted in sand and irrigated with solutions containing a range of concentrations of NaCl (171-513mM), they showed minor symptoms of damage from salinity and better tolerance than the controls. There were considerable discrepancies of salt-tolerance between transgenic plants originated from the same genotype and also between different genotypes. After vernalization, bolting transgenic plants were enveloped with two layers of gauzes for self-pollination. T1 seedlings tolerant to 342-427mM NaCl were obtained respectively. These results revealed that it was feasible to improve salt-tolerance of beets by the introduction of AtNHX1 gene into cultured bud cells.

  6. Regulation of sucrose synthase activity and sugar yield by nitrogen in sugar beet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Caifeng; MA Fengming; LI Wenhua; WANG Rui; CHEN Shengyong; LUO Yu

    2007-01-01

    The content of sugar is influenced by sucrose synthase (SS) activity in roots. The effects of nitrogen level in the aminonitrate ratio on SS activity of leaves and roots, roots yield and sugar content in sugar beet were studied in the field experiment by nutrient solution culture. The results showed that SS activity in leaves was lower than that in roots. With nitrogen level increasing,SS decomposition activity enhanced, and synthesis activity reduced. SS activity was regulated by different nitrogen forms and the ratio of NO3- and NH4+. SS synthesis activity was enhanced as NH4+ increasing when NO3-: NH4+≥ 1, and it decreased as increasing NH4+ when NO3-: NH4+≤1, and it was the highest when NO3-: NH4+=1. SS decomposition activity was enhanced as NO3- increasing.Sucrose content in root was lowed as nitrogen level increasing, but it was enhanced as NH4+ increasing in the same nitrogen level.Root and sugar yield were the highest in the medium nitrogen level and NO3-: NH4+=1. The result in field experiment corresponded with that in the nutrient fluid culture. It provides a basis for using reasonably nitrogen fertilizer in sugar beet production.

  7. Effect of Extraction Conditions on Quality of Pectin Extracted from Irradiated Sugar Beet Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Sugar-beet pulp, the residue from sugar industry, is a rich source of pectin. Beet pulp pectin was extracted by using acids under various conditions from ph and temperatures but this method has problems such as pollution and hydrolysis. In this study we avoid these problems by using enzymic pectin (bio extraction). In this method we used different microorganisms tested for their ability to produce proto pectin-solubilizing enzymes. Bacillus subtilis and Pichia polymorphia. Chemical components of the extracted pectin were determined and compared, and study the quality of pectin under different conditions of ph, period of incubation and age of inoculum, also the quantity of pectin extracted by incubation with Bacillus, and Pichia were study. The results show that the best conditions were at ph 6, at the optimum period incubation 8-16 h and 24 h age of inoculum. The best yield of pectin obtained by Pichia polymorphia without Bacillus subtilis

  8. Functional analysis of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) RNA4 in fungal transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Full-length RNA4 of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and its mutants, including a frame-shift and deletions within the coding region, were inserted into a transcription plasmid. Transcripts derived from these plasmids and RNAs extracted from a BNYVV isolate containing only RNAs 1, 2 and 3 were coinoculated to Tetragona expansa. Then these recombinant isolates were inoculated to sugar beet plants grown in a sand culture system containing Polymyxa betae that had been freed of virus particles to test efficiency of BNYVV transmission. The result showed that the efficiency of BNYVV transmission among the plants by Polymyxa betae was highly decreased by different deletions in the coding region of RNA4, but not affected by the frame-shift mutant with four nucleotides insertion. The observations suggest that at least some of the RNA4 sequence encompassing the deleted region of 580 nucleotide acids (525-1105 nt) are necessary for high efficient transmission of the virus by the fungus.

  9. Steam Cooking Significantly Improves in Vitro Bile Acid Binding of Beets, Eggplant, Asparagus, Carrots, Green Beans and Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative healthful potential of cooked beets, okra, eggplant, asparagus, carrots, green beans, cauliflower and turnips was evaluated by determining their in vitro bile acid binding using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile at a duodenal physiological pH of 6.3. Six treatments and two...

  10. Tyrosine Hydroxylation in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis Is Performed by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Beets (Beta vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasika Sunnadeniya

    Full Text Available Yellow and red-violet betalain plant pigments are restricted to several families in the order Caryophyllales, where betacyanins play analogous biological roles to anthocyanins. The initial step in betalain biosynthesis is the hydroxylation of tyrosine to form L-DOPA. Using gene expression experiments in beets, yeast, and Arabidopsis, along with HPLC/MS analysis, the present study shows that two novel cytochrome P450 (CYP450 enzymes, CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5, and the previously described CYP76AD1 can perform this initial step. Co-expressing these CYP450s with DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase in yeast, and overexpression of these CYP450s in yellow beets show that CYP76AD1 efficiently uses L-DOPA leading to red betacyanins while CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5 lack this activity. Furthermore, CYP76AD1 can complement yellow beetroots to red while CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5 cannot. Therefore CYP76AD1 uniquely performs the beet R locus function and beets appear to be genetically redundant for tyrosine hydroxylation. These new functional data and ancestral character state reconstructions indicate that tyrosine hydroxylation alone was the most likely ancestral function of the CYP76AD alpha and beta groups and the ability to convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA evolved later in the alpha group.

  11. 甜菜红色素的稳定性探讨%Study on stability of beet red

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹机良; 曹毅; 张成玉; 董振亚

    2014-01-01

    采用紫外可见光谱法对甜菜红色素的稳定性进行研究,探讨了pH、温度、时间和金属离子对甜菜红色素吸收光谱的影响,分析了甜菜红色素降解的原因。结果表明:甜菜红色素的稳定性较差,随着pH的增加、温度的升高、时间的延长,甜菜红色素的降解程度均逐渐增大。%The stability of beet red was studied by UV-Vis spectrometry. The influences of pH value, temperature, time and metal ion on absorption spectrum of beet red were discussed. The results show that the stability of beet red is worse. With the increase of pH value, temperature and time, the degradation rate of beet red is deteriorating gradually.

  12. The effect of herbicides on Chenopodium album L. phenology in fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Wesołowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the time of occurrence of the emergence, budding, fruiting and seed shedding stages, as well as the degree of advancement of the white goosefoot fruiting and diaspores shedding stages in fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean crops under mechanical and chemical weed control. Phenological observations were conducted in the years 2000-2002 at 10-day intervals, starting from the day of crop sowing on alluvial soil made of light loam. Chemically weed controlled objects were treated with herbicides: fodder beet - lenacil 80%; spring wheat - MCPA 30% + dicamba 4%; faba bean - linuron 50%. It was proven that the times of occurrence and the scale of the studied phenological stages of white goosefoot depended on the crop species, the in-crop weed control method and the pattern of weather conditions in the study years. White goosefoot had the most favourable conditions of growth in the fodder beet crop. The herbicides in the fodder beet and faba bean crops delayed the emergence and the time of occurrence of successive white goosefoot growth stages. These agents also decreased the degree of diaspores shedding by the weed species studied. The most white goosefoot specimens shed fruits on the mechanically weed controlled plots. The diaspores dissemination was promoted by a warm and moist growing season.

  13. High production of plant type levan in sugar beet transformed with timothy (Phleum pratense) 6-SFT genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Tamura, Ken-ichi; Tamagake, Hideto; Sato, Yutaka; Anzai, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Midori

    2014-12-20

    Levan, a type of fructan, is an oligomer or polymer with mainly a β(2,6)-linked fructose chain attached to sucrose. We introduced two timothy genes, PpFT1 and PpFT2, coding for two homologous sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferases into sugar beet. Sugar beet produces a high concentration of sucrose, a starting substrate in fructan synthesis, in the root. Among transgenic T1 lines, we obtained sugar beet transformants that accumulated large amounts of β(2,6)-linked levans (about 20 to 75mgg(-1) FW) in the roots. The transformed sugar beet plants possessing PpFT1 or PpFT2 produced linear levans with different degrees of polymerization (DP). Namely, the PpFT1 transformants accumulated mainly high DP levans including those with DP>40, while the PpFT2 transformants accumulated levans with DP between 3 and 40. Chromatograms showed that PpFT2 produces pure β(2,6)-linked linear levans compared with fructans synthesized by PpFT1. These levans belong to the high DP class of plant fructans, but have much shorter DP than that of levans generally produced by microorganisms. PMID:25305472

  14. Fuel bio ethanol production from experimental crops of sugar cane, sweet sorghum and sugar beet in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the fuel bio ethanol production. Its requires the use of raw materials, process, integration with food producing chains, and social inclusion. Agricultural and fermentability assays of three sugar crops were performed: sugar beet, sugar cane and sweet sorghum grown in fields of small producers .

  15. Changes in the level and activation state of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase during aging of red beet slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, R; De Michelis, M I

    1997-01-01

    The effect of aging on the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) parenchyma discs was analyzed in PM purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Aging increased both the activity in the amount of immunodetectable H(+)-ATPase in the PM. The activity assayed at slightly alkaline pH values increased earlier and more strongly than that assayed at acidic pH values, so that the pH curve of the enzyme from aged beet discs was shifted toward more alkaline values. Aging decreased the stimulation of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity by controlled trypsin treatments or by lysophosphatidylcholine. After trypsin treatment the pH dependence of H(+)-ATPase from dormant or aged beet discs became equal. These results indicate that aging not only increases the level of H(+)-ATPase in the PM, but also determines its activation, most likely by modifying the interaction between the autoinhibitory carboxyl-terminal domain and the catalytic site. When the PM H(+)-ATPase activity was assayed at a slightly alkaline pH, the tyrosine modifier N-acetylimidazole inhibited the H(+)-ATPase in the PM from dormant beet discs much less than in the PM from aged discs, suggesting that modification of a tyrosine residue may be involved in the activation of the PM H(+)-ATPase induced by aging. The results are discussed with regard to aging-induced development of transmembrane transport activities. PMID:9232872

  16. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Gene Encoding for Ascorbate Peroxidase and Responsive to Salt Stress in Beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunajska-Ordak, Kamila; Skorupa-Kłaput, Monika; Kurnik, Katarzyna; Tretyn, Andrzej; Tyburski, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    BvpAPX is a full-length cDNA-encoding peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase isolated from leaves of salt-stressed beet (Beta vulgaris) plants. A high level of identity has been reported between the deduced amino acid sequence of BvpAPX and other known ascorbate peroxidases. The genomic sequence of BvpAPX revealed a gene composed of 5 exons and 4 introns. Several sequence motifs revealed in the 5'UTR region of the gene confer to BvpAPX a putative responsiveness to various abiotic stresses. We determined the effect of salt stress on BvpAPX expression in leaves of the cultivated beet varieties, Huzar and Janosik, and their wild salt-tolerant relative B. vulgaris ssp. maritima. Plants were subjected to salt stress during a 32-day culture period (long-term salt treatment). An alternative salinization protocol consisted of an 18-h incubation of detached beet leaves in media supplemented with toxic salt concentrations (short-term salt treatment). RT-Q-PCR analysis revealed that BvpAPX expression markedly increased in leaves of plants subjected to conditions of long-term treatment with salinity, whereas BvpAPX transcript levels remained unaffected in detached leaves during short-term salt treatment. In addition, several leaf redox system parameters, such as ascorbate peroxidase activity or ascorbic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide concentration, were determined in the leaves of beet plants subjected to salt stress conditions.

  17. Development of a DNA Microarray-Based Assay for the Detection of Sugar Beet Root Rot Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Sebastian; Christ, Daniela S; Ehricht, Ralf; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet root rot diseases that occur during the cropping season or in storage are accompanied by high yield losses and a severe reduction of processing quality. The vast diversity of microorganism species involved in rot development requires molecular tools allowing simultaneous identification of many different targets. Therefore, a new microarray technology (ArrayTube) was applied in this study to improve diagnosis of sugar beet root rot diseases. Based on three marker genes (internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor 1 alpha, and 16S ribosomal DNA), 42 well-performing probes enabled the identification of prevalent field pathogens (e.g., Aphanomyces cochlioides), storage pathogens (e.g., Botrytis cinerea), and ubiquitous spoilage fungi (e.g., Penicillium expansum). All probes were proven for specificity with pure cultures from 73 microorganism species as well as for in planta detection of their target species using inoculated sugar beet tissue. Microarray-based identification of root rot pathogens in diseased field beets was successfully confirmed by classical detection methods. The high discriminatory potential was proven by Fusarium species differentiation based on a single nucleotide polymorphism. The results demonstrate that the ArrayTube constitute an innovative tool allowing a rapid and reliable detection of plant pathogens particularly when multiple microorganism species are present. PMID:26524545

  18. Process-based modeling of the control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a process-based simulation model for the population dynamics of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua , and baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model (BACSIM) has been validated for two baculoviruses with clear differences in biological characteristics,

  19. Tyrosine Hydroxylation in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis Is Performed by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Beets (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnadeniya, Rasika; Bean, Alexander; Brown, Matthew; Akhavan, Neda; Hatlestad, Gregory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Symonds, V Vaughan; Lloyd, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Yellow and red-violet betalain plant pigments are restricted to several families in the order Caryophyllales, where betacyanins play analogous biological roles to anthocyanins. The initial step in betalain biosynthesis is the hydroxylation of tyrosine to form L-DOPA. Using gene expression experiments in beets, yeast, and Arabidopsis, along with HPLC/MS analysis, the present study shows that two novel cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5, and the previously described CYP76AD1 can perform this initial step. Co-expressing these CYP450s with DOPA 4,5-dioxygenase in yeast, and overexpression of these CYP450s in yellow beets show that CYP76AD1 efficiently uses L-DOPA leading to red betacyanins while CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5 lack this activity. Furthermore, CYP76AD1 can complement yellow beetroots to red while CYP76AD6 and CYP76AD5 cannot. Therefore CYP76AD1 uniquely performs the beet R locus function and beets appear to be genetically redundant for tyrosine hydroxylation. These new functional data and ancestral character state reconstructions indicate that tyrosine hydroxylation alone was the most likely ancestral function of the CYP76AD alpha and beta groups and the ability to convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA evolved later in the alpha group. PMID:26890886

  20. Early detection of sugar beet pathogen Ramularia beticola in leaf and air samples using qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Thies Marten; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Hansen, Anne Lisbet;

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR method (qPCR) was developed for the detection and quantification of Ramularia beticola causing Ramularia leaf spot in sugar beet. R. beticola specific primers were designed based on the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2). The assay was applied on DNA extracted from spo...

  1. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a Gene Encoding for Ascorbate Peroxidase and Responsive to Salt Stress in Beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunajska-Ordak, Kamila; Skorupa-Kłaput, Monika; Kurnik, Katarzyna; Tretyn, Andrzej; Tyburski, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    BvpAPX is a full-length cDNA-encoding peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase isolated from leaves of salt-stressed beet (Beta vulgaris) plants. A high level of identity has been reported between the deduced amino acid sequence of BvpAPX and other known ascorbate peroxidases. The genomic sequence of BvpAPX revealed a gene composed of 5 exons and 4 introns. Several sequence motifs revealed in the 5'UTR region of the gene confer to BvpAPX a putative responsiveness to various abiotic stresses. We determined the effect of salt stress on BvpAPX expression in leaves of the cultivated beet varieties, Huzar and Janosik, and their wild salt-tolerant relative B. vulgaris ssp. maritima. Plants were subjected to salt stress during a 32-day culture period (long-term salt treatment). An alternative salinization protocol consisted of an 18-h incubation of detached beet leaves in media supplemented with toxic salt concentrations (short-term salt treatment). RT-Q-PCR analysis revealed that BvpAPX expression markedly increased in leaves of plants subjected to conditions of long-term treatment with salinity, whereas BvpAPX transcript levels remained unaffected in detached leaves during short-term salt treatment. In addition, several leaf redox system parameters, such as ascorbate peroxidase activity or ascorbic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide concentration, were determined in the leaves of beet plants subjected to salt stress conditions. PMID:24465083

  2. Sources of resistance to diseases of sugar beet in related Beta germplasm: II. Soil-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterbacher, M.C.; Asher, M.J.C.; Beyer, W.; Mandolino, G.; Scholten, O.E.; Frese, L.; Biancardi, E.; Stevanato, P.; Mechelke, W.; Slyvchenko, O.

    2005-01-01

    Between 580 and 700 accessions of related cultivated and wild species of the genus Beta were assessed for resistance to four soil-borne diseases of sugar beet: two seedling damping-off diseases caused by the fungi Aphanomyces cochlioides and Pythium ultimum and two diseases of more mature plants, Rh

  3. 77 FR 42693 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... published a notice in the Federal Register (69 FR 61466-61467, Docket No. 04-075-1) announcing receipt of a..., we published another notice in the Federal Register on March 17, 2005 (70 FR 13007-13008, Docket No... determination of nonregulated status of sugar beet event H7-1. On May 28, 2010 (75 FR 29969-29972, Docket...

  4. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts h...

  5. Biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouses : development of a comprehensive process-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Vlak, J.M.; Rabbinge, R.; Werf, van der W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the development of a comprehensive process-based model simulating the epizootiology and agronomic efficacy of baculoviruses used for biological control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model is built to help understand, evaluate, and predict the effec

  6. Beet juice utilization: Expeditious green synthesis of nobel metal nanoparticles (Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd) using microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal nanoparticles of Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd were prepared in aqueous solutions via a rapid microwave-assisted green method using beet juice, an abundant sugar-rich agricultural produce, served as both a reducing and a capping reagent. The Ag nanoparticles with capping prepared by b...

  7. Salicylic acid in the induction of resistance to beet seedling damping-off and antifungal activity against Fusarium sp., in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Junior Bertoncelli; Sérgio Miguel Mazaro; Rita de Cacia Dosciatti Serrão Rocha; Nean Locatelli Dalacosta; Adriano Lewandowski; Américo Wagner Junior

    2016-01-01

    The damping off is the main disease that affects the beet crop during the seedling production. The aim of this study was to evaluate different salicylic acid (SA) concentrations for resistance induction against damping-off in beet seedling and its antifungal activity against Fusarium sp., in vitro condition. Treatment of beet seed was with SA solution by immersion during 5 minutes in the 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM concentrations and control (distilled water). It was used four replications with ...

  8. 甜菜制糖安全性评价及改进措施%Safety analysis and improvement measures of beet sugar technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪涛; 李琳; 秦文信

    2011-01-01

    Unsafe problems in the traditional beet sugar processing are mainly related to the quality of sugar beet, the environment of production and storage and transportation.It is proposed to enhanced safety in beet sugar industry.%影响甜菜制糖生产的不安全因素主要有原料甜菜的品质,加工工艺,生产环境,以及贮运条件等因素.给出了提高甜菜制糖安全性的措施.

  9. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Isabel; Gómez-Gómez, Milagros; León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo; Palacios, M Antonia

    2016-09-15

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017-0.021μg As person(-1)day(-1)) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50μg As person(-1)day(-1). Therefore, no

  10. Assignment tests for variety identification compared to genetic similarity-based methods using experimental datasets from different marker systems in sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riek, de J.; Everaert, I.; Esselink, D.; Calsyn, E.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vosman, B.

    2007-01-01

    High genetic variation within sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) varieties hampers reliable classification procedures independent of the type of marker technique applied. Datasets on amplified fragment length polymorphisms, sequence tagged microsatellite sites, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sites mar

  11. Triterpene saponin content in the roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Agnieszka; Kapusta, Ireneusz; Janda, Bogdan; Janiszowska, Wirginia

    2012-12-19

    Triterpene saponins in the roots of Beta vulgaris cultivars Red Sphere, Rocket, and Wodan were profiled and quantitated using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS/MS). Results obtained indicated that the roots of all three cultivars contained 11 saponins consisting of oleanolic acid or hederagenin aglycone and varying numbers of sugars, with the dominant triglycoside derivative of oleanolic acid. The relative proportions of derivatives of these two aglycones were similar in the three subspecies: cv. Red Sphere contained 99.1 and 0.9%; cv. Rocket, 98.2 and 1.8%; and Wodan 98.8 and 1.2% of oleanolic acid and hederagenin glycosides, respectively. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the occurrence, structure, and content of triterpenoid saponins in red beet. PMID:23199283

  12. Projecting overwintering regions of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua in China using the CLIMEX model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Wang, Pan; Cheng, Wen-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2012-01-01

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a serious agricultural pest worldwide. However, population sources of S. exigua in outbreak regions are still vague due to the lack of understanding the distribution of overwintering regions, especially in China. In the present study, the potential overwintering regions of S. exigua in China are projected using the method of Compare Location in the CLIMEX model in order to understand the population sources in outbreak regions and establish an accurate forecasting system. The results showed the southern and northern overwintering boundaries near the Tropic of Cancer (about 23.5 (°)N) and the Yangtze River valley (about 30 (°)N), respectively. Meanwhile, the projection was supported by the data of fieldwork in 14 countries/cities during winter from 2008-2010. In conclusion, results of this study indicated that the overwintering regions of S. exigua were accurately projected by the CLIMEX model.

  13. The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying 14CO2 to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying 14C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves

  14. Productivity of sugar beet as affected by salinity and radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sets of experiments were carried out in the two successive seasons,1983 and 1984 at the agricultural department for soils and water researches, A.E.A., to investigate the response of two sugar beet varieties; namely maribomaroc - poly and monopour to saline conditions and irradiation treatments signly or in combination. Saline conditions were performed by using different salt types, viz. sodium chloride 'Nacl; sodium bicarbonate 'NaHCO3' and potassium chloride 'KC1'. Each at 25,50,100 and 200 mel-1, beside the control treatment 'zero level 0.0'. In addition, irradiation doses that had been applied to seeds before sowing were 50, 100 and 200 gray, beside the unirradiated ones

  15. Evaluation of the Effect of Oxidative Stress on Roots of Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Kolesnikova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation it was studied the effect of oxidative stress on root of red beet. The degree of stress exposure was assessed at various levels: in tissues of roots (conductometric method, on isolated vacuoles (time-lapse video recording, and transport activity of the vacuolar membrane enzyme, namely V-H+-ATPase (fluorescent probe method. The obtained results allow to conclude the negative effects of oxidative stress on different levels of plant organization. There were several effects: a significant increase of outflow of electrolytes from the tissues of roots, a great decrease of half-life time of isolated vacuoles, and a 2 times reduction of transport activity of tonoplast H+-ATPase. Thus, the methods used in this study can be applied to assess the intensity of the impact of oxidative stress on plants.

  16. Citric acid production by gamma irradiated aspergillus niger from treated beet molasses under different fermentation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessary treatments of beet molasses by addition of any the chelating agents potassium ferrocyanide and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), to improve its suitability as a substrate for citric acid production by gamma irradiated inocula (at dose 0.4 KGy) of aspergillus niger EMCC 111 was studied. Addition of potassium ferrocyanide stimulated citric acid production and maximum production (10.92 g%) was obtained with 0.1 g% of ferrocyanide. In contrast, EDTA at 0.1 g% increased citric acid production but further addition of EDTA repressed the production. Addition of low molecular weight alcohols (methanol or ethanol)improved the yield of citric acid. Methanol and ethanol when added at concentration of 2%(v/v) elevate citric acid yield % to 47.58% and 46.51% respectively. 6 tabs

  17. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of α-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

  18. Extraction, characterization and spontaneous emulsifying properties of pectin from sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sen; Yu, Shu-juan; Zheng, Xue-ling; Wang, Xiao-xi; Bao, Qing-Dan; Guo, Xiao-ming

    2013-10-15

    The effects of organic acid extractants on the yield and characteristics of pectin from sugar beet pulp were investigated with citric acid, malic acid and lactic acid at different pH (1.5 and 2.0) and time (1 h and 2 h). The results demonstrated that the yields of pectins were directly correlated with the decrease of pH and reaction time, and the optimum yield of 17.2% was obtained at pH 1.5 and 2 h. Furthermore, the acid type also affected the physicochemical characteristics of pectin, especially on the esterification degree (42-71), galacturonic acid content (60.2-77.8%), emulsion activity (35.2-40.1%) and emulsion stability (62.1-79.4%), and a relatively single pectin mainly consisted of homogalacturonan could be obtained under a suitable reaction condition, which was an excellent crude material for the production of emulsion activity.

  19. Study of the production of ethanol from sugar beets for use as a motor fuel. Final report, February 1, 1980-April 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, H W

    1981-04-27

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  20. CbCTB2, an O-methyltransferase is essential for biosynthesis of the phytotoxin cercosporin and infection of sugar beet by Cercospora beticola

    OpenAIRE

    Staerkel, Cornelia; Boenisch, Marike J; Kröger, Cathrin; Bormann, Jörg; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Stahl, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Background Cercospora leaf spot disease, caused by the fungus Cercospora beticola, is the most destructive foliar disease of sugar beets (Beta vulgaris) worldwide. Cercosporin, a light-inducible toxin, is essential for necrosis of the leaf tissue and development of the typical leaf spots on sugar beet leaves. Results In this study we show that the O-methyltransferase gene CTB2 is essential for cercosporin production and pathogenicity in two C. beticola isolates. We established a transformatio...

  1. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period

    OpenAIRE

    L. M. Sorathiya; Patel, M. D.; K. K. Tyagi; A. B. Fulsoundar; A. P. Raval

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) tubers on production ...

  2. Population Dynamics of Sugar Beets, Rhizoctonia solani, and Laetisaria arvalis: Responses of a Host, Plant Pathogen, and Hyperparasite to Perturbation in the Field †

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Michael F.; Boosalis, Michael G.; Kerr, Eric D.; Muldoon, Anne E.; Larsen, Harold J.

    1985-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani causes crown rot of sugar beets, a severe disease that has destroyed up to 60% of the plants in a test field in western Nebraska. Laetisaria arvalis, a natural hyperparasite of Rhizoctonia spp., was isolated from fields in western Nebraska. To test for the potential for biological control of R. solani, in November 1980 (following harvest) we applied various combinations of a nematicide (Telone II; Dow Chemical Co.), a nutrition source (sugar beet pulp), and an inoculum of L...

  3. Effect of onion and beet on plasma and liver lipids, platelet aggregation, and erythrocyte Na efflux in simvastatin treated hypercholesterolmic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung Lye; Chae, In Sook; Kang, Young Hee; Kang, Jung Sook

    2008-01-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the effect of onion or beet on plasma and liver lipids, erythrocyte Na efflux channels and platelet aggregation in simvastatin (SIM) treated hypercholesterolemic rats. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups and fed 0.5% cholesterol based diets containing 2 mg/kg BW simvastatin or simvastatin with 5% onion or beet powder. Plasma total cholesterol was significantly increased in SIM group compared with the control (p

  4. Influence of inoculum density of the antagonistic bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas corrugata on sugar beet seedling colonisation and suppression of Pythium damping off

    OpenAIRE

    C.S. Schmidt; Agostini, F.; Leifert, C.; Killham, K; Mullins, C E

    2004-01-01

    The effect of initial inoculum density of the antagonistic bacterial strains Pseudomonas fluorescens 135 and Pseudomonas corrugata 2140 (10(3) to 10(8) CFU per seed pellet) on sugar beet seedling colonisation, in situ bioluminescence and antagonistic activity towards Pythium ultimum was investigated. Populations of the bacteria colonising sugar beet root systems approached an apparent carrying capacity of 10(5) to 10(6) CFU per plant after 12 d growth, irrespective of inoculum density. This m...

  5. In vitro evaluation and determination of responsible fraction of coffee beans and dried sugar beet leaves for alpha-glucosidase inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K; Kafka, A.; B-H Kang; R. Goundra; Y-I Kwon; E Apostolidis

    2013-01-01

    Summary. Recent studies have identified that hydrophobic phenolic phytochemicals and hydrophilic Amadori compounds have potential for type 2 diabetes management via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Here, we determined the phenolic content, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity of water extracts of roasted and unroasted coffee beans and dried sugar beet leaves. Sugar beet leaves appeared to have the lowest total phenolic content while unr...

