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Sample records for beetle tribolium castaneum

  1. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Stephen; Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability...... to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors, as well as P450 and other detoxification enzymes. Development in Tribolium is more representative of other insects than is Drosophila, a fact reflected in gene content and function. For example...

  2. Radiosensitivity of red flour beetle tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, A.; Khattak, S.; Hamed, M.

    1992-07-01

    In this report radiosensitivity of red beetle has been discussed. Red flour beetle is the most injurious pest causing great losses to stored grain. Radiation is one of the best tools of insect control. Different radiation doses (50 to 200 krads) were employed for different age groups from 1 to 60 days. It is concluded from these results that 200 krad radiation dose caused 100% mortality in red beetle in all age group. (A.B.)

  3. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richards, S.; Jindra, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 452, č. 7190 (2008), s. 949-955 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Tribolium castaneum * genome * sequencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 31.434, year: 2008

  5. BIOACTIVITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Liška

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst is a major pest of stored products. The aim of this study was to assess the potential fumigant effects of 1,8-cineole, essential oil component, on the T. castaneum pupae. The compound was tested in 6 doses; in two treatments (fumigation without grain and with wheat grain, exposed for 48 h, in 4 repetitions, for each gender. The compound 1,8-cineole had lethal effect on the treated pupae at both genders and in the both treatments. Total proportion of the normally developed beetles was decreased. In addition, 1,8-cineole had also a growth regulator effect, producing adultoids and deformed units, with males more susceptible. In the treatment with the grain there were significant lower dead pupae, normally developed live male beetles and also deformed female units in the stage 2. In general, compound 1,8-cineole has multiple effect against T. castaneum in pupal stage.

  6. Identification of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid Larvae in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Beetles from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Mahsa Sadat; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Shahbazi, Farideh; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Faezeh; Hosseini-Farash, Bibi Razieh; Teimoori, Salma; Hasanpour, Hamid; Naddaf, Saied Reza

    2017-06-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect H. diminuta cysticercoids in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran. The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010-2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on H. diminuta eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of H. diminuta DNA in T. castaneum beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene. Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52%) of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12-14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, including the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The H. diminuta DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97-100% with similar sequences from GenBank database. Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the T. castaneum populations.

  7. Identification of Hymenolepis diminuta Cysticercoid Larvae in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae Beetles from Iran

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    Mahsa Sadat Makki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hymenolepis diminuta is a cestod of rodents and rarely infects humans. Infection in humans is via ingestion of infected insects. This study was aimed to detect H. diminuta cysticercoids in red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum, and cockroaches originated from different regions of Iran.Methods: The red flour beetles and cockroaches were collected from local bakeries in five cities including Tehran, Ahvaz, Kazerun, and Sabzevar during 2010–2011. Some beetles and cockroaches were colonized in insectary and adults from F1 generation were fed on H. diminuta eggs. Both laboratory-infected and field-collected samples were dissected and examined for cysticercoids. Detection of H. diminuta DNA in T. castaneum beetles was performed by targeting a partial sequence of Ribosomal gene.Results: Except the beetles from Ahvaz, all specimens were negative for cysticercoid by microscopy. Of the four dissected beetles from Ahvaz, one harbored 12 cysticercoids. Also, 110 (52% of laboratory-infected beetles showed infection with an average of 12–14 larvae. None of the cockroaches was infected. Two beetles from Ahvaz, includ­ing the remainder of the microscopic positive specimen, yielded the expected amplicon in PCR assay. The H. diminuta DNA sequences generated in this study were identical and matched 97–100% with similar sequences from GenBank database.Conclusion: Lack of infection in the majority of beetles may reflect a low rat infestation rate in those areas, alternatively, the examined specimens might not have been the representative samples of the T. castaneum populations.

  8. TrOn: an anatomical ontology for the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

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    Jürgen Dönitz

    Full Text Available In a morphological ontology the expert's knowledge is represented in terms, which describe morphological structures and how these structures relate to each other. With the assistance of ontologies this expert knowledge is made processable by machines, through a formal and standardized representation of terms and their relations to each other. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a representative of the most species rich animal taxon on earth (the Coleoptera, is an emerging model organism for development, evolution, physiology, and pest control. In order to foster Tribolium research, we have initiated the Tribolium Ontology (TrOn, which describes the morphology of the red flour beetle. The content of this ontology comprises so far most external morphological structures as well as some internal ones. All modeled structures are consistently annotated for the developmental stages larva, pupa and adult. In TrOn all terms are grouped into three categories: Generic terms represent morphological structures, which are independent of a developmental stage. In contrast, downstream of such terms are concrete terms which stand for a dissectible structure of a beetle at a specific life stage. Finally, there are mixed terms describing structures that are only found at one developmental stage. These terms combine the characteristics of generic and concrete terms with features of both. These annotation principles take into account the changing morphology of the beetle during development and provide generic terms to be used in applications or for cross linking with other ontologies and data resources. We use the ontology for implementing an intuitive search function at the electronic iBeetle-Base, which stores morphological defects found in a genome wide RNA interference (RNAi screen. The ontology is available for download at http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de.

  9. TrOn: an anatomical ontology for the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Grossmann, Daniela; Schild, Inga; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Bradler, Sven; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Bucher, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    In a morphological ontology the expert's knowledge is represented in terms, which describe morphological structures and how these structures relate to each other. With the assistance of ontologies this expert knowledge is made processable by machines, through a formal and standardized representation of terms and their relations to each other. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a representative of the most species rich animal taxon on earth (the Coleoptera), is an emerging model organism for development, evolution, physiology, and pest control. In order to foster Tribolium research, we have initiated the Tribolium Ontology (TrOn), which describes the morphology of the red flour beetle. The content of this ontology comprises so far most external morphological structures as well as some internal ones. All modeled structures are consistently annotated for the developmental stages larva, pupa and adult. In TrOn all terms are grouped into three categories: Generic terms represent morphological structures, which are independent of a developmental stage. In contrast, downstream of such terms are concrete terms which stand for a dissectible structure of a beetle at a specific life stage. Finally, there are mixed terms describing structures that are only found at one developmental stage. These terms combine the characteristics of generic and concrete terms with features of both. These annotation principles take into account the changing morphology of the beetle during development and provide generic terms to be used in applications or for cross linking with other ontologies and data resources. We use the ontology for implementing an intuitive search function at the electronic iBeetle-Base, which stores morphological defects found in a genome wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen. The ontology is available for download at http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de.

  10. Signaling properties and pharmacological analysis of two sulfakinin receptors from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

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    Sven Zels

    Full Text Available Sulfakinin is an insect neuropeptide that constitutes an important component of the complex network of hormonal and neural factors that regulate feeding and digestion. The key modulating functions of sulfakinin are mediated by binding and signaling via G-protein coupled receptors. Although a substantial amount of functional data have already been reported on sulfakinins in different insect species, only little information is known regarding the properties of their respective receptors. In this study, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of two sulfakinin receptors in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both receptor open reading frames show extensive sequence similarity with annotated sulfakinin receptors from other insects. Comparison of the sulfakinin receptor sequences with homologous vertebrate cholecystokinin receptors reveals crucial conserved regions for ligand binding and receptor activation. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR shows that transcripts of both receptors are primarily expressed in the central nervous system of the beetle. Pharmacological characterization using 29 different peptide ligands clarified the essential requirements for efficient activation of these sulfakinin receptors. Analysis of the signaling pathway in multiple cell lines disclosed that the sulfakinin receptors of T. castaneum can stimulate both the Ca²⁺ and cyclic AMP second messenger pathways. This in depth characterization of two insect sulfakinin receptors may provide useful leads for the further development of receptor ligands with a potential applicability in pest control and crop protection.

  11. Signaling properties and pharmacological analysis of two sulfakinin receptors from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zels, Sven; Verlinden, Heleen; Dillen, Senne; Vleugels, Rut; Nachman, Ronald J; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Sulfakinin is an insect neuropeptide that constitutes an important component of the complex network of hormonal and neural factors that regulate feeding and digestion. The key modulating functions of sulfakinin are mediated by binding and signaling via G-protein coupled receptors. Although a substantial amount of functional data have already been reported on sulfakinins in different insect species, only little information is known regarding the properties of their respective receptors. In this study, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of two sulfakinin receptors in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both receptor open reading frames show extensive sequence similarity with annotated sulfakinin receptors from other insects. Comparison of the sulfakinin receptor sequences with homologous vertebrate cholecystokinin receptors reveals crucial conserved regions for ligand binding and receptor activation. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR shows that transcripts of both receptors are primarily expressed in the central nervous system of the beetle. Pharmacological characterization using 29 different peptide ligands clarified the essential requirements for efficient activation of these sulfakinin receptors. Analysis of the signaling pathway in multiple cell lines disclosed that the sulfakinin receptors of T. castaneum can stimulate both the Ca²⁺ and cyclic AMP second messenger pathways. This in depth characterization of two insect sulfakinin receptors may provide useful leads for the further development of receptor ligands with a potential applicability in pest control and crop protection.

  12. Cap’n’collar differentiates the mandible from the maxilla in the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The biting mandible of the arthropods is thought to have evolved in the ancestor of the insects, crustaceans and myriapods: the Mandibulata. A unique origin suggests a common set of developmental genes will be required to pattern the mandible in different arthropods. To date we have functional studies on patterning of the mandibular segment of Drosophila melanogaster showing in particular the effects of the gene cap’n’collar (cnc), however, the dipteran head is far from representative of insects or of more distantly related mandibulates; Drosophila does not even possess a mandibular appendage. To study the development of a more representative insect mandible, we chose the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and investigated the function of the Tribolium orthologs of cap’n’collar (Tc-cnc) and the Hox gene Deformed (Tc-Dfd). In order to determine the function of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd, transcripts were knocked down by maternal RNA interference (RNAi). The effects of gene knockdown were examined in the developing embryos and larvae. The effect of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd knockdown on the expression of other genes was determined by using in situ hybridization on Tribolium embryos. Results Our analyses show that Tc-cnc is required for specification of the identity of the mandibular segment of Tribolium and differentiates the mandible from maxillary identity. Loss of Tc-cnc function results in a transformation of the mandible to maxillary identity as well as deletion of the labrum. Tc-Dfd and the Tribolium homolog of proboscipedia (Tc-mxp = maxillopedia), Hox genes that are required to pattern the maxillary appendage, are expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. Tribolium homologs of paired (Tc-prd) and Distal-less (Tc-Dll) that are expressed in the endites and telopodites of embryonic appendages are also expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. We also show that Tc-Dfd is required to activate the collar of Tc

  13. Next generation sequencing based transcriptome analysis of septic-injury responsive genes in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

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    Boran Altincicek

    Full Text Available Beetles (Coleoptera are the most diverse animal group on earth and interact with numerous symbiotic or pathogenic microbes in their environments. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a genetically tractable model beetle species and its whole genome sequence has recently been determined. To advance our understanding of the molecular basis of beetle immunity here we analyzed the whole transcriptome of T. castaneum by high-throughput next generation sequencing technology. Here, we demonstrate that the Illumina/Solexa sequencing approach of cDNA samples from T. castaneum including over 9.7 million reads with 72 base pairs (bp length (approximately 700 million bp sequence information with about 30× transcriptome coverage confirms the expression of most predicted genes and enabled subsequent qualitative and quantitative transcriptome analysis. This approach recapitulates our recent quantitative real-time PCR studies of immune-challenged and naïve T. castaneum beetles, validating our approach. Furthermore, this sequencing analysis resulted in the identification of 73 differentially expressed genes upon immune-challenge with statistical significance by comparing expression data to calculated values derived by fitting to generalized linear models. We identified up regulation of diverse immune-related genes (e.g. Toll receptor, serine proteinases, DOPA decarboxylase and thaumatin and of numerous genes encoding proteins with yet unknown functions. Of note, septic-injury resulted also in the elevated expression of genes encoding heat-shock proteins or cytochrome P450s supporting the view that there is crosstalk between immune and stress responses in T. castaneum. The present study provides a first comprehensive overview of septic-injury responsive genes in T. castaneum beetles. Identified genes advance our understanding of T. castaneum specific gene expression alteration upon immune-challenge in particular and may help to understand beetle immunity

  14. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, light, and resource quality on flight initiation in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

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    Drury, Douglas W; Whitesell, Matthew E; Wade, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the environmental conditions that induce a flight response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), including resource quality, temperature, relative humidity, and light. Over 72-h trial periods, we observed the proportion of individuals emigrating by flight to range from 0.0 in extreme heat or cold to 0.82 with starvation. Resource quality, presence of a light source, and temperature all directly influenced the initiation of the flight response. We did not detect any effect of relative humidity or sudden change in temperature on the incidence of flight. We discuss our findings in the context of Tribolium ecology and evolution.