  6. The Development of Sugar Beet Production and Processing Simulation Model – a System Dynamics Approach to Support Decision-Making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozman Črtomir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sugar beet is the main field crop used for sugar production in the temperate climatic zone. The abolishment of the quota system will open new investment opportunities in countries that were forced to abandon sugar industry as the result of the reform in 2006. Present paper describes the modeling of sugar beet production and its processing into sugar for purpose of decision support.

  7. Characterisation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris varieties using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Riek Jan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar beet is an obligate outcrossing species. Varieties consist of mixtures of plants from various parental combinations. As the number of informative morphological characteristics is limited, this leads to some problems in variety registration research. Results We have developed 25 new microsatellite markers for sugar beet. A selection of 12 markers with high quality patterns was used to characterise 40 diploid and triploid varieties. For each variety 30 individual plants were genotyped. The markers amplified 3-21 different alleles. Varieties had up to 7 different alleles at one marker locus. All varieties could be distinguished. For the diploid varieties, the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.458 to 0.744. The average inbreeding coefficient Fis was 0.282 ± 0.124, but it varied widely among marker loci, from Fis = +0.876 (heterozygote deficiency to Fis = -0.350 (excess of heterozygotes. The genetic differentiation among diploid varieties was relatively constant among markers (Fst = 0.232 ± 0.027. Among triploid varieties the genetic differentiation was much lower (Fst = 0.100 ± 0.010. The overall genetic differentiation between diploid and triploid varieties was Fst = 0.133 across all loci. Part of this differentiation may coincide with the differentiation among breeders' gene pools, which was Fst = 0.063. Conclusions Based on a combination of scores for individual plants all varieties can be distinguished using the 12 markers developed here. The markers may also be used for mapping and in molecular breeding. In addition, they may be employed in studying gene flow from crop to wild populations.

  8. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fosu-Nyarko

    Full Text Available The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668 with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii.

  9. Bacterial artificial chromosome-derived molecular markers for early bolting in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, R M; Hohmann, U; Jung, C

    2005-04-01

    Early bolting in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is controlled by the dominant gene B. From an incomplete physical map around the B gene, 18 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) were selected for marker development. Three BACs were shotgun-sequenced, and 61 open reading frames (ORFs) were identified. Together with 104 BAC ends from 54 BACs, a total number of 55,464 nucleotides were sequenced. Of these, 37 BAC ends and 12 ORFs were selected for marker development. Thirty-one percent of the sequences were found to be single copy and 24%, low copy. From these sequences, 15 markers from ten different BACs were developed. Ten polymorphisms were determined by simple agarose gel electrophoresis of either restricted or non-restricted PCR products. Another five markers were determined by tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-PCR. In order to select candidate BACs for cloning the gene, genetic linkage between seven markers and the bolting gene was calculated using 1,617 plants from an F2 population segregating for early bolting. The recombination values ranged between 0.0033 and 0.0201. In addition, a set of 41 wild and cultivated Beta accessions differing in their early bolting character was genotyped with seven markers. A common haplotype encompassing two marker loci and the b allele was found in all sugar beet varieties, indicating complete linkage disequilibrium between these loci. This suggests that the bolting gene is located in close vicinity to these markers, and the corresponding BACs can be used for cloning the gene.

  10. Comparing application methods for N-fertilizer in the sugar beet crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpietro Venturi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet seeders have been developed in other countries, in order to place nitrogen into the soil at a few centimeters from the seed. Placing fertilizer has proved safe for seedling emergence, successful in reducing soil residual nitrogen at harvest, sometimes even better-yielding than broadcast applications. In a 3-year research on sugar beet, spreading fertilizer on the soil surface followed by incorporation was compared with placing in rows 6 and 3 cm far from the seed ones, slightly deeper than the seed, in combination with two rates of urea-N, 60 and 120 kg ha-1, plus an unfertilized check. The course of soil mineral nitrogen and that of N-uptake were evaluated during crop cycle. Yield and quality were evaluated at harvest. Nitrogen placement close to the seed (3 cm negatively affected crop emergence. In the plant-soil system, placement showed a higher soil N-content in the first phases and a lower plant uptake at harvest. As for yield, placement attained a slightly-lower level than broadcasting at 60 kg N ha-1 of N, almost the same at 120. No significant difference in quality was observed between the two patterns. At a certain distance from the seed, placement proved a safe way of applying fertilizer. Its yield and quality, the uptake by the plant and the amount of soil residual-N are comparable with those of broadcast fertilizer; in the case of soil nitrogen, it is perceived that the year/location effect is potentially stronger than that of rate/pattern of application.

  11. Selection in vitro for UV-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) somaclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a reduced stratospheric ozone concentration, the generation of UV-tolerant plants may be of particular importance. Among different crop plants there is large variation in sensitivity to UV-B radiation. This study was undertaken to investigate the possibilities of using somaclonal variation and selection in vitro for improving UV-B tolerance in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Sugar beet callus was exposed to UV radiation (280–320 nm, 0.863–5.28 kJ m-2 day-1, unweighted) and resultant shoots were selected from surviving cells. After establishment of the plants, they were grown under either visible radiation (114 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR) or with the addition of UV radiation (6.3 kJ m-2 day-1 biologically effective UV-B). Screening of regenerants in vivo for tolerance to UV radiation was undertaken 10 months after termination of the UV selection pressure. Screening was done visually and by using a number of physiological parameters, including chlorophyll fluorescence induction, ultraweak luminescence, pigment analysis and total content of UV-screening pigments. A clear difference between the unselected and the UV-selected somaclones was observed when visually studying the UV damage and other leaf injury. The observations were supported by the ultraweak luminescence measurements. Unselected plants showed significantly greater damage when subjected to subsequent UV radiation as compared to the selected plants. The clones subjected to UV selection pressure displayed a significantly higher concentration of UV-screening pigments under subsequent UV radiation. The unselected plants under subsequent UV treatment showed a lower carotenoid concentration when compared to selected plants. However, no significant difference between treatments was found for chlorophyll a/b, or F/Fmax, a measure of photosynthetic quantum yield

  12. Identification of amino acids of the beet necrotic yellow vein virus p25 protein required for induction of the resistance response in leaves of Beta vulgaris plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Soutaro; Miyanishi, Masaki; Andika, Ida Bagus; Kondo, Hideki; Tamada, Tetsuo

    2008-05-01

    The RNA3-encoded p25 protein of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is responsible for the production of rhizomania symptoms of sugar beet roots (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). Here, it was found that the presence of the p25 protein is also associated with the resistance response in rub-inoculated leaves of sugar beet and wild beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima) plants. The resistance phenotype displayed a range of symptoms from no visible lesions to necrotic or greyish lesions at the inoculation site, and only very low levels of virus and viral RNA accumulated. The susceptible phenotype showed large, bright yellow lesions and developed high levels of virus accumulation. In roots after Polymyxa betae vector inoculation, however, no drastic differences in virus and viral RNA accumulation levels were found between plants with susceptible and resistant phenotypes, except at an early stage of infection. There was a genotype-specific interaction between BNYVV strains and two selected wild beet lines (MR1 and MR2) and sugar beet cultivars. Sequence analysis of natural BNYVV isolates and site-directed mutagenesis of the p25 protein revealed that 3 aa residues at positions 68, 70 and 179 are important in determining the resistance phenotype, and that host-genotype specificity is controlled by single amino acid changes at position 68. The mechanism of the occurrence of resistance-breaking BNYVV strains is discussed.

  13. Crop-weed interactions in the Beta vulgaris complex at a local scale: allelic diversity and gene flow within sugar beet fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, F.; Bernard, J.; Desplanque, B.

    2002-03-01

    Crop-wild hybrids and weed beets are the main source of agronomic concern for sugar beet production all over Europe. In order to understand the dynamics of crop-wild interactions and the evolution of weediness in Beta vulgaris, we investigated genetic features of bolting individuals occurring at a local scale, i.e. within two sugar beet fields of the French northern area of sugar beet production. By analysing ploidy level, mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite polymorphism, the genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among three different classes of individuals (variety, in-row and out-row weed-beets) from a given field were examined. Such genetic analyses provide a unique opportunity to obtain evidence for the weeds origin and the evolutionary hypotheses previously stated. All the individuals shared in common the Svulg mitochondrial haplotype, and thus a common maternal origin. Conversely, the large genetic diversity at microsatellite loci highlighted the large diversity of the pollinator plants (cultivated and wild plants) during the-seed production process, as well as during the further evolution of weed beets in the sugar production area.

  14. Isolation of pectin-enriched products from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) wastes: composition and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, E N; Ponce, N M A; Matkovic, L; Stortz, C A; Rojas, A M; Gerschenson, L N

    2011-12-01

    The present work was dedicated to the development of an extraction process for red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) by-products that preserves the high molecular weight of the macromolecules with the primary aim of waste upgrading. Our study concerns the extraction of pectin-enriched products with potential thickening properties for their usage in food formulation, as well as with some healthy physiological effect, by using citrate buffer (pH = 5.2) either alone or with enzymes (hemicellulase or cellulase) active on cell wall polysaccharide networks. Considering that red beet tissue contains ferulic acid, which cross-links pectin macromolecules through arabinose residues to anchor them into the cell wall, an alkaline pretreatment was also evaluated in order to perform polysaccharide hydrolysis in the cell wall network to accomplish higher renderings. Chemical composition and yield, as well as the in vitro glucose retention exerted by the isolated fiber products were finally analyzed. PMID:22049159

  15. Early detection and quantification of Ramularia beticola in sugar beets using spore traps and real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Thies Marten; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup;

    2012-01-01

    used fungicide dose is recommended for each treatment. Preliminary field trials have indicated a more efficient control of fungal diseases and higher sugar yield if sugar beets are treated with fungicides before visual symptoms occur. For a better determination of the optimized timing of disease...... method to detect and to quantify R. beticola DNA in air samples obtained from Burkard® spore traps. Primers were designed based on the ITS region sequences and tested on R. beticola isolates from 2010 and 2011. The specificity of the primers was tested on related fungi, including Cercospora beticola...... and other Ramularia fungi. Real-time PCR was used to measure the quantity of the DNA of R. beticola collected on tapes from the Burkard Spore Traps®. Three spore traps were set up in sugar beet fields at three different sites on the Danish island of Lolland. Based on real-time PCR, R. beticola DNA...

  16. Combined Influence of Extraction Parameters on Degree of Esterification of Sugar Beet Pulp Pectin: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Box-Behnken design was employed to study the combined effects of variables of microwave-assisted extraction on pectin from sugar beet pulp. The independent variables were time and power of microwave-assisted extraction, pH of sulfuric acid and rate of solid to liquid (SLR). The combined effects of these variables on degree of esterification (DE) were studied. Results have shown that the generated regression model significantly explained the actual relationship between the independent variables and response. Besides that, pH was the most important variable which affected the DE. Higher acid concentration, extraction power and longer extraction time increased the DE of pectin due to Esterification. Through the response surface, the satisfactory conditions for extraction of high-ester sugar beet pulp pectin were obtained as follows: 1.02 of pH, 3.96 min of extraction time, 193.68W of power and 19.98 of SLR. (author)

  17. Hydrogen production from sugar beet juice using an integrated biohydrogen process of dark fermentation and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-12-01

    An integrated dark fermentation and microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) process was evaluated for hydrogen production from sugar beet juice. Different substrate to inoculum (S/X) ratios were tested for dark fermentation, and the maximum hydrogen yield was 13% of initial COD at the S/X ratio of 2 and 4 for dark fermentation. Hydrogen yield was 12% of initial COD in the MEC using fermentation liquid end products as substrate, and butyrate only accumulated in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production from the integrated biohydrogen process was 25% of initial COD (equivalent to 6 mol H2/mol hexoseadded), and the energy recovery from sugar beet juice was 57% using the combined biohydrogen. PMID:26398665

  18. [Physiological responses of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to drought stress during vegetative development period under drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang-yang; Geng, Qing-yun; Fei, Cong; Fan, Huai

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv. Beta 356) was subjected to drought stress during vegetative development by maintaining the soil water content in the 0-40 cm soil depth at 70%, 50% or 30% of field capacity to study the physiological traits of the leaves. Results showed that the compensation index was the highest in the 50% field capacity treatment. Malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, catalase (CAT) activity, and soluble sugar content began to increase 24 h after rehydration. Proline content began to increase 48 h after rehydration. In contrast, no compensation effect was observed in peroxidase (POD) activity after rehydration. Among the active oxygen scavenging enzymes, CAT was most sensitive to drought stress. Supplemental irrigation should be carried out promptly when the soil water content dropped to 50% of field capacity during vegetative development. Rehydration could promote self-repair functions in leaves, thus reducing the effects of drought on sugar beet yield and sugar content. PMID:27228610

  19. Systemic Infection of Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Beet Seedlings with Fumonisin-Producing and Nonproducing Fusarium verticillioides Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raana Dastjerdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two fumonisin-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides and their fumonisin producing progenitors were tested for aggressiveness toward maize, sorghum, rice, and beetroot seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. None of the plants showed obvious disease symptoms after root dip inoculation. Fungal biomass was determined by species-specific real-time PCR. No significant (P = 0.05 differences in systemic colonization were detected between the wild type strains and mutants not producing fumonisins. F. verticillioides was not detected in any of the non-inoculated control plants. The fungus grew from roots to the first two internodes/leaves of maize, rice and beet regardless of fumonisin production. The systemic growth of F. verticillioides in sorghum was limited. The results showed that fumonisin production was not required for the infection of roots of maize, rice and beet by F. verticillioides.

  20. Systemic Infection of Maize, Sorghum, Rice, and Beet Seedlings with Fumonisin-Producing and Nonproducing Fusarium verticillioides Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastjerdi, Raana; Karlovsky, Petr

    2015-12-01

    Two fumonisin-nonproducing strains of Fusarium verticillioides and their fumonisin producing progenitors were tested for aggressiveness toward maize, sorghum, rice, and beetroot seedlings grown under greenhouse conditions. None of the plants showed obvious disease symptoms after root dip inoculation. Fungal biomass was determined by species-specific real-time PCR. No significant (P = 0.05) differences in systemic colonization were detected between the wild type strains and mutants not producing fumonisins. F. verticillioides was not detected in any of the non-inoculated control plants. The fungus grew from roots to the first two internodes/leaves of maize, rice and beet regardless of fumonisin production. The systemic growth of F. verticillioides in sorghum was limited. The results showed that fumonisin production was not required for the infection of roots of maize, rice and beet by F. verticillioides. PMID:26672472

  1. [Physiological responses of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to drought stress during vegetative development period under drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang-yang; Geng, Qing-yun; Fei, Cong; Fan, Huai

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv. Beta 356) was subjected to drought stress during vegetative development by maintaining the soil water content in the 0-40 cm soil depth at 70%, 50% or 30% of field capacity to study the physiological traits of the leaves. Results showed that the compensation index was the highest in the 50% field capacity treatment. Malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, catalase (CAT) activity, and soluble sugar content began to increase 24 h after rehydration. Proline content began to increase 48 h after rehydration. In contrast, no compensation effect was observed in peroxidase (POD) activity after rehydration. Among the active oxygen scavenging enzymes, CAT was most sensitive to drought stress. Supplemental irrigation should be carried out promptly when the soil water content dropped to 50% of field capacity during vegetative development. Rehydration could promote self-repair functions in leaves, thus reducing the effects of drought on sugar beet yield and sugar content.

  2. Stereoselective Metabolism of the Sterol Biosynthesis Inhibitor Fungicides Fenpropidin, Fenpropimorph, and Spiroxamine in Grapes, Sugar Beets, and Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerge, Ignaz J; Krauss, Jürgen; López-Cabeza, Rocío; Siegfried, Werner; Stüssi, Michael; Wettstein, Felix E; Poiger, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Metabolism of chiral pesticides in crops is typically studied using achiral analytical methods and, consequently, the stereoisomer composition of residues is unknown. In this study, we developed an enantioselective GC-MS/MS method to quantify residues of the fungicides fenpropidin, fenpropimorph, and spiroxamine in plant matrices. In field trials, the fungicides were applied to grapevines, sugar beets, or wheat. Fenpropidin was metabolized with no or only weak enantioselectivity. For fenpropimorph, slightly enantioselective metabolism was observed in wheat but more pronounced in sugar beets. This enantioselectivity was due to different rates of metabolism and not due to interconversion of enantiomers. The four stereoisomers of spiroxamine were also metabolized at different rates, but selectivity was only found between diastereomers and not between enantiomers. trans-Spiroxamine was preferentially degraded in grapes and cis-spiroxamine in wheat. These findings may affect the consumer dietary risk assessment because toxicological end points were determined using racemic test substances. PMID:27248479

  3. Hydrogen production from sugar beet juice using an integrated biohydrogen process of dark fermentation and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-12-01

    An integrated dark fermentation and microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) process was evaluated for hydrogen production from sugar beet juice. Different substrate to inoculum (S/X) ratios were tested for dark fermentation, and the maximum hydrogen yield was 13% of initial COD at the S/X ratio of 2 and 4 for dark fermentation. Hydrogen yield was 12% of initial COD in the MEC using fermentation liquid end products as substrate, and butyrate only accumulated in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production from the integrated biohydrogen process was 25% of initial COD (equivalent to 6 mol H2/mol hexoseadded), and the energy recovery from sugar beet juice was 57% using the combined biohydrogen.

  4. Effects of Tebufenozide on the Biological Characteristics of Beet Armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) and Its Resistance Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei-wei; MU Wei; ZHU Bing-yu; LIU Feng

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the selection of tebufenozide to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hubner) was studied by the treatments to alternative generations' 3rd-instar larvae with LC50 dose and to continuous generations' larvae with LC10 dose; the effects of tebufenozide on the biological characteristics of current and subsequent generations were examined by the treatments to 3rd-instar larvae and egg pods in different concentrations. After treatments with LC50 dose till F11, the toxicity of tebufenozide to beet armyworm had no significant change, whereas the pupation rate, pupal weight, and fecundity were reduced markedly. After treatments with LC10 dose till F19, the beet armyworm only developed 3.52-fold resistance, and the main biological characteristics were nearly accordant in each generation. The livability was reduced 72 h later after treatments to 3rd-instar larvae, respectively in 2.5-40 (ig mL-', and larval duration, pupation rate, and pupal weight changed considerably with the increase in concentrations. The fecundity, larval livability, larval weight and pupal weight of subsequent generations were reduced as the dose increased over 10 ug mL-1. The hatching rate of egg pods did not differ with that of the controls obviously after treatment in 10-300 ug mL-1. But the larval livability, larval weight and pupal weight were reduced when eggs were exposed to 50 ug mL-1 dose or more. The results indicated that tebufenozide had low resistance risk to the current and subsequent generations of beet armyworm even if tebufenozide had significant effects on the biological characteristics of this insect.

  5. Biological control of cucumber and sugar beet damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum with bacterial and fungal antagonists

    OpenAIRE

    Georgakopoulos, D. G.; Fiddaman, P.; Leifert, C.; Malathrakis, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Five bacterial strains belonging to Bacillus subtilis , Pseudomonas fluorescens and Ps . corrugata and two fungal strains belonging to Trichoderma viride and Gliocladium virens were evaluated for their efficacy in controlling sugar beet and cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum . Methods and Results: The in vitro antagonistic activity of bacteria against various Pythium spp. was evaluated with dual cultures in various media. Pseudomonas strains inhibited the pathogen better tha...

  6. The Impact of Multi-Sensor Data Assimilation on Plant Parameter Retrieval and Yield Estimation for Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodrius, M.; Migdall, S.; Bach, H.; Hank, T.

    2015-04-01

    Yield Maps are a basic information source for site-specific farming. For sugar beet they are not available as in-situ measurements. This gap of information can be filled with Earth Observation (EO) data in combination with a plant growth model (PROMET) to improve farming and harvest management. The estimation of yield based on optical satellite imagery and crop growth modelling is more challenging for sugar beet than for other crop types since the plants' roots are harvested. These are not directly visible from EO. In this study, the impact of multi-sensor data assimilation on the yield estimation for sugar beet is evaluated. Yield and plant growth are modelled with PROMET. This multi-physics, raster-based model calculates photosynthesis and crop growth based on the physiological processes in the plant, including the distribution of biomass into the different plant organs (roots, stem, leaves and fruit) at different phenological stages. The crop variable used in the assimilation is the green (photosynthetically active) leaf area, which is derived as spatially heterogeneous input from optical satellite imagery with the radiative transfer model SLC (Soil-Leaf-Canopy). Leaf area index was retrieved from RapidEye, Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 7 ETM+ data. It could be shown that the used methods are very suitable to derive plant parameters time-series with different sensors. The LAI retrievals from different sensors are quantitatively compared to each other. Results for sugar beet yield estimation are shown for a test-site in Southern Germany. The validation of the yield estimation for the years 2012 to 2014 shows that the approach reproduced the measured yield on field level with high accuracy. Finally, it is demonstrated through comparison of different spatial resolutions that small-scale in-field variety is modelled with adequate results at 20 m raster size, but the results could be improved by recalculating the assimilation at a finer spatial resolution of 5 m.

  7. Progress in study of dietary fiber from beet%甜菜膳食纤维的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    於丽华; 刘慧; 吴玉梅

    2014-01-01

    膳食纤维具有重要的生理功能,对人体健康起着一定的调节作用;而且,膳食纤维具备的生理功能,使得膳食纤维在食品中的应用更为广泛。甜菜制糖后会产生甜菜粕,甜菜粕中含有大量纤维素、半纤维素及果胶等膳食纤维。本文阐述了膳食纤维的定义、分类及理化性质,并且针对前人的研究总结了甜菜粕膳食纤维的特点,为以后甜菜膳食纤维的研究工作提供参考。%Dietary fiber has important physiological functions , and it also has regulating function to human health, due to those, the application of dietary fiber in food products is increasing .After beet sugaring, it will product sugar beet pulp , which contain a lot of dietary fiber , such as:cellulose , hemi-cellulose and pectin et al.This paper mainly introduced the definition、the composition、the physicochemical properties , and the applica-tion of dietary fiber , and according to researches of plagiarisms , it also summed up the features of dietary fiber of sugar beet pulp ,which can be a reference for further study of dietary fiber from beet .

  8. [Creation of transgenic sugar beet lines expressing insect pest resistance genes cry1C and cry2A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, D I; Sivura, V V; Kurilo, V V; Oleneva, V D; Emets, A I; Blium, Ia B

    2014-01-01

    Impact of insect pests makes a significant limitation of the sugar beet crop yield. Integration of cry-genes of Bacillus thuringiensis into plant genome is one of the promising strategies to ensure plant resistance. The aim of this work was to obtain sugar beet lines (based on the MM 1/2 line) transformed with cry2A and cry1Cgenes. We have optimized transformation protocol and direct plant let regeneration protocol from leaf explants using 1 mg/l benzylaminopurine as well as 0,25 mg/l benzylaminopurine and 0,1 mg/l indole-butyric acid. Consequently, transgenic sugar beet lines transformed with vector constructs pRD400-cry1C and pRD400-cry2A have been obtained. PCR analysis revealed integration of cry2A and cry1C into genome of transgenic lines and expression of these genes in leaf tissues was shown by reverse transcription PCR. PMID:24818505

  9. Fenton reagent and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as antifungal agents to control leaf spot of sugar beet under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Amany

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, foliar sprays of Fenton solutions (Fenton reaction, Fenton-like reaction and Fenton complex, titanium dioxide (TiO2 and the recommended fungicide (chlorothalonil were estimated in the control of sugar beet leaf spot caused by Cercospora beticola under field conditions in two growing seasons. In addition, the impacts of these treatments on some crop characters (leaf dry weight, root fresh weight, soluble solid content, sucrose content and purity of sugar were examined. Biochemical and histological changes in the livers and kidneys of treated rats compared to an untreated control were utilized to assess the toxicity of the examined curative agents. Overall, chlorothalonil and Fenton complex were the most effective treatments for disease suppression in both tested seasons followed by Fenton-like reagent, Fenton’s reagent and TiO2, respectively. Growth and yield characters of treated sugar beet significantly increased in comparison to an untreated control. There were mild or no (biochemical and histological changes in the livers and kidneys of treated rats compared to the control. Fenton solutions and TiO2 may offer a new alternative for leaf spot control in sugar beet.

  10. The beet Y locus encodes an anthocyanin MYB-like protein that activates the betalain red pigment pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlestad, Gregory J; Akhavan, Neda A; Sunnadeniya, Rasika M; Elam, Lee; Cargile, Scott; Hembd, Austin; Gonzalez, Antonio; McGrath, J Mitchell; Lloyd, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all flowering plants produce red/violet anthocyanin pigments. Caryophyllales is the only order containing families that replace anthocyanins with unrelated red and yellow betalain pigments. Close biological correlation of pigmentation patterns suggested that betalains might be regulated by a conserved anthocyanin-regulating transcription factor complex consisting of a MYB, a bHLH and a WD repeat-containing protein (the MBW complex). Here we show that a previously uncharacterized anthocyanin MYB-like protein, Beta vulgaris MYB1 (BvMYB1), regulates the betalain pathway in beets. Silencing BvMYB1 downregulates betalain biosynthetic genes and pigmentation, and overexpressing BvMYB1 upregulates them. However, unlike anthocyanin MYBs, BvMYB1 will not interact with bHLH members of heterologous anthocyanin MBW complexes because of identified nonconserved residues. BvMYB1 resides at the historic beet pigment-patterning locus, Y, required for red-fleshed beets. We show that Y and y express different levels of BvMYB1 transcripts. The co-option of a transcription factor regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis would be an important evolutionary event allowing betalains to largely functionally replace anthocyanins. PMID:25436858

  11. Characterization of Fusarium secorum, a new species causing Fusarium yellowing decline of sugar beet in north central USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Gary A; Rivera-Varas, Viviana; Christ, Daniela S; Mathew, Febina M; Khan, Mohamed F R; Varrelmann, Mark; Bolton, Melvin D

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized a novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pathogen from the Red River Valley in north central USA, which was formally named Fusarium secorum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of three loci (translation elongation factor1α, calmodulin, mitochondrial small subunit) and phenotypic data strongly supported the inclusion of F. secorum in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Phylogenetic analyses identified F. secorum as a sister taxon of F. acutatum and a member of the African subclade of the FFSC. Fusarium secorum produced circinate hyphae sometimes bearing microconidia and abundant corkscrew-shaped hyphae in culture. To assess mycotoxin production potential, 45 typical secondary metabolites were tested in F. secorum rice cultures, but only beauvericin was produced in detectable amounts by each isolate. Results of pathogenicity experiments revealed that F. secorum isolates are able to induce half- and full-leaf yellowing foliar symptoms and vascular necrosis in roots and petioles of sugar beet. Inoculation with F. acutatum did not result in any disease symptoms. The sugar beet disease caused by F. secorum is named Fusarium yellowing decline. Since Fusarium yellowing decline incidence has been increasing in the Red River Valley, disease management options are discussed. PMID:25209635

  12. Production of methane from sugar beet silage without manure addition by a single-stage anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, B.; Scherer, P. [Lifetec Process Engineering, Faculty of Life Sciences, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Lohbruegger Kirchstrasse 65, 21033 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Single-stage continuous anaerobic conversion of sugar beet silage without manure to methane was investigated in this experimental work, using a laboratory-scale mesophilic anaerobic biogas digester. The sugar beet silage had an extreme low pH of 3.3. The reactor was operated in a hydraulic retention time (HRT) range of between 95 and 15 days, and an organic loading rate (OLR) range of between 0.937 and 6.33 g{sup -1} VS l{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The highest specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) of 0.72 l g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} could be obtained at 25 days of HRT, with an average methane content of about 63%, at a pH of around 6.8. Since sugar beet silage without the leaves is a poor substrate, in terms of the availability of the nutrients and the buffering capacity, external supplementation of nitrogen and buffering agents has to be regularly performed, in order to achieve a stable and an efficient process. Sodium or potassium hydrogen carbonate addition seemed to function best in our case, among the other agents used, to provide adequate buffering capacity and to keep the digester pH stable during the operation. Use of a new harvest (a new charge of substrate) also affected the spec. GPR values significantly. (author)

  13. Mitochondrial DNA phylogeny of cultivated and wild beets: relationships among cytoplasmic male-sterility-inducing and nonsterilizing cytoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Satsuki; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2007-11-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), the maternally inherited failure to produce functional pollen, has been used in the breeding of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris). At least three different sources of CMS can be distinguished from one another as well as from normal fertile cytoplasm by polymorphisms in their mitochondrial genomes. Here we analyzed 50 accessions of cultivated and wild beets to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among male-sterility-inducing and normal cytoplasms. The haplotypes were characterized by the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cox2-cox1 spacer region and mitochondrial minisatellite loci. The results indicated that (1) a normal cytoplasm line, cv. TK81-O, was situated at the major core node of the haplotype network, and (2) the three sterilizing cytoplasms in question derived independently from the core haplotype. The evolutionary pathway was investigated by physical mapping study of the mitochondrial genome of a wild beet (B. vulgaris ssp. orientalis) accession BGRC56777 which shared the same mitochondrial haplotype with TK81-O, but was not identical to TK81-O for the RFLP profiles of mitochondrial DNA. Interestingly, three sets of inverted repeated sequences appeared to have been involved in a series of recombination events during the course of evolution between the BGRC56777 and the TK81-O mitochondrial genomes.

  14. A new source of cytoplasmic male sterility found in wild beet and its relationship to other CMS types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Yuki; Shinada, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Masaki, Yusuke; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2010-04-01

    We found a number of male-sterile plants in a wild beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima) accession line, FR4-31. The inheritance study of the male sterility indicated the trait to be of the cytoplasmic type. The mitochondrial genome of FR4-31 proved to lack the male-sterility-associated genes preSatp6 and orf129, which are characteristic of the Owen CMS and I-12CMS(3) cytoplasms of beets, respectively. Instead, the truncated cox2 gene involved in G CMS originating from wild beets was present in the FR4-31 mitochondrial genome. In Southern hybridization using four mitochondrial gene probes, the FR4-31 cytoplasm showed patterns similar to those typical of the G cytoplasm. It is thus likely that the FR4-31 cytoplasm has a different CMS mechanism from both Owen CMS and I-12CMS(3), and that the FR4-31 and G cytoplasms resemble each other closely. A restriction map of the FR4-31 mitochondrial DNA was generated and aligned with those published for the Owen and normal fertile cytoplasms. The FR4-31 mitochondrial genome was revealed to differ extensively in arrangement from the Owen and normal genomes, and the male-sterile Owen and FR4-31 genomes seem to be derived independently from an ancestral genome.

  15. Taxonomic analysis of the microbial community in stored sugar beets using high-throughput sequencing of different marker genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Sebastian; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Post-harvest colonization of sugar beets accompanied by rot development is a serious problem due to sugar losses and negative impact on processing quality. Studies on the microbial community associated with rot development and factors shaping their structure are missing. Therefore, high-throughput sequencing was applied to describe the influence of environment, plant genotype and storage temperature (8°C and 20°C) on three different communities in stored sugar beets, namely fungi (internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2), Fusarium spp. (elongation factor-1α gene fragment) and oomycetes (internal transcribed spacers 1). The composition of the fungal community changed during storage mostly influenced by the storage temperature followed by a weak environmental effect. Botrytis cinerea was the prevalent species at 8°C whereas members of the fungal genera Fusarium and Penicillium became dominant at 20°C. This shift was independent of the plant genotype. Species richness within the genus Fusarium also increased during storage at both temperatures whereas the oomycetes community did not change. Moreover, oomycetes species were absent after storage at 20°C. The results of the present study clearly show that rot development during sugar beet storage is associated with pathogens well known as causal agents of post-harvest diseases in many other crops. PMID:26738557

  16. Characterization of Fusarium secorum, a new species causing Fusarium yellowing decline of sugar beet in north central USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Gary A; Rivera-Varas, Viviana; Christ, Daniela S; Mathew, Febina M; Khan, Mohamed F R; Varrelmann, Mark; Bolton, Melvin D

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized a novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pathogen from the Red River Valley in north central USA, which was formally named Fusarium secorum. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of three loci (translation elongation factor1α, calmodulin, mitochondrial small subunit) and phenotypic data strongly supported the inclusion of F. secorum in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). Phylogenetic analyses identified F. secorum as a sister taxon of F. acutatum and a member of the African subclade of the FFSC. Fusarium secorum produced circinate hyphae sometimes bearing microconidia and abundant corkscrew-shaped hyphae in culture. To assess mycotoxin production potential, 45 typical secondary metabolites were tested in F. secorum rice cultures, but only beauvericin was produced in detectable amounts by each isolate. Results of pathogenicity experiments revealed that F. secorum isolates are able to induce half- and full-leaf yellowing foliar symptoms and vascular necrosis in roots and petioles of sugar beet. Inoculation with F. acutatum did not result in any disease symptoms. The sugar beet disease caused by F. secorum is named Fusarium yellowing decline. Since Fusarium yellowing decline incidence has been increasing in the Red River Valley, disease management options are discussed.

  17. Versatile synthesis of PHMB-stabilized silver nanoparticles and their significant stimulating effect on fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Alexander А; Kudrinsky, Alexey A; Zakharova, Olga V; Klimov, Alexey I; Zherebin, Pavel M; Lisichkin, George V; Vasyukova, Inna A; Denisov, Albert N; Krutyakov, Yurii A

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well-known bactericidal agents. However, information about the influence of AgNPs on the morphometric parameters and biochemical status of most important agricultural crops is limited. The present study reports the influence of AgNPs stabilized with cationic polymer polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) on growth, development, and biochemical status of fodder beet Beta vulgaris L. under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. PHMB-stabilized AgNPs were obtained via sodium borohydride reduction of silver nitrate in an aqueous solution. The average diameter of thus prepared AgNPs was 10 nm. It appears that the results of experiments with laboratory-grown beets in the nanosilver-containing medium, where germination of seeds and growth of roots were suppressed, do not correlate with the results of greenhouse experiments. The observed growth-stimulating action of PHMB-stabilized AgNPs can be explained by the change of activity of oxidases and, consequently, by the change of auxins amount in plant tissues. In beets grown in the presence of PHMB-stabilized AgNPs no negative deviations of biological parameters from normal values were registered. Furthermore, the SEM/EDS examination revealed no presence of silver in the tissues of the studied plants. PMID:26952409

  18. Evolutionary optimization of life-history traits in the sea beet Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima: Comparing model to data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautekèete, N.-C.; Van Dijk, H.; Piquot, Y.; Teriokhin, A.

    2009-01-01

    At evolutionary equilibrium, ecological factors will determine the optimal combination of life-history trait values of an organism. This optimum can be assessed by assuming that the species maximizes some criterion of fitness such as the Malthusian coefficient or lifetime reproductive success depending on the degree of density-dependence. We investigated the impact of the amount of resources and habitat stability on a plant's age at maturity and life span by using an evolutionary optimization model in combination with empirical data. We conducted this study on sea beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, because of its large variation in life span and age at first reproduction along a latitudinal gradient including considerable ecological variation. We also compared the consequence in our evolutionary model of maximizing either the Malthusian coefficient or the lifetime reproductive success. Both the data analysis and the results of evolutionary modeling pointed to habitat disturbance and resources like length of the growing season as factors negatively related to life span and age at maturity in sea beet. Resource availability had a negative theoretical influence with the Malthusian coefficient as the chosen optimality criterion, while there was no influence in the case of lifetime reproductive success. As suggested by previous theoretical work the final conclusion on what criterion is more adequate depends on the assumptions of how in reality density-dependence restrains population growth. In our case of sea beet data R0 seems to be less appropriate than λ.

  19. A new source of cytoplasmic male sterility found in wild beet and its relationship to other CMS types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Yuki; Shinada, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Masaki, Yusuke; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2010-04-01

    We found a number of male-sterile plants in a wild beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima) accession line, FR4-31. The inheritance study of the male sterility indicated the trait to be of the cytoplasmic type. The mitochondrial genome of FR4-31 proved to lack the male-sterility-associated genes preSatp6 and orf129, which are characteristic of the Owen CMS and I-12CMS(3) cytoplasms of beets, respectively. Instead, the truncated cox2 gene involved in G CMS originating from wild beets was present in the FR4-31 mitochondrial genome. In Southern hybridization using four mitochondrial gene probes, the FR4-31 cytoplasm showed patterns similar to those typical of the G cytoplasm. It is thus likely that the FR4-31 cytoplasm has a different CMS mechanism from both Owen CMS and I-12CMS(3), and that the FR4-31 and G cytoplasms resemble each other closely. A restriction map of the FR4-31 mitochondrial DNA was generated and aligned with those published for the Owen and normal fertile cytoplasms. The FR4-31 mitochondrial genome was revealed to differ extensively in arrangement from the Owen and normal genomes, and the male-sterile Owen and FR4-31 genomes seem to be derived independently from an ancestral genome. PMID:20616856

  20. Taxonomic analysis of the microbial community in stored sugar beets using high-throughput sequencing of different marker genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Sebastian; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Post-harvest colonization of sugar beets accompanied by rot development is a serious problem due to sugar losses and negative impact on processing quality. Studies on the microbial community associated with rot development and factors shaping their structure are missing. Therefore, high-throughput sequencing was applied to describe the influence of environment, plant genotype and storage temperature (8°C and 20°C) on three different communities in stored sugar beets, namely fungi (internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2), Fusarium spp. (elongation factor-1α gene fragment) and oomycetes (internal transcribed spacers 1). The composition of the fungal community changed during storage mostly influenced by the storage temperature followed by a weak environmental effect. Botrytis cinerea was the prevalent species at 8°C whereas members of the fungal genera Fusarium and Penicillium became dominant at 20°C. This shift was independent of the plant genotype. Species richness within the genus Fusarium also increased during storage at both temperatures whereas the oomycetes community did not change. Moreover, oomycetes species were absent after storage at 20°C. The results of the present study clearly show that rot development during sugar beet storage is associated with pathogens well known as causal agents of post-harvest diseases in many other crops.

  1. Non-invasive Presymptomatic Detection of Cercospora beticola Infection and Identification of Early Metabolic Responses in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Nadja; Backhaus, Andreas; Döll, Stefanie; Fischer, Sandra; Seiffert, Udo; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cercospora beticola is an economically significant fungal pathogen of sugar beet, and is the causative pathogen of Cercospora leaf spot. Selected host genotypes with contrasting degree of susceptibility to the disease have been exploited to characterize the patterns of metabolite responses to fungal infection, and to devise a pre-symptomatic, non-invasive method of detecting the presence of the pathogen. Sugar beet genotypes were analyzed for metabolite profiles and hyperspectral signatures. Correlation of data matrices from both approaches facilitated identification of candidates for metabolic markers. Hyperspectral imaging was highly predictive with a classification accuracy of 98.5–99.9% in detecting C. beticola. Metabolite analysis revealed metabolites altered by the host as part of a successful defense response: these were L-DOPA, 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid 12-O-β-D-glucoside, pantothenic acid, and 5-O-feruloylquinic acid. The accumulation of glucosylvitexin in the resistant cultivar suggests it acts as a constitutively produced protectant. The study establishes a proof-of-concept for an unbiased, presymptomatic and non-invasive detection system for the presence of C. beticola. The test needs to be validated with a larger set of genotypes, to be scalable to the level of a crop improvement program, aiming to speed up the selection for resistant cultivars of sugar beet. Untargeted metabolic profiling is a valuable tool to identify metabolites which correlate with hyperspectral data. PMID:27713750

  2. Combined effects of independent variables on yield and protein content of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp by citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Qiang; Du, Guang-Ming; Jing, Wei-Wen; Li, Jun-Fang; Yan, Jia-Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yong

    2015-09-20

    The extraction of pectin from sugar beet pulp by citric acid was carried out under different conditions using Box-Behnken design for four independent variables (pH, temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio). The yield of sugar beet pulp pectin ranged from 6.3% to 23.0%, and the content of protein from 1.5% to 4.5%. All independent variables significantly affected the yield, and all variables except liquid to solid ratio significantly affected the protein content. The yield increased as decreasing pH of extracting solution, extending time and advancing temperature, and an opposite relationship of effects between variables and content of protein was obtained. The chemical composition of collected samples was determined. Moreover, from the results of emulsifying properties study, the extracted pectin from sugar beet pulp could prepare steady oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, it was inferred that the extraction conditions could influence yield and protein content, resulting in different emulsifying property.

  3. Association of beet leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with a clover proliferation group phytoplasma in Columbia basin of Washington and Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosslin, J M; Munyaneza, J E; Jensen, A; Hamm, P B

    2005-04-01

    At least 16 taxa of cicadellids and delphacids were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of a phytoplasma in the clover proliferation group, designated 16SrVI. Nucleic acid extracts from individual insects or groups of 5-10 were tested using PCR primers designed from the DNA sequence of 16S-23S rRNA or ribosomal protein genes of the pathogen. The beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus (Baker), was most often associated with the phytoplasma, with approximately 16% of the insects testing positive. The phytoplasma was occasionally found associated with Ceratagallia spp. Leafhopper species that were not associated with the phytoplasma included Macrosteles spp., Dikraneura spp., Colladonus montanus (Van Duzee), Circulifer geminatus (Van Duzee), Ballana spp., Amplysellus spp., Paraphlepsius spp., Texananus spp., Balclutha spp., Latalus spp., Erythroneura spp., Exitianus exitiosus (Uhler), and unidentified delphacids. The detected phytoplasma was similar to, or synonymous with, the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent that is associated with the potato purple top disease in the Columbia Basin region of Washington and Oregon. This is in contrast to the phytoplasma associated with potato purple top disease in Mexico that is related to aster yellows (group 16SrI). The association of the group 16SrVI phytoplasma almost exclusively with the beet leafhopper suggests that this insect is the major vector of the phytoplasma in this region. PMID:15889714

  4. A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesold, Susanne; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Dechyeva, Daryna

    2012-11-01

    We developed a reference karyotype for B. vulgaris which is applicable to all beet cultivars and provides a consistent numbering of chromosomes and genetic linkage groups. Linkage groups of sugar beet were assigned to physical chromosome arms by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) using a set of 18 genetically anchored BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) markers. Genetic maps of sugar beet were correlated to chromosome arms, and North-South orientation of linkage groups was established. The FISH karyotype provides a technical platform for genome studies and can be applied for numbering and identification of chromosomes in related wild beet species. The discrimination of all nine chromosomes by BAC probes enabled the study of chromosome-specific distribution of the major repetitive components of sugar beet genome comprising pericentromeric, intercalary and subtelomeric satellites and 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rRNA gene arrays. We developed a multicolor FISH procedure allowing the identification of all nine sugar beet chromosome pairs in a single hybridization using a pool of satellite DNA probes. Fiber-FISH was applied to analyse five chromosome arms in which the furthermost genetic marker of the linkage group was mapped adjacently to terminal repetitive sequences on pachytene chromosomes. Only on two arms telomere arrays and the markers are physically linked, hence these linkage groups can be considered as terminally closed making the further identification of distal informative markers difficult. The results support genetic mapping by marker localization, the anchoring of contigs and scaffolds for the annotation of the sugar beet genome sequence and the analysis of the chromosomal distribution patterns of major families of repetitive DNA.

  5. A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesold, Susanne; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Dechyeva, Daryna

    2012-11-01

    We developed a reference karyotype for B. vulgaris which is applicable to all beet cultivars and provides a consistent numbering of chromosomes and genetic linkage groups. Linkage groups of sugar beet were assigned to physical chromosome arms by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) using a set of 18 genetically anchored BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) markers. Genetic maps of sugar beet were correlated to chromosome arms, and North-South orientation of linkage groups was established. The FISH karyotype provides a technical platform for genome studies and can be applied for numbering and identification of chromosomes in related wild beet species. The discrimination of all nine chromosomes by BAC probes enabled the study of chromosome-specific distribution of the major repetitive components of sugar beet genome comprising pericentromeric, intercalary and subtelomeric satellites and 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rRNA gene arrays. We developed a multicolor FISH procedure allowing the identification of all nine sugar beet chromosome pairs in a single hybridization using a pool of satellite DNA probes. Fiber-FISH was applied to analyse five chromosome arms in which the furthermost genetic marker of the linkage group was mapped adjacently to terminal repetitive sequences on pachytene chromosomes. Only on two arms telomere arrays and the markers are physically linked, hence these linkage groups can be considered as terminally closed making the further identification of distal informative markers difficult. The results support genetic mapping by marker localization, the anchoring of contigs and scaffolds for the annotation of the sugar beet genome sequence and the analysis of the chromosomal distribution patterns of major families of repetitive DNA. PMID:22775355

  6. Characterization of the nuclear ribosomal DNA units and phylogeny of Beta L. wild forms and cultivated beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, S; Bervillé, A

    1992-03-01

    The nuclear rDNA units of species belonging to the genus Beta were characterized using heterologous probes of flax (entire unit and 25S) and sunflower (6.1-kb Eco fragment containing the 18S, the entire intergenic spacer (IGS) and a small piece of the 25S). The physical maps of one species from each section of the genus was constructed by localization of the EcoRI, BamHI, HindIII, KpnI and SacI restriction sites. For each species a single individual was used to obtain total DNA. The major unit length is 11 kb, but variant length units at 10.4, 10.7 and 11.3 kb were found as minor forms. However, some individuals carried the 10.4-kb or the 10.7-kb variant length unit as the major form. For the variant length units of one species the restriction sites were conserved, so that the variation in length occurred in the IGS. The EcoRI fragment corresponding to the intergenic spacer appeared to be the best indicator of variation. The variable sequence in the IGS sometimes generated new restriction sites for the Corollinae and mainly, did so, for the Vulgares relative to the Procumbentes. The variable sites were able, to differentiate the three sections and species within the sections. Corollinae species belong to two different groups according to the absence or the presence of the BamHI (B4) site. The Vulgares species contain several unit types. We proposed that all the unit types derived from a unique unit, V-11-2.3, by unequal crossing-overs or conversion. We also supposed a homogenization mechanism because we found individuals homogeneous for every unit type. Among the cultivated beets, all the root beets contain only one rDNA unit type, V-11-2.9. Thus, we supposed that the common unit type of cultivated beets either brings a physiological advantage or is strictly linked to a favorable allele. It is likely that the rDNA unit of B. maritima were eliminated from sugar beet by the breeding process since they were not recovered. Whatever the process, we deduced that all the

  7. Characterization of the nuclear ribosomal DNA units and phylogeny of Beta L. wild forms and cultivated beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, S; Bervillé, A

    1992-03-01

    The nuclear rDNA units of species belonging to the genus Beta were characterized using heterologous probes of flax (entire unit and 25S) and sunflower (6.1-kb Eco fragment containing the 18S, the entire intergenic spacer (IGS) and a small piece of the 25S). The physical maps of one species from each section of the genus was constructed by localization of the EcoRI, BamHI, HindIII, KpnI and SacI restriction sites. For each species a single individual was used to obtain total DNA. The major unit length is 11 kb, but variant length units at 10.4, 10.7 and 11.3 kb were found as minor forms. However, some individuals carried the 10.4-kb or the 10.7-kb variant length unit as the major form. For the variant length units of one species the restriction sites were conserved, so that the variation in length occurred in the IGS. The EcoRI fragment corresponding to the intergenic spacer appeared to be the best indicator of variation. The variable sequence in the IGS sometimes generated new restriction sites for the Corollinae and mainly, did so, for the Vulgares relative to the Procumbentes. The variable sites were able, to differentiate the three sections and species within the sections. Corollinae species belong to two different groups according to the absence or the presence of the BamHI (B4) site. The Vulgares species contain several unit types. We proposed that all the unit types derived from a unique unit, V-11-2.3, by unequal crossing-overs or conversion. We also supposed a homogenization mechanism because we found individuals homogeneous for every unit type. Among the cultivated beets, all the root beets contain only one rDNA unit type, V-11-2.9. Thus, we supposed that the common unit type of cultivated beets either brings a physiological advantage or is strictly linked to a favorable allele. It is likely that the rDNA unit of B. maritima were eliminated from sugar beet by the breeding process since they were not recovered. Whatever the process, we deduced that all the

  8. Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Jaradat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneousfield-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was toquantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R; g 100 g-1 root dryweight]. Artificial Neural Network (ANN, in conjunction with thermal time (ºCd, adequately delineatedthe boundaries (mean ± standard deviation, S.D. between S(R during early (41.6 ± 6.2, med (54.5 ± 3.0,and late ontogeny (63.4 ± 2.4, corresponding, respectively to low, medium, and high S(R. Calibrationand validation Partial Least Squares (PLS regression models, using plant physical and chemical traits,predicted and validated sugar content of sugar beet leaves [S(L] and roots [S(R] throughout its ontogenywith significant probabilities. Most physical and all chemical traits exhibited dynamic changesthroughout plant ontogeny and, consequently, negatively or positively impacted S(R. The positiveimpact of S(L and root volume (RV on S(R diminished towards the end of the growing season;whereas, the positive impact of root density (RD and carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio in leaves [C:N(L] androots [C:N(R] persisted throughout plant ontogeny. Specific leaf area (SLA, in particular, exhibitednegative, then positive impact on S(R. The utility of physical and chemical traits of field-grown sugarbeets in building reliable PLS models was confirmed using multivariate analysis on secondary statistics(residual mean square errors, RMSE and validation coefficients of determination, Q2 whichdiscriminated between and correctly classified low (100%, medium (95% and high (97% S(R groups.The findings may have implications to design management practices that can enhance C:N ratio and Csequestrationin roots, maintain optimum, but not excessive, N level in developing leaves and roots,optimize root sugar content and minimize its variation under field conditions

  9. Microbial community dynamics of a continuous mesophilic anaerobic biogas digester fed with sugar beet silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, B.; Neumann, L.; Scherer, P. [Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften, Fakultaet Life Sciences, Lifetec Process Engineering, Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term fermentation of an extremely sour substrate without any addition of manure. In the future, the limitation of manure and therefore the anaerobic digestion of silage with a very low buffering capacity will be an increasing general bottleneck for energy production from renewable biomass. During the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sugar beet silage (without top and leaves) as the sole substrate (without any addition of manure), which had an extreme low pH of around 3.3, the highest specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) of 0.72 L/g volatile solids (VS) d was achieved at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 25 days compared to an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.97 g VS/L d at a pH of around 6.80. The methane (CH{sub 4}) content of the digester ranged between 58 and 67 %, with an average of 63 %. The use of a new charge of substrate (a new harvest of the same substrate) with higher phosphate content improved the performance of the biogas digester significantly. The change of the substrate charge also seemed to affect the methanogenic population dynamics positively, thus improving the reactor performance. Using a new substrate charge, a further decrease in the HRT from 25 to 15 days did not influence the digester performance and did not seem to affect the structure of the methanogenic population significantly. However, a decrease in the HRT affected the size of the methanogenic population adversely. The lower spec. GPR of 0.54 L/g VS d attained on day 15 of the HRT could be attributed to a lower size of methanogenic population present in the anaerobic digester during this stage of the process. Furthermore, since sugar beet silage is a relatively poor substrate, in terms of the buffering capacity and the availability of nutrients, an external supply of buffering agents and nutrients is a prerequisite for a safe and stable digester operation. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. In vitro evaluation and determination of responsible fraction of coffee beans and dried sugar beet leaves for alpha-glucosidase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Singh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Recent studies have identified that hydrophobic phenolic phytochemicals and hydrophilic Amadori compounds have potential for type 2 diabetes management via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Here, we determined the phenolic content, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and pancreatic α-amylase inhibitory activity of water extracts of roasted and unroasted coffee beans and dried sugar beet leaves. Sugar beet leaves appeared to have the lowest total phenolic content while unroasted and roasted coffee beans had similar phenolic contents (1.49 and 1.40 mg/mL GAE DW respectively. All tested samples resulted to a dose-dependent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Sugar beet leaves had significant inhibitory activity (78% at the highest dose and after C18 extraction this activity appeared to be both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compound dependent.  Roasted coffee beans had significantly higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity when compared to green coffee beans at all tested doses. Roasted coffee beans were subjected to C18 extraction and the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was evaluated and determined to be solely hydrophobic compound dependent. When the α-amylase inhibitory activity was evaluated, no inhibition was observed with all tested samples. Our findings indicate that the observed bioactivities in coffee beans is hydrophobic compound dependent, while in sugar beet leaves the observed effect is possibly due to the synergistic effect of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. This is the first report on the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibition of roasted coffee beans and sugar beet leaves.Industrial Relevance. Sugar beets are widely cultivated in Europe and Northern Asia for the production of table sugar. After the harvesting of sugar beets large quantities of sugar beet leaves remain on the field and are either left to become fertilizer or appropriately disposed. Identification of appropriate strategies to

  11. Physical mapping and cloning of a translocation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) carrying a gene for nematode (Heterodera schachtii) resistance from B. procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, M; Cai, D; Elbl, C; Herrmann, R G; Jung, C

    1995-03-01

    Two diploid (2n=18) sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) lines which carry monogenic traits for nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) resistance located on translocations from the wild beet species Beta procumbens were investigated. Short interspersed repetitive DNA elements exclusively hybridizing with wild beet DNA were found to be dispersed around the translocations. The banding pattern as revealed by genomic Southern hybridization was highly conserved among translocation lines of different origins indicating that the translocations are not affected by recombination events with sugar beet chromosomes. Physical mapping revealed that the entire translocation is represented by a single Sal I fragment 300 kb in size. A representative YAC (yeast artifical chromosome) library consisting of approximately 13,000 recombinant clones (2.2 genome equivalents) with insert sizes ranging between 50 and 450 kb and an average of 130kb has been constructed from the resistant line A906001. Three recombinant YACs were isolated from this library using the wild beet-specific repetitive elements as probes for screening. Colinearity between YAC inserts and donor DNA was confirmed by DNA fingerprinting utilizing these repetitive probes. The YACs were arranged into two contigs with a total size of 215 kb; these represent a minimum of 72% of the translocation.

  12. Identification of RFLP markers closely linked to the bolting gene B and their significance for the study of the annual habit in beets (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudry, P; Wieber, R; Saumitou-Laprade, P; Pillen, K; Van Dijk, H; Jung, C

    1994-08-01

    The annual habit in beet is due to complete or partial absence of the vernalization requirement and can cause severe problems in the beet crop. The absolute vernalization requirement in beet is controlled by a major geneB (bolting), known to be linked to the geneR (red hypocotyl color), in linkage group I. Segregation for theB andR genes was studied in several beet progenies. Penetrance of the annual habit inBb genotypes was affected by both environmental and genetic factors. The precise location in linkage group I of the major geneB was found by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in a back-cross progeny exhibiting partial penetrance of the annual habit. The linkage value betweenB andR was in good accordance with previous estimations. Use of the closest RFLP marker (pKP591: 3.8 recombination units) allowed us to estimate the penetrance of the annual habit in this back-cross as 0.62. Evidence of pseudo-compatibility was found in the wild coastal beet (Beta vulgaris sspmaritima) used as the mother plant of the back-cross: the selfing rate was estimated as 7%.