  15. Predatory Aptness of Ants Against Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum Herbst (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) in Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, F.A.; Parveen, S.; Qadir, G.

    2016-01-01

    The red flour beetle (RFB), Tribolium castaneum is one of the most destructive pests of stored grains and other food products including wheat flour. Due to its severe infestation, the flour gets mouldy, turns yellowish, gets pungent odour and becomes unhealthy for human consumption. The infested samples of wheat flour by T. castaneum were collected from different localities and its culture was maintained in laboratory. Three ant species namely, Dorylus labiatus, Camponotus rufipes and Monomorium minimum were collected from forest and non-forest habitats and compared for their predation against different life stages of RFB. Results showed D. labiatus of forest habitat as an efficient pupal predator that consumed 91.66% pupae of RFB. It was significantly different from non-forest ant population and control with 73.33% and 11.66% pupal predation, respectively. C. rufipes from forest habitat showed maximum adult predation (25%), which was significantly higher than non-forest ant population and control jar with 15% and 3.33% adult predation, respectively. The forest population of M. minimum exhibited 56.66% larval predation that was significantly different from non-forest population with 41.66% larval consumption. Pupal stage was the highest vulnerable stage to the ant predation and was extremely predated by D. labiatus collected from forest habitats. The lowest predation was observed at larval stage by forest population of M. minimum (1.66%) that was significantly different from all the susceptible stages of RFB. These results indicate that ants could be used as biological control agents against RFB. (author)

  16. Effect of different diets on development and Radiosensitivity of Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S.U; Mazhar, A.; Shahid, M.

    2000-01-01

    Studies on the effect of different diets on the development and radio-sensitivity of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The results revealed that development, losses and sensitivity varied significantly (P< 0.05) with respect to diet. Developmental period was highest (43.5 days) in wheat starch and lowest (22 days) in wheat flour + 5% yeast (Standard diet). Significantly higher progeny (948) was produced in barley and lower (105.3) in wheat starch. Maximum adult weight (37.35 mg/20 adults) was recorded in sorghum and minimum (33.4) in starch. Percent weight loss was highest (21.25 ) in barley and lowest (8.0) in starch. Barley flour was found as the best diet. Radiosensitivity in relation to diet indicated that adults reared on wheat starch were most sensitive. Comparing the dose response, insect mortality was dose and diet dependent. However, 2.5 kGy proved quite lethal. No significant effect of radiation was observed on moisture and protein contents of the diets except reducing sugars. (author)

  17. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

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    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.

  18. Relationship between population growth of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and protein and carbohydrate content in flour and starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth.

  19. Effect of varing media on the susceptibility of rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, Parvathy; Sethi, G.R.

    1974-01-01

    Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum adults reared on five food media viz., wheat, jowar, barley, maize and Bengal gram flour to gamma radiation was studied. The LD 50 values based on mortality observed 12 days after irradiation ranged from 4206 rads for beetles reared on Bengal gram to 9826 rads for those reared on jowar. On the basis of LD 50 values, the relative susceptibility of beetles reared on these foods was Bengal gram > barley> maize > wheat > jowar. Delayed response to irradiation (8000 rads) as indicated by LT 50 values also showed that insects reared on Bengal gram were more susceptible than those obtained from other media. On the basis of lower adult emergence and prolonged development period, Bengal gram was found to be much inferior food as compared to the rest. (author)

  20. Sexual competitiveness of gamma irradiated red flour beetle, tribolium castaneum (herbst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satar, A.; Khan, A.; Khattak, S.U.; Salihan, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on the sexual competitiveness of radiated male and female adults of tribolium castaneum were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. The results evaluated on the basis of tendency infertility and competitiveness showed that a ratio of 5:1:1 (Irradiated male/female: Unirradiated male/female: Unirradiated female/male) was the best followed by 4:1:1, 3;1:1, 2:1:1 and 1:1:1 in both the sexes. However, females were found more competitive than male. (author)

  1. Fecundity of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum adults after exposure to deltamethrin packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val, are packaging invaders and will exploit any rip, tear, or defect in packaged food and infest the contents. Impregnating packaging materials with insecticides is a novel technologic...

  2. Glycogen and Glucose Metabolism Are Essential for Early Embryonic Development of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum

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    Fraga, Amanda; Ribeiro, Lupis; Lobato, Mariana; Santos, Vitória; Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Helga; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; de Souza Menezes, Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis) and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and hexokinase (HexA) genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi) of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen. PMID:23750237

  3. Evaluation of Ultrasonic Waves System in Repellency of Red Beetle of Flour (Tribolium castaneum Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increase of world population, lack of food sources, and need for food security, protection of agricultural products against losses, drought, pests, and diseases, all seems to be necessary more than ever. During the years, grains have been the main food of humans, especially wheat, barley, rice, and corn. So production and storage of these products is important for societies. One of the main problems in this field is protecting the grains in stores until consuming or planting them again. Annually, over hundreds of millions tons of grains are lost by pests present in stores and not observing the scientific principles of storing. Control of insects and pests during storage as a destructive factor of stored products by harmless methods is necessary. There are restrictions in use of chemically control methods against pests in stores. Therefore in recent decades, physically control methods have attracted a lot of attentions. The purpose of using physically control methods is eliminating pests with minimum destructive effect on the environment. These methods directly affect on pests or change their living situations and create an unsafe environment for them. One of the tools that indirectly affect pests is ultrasonic waves. Ultrasonic waves are mechanical waves which can properly penetrate in air and porous areas. These waves are completely safe for the environment and cause no damage to the environment. Ultrasonic waves as new safe strategy in insect control can prepare unsafe areas for annoying insects and agricultural pests. The main characteristics of ultrasonic waves are safe for humans and environment. Materials and Methods: In this study, experiments were carried out to assess the repellent impact of ultrasonic waves on one important storage pest, red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbs. The system, which produces ultrasonic waves, includes distributor of ultrasonic waves, power supply, central processor, oscillator, display

  4. The Roles of the Wnt-Antagonists Axin and Lrp4 during Embryogenesis of the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum.

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    Prühs, Romy; Beermann, Anke; Schröder, Reinhard

    2017-10-15

    In both vertebrates and invertebrates, the Wnt-signaling pathway is essential for numerous processes in embryogenesis and during adult life. Wnt activity is fine-tuned at various levels by the interplay of a number of Wnt-agonists (Wnt ligands, Frizzled-receptors, Lrp5/6 coreceptors) and Wnt-antagonists (among them Axin, Secreted frizzled and Lrp4) to define anterior-posterior polarity of the early embryo and specify cell fate in organogenesis. So far, the functional analysis of Wnt-pathway components in insects has concentrated on the roles of Wnt-agonists and on the Wnt-antagonist Axin. We depict here additional features of the Wnt-antagonist Axin in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum . We show that Tc-axin is dynamically expressed throughout embryogenesis and confirm its essential role in head development. In addition, we describe an as yet undetected, more extreme Tc-axin RNAi-phenotype, the ectopic formation of posterior abdominal segments in reverse polarity and a second hindgut at the anterior. For the first time, we describe here that an lrp4 ortholog is involved in axis formation in an insect. The Tribolium Lrp4 ortholog is ubiquitously expressed throughout embryogenesis. Its downregulation via maternal RNAi results in the reduction of head structures but not in axis polarity reversal. Furthermore, segmentation is impaired and larvae develop with a severe gap-phenotype. We conclude that, as in vertebrates, Tc-lrp4 functions as a Wnt-inhibitor in Tribolium during various stages of embryogenesis. We discuss the role of both components as negative modulators of Wnt signaling in respect to axis formation and segmentation in Tribolium .

  5. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. A atividade inseticida de Toona sureni (Blume Merr. foi avaliada considerando repelência, mortalidade e a produção de progênie de adultos F1 de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Extrato seco de sementes

  6. Glycogen and glucose metabolism are essential for early embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Fraga

    Full Text Available Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3 and hexokinase (HexA genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen.

  7. A Defensin from the Model Beetle Tribolium castaneum Acts Synergistically with Telavancin and Daptomycin against Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Conery, Annie L; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Kim, Wooseong; Johnston, Tatiana; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a common insect pest and has been established as a model beetle to study insect development and immunity. This study demonstrates that defensin 1 from T. castaneum displays in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity against drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of defensin 1 against 11 reference and clinical staphylococcal isolates was between 16-64 μg/ml. The putative mode of action of the defensin peptide is disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. The antibacterial activity of defensin 1 was attenuated by salt concentrations of 1.56 mM and 25 mM for NaCl and CaCl2 respectively. Treatment of defensin 1 with the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) at concentrations 1.56 to 3.13 mM abolished the antimicrobial activity of the peptide. In the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics that also target the bacterial cell envelope such as telavancin and daptomycin, the MIC of the peptide was as low as 1 μg/ml. Moreover, when tested against an S. aureus strain that was defective in D-alanylation of the cell wall, the MIC of the peptide was 0.5 μg/ml. Defensin 1 exhibited no toxicity against human erythrocytes even at 400 μg/ml. The in vivo activity of the peptide was validated in a Caenorhabditis elegans-MRSA liquid infection assay. These results suggest that defensin 1 behaves similarly to other cationic AMPs in its mode of action against S. aureus and that the activity of the peptide can be enhanced in combination with other antibiotics with similar modes of action or with compounds that have the ability to decrease D-alanylation of the bacterial cell wall.

  8. A Defensin from the Model Beetle Tribolium castaneum Acts Synergistically with Telavancin and Daptomycin against Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajmohan Rajamuthiah

    Full Text Available The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a common insect pest and has been established as a model beetle to study insect development and immunity. This study demonstrates that defensin 1 from T. castaneum displays in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity against drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of defensin 1 against 11 reference and clinical staphylococcal isolates was between 16-64 μg/ml. The putative mode of action of the defensin peptide is disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. The antibacterial activity of defensin 1 was attenuated by salt concentrations of 1.56 mM and 25 mM for NaCl and CaCl2 respectively. Treatment of defensin 1 with the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT at concentrations 1.56 to 3.13 mM abolished the antimicrobial activity of the peptide. In the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics that also target the bacterial cell envelope such as telavancin and daptomycin, the MIC of the peptide was as low as 1 μg/ml. Moreover, when tested against an S. aureus strain that was defective in D-alanylation of the cell wall, the MIC of the peptide was 0.5 μg/ml. Defensin 1 exhibited no toxicity against human erythrocytes even at 400 μg/ml. The in vivo activity of the peptide was validated in a Caenorhabditis elegans-MRSA liquid infection assay. These results suggest that defensin 1 behaves similarly to other cationic AMPs in its mode of action against S. aureus and that the activity of the peptide can be enhanced in combination with other antibiotics with similar modes of action or with compounds that have the ability to decrease D-alanylation of the bacterial cell wall.

  9. A Soluble Pyrophosphatase Is Essential to Oogenesis and Is Required for Polyphosphate Metabolism in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum

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    Klébea Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphosphates have been found in all cell types examined to date and play diverse roles depending on the cell type. In eukaryotic organisms, polyphosphates have been mainly investigated in mammalian cells with few studies on insects. Some studies have demonstrated that a pyrophosphatase regulates polyphosphate metabolism, and most of them were performed on trypanosomatids. Here, we investigated the effects of sPPase gene knocked down in oogenesis and polyphosphate metabolism in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum. A single sPPase gene was identified in insect genome and is maternally provided at the mRNA level and not restricted to any embryonic or extraembryonic region during embryogenesis. After injection of Tc-sPPase dsRNA, female survival was reduced to 15% of the control (dsNeo RNA, and egg laying was completely impaired. The morphological analysis by nuclear DAPI staining of the ovarioles in Tc-sPPase dsRNA-injected females showed that the ovariole number is diminished, degenerated oocytes can be observed, and germarium is reduced. The polyphosphate level was increased in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions in Tc-sPPase RNAi; Concomitantly, the exopolyphosphatase activity decreased in both fractions. Altogether, these data suggest a role for sPPase in the regulation on polyphosphate metabolism in insects and provide evidence that Tc-sPPase is essential to oogenesis.