  13. Effect of enzymatic pretreatment on anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet pulp silage and vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiński, Krzysztof; Kowalska-Wentel, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Results of sugar beet pulp silage (SBPS) and vinasse (mixed in weight ratios of 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively) co-fermentation, obtained in this study, provide evidence that addition of too high amount of vinasse into the SBPS decreases biogas yields. The highest biogas productivity (598.1mL/g VS) was achieved at the SBPS-vinasse ratio of 3:1 (w/w). Biogas yields from separately fermented SBPS and vinasse were by 13% and 28.6% lower, respectively. It was found that enzymatic pretreatment of SBPS before methane fermentation that caused partial degradation of component polysaccharides, considerably increased biogas production. The highest biogas yield (765.5mL/g VS) was obtained from enzymatic digests of SBPS-vinasse (3:1) blend (27.9% more than from fermentation of the counterpart blend, which was not treated with enzymes). The simulation of potential biogas production from all the aforementioned mixtures using the Gompertz equation showed fair fit to the experimental results.

  14. Identification and Plant Interaction of a Phyllobacterium sp., a Predominant Rhizobacterium of Young Sugar Beet Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, B; Joos, H; Dierickx, S; Vantomme, R; Swings, J; Kersters, K; Van Montagu, M

    1990-04-01

    The second most abundant bacterium on the root surface of young sugar beet plants was identified as a Phyllobacterium sp. (Rhizobiaceae) based on a comparison of the results of 39 conventional identification tests, 167 API tests, 30 antibiotic susceptibility tests, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic fingerprints of total cellular proteins with type strains of Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum and Phyllobacterium rubiacearum. It was found on 198 of 1,100 investigated plants between the 2nd and 10th leaf stage on three different fields in Belgium and one field in Spain. Densities ranged from 2 x 10 to 2 x 10 CFU/g of root. Five isolates exerted a broad-spectrum in vitro antifungal activity. DNA-DNA hybridizations showed that Phyllobacterium sp. does not contain DNA sequences that are homologous with the attachment genes chvA, chvB, the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) hormone genes iaaH and ipt from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, iaaM from A. tumefaciens and Pseudomonas savastanoi, or the nitrogenase genes nifHDK from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Phyllobacterium sp. produces indolylacetic acid in in vitro cultures and induces auxinlike effects when cocultivated with callus tissue of tobacco. When Phyllobacterium sp. was transformed with a Ti plasmid derivative, it gained the capacity to induce tumors on Kalanchoe daigremontiana. The potential role of Phyllobacterium sp. in this newly recognized niche is discussed. PMID:16348158

  15. The beet R locus encodes a new cytochrome P450 required for red betalain production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlestad, Gregory J; Sunnadeniya, Rasika M; Akhavan, Neda A; Gonzalez, Antonio; Goldman, Irwin L; McGrath, J Mitchell; Lloyd, Alan M

    2012-07-01

    Anthocyanins are red and violet pigments that color flowers, fruits and epidermal tissues in virtually all flowering plants. A single order, Caryophyllales, contains families in which an unrelated family of pigments, the betalains, color tissues normally pigmented by anthocyanins. Here we show that CYP76AD1 encoding a novel cytochrome P450 is required to produce the red betacyanin pigments in beets. Gene silencing of CYP76AD1 results in loss of red pigment and production of only yellow betaxanthin pigment. Yellow betalain mutants are complemented by transgenic expression of CYP76AD1, and an insertion in CYP76AD1 maps to the R locus that is responsible for yellow versus red pigmentation. Finally, expression of CYP76AD1 in yeast verifies its position in the betalain biosynthetic pathway. Thus, this cytochrome P450 performs the biosynthetic step that provides the cyclo-DOPA moiety of all red betacyanins. This discovery will contribute to our ability to engineer this simple, nutritionally valuable pathway into heterologous species. PMID:22660548

  16. Selected Indicators Of The Root Quality Of Fifteen Cultivars Of Red Beet (Beta Vulgaris L.

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    Nizioł-Łukaszewska Zofia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the quality of 15 cultivars of red beet has been made during four successive vegetative seasons. The study involved cultivars ‘Astar F1’, ‘Boro F1’, ‘Ceryl’, ‘Chrobry’, ‘Czerwona Kula’, ‘Egipski’, ‘Karmazyn’, ‘Nabab F1’, ‘Nochowski’, ‘Opolski’, ‘Pablo F1’, ‘Patryk’, ‘Regulski Cylinder’, ‘Okrągły Regulski’ and ‘Rywal’. The mass, diameter of roots, antioxidant activity, the content of dry mass, soluble sugars, betanin and vulgaxanthin in roots were evaluated. The study indicated ‘Chrobry’ as the cultivar of the most favorable quality features. It was characterized by high antioxidant activity, high content of dry mass, soluble sugars and betalain pigments. Among cultivars of cylindrical shaped roots, content of soluble sugars and antiradical activity was the highest in ‘Regulski Cylinder’ roots.

  17. Alteration of SH-group Contents in Red Beet Roots and Vacuoles under Osmotic Stress

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    Ozolina, N. V.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The content of sulfhydryl groups in homogenate of red beets and isolated vacuoles under the conditions of osmotic stress was determined. It was demonstrated that the common content of sulfhydryl groups in the isolated vacuoles was 2.4 times higher, than in the homogenate. Under the conditions of osmotic stress, it was primarily denoted the reduction of common content of sulfhydryl groups in homogenate and in the isolated vacuoles. The most interesting results were obtained in determination of correlations between protein and non-protein SH-groups. Under the conditions of osmotic stress, while the contents of non-protein SH-groups in the isolated vacuoles was reduced, non-protein SH-groups in homogenate was greatly increased. This may be explained by the influx of the substances containing SH-groups out of vacuoles. Obtained results allow us to conclude that vacuoles play an important role in plant cell antioxidant processes and in maintenance of intracellular redox-homeostasis.

  18. Removal of Chemazol Reactive Red 195 from aqueous solution by dehydrated beet pulp carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Arzu Y; Tepe, Ozlem

    2011-10-30

    An agricultural low-cost by-product, dehydrated beet pulp carbon (DBPC) was used as an adsorbent for removal of Chemazol Reactive Red 195 (CRR 195) from aqueous solution. The surface area of DBPC was measured as 9.5m(2)g(-1) by using BET method. The results indicated that adsorption was strongly pH-dependent and optimum pH was determined as 1.0. The maximum dye adsorption capacity was obtained as 58.0 mg g(-1)at the temperature of 50°C at this pH value. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium and it was reported that, experimental data fitted very well to Freundlich model. Mass transfer and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of adsorption and potential rate-controlling steps. It was found that both external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion played an important role in the adsorption mechanisms of dye and adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-first-order type kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters such as, Gibbs free energy changes (ΔG°), standard enthalpy change (ΔH°) and standard entropy change (ΔS°) had been determined. The results show that adsorption of CRR 195 on DBPC is endothermic and spontaneous in nature. PMID:21890269

  19. In vitro Effects of Beet Root Juice on Stimulated and Unstimulated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiana Winkler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants is suggested to reduce the incidence of cancer and coronary heart disease in humans. Exceptional antioxidant activity of beet root extracts has been reported. Likewise in animal models, e.g., extracts of red beetroot Beta vulgaris var. rubra revealed significant tumor inhibitory effects. Red beetroot concentrate is universally permitted as a food ingredient. In this study, effects of a commercially available beetroot juice on freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with the mitogens phytohaemagglutinin and concanavalin A were investigated in vitro. Tryptophan degradation and neopterin formation were monitored in culture supernatants to determine effects of test substances on immunobiochemical pathways which both are induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ. Compared to unstimulated cells, the mitogens induced significant formation of neopterin and degradation of tryptophan which is reflected by increasing concentrations of kynurenine together with diminished tryptophan levels in supernatants. Addition of beetroot extracts significantly suppressed these mitogen-induced changes, e.g. the rate of neopterin production as well as tryptophan degradation was dose-dependently suppressed. Our data show that beetroot extract is able to counteract pro-inflammatory cascades in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Because inflammation is strongly involved in the development and progression of several clinical conditions including coronary heart disease and cancer, beneficial effect of beetroot extract may relate to this anti-inflammatory capacity.

  20. Involvement of C4 protein of beet severe curly top virus (family Geminiviridae in virus movement.

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    Kunling Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV is a leafhopper transmitted geminivirus with a monopartite genome. C4 proteins encoded by geminivirus play an important role in virus/plant interaction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To understand the function of C4 encoded by BSCTV, two BSCTV mutants were constructed by introducing termination codons in ORF C4 without affecting the amino acids encoded by overlapping ORF Rep. BSCTV mutants containing disrupted ORF C4 retained the ability to replicate in Arabidopsis protoplasts and in the agro-inoculated leaf discs of N. benthamiana, suggesting C4 is not required for virus DNA replication. However, both mutants did not accumulate viral DNA in newly emerged leaves of inoculated N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and the inoculated plants were asymptomatic. We also showed that C4 expression in plant could help C4 deficient BSCTV mutants to move systemically. C4 was localized in the cytosol and the nucleus in both Arabidopsis protoplasts and N. benthamiana leaves and the protein appeared to bind viral DNA and ds/ssDNA nonspecifically, displaying novel DNA binding properties. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that C4 protein in BSCTV is involved in symptom production and may facilitate virus movement instead of virus replication.

  1. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  2. Structure and Function of the Ribosomal Frameshifting Pseudoknot RNA from Beet Western Yellow Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egli, M.; Sarkhel, S.; Minasov, G.; Rich, A.

    2010-03-05

    Many viruses reprogram ribosomes to produce two different proteins from two different reading frames. So-called -1 frameshifting often involves pairwise alignment of two adjacent tRNAs at a 'slippery' sequence in the ribosomal A and P sites such that an overlapping codon is shifted upstream by one base relative to the zero frame. In the majority of cases, an RNA pseudoknot located downstream stimulates this type of frameshift. Crystal structures of the frameshifting RNA pseudoknot from Beet Western Yellow Virus (BWYV) have provided a detailed picture of the tertiary interactions stabilizing this folding motif, including a minor-groove triplex and quadruple-base interactions. The structure determined at atomic resolution revealed the locations of several magnesium ions and provided insights into the role of structured water stabilizing the RNA. Systematic in vitro and in vivo mutational analyses based on the structural results revealed specific tertiary interactions and regions in the pseudoknot that drastically change frameshifting efficiency. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of pseudoknot-mediated ribosomal frameshifting on the basis of the insights gained from structural and functional studies of the RNA pseudoknot from BWYV.

  3. Mechanical unfolding of the beet western yellow virus -1 frameshift signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine H; Orzechowski, Marek; Fourmy, Dominique; Visscher, Koen

    2011-06-29

    Using mechanical unfolding by optical tweezers (OT) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations, we have demonstrated the critical role of Mg(2+) ions for the resistance of the Beet Western Yellow Virus (BWYV) pseudoknot (PK) to unfolding. The two techniques were found to be complementary, providing information at different levels of molecular scale. Findings from the OT experiments indicated a critical role of stem 1 for unfolding of the PK, which was confirmed in the SMD simulations. The unfolding pathways of wild type and mutant appeared to depend upon pH and nucleotide sequence. SMD simulations support the notion that the stability of stem 1 is critical for -1 frameshifting. The all-atom scale nature of the SMD enabled clarification of the precise role of two Mg(2+) ions, Mg45 and Mg52, as identified in the BWYV X-ray crystallography structure, in -1 frameshifting. On the basis of simulations with "partially" and "fully" hydrated Mg(2+) ions, two possible mechanisms of stabilizing stem 1 are proposed. In both these cases Mg(2+) ions play a critical role in stabilizing stem 1, either by directly forming a salt bridge between the strands of stem 1 or by stabilizing parallel orientation of the strands in stem 1, respectively. These findings explain the unexpected drop in frameshifting efficiency to null levels of the C8U mutant in a manner consistent with experimental observations.

  4. Cytosine methylation of an ancient satellite family in the wild beet Beta procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin; Hense, Sarah; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas; Zakrzewski, Falk

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic feature for the regulation and maintenance of heterochromatin. Satellite DNA is a repetitive sequence component that often occurs in large arrays in heterochromatin of subtelomeric, intercalary and centromeric regions. Knowledge about the methylation status of satellite DNA is important for understanding the role of repetitive DNA in heterochromatization. In this study, we investigated the cytosine methylation of the ancient satellite family pEV in the wild beet Beta procumbens. The pEV satellite is widespread in species-specific pEV subfamilies in the genus Beta and most likely originated before the radiation of the Betoideae and Chenopodioideae. In B. procumbens, the pEV subfamily occurs abundantly and spans intercalary and centromeric regions. To uncover its cytosine methylation, we performed chromosome-wide immunostaining and bisulfite sequencing of pEV satellite repeats. We found that CG and CHG sites are highly methylated while CHH sites show only low levels of methylation. As a consequence of the low frequency of CG and CHG sites and the preferential occurrence of most cytosines in the CHH motif in pEV monomers, this satellite family displays only low levels of total cytosine methylation.

  5. Genetic analysis of male fertility restoration in wild cytoplasmic male sterility G of beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzet, Pascal; Hueber, Nathalie; Bürkholz, Alexandra; Barnes, Stephen; Cuguen, Joël

    2004-06-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been used in the breeding of sugar beet for decades but is also more generally an important feature of the reproductive system in its wild relative, Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima. Among the several CMSs found in wild populations, the G CMS is a mitochondrial variant of the respiratory chain. The segregants derived from a cross between a restored plant and a female (male-sterile) plant on G cytoplasm exhibited three sexual phenotypic classes: female, hermaphrodite and intermediate. The pattern of segregation suggests a genetic inheritance with two loci in epistatic interaction. Nevertheless, it was possible to apply a bulk segregant analysis approach to search for AFLP and microsatellite markers linked to the restorer locus ( RfG(1)) which controls the capacity to produce pollen [female versus non female (i.e. intermediates and hermaphrodites)] in the segregating population. A linkage group was constructed with four AFLP markers and nine microsatellites, and a total size of 40 cM (Kosambi). The closest marker, a microsatellite, was totally linked to RfG1, which was also flanked by two AFLP markers delimiting a 5 cM window. This linkage group was identified as being chromosome VIII where neither of the restorer loci of the Owen CMS are located.

  6. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation.

  7. Proteomic changes induced by potassium deficiency and potassium substitution by sodium in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Zhi; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Sun, Fei; Yang, Yun; Sun, Xuewei; Zhao, Huijie; Geng, Gui; Yu, Lihua

    2016-05-01

    In this study, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.) were grown at different K(+)/Na(+) concentrations: mmol/L, 3/0 (control); 0.03/2.97 (K-Na replacement group; T(rep)); 0.03/0 (K deficiency group; T(def)) in order to investigate the effects of K(+) deficiency and replacement of K(+) by Na(+) on plant proteomics, and to explore the physiological processes influenced by Na(+) to compensate for a lack of K(+). After 22 days, fresh and dry weight as well as the Na(+) and K(+) concentration were measured and changes in proteomics were tested by 2D gel electrophoresis. Interestingly, Na(+) showed stimulation in growth of seedlings and hindrance of K(+) assimilation in T(rep). Significant changes were also observed in 27 protein spots among the treatments. These are proteins involved in photosynthesis, cellular respiration, protein folding and degradation, stress and defense, other metabolisms, transcription related, and protein synthesis. A wide range of physiological processes, including light reaction, CO2 assimilation, glycolysis, and tricaboxylic acid cycle, was impaired owing to K(+) starvation. Compensating for the effect of K(+) starvation, an increase in photosynthesis was also observed in T(rep). However, we also found a limitation of cellular respiration by Na(+). Na(+) is therefore in some ways able to recover damage due to K deficiency at protein level, but cannot functionally replace K as an essential nutrient. PMID:26860314

  8. Mechanical unfolding of the beet western yellow virus -1 frameshift signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine H; Orzechowski, Marek; Fourmy, Dominique; Visscher, Koen

    2011-06-29

    Using mechanical unfolding by optical tweezers (OT) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations, we have demonstrated the critical role of Mg(2+) ions for the resistance of the Beet Western Yellow Virus (BWYV) pseudoknot (PK) to unfolding. The two techniques were found to be complementary, providing information at different levels of molecular scale. Findings from the OT experiments indicated a critical role of stem 1 for unfolding of the PK, which was confirmed in the SMD simulations. The unfolding pathways of wild type and mutant appeared to depend upon pH and nucleotide sequence. SMD simulations support the notion that the stability of stem 1 is critical for -1 frameshifting. The all-atom scale nature of the SMD enabled clarification of the precise role of two Mg(2+) ions, Mg45 and Mg52, as identified in the BWYV X-ray crystallography structure, in -1 frameshifting. On the basis of simulations with "partially" and "fully" hydrated Mg(2+) ions, two possible mechanisms of stabilizing stem 1 are proposed. In both these cases Mg(2+) ions play a critical role in stabilizing stem 1, either by directly forming a salt bridge between the strands of stem 1 or by stabilizing parallel orientation of the strands in stem 1, respectively. These findings explain the unexpected drop in frameshifting efficiency to null levels of the C8U mutant in a manner consistent with experimental observations. PMID:21598975

  9. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation. PMID:26302482

  10. Cytosine methylation of an ancient satellite family in the wild beet Beta procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin; Hense, Sarah; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas; Zakrzewski, Falk

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic feature for the regulation and maintenance of heterochromatin. Satellite DNA is a repetitive sequence component that often occurs in large arrays in heterochromatin of subtelomeric, intercalary and centromeric regions. Knowledge about the methylation status of satellite DNA is important for understanding the role of repetitive DNA in heterochromatization. In this study, we investigated the cytosine methylation of the ancient satellite family pEV in the wild beet Beta procumbens. The pEV satellite is widespread in species-specific pEV subfamilies in the genus Beta and most likely originated before the radiation of the Betoideae and Chenopodioideae. In B. procumbens, the pEV subfamily occurs abundantly and spans intercalary and centromeric regions. To uncover its cytosine methylation, we performed chromosome-wide immunostaining and bisulfite sequencing of pEV satellite repeats. We found that CG and CHG sites are highly methylated while CHH sites show only low levels of methylation. As a consequence of the low frequency of CG and CHG sites and the preferential occurrence of most cytosines in the CHH motif in pEV monomers, this satellite family displays only low levels of total cytosine methylation. PMID:24994030

  11. In vitro digestion and fermentation properties of linear sugar-beet arabinan and its oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jin Seok; Shin, So Yeon; Choi, Hye Sun; Joo, Wooha; Cho, Seung Kee; Li, Ling; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Jip; Han, Nam Soo

    2015-10-20

    This study was conducted to investigate the prebiotic effects of linear arabino-oligosaccharides (LAOS) and debranched (linear) sugar beet arabinan (LAR) for the development of new prebiotics. LAOS were prepared from LAR by enzymatic hydrolysis with endo-arabinanase from Bacillus licheniformis, followed by removal of the arabinose fraction by incubation with resting cells of Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The resulting LAOS contained DP2 (28.7%), DP3 (49.9%), DP4 (20.1%), and DP5 (1.16%). A standardized digestibility test showed that LAOS and LAR were not digestible. Individual cultures of 24 strains of gastrointestinal bacteria showed that LAOS and LAR stimulated growth of Lactobacillus brevis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bacteroides fragilis. In vitro batch fermentation using human fecal samples showed that LAOS had higher bifidogenic properties than LAR; LAOS increased the population of bifidobacteria which produced short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). LAOS was fermented slowly compared to fructo-oligosaccharides and this may permit SCFA production in the distal colon. This study demonstrates that LAOS prepared from LAR are promising dietary substrates for improvement of human intestinal health. PMID:26256159

  12. Structural analysis of novel kestose isomers isolated from sugar beet molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Norio; Abe, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Aritsuka, Tsutomu; Takata, Yusuke; Fukushi, Eri; Fukushi, Yukiharu; Kawabata, Jun; Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi

    2016-04-01

    Eight kestose isomers were isolated from sugar beet molasses by carbon-Celite column chromatography and HPLC. GC-FID and GC-MS analyses of methyl derivatives, MALD-TOF-MS measurements and NMR spectra were used to confirm the structural characteristics of the isomers. The (1)H and (13)C NMR signals of each isomer saccharide were assigned using COSY, E-HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY, HMBC and H2BC techniques. These kestose isomers were identified as α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 2)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside, α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 3)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 4)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 4)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 3)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside, α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 1)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside, α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 6)-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2)-β-D-fructofuranoside, and α-D-fructofuranosyl-(2- > 6)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside. The former five compounds are novel saccharides. PMID:26918514

  13. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G₀/G₁ phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. PMID:27347927

  14. Assessment of Cultivation Method for Energy Beet Based on LCA Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunfeng; ZHANG; Feng; LIU; Yuangang; ZU; Qingying; MENG; Baoguo; ZHU; Nannan; WANG

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish a supply system for energy resource coupled with the environment,the production technology of sugar beets was explored as a biological energy source. The low-humic andosol as the experimental soil,the panting method was direct planting,and cultivation technique was minimum tillage direct planting method. The control was conventional tillage transplant and no tillage direct planting. The results demonstrated that data revealed that the energy cost of no tillage and a direct planting method was 105 GJ/hm2on average for two years,while that of the conventional tillage method was 112 GJ/hm2per year. The ratio of output to input showed that the direct planting with no tillage was more efficient( 3. 61) than the conventional tillage( 3. 01). Moreover,the emission of CO2into the atmosphere with no tillage and the direct planting was 71% of the conventional tillage planting technique. Therefore,direct planting without tillage reduces the impact on the environment.

  15. Cloning of a cystatin gene from sugar beet M14 that can enhance plant salt tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuguang; Zhan, Yanan; Wu, Chuan; Gong, Shilong; Zhu, Ning; Chen, Sixue; Li, Haiying

    2012-08-01

    An open reading frame encoding a cysteine protease inhibitor, cystatin was isolated from the buds of sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 (BvM14) using 5'-/3'-RACE method. It encoded a polypeptide of 104 amino acids with conserved G and PW motifs, the consensus phytocystatin sequence LARFAV and the active site QVVAG. The protein showed significant homology to other plant cystatins. BvM14-cystatin was expressed ubiquitously in roots, stems, leaves and flower tissues with relatively high abundance in developing stems and roots. It was found to be localized in the nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane. Recombinant BvM14-cystatin expressed in Escherichia coli was purified and it exhibited cysteine protease inhibitor activity. Salt-stress treatment induced BvM14-cystatin transcript levels in the M14 seedlings. Homozygous Arabidopsis plants over-expressing BvM14-cystatin showed enhanced salt tolerance. Taken together, these data improved understanding of the functions of BvM14-cystatin and highlighted the possibility of employing the cystatin in engineering plants for enhanced salt tolerance.

  16. Electric double layer and electrokinetic potential of pectic macromolecules in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljanin Tatjana A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic potential is an important property of colloidal particles and, regarding the fact that it is a well defined and easily measurable property, it is considered to be a permanent characteristic of a particular colloidal system. In fact, it is a measure of electrokinetic charge that surrounds the colloidal particle in a solution and is in direct proportion with the mobility of particles in an electric field. Gouy-Chapman-Stern-Graham's model of electric double layer was adopted and it was proven experimentally that the addition of Cu++ ions to sugar beet pectin caused a reduction in the negative electrokinetic potential proportional to the increase of Cu++ concentration. Higher Cu++ concentrations increased the proportion of cation specific adsorption (Cu++ and H+ with regard to electrostatic Coulombic forces. Consequently, there is a shift in the shear plane between the fixed and diffuse layers directed towards the diffuse layer, i.e. towards its compression and decrease in the electrokinetic potential or even charge inversion of pectin macromolecules.

  17. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author)

  18. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with 0.5 mol/L NaCl. The obtained raw extract was used as a coagulant. The coagulation efficiency was measured by jar test at different pH values of wastewater, and a decrease in organic matter content was determined. The experiments confirmed that natural coagulant from common bean could be successfully used for the treatment of extraction juice distillery wastewater. The highest coagulation efficiencies were achieved at the pH 5.2 with a coagulant dose of 30 mL/L, and at the pH 8.5 with a coagulant dose of 5 mL/L, and they were 64.71% and 68.75% respectively. These encouraging results indicate that natural coagulant from common bean seeds is a potential alternative to conventional chemical coagulant/flocculant agents for treatment of wastewaters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005

  19. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Yields and Potential for Bioethanol Production under Irrigation Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona C. BÂRSAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out to analyse three sugar beet genotypes regarding to the economic yield and the potential to produce bioethanol, under the influence of furrow irrigation regime in specific conditions of Transylvanian Plain, North-West Romania. The research factors, genotype (‘Leila’, ‘Clementina’ and ‘Libero’ and irrigation regime were studied within a polyfactorial experimental design. The results obtained indicated that in specific climatic conditions of Transylvanian Plain, ‘Libero’ genotype had a great performance and produced the highest yields. The average production of ‘Libero’ genotype was superior than ‘Clementina’ and ‘Leila’ varieties, both in irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, as it follows: 38.98 t ha–1, respectively, 52.72 t ha–1 in the first year of research; 47.63 t ha–1, respectively, 59.73 t ha–1 (in the second year; 2014-60.87 t ha–1, respectively, 74.43 t ha–1 (in the third year. Moreover, the production increased with 11.5% under irrigated conditions for all the studied genotypes. The results also revealed the positive influence of the irrigation regime on the qualitative parameters of the bioethanol (ethanol, higher saturated monoalcohols, methanol, water, inorganic chloride, cooper, phosphorous, sulphur etc. indicating that the obtained bioethanol might be a viable alternative for fossil fuels.

  20. Leaching of the Neonicotinoids Thiamethoxam and Imidacloprid from Sugar Beet Seed Dressings to Subsurface Tile Drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Felix E; Kasteel, Roy; Garcia Delgado, Maria F; Hanke, Irene; Huntscha, Sebastian; Balmer, Marianne E; Poiger, Thomas; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2016-08-24

    Pesticide transport from seed dressings toward subsurface tile drains is still poorly understood. We monitored the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam from sugar beet seed dressings in flow-proportional drainage water samples, together with spray applications of bromide and the herbicide S-metolachlor in spring and the fungicides epoxiconazole and kresoxim-methyl in summer. Event-driven, high first concentration maxima up to 2830 and 1290 ng/L for thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, respectively, were followed by an extended period of tailing and suggested preferential flow. Nevertheless, mass recoveries declined in agreement with the degradation and sorption properties collated in the groundwater ubiquity score, following the order bromide (4.9%), thiamethoxam (1.2%), imidacloprid (0.48%), kresoxim-methyl acid (0.17%), S-metolachlor (0.032%), epoxiconazole (0.013%), and kresoxim-methyl (0.003%), and indicated increased leaching from seed dressings compared to spray applications. Measured concentrations and mass recoveries indicate that subsurface tile drains contribute to surface water contamination with neonicotinoids from seed dressings. PMID:27529118

  1. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshun Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis.