  10. Use of Gamma Irradiation for the Control of the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in Bread Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabbashi, E.E.B.M.; Ahmed, E.G.H.; Aljack, S.A.; Hamad, S.A.A.; Ahmed, M.E.; Elmamoun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Three doses of gamma irradiation (viz. 2, 2.5 and 3 KGy) were tested against the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Hrbst) in bread flour in Khartoum, Sudan. Corresponding control exhibited two groups of infested and uninfested flours. The results obtained showed that all the doses used reduced the infestation in a range 46-100 % during a six month storage period. The 2 KGy mortality range, of the test insect, was 46 - 100%, whereas the corresponding readings for 2.5 KGy and 3 KGy were 90 - 100% and total kill (100%), respectively. However, a natural infestation occurred in all the treated flours and in the infested and uninfested controls as well. This may refer to the resistant eggs of this insect whose a smaller size than the major bulk flour particles and therefore not affected by the milling process and the irradiation doses used too.The treatment mortality in this test was corrected by the Abbott's formula. Moreover, the flour analyses results implied that all the chemical parameters (moisture %, ash % and protein %) and the quality parameters (wet gluten and falling number) are within the recommended levels of the Codex Alimentarius.It was also found that these doses used had no harmful effect on dough rheological properties.

  11. A genome-wide inventory of neurohormone GPCRs in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    in Tribolium was the occurrence of a vasopressin GPCR and a vasopressin peptide. So far, the vasopressin/GPCR couple has not been detected in any other insect with a sequenced genome (D. melanogaster and six other Drosophila species, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, Bombyx mori, and A. mellifera). Tribolium...

  12. MicroRNA-dependent regulation of metamorphosis and identification of microRNAs in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xiong, Wenfeng; Li, Chengjun; Zhai, Mengfan; Li, Yao; Ma, Fei; Li, Bin

    2017-10-01

    To date, although some microRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered in the holometabolism insect Tribolium castaneum, large numbers of miRNAs still require investigation. Knocking down Dicer-1 (Dcr-1) and Argonaute-1 (Ago-1) in late larvae impaired miRNA synthesis, affected the juvenile hormone pathway by up-regulating Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Krüppel-homolog1 (Kr-h1) transcript levels, and resulted in a series of defects in T. castaneum development and metamorphosis. Thus, high-throughput Illumina/Solexa sequencing was performed with a mixed sample of eight key developmental stages of T. castaneum. In total, 1154 unique miRNAs were discovered containing 274 conserved miRNAs belong to 68 miRNA families, 108 known candidate miRNAs and 772 novel miRNAs. Genome locus analysis showed that miRNA clusters are more abundant in T. castaneum than other species. The results indicated that RNAi of Dcr-1 and Ago-1 in T. castaneum resulted in miRNA-induced metamorphosis defects. Furthermore, large numbers of novel miRNAs were discovered in T. castaneum and localized to T. castaneum genome loci. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Insecticide-Mediated Up-Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Genes in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum

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    Xiao Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some cytochrome P450 (CYP genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively, permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold, whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification.

  14. A dual role for nanos and pumilio in anterior and posterior blastodermal patterning of the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Cerny, Alexander C; Schoppmeier, Michael

    2012-04-15

    Abdominal patterning in Drosophila requires the function of Nanos (nos) and Pumilio (pum) to repress posterior translation of hunchback mRNA. Here we provide the first functional analysis of nanos and pumilio genes during blastodermal patterning of a short-germ insect. We found that nos and pum in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum crucially contribute to posterior segmentation by preventing hunchback translation. While this function seems to be conserved among insects, we provide evidence that Nos and Pum may also act on giant expression, another gap gene. After depletion of nos and pum by parental RNAi, Hunchback and giant remain ectopically at the posterior blastoderm and the posterior Krüppel (Kr) domain is not being activated. giant may be a direct target of Nanos and Pumilio in Tribolium and presumably prevents early Kr expression. In the absence of Kr, the majority of secondary gap gene domains fail to be activated, and abdominal segmentation is terminated prematurely. Surprisingly, we found Nos and Pum also to be involved in early head patterning, as the loss of Nos and Pum results in deletions and transformations of gnathal and pre-gnathal anlagen. Since the targets of Nos and Pum in head development remain to be identified, we propose that anterior patterning in Tribolium may involve additional maternal factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochemical abnormalities induced by abamectin in sixth instar larvae of the red flour beetle, tribolium castaneum (herbst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2014-01-01

    The sub lethal effects of abamectin (Sure 1.8 EC) were studied on malathion-resistant (PAK) and organophosphate susceptible (FSS-II) strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae in the laboratory. The objective was to examine changes in production or activities of carboxylesterase (CE), total esterases (TE), alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, alkaline phosphatase (AkP), acidic phosphatase (AcP), total protein, soluble protein and free amino acids (FAA). The sixth instar larvae of T. castaneum were released and exposed for 48h without food on abamectin treated glass petri dishes. The surviving ones were then homogenized in saline and centrifuged prior to biochemical analyses. Results showed differences in the activities of enzymes and quantities of total protein, soluble protein and FAA between strains and among concentrations. Abamectin, at LC and LC , changed the activities 10 20/levels of TE, CE, AcP, total protein and FAA in the larvae of both the strains. The activities of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase and AkP remained non-significant at both doses in the two strains. In PAK strain larvae, the TE activity was inhibited with depletion of total protein contents and elevation of FAA contents. In FSS-II larvae, the effect of abamectin on levels of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, AkP, total protein and soluble protein remained non-significant. The activities of TE and AcP were reduced at both doses, while activities/levels of CE reduced at LC and FAA increased 10 at LC . It is concluded that abamectin affected the overall body 20 functioning of PAK strain more as compared to FSS-II strain considering disturbances caused in the levels/activities of biochemical components. (author)

  16. Properties and natural occurrence of maternal-effect selfish genes ('Medea' factors) in the red flour beetle, tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman; Friesen

    1999-05-01

    Maternally acting selfish genes, termed 'Medea' factors, were found to be widespread in wild populations of Tribolium castaneum collected in Europe, North and South America, Africa and south-east Asia, but were rare or absent in populations from Australia and the Indian subcontinent. We detected at least four distinct genetic loci in at least two different linkage groups that exhibit the Medea pattern of differential mortality of genotypes within maternal families. Although each M factor tested had similar properties of maternal lethality to larvae and zygotic self-rescue, M factors representing distinct loci did not show cross-rescue. Alleles at two of these loci, M1 and M4, were by far the most prevalent, M4 being the predominant type. M2 and M3 were each found only once, in Pakistan and Japan, respectively. Although M1 could be genetically segregated from M4 and maintained as a purified stock, the M1 factor invariably co-occurred with M4 in field populations, whereas M4 usually occurred in the absence of other Medea factors. The dominant maternal lethal action of M1 could be selectively inactivated (reverted) by gene-knockout gamma irradiation with retention of zygotic rescue activity.

  17. Genetic variation and co-variation for fitness between intra-population and inter-population backgrounds in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Douglas W.; Wade, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrids from crosses between populations of the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, express varying degrees of inviability and morphological abnormalities. The proportion of allopatric population hybrids exhibiting these negative hybrid phenotypes varies widely, from 3% to 100%, depending upon the pair of populations crossed. We crossed three populations and measured two fitness components, fertility and adult offspring numbers from successful crosses, to determine how genes segregating within populations interact in inter-population hybrids to cause the negative phenotypes. With data from crosses of 40 sires from each of three populations to groups of 5 dams from their own and two divergent populations, we estimated the genetic variance and covariance for breeding value of fitness between the intra- and inter-population backgrounds and the sire × dam-population interaction variance. The latter component of the variance in breeding values estimates the change in genic effects between backgrounds owing to epistasis. Interacting genes with a positive effect, prior to fixation, in the sympatric background but a negative effect in the hybrid background cause reproductive incompatibility in the Dobzhansky-Muller speciation model. Thus, the sire × dam-population interaction provides a way to measure the progress toward speciation of genetically differentiating populations on a trait by trait basis using inter-population hybrids. PMID:21044199

  18. Identification, cloning, and expression of a GHF9 cellulase from Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of sequenced insect genomes has allowed for discovery and functional characterization of novel genes and proteins. We report use of the Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (red flour beetle) genome to identify, clone, express, and characterize a novel endo-ß-1,4-glucanase we named TcEG1 (...

  19. Effects of Variable Dose-Rates on Radiation Damage in the Rust-Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium Castaneum Herbst; Effets du debit de dose sur les dommages radioinduits chez le tenebrion roux (Tribolium Castaneum Herbst); Vliyanie razlichnykh moshchnostej doz na radiatsionnoe povrezhdenie krasnogo muchnogo zhuka, Tribolium Castaneum (Herbst); Radio lesiones que sufre el Tribolium Castaneum Herbst cuando se le somete a dosis de radiaciones de diversas intensidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, K. K.; Subramanyam, G. [Biology Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1963-09-15

    In order to find out whether a change in dose-rate would significantly alter a radiation response, eggs as well as the adults of Tribolium castaneum were tested for viability and fertility respectively after exposure to gamma radiation at different dose-rates. The doses employed were 2000 and 5000 rad and the dose-rates ranged from 126 rad/h to 140 000 rad/h. It was observed that with an increase in dose-rate there was a decline in the fertility of the adults. Similarly the viability of the eggs was considerably reduced as the dose-rate increased, but at very high dose-rates there was a significant increase in viability. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author) [French] En vue de determiner si une variation du debit de dose modifie de maniere significative la reponse aux rayonnements, on a fait des essais sur des oeufs et des adultes de Tribolium castaneum, dont on a etudie respectivement la viabilite et la fecondite apres exposition a des doses de rayons gamma d'intensites differentes. On a administre des doses de 2000 et 5000 rad, le debit de dose variant de 126 a 140 000 rad/h. On a constate que la fecondite des adultes diminuait a mesure que le debit de dose augmentait. De meme, la viabilite des oeufs etait considerablement reduite a mesure que le debit de dose augmentait, mais pour des debits de dose tres eleves la viabilite augmentait sensiblement. Les auteurs analysent les donnees obtenues. (author) [Spanish] Para averiguar si un cambio en la intensidad de la dosis produce alteraciones fundamentales en la radiosensibilidad, se comprobo la viabilidad de los huevecillos y la fertilidad de los adultos de Tribolium castaneum despues de exponerlos a dosis de radiaciones gamma de intensidad diferente. Las dosis empleadas fueron 2000 y 5000 rad, y las intensidades oscilaron entre 126 rad/h y 140 000 rad/h. Al aumentar la intensidad de la dosis se produce una disminucion de la fertilidad de los adultos. De modo similar, la viabilidad de los

  20. Antifeedant Diterpenoids against Tribolium castaneum from the Stems and Twigs of Ceriops tagal (Rhizophoraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wei Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The screening of several Chinese mangrove plants for insecticidal principles showed that ethanol extract of Ceriops tagal stems and twigs possessed significant feeding deterrent activity against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Family: Rhizophoraceae. From the ethanol extract, three feeding deterrent diterpenoids were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as tagalsin A, B, and H on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Tagalsin A, B, and H exhibited strong feeding deterrent activity against T. castaneum adults with EC50 values of 375.3 ppm, 277.3 ppm, and 285.45 ppm, respectively.

  1. Food source provisioning and susceptibility of immature and adult Tribolium castaneum on concrete partially treated with chlorfenapyr (Phantom®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted in which adults, pupae, and 4-week-old larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, were exposed separately on concrete arenas partially treated (14.4 % of the total area) with the insecticide chlorfenapyr (Phantom®) at 1.1 g active ingredient/...