  2. Beet yellows virus replicase and replicative compartments: parallels with other RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Gushchin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic virus systems, infection leads to induction of membranous compartments in which replication occurs. Virus-encoded subunits of the replication complex mediate its interaction with membranes. As replication platforms, RNA viruses use the cytoplasmic surfaces of different membrane compartments, e.g., endoplasmic reticulum (ER, Golgi, endo/lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts and peroxisomes. Closterovirus infections are accompanied by formation of multivesicular complexes from cell membranes of ER or mitochondrial origin. So far the mechanisms for vesicles formation have been obscure. In the replication-associated 1a polyprotein of Beet yellows virus (BYV and other closteroviruses, the region between the methyltransferase (MTR and helicase (HEL domains (1a central region, 1a CR is marginally conserved. Computer-assisted analysis predicts several putative membrane-binding domains in the BYV 1a CR. Transient expression of a hydrophobic segment (referred to here as CR-2 of the BYV 1a in Nicotiana benthamiana led to reorganization of the ER and formation of ~1-m mobile globules. We propose that the CR-2 may be involved in the formation of multivesicular complexes in BYV-infected cells. This provides analogy with membrane-associated proteins mediating the build-up of virus factories in cells infected with diverse positive-strand RNA viruses (alpha-like viruses, picorna-like viruses, flaviviruses, and nidoviruses and negative-strand RNA viruses (bunyaviruses.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and increasing faecal bulk pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “increasing faecal bulk”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. The Panel considers that sugar beet fibre is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed......Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of sugar beet fibre and increasing faecal bulk. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Sugar beet fibre increases faecal bulk”. In order to bear the claim a food should be at least “high in fibre” as per...

  4. Over-expression of the Hybrid Aspen Homeobox PttKN1 Gene in Red Leaf Beet Induced Altered Coloration of Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanle XU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PttKN1 (Populus tremula × tremuloides KNOTTED1 gene belongs to the KNOXI gene family. It plays an important role in plant development, typically in meristem initiation, maintenance and organogenesis, and potentially in plant coloration. To investigate the gene functions further, it was introduced into red leaf beet by the floral dip method mediated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transformants demonstrated typical phenotypes as with other PttKN1 transformants. These alterations were very different from the morphology of the wild type. Among them, morphological modification of changed color throughout the entire plant from claret of wild type to yellowish green was the highlight in those transgenic PttKN1-beet plants. The result of spraying selection showed that the PttKN1-beet plants had kanamycin resistance. PCR assay of the 35S-Promoter, NPTII and PttKN1 gene, PCR-Southern analysis of the NPTII and PttKN1 gene showed that the foreign PttKN1 gene had successfully integrated into the genome of beet plant. Furthermore, the results of RT-PCR analysis showed that the gene was ectopic expressed in transgenic plants. These data suggested that there is a correlation between the ectopic expression of PttKN1 gene and morphological alterations of beet plants. Pigment content assay showed that betaxanthins concentrations shared little difference between wild type and transgenic lines, while betacyanins content in transgenic plants was sharply decreased, indicating that the altered plant coloration of the transgenic beet plants may be caused by the changed betacyanins content. The tyrosinase study suggested that the sharply decreased of betacyanins content in transgenic plants was caused via the decreased tyrosinase level. Therefore, the reason for the altered plant coloration may be due to partial inhibition of betacyanin biosynthesis that was induced via the pleiotropic roles of PttKN1 gene.

  5. Belowground plant development measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI: exploiting the potential for non-invasive trait quantification using sugar beet as a proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eMetzner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both structural and functional properties of belowground plant organs are critical for the development and yield of plants but, compared to the shoot, much more difficult to observe due to soil opacity. Many processes concerning the belowground plant performance are not fully understood, in particular spatial and temporal dynamics and their interrelation with environmental factors. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI as a noninvasive method to evaluate which traits can be measured when a complex plant organ is monitored in-vivo while growing in the soil. We chose sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris as a model system. The beet consists mainly of root tissues, is rather complex regarding tissue structure and responses to environmental factors, and thereby a good object to test the applicability of MRI for 3D phenotyping approaches. Over a time period of up to 3 months, traits such as beet morphology or anatomy were followed in the soil and the effect of differently sized pots on beet fresh weight calculated from MRI data was studied. There was a clear positive correlation between the pot size and the increase in fresh weight of a sugar beet over time. Since knowledge of the development of internal beet structures with several concentric cambia, vascular and parenchyma rings is still limited, we consecutively acquired 3D volumetric images on individual plants using the MRI contrast parameter T2 to map the development of rings at the tissue level. This demonstrates that MRI provides versatile protocols to non-invasively measure plant traits in the soil. It opens new avenues to investigate belowground plant performance under adverse environmental conditions such as drought, nutrient shortage or soil compaction to seek for traits of belowground organs making plants more resilient to stress.

  6. 甜菜汁运动饮料的研制%Development of a Beet Juice Sports Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美娜; 郑喜群; 刘晓兰; 李想

    2012-01-01

    In this study, some functional components of the beet juice were analyzed and the beet juice sports drink was developed. Through single-factor and orthogonal experiments, the optimum formula of the beverage was determined as follows : beet juice 2.8%, CMC-Na 0.1%, salt 0.1%, citric acid 0.07%, sugar 3.46%, glucose 0.87%, β-cyclodextrin 0.15% and ascorbic acid 0.07%. The product tasted moderate and had good stability. The physicochemical and microbiological indicators of the product accorded with the requirements of the sports drink.%以甜菜汁为原料,在分析其功能成分的基础上,经预处理、调配等工艺研制出甜菜汁运动饮料.通过单因素试验和正交试验确定其最佳配方:甜菜汁2.8%、CMC-Na0.1%、食盐0.1%、柠檬酸0.07%、白砂糖3.46%、葡萄糖0.87%、β-环糊精0.15%、抗坏血酸0.07%.该产品口感良好、组织稳定,经检测其理化指标和微生物指标均符合运动饮料的要求.

  7. Long term fermentation studies about the nutritional requirements for biogasification of fodder beet silage as mono-substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, P.; Neumann, L.; Schmidt, O.; Unbehauen, M. [Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg), Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Lohbruegger Kirchstrasse 65, 21033 Hamburg-Bergedorf (Germany); Demirel, B. [Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg), Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Lohbruegger Kirchstrasse 65, 21033 Hamburg-Bergedorf (Germany); Bogazici University, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Bebek, 34342 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Two lab-scale, mesophilic anaerobic digesters (namely reactors R-1 and R-2) were operated simultaneously for continuous production of biogas from fodder beet silage as mono-substrate. The digesters were operated by a control system, developed at HAW Hamburg, which allowed an automatic auto-feeding up to a given maximum set-point. Within a period of 400 days of investigation, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) for reactor R-1 was adjusted to 10-12.5 days, and for reactor R-2, only to 6 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) varied with the total solids (TS) content of the harvest charge, ranging between 3.5 and 5 kg VS m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. Although both digesters were run under stable conditions, indicated by low volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations below 200 mg l{sup -1}, the specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) declined over time to 0.55 and 0.40 l g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for R-1 and R-2, respectively. Therefore, it seemed that some nutrients were deprived, particularly in reactor R-2, which had a short HRT of 6 days. After supplementation with phosphate and sulphate, the improvement of the spec. GPR was 11% for reactor R-1, and 20% for reactor R-2. Simultaneously performed anaerobic batch digestion test series with the beet silage also confirmed the positive effect of these nutrients on the spec. GPR. Furthermore, quantitative microscopic counts exhibited that the addition of these nutrients had no significant effect on the performance of reactor R-1, but the number of the fluorescent methanogenic bacteria increased four-fold in the high throughput reactor R-2, after supplementation with phosphate. However, additional supplementation with sulphate had no further effect on the performance of R-2. Therefore, phosphate seems to be the limiting macro-nutrient for anaerobic digestion of fodder beet silage, especially under high loading conditions. (author)

  8. The effect of supplementary formalin treated soya‐bean meal on feed intake, milk yield and live‐weight gain of dairy cows fed ensiled fodder beets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, John Erik; Kristensen, Troels

    1993-01-01

    The present experiment compared formalin treated soya‐bean meal (2 kg DM) with barley and urea (2.4 kg DM) as supplements for a mixture of ensiled beets and ammonium‐treated straw given ad libitum in a cross over experiment with two periods of 6 weeks. Furthermore, these diets were compared...... to a traditional diet with fodder beets and ad libitum feeding with grass silage for a period of 12 weeks. The soya‐bean meal increased the daily intake of beet‐straw silage significantly from 13.1 to 14.1 kg DM (P

  9. Influence of high levels of beet pulp in the diet on endocrine/metabolic traits, slaughter dressing percentage, and ham quality in Italian heavy pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Fabia Rosi; Gianluca Galassi; Damiano Magistrelli; Gian Matteo Crovetto

    2010-01-01

    Seventy two Landrace x Large White barrows were divided into three groups and fed different diets: a control traditional diet based on cereals (C) and two with 15 or 30% dried sugar beet pulp (BP15 and BP30, respectively). Animals weighed 106 kg at start and 167 kg at the end of the experiment. Feeding was restricted (2.5 kg DM/head, on average). The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the influence of high levels of beet pulp in the diet of fattening heavy pigs on some endocrine...

  10. Application of HACCP in beet sugar industry%HACCP在甜菜制糖生产中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪涛; 李琳; 秦文信

    2011-01-01

    HACCP is an advanced managerial method, which can ensure food quality and safety. According to the principle of HACCP, and combining with the beet sugar technology, this paper discussed the application of HACCP in beet sugar industry.%HACCP管理系统是确保食品卫生质量及安全性的一种先进的管理方法.根据HACCP的原理,结合甜菜制糖的实际生产工艺,探讨了HACCP在甜菜制糖生产中的应用.

  11. The respiration rate of the beet armyworm pupae (Spodoptera exigua) after multi-generation intoxication with cadmium and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramarz, Paulina; Kafel, Alina

    2003-11-01

    Zinc, but not cadmium, increased the respiration rate of pupae. - The beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) were fed on artificial food contaminated with zinc (200 mg kg{sup -1} dry mass) or cadmium (66 mg kg{sup -1} dry mass) for 15 generations. In 15th generation, O{sub 2} output and CO{sub 2} production of pupae were measured. Exposure to cadmium did not cause any effects whilst exposure to zinc led to a significant increase in the respiration rate of pupae. The average respiratory quotient (RQ) did not differ between treatments (ca. 0.7)

  12. Beet sugar syrup and molasses as low-cost feedstock for the enzymatic production of fructo-oligosaccharides

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi, Iraj; Fernández Arrojo, Lucía; Gómez de Segura, María Aránzazu; Alcalde Galeote, Miguel; Plou Gasca, Francisco José; Ballesteros Olmo, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Sugar syrup and molasses from beet processing containing 620 and 570 mg/ml sucrose, respectively, were assayed as low-cost and available substrates for the enzymatic synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). A commercial pectinase (Pectinex Ultra SP-L, from Aspergillus aculeatus) characterised by the presence of a transfructosylating activity, was used as biocatalyst. The FOS production increased when lowering the initial pH value of syrup (7.5) and molasses (8.9) to 5.5. Sugar syrup and mo...

  13. Gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis of n-hexane fraction of the leaves of sugar beets (beta vulgarus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The n-hexane fraction of the leaves of sugar beet was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using GC-MS and GC equipped with FID in separate experiments. The crude was extracted using ethanol and fractionated by n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform in the increasing order of polarity. Only the n-hexane fraction was analyzed using GC-MS and GC equipped with FID. The nature of products was confirmed using total ion chromatograms as well as fragmentation pattern. The concentration of the major compounds was determined using the peak area. The n-hexane fraction was found to contain esters in addition to small quantities of other compounds. (author)

  14. Technological properties of sugar beets following pre-sowing gamma ray and fast neutron treatments of the seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ionizing radiation (gamma rays and fast neutrons) and its aftereffect in the following generation on the technological properties of various sugar beet cultivars, strains and crosses was studied. The stimulating doses of radiation rarely affected the technological properties of the raw stuff. Purity of the juice and soluble ash insignificantly altered in different directions, while harmful nitrogen content increased. Pre-sowing seed treatment of the cultivars, strains, and crosses tested did not improve the technological properties. In certain cases these properties even slightly deteriorated. The aftereffect of ionizing radiation on the technological properties of the following generation was variably manifested

  15. Tillage as a tool to manage crop residue: impact on sugar beet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Chélin, Marie; Degrune, Florine; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and plant cover represent a pool of organic matter that can be used either to restore organic matter in soils, and therefore maintain soil fertility, or that can be valorized outside of the field (e.g. energy production). However, it is crucial that the exportation of residues is not done to the detriment of the system sustainability. Three long term experiments have been settled in the loamy region in Belgium. All of them are designed to study the effect of residues management by several tillage systems (conventional plowing versus reduced tillage) on the whole soil-water-plant system. SOLRESIDUS is a field experiment where we study the impact of crop residue management while in SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS, we study the impact of cover crop management. SOLRESIDUS was started in 2008. In this field, four contrasted crop residues managements are tested in order to contrast as much as possible the responses from the soil-water plant system. Two practices characterize the four modalities: soil tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth or reduce tillage at 10 cm max) and residue management (exportation or restitution). SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS were started in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In those fields cover crop management is also diverse: destruction of the cover crop by winter ploughing, spring ploughing, strip tillage (with a chemical destruction if needed) or shallow tillage (with a decompaction before cover crop sowing). Although although the overall project aims at studying the impact of management on the whole soil-water-plant system, here we will only present the results concerning crop production (sugar beet) in SOLCOUVERT experiments. The presented data will include germination rate, crop development (biomass quantification and BBCH stages) weeds population, disease occurrence, pest occurrences, nitrogen uptake by plants, quality and quantity of harvested products.

  16. Flowering time in wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) along a latitudinal cline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, Henk Van; Boudry, Pierre; McCombre, Helen; Vernet, Philippe

    The wild beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima, a perennial species from the Mediterranean and the European Atlantic coasts) shows marked variation in flowering time in terms of both the year of first flowering and flowering date in a given year. Much of this variability is related to latitude. Beta vulgaris plants flower either in the same year as they germinate or in their second year. This is mainly due to differences in their requirement for vernalization, which is determined by a single gene B/b and by quantitative trait loci. The more southern the origin of the plants, the less vernalization is required. Also the B allele, which cancels vernalization requirement completely, has a high frequency in the Mediterranean region, but is completely absent in the northern part of the distribution of this species. We found that flowering date variation in relation to the latitude of origin is maintained under greenhouse conditions but does not follow a simple clinal relationship. From the Mediterranean northwards to the west coast of Brittany, flowering occurs progressively earlier, but from Brittany northwards to south-east England and The Netherlands it is progressively later. A possible explanation for this difference is that in the southern part of the range sensitivity to daylength and warmth control flowering time, whereas further north vernalization requirement is also a key factor. A substantial part of all differences in flowering time was heritable: heritability within populations was measured as 0.33 under greenhouse conditions. The high heritability implies evolutionary change may occur in this character.

  17. Establishment and characterization of three embryonic cell lines of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Rui; Zheng, Gui-Ling; Wan, Fang-Hao; Li, Chang-You

    2016-08-01

    Three cell lines (QAU-Se-E-1, -2 and -3, or Se-1, -2 and -3 for short) were established from eggs of beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) that have been passaged stably for more than 60 times in TNM-FH medium supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum. The cell lines consisted of round and spindle-shaped cells. The round cells accounted for 96.82, 84.34 and 83.16 % of the cells in the three cell lines, respectively, with cell diameters of 16.21 ± 0.72, 15.63 ± 0.58 and 13.06 ± 0.44 μm. Random amplified polymorphic DNA and analysis of the CO I gene showed that the three cell lines were all derived from S. exigua. Growth curves at passage 30 were determined and the results showed that the cell population doubling times were 59.03, 49.08 and 49.91 h, respectively. The three cell lines can be infected by S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). Se-3 was extremely susceptible to the virus with an infection rate of 97.52 % 4 days after the inoculation and produced 2.02 × 10(6) OBs per mL of culture. Flow cytometry analysis showed that some of Se-1 and Se-2 cells had apoptosis after infection, whereas Se-3 cells did not. Bioassays showed that the virulence of the SeMNPV proliferated from Se-3 was similar to that from the insect with LC50 of 5.55 × 10(5) and 2.64 × 10(5) OBs/mL. Therefore, the cell lines can be used to study the SeMNPV-host interactions and mechanisms underlying the interactions. PMID:25999173

  18. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)]. E-mail: nilberkenup@ctex.eb.br; vital@ctex.eb.br; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst.de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  19. Temporal allocation of metabolic tolerance in the body of beet armyworm in response to three gossypol-cotton cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marvin; K; HARRIS

    2009-01-01

    The nutrient composition and enzyme activities in larvae of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hbner), fed on high, medium or low gossypol cotton cultivars were examined at different time intervals. Significantly lower free fatty acid was observed in larvae fed for 6 h on high gossypol ’M9101’ compared to larvae fed on the low (ZMS13) and intermediate (HZ401) gossypol cultivars. Significantly higher trypsin activity was observed in larvae fed on high gossypol ’M9101’ for 24 h compared to those fed for 1, 4 and 6 h. Significantly higher catalase and total superoxide dismutase enzyme activities were observed in larvae of S. exigua fed on high gossypol ’M9101’ compared with low gossypol cultivars ’ZMS13’ and ’HZ401’ for 1, 4, 6 and 24 h. However, significantly lower carboxylesterase and acetylcholinesterase enzyme activities were found in larvae fed on high gossypol ’M9101’ compared with the other cultivars for 1, 4, 6 and 24 h. The interaction between cotton variety and beet armyworm infestation time significantly affected the carboxylesterase enzyme activity in S. exigua. The characterization of the effects of plant allelochemicals on herbivorous larvae is important for aiding understanding of plant-insect interaction as well as in devising solutions to pest problems by breeding plant resistance, identifying metabolic targets for insecticide development, etc.

  20. Changes in the intraisolate genetic structure of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus populations associated with plant resistance breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Leal, Rodolfo; Fawley, Marvin W; Rush, Charles M

    2008-06-20

    The causal agent of rhizomania disease, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), typically produces asymptomatic root-limited infections in sugar beets (Beta vulgaris) carrying the Rz1-allele. Unfortunately, this dominant resistance has been recently overcome. Multiple cDNA clones of the viral pathogenic determinant p25, derived from populations infecting susceptible or resistant plants, were sequenced to identify host effects on the viral population structure. Populations isolated from compatible plant-virus interactions (susceptible plant-wild type virus and resistant plant-resistant breaking variants) were large and relatively homogeneous, whereas those from the incompatible interaction (resistant plant-avirulent type virus) were small and highly heterogeneous. All populations from susceptible plants had the same dominant haplotype, whereas those from resistant cultivars had a different haplotype surrounded by a spectrum of mutants. Selection and diversification analyses suggest an evolutionary trajectory of BNYVV with positive selection for changes required to overcome resistance, followed by elimination of hitchhiking mutations through purifying selection.

  1. The FLC-like gene BvFL1 is not a major regulator of vernalization response in biennial beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hagen Vogt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many plant species in temperate climate regions require vernalization over winter to initiate flowering. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and FLC-like genes are key regulators of vernalization requirement and growth habit in winter-annual and perennial Brassicaceae. In the biennial crop species Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris in the evolutionarily distant Caryophyllales clade of core eudicots growth habit and bolting time are controlled by the vernalization and photoperiod response gene BTC1 and the downstream BvFT1-BvFT2 module. B. vulgaris also contains a vernalization-responsive FLC homolog (BvFL1. Here, to further elucidate the regulation of vernalization response and growth habit in beet, we functionally characterized BvFL1 by RNAi and over-expression in transgenic plants. BvFL1 RNAi neither eliminated the requirement for vernalization of biennial beets nor had a major effect on bolting time after vernalization. Over-expression of BvFL1 resulted in a moderate late-bolting phenotype, with bolting after vernalization being delayed by approximately one week. By contrast, RNAi-induced down-regulation of the BvFT1-BvFT2 module led to a strong delay in bolting after vernalization by several weeks. The data demonstrate for the first time that an FLC homolog does not play a major role in the control of vernalization response in a dicot species outside the Brassicaceae.

  2. Integrated evaluation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) agroecosystems in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Khoramivafa, Mahmud; Mondani, Farzad

    2014-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and discuss the aggregate of energy use and greenhouse gas emission (CO2, N2O, and CH4) for sugar beet agroecosystems in western of Iran. For this propose data was collected by using questionnaires and face to face interview with 50 farmers. Results showed that total inputs and output energy were 49517.2 and 1095360.0 MJ ha-1, respectively. Energy use efficiency was 22.12. Total CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions due to chemical inputs were 2668.35, 22.92 and 3.49 kg, respectively. In sugar beet farms total global warming potential (GWPs) was 9847.77 kg CO2eq ha-1. In terms of CO2 equivalents, 27% of the GWPs come from CO2, 72% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this research input and output carbon were 29340.0 and 2678.6 kg C ha-1, respectively. Hence, carbon efficiency ratio was 10.95.

  3. Studies on some characteristics of nitrate reductase from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiWenhua; YanGuiping; 等

    1994-01-01

    Some characteristics of nitrate reductase from sugar beet leaves shown in this paper were as follows:The nitrate reductase from sugar beet leaves required NADH as an electron donor.Accordingly,the nitrate reductase was classified as NADH-dependent(E.C.1.6.61).The Km value of the nitrate reductase for NADH and NO3- were 0.86m mol and 0.18μ mol respectively.The optimum pH in reaction mixture solution for nitrate reduction activity was 7.5.The effect of variable concentrations of inorganic phosphorus in the reaction buffer on nitrate reductase activity was investigated.When the inorganic phosphorus concentration was below 35m mol,the nitrate reductase activity was increased with increase of inorganic phosphorus concentration.Conversely,when the inorganic phosphorus concentration was over 35m mol,the nitrate reductase activity was inhibited.The nitrate reductase activity assayed in vitro was 3.2 and 5.6times of that assayed in vivo under the condition of exogenous and endogenous ground substance respectively.

  4. Fluorescence Indices for the Proximal Sensing of Powdery Mildew, Nitrogen Supply and Water Deficit in Sugar Beet Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Leufen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Using potted sugar beet plants we aimed to investigate the suitability of four fluorescence indices to detect and differentiate the impact of nitrogen supply, water deficit and powdery mildew in two sugar beet cultivars (Beta vulgaris L.. Plants were grown inside a polytunnel under two nitrogen levels combined with water deficit or full irrigation. Changes in plant physiology were recorded at two physiological stages with a multiparametric handheld fluorescence sensor and a fluorescence imaging system. The analysis of chlorophyll content and osmotic potential served as reference. Based on our results, the fluorescence indices “Nitrogen Balance Index” and “Simple Fluorescence Ratio” responded quite sensitively to drought stress and mildew infection. Moreover, the blue-to-far-red fluorescence ratio revealed significant stress-induced alterations in the plant physiology. In all, fluorescence indices might be used as single or combined indices for successful stress sensing. However, a robust stress differentiation by using only one fluorescence ratio could not be accomplished.

  5. Application of Peleg model to study mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of apple in sugar beet molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišljenović Nevena M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of Peleg equation was examined for the description of mass transfer during osmotic dehydration (OD of apple in sugar beet molasses. Mass transfer was investigated in terms of water loss (WL and solid gain (SG, during OD in 40-80% sugar beet molasses solutions, at 45, 55 and 65ºC. High regression coefficients obtained for Peleg constants (R2>0.975 indicate good fit to the experimental data. The Peleg rate constant varied from 0.144 to 0.785 (g/g i.s.w. and from 2.006 to 4.436 (g/g i.s.w. for WL and SG, respectively. The Peleg capacity constant varied from 1.142 to 1.553 (h g/g i.s.w. and from 8.254 to 11.930 (h g/g i.s.w. for WL and SG, respectively. The equilibrium WL∞ and SG∞ were estimated using the Peleg model. In addition, the activation energy (Ea for WL and SG was determined from the relationship between the Peleg rate constant and Arrhenius equation.

  6. Response of sugar beet plants to ultraviolet-B (280-320 nm) radiation and Cercospora leaf spot disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants injected with Cercospora beticola Sacc. as well as non-infected plants were grown under visible light with or without ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation for 40 days. An interaction between UV-B radiation and Cercospora leaf spot disease was observed, resulting in a large reduction in leaf chlorophyll content, dry weight of leaf laminae, petioles and storage roots. Lipid peroxidation in leaves also increased the most under the combined treatments. This was also true for ultraweak luminescence from both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. However, no correlation between lipid peroxidation and ultraweak luminescence was observed. Ultraviolet-B radiation given alone appeared to have either a stimulating effect, giving an increase in dry weight of laminac and reducing lipid peroxidation, or no effect. This lack of effect was seen in the absence of change in dry weight of storage roots and chlorophyll content relative to controls. The study demonstrated a harmful interaction between UV-B radiation and Cercospora leaf spot disease on sugar beet

  7. Post-harvest regulated gene expression and splicing efficiency in storage roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotthues, Alexander; Kappler, Jeannette; Lichtfuss, Anna; Kloos, Dorothee U; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2008-05-01

    Sixteen post-harvest upregulated genes from sugar beet comprising five novel sequences were isolated by subtractive cloning. Transcription profiles covering a period of up to 49 days after harvest under controlled storage conditions and in field clamps are reported. Post-harvest induced genes are involved in wound response, pathogen defense, dehydration stress, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. An early induction of a cationic peroxidase indicates a response to post-harvest damage. Wound response reactions may also involve genes required for cell division such as a regulator of chromatin condensation and a precursor of the growth stimulating peptide phytohormone phytosulfokine-alpha. Surprisingly, also three putative non-protein coding genes were isolated. Two of these genes show intron specific and storage temperature dependent splicing of a precursor mRNA. The temperature dependent splicing of an intron containing sugar beet mRNA is also maintained in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The storage induced genes are integrated into a model that proposes the response to several post-harvest stress conditions. Temperature regulated splicing may be a mechanism to sense seasonal temperature changes. PMID:18324413

  8. The influence of osmotic stress on the content of calcium ions in the red beet vacuoles and on the transport activity of tonoplast proton pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozolina N.V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The contents of calcium ions in the isolated vacuoles and in intact red beets under the conditions of dormancy and osmotic stress was determined. It is demonstrated that the content of calcium ions in the red beet vacuoles not exposed to osmotic stress makes 13.3% of the total content these ions in intact red beets. Under the conditions of osmotic stress, this indicator increases substantially. Furthermore, under the conditions of hyperosmotic stress, the content of calcium ions in the vacuoles was 30%, while under hypoosmotic stress it was 49% of the total content of these ions in the intact red beet. The transition of calcium ions from the cytoplasm and other compartments into the vacuole under the conditions of osmotic stress is, probably, one of forms of participation of the vacuole in adaptation processes of the plant cell under this kind of abiotic stress. It has been demonstrated for the first time that tonoplast proton pumps, which actively participate in provision of calcium homeostasis in cytoplasm, substantially activate their transport activity under osmotic stress, what allows one to speak about their important role in the cell’s protective programs. Under normal (no stress conditions, artificial elevation of the content of calcium ions led to inhibition of activity of the tonoplast proton pumps, while under gipoosmotic stress the activity of tonoplast proton pumps increased, what might aid to restoring homeoctasis with respect to calcium ions in cytoplasm.