  2. Properties and natural occurrence of maternal-effect selfish genes ('Medea' factors) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeman, R.W.; Friesen, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Maternally acting selfish genes, termed 'Medea' factors, were found to be widespread in wild populations of Tribolium castaneum collected in Europe, North and South America, Africa and south-east Asia, but were rare or absent in populations from Australia and the Indian subcontinent. We detected at least four distinct genetic loci in at least two different linkage groups that exhibit the Medea pattern of differential mortality of genotypes within maternal families. Although each M factor tested had similar properties of maternal lethality to larvae and zygotic self-rescue, M factors representing distinct loci did not show cross-rescue. Alleles at two of these loci, M 1 and M 4 , were by far the most prevalent, M 4 being the predominant type. M 2 and M 3 were each found only once, in Pakistan and Japan, respectively. Although M 1 could be genetically segregated from M 4 and maintained as a purified stock, the M 1 factor invariably co-occurred with M 4 in field populations, whereas M 4 usually occurred in the absence of other Medea factors. The dominant maternal lethal action of M 1 could be selectively inactivated (reverted) by gene-knockout gamma irradiation with retention of zygotic rescue activity. (author)

  3. Identification of maternally-loaded RNA transcripts in unfertilized eggs of Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preuss Kevin M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal RNAs play a critical role in early development. Variation in the diversity and levels of maternally derived gene transcripts may be central to the origin of phenotypic novelty -- a longstanding problem in evolution and development. By studying maternal transcriptomes within and between divergent species, a better understanding of the evolutionary forces acting on maternal RNA allocation is possible. Results We present the first maternal transcriptome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Using a tiled whole-genome microarray, we found that 58.2% of T. castaneum genes are maternally loaded into eggs. Comparison of known Drosophila melanogaster maternal genes to our results showed widespread conservation of maternal expression with T. castaneum. Additionally, we found that many genes previously reported as having sex or tissue specific expression in T. castaneum were also maternally loaded. Identification of such pleiotropy is vital for proper modeling and testing of evolutionary theory using empirical data. The microarray design also allowed the detection of 2315 and 4060 novel transcriptionally active regions greater in length than 100 bp in unfertilized and fertilized T. castaneum eggs, respectively. These transcriptionally active regions represent novel exons of potentially unknown genes for future study. Conclusions Our results lay a foundation for utilizing T. castaneum as a model for understanding the role of maternal genes in evolution.

  4. Population growth rate and genetic variability of small and large populations of Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) following multigenerational exposure to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Radwan, Jacek; Kuduk, Katarzyna; Mendrok, Magdalena; Kramarz, Paulina

    2015-07-01

    We reared large (1000 individuals) and small (20 individuals) populations of Tribolium castaneum on diet contaminated with copper in order to determine if the size of a population affects its ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. After 10 generations, we used microsatellite markers to estimate and subsequently compare the genetic variability of the copper-treated populations with that of the control populations, which were reared on uncontaminated medium. Additionally, we conducted a full cross-factorial experiment which evaluated the effects of 10 generations of "pre-exposure" to copper on a population's fitness in control and copper-contaminated environments. In order to distinguish results potentially arising from genetic adaptation from those due to non-genetic effects associated to parental exposure to copper, we subjected also F11 generation, originating from parents not exposed to copper, to the same cross-factorial experiment. The effects of long-term exposure to copper depended on population size: the growth rates of small populations that were pre-exposed to copper were inhibited compared to those of small populations reared in uncontaminated environments. Large Cu-exposed populations had a higher growth rate in the F10 generation compared to the control groups, while the growth rate of the F11 generation was unaffected by copper exposure history. The only factor that had a significant effect on genetic variability was population size, but this was to be expected given the large difference in the number of individuals between large and small populations. Neither copper contamination nor its interaction with population size affected the number of microsatellite alleles retained in the F10 generation.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on mortality of tribolium castaneum (HERBST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rita Muhamad Awang.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was made to assess the susceptibility of larvae and adults of Tribolium castaneum to gamma irradiation. The larvae were more susceptible to irradiation than the adults. A dose of 0.05 kGy killed all the larvae but higher dose of 0.15 kGy was required to kill all the adults. Therefore, a dose of 0.15 kGy was found to be the effective dose to kill both the larvae and the adults of T. castaneum. (author)

  6. Toxicity of Boldo Peumus boldus Molina for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum Herbst Toxicidad del Boldo, Peumus boldus Molina, sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ortiz U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst are two key pests of stored-grain products worldwide. The insecticidal activity of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina powder, liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts against S. zeamais and T. castaneum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The evaluated variables were mortality, emergence of adult insects (F1, and grain weight loss. The experimental design was completely randomized. The mortality in S. zeamais was 100% even at the lowest powder concentration (0.5% w/w, whereas emergence of F1 adult insects was 0% and grain weight loss was El gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y el gorgojo castaño de la harina (Tribolium castaneum Herbst son plagas primarias de productos almacenados a nivel mundial. Se evaluó en laboratorio la actividad insecticida de polvo y extractos líquidos etanólicos y hexánicos del boldo (Peumus boldus Molina sobre S. zeamais y T. castaneum. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos (F1 y pérdida de peso de los granos con un diseño experimental completamente al azar. La mortalidad en S. zeamais fue 100%, incluso con la concentración menor (0,5% p/p mientras que la emergencia de insectos adultos y la pérdida de peso de granos de maíz fue < 0,08%. Para T. castaneum sólo las concentraciones de 8 y 16% p/p de polvo causaron una mortalidad de 100%. Los extractos en agua, etanol, y hexano tuvieron un efecto insecticida de 100% en S. zeamais, mientras que en T. castaneum sólo el extracto en etanol alcanzó este valor. Por lo tanto, el polvo y los extractos evaluados de P. boldus presentan actividad insecticida contra S. zeamais y T. castaneum y son promisorios para utilizarse contra éstas y otras plagas de granos almacenados.

  7. Tc-knirps plays different roles in the specification of antennal and mandibular parasegment boundaries and is regulated by a pair-rule gene in the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Drosophila larval head is evolutionarily derived at the genetic and morphological level. In the beetle Tribolium castaneum, development of the larval head more closely resembles the ancestral arthropod condition. Unlike in Drosophila, a knirps homologue (Tc-kni) is required for development of the antennae and mandibles. However, published Tc-kni data are restricted to cuticle phenotypes and Tc-even-skipped and Tc-wingless stainings in knockdown embryos. Hence, it has remained unclear whether the entire antennal and mandibular segments depend on Tc-kni function, and whether the intervening intercalary segment is formed completely. We address these questions with a detailed examination of Tc-kni function. Results By examining the expression of marker genes in RNAi embryos, we show that Tc-kni is required only for the formation of the posterior parts of the antennal and mandibular segments (i.e. the parasegmental boundaries). Moreover, we find that the role of Tc-kni is distinct in these segments: Tc-kni is required for the initiation of the antennal parasegment boundary, but only for the maintenance of the mandibular parasegmental boundary. Surprisingly, Tc-kni controls the timing of expression of the Hox gene Tc-labial in the intercalary segment, although this segment does form in the absence of Tc-kni function. Unexpectedly, we find that the pair-rule gene Tc-even-skipped helps set the posterior boundary of Tc-kni expression in the mandible. Using the mutant antennaless, a likely regulatory Null mutation at the Tc-kni locus, we provide evidence that our RNAi studies represent a Null situation. Conclusions Tc-kni is required for the initiation of the antennal and the maintenance of the mandibular parasegmental boundaries. Tc-kni is not required for specification of the anterior regions of these segments, nor the intervening intercalary segment, confirming that Tc-kni is not a canonical ‘gap-gene’. Our finding that a gap gene orthologue is

  8. Non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium castaneum embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Frederic; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-06-01

    Insect development has contributed significantly to our understanding of metazoan development. However, most information has been obtained by analyzing a single species, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum differs fundamentally from that of Drosophila in aspects such as short-germ development, embryonic leg development, extensive extra-embryonic membrane formation and non-involuted head development. Although Tribolium has become the second most important insect model organism, previous live imaging attempts have addressed only specific questions and no long-term live imaging data of Tribolium embryogenesis have been available. By combining light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy with a novel mounting method, we achieved complete, continuous and non-invasive fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium embryogenesis at high spatiotemporal resolution. The embryos survived the 2-day or longer imaging process, developed into adults and produced fertile progeny. Our data document all morphogenetic processes from the rearrangement of the uniform blastoderm to the onset of regular muscular movement in the same embryo and in four orientations, contributing significantly to the understanding of Tribolium development. Furthermore, we created a comprehensive chronological table of Tribolium embryogenesis, integrating most previous work and providing a reference for future studies. Based on our observations, we provide evidence that serosa window closure and serosa opening, although deferred by more than 1 day, are linked. All our long-term imaging datasets are available as a resource for the community. Tribolium is only the second insect species, after Drosophila, for which non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging has been achieved. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum life stages exposed to elevated temperatures during heat treatments of a pilot flour mill: influence of sanitation, temperatures attained among mills floors, and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to three, 24 hour heat treatments using forced-air gas heaters. Two sanitation levels, dusting of wheat flour an...

  10. Impact of varying levels of sanitation on mortality of Tribolium castaneum eggs and adults during heat treatment of a pilot flour mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), an economically important pest in flour mills, was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to two, 24-h heat treatments. One hundred eggs or 100 adults of T...

  11. INSECTICIDAL TOXICITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE, CAMPHOR AND EUGENOL ON TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Liška

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contact and fumigant activity of 1,8-cineole, camphor and eugenol compounds were tested In laboratory conditions on adult, larvae and pupae of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, as well as their effect on progeny emergence. Positive results were obtained with contact application for all three tested compounds and on all three stages of development of T. castaneum, with the highest activity of 1,8-cineole, followed by eugenol and camphor. Ingeneral, fumigant activity of all three compounds was lower in comparison to contact application, with the best activity of 1,8-cineole, followed by camphor and eugenol on all three developmental stages of T. castaneum. However, lower activity was recorded for fumigation of the space 50% filled with wheat grain for all three tested compounds on all three stages, with the best activity of 1,8-cineole, followed by camphor and eugenol, whereas eugenol showed no toxicity to the adult stage. The activity of 1,8-cineole and eugenol in the space 50% filled with wheat grain decreased by 3.5 and 32 times, respectively, whereas the activity of camphor had no significant difference on the larvae. Toxicity of the tested compounds on pupae T. castaneum was either lethal or directly affected to metamorphosis pupae. There were significant differences observed in the efficacy of the tested compounds on the gender of the pupae, with the most markedly differences for 1,8-cineole, followed by camphor and the minimal for eugenol. Males were more sensitive to the applied compounds, whereas females had more deformed units, especially in the fumigation treatment with camphor. The most tolerant stage on the contact and fumigant application of all compounds was the pupae stage. Eugenol and 1,8-cineole had influence on the reduction of T. castaneum progeny emergence, whereas camphor had no such effect. Due to a high potential of 1,8-cineole for the control of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (at all

  12. Toxicities of azadirachtin and polychlorinated petroleum Hydrocarbon against resist and susceptible strains of tribolium castaneum (coleoptera: tenebrionidae) adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.; Riaz, M.; Riaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The LC/sub 50/ values for malathion-resistant (PAK) and organo-50 phosphate-susceptible (FSS-II) strains of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adult beetles were determined through filter paper impregnated method against azadirachtin (Nimbokil 60 EC) and polychlorinated petroleum hydrocarbon (Tenekil 100 EC). The LC values of these insecticides were worked out as 12830 and 50 9331 ppm for azadirachtin and 5148 and 4047 ppm for Tenekil 100 EC against PAK and FSS-II strains, respectively. The results revealed that polychlorinated petroleum hydrocarbon was more toxic than the azadirachtin. Furthermore, both the insecticides were equally toxic to the adult beetles of T. castaneum as the difference was non-significant because of overlapping 95% FLs to LC./sub 50/. (author)

  13. Developmental trajectories and breakdown in F1 interpopulation hybrids of Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Douglas W; Ehmke, Ross C; Jideonwo, Victoria N; Wade, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    When hybrid inviability is an indirect by-product of local adaptation, we expect its degree of severity between pairs of populations to vary and to be sensitive to the environment. While complete reciprocal hybrid inviability is the outcome of the gradual process of local adaptation, it is not representative of the process of accumulation of incompatibility. In the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, some pairs of populations exhibit complete, reciprocal F1 hybrid incompatibility while other pairs are fully or partially compatible. We characterize this naturally occurring variation in the degree and timing of expression of the hybrid incompatible phenotype to better understand the number of genes or developmental processes contributing to speciation. We assessed the morphological and developmental variation in four Tribolium castaneum populations and their 12 possible F1 hybrids at each life-history stage from egg to adult. We find that the rate of hybrid larval development is affected in all interpopulation crosses, including those eventually producing viable, fertile adults. Hybrid incompatibility manifests early in development as changes in the duration of instars and diminished success in the transition between instars are relative to the parent populations. Parent populations with similar developmental profiles may produce hybrids with disrupted development. The degree and timing of expression of hybrid inviability depends upon populations crossed, direction of the cross, and environment in which hybrids are raised. Our findings suggest that the coordinated expression of genes involved in transitional periods of development is the underlying cause of hybrid incompatibility in this species. PMID:23919145

  14. UVB Radiation Delays Tribolium castaneum Metamorphosis by Influencing Ecdysteroid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Wen; Yu, Lin; He, Li; Ma, Wei-Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is an important environmental factor. It is generally known that UVB exhibits high genotoxicity due to causing DNA damage, potentially leading to skin carcinogenesis and aging in mammals. However, little is known about the effects of UVB on the development and metamorphosis of insects, which are the most abundant terrestrial animals. In the present study, we performed dose-response analyses of the effects UVB irradiation on Tribolium castaneum metamorphosis, assessed the function of the T. castaneum prothoracicotropic hormone gene (Trcptth), and analyzed ecdysteroid pathway gene expression profile and ecdysterone titers post-UVB irradiation. The results showed that UVB not only caused death of T. castaneum larvae, but also delayed larval-pupal metamorphosis and reduced the size and emergence rate of pupae. In addition, we verified the function of Trcptth, which is responsible for regulating metamorphosis. It was also found that the expression profiles of Trcptth as well as ecdysteroidogenesis and response genes were influenced by UVB radiation. Therefore, a disturbance pulse of ecdysteroid may be involved in delaying development under exposure to irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that UVB can influence the metamorphosis of insects. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of UVB on signaling mechanisms in insect metamorphosis.

  15. Chemical Composition and Toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum of the Essential Oil of Murraya exotica Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, Murraya exotica was found to possess insecticidal activity against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The essential oil of aerial parts of M. exotica was obtained by hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. exotica essential oil were spathulenol (17.7%, a-pinene (13.3%, caryophyllene oxide (8.6%, and a-caryophyllene (7.3%. Essential oil of M. exotica possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 8.29 and 6.84 mg/L, respectively. The essential oils also show contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LD50 values of 11.41 and 20.94 mg/adult, respectively.

  16. Entomocidal activity of microwave energy & some aqueous plant extracts against Tribolium castaneum Herbst & Trogoderma granarium Everts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, W. N. A.; Amin, A. H.; Khidr, S. K.; Ismail, A. Y.

    2017-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of microwave radiation and aqueous plant extracts against red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum & khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium. The larvae stage with dried fruits (black raisin, red raisin, fig and apricot) were subjected to microwave radiation at different power levels (280,560 and 840) watt for three exposure times (10, 30 and 50) seconds. Mortalities increased with an increase of concentration or exposure time or both. Thus, highest mortality 90% was achieved at 840 watt power output and exposure time 50 second for both aforementioned species. Likewise, eucalyptus Eucalyptus camaldulensis, mint Mentha canadensis and myrtle Myrtus communis were studied for their toxicity effect on mortality of larval stage at three dosages (12500, 25000 and 50000) ppm for different exposure times (1, 2, 3 and 7) days. The larvae of khapra beetle were more resistant to the insecticidal activity of plant extracts in comparison with red flour beetle larvae. The LC50 values were varied in accordance to plant extracts types and concentrations within the four interval times of exposure. The LC50 values for both khapra & red flour beetles were (47234.07 & 5760.90) ppm respectively on black raisin after 7 days exposure to eucalyptus aqueous extract.

  17. Tribolium castaneum larval gut transcriptome and proteome: A resource for the study of the Coleopteran gut

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morris, K.; Lorenzen, M. D.; Hiromasa, Y.; Tomich, J. M.; Oppert, C.; Elpidina, E. N.; Vinokurov, Konstantin; Jurat-Fuentes, J. L.; Fabrick, J.; Oppert, B.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2009), s. 3889-3898 ISSN 1535-3893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Tribolium castaneum * microarray * proteomics Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.132, year: 2009

  18. Development of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) larvae after gamma irradiation of eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, V.K.; Sethi, G.R.; Garg, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Development of Rust-red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum larvae, after gamma irradiation of eggs of two different age groups was studied. Results indicated that, if 2 to 3 day old eggs were irradiated with 6 Krad, the development of larvae emerging from such eggs is completely arrested at the end of 18 days after hatching. In case of comparatively older eggs (3 to 4 day old), 8 Krad dose of gamma radiation was required to produce the similar results. However, treatment with 10 Krad resulted in 100 per cent egg mortality in both the age groups. The studies thus reveal that survival of the larvae depends not only on the radiation dose and the time period elapsed after irradiation but also on the age of eggs at the time of exposure. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab

  19. Insecticidal and repellant activities of plants oil against stored grain pest, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.Pugazhvendan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present investigation was aimed to assess the impact of five plants oil for their insecticidal and repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, a stored grain pest and they were tested in the laboratory. Method: Five plants oil Citrus autantium, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Gaultheria fragrantissima, Lavandula officinalis, and Ocimum sanctum were evaluated for their insecticidal and repellent activities against T. castaneum by adapting the standard protocol in vitro. Results: In Tulsi oil showed powerful repellent against T. castaneum beetles at both the concentration and this property can be clearly seen from the values at 5毺 1 (-0.60 and -0.73 in 1h and 6hr respectively and 10毺 1 (-0.56 and -0.81 in 1h and 6h respectively. Tulsi oil had more repelling property than other oil tested here against T. castaneum. Maximum percentage of mortality (76 and 92% at 48h and 72 hours after treatment respectively in Tulsi oil. Wintergreen oil showed 86% mortality at 72 hours after treatment. Conclusions: The present work for botanical products to control the insect pest of stored grain T. castaneum .These results suggest the presence of actives principles in the plant oils. Further exploration of active principles and their structural elucidations are underway.

  20. Gamma irradiation of pupae and adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, V.K.; Sethi, G.R.; Garg, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the effect of gamma irradiation of 2 to 3 day old pupae and 10 day old adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) revealed that adult emergence from irradiated pupae was negatively correlated with the radiation doses upto 10 Krad (100 Gy). At higher doses of 10 Krad to 50 Krad (100 Gy to 500 Gy), there was no further decrease in adult emergence. Mortality of adults emerging from the irradiated pupae, however, increased rapidly at doses of 10 Krad (100 Gy) and above and irradiation at 15 Krad to 50 Krad (150 Gy to 500 Gy) caused 100 per cent mortality of the adults within 15 days of exposure. Irradiation of 10 day old adults with doses upto 6 Krad (60 Gy) had no significant effect on mortality but this effect was quite pronounced at 8 Krad to 20 Krad (80 Gy to 200 Gy). The LD 50 value recorded 12 days after irradiation was 10.3 Krad (103 GY). Irradiation of adults with doses of 12 Krad (120 Gy) and above also decreased the longevity of the irradiated adults. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab

  1. The Tribolium castaneum cell line TcA: a new tool kit for cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Kristopher; Jiang, Hongbo; Fu, Jinping; Phillips, Thomas W; Beeman, Richard W; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-10-30

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an agriculturally important insect pest that has been widely used as a model organism. Recently, an adherent cell line (BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 or TcA) was developed from late pupae of the red flour beetle. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of TcA cells demonstrated expression of a wide variety of genes associated with specialized functions in chitin metabolism, immune responses and cellular and systemic RNAi pathways. Accordingly, we evaluated the sensitivity of TcA cells to dsRNA to initiate an RNAi response. TcA cells were highly sensitive to minute amounts of dsRNA, with a minimum effective dose of 100 pg/mL resulting in significant suppression of gene expression. We have also developed a plasmid containing two TcA-specific promoters, the promoter from the 40S ribosomal protein subunit (TC006550) and a bi-directional heat shock promoter (TcHS70) from the intergenic space between heat shock proteins 68a and b. These promoters have been employed to provide high levels of either constitutive (TC006550) or inducible (TcHS70) gene expression of the reporter proteins. Our results show that the TcA cell line, with its sensitivity to RNAi and functional TcA-specific promoters, is an invaluable resource for studying basic molecular and physiological questions.

  2. Hormonal enhancement of insecticide efficacy in Tribolium castaneum: oxidative stress and metabolic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Insect anti-stress responses, including those induced by insecticides, are controlled by adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). We examined the physiological consequences of Pyrap-AKH application on Tribolium castaneum adults (AKH-normal and AKH-deficient prepared by the RNAi technique) treated by two insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Co-application of pirimiphos-methyl and/or deltamethrin with AKH significantly increased beetle mortality compared with application of the insecticides alone. This co-treatment was accompanied by substantial stimulation of general metabolism, as monitored by carbon dioxide production. Further, the insecticide treatment alone affected some basic markers of oxidative stress: it lowered total antioxidative capacity as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase in the beetle body; in addition, it enhanced the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase. However, these discrepancies in oxidative stress markers were eliminated/reduced by co-application with Pyrap-AKH. We suggest that the elevation of metabolism, which is probably accompanied with faster turnover of toxins, might be responsible for the higher mortality that results after AKH and insecticide co-application. Changes in oxidative stress markers are probably not included in the mechanisms responsible for increased mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tribolium castaneum defensins are primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tonk, M.; Knorr, E.; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; Kollewe, C.; Vilcinskas, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 132, NOV 2015 (2015), s. 208-215 ISSN 0022-2011 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Antimicrobial peptides * Defensin * Innate immunity * Insects * Tribolium castaneum * Gram-positive bacteria Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.198, year: 2015

  4. Chemical characterization and insecticidal activity of Calotropis gigantea L. flower extract against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rowshanul Habib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the insecticidal activity of ethyl acetate extract of Calotropis gigantea L. flower (designated as EECF against stored grain pest Tribolium castaneum (Herbst of different larval and adult stages. Methods: Residual film method was used here to study the toxicity of EECF against Tribolium castaneum and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was also performed to characterize the chemicals of EECF. Results: In residual film bioassay, EECF showed lowest LD50 (0.134 mg/cm2 against 1st instar larvae of Tribolium castaneum and this finding ultimately revealed that the insect of initial stage was more susceptible than other stages. From the results of this study, it was found that with the increasing of age, Tribolium castaneum showed some extent of resistance against the toxicity of EECF. Moreover, chemical profiles of EECF identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis were also found to consistent with its insecticidal activity. Conclusions: So, the overall results suggested that extracts of Calotropis gigantea L. flower have potential insecticidal effect which might be used in pest control.

  5. A selfish gene chastened: Tribolium castaneum Medea M4 is silenced by a complementary gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M Scott

    2014-04-01

    Maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest (Medea) of Tribolium castaneum are autosomal factors that act maternally to cause the death of any progeny that do not inherit them. This selfish behavior is thought to result from a maternally expressed poison and zygotically expressed antidote. Medea factors and the hybrid incompatibility factor, H, have a negative interaction consistent with complementary genes of the Dobzhansky-Muller model for post-zygotic isolation. This negative interaction may result from H suppression of Medea zygotic antidote, leaving zygotes incompletely protected from maternal poison. I report here a test of the hypothesis that H also suppresses the Medea maternal poison. Viable F1 females were generated from a cross of Medea M4 strain males to H strain females. These females, heterozygous for both M4 and H, failed to express M4 maternal lethal activity when crossed to their male sibs. Transmission of non-M4 homologues from these females was confirmed using a dominant transgenic enhanced green fluorescent protein eye color marker, tightly linked in cis to M4. M4 beetles, lacking H, were selected from the F2 population. Female descendants of these clearly expressed M4 maternal lethal activity, indicating restoration of this activity after H was segregated away. I conclude that H, or a factor tightly linked to H, suppresses Medea M4 maternal poison.

  6. Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Łukasz; Martin, Oliver Y.; Millard, Anna L.; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.

    2010-01-01

    As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male–male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P2 ‘offence’ role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm ‘defence’ (P1). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548

  7. Functional analysis of C1 family cysteine peptidases in the larval gut of Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied protein digestion the tenebrionids Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum, pests of stored grains and grain products, to identify potential targets for biopesticide development. Tenebrionid larvae have highly compartmentalized guts, with primarily cysteine peptidases in the acidic anter...

  8. A screen for bacterial endosymbionts in the model organisms Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum, Callosobruchus maculatus, and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Sara L; Fricke, Claudia; Martin, Oliver Y

    2015-04-01

    Reproductive parasites such as Wolbachia are extremely widespread amongst the arthropods and can have a large influence over the reproduction and fitness of their hosts. Undetected infections could thus confound the results of a wide range of studies that focus on aspects of host behavior, reproduction, fitness, and degrees of reproductive isolation. This potential problem has already been underlined by work investigating the incidence of Wolbachia infections in stocks of the model system Drosophila melanogaster. Here we survey a range of lab stocks of further commonly used model arthropods, focusing especially on the flour beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum, the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus and related species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae and Bruchidae). These species are widespread stored product pests so knowledge of infections with symbionts further has potential use in informing biocontrol measures. Beetles were assessed for infection with 3 known microbial reproductive parasites: Wolbachia, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma. Infections with some of these microbes were found in some of the lab stocks studied, although overall infections were relatively rare. The consequences of finding infections in these or other species and the type of previous studies likely to be affected most are discussed. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Identification of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) haplotypes, the pest of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... haplotypes of T. castaneum and their distribution in Senegal. Methodology ... very strong marketing of cereals and vegetables in that area. The mutations ..... for each channel by sampling the various parameters every 1000 ...