  9. Population Dynamics of Sugar Beets, Rhizoctonia solani, and Laetisaria arvalis: Responses of a Host, Plant Pathogen, and Hyperparasite to Perturbation in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M F; Boosalis, M G; Kerr, E D; Muldoon, A E; Larsen, H J

    1985-11-01

    Rhizoctonia solani causes crown rot of sugar beets, a severe disease that has destroyed up to 60% of the plants in a test field in western Nebraska. Laetisaria arvalis, a natural hyperparasite of Rhizoctonia spp., was isolated from fields in western Nebraska. To test for the potential for biological control of R. solani, in November 1980 (following harvest) we applied various combinations of a nematicide (Telone II; Dow Chemical Co.), a nutrition source (sugar beet pulp), and an inoculum of L. arvalis in a randomized block design. Populations of R. solani, L. arvalis, and sugar beets were monitored monthly through October 1981 (just after harvest). In control and nematicide plots, the R. solani population did not change significantly through time. In plots inoculated with L. arvalis, the R. solani populations declined through March, concomitant with an increase in L. arvalis. L. arvalis then declined with a corresponding increase in the R. solani populations. Beet plant numbers declined significantly in all treatments. We suggest that reduction of the R. solani populations with the hyperparasite L. arvalis is possible but that a stable equilibrium naturally exists. PMID:16346925

  10. Co-expression of xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance in chimeric sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-Qiang; Feng, Rui-Jun; Wang, Suo-Min; Wang, Chun-Mei; Bao, Ai-Ke; Wei, Li; Yuan, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit the growth and productivity of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). To improve sugar beet's salinity tolerance, the ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes encoding tonoplast Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and H(+)-PPase from xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum were co-expressed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. It is showed here that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance to the transformed sugar beet plants compared with the wild-type (WT) plants. The chimeric plants grew well in the presence of high salinity (400 mM NaCl), whereas WT plants displayed chlorosis and died within 8 days. Compared to WT plants, the chimeric plants co-expressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 accumulated more proline, Na(+) and K(+) in their leaves and petioles when exposed to high salinity, which caused lower solute potential, retained more water and thus subjected to lesser cell membrane damage. Interestingly, the chimeric plants accumulated higher sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in their storage roots than WT plants in the absence or presence of high salinity. Our results suggested that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 improved the osmoregulatory capacity in chimeric sugar beet through increased compartmentalization of ions into the vacuoles by enhancing the activity of proton pumps and thus mitigated Na(+)-toxicity for plants.

  11. Salicylic acid in the induction of resistance to beet seedling damping-off and antifungal activity against Fusarium sp., in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Junior Bertoncelli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The damping off is the main disease that affects the beet crop during the seedling production. The aim of this study was to evaluate different salicylic acid (SA concentrations for resistance induction against damping-off in beet seedling and its antifungal activity against Fusarium sp., in vitro condition. Treatment of beet seed was with SA solution by immersion during 5 minutes in the 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mM concentrations and control (distilled water. It was used four replications with 20 cells by experimental unit. The experiment was carried out for 14 days in cultivate chamber with temperature (23 oC ± 2°C, lighting (12 hours photoperiod and humidity (70% ± 10% controlled. After this time, the germination, damping off incidence, seedling length and fresh mass matter weight were evaluated. It was evaluated also in the seedling tissue the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, ?-1.3 glucanase and chitinase level enzymes. In the in vitro the SA was putted in PDA (potato-dextrose-agar medium, where the Fusarium sp. mycelial growth was evaluated. The SA applied for seeds treatment didn’t had effect significant on damping off of beet seedlings, but it induced the activity of ?-1.3 glucanase enzyme, it being this higher in nine times when compared the treatment control. The SA acted in the Fusarium sp. in vitro control with fungitoxic action, suppressed mycelial growth in 28% if compared to control.

  12. Co-expression of xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance in chimeric sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-Qiang; Feng, Rui-Jun; Wang, Suo-Min; Wang, Chun-Mei; Bao, Ai-Ke; Wei, Li; Yuan, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit the growth and productivity of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). To improve sugar beet's salinity tolerance, the ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes encoding tonoplast Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and H(+)-PPase from xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum were co-expressed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. It is showed here that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance to the transformed sugar beet plants compared with the wild-type (WT) plants. The chimeric plants grew well in the presence of high salinity (400 mM NaCl), whereas WT plants displayed chlorosis and died within 8 days. Compared to WT plants, the chimeric plants co-expressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 accumulated more proline, Na(+) and K(+) in their leaves and petioles when exposed to high salinity, which caused lower solute potential, retained more water and thus subjected to lesser cell membrane damage. Interestingly, the chimeric plants accumulated higher sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in their storage roots than WT plants in the absence or presence of high salinity. Our results suggested that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 improved the osmoregulatory capacity in chimeric sugar beet through increased compartmentalization of ions into the vacuoles by enhancing the activity of proton pumps and thus mitigated Na(+)-toxicity for plants. PMID:26284097

  13. Extraction and application of sugar beet pectin%甜菜果胶的提取方法及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张睿

    2015-01-01

    Pectin is an acidic macromolecular polysaccharide which possesses gelling,emulsifying,thickening and stabilizing properties,hence it is widely used in food,medicine,chemical,textile and other industries.Beet pulp is the by-product of beet sugar processing which is rich in pectin polysaccharide;it could be a good source forextracting novel pectin.But many researches indicated that because of its low molecular weight and high acety-lation content,sugar beet pectin has poor gelling property,however,it has good emulsifying property.The extrac-tion methods and emulsifying properties of sugar beet pectin were reviewed and the development trends were dis-cussed.%果胶是一种多糖大分子物质,具有胶凝、乳化、增稠、稳定等功能特性,广泛地应用于食品、医药、化工、纺织等多种行业。甜菜废粕是甜菜制糖的副产物,果胶多糖含量高,是一种新的果胶提取原料。研究表明甜菜果胶分子量低、乙酰化程度高,其凝胶性差,但具有良好的乳化特性。

  14. Introduction of beet cyst nematode resistance from Sinapsis alba L. and Raphanus sativus L. into Brassica napus L. (oil-seed rape) through sexual and somatic hybridization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelivelt, C.L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were performed to select for beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm., abbrev. BCN) resistant genotypes of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), and to introduce BCN-resistance from the related species Raphanus sativus L. (oil-radish) and Sinapis alba L. (white mustard) into oil-seed r

  15. Low potassium enhances sodium uptake in red-beet under moderate saline conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Levine, L. H.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Due to the discrepancy in metabolic sodium (Na) requirements between plants and animals, cycling of Na between humans and plants is limited and critical to the proper functioning of bio-regenerative life support systems, being considered for long-term human habitats in space (e.g., Martian bases). This study was conducted to determine the effects of limited potassium (K) on growth, Na uptake, photosynthesis, ionic partitioning, and water relations of red-beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) under moderate Na-saline conditions. Two cultivars, Klein Bol, and Ruby Queen were grown for 42 days in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique where the supplied K levels were 5.0, 1.25, 0.25, and 0.10 mM in a modified half-strength Hoagland solution salinized with 50 mM NaCl. Reducing K levels from 5.0 to 0.10 mM quadrupled the Na uptake, and lamina Na levels reached -20 g kg-1 dwt. Lamina K levels decreased from -60 g kg-1 dwt at 5.0 mM K to -4.0 g kg-1 dwt at 0.10 mM K. Ruby Queen and Klein Bol responded differently to these changes in Na and K status. Klein Bol showed a linear decline in dry matter production with a decrease in available K, whereas for cv. Ruby Queen, growth was stimulated at 1.25 mM K and relatively insensitive to a further decreases of K down to 0.10 mM. Leaf glycinebetaine levels showed no significant response to the changing K treatments. Leaf relative water content and osmotic potential were significantly higher for both cultivars at low-K treatments. Leaf chlorophyll levels were significantly decreased at low-K treatments, but leaf photosynthetic rates showed no significant difference. No substantial changes were observed in the total cation concentration of plant tissues despite major shifts in the relative Na and K uptake at various K levels. Sodium accounted for 90% of the total cation uptake at the low K levels, and thus Na was likely replacing K in osmotic functions without negatively affecting the plant water status, or

  16. The effect of copper ions, aluminium ions and their mixtures on separation of pectin from the sugar beet juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljanin Tatjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In sugar industry there is a problem of the presence of undesirable macromolecules compounds such as pectin in sugar beet juice. The affinity of calcium ions commonly used in the sugar industry for the removal of pectin from the sugar beet juice is relatively small. Coagulation and precipitation of pectin can be performed by process of discharging that is chemically induced. Compounds with di- and trivalent cations such as pure CuSO4, Al2(SO43 or their mixtures can be applied for clarification of pectin colloidal systems. According to data from the order of pectin selectivity to divalent metal ions, Cu2+ ions are the first order of ion binding. Also, aluminum sulfate is commonly used in the waste water treatment. Two model solutions of pectin whose concentration corresponds to the concentration of these macromolecules in sugar beet juice (0.1% w/w are investigated. Using a method of measuring zeta potential, it was proven for both investigated pectin that fewer quantities of Cu2+ ions compared to the values of Al3+ ions are needed to reach zero zeta potential. In all the investigated coagulants and their mixtures, zeta potential has changed the sign. In experiments with mixtures has been shown that pure salts showed better coagulation properties. The reduced strength of binding of cations in the case of most of the applied mixture of Cu2+ and Al3+ ions, can be explained by the mutual competition of these ions for the adsorption site (COO- groups on the surface of macromolecules. Mixture with approximately equal shares of ions Cu2+ and Al3+ had the most unfavorable coagulation ability (ion antagonism. Mechanism of discharge as well as the model of double electric layer surrounding pectin macromolecules in the presence of mixtures of Cu2+ and Al3+ ions are suggested. However, due to possible undesirable effects of CuSO4 on food processing, Al2(SO43 is proposed instead of traditional coagulant CaO, not only because of lower consumptions of

  17. Divergence of satellite DNA and interspersion of dispersed repeats in the genome of the wild beet Beta procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechyeva, Daryna; Gindullis, Frank; Schmidt, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Several repetitive sequences of the genome of Beta procumbens Chr. Sm., a wild beet species of the section Procumbentes of the genus Beta have been isolated. According to their genomic organization, the repeats were assigned to satellite DNA and families of dispersed DNA sequences. The tandem repeats are 229-246 bp long and belong to an AluI restriction satellite designated pAp11. Monomers of this satellite DNA form subfamilies which can be distinguished by the divergence or methylation of an internal restriction site. The satellite is amplified in the section Procumbentes, but is also found in species of the section Beta including cultivated beet (Beta vulgaris). The existence of the pAp11 satellite in distantly related species suggests that the AluI sequence family is an ancient component of Beta genomes and the ancestor of the diverged satellite subfamily pEV4 in B. vulgaris. Comparative fluorescent in-situ hybridization revealed remarkable differences in the chromosomal position between B. procumbens and B. vulgaris, indicating that the pAp11 and pEV4 satellites were most likely involved in the expansion or rearrangement of the intercalary B. vulgaris heterochromatin. Furthermore, we describe the molecular structure, and genomic and chromosomal organization of two repetitive DNA families which were designated pAp4 and pAp22 and are 1354 and 582 bp long, respectively. The families consist of sequence elements which are widely dispersed along B. procumbens chromosomes with local clustering and exclusion from distal euchromatic regions. FISH on meiotic chromosomes showed that both dispersed repeats are colocalized in some chromosomal regions. The interspersion of repeats of the pAp4 and pAp22 family was studied by PCR and enabled the determination of repeat flanking sequences. Sequence analysis revealed that pAp22 is either derived from or part of a long terminal repeat (LTR) of an Athila-like retrotransposon. Southern analysis and FISH with pAp4 and pAp22 showed

  18. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Li

    Full Text Available The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st to 5(th instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl into the 4(th instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3% after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (P<0.05. About 80% of the surviving insects in the siRNA-treated group of five genes (PGCP, chitinase1, tubulin1, tubulin2 and helicase showed retarded development. In chitinase1-siRNA and chitinase7-siRNA administered groups, 12.5% survivors exhibited "half-ecdysis". In arf1-siRNA and arf2-siRNA groups, the body color of 15% became black 48 h after injections. In summary, the transcriptome could be a valuable genetic resource for identification of genes in S. exigua and this study provided putative targets for RNAi pest

  19. Effect of thermal processing on physico-chemical properties of dietary fibre in carrot and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Elkner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermal processing (boiling in water and steaming on changes in dietary fibre fractions and the functional properties of carrot and red beet fibre were studied. Boiling in water caused significantly larger changes in qualitative and quantitative composition of the vegetable fibre than steaming. It was observed that boiling resulted in an increase of the neutral detergent fibre (NDF, cellulose, a slight increase in lignin content and decrease of hemicellulose. Boiling of these vegetables in water, in comparison to steaming, affected the changes of functional properties of fibre. After boiling in water the ability of water holding capacity of fibre was increased, whereas the cation exchange capacity was decreased.

  20. Multivariate statistical analysis and optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural pigments from waste red beet stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, J Prakash; Priya, B

    2016-01-01

    In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of natural pigment extraction from waste red beet stalks were optimized under four factors (extraction temperature, ultrasonic power, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio) by using three level Box-Behnken response surface design. Extraction temperature, ultrasonic power and solid-liquid ratio were significantly influenced the extraction yield of pigments. Extraction temperature of 53 °C, ultrasonic power of 89 w, extraction time of 35 min and SL ratio of 1:19 g/ml was identified as the optimal condition. Under this condition, the actual yield of (betacyanin of 1.28 ± 0.02 and betaxanthin of 5.31 ± 0.09 mg/g) pigments was well correlated with predicted values (betacyanin was 1.29 mg/g and betaxanthin was 5.32 mg/g). PMID:26788000

  1. Progress towards sugar beet improvement through somatic hybridization I. Inactivation of nuclei and cytoplasm in donor and recipient protoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Jażdżewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and culture of suspension-derived protoplasts from two sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. genotypes are described. Immobilization of protoplasts in agarose resulted in high frequency divisions and microcallus regeneration, with plating efficiency (PE being clearly genotype-dependent. In further studies towards asymmetric fusion experiments, the effect of different doses of ultraviolet radiation (UV and iodoacetic acid (IA on protoplast physiology was assessed. Viability of both treated (UV, IA and untreated protoplasts (control was determined by FDA staining, and the biological effect was evaluated by testing the ability of protoplasts to divide and to form calli. The results are discussed in terms of the applicability of the methods for the production of asymmetric protoplasts suitable for somatic hybridization within the genus Beta.

  2. Studies on sorption, desorption, regeneration and reuse of sugar-beet pectin gels for heavy metal removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the effectiveness of sugar-beet pectin xerogels for the removal of heavy metals (cadmium, lead and copper) after multiple batch sorption-desorption cycles, with and without a gels regeneration step. Metals were recovered from xerogel beads without destroying their sorption capability and the beads were successfully reused (nine cycles) without significant loss in both biosorption capacity and biosorbent mass. Metals uptake levelled off or increased after using a 1 M CaCl2 regeneration step after each desorption. Calcium, as a regenerating agent, increased the stability and reusability of the gels repairing the damage caused by the acid and removing the excess protons after each elution providing new binding sites. Because of their excellent reusability, pectin xerogels are suitable for metal remediation technologies.

  3. Influence of sugar beet pulp on feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laitat, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Dietary fiber is largely used in pig production but some contradictions appear in the literature regarding the effects on performance and health. Objectives. This paper aims to contribute to the clarification of the effects of a diet rich in sugar beet pulp on animal behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs. Method. Two successive batches of 24 fattening pigs were each divided into two groups fed ad libitum either a standard diet based on cereals (STD, 19% NSP [non-starch-polysaccharides] or a fibrous diet based on 23% sugar beet pulp (HFD, 31% NSP. Results. Pigs activity rate and feeder occupancy duration were increased by 57% and 165% for group fed HFD, respectively (P < 0.05. The fecal bacteria counts showed increases with HFD for Lactobacillus (10.21 vs 9.84 log10 of cfu·g-1 of feces dry matter, P < 0.05 and Bifidobacterium (9.49 vs 8.88, P < 0.01 but decreases for Enterobacteriaceae (4.85 vs 5.97, P < 0.001. Reductions of the average daily gain (788 vs 876 g per day, P < 0.001 and the dressing percentage (75.7 vs 78.9%, P < 0.001 were observed with HFD. Gastric lesion score was decreased with HFD (0.82 vs 1.55, P < 0.05. For pigs fed HFD, the proportion of surface area occupied by goblet cells was increased in the jejunum (10.06 vs 7.99%, P < 0.01 and the number of CD3 lymphocytes was increased in the colon (1.24 vs 0.90·mm-², P < 0.05. Conclusions. HFD contributes to strengthen the gut health of fattening pigs, but it impairs growth performance and carcass traits.

  4. Effect of Trimethyltin Chloride on Slow Vacuolar (SV Channels in Vacuoles from Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Taproots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Trela

    Full Text Available In the present study, patch-clamp techniques have been used to investigate the effect of trimethyltin chloride (Met3SnCl on the slow vacuolar (SV channels in vacuoles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. taproots. Activity of SV channels has been measured in whole-vacuole and cytosolic side-out patch configurations. It was found that addition of trimethyltin chloride to the bath solution suppressed, in a concentration-dependent manner, SV currents in red beet vacuoles. The time constant, τ, increased significantly in the presence of the organotin. When single channel activity was analyzed, only little channel activity could be recorded at 100 μM Met3SnCl. Trimethyltin chloride added to the bath medium significantly decreased (by ca. threefold at 100 μM Met3SnCl and at 100 mV voltage, as compared to the control medium the open probability of single channels. Single channel recordings obtained in the presence and absence of trimethyltin chloride showed that the organotin only slightly (by <10% decreased the unitary conductance of single channels. It was also found that Met3SnCl significantly diminished the number of SV channel openings, whereas it did not change the opening times of the channels. Taking into account the above and the fact that under the here applied experimental conditions (pH = 7.5 Met3SnCl is a non-dissociated (more lipophilic compound, we suggest that the suppression of SV currents observed in the presence of the organotin results probably from its hydrophobic properties allowing this compound to translocate near the selectivity filter of the channel.

  5. Effect of Trimethyltin Chloride on Slow Vacuolar (SV) Channels in Vacuoles from Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, Zenon; Burdach, Zbigniew; Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Przestalski, Stanisław; Karcz, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, patch-clamp techniques have been used to investigate the effect of trimethyltin chloride (Met3SnCl) on the slow vacuolar (SV) channels in vacuoles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots. Activity of SV channels has been measured in whole-vacuole and cytosolic side-out patch configurations. It was found that addition of trimethyltin chloride to the bath solution suppressed, in a concentration-dependent manner, SV currents in red beet vacuoles. The time constant, τ, increased significantly in the presence of the organotin. When single channel activity was analyzed, only little channel activity could be recorded at 100 μM Met3SnCl. Trimethyltin chloride added to the bath medium significantly decreased (by ca. threefold at 100 μM Met3SnCl and at 100 mV voltage, as compared to the control medium) the open probability of single channels. Single channel recordings obtained in the presence and absence of trimethyltin chloride showed that the organotin only slightly (by <10%) decreased the unitary conductance of single channels. It was also found that Met3SnCl significantly diminished the number of SV channel openings, whereas it did not change the opening times of the channels. Taking into account the above and the fact that under the here applied experimental conditions (pH = 7.5) Met3SnCl is a non-dissociated (more lipophilic) compound, we suggest that the suppression of SV currents observed in the presence of the organotin results probably from its hydrophobic properties allowing this compound to translocate near the selectivity filter of the channel. PMID:26317868

  6. Glycine betaine accumulation, ionic and water relations of red-beet at contrasting levels of sodium supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Levine, L. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Exposure of plants to sodium (Na) and salinity may increase glycine betaine accumulation in tissues. To study this, red-beet cvs. Scarlet Supreme and Ruby Queen, were grown for 42 days in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0.25 mmol/L K and either 4.75 mmol/L (control) or 54.75 mmol/L (saline) Na (as NaCl). Plants were harvested at weekly intervals and measurements were taken on leaf water relations, leaf photosynthetic rates, chlorophyll fluorescence, chlorophyll levels, glycine betaine levels, and tissue elemental composition. Glycine betaine accumulation increased under salinity and this accumulation correlated with higher tissue levels of Na in both cultivars. Na accounted for 80 to 90% of the total cation uptake under the saline treatment. At final harvest (42 days), K concentrations in laminae ranged from approximately 65-95 micromoles g-1 dry matter (DM), whereas Na in shoot tissue ranged from approximately 3000-4000 micromoles g-1. Leaf sap osmotic potential at full turgor [psi(s100)] increased as lamina Na content increased. Glycine betaine levels of leaf laminae showed a linear relationship with leaf sap [psi(s100)]. Chlorophyll levels, leaf photosynthetic rates, and chlorophyll fluorescence were not affected by Na levels. These results suggest that the metabolic tolerance to high levels of tissue Na in red-beet could be due to its ability to synthesize and regulate glycine betaine production, and to control partitioning of Na and glycine betaine between the vacuole and the cytoplasm.

  7. Emergence of gynodioecy in wild beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima L.): a genealogical approach using chloroplastic nucleotide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénart, Stéphane; Touzet, Pascal; Arnaud, Jean-François; Cuguen, Joël

    2006-06-01

    Gynodioecy is a breeding system where both hermaphroditic and female individuals coexist within plant populations. This dimorphism is the result of a genomic interaction between maternally inherited cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes and bi-parentally inherited nuclear male fertility restorers. As opposed to other gynodioecious species, where every cytoplasm seems to be associated with male sterility, wild beet Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima exhibits a minority of sterilizing cytoplasms among numerous non-sterilizing ones. Many studies on population genetics have explored the molecular diversity of different CMS cytoplasms, but questions remain concerning their evolutionary dynamics. In this paper we report one of the first investigations on phylogenetic relationships between CMS and non-CMS lineages. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships between 35 individuals exhibiting different mitochondrial haplotypes. Relying on the high linkage disequilibrium between chloroplastic and mitochondrial genomes, we chose to analyse the nucleotide sequence diversity of three chloroplastic fragments (trnK intron, trnD-trnT and trnL-trnF intergenic spacers). Nucleotide diversity appeared to be low, suggesting a recent bottleneck during the evolutionary history of B. vulgaris ssp. maritima. Statistical parsimony analyses revealed a star-like genealogy and showed that sterilizing haplotypes all belong to different lineages derived from an ancestral non-sterilizing cytoplasm. These results suggest a rapid evolution of male sterility in this taxon. The emergence of gynodioecy in wild beet is confronted with theoretical expectations, describing either gynodioecy dynamics as the maintenance of CMS factors through balancing selection or as a constant turnover of new CMSs.

  8. Gamma rays as an effective tool for removing undesirable color without adverse changes in biological activities of red beet extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, In Chul; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The ethanolic extracts of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy root were used to investigate the removal of color and improvement of biological activity for enhanced industrial applications. The extracts were exposed to gamma rays ranging from 2.5 to 30 kGy. The red beet hairy root is composed of two major red-colorants, betanin and isobetanin. Gamma ray radiation at 5 kGy remarkably reduced the levels of the major colorants by 94% and the reddish color was eliminated by doses greater than 10 kGy. Color removal was likely due to the gamma ray radiolysis of ethanol. Although details on the mechanism responsible for the decay of the chromophore have not been entirely determined, our results suggest that the free radicals that are produced during this process are capable of destroying the chromophore group in isobetanin, thus bleaching the substrate solution. In spite of the degradation of the major colorants, the biological activities of constituents of the extract such as DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition were negligibly affected by the gamma ray radiation up to 20 kGy. The antioxidant activity was 92.7% in control samples and 90.0-92.0% in irradiated samples (2.5-20 kGy), and a slight decrease to 87.5% was observed for gamma ray radiation at 30 kGy. In addition, tyrosinase inhibition activity has also the same pattern; the activity is slightly increased from 50.7% of control to 49.1-52.8% of irradiated samples (2.5-20 kGy) with a 46.8% at 30 kGy.

  9. Evaluation of Hydrolytic Activity of Different Pectinases on Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris Substrate Using FT-MIR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina CHIŞ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the pectinase activity of two commercial enzymes Rohament PL and Rohapect 10L, using as substrate the sugar beet pulp, in different conditions. The method applied to check the rate of hydrolysis was Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR, by recording the absorption spectra of different carbohydrates in the specific, MIR (middle IR spectral range (650-4000 cm-1. In order to calibrate the method, it has been recorded the FT-MIR spectrum of standard solutions of glucose, fructose, sucrose and galacturonic acid, at different concentrations, establishing also the peaks and the fingerprint regions specific to these compounds. Considering the specific peak intensities identified for glucose (at 1033 cm-1, fructose (at 1063 cm-1, sucrose (at 995 cm-1, and based on peak area for galacturonic acid (1500-700 cm-1, it has been calculated their concentrations, as a result of the Rohament PL or Rohapect 10L activity. Based on calibration curves for each sugar type, it has been calculated their concentrations in the sugar beet samples, and after their release by enzymatic treatment, establishing an optimized protocol of action for the two enzymes. Differences among the two enzymes activity were identified, specifically their optimum concentration and hydrolysis timing. FT-MIR spectroscopy proves to be an adequate method to evaluate the enzymatic activity of the different enzyme types, having certain advantages in comparison with the chromatographic methods, being a rapid, non-destructive method, at relatively low costs.

  10. Nitrogen Nutrition of Sugar Beet as Affected by Water Salinity, Proline Acid and Nitrogen Forms Using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pot experiment was conducted under green house condition using sugar beet as a test crop. Saline water (sea water) was applied at different levels. i.e. fresh water, 4 and 8 dSm-1. Labelled urea and ammonium sulphate (5% a.e.) were applied at rate of 120 kg N fed-1. Also; proline amino acid was sprayed at rate of 25, and 50 ppm. Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Crop leaves and tuber yield were severely affected by sea water salinity. These parameters were improved by adding proline acid. Effect of proline acid was significantly varied according to rate of addition, water salinity levels and N forms. In this respect, the improvement of leaves and tuber was more pronounced at rate of 50 ppm proline under 8 dSm-1 salinity when plants fertilized with ammonium sulfate. Another picture was drawn with urea, where the improvement was detected at rate of 25 ppm proline, under 4dSm-1 water salinity level. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sodium uptake by leaves and tuber of sugar beet plants were significantly improved by addition of 50 ppm proline under 4 and /or 8 dSm-1 salinity levels. Nitrogen uptake was higher in tuber and fertilization with urea than those of leaves and ammonium sulfate, respectively. Other nutrients were varied according to N forms and proline levels. Nitrogen use efficiency was enhanced by spraying proline, despite of addition rates, and negatively affected by increasing salinity levels. In this regard, no big significant difference was detected between urea and ammonium sulfat

  11. Characterisation and identification of triterpene saponins in the roots of red beets (Beta vulgaris L.) using two HPLC-MS systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    Triterpene saponins are important bioactive constituents with an enormous variety in structure widely distributed in many plants. Here, we profiled triterpene saponins from the skin and flesh of red beetroot Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Nochowski from 2012 and 2013 season using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionisation quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 44 triterpene saponins, of which 37 had not been detected previously in the root of red beets and 27 saponins were tentatively identified as potentially new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of four different aglycone structures, of which akebonoic acid and gypsogenin were not detected previous in red beetroot. Based on the high-resolution mass measurements among these 44 detected saponins 10 groups of isomers were identified. We report for the first time that 18 saponins with dioxolane-type (2 saponins) and acetal-type (16 saponins) substituents were detected in the roots of red beet. PMID:26304438

  12. Feruloylated and Nonferuloylated Arabino-oligosaccharides from Sugar Beet Pectin Selectively Stimulate the Growth of Bifidobacterium spp. in Human Fecal in Vitro Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Lorentzen, Andrea; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine;

    2011-01-01

    The side chains of the rhamnogalacturonan I fraction in sugar beet pectin are particularly rich in arabinan moieties, which may be substituted with feruloyl groups. In this work the arabinan-rich fraction resulting from sugar beet pulp based pectin production was separated by Amberlite XAD...... hydrophobic interaction and membrane separation into four fractions based on feruloyl substitution and arabino-oligosaccharide chain length: short-chain (DP 2–10) and long-chain (DP 7–14) feruloylated and nonferuloylated arabino-oligosaccharides, respectively. HPAEC, SEC, and MALDI-TOF/TOF analyses...... of the fractions confirmed the presence of singly and doubly substituted feruloylated arabino-oligosaccharides in the feruloyl-substituted fractions. In vitro microbial fermentation by human fecal samples (n = 6 healthy human volunteers) showed a selective stimulation of bifidobacteria by both the feruloylated...