  10. Metabolic pathway interruption: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of tryptophan 2,3-oxygenase in Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tribolium castaneum vermilion gene encodes tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, a pivotal enzyme in the ommochrome pathway that is responsible for the black eye color. T. castaneum strains with a loss-of-function mutation, vermilion white (vw), lack both the promoter and the first 80% of the vermilion co...

  11. Multiple resistance to pirimiphos-methyl and bifenthrin in Tribolium castaneum involves the activity of lipases, esterases, and laccase2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio, Alison Henrique Ferreira; Gigliolli, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis; Cardoso, Kátia Aparecida Kern; Drosdoski, Sandro Daniel; Kulza, Rodrigo Amaral; Seixas, Flávio Augusto Vicente; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia Colla; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Lapenta, Ana Silvia

    2017-05-01

    Several recent studies have elucidated the molecular mechanisms that confer insecticide resistance on insect pests. However, little is known about multiple resistance in red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) at molecular level. The multiple resistance is characterized as resistance to different classes of insecticides that have different target sites, and is mediated by several enzymatic systems. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in multiple resistance of T. castaneum to bifenthrin (pyrethroid [Pyr]) and pirimiphos-methyl (organophosphate [Org]). We used artificial selection, biochemical and in silico approaches including structural computational biology. After five generations of artificial selection in the presence of bifenthrin (F5Pyr) or pirimiphos-methyl (F5Org), we found high levels of multiple resistance. The hierarchical enzymatic cluster revealed a pool of esterases (E), lipases (LIPs) and laccase2 (LAC2) potentially contributing to the resistance in different ways throughout development, after one or more generations in the presence of insecticides. The enzyme-insecticide interaction network indicated that E2, E3, LIP3, and LAC2 are enzymes potentially required for multiple resistance phenotype. Kinetic analysis of esterases from F5Pyr and F5Org showed that pirimiphos-methyl and specially bifenthrin promote enzyme inhibition, indicating that esterases mediate resistance by sequestering bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl. Our computational data were in accordance with kinetic results, indicating that bifenthrin has higher affinity at the active site of esterase than pirimiphos-methyl. We also report the capability of these insecticides to modify the development in T. castaneum. Our study provide insights into the biochemical mechanisms employed by T. castaneum to acquire multiple resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of an endoglucanase from Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Derek; Oppert, Cris; Reynolds, Todd B; Miracle, Bethany; Oppert, Brenda; Klingeman, William E; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2014-10-01

    Insects are a largely unexploited resource in prospecting for novel cellulolytic enzymes to improve the production of ethanol fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. The cost of lignocellulosic ethanol production is expected to decrease by the combination of cellulose degradation (saccharification) and fermentation of the resulting glucose to ethanol in a single process, catalyzed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed to express efficient cellulases. While S. cerevisiae is an established heterologous expression system, there are no available data on the functional expression of insect cellulolytic enzymes for this species. To address this knowledge gap, S. cerevisiae was transformed to express the full-length cDNA encoding an endoglucanase from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1), and evaluated the activity of the transgenic product (rTcEG1). Expression of the TcEG1 cDNA in S. cerevisiae was under control of the strong glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Cultured transformed yeast secreted rTcEG1 protein as a functional β-1,4-endoglucanase, which allowed transformants to survive on selective media containing cellulose as the only available carbon source. Evaluation of substrate specificity for secreted rTcEG1 demonstrated endoglucanase activity, although some activity was also detected against complex cellulose substrates. Potentially relevant to uses in biofuel production rTcEG1 activity increased with pH conditions, with the highest activity detected at pH 12. Our results demonstrate the potential for functional production of an insect cellulase in S. cerevisiae and confirm the stability of rTcEG1 activity in strong alkaline environments. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. A mannitol/sorbitol receptor stimulates dietary intake in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Tomoyuki; Sato, Ryoichi; Kikuta, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    In insects, perception of chemical stimuli is involved in the acceptance or rejection of food. Gustatory receptors (Grs) that regulate external signals in chemosensory organs have been found in many insects. Tribolium castaneum, a major pest of stored products, possesses over 200 Gr genes. An expanded repertoire of Gr genes appears to be required for diet recognition in species that are generalist feeders; however, it remains unclear whether T. castaneum recognizes a suite of chemicals common to many products or whether its feeding is activated by specific chemicals, and whether its Grs are involved in feeding behavior. It is difficult to determine the food preferences of T. castaneum based on dietary intake due to a lack of appropriate methodology. This study established a novel dietary intake estimation method using gypsum, designated the TribUTE (Tribolium Urges To Eat) assay. For this assay, T. castaneum adults were fed a gypsum block without added organic compounds. Sweet preference was determined by adding sweeteners and measuring the amount of gypsum in the excreta. Mannitol was the strongest activator of T. castaneum dietary intake. In a Xenopus oocyte expression, TcGr20 was found to be responsible for mannitol and sorbitol responses, but not for responses to other tested non-volatile compounds. The EC50 values of TcGr20 for mannitol and sorbitol were 72.6 mM and 90.6 mM, respectively, suggesting that TcGr20 is a feasible receptor for the recognition of mannitol at lower concentrations. We used RNAi and the TribUTE assay to examine whether TcGr20 expression was involved in mannitol recognition. The amounts of excreta in TcGr20 dsRNA-injected adults decreased significantly, despite the presence of mannitol, compared to control adults. Taken together, our results indicate that T. castaneum adults recognized mannitol/sorbitol using the TcGr20 receptor, thereby facilitating the dietary intake of these compounds.

  14. Differences in Attack Avoidance and Mating Success between Strains Artificially Selected for Dispersal Distance in Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentarou Matsumura

    Full Text Available Individuals of both dispersal and non-dispersal types (disperser and non-disperser are found in a population, suggesting that each type has both costs and benefits for fitness. However, few studies have examined the trade-off between the costs and benefits for the types. Here, we artificially selected for walking distance, i.e., an indicator of dispersal ability, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and established strains with longer (L-strains or shorter (S-strains walking distances. We then compared the frequency of predation by the assassin bug Amphibolus venator and the mating frequency of the selected strains. L-strain beetles suffered higher predation risk, than did S-strain beetles. L-strain males had significantly increased mating success compared to S-strain males, but females did not show a significant difference between the strains. The current results showed the existence of a trade-off between predation avoidance and mating success associated with dispersal types at a genetic level only in males. This finding can help to explain the maintenance of variation in dispersal ability within a population.

  15. Gene silencing in Tribolium castaneum as a tool for the targeted identification of candidate RNAi targets in crop pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Eileen; Fishilevich, Elane; Tenbusch, Linda; Frey, Meghan L F; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Billion, Andre; Worden, Sarah E; Gandra, Premchand; Arora, Kanika; Lo, Wendy; Schulenberg, Greg; Valverde-Garcia, Pablo; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Narva, Kenneth E

    2018-02-01

    RNAi shows potential as an agricultural technology for insect control, yet, a relatively low number of robust lethal RNAi targets have been demonstrated to control insects of agricultural interest. In the current study, a selection of lethal RNAi target genes from the iBeetle (Tribolium castaneum) screen were used to demonstrate efficacy of orthologous targets in the economically important coleopteran pests Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and Meligethes aeneus. Transcript orthologs of 50 selected genes were analyzed in D. v. virgifera diet-based RNAi bioassays; 21 of these RNAi targets showed mortality and 36 showed growth inhibition. Low dose injection- and diet-based dsRNA assays in T. castaneum and D. v. virgifera, respectively, enabled the identification of the four highly potent RNAi target genes: Rop, dre4, ncm, and RpII140. Maize was genetically engineered to express dsRNA directed against these prioritized candidate target genes. T 0 plants expressing Rop, dre4, or RpII140 RNA hairpins showed protection from D. v. virgifera larval feeding damage. dsRNA targeting Rop, dre4, ncm, and RpII140 in M. aeneus also caused high levels of mortality both by injection and feeding. In summary, high throughput systems for model organisms can be successfully used to identify potent RNA targets for difficult-to-work with agricultural insect pests.

  16. Phosphine Resistance in Adult and Immature Life Stages of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Populations in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, S G; Opit, G P; Hosoda, E

    2016-12-01

    Phosphine resistance in stored-product insects occurs worldwide and is a major challenge to continued effective use of this fumigant. We determined resistance frequencies and levels of resistance in Tribolium castaneum and Plodia interpunctella collected from California almond storage and processing facilities. Discriminating doses of phosphine were established for eggs and larvae of P. interpunctella and eggs of T. castaneum using laboratory susceptible strains of the two species. For T. castaneum and P. interpunctella eggs, discriminating doses were 62.4 and 107.8 ppm, respectively, over a 3-d fumigation period, and for P. interpunctella larvae, discriminating dose was 98.7 ppm over a 20-h fumigation period. Discriminating dose tests on adults and eggs showed that 4 out of 11 T. castaneum populations tested had resistance frequencies that ranged from 42 to 100% for adults and 54 to 100% for eggs. LC99 values for the susceptible and the most resistant adults of T. castaneum were 7.4 and 356.9 ppm over 3 d, respectively. LC99 values for T. castaneum eggs were 51.5 and 653.9 ppm, respectively. Based on adult data, the most resistant T. castaneum beetle population was 49× more resistant than the susceptible strain. Phosphine resistance frequencies in P. interpunctella eggs ranged from 4 to 20%. Results show phosphine resistance is present in both species in California. Future research will investigate phosphine resistance over a wider geographic area. In addition, the history of pest management practices in facilities where insects tested in this study originated will be determined in order to develop phosphine resistance management strategies for California almond storage and processing facilities. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Aplikasi Microwave untuk Disinfestasi Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. serta Pengaruhnya terhadap Warna dan Karakteristik Amilografi Terigu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Pratiwi Rasyid

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the amount of microwave energy used for the disinfestation of T. castaneum and to observe its effect on discoloration and amilographic characteristic of treated wheat flour. Damages due to T. castaneum attack during storage caused physical and chemical changes in the wheat flour. The physical damage from this attack wasthe color change of the wheat flour, whereas chemical damage was caused by lipase enzyme activity and benzokuinon derived from the secretion of T. castaneum. The study was conducted on the wheat flour that was unfumigated in it smilling stage. The contamination of the wheat flour was artificially made by giving cultured T. castaneum, which were consisted of 10 males and 10 females, into 50 g as well as 100 g of wheat flour. After 42 days of storage time, the study showed that the mortality rate of untreated samples was 0 % both for 50 g and 100 g samples. The moisture showed an increase, while color-brightness level and viscosity peak were decreased. All of samples that were treated by 23.76 kJ, 24.00 kJ, 31.68 kJ and 36.00 kJ of microwave energy indicated 100% mortality of T. castaneum, whereas the color brightness, the amilographic peak, and moisture were decreased both on the mass of 50 g and 100 g after H+42 storage time.   ABSTRAK Aplikasi microwave telah dipelajari untuk disinfestasi Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. dan pengaruhnya terhadap karakteristik warna dan amilografi tepung terigu. Kerusakan karena serangan T. castaneum selama penyimpanan menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan fisik dan kimiawi tepung. Kerusakan fisik berupa terjadinya perubahan warna tepung, sedangkan kerusakan kimiawi karena adanya aktifitas enzim lipase dan benzokuinon yang berasal dari hasil sekresi T. castaneum. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan tepung yang tidak di fumigasi pada tahap milling. Kontaminasi pun dilakukan dengan memberikan biakan T. castaneum masing-masing 10 jantan dan 10 betina ke dalam 50 g dan 100 g

  18. Molecular identification of Tribolium castaneum and T. confusum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ful alternative method to identify the two sibling flour beetle species. ∗ ... represents a valuable addition or alternative to traditional phenotypic identification methods. Also, DNA ..... Buczkowski G. and Bennett G. 2009 Survey and identification.