  13. Non-target effects of the microbial control agents Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 and Clonostachys rosea IK726 in soils cropped with barley followed by sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Knudsen, Inge M.B.; Binnerup, Svend J.;

    2005-01-01

    Non-target effects of a bacterial (Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54) and a fungal (Clonostachys rosea IK726) microbial control agent (MCA), on the indigenous microbiota in bulk soil and rhizosphere of barley, and subsequent a sugar beet crop, were studied in a greenhouse experiment. MCAs were...... by a factor of 106 and 20, respectively, and DR54 showed a short-lasting growth increase in the sugar beet rhizosphere. In general, the non-target effects were small and transient. IK726 seemed to have general stimulating effects on soil enzyme activity and the soil microbiota, and resulted in a significant...... to be suitable for in situ monitoring of MCA non-target effects on the soil microbiota, but should be combined with assays for MCA survival and soil enzyme activity....

  14. Investigation and Assessment of 40K Accumulation in the Segments of an Ordinary Carrot (Daucus carota L. and Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mikalauskienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an alteration in specific activity and transfer factor of naturally occurring radionuclide 40K from soil with a loamy structure to the segments of root vegetables – an ordinary carrot (Daucus carota L. and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.. The paper establishes the specific activity of 40K in soil and vegetable segments and evaluates transfer factors (TF. The obtained data show that the transfer factor of naturally occurring radionuclide 40K from soil to the segments of the ordinary carrot (Daucus carota L. varied from 0,28 to 0,99 while that of the red beet (Beta vulgaris L. – from 0,53 to 0,96. The results of the study could be used for estimating 40K transfer in the system “soil-plant” and accumulation of radionuclide in composting garden waste.Artilce in Lithuanian

  15. Fermentation of sugar beet waste by ¤Aspergillus niger¤ facilitates growth and P uptake of external mycelium of mixed populations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, A.; Jakobsen, Iver; Vassilev, N.;

    2007-01-01

    Sugar beet waste has potential value as a soil amendment and this work studied whether fermentation of the waste by Aspergillus niger would influence the growth and P uptake of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Plants were grown in compartmentalised growth units, each with a root compartment (RC......-33 and (32)p in order to measure P uptake by the AM fungal mycelium, of which length density was also measured. Whole cell fatty acid (WCFA) signatures were used as biomarkers of the AM fungal mycelium and other soil microorganisms. The amount of biomarkers of saprotrophic fungi and both Grain...... of exudates by A. niger, as a consequence of fermentation process of sugar beet waste, could possibly explain the increase of AM growth in ASB treatments. On the other hand, the highest P uptake was a result of the solubilisation of rock phosphate by A. niger during the fermentation. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd...

  16. Determination of Functional Ceramide Lipids in Beet and By-products%甜菜及副产品中功能性神经酰胺脂质的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    热娜古丽·木沙; 魏佼

    2013-01-01

    Using beet, beet pulp and beet molasses as raw material,extraction and determination of it's functional ceramide, to provide a theoretical basis for the extraction and utilization of ceramide. The result show total lipid contents in beet, beet pulp and beet molasses in raw material is 0.4 %, 0.7 % and 0.1 %, respectively. The proportion of polar lipid in total lipid is 44.7 %, 55.6 % and 54.8 %, respectively. In molasses, glycolipids accounted for the highest proportion of total lipids, up to 19.4%. TLC analysis proved that in beet and beet pulp contain the functional ceramide lipids. The ceramide content of beet pup was slightly higher than the beet, the result of 0.46 mg/g and 0.35 mg/g,but extremely low in molasses (<0.1 mg/g).%  以甜菜、甜菜渣和甜菜糖蜜为原料,提取测定其功能性成分神经酰胺的含量,为提取利用神经酰胺提供理论依据。结果表明,甜菜、甜菜渣及甜菜糖蜜原物中的总脂质含量分别为0.4%、0.7%及0.1%。总脂质中极性脂质的比例分别为44.7%、55.6%和54.8%。甜菜糖蜜中糖脂占总脂质中的比例最高,达19.4%。TLC分析初步检测出甜菜和甜菜渣中含有功能性脂质神经酰胺;甜菜渣中神经酰胺含量略高于甜菜,分别为0.46 mg/g和0.35 mg/g,但在甜菜糖蜜中含量极少(<0.1 mg/g)。

  17. 甜菜及副产品中功能性神经酰胺脂质的测定%Determination of Functional Ceramide Lipids in Beet and By-products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    热娜古丽·木沙; 魏佼

    2013-01-01

      以甜菜、甜菜渣和甜菜糖蜜为原料,提取测定其功能性成分神经酰胺的含量,为提取利用神经酰胺提供理论依据。结果表明,甜菜、甜菜渣及甜菜糖蜜原物中的总脂质含量分别为0.4%、0.7%及0.1%。总脂质中极性脂质的比例分别为44.7%、55.6%和54.8%。甜菜糖蜜中糖脂占总脂质中的比例最高,达19.4%。TLC分析初步检测出甜菜和甜菜渣中含有功能性脂质神经酰胺;甜菜渣中神经酰胺含量略高于甜菜,分别为0.46 mg/g和0.35 mg/g,但在甜菜糖蜜中含量极少(<0.1 mg/g)。%Using beet, beet pulp and beet molasses as raw material,extraction and determination of it's functional ceramide, to provide a theoretical basis for the extraction and utilization of ceramide. The result show total lipid contents in beet, beet pulp and beet molasses in raw material is 0.4 %, 0.7 % and 0.1 %, respectively. The proportion of polar lipid in total lipid is 44.7 %, 55.6 % and 54.8 %, respectively. In molasses, glycolipids accounted for the highest proportion of total lipids, up to 19.4%. TLC analysis proved that in beet and beet pulp contain the functional ceramide lipids. The ceramide content of beet pup was slightly higher than the beet, the result of 0.46 mg/g and 0.35 mg/g,but extremely low in molasses (<0.1 mg/g).

  18. Comparing the impact of high pressure high temperature and thermal sterilization on the volatile fingerprint of onion, potato, pumpkin and red beet

    OpenAIRE

    Kebede, Biniam Tamiru; Grauwet, Tara; Mutsokoti, Leonard; Palmers, Stijn; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Thiswork reports the effect of high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing as compared to thermal processing on the volatile fraction of four, industrially-relevant, vegetables: onion, potato, pumpkin and red beet. The vegetables were selected from different botanical families, edible plant parts and color groups, aiming for investigation of awide range of chemical reactions. Despite the difference in chemical composition among these vegetables, some remarkable general trends...

  19. Changes in the species composition of the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of sugar beet under the impact of biological preparations based on endophytic bacteria and their metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusenkova, L. I.; Il'yasova, E. Yu.; Lastochkina, O. V.; Maksimov, I. V.; Leonova, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    The species structure of the mycobiota in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of sugar beet in ontogenesis was studied. The treatment of the plants with biopreparations based on endophytic bacteria and their metabolites (Phytosporin-M, Vitaplan, and Albit) were shown to create conditions for the colonization of the plant rhizosphere and phyllosphere by bacteria-antagonists displacing phytopathogenic microorganisms and stimulating plant growth, which induces the transformation of the microbial cenosis.

  20. Use of agricultural waste sugar beet pulp for the removal of Gemazol turquoise blue-G reactive dye from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential use of dried sugar beet pulp, an agricultural solid waste by-product, as an biosorbent for Gemazol turquoise blue-G, a copper-pthalocyanine reactive dye commonly used in dyeing of cotton, was investigated in the present study. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to examine the influence of various parameters such as initial pH, temperature and initial dye concentration. The results indicated that adsorption was strongly pH-dependent and slightly temperature-dependent. At 800 mg l-1 initial Gemazol turquoise blue-G concentration, dried sugar beet pulp exhibited the highest Gemazol turquoise blue-G uptake capacity of 234.8 mg g-1 at 25 deg. C and at an initial pH value of 2.0. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich, the two and three parameters adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm constants were evaluated depending on temperature. Both the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson models were applicable for describing the dye biosorption by dried sugar beet pulp in the concentration (100-800 mg l-1) and temperature (25-45 deg. C) ranges studied. Simple mass transfer and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of biosorption and potential rate controlling steps such as external mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion and biosorption process. The sorption process was found to be controlled by both surface and pore diffusion with surface diffusion at the earlier stages followed by pore diffusion at the later stages. Pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and saturation type kinetic models described the biosorption kinetics accurately at all concentrations and temperatures studied. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that the sorption process was exothermic and the biosorption of dye on dried sugar beet pulp might be physical in nature

  1. Investigation of the usability of activated carbon produced from sugar beet pulp for the adsorption of 2,4-D and Metribuzin pesticides in wastewaters

    OpenAIRE

    SEZER, Kazım; AKSU, Zümriye

    2013-01-01

    In this study the adsorption of 2,4-D and Metribuzin herbicides, present in wastewaters and used in Turkey intensively, on activated carbon produced from dried sugar beet pulp by heat activation and on commercial powdered activated carbon was comparatively investigated in a batch system. At studies, effect of initial herbicide concentration, temperature and pH parameters on adsorption rate and yield was investigated and optimum working conditions determined. Defining parameters of the system,...

  2. Optimization of L-Tryptophan Biosynthesis From L-Serine of Processed Iranian Beet and Cane Molasses and Indole by Induced Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghiyan-Rizi, Tahereh; Fooladi, Jamshid; Momhed Heravi, Majid; Sadrai, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Background: L-tryptophan is an important ingredient in medicines, especially in neuromedicines such as antidepressants. Many commercial processes employ various microorganisms with high tryptophan synthase activity to produce L-tryptophan from indole and L-serine, but these processes are very costly due to the costs of precursors, especially L-serine. Objectives: For this reason, we studied the ability to use processed Iranian cane and beet molasses as L-serine sources for L-tryptophan produc...

  3. Retrieval of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Soil Water Content (WC) Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing under Controlled Glass House Conditions for Spring Barley and Sugar Beet

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten Schulz; Jaromir Borzuchowski

    2010-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and water content (WC) in the root zone are two major hydro-meteorological parameters that exhibit a dominant control on water, energy and carbon fluxes, and are therefore important for any regional eco-hydrological or climatological study. To investigate the potential for retrieving these parameter from hyperspectral remote sensing, we have investigated plant spectral reflectance (400–2,500 nm, ASD FieldSpec3) for two major agricultural crops (sugar beet and spring barl...

  4. Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf supplementation improves antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice fed high fat high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeung Hee; Son, Chan Wook; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Hye Ran; Kwak, Eun Shil; Kim, Sena; Kim, Mee Ree

    2009-01-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf on antioxidant status of plasma and tissue was investigated in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were randomly divided into two groups after one-week acclimation, and fed a high fat (20%) and high cholesterol (1%) diet without (control group) or with 8% freeze-dried red beet leaf (RBL group) for 4 weeks. In RBL mice, lipid peroxidation determined as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS value) was significantly reduced in the plasma and selected organs (liver, heart, and kidney). Levels of antioxidants (glutathione and beta-carotene) and the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase) in plasma and liver were considerably increased, suggesting that antioxidant defenses were improved by RBL diet. Comet parameters such as tail DNA (%), tail extent moment, olive tail moment and tail length were significantly reduced by 25.1%, 49.4%, 35.4%, and 23.7%, respectively, in plasma lymphocyte DNA of RBL mice compared with control mice, and indicated the increased resistance of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage. In addition, the RBL diet controlled body weight together with a significant reduction of fat pad (retroperitoneal, epididymal, inguinal fat, and total fat). Therefore, the present study suggested that the supplementation of 8% red beet leaf in high fat high cholesterol diet could prevent lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defense system in the plasma and tissue of C57BL/6J mice. PMID:20016711

  5. Dynamic variation of the microbial community structure during the long-time mono-fermentation of maize and sugar beet silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klang, Johanna; Theuerl, Susanne; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Huth, Markus; Tölle, Rainer; Klocke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the development of the microbial community during a long-term (337 days) anaerobic digestion of maize and sugar beet silage, two feedstocks that significantly differ in their chemical composition. For the characterization of the microbial dynamics, the community profiling method terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) in combination with a cloning-sequencing approach was applied. Our results revealed a specific adaptation of the microbial community to the supplied feedstocks. Based on the high amount of complex compounds, the anaerobic conversion rate of maize silage was slightly lower compared with the sugar beet silage. It was demonstrated that members from the phylum Bacteroidetes are mainly involved in the degradation of low molecular weight substances such as sugar, ethanol and acetate, the main compounds of the sugar beet silage. It was further shown that species of the genus Methanosaeta are highly sensitive against sudden stress situations such as a strong decrease in the ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) concentration or a drop of the pH value. In both cases, a functional compensation by members of the genera Methanoculleus and/or Methanosarcina was detected. However, the overall biomass conversion of both feedstocks proceeded efficiently as a steady state between acid production and consumption was recorded, which further resulted in an equal biogas yield. PMID:25712194

  6. 圆盘挖掘式甜菜联合收获机设计与试验%Design and experiment of disc-dig sugar beet combine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方艳; 张东兴※

    2013-01-01

      The combine harvester is one of important tools for a sugar beet harvest. In order to solve time-consuming, tedious, and inefficient process in manual picking up of sugar beet by a traditional digger, and alleviate the shortage of sugar beet harvesting equipment, a disc-dig sugar beet combine harvester with medium horsepower tractors was designed based on the planting pattern and agronomic requirements, and the overall configuration and the structure of the main parts were described. The combine was composed of a rack, transmission system, guiding mechanism, digging device, conveying and cleaning device, hoisting equipment and driven system, et al. which enabled a one-stop achievement of sugar beet digging, conveying, removing soil and collecting. It effectively decreased the labor cost, simplified the commodity sugar beet processing links, and enhanced the efficiency of production. The driving system was configured in two independent ways, and equipped with a mechanical hydraulic control system, which improved the control accuracy and automation. With the hydraulic control system, the guiding mechanism reflected quickly and reduced the leakage (loss) of the sugar beet during harvesting. The disc digging component of the digging device reduced the excavated soil volume, improved the ability of breaking soil, and reduced the working resistance effectively. The throwing wheel moved sugar beet to the conveying and cleaning device, which was arranged behind the digging device. The hoisting equipment has a compact structure and good working reliability. Meanwhile, the web chain was composed of bending rods and bar rods, realized the chain jitter without source vibration, and reduced the transmission loss and the impurity of sugar beet. Field tests indicated that the rate of sticking to soil, the loss rate, the damage rate, the broken rate, and the impurity rate reached 0.8%, 4.5%, 2.4%, 1.6%, and 3.1%, respectively, which are in line with the sugar beet harvesting

  7. Spatial analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA diversity in wild sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) populations: do marine currents shape the genetic structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievet, Virgil; Touzet, Pascal; Arnaud, Jean-François; Cuguen, Joël

    2007-05-01

    Patterns of seed dispersal in the wild sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) are predicted to be influenced by marine currents because populations are widely distributed along the European Atlantic coast. We investigated the potential influence of marine currents on the pattern of spatial genetic structuring in natural populations of sea beet. Populations were located along the French coasts of the Anglo-Norman gulf that features peculiar marine currents in the Channel. Thirty-three populations were sampled, among which 23 were continental and 10 were insular populations located in Jersey, Guernsey and Chausey, for a total of 1224 plants genotyped. To validate the coastal topography influence and the possibility of marine current orientated gene flow on the genetic features of sea beet populations, we assessed patterns of genetic structuring of cytoplasmic and nuclear diversity by: (i) searching for an isolation-by-distance (IBD) pattern using spatial autocorrelation tools; (ii) using the Monmonier algorithm to identify genetic boundaries in the area studied; and (iii) performing assignment tests that are based on multilocus genotype information to ascertain population membership of individuals. Our results showed a highly contrasted cytoplasmic and nuclear genetic differentiation and highlighted the peculiar situation of island populations. Beyond a classical isolation-by-distance due to short-range dispersal, genetic barriers fitting the orientation of marine currents were clearly identified. This suggests the occurrence of long-distance seed dispersal events and an asymmetrical gene flow separating the eastern and western part of the Anglo-Norman gulf.

  8. BNYVV-derived dsRNA confers resistance to rhizomania disease of sugar beet as evidenced by a novel transgenic hairy root approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Ourania I; Panopoulos, Nicholas J; Goldbach, Rob; Skaracis, George N

    2010-10-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed sugar beet hairy roots, expressing dsRNA from the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus replicase gene, were used as a novel approach to assess the efficacy of three intron-hairpin constructs at conferring resistance to rhizomania disease. Genetically engineered roots were similar in morphology to wild type roots but were characterized by a profound abundancy, rapid growth rate and, in some cases, plagiotropic development. Upon challenge inoculation, seedlings showed a considerable delay in symptom development compared to untransformed or vector-transformed seedlings, expressing dsRNA from an unrelated source. The transgenic root system of almost all seedlings contained no or very low virus titer while the non-transformed aerial parts of the same plants were found infected, leading to the conclusion that the hairy roots studied were effectively protected against the virus. This readily applicable novel method forms a plausible approach to preliminarily evaluate transgenic rhizomania resistance before proceeding in transformation and whole plant regeneration of sugar beet, a tedious and time consuming process for such a recalcitrant crop species.

  9. BNYVV-derived dsRNA confers resistance to rhizomania disease of sugar beet as evidenced by a novel transgenic hairy root approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Ourania I; Panopoulos, Nicholas J; Goldbach, Rob; Skaracis, George N

    2010-10-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-transformed sugar beet hairy roots, expressing dsRNA from the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus replicase gene, were used as a novel approach to assess the efficacy of three intron-hairpin constructs at conferring resistance to rhizomania disease. Genetically engineered roots were similar in morphology to wild type roots but were characterized by a profound abundancy, rapid growth rate and, in some cases, plagiotropic development. Upon challenge inoculation, seedlings showed a considerable delay in symptom development compared to untransformed or vector-transformed seedlings, expressing dsRNA from an unrelated source. The transgenic root system of almost all seedlings contained no or very low virus titer while the non-transformed aerial parts of the same plants were found infected, leading to the conclusion that the hairy roots studied were effectively protected against the virus. This readily applicable novel method forms a plausible approach to preliminarily evaluate transgenic rhizomania resistance before proceeding in transformation and whole plant regeneration of sugar beet, a tedious and time consuming process for such a recalcitrant crop species. PMID:20127510

  10. Effect of Sugar Beet Variety and Nonhost Plant on Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2IIIB Soil Inoculum Potential Measured in Soil DNA Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Sascha; Koch, Heinz-Josef; Märländer, Bernward; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-09-01

    A direct soil DNA extraction method from soil samples (250 g) was applied for detection of the soilborne sugar-beet-infecting pathogen Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 2-2IIIB using a newly developed real-time polymerase chain reaction assay that showed specificity to AG2-2IIIB when tested against various R. solani AG. The assay showed a good relation between cycle threshold and amount of AG2-2IIIB sclerotia detected in three spiked field soils and was also able to detect the pathogen in naturally infested field soil samples. A field trial was conducted to quantify R. solani AG2-2IIIB soil inoculum potential (IP) before and after growing a susceptible and a resistant sugar beet variety as well as after subsequent growth of an expected nonhost winter rye. Plants of the susceptible sugar beet variety displayed a higher disease severity. A more than sixfold increase of the R. solani AG2-2IIIB soil IP was observed in contrast to the resistant variety that resulted in a constant IP. Growing winter rye significantly reduced soil IP to the initial level at sowing. Further research is required to better understand the interaction between disease occurrence and soil IP as well as the environmental influence on IP development. PMID:27143412

  11. 甜菜胞囊线虫抗性基因及遗传工程改良策略%The Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode Resistance Genes and Genetic Engineering Improvement Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章洁琼; 蔡大广; 唐桂香

    2012-01-01

    Cyst nematode ( Heterodera schachtii) is the most important diseases in sugar beet cultivation and it causes great losses to the sugar beet production . With the development of molecular biology and genetic engineering technology, the genetic engineering improvement strategies is the most economical and effective method for sugar beet cyst nematode resistant breeding. It firstly introduced the life of sugar beet cyst nematode fertility and resistant mechanism, then reviewed the studied progresses of beet cyst nematode resistant genes cloning, identification and the genetic engineering improvement strategies for sugar beet cyst nematode resistance breeding. Furthermore, the prospect of sugar beet cyst nematode breeding in the future has also been discussed.%甜菜胞囊线虫(Heterodera schachtii)是甜菜的重要病害之一,给甜菜生产造成了极大的损失.随着分子生物学和遗传工程技术的发展,采用遗传工程改良策略进行甜菜抗性品种选育是甜菜胞囊线虫防治中最经济、有效的方法.介绍了甜菜胞囊线虫的生育史及抗性机制,综述了甜菜胞囊线虫抗性基因的克隆和鉴定研究进展及甜菜胞囊线虫抗性育种的遗传工程改良策略,并提出今后甜菜胞囊线虫抗性育种的展望.

  12. Effect of dietary supplement of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth performance and carcass trait of Vanaraja chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punita Kumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, performance index (PI, and carcass characteristics in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for a period of 42 days on Vanaraja strain of broiler birds. Different dietary supplement such as sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal and coriander seed meal were used in the basal diet. All day-old 150 male chicks were individually weighed and distributed into five groups having 30 birds in each. Each group was further sub-divided into triplicates having 10 birds in each. Group T1served as control and rest groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 as treatment groups. Birds in T1 group were fed basal ration only, however, T2 , T3, T4 and T5 groups were fed basal ration mixed with 2.5% sugar beet meal, neem leaf meal, linseed meal, and coriander seed meal individually, respectively. Results: Broilers supplemented with herbs/spices showed improvement in growth attributes and carcass characteristics. Broilers fed with herbs at the rate of 2.5% had higher feed intake except sugar beet and coriander seed meal fed group. The body weight and weight gain was also significantly (p0.05 affected. Average giblet percentage of all supplemented groups were significantly (p<0.05 higher than control and was found to be highest in neem leaf meal fed group. Average by-product percentage was found to be highest in linseed fed group. Conclusion: Various herbs such as sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander seed meals affected the growth performance, and carcass trait showed positive inclination toward supplemented groups in broilers. The exact mode of action of these herbs/spices is still not clear, however, one or more numbers of active compounds present in these supplements may be responsible.

  13. Airborne and ground-based remote sensing for the estimation of evapotranspiration and yield of bean, potato, and sugar beet crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Harikishan

    The focus of this research was two-fold: (1) extend the reflectance-based crop coefficient approach to non-grain (potato and sugar beet), and vegetable crops (bean), and (2) develop vegetation index (VI)-yield statistical models for potato and sugar beet crops using high-resolution aerial multispectral imagery. Extensive crop biophysical sampling (leaf area index and aboveground dry biomass sampling) and canopy reflectance measurements formed the backbone of developing of canopy reflectance-based crop coefficients for bean, potato, and sugar beet crops in this study. Reflectance-based crop coefficient equations were developed for the study crops cultivated in Kimberly, Idaho, and subsequently used in water availability simulations in the plant root zone during 1998 and 1999 seasons. The simulated soil water profiles were compared with independent measurements of actual soil water profiles in the crop root zone in selected fields. It is concluded that the canopy reflectance-based crop coefficient technique can be successfully extended to non-grain crops as well. While the traditional basal crop coefficients generally expect uniform growth in a region the reflectance-based crop coefficients represent the actual crop growth pattern (in less than ideal water availability conditions) in individual fields. Literature on crop canopy interactions with sunlight states that there is a definite correspondence between leaf area index progression in the season and the final yield. In case of crops like potato and sugar beet, the yield is influenced not only on how early and how quickly the crop establishes its canopy but also on how long the plant stands on the ground in a healthy state. The integrated area under the crop growth curve has shown excellent correlations with hand-dug samples of potato and sugar beet crops in this research. Soil adjusted vegetation index-yield models were developed, and validated using multispectral aerial imagery. Estimated yield images were

  14. cDNA cloning and analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, a salt inducible enzyme in sugar beet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCue, K.F.; Hanson, A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Betaine accumulates and serves as a compatible osmolyte in some plants subjected to drought or salinity stress. The last enzyme in the betaine biosynthetic pathway is betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The activity of BADH increases in response to increasing salinity levels. This increase in activity corresponds to an increase in protein detectable by immunoblotting, and to an increase in the translatable BADH mRNA. BADH was cloned from a cDNA library constructed in {lambda}gt10 using poly(A){sup +} RNA from sugar beets salinized to 500 mM NaCl. cDNAs were size selected (>1kb) before ligation into the vector, and the library was screened with a spinach BADH cDNA probe. Three nearly full length clones obtained were confirmed as BADH by their nucleotide and deduced amino acid homology to spinach BADH. Clones averaged 1.8 kb and contained open reading frames of 500 amino acids at 80% identity with spinach BADH. RNA gel blot analysis of poly(A){sup +} RNA indicated that salinization to 500 mM NaCl resulted in a 5-fold increase of BADH mRNA level.

  15. Functionally redundant but dissimilar microbial communities within biogas reactors treating maize silage in co-fermentation with sugar beet silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Susanne G; Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Kazda, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Numerous observations indicate a high flexibility of microbial communities in different biogas reactors during anaerobic digestion. Here, we describe the functional redundancy and structural changes of involved microbial communities in four lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs, 39°C, 12 L volume) supplied with different mixtures of maize silage (MS) and sugar beet silage (SBS) over 80 days. Continuously stirred tank reactors were fed with mixtures of MS and SBS in volatile solid ratios of 1:0 (Continuous Fermenter (CF) 1), 6:1 (CF2), 3:1 (CF3), 1:3 (CF4) with equal organic loading rates (OLR 1.25 kgVS m−3 d−1) and showed similar biogas production rates in all reactors. The compositions of bacterial and archaeal communities were analysed by 454 amplicon sequencing approach based on 16S rRNA genes. Both bacterial and archaeal communities shifted with increasing amounts of SBS. Especially pronounced were changes in the archaeal composition towards Methanosarcina with increasing proportion of SBS, while Methanosaeta declined simultaneously. Compositional shifts within the microbial communities did not influence the respective biogas production rates indicating that these communities adapted to environmental conditions induced by different feedstock mixtures. The diverse microbial communities optimized their metabolism in a way that ensured efficient biogas production. PMID:26200922

  16. Biogas production within the bioethanol production chain: Use of co-substrates for anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, B S; Triolo, J M; Lecona, V P; Zaiat, M; Sommer, S G

    2015-08-01

    Bioethanol production generates large amounts of vinasse, which is suitable for biogas production. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of sugar beet vinasse was optimised using continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) supplemented either with lime fertiliser or with 3% cow manure. In both reactors, the C/N ratio was adjusted by adding straw. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of vinasse was 267.4±4.5LCH4kgVS(-1). Due to the low content of macro- and micronutrients and low C/N ratio of vinasse, biogas production failed when vinasse alone was fed to the reactor. When co-substrate was added, biogas production achieved very close to the BMP of vinasse, being 235.7±32.2LCH4kgVS(-1) from the fertiliser supplied reactor and 265.2±26.8LCH4kgVS(-1) in manure supplied reactor at steady state. Anaerobic digestion was the most stable when cow manure was supplied to digestion of vinasse.