  19. Attractiveness of essential oils of three Cymbopogon species to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior bioassays were conducted in the laboratory (23 ± 1°C and 50 ± 5% r.h. using the olfactometer to determine the effects of essential oils of three plant species in the Cymbopogon genus (Lemongrass, Cymbopogon nervatus, C. proximus and C. schoenanthus, on adults of Tribolium castaneum. The effect of essential oils was compared to a commercial biopesticide based on azadirachtin at three concentrations (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.01%. The results showed that all essential oils and the azadirachtin-based biopesticide had significant (p <0.05 repellent effects on T. castaneum adults at all tested concentrations, except C. proximus essential oil which showed a neutral effect at the lowest concentration. The highest concentrations of the essential oils of C. nervatus and C. proximus had significantly stronger repellent effects (p <0.05 than the lowest concentration. At the concentrations of 0.0001 and 0.001% all tested essential oils and azadirachtin showed a similar repellent effect without statistically significant difference, whereas the oil of C. nervatus had the highest repellent effect on adults of T. castaneum at the 0.01% concentration. Considering all tested variations, the essential oils of plants of the genus Cymbopogon showed similar or stronger repellent effects on T. castaneum adults than the biopesticide based on azadirachtin.

  20. A mannitol/sorbitol receptor stimulates dietary intake in Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Takada

    Full Text Available In insects, perception of chemical stimuli is involved in the acceptance or rejection of food. Gustatory receptors (Grs that regulate external signals in chemosensory organs have been found in many insects. Tribolium castaneum, a major pest of stored products, possesses over 200 Gr genes. An expanded repertoire of Gr genes appears to be required for diet recognition in species that are generalist feeders; however, it remains unclear whether T. castaneum recognizes a suite of chemicals common to many products or whether its feeding is activated by specific chemicals, and whether its Grs are involved in feeding behavior. It is difficult to determine the food preferences of T. castaneum based on dietary intake due to a lack of appropriate methodology. This study established a novel dietary intake estimation method using gypsum, designated the TribUTE (Tribolium Urges To Eat assay. For this assay, T. castaneum adults were fed a gypsum block without added organic compounds. Sweet preference was determined by adding sweeteners and measuring the amount of gypsum in the excreta. Mannitol was the strongest activator of T. castaneum dietary intake. In a Xenopus oocyte expression, TcGr20 was found to be responsible for mannitol and sorbitol responses, but not for responses to other tested non-volatile compounds. The EC50 values of TcGr20 for mannitol and sorbitol were 72.6 mM and 90.6 mM, respectively, suggesting that TcGr20 is a feasible receptor for the recognition of mannitol at lower concentrations. We used RNAi and the TribUTE assay to examine whether TcGr20 expression was involved in mannitol recognition. The amounts of excreta in TcGr20 dsRNA-injected adults decreased significantly, despite the presence of mannitol, compared to control adults. Taken together, our results indicate that T. castaneum adults recognized mannitol/sorbitol using the TcGr20 receptor, thereby facilitating the dietary intake of these compounds.

  1. Egg detection and control of tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae) in powdered stored food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotse, Raphael Djoe Nuseli

    2017-07-01

    For safety and shelf-stability of powdered food products, it is important to detect and deal with any infestation during processing. The focus of this study was to detect the presence of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleopera: Tenebionidae) eggs in powdered food products, and where present, kill them using gamma irradiation. The study was carried out at the Radiation Entomology and Pest management Centre (REPMC), Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Basic reproductive biology of T. castaneum in four different powdered food media (Wheat flour, Roasted corn powder, also known as ‘Tombrown’ powder, Cocoa powder and Fish powder) was studied. Seven (7) different stains (Bromocresol green, Malachite green, Carbol fuchsin, Basic fuchsin, Orange ‘G”, Gentian Violet and Crystal Violet) were evaluated for their ability to differentially stain T. castaneum eggs and background food particles using the American Association of Cereal Chemist, AACC (2000) staining technique. To control any egg infestation, the effect of gamma irradiation at 200Gy on egg hatchability was evaluated. Results indicate that egg production by T. casteneum within a three day period on Wheat flour, Cocoa powder and Tombrown was not significantly different but was significantly lower on fish powder (P = 0.255). Hatchability of T. castaneum eggs in the four food media was not significantly different (P = 0.046). Gamma irradiation at 200Gy was effective in controlling egg infestation by inhibiting hatchability. Bromocresol green and Malachite green differentially stained the eggs in all the four food products. The protocols for Bromocresol green and Malachite green are effective for detection of T. castaneum eggs in powdered foods and can be incorporated into production processes. Where insect eggs are detected and none of the processing steps can eliminate them, irradiation of the packaged products at 200Gy will kill any eggs and maintain the wholesomeness and safety of the product on the shelf

  2. Activity of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) essential oils against the grain storage pest Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Lilian R; Sánchez Chopa, Carolina; Ferrero, Adriana A

    2011-06-01

    Essential oils extracted from leaves and fruits of Schinus areira (Anacardiaceae) were tested for their repellent, toxic and feeding deterrent properties against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and adults. A topical application assay was employed for the contact toxicity study and filter paper impregnation for the fumigant assay. A treated diet was also used to evaluate the repellent activity and a flour disk bioassay for the feeding deterrent action and nutritional index alteration. The essential oil of the leaves contained mainly monoterpenoids, with alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and camphene predominant, whereas that from the fruits contained mainly alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene and beta-myrcene. The leaf essential oil showed repellent effects, whereas that from the fruit was an attractant. Both oils produced mortality against larvae in topical and fumigant bioassays, but fumigant toxicity was not found against adults. Moreover, both essential oils produced some alterations in nutritional index. These results show that the essential oils from S. areira could be applicable to the management of populations of Tribolium castaneum.

  3. Insecticidal and Repellant Activities of Four indigenous medicinal Plants Against Stored Grain Pest, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.Pugazhvendan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present investigation was aimed to assess the impact of four indigenous plants for their insecticidal and repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, a stored grain pest and they were tested in the laboratory. Methods: Four widely distributed plants (Artemisia vulgaris, Sphaeranthus indicus, Tephrosia purpurea, and Prosopis juliflora were sequentially extracted with increasing polarity of organic solvents such as, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate were evaluated for their insecticidal and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum by adapting the standard protocol in in vitro. Results: Data pertaining to the present investigation clearly revealed that the percentage of mortality was maximum in(72 hr 58% hexane extract of A. vulgaris, chloroform extract (72 hr 34% of S. indicus, and ethyl acetate extract (72 hr 52% of T. purpurea. Repellant activities of plant extracts were tested against T. castaneum, repellent activity was maximum in hexane extract of P. fuliflora, ( EPI value for P. fuliflora in 2.5% was – 0.11 and – 0.33 at 1hr and 6 hr respectively chloroform extract of T. purpurea (2.5% was -0.17 at 6 hr and ethyl acetate extract of S. indicus (2.5% was -0.65 at 6 hr against T. castaneum. Conclusions: The present work for botanical products to control the insect pest of stored grain Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.These results suggest the presence of actives toxic substances acting after consumption or topical application.

  4. Repellent and Fumigant Activities of Tanacetum nubigenum Wallich. ex DC Essential Oils against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S Zafar; Mohan, Manindra; Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    The repellent and fumigant toxicity of essential oils of Tanacetum nubigenum Wallich. ex DC collected from three different habitats (Gothing, Burphu and Glacier) of Uttarakhand Himalayas, India named as TNG, TNB and TNM respectively, were investigated against the adults of red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Among the three samples tested, TNG was found to more potent exhibiting more repellent effect towards the insects and with LC50 values by fumigant bioassay were 13.23 and 8.32 µl per 0.25 L air at 24 and 48 h exposure of insects to the essential oil respectively. In between other two oil samples, TNM was superior in potency showed LC50 value of 14.22 (24 h) & 8.82 µl per 0.25 L air (48 h). During in vivo study all the essential oil samples significantly protected 500 g of wheat grains for 6 months from insect infestation as compared to non fumigated grains and order of efficacy was TNG>TNM>TNB. There were no side effects of essential oils on germination rate of grains (essential oil of T. nubigenum can be explored as novel natural fumigants for the control of stored product insects.

  5. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp. Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G. LANCELLE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  6. EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL FORMULATIONS ON THE ADULT INSECT TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST (COL., TENEBRIONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Popovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored product pests such as Tribolium castaneum ( Herbst, 1979 are a major problem. Adult insects were obtained from laboratory cultures maintained in the dark in incubators at 25 1C and 70 80percent r.h., reared on wheat flour and fed with flour disks containing a known concentration of essential oil of 9 plants. The chemical components of essential oil of 3 plants, collected on the area of Montenegro, were also identified using GC-MS analysis. The results of insecticidal effect of essential oils were discussed. Also, mortality rate of adult insects was tested. In this research, the essential oils of C. glandulosa which were rich in monoterpene alcohols carvacrol and contained ketonic component showed strong insecticidal and fumigant activity against adults of T. castaneum. Less toxic effect showed essential oils of Satureja montana which had a lower carvacrol and ketonic content. On the other hand, essential oils of Teucrium polium which did not contain ketonic component did not show any activity. Therefore, it was observed that essential oils of C. glandulosa with concentration of 1.14% showed powerful toxic and repellent effect, with very high mortality rate after 24h (56,67%.

  7. Ionizing radiation control of Tribolium castaneum in wheat flour type 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, M.

    1988-01-01

    The insects, mainly those of the coleoptera order, produce serious changes on the grains and flours, producing in some regions up to 50 % loss. Taking in account the information available up to date, this experiment consists of putting under the effect of the ionizing radiation specimens of Tribolium castaneum feeded with bread flour type 000, with the purpose of controling their biological cycle. They received gamma radiation doses between 250 and 2000 Gy, using 60 Co source. The daily observation made over a population of 590 insects, indicates the efficiency of the procedure, non toxic, which provokes the sterility at 250 Gy and inmediate dead starting at 1750 Gy. On the other hand, it was verified that the DL 50 on the insects irradiated at the lower of eight different doses applied, reaches 15,3 days, against the 162,6 days of the reference Tribolium. Then it is concluded that it is technologically feasible the application of ionizing radiation to the bread wheat flour type 000 for controling this main plage. (Author) [es

  8. Neurotoxic Effects of Linalool and β-Pinene on Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerlis Pajaro-Castro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective, ethical pest control requires the use of chemicals that are highly specific, safe, and ecofriendly. Linalool and β-pinene occur naturally as major constituents of the essential oils of many plant species distributed throughout the world, and thus meet these requirements. These monoterpenes were tested as repellents against Tribolium castaneum, using the area preference method, after four hours of exposure and the effect transcriptional of genes associated with neurotransmission. Changes in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (Ace1, GABA-gated anion channel splice variant 3a6a (Rdl, GABA-gated ion channel (Grd, glutamate-gated chloride channel (Glucl, and histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2 were assessed and the interaction with proteins important for the insect using in silico methods was also studied. For linalool and β-pinene, the repellent concentration 50 (RC50 values were 0.11 µL/cm2 and 0.03 µL/cm2, respectively. Both compounds induced overexpression of Hiscl2 gen in adult insects, and β-pinene also promoted the overexpression of Grd and the Ace1 gene. However, β-pinene and linalool had little potential to dock on computer-generated models for GABA-gated ion channel LCCH3, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha1 and alpha2, and putative octopamine/tyramine receptor proteins from T. castaneum as their respective binding affinities were marginal, and therefore the repellent action probably involved mechanisms other than direct interaction with these targets. Results indicated that β-pinene was more potent than linalool in inducing insect repellency, and also had a greater capacity to generate changes in the expression of genes involved in neuronal transmission.

  9. Tribolium castaneum Transformer-2 regulates sex determination and development in both males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2013-12-01

    Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known. Here, we report on functional characterization of transformer-2 (tra-2) gene (an ortholog of Drosophila transformer-2) in T. castaneum. RNA interference-mediated knockdown in the expression of gene coding for tra-2 in female pupae or adults resulted in the production of male-specific isoform of dsx and both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 is essential for the female-specific splicing of tra and dsx pre-mRNAs. Interestingly, knockdown of tra-2 in males did not affect the splicing of dsx but resulted in the production of both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 suppresses female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA in males. This dual regulation of sex-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA ensures a tight regulation of sex determination and maintenance. These data suggest a critical role for Tra-2 in suppression of female sex determination cascade in males. In addition, RNAi studies showed that Tra-2 is also required for successful embryonic and larval development in both sexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of selection and gamma-irradiation on fecundity in Tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.P.; Raheja, K.L.; Verma, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the joint effect of selection and gamma irradiation on a polygenic trait like egg production in Tribolium castaneum, a 3 x 3 x 2 fractorial experiment with 3 levels of selection, viz. O, high (S 1 ), and low (S 2 ); 3 levels of irradiation, viz. 0,1 1500R (R 1 ) 2300R(R 2 ); and 2 replicates with 24 females in each cell, was set up. The data were collected on 721 females of parental generation subjected to selection and radiation and the subsequent progeny generation. A significant divergence of 11.6 eggs were observed due to high and low selection methods. There was no difference between control and R 1 radiation dose. The R 2 radiation dose depressed the egg production of the progeny significantly. There was a linear decrease in egg number in the progeny with an increase in dose level of radiation in parents; this is indicative of significant number of gene mutations effecting a quantitative trait like egg production. It is suggested that reduction in fecundity in the progeny of parents subjected to gamma-irradiation can possibly arise due to either (i) molecular rearrangement at a point on the chromosome leading to gene mutation or (ii) chromosome breakage with subsequent rearrangement of gene position or both. (author)

  11. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  12. Effect of combination of gamma radiation and essential oil from perovskia atriplicifolia on mortality of tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, M.; Moharramipour, S.; Ardakani, M.R.; Mozdarani, H.

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to find a natural and inexpensive method to control the stored-product pests, the effect of combination of gamma radiation and essential oil from Perovskia atriplicifolia (Benth) on the adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) was investigated. Experiments were carried out at 27±l d eg C and 65±5% R. H. under dark condition. Two experimental regimes were designed: 1) irradiation of fumigated adults 2)fumigation of irradiated adults. In combination experiments, mortality was assessed 14 days after the first treatment. The results showed significant synergistic effect of gamma radiation with essential oil on adults of T. castaneum (1-7 days old). Gamma irradiation at dosage 100 Gy, alone caused 12.5% mortality on T. castaneum but when these irradiated insects were treated by 7.66 μ1/1 air of P. atriplicifolia oil 7 days after irradiation, (caused 6.25% mortality alone) mortality percent reached 32.5%. These results provide the basis for successful use of gamma radiation in the presence of the essential oil for management of T. castaneum.

  13. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp: Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Composición química de cuatro aceites esenciales provenientes de Eupatorium spp. y su toxicidad para Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Hugo G. Lancelle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic and repellent properties of whole essential oils from four Eupatorium (Asteraceae species (E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker, and E. viscidum Hook. & Arn were investigated in different concentrations toward Tribolium castaneum Herbst adults. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation techniques from the aerial parts. The analysis was performed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Contact toxicity assays showed that all the evaluated essential oils were toxic. Furthermore, in all the cases mortality was dose dependent. The main repellency was observed for the essential oil recovered from E. buniifolium.Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  14. A Major Facilitator Superfamily protein encoded by TcMucK gene is not required for cuticle pigmentation, growth and development in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Seulgi; Noh, Mi Young; Osanai-Futahashi, Mizuko; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-06-01

    Insect cuticle pigmentation and sclerotization (tanning) are vital physiological processes for insect growth, development and survival. We have previously identified several colorless precursor molecules as well as enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and processing to yield the mature intensely colored body cuticle pigments. A recent study indicated that the Bombyx mori (silkmoth) gene, BmMucK, which encodes a protein orthologous to a Culex pipiens quiquefasciatus (Southern house mosquito) cis,cis, muconate transporter, is a member of the "Major Facilitator Superfamily" (MFS) of transporter proteins and is associated with the appearance of pigmented body segments of naturally occurring body color mutants of B. mori. While RNA interference of the BmMucK gene failed to result in any observable phenotype, RNAi using a dsRNA for an orthologous gene from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was reported to result in molting defects and darkening of the cuticle and some body parts, leading to the suggestion that orthologs of MucK genes may differ in their functions among insects. To verify the role and essentiality of the ortholog of this gene in development and body pigmentation function in T. castaneum we obtained cDNAs for the orthologous gene (TcMucK) from RNA isolated from the GA-1 wild-type strain of T. castaneum. The sequence of a 1524 nucleotides-long cDNA for TcMucK which encodes the putatively full-length protein, was assembled from two overlapping RT-PCR fragments and the expression profile of this gene during development was analyzed by real-time PCR. This cDNA encodes a 55.8 kDa protein consisting of 507 amino acid residues and includes 11 putative transmembrane segments. Transcripts of TcMucK were detected throughout all of the developmental stages analyzed. The function of this gene was explored by injection of two different double-stranded RNAs targeting different regions of the TcMucK gene (dsTcMucKs) into young larvae to down

  15. Lethal dose determination of Cobalt-60 for adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Anderson Aparecido; Potenza, Marcos Roberto; Reis, Fabricio Caldeira; Sato, Mario Eidi

    2015-01-01

    The insect infestation is a major problem in the grain storage. The pesticides are most widely used method for disinfestation and prevention. Treatment with gamma irradiation may increase the product shelf life without encountering formation of waste can be used in packaged foods and ready for commercialization, representing an important alternative to the use of pesticides. This study aimed to determine the immediate lethal dose of gamma radiation for adults of Tribolium castaneum and Cryptolestes ferrugineus. The study was conducted in the Instituto Biologico and the radiations held at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo city, using a multipurpose irradiator Cobalt-60 with 3.31 dose rate and 3.23 kGy in months of November/2014 and January/2015. Each experimental unit consisted of 20 adult insects, confined in a 10 mL polyethylene container. The experimental plots in number 10 per dose were subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.25; 1.50; 1.75; 2.00; 2:50 and 3.00 kGy. Mortality was assessed within two to four hours after irradiation. The data were submitted to Probit analysis, using the POLO PLUS program. The LD90 to control 90% (LD90) to control adult Cryptolestes ferrugineus and Tribolium castaneum were 2.73 and 2.91 kGy, respectively. (author)

  16. Lethal dose determination of Cobalt-60 for adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Anderson Aparecido, E-mail: potenza@biologico.sp.gov.br [Instituto Biologico, Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Protecao Ambiental, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Potenza, Marcos Roberto, E-mail: fcreis@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reis, Fabricio Caldeira; Sato, Mario Eidi, E-mail: mesato@biologico.sp.gov.br [Instituto Biologico, Centro Experimental Central, Laboratorio de Acarologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The insect infestation is a major problem in the grain storage. The pesticides are most widely used method for disinfestation and prevention. Treatment with gamma irradiation may increase the product shelf life without encountering formation of waste can be used in packaged foods and ready for commercialization, representing an important alternative to the use of pesticides. This study aimed to determine the immediate lethal dose of gamma radiation for adults of Tribolium castaneum and Cryptolestes ferrugineus. The study was conducted in the Instituto Biologico and the radiations held at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo city, using a multipurpose irradiator Cobalt-60 with 3.31 dose rate and 3.23 kGy in months of November/2014 and January/2015. Each experimental unit consisted of 20 adult insects, confined in a 10 mL polyethylene container. The experimental plots in number 10 per dose were subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.25; 1.50; 1.75; 2.00; 2:50 and 3.00 kGy. Mortality was assessed within two to four hours after irradiation. The data were submitted to Probit analysis, using the POLO PLUS program. The LD90 to control 90% (LD90) to control adult Cryptolestes ferrugineus and Tribolium castaneum were 2.73 and 2.91 kGy, respectively. (author)

  17. Residual efficacy of methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae at different temperatures on varnished wood, concrete, and wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The residual efficacy of the juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene (Diacon II), was evaluated in bioassays using larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) exposed on varnished wood or unsealed concrete treated with a liquid formulation and held at different temperatures. When these surfaces were stored...

  18. Real-time cell analysis and heat shock protein gene expression in the TcA Tribolium castaneum cell line in response to environmental stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reina, Andrés; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Ramis, Guillermo; Galián, José

    2017-06-01

    The rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a pest of stored grain and one of the most studied insect model species. Some of the previous studies involved heat response studies in terms of survival and heat shock protein expression, which are regulated to protect other proteins against environmental stress conditions. In the present study, we characterize the impedance profile with the xCELLigence Real-Time Cell Analyzer and study the effect of increased temperature in cell growth and viability in the cell line BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 (TcA) of T. castaneum. This novel system measures cells behavior in real time and is applied for the first time to insect cells. Additionally, cells are exposed to heat shock, increased salinity, acidic pH and UV-A light with the aim of measuring the expression levels of Hsp27, Hsp68a, and Hsp83 genes. Results show a high thermotolerance of TcA in terms of cell growth and viability. This result is likely related to gene expression results in which a significant up-regulation of all studied Hsp genes is observed after 1 h of exposure to 40 °C and UV light. All 3 genes show similar expression patterns, but Hsp27 seems to be the most affected. The results of this study validate the RTCA method and reveal the utility of insect cell lines, real-time analysis and gene expression studies to better understand the physiological response of insect cells, with potential applications in different fields of biology such as conservation biology and pest management. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Hox genes require homothorax and extradenticle for body wall identity specification but not for appendage identity specification during metamorphosis of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Jockusch, Elizabeth L

    2014-11-01

    The establishment of segment identity is a key developmental process that allows for divergence along the anteroposterior body axis in arthropods. In Drosophila, the identity of a segment is determined by the complement of Hox genes it expresses. In many contexts, Hox transcription factors require the protein products of extradenticle (exd) and homothorax (hth) as cofactors to perform their identity specification functions. In holometabolous insects, segment identity may be specified twice, during embryogenesis and metamorphosis. To glean insight into the relationship between embryonic and metamorphic segmental identity specification, we have compared these processes in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, which develops ventral appendages during embryogenesis that later metamorphose into adult appendages with distinct morphologies. At metamorphosis, comparisons of RNAi phenotypes indicate that Hox genes function jointly with Tc-hth and Tc-exd to specify several region-specific aspects of the adult body wall. On the other hand, Hox genes specify appendage identities along the anteroposterior axis independently of Tc-hth/Tc-exd and Tc-hth/Tc-exd specify proximal vs. distal identity within appendages independently of Hox genes during this stage. During embryogenesis, Tc-hth and Tc-exd play a broad role in the segmentation process and are required for specification of body wall identities in the thorax; however, contrasting with results from other species, we did not obtain homeotic transformations of embryonic appendages in response to Tc-hth or Tc-exd RNAi. In general, the homeotic effects of interference with the function of Hox genes and Tc-hth/Tc-exd during metamorphosis did not match predictions based on embryonic roles of these genes. Comparing metamorphic patterning in T. castaneum to embryonic and post-embryonic development in hemimetabolous insects suggests that holometabolous metamorphosis combines patterning processes of both late embryogenesis and

  20. Phenological stage effect on phenolic composition and repellent potential of Mentha pulegium against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne

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    Nidhal Salem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate for the first time the phenological stage effect on polyphenol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium as well as their antioxidant capacities and insecticidal potentials against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne. Methods: Crude methanol extracts from pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium aerial parts were evaluated for their antiradical, reducing power activities and repellent potentials against selected coleopteran insects during different phenological stages. Results: Phenolic contents of pennyroyal aerial parts and their antioxidant effects were significantly dependent on maturity stage of the plant. The maximum of phenol production was reached during the full flowering stage. Apigenin was the major phenol in Mentha pulegium with an amount of 6.01 mg/g of dry vegetable matter during this period. Nevertheless, at fructification stage, the highest antioxidant activity was not related to high phenolic content. The repulsive effect of pennyroyal extract showed that Lasioderma serricorne was more susceptible to pennyroyal extract than Tribolium castaneum with corresponding median repellent dose values of 0.124 and 0.006 mg/mL respectively. Moreover, great differences in insect repulsion depending on extract concentrations, exposure time and developmental stage was observed. For the lowest concentration (0.125 mg/mL, the repellent effect against Tribolium reached its maximum (90% during the fructification stage (after 24 h of exposure while this repellent effect was 80% during the vegetative stage. Conclusions: Due to the strong insecticidal potential of pennyroyal extracts, this study highlights the therapeutic properties of this plant and encourages its use as a safer, environmental-friendly and efficient insecticide in food industry.

  1. Toxicidade da combinação de dióxido de carbono e fosfina sob diferentes temperaturas para Tribolium castaneum Toxicity of the carbon dioxide and phosphine combination to Tribolium castaneum under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo W. S. Aguiar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura sobre a toxicidade da combinação de dióxido de carbono e fosfina, para os estágios de desenvolvimento de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. A toxicidade da combinação de 5% de dióxido de carbono e 1 g m-3 de fosfina para os estágios de ovo, larvas de 5, 10 e 15 dias, pupa e adulto de T. castaneum, foi estudada nas temperaturas de 25, 30, 35, 40 e 45 °C, por meio de estimativas