  17. Phosphorylation of Beet black scorch virus coat protein by PKA is required for assembly and stability of virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiaoling; Dong, Kai; Zhang, Yongliang; Hu, Yue; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Yanmei; Wang, Xianbing; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Plant virus coat proteins (CPs) play a fundamental role in protection of genomic RNAs, virion assembly, and viral movement. Although phosphorylation of several CPs during virus infection have been reported, little information is available about CP phosphorylation of the spherical RNA plant viruses. Here, we demonstrate that the CP of Beet black scorch virus (BBSV), a member of the genus Necrovirus, can be phosphorylated at threonine-41 (T41) by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-like kinase in vivo and in vitro. Mutant viruses containing a T41A non-phosphorylatable alanine substitution, and a T41E glutamic acid substitution to mimic threonine phosphorylation were able to replicate but were unable to move systemically in Nicotiana benthamiana. Interestingly, the T41A and T41E mutants generated unstable 17 nm virus-like particles that failed to package viral genomic (g) RNA, compared with wild-type BBSV with 30 nm virions during viral infection in N. benthamiana. Further analyses showed that the T41 mutations had little effect on the gRNA-binding activity of the CP. Therefore, we propose a model whereby CP phosphorylation plays an essential role in long-distance movement of BBSV that involves formation of stable virions.

  18. Functionally redundant but dissimilar microbial communities within biogas reactors treating maize silage in co-fermentation with sugar beet silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Susanne G; Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Kazda, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Numerous observations indicate a high flexibility of microbial communities in different biogas reactors during anaerobic digestion. Here, we describe the functional redundancy and structural changes of involved microbial communities in four lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs, 39°C, 12 L volume) supplied with different mixtures of maize silage (MS) and sugar beet silage (SBS) over 80 days. Continuously stirred tank reactors were fed with mixtures of MS and SBS in volatile solid ratios of 1:0 (Continuous Fermenter (CF) 1), 6:1 (CF2), 3:1 (CF3), 1:3 (CF4) with equal organic loading rates (OLR 1.25 kgVS m(-3)  d(-1) ) and showed similar biogas production rates in all reactors. The compositions of bacterial and archaeal communities were analysed by 454 amplicon sequencing approach based on 16S rRNA genes. Both bacterial and archaeal communities shifted with increasing amounts of SBS. Especially pronounced were changes in the archaeal composition towards Methanosarcina with increasing proportion of SBS, while Methanosaeta declined simultaneously. Compositional shifts within the microbial communities did not influence the respective biogas production rates indicating that these communities adapted to environmental conditions induced by different feedstock mixtures. The diverse microbial communities optimized their metabolism in a way that ensured efficient biogas production.

  19. The Effect of Herbicides on Hydrogen Peroxide Generation in Isolated Vacuoles of Red Beet Root (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Pradedova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of herbicides on the hydrogen peroxide generation in vacuolar extracts of red beet root (Beta vulgaris L. was investigated. Belonging to different chemical classes of herbicide compounds have been used. Herbicides differ from each other in the mechanism of effects on plants. Clopyralid (aromatic acid herbicide, derivative of picolinic acid and 2.4-D (phenoxyacetic herbicide, characterized by hormone-like effects, contributed to the formation of H2O2 in vacuolar extracts. Fluorodifen (nitrophenyl ether herbicide and diuron (urea herbicide also have increased contents H2O2. These compounds inhibit the electron transport, photosynthesis, and photorespiration in sensitive plants. Herbicidal effect of glyphosate (organophosphorus herbicide is due to the inhibition of amino acid synthesis in plant cells. Glyphosate did not affect the content of H2O2 in vacuolar extracts. Herbicide dependent H2O2-generation did not occur with oxidoreductase inhibitors, potassium cyanide and sodium azide. The results suggest that the formation of ROS in the vacuoles due to activity of oxidoreductases, which could interact with herbicides.

  20. Diversification, evolution and methylation of short interspersed nuclear element families in sugar beet and related Amaranthaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, Katrin; Wenke, Torsten; Zakrzewski, Falk; Seibt, Kathrin M; Minoche, André; Dohm, Juliane C; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons which are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. While SINEs have been intensively studied in animals, only limited information is available about plant SINEs. We analysed 22 SINE families from seven genomes of the Amaranthaceae family and identified 34 806 SINEs, including 19 549 full-length copies. With the focus on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), we performed a comparative analysis of the diversity, genomic and chromosomal organization and the methylation of SINEs to provide a detailed insight into the evolution and age of Amaranthaceae SINEs. The lengths of consensus sequences of SINEs range from 113 nucleotides (nt) up to 224 nt. The SINEs show dispersed distribution on all chromosomes but were found with higher incidence in subterminal euchromatic chromosome regions. The methylation of SINEs is increased compared with their flanking regions, and the strongest effect is visible for cytosines in the CHH context, indicating an involvement of asymmetric methylation in the silencing of SINEs. PMID:26676716

  1. Phosphorylation of Beet black scorch virus coat protein by PKA is required for assembly and stability of virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiaoling; Dong, Kai; Zhang, Yongliang; Hu, Yue; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Yanmei; Wang, Xianbing; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Plant virus coat proteins (CPs) play a fundamental role in protection of genomic RNAs, virion assembly, and viral movement. Although phosphorylation of several CPs during virus infection have been reported, little information is available about CP phosphorylation of the spherical RNA plant viruses. Here, we demonstrate that the CP of Beet black scorch virus (BBSV), a member of the genus Necrovirus, can be phosphorylated at threonine-41 (T41) by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-like kinase in vivo and in vitro. Mutant viruses containing a T41A non-phosphorylatable alanine substitution, and a T41E glutamic acid substitution to mimic threonine phosphorylation were able to replicate but were unable to move systemically in Nicotiana benthamiana. Interestingly, the T41A and T41E mutants generated unstable 17 nm virus-like particles that failed to package viral genomic (g) RNA, compared with wild-type BBSV with 30 nm virions during viral infection in N. benthamiana. Further analyses showed that the T41 mutations had little effect on the gRNA-binding activity of the CP. Therefore, we propose a model whereby CP phosphorylation plays an essential role in long-distance movement of BBSV that involves formation of stable virions. PMID:26108567

  2. Molecular characterization and developmental expression of the gene encoding the prothoracicotropic hormone in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; SU JianYa; SHEN JinLiang; XU WeiHua

    2007-01-01

    Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a neuropeptide hormone stimulating the prothoracic glands to synthesize ecdysone, plays an important role in regulating postembryonic development in insects. The cDNA encoding PTTH was isolated and sequenced from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Spe).The deduced amino acid sequence is composed of a signal peptide, a peptide (65 amino acids) of unknown function, and a mature PTTH molecule (111 amino acids). The Spe-PTTH shows similarities(45.5%-70.3%) to other known PTTHs reported in Lepidoptera species, but 7 cysteine residues and the hydrophobic regions were conserved. Whole-mount immunocytochemistry by using an antiserum against recombinant Helicoverpa armigera PTTH showed that Spe-PTTH was synthesized in two pairs of neurosecretory cells in the S. exigua brain. Northern blot analysis demonstrates the presence of a 1.2-kb transcript in the brain. The Spe-PTTH mRNA is detectable at high levels at the wandering larval stage, early pupal stage, and pharate adult stage, suggesting that the Spe-PTTH gene might be correlated with molting, metamorphosis, and reproduction.

  3. Sequential path analysis of some yield and quality components in sugar beet grown in normal and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Baradaran Firouzabadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Through biometrical analyses of yield and its components selection indices can be generated and be used in future breeding programs. Sugar yield components were considered as the first order variables (FOV in previous path analyses studies, while white sugar yield (WSY and its related traits were the FOV here. Three lines of sugar beet (7219-P.69, BP-Karaj, 7112 were evaluated in drought and non-drought conditions. Two sequential path models were used for analysis of associations among WSY and its related traits by arraying the various variables in first-, second-, and third-order paths on the basis of their maximum direct effects and minimal collinearity. Four first-order variables, namely root diameter, sugar yield, molasses content and sugar content, revealed highest direct effects on WSY at normal condition, while root length, α-amino-N, root yield, crown dry weight, water use efficiency and Na+ were found to fit as second-order variables. Three first-order variables, namely sugar content, sugar yield and molasses content, revealed highest direct effects on white sugar yield at drought-stress condition. In this case, sugar yield had the highest direct effect on WSY. In general, the sequential path analysis was efficiently demonstrated the effects of predictor variables.

  4. Functionally redundant but dissimilar microbial communities within biogas reactors treating maize silage in co-fermentation with sugar beet silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Susanne G; Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Kazda, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Numerous observations indicate a high flexibility of microbial communities in different biogas reactors during anaerobic digestion. Here, we describe the functional redundancy and structural changes of involved microbial communities in four lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs, 39°C, 12 L volume) supplied with different mixtures of maize silage (MS) and sugar beet silage (SBS) over 80 days. Continuously stirred tank reactors were fed with mixtures of MS and SBS in volatile solid ratios of 1:0 (Continuous Fermenter (CF) 1), 6:1 (CF2), 3:1 (CF3), 1:3 (CF4) with equal organic loading rates (OLR 1.25 kgVS m(-3)  d(-1) ) and showed similar biogas production rates in all reactors. The compositions of bacterial and archaeal communities were analysed by 454 amplicon sequencing approach based on 16S rRNA genes. Both bacterial and archaeal communities shifted with increasing amounts of SBS. Especially pronounced were changes in the archaeal composition towards Methanosarcina with increasing proportion of SBS, while Methanosaeta declined simultaneously. Compositional shifts within the microbial communities did not influence the respective biogas production rates indicating that these communities adapted to environmental conditions induced by different feedstock mixtures. The diverse microbial communities optimized their metabolism in a way that ensured efficient biogas production. PMID:26200922

  5. Molecular characterization and developmental expression of the gene encoding the prothoracicotropic hormone in the beet armyworm,Spodoptera exigua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), a neuropeptide hormone stimulating the prothoracic glands to synthesize ecdysone, plays an important role in regulating postembryonic development in insects. The cDNA encoding PTTH was isolated and sequenced from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Spe). The deduced a?mino acid sequence is composed of a signal peptide, a peptide (65 amino acids) of un-known function, and a mature PTTH molecule (111 amino acids). The Spe-PTTH shows similarities (45.5%―70.3%) to other known PTTHs reported in Lepidoptera species, but 7 cysteine r?esidues and the hydrophobic regions were conserved. Whole-mount immunocytochemistry by using an antiserum against recombinant Helicoverpa armigera PTTH showed that Spe-PTTH was synthesized in two pairs of neurosecretory cells in the S. exigua brain. Northern blot analysis demonstrates the presence of a 1.2-kb transcript in the brain. The Spe-PTTH mRNA is detectable at high levels at the wandering larval stage, early pupal stage, and pharate adult stage, suggesting that the Spe-PTTH gene might be corre-lated with molting, metamorphosis, and reproduction.

  6. Fermentative hydrogen production from beet sugar factory wastewater treatment in a continuous stirred tank reactor using anaerobic mixed consortia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gefu ZHU; Chaoxiang LIU; Jianzheng LI; Nanqi REN; Lin LIU; Xu HUANG

    2013-01-01

    A low pH, ethanol-type fermentation process was evaluated for wastewater treatment and bio-hydrogen production from acidic beet sugar factory wastewater in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with an effective volume of 9.6 L by anaerobic mixed cultures in this present study. After inoculating with aerobic activated sludge and operating at organic loading rate (OLR) of 12 kgCOD·m-3·d-1, HRT of 8h, and temperature of 35℃ for 28 days, the CSTR achieved stable ethanol-type fermentation. When OLR was further increased to 18 kgCOD·m-3·d-1, on the 53rd day, ethanol-type fermentation dominant microflora was enhanced. The liquid fermentation products, including volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol, stabilized at 1493mg·L-1 in the bioreactor. Effluent pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and alkalinity ranged at 4.1-4.5, -250-(-290) mV, and 230-260mgCaCO3·L-1. The specific hydrogen production rate of anaerobic activated sludge was 0.1 L'gMLVSS-1· d-1 and the COD removal efficiency was 45%. The experimental results showed that the CSTR system had good operation stability and microbial activity, which led to high substrate conversion rate and hydrogen production ability.

  7. Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and decreasing intestinal transit time pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “decreasing intestinal transit time”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. This opinion applies to sugar beet fibre naturally present in foods and to those forms added to foods......Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... that decreasing intestinal (orofaecal) transit time may be a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided four human studies as pertinent to the health claim. The Panel considers that no conclusion can be drawn from three studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim owing to methodological...

  8. Presencia de Circulifer tenellus Baker y Beet mild curly top virus en maleza durante el invierno en el centro norte de México Circulifer tenellus Baker and Beet mild curly top virus presence in weeds during the winter in north-central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Velásquez-Valle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Una de las enfermedades más importantes del chile para secado en el norte centro de México es la denominada amarillamientos del chile. Existe poca información acerca de la interacción entre el vector (Circulifer tenellus Baker, el Beet mild curly top virus y la maleza durante el invierno en esta región, consecuentemente el objetivo del trabajo fue identificar maleza de invierno que sirve como refugio para el vector y hospedero del virus en esta región. Entre enero y marzo de 2011 se muestrearon 26 manchones de maleza en los estados de Aguascalientes y Zacatecas. Se capturaron adultos de C. tenellus en 69.2% de los manchones de maleza muestreados; la mayoría (75.5% de los especímenes eran hembras. El Beet mild curly top fue identificado sólo 15.4% de los sitios de muestreo infectando especies de maleza como Eruca sativa, Reseda sp., Chenopodium sp. y Solanum rostratum L.One of the most important diseases of chili pepper for drying in the north-central Mexico is called yellowing of chili. There is little information about the interaction between the vector (Circulifer tenellus Baker, the Beet mild curly top virus and weeds during the winter in this region; therefore, the objective was to identify winter weeds that serve as are fuge for the vector and host of the virus in this region. Between January and March, 2011, 26 patches of weed were sampled in Aguascalientes and Zacatecas. Adult C. tenellus were captured in 69.2% of the weed sampled patches; most of the specimens were females (75.5%. Beet mild curly top was identified in only 15.4% of the sampling sites, infecting weed species suchas Eruca sativa, Reseda sp., Chenopodium sp. and Solanum rostratum L.

  9. Evaluation of the impact of various agricultural practices on nitrate leaching under the root zone of potato and sugar beet using the STICS soil-crop model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégo, G; Martínez, M; Antigüedad, I; Launay, M; Sanchez-Pérez, J M; Justes, E

    2008-05-15

    The quaternary aquifer of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Northern Spain) is characterised by a shallow water table mainly fed by drainage water, and thus constitutes a vulnerable zone in regards to nitrate pollution. Field studies were performed with a potato crop in 1993 and a sugar beet crop in 2002 to evaluate their impact on nitrate leaching. The overall predictive quality of the STICS soil-crop model was first evaluated using field data and then the model was used to analyze dynamically the impacts of different crop management practices on nitrate leaching. The model was evaluated (i) on soil nitrate concentrations at different depths and (ii) on crop yields. The simulated values proved to be in satisfactory agreement with measured values. Nitrate leaching was more pronounced with the potato crop than with the sugar beet experiment due to i) greater precipitation, ii) lower N uptake of the potato crop due to shallow root depth, and iii) a shorter period of growth. The potato experiment showed that excessive irrigation could significantly increase nitrate leaching by increasing both drainage and nitrate concentrations. The different levels of N-fertilization examined in the sugar beet study had no notable effects on nitrate leaching due to its high N uptake capacity. Complementary virtual experiments were carried out using the STICS model. Our study confirmed that in vulnerable zones agricultural practices must be adjusted, that is to say: 1) N-fertilizer should not be applied in autumn before winter crops; 2) crops with low N uptake capacity (e.g. potatoes) should be avoided or should be preceded and followed by nitrogen catch crops or cover crops; 3) the nitrate concentration of irrigation water should be taken into account in calculation of the N-fertilization rate, and 4) N-fertilization must be precisely adjusted in particular for potato crops.

  10. Co-expression of xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance in chimeric sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qiang eWu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit the growth and productivity of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.. To improve sugar beet’s salinity tolerance, the ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes encoding tonoplast Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-PPase from xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum were co-expressed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. It is showed here that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance to the transformed sugar beet plants compared with the wild-type (WT plants. The chimeric plants grew well in the presence of high salinity (400 mM NaCl, whereas WT plants displayed chlorosis and died within 8 days. Compared to WT plants, the chimeric plants co-expressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 accumulated more proline, Na+ and K+ in their leaves and petioles when exposed to high salinity, which caused lower solute potential, retained more water and thus subjected to lesser cell membrane damage. Interestingly, the chimeric plants accumulated higher sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in their storage roots than WT plants in the absence or presence of high salinity. Our results suggested that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 improved the osmoregulatory capacity in chimeric sugar beet through increased compartmentalization of ions into the vacuoles by enhancing the activity of proton pumps and thus mitigated Na+-toxicity for plants.

  11. Respiratory activity and pigment metabolism in fresh-cut beet roots treated with citric acid Atividade respiratória e metabolismo dos pigmentos de beterrabas minimamente processadas tratadas com ácido cítrico

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo A. Kluge; Maria Carolina D Vitti; Fabiana F Sasaki; Angelo P Jacomino; Celso L. Moretti

    2008-01-01

    Beet roots cv. Early Wonder were graded for firmness, color and size, and were peeled inside a cold room (10ºC). Roots were then shredded (2 mm thick), sanitized for 6 minutes (NaClO/200 mg L-1), rinsed and centrifuged. Fresh-cut beet roots were then treated for 5 minutes with citric acid in the following concentrations: 0 (control), 500; 1,000; 1,500 and 2,000 mg L-1. The material was centrifuged again, placed in trays, wrapped with PVC plastic film, and stored at 5ºC and 85-90% HR for 10 da...

  12. Solvent effect on the third order optical nonlinearity and optical limiting ability of betanin natural dye extracted from red beet root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankappan, Aparna; Thomas, Sheenu; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the solvent effect on the third order optical nonlinearity of betanin natural dye extracted from red beet root and their third order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have been studied using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. The third order nonlinearity of these samples are dominated by nonlinear absorption, which leads to strong optical limiting and their strength is influenced by the solvent used, suggesting that betanin natural dyes are promising candidate for the development of photonic nonlinear optic devices.

  13. The effect of feeding barley or hay alone or in combination with molassed sugar beet pulp on the metabolic responses in plasma and caecum of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Jensen, R.; Austbo, D.; Blache, D.;

    2016-01-01

    Highly fermentable fibre sources like sugar beet pulp (SBP) might be fed as an alternative to starch rich concentrate to horses. However, including soluble fibre from SBP in a meal of con-centrate might delay gastric emptying and increase viscosity in the small intestine, altering or impairing...... glucose absorption, hence affect the metabolic responses measured in plasma and the hindgut. Four diets with different carbohydrate composition were investigated in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment in four periods using four caecum cannulated Norwegian coldblooded trotter horses. The diets were hay...... and HAY + SBP. Diet also affected the proportions of acetate (P fermented by the caecal microbes. Feeding barley...

  14. The hrpZ gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola enhances resistance to rhizomania disease in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Ourania I; Kelaidi, Georgia I; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Skaracis, George N

    2011-01-01

    To explore possible sources of transgenic resistance to the rhizomania-causing Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), Nicotiana benthamiana plants were constructed to express the harpin of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (HrpZ(Psph)). The HrpZ protein was expressed as an N-terminal fusion to the PR1 signal peptide (SP/HrpZ) to direct harpin accumulation to the plant apoplast. Transgene integration was verified by mPCR in all primary transformants (T0), while immunoblot analysis confirmed that the protein HrpZ(Psph) was produced and the signal peptide was properly processed. Neither T0 plants nor selfed progeny (T1) showed macroscopically visible necrosis or any other macroscopic phenotypes. However, plants expressing the SP/HrpZ(Psph) showed increased vigor and grew faster in comparison with non-transgenic control plants. Transgenic resistance was assessed after challenge inoculation with BNYVV on T1 progeny by scoring of disease symptoms and by DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic and control lines showed significant differences in terms of the number of plants that became infected, the timing of infection and the disease symptoms displayed. Plants expressing the SP/HrpZ(Psph) developed localized leaf necrosis in the infection area and had enhanced resistance upon challenge with BNYVV. In order to evaluate the SP/HrpZ-based resistance in the sugar beet host, A. rhizogenes-mediated root transformation was exploited as a transgene expression platform. Upon BNYVV inoculation, transgenic sugar beet hairy roots showed high level of BNYVV resistance. In contrast, the aerial non-transgenic parts of the same seedlings had virus titers that were comparable to those of the seedlings that were untransformed or transformed with wild type R1000 cells. These findings indicate that the transgenically expressed SP/HrpZ protein results in enhanced rhizomania resistance both in a model plant and sugar beet, the natural host of BNYVV. Possible molecular mechanisms

  15. Response of a two-year sugar beet-sweet sorghum rotation to an agronomic management approach diversified by soil tillage and nitrogen fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Domenico Palumbo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservative agriculture and nitrogen fertilisation have been evaluated for the purpose of assessing their impact on the sustainability of a cropping system based on a two-year rotation with two crops considered for the bio-ethanol supply chain: sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. The experimental activity started in 2009 in Foggia (Apulia, southern Italy. We discuss the results obtained in the 2010-2011 period. Soil minimum tillage (MT vs no tillage (NT combined with two doses of nitrogen fertilisation (75 and 150 kg ha–1 of mineral nitrogen as ammonium nitrate were compared. The experimental system, which is still operational (soil tillage plus nitrogen fertilisation, was arranged with a split-plot design with three replicates. Treatments were applied on the same plots every year with both crops present at the same time. At the first harvest in 2010, no difference was observed. As to the second year, the comparison between NT vs MT treatments showed that sugar beet had lower total yield (35 vs 42 t ha–1, dry biomass (10 vs 14 t ha–1, and sucrose yield (6.7 vs 8.2 t ha–1. Total soluble solids, on average 19%, were not influenced by the experimental treatments. Nitrogen (N control was less productive than the fertilised treatments (average between N75 and N150 in terms of total fresh root yield (32 vs 42 t ha–1, dry biomass (10 vs 14 t ha–1, and sucrose yield (6.0 vs 8.1 t ha–1. As with sugar beet, during the second year, also sweet sorghum sown in NT vs MT plots had a reduced yield, although the difference was more marked for fresh biomass (–35% than for dry biomass (–20%. No interaction in terms of soil tillage nitrogen fertilisation occurred. In summary, in the first two-year period (2010-2011 of the experimental trial, no tillage soil management showed decreased yields of both crops. Sugar beet displayed a higher sensitivity to the lack of nitrogen supply than sweet

  16. The hrpZ gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola enhances resistance to rhizomania disease in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and sugar beet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ourania I Pavli

    Full Text Available To explore possible sources of transgenic resistance to the rhizomania-causing Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV, Nicotiana benthamiana plants were constructed to express the harpin of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (HrpZ(Psph. The HrpZ protein was expressed as an N-terminal fusion to the PR1 signal peptide (SP/HrpZ to direct harpin accumulation to the plant apoplast. Transgene integration was verified by mPCR in all primary transformants (T0, while immunoblot analysis confirmed that the protein HrpZ(Psph was produced and the signal peptide was properly processed. Neither T0 plants nor selfed progeny (T1 showed macroscopically visible necrosis or any other macroscopic phenotypes. However, plants expressing the SP/HrpZ(Psph showed increased vigor and grew faster in comparison with non-transgenic control plants. Transgenic resistance was assessed after challenge inoculation with BNYVV on T1 progeny by scoring of disease symptoms and by DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic and control lines showed significant differences in terms of the number of plants that became infected, the timing of infection and the disease symptoms displayed. Plants expressing the SP/HrpZ(Psph developed localized leaf necrosis in the infection area and had enhanced resistance upon challenge with BNYVV. In order to evaluate the SP/HrpZ-based resistance in the sugar beet host, A. rhizogenes-mediated root transformation was exploited as a transgene expression platform. Upon BNYVV inoculation, transgenic sugar beet hairy roots showed high level of BNYVV resistance. In contrast, the aerial non-transgenic parts of the same seedlings had virus titers that were comparable to those of the seedlings that were untransformed or transformed with wild type R1000 cells. These findings indicate that the transgenically expressed SP/HrpZ protein results in enhanced rhizomania resistance both in a model plant and sugar beet, the natural host of BNYVV. Possible molecular

  17. The hrpZ gene of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola enhances resistance to rhizomania disease in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavli, Ourania I; Kelaidi, Georgia I; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Skaracis, George N

    2011-01-01

    To explore possible sources of transgenic resistance to the rhizomania-causing Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), Nicotiana benthamiana plants were constructed to express the harpin of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (HrpZ(Psph)). The HrpZ protein was expressed as an N-terminal fusion to the PR1 signal peptide (SP/HrpZ) to direct harpin accumulation to the plant apoplast. Transgene integration was verified by mPCR in all primary transformants (T0), while immunoblot analysis confirmed that the protein HrpZ(Psph) was produced and the signal peptide was properly processed. Neither T0 plants nor selfed progeny (T1) showed macroscopically visible necrosis or any other macroscopic phenotypes. However, plants expressing the SP/HrpZ(Psph) showed increased vigor and grew faster in comparison with non-transgenic control plants. Transgenic resistance was assessed after challenge inoculation with BNYVV on T1 progeny by scoring of disease symptoms and by DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic and control lines showed significant differences in terms of the number of plants that became infected, the timing of infection and the disease symptoms displayed. Plants expressing the SP/HrpZ(Psph) developed localized leaf necrosis in the infection area and had enhanced resistance upon challenge with BNYVV. In order to evaluate the SP/HrpZ-based resistance in the sugar beet host, A. rhizogenes-mediated root transformation was exploited as a transgene expression platform. Upon BNYVV inoculation, transgenic sugar beet hairy roots showed high level of BNYVV resistance. In contrast, the aerial non-transgenic parts of the same seedlings had virus titers that were comparable to those of the seedlings that were untransformed or transformed with wild type R1000 cells. These findings indicate that the transgenically expressed SP/HrpZ protein results in enhanced rhizomania resistance both in a model plant and sugar beet, the natural host of BNYVV. Possible molecular mechanisms

  18. Concentrate Mixture, Grass Pellets, Fodder Beets, or Barley as Supplements to Silage ad libitum for High-yielding Dairy Cows on Organic Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Troels, Kristensen

    2003-01-01

    A total of 246 Danish Holstein cows were included in three experiments. In each experiment, Barley (B) was compared with another type of supplementary feeds: a Concentrate mixture (C), Grass pellets (G), or Fodder beets (F). The concentrate mixture resulted in a higher (P = 0.002) milk yield (25.9 vs 23.7 kg), a tendency of a lower (P = 0.07) fat content (4.08 vs 4.25%), and a higher (P = 0.006) ECM yield (25.7 vs 24.1 kg) compared to feeding barley as supplement at the same energy level. Gra...

  19. Expression in sugar beet of the introduced cercosporin toxin export (CFP) gene from Cercospora kikuchii, the causative organism of purple seed stain in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, L David; Upchurch, Robert G

    2004-05-01

    The Cercospora kikuchii cercosporin export gene, CFP, introduced into Beta vulgaris L. by conjugation with Rhizobium radiobacter, was stably maintained during vegetative propagation as verified by PCR using primers specific for the CFP gene. Transcriptional expression of the CFP gene in leaves was determined by RT-PCR using CFP-specific primers. CFP protein was detected using Western analysis with an affinity-purified polypeptide-specifc antibody. Analysis of the relative susceptibility of CFP-transgenic and non-transgenic sugar beet plants is planned but will probably take several years to complete.

  20. Impact of Humic Acid on Yield and Quality of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Grown on Calcareous Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbanali RASSAM; Alireza DADKHAH; Asghar KHOSHNOOD YAZDI; Maryam DASHTI

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to determine the effects of using humic acid with irrigation on quantitative and qualitative yield traits of sugar beet grown on calcareous soils in Esfaraen, located in the North-East of Iran. Treatments consisted of three levels of humic acid concentration (zero or control, 2.5 and 5 L ha-1) and the number of applications (once 45 days after planting; twice, 45 and 75 days after planting; three times, respectively 45, 75 and 105 days after planting). The eff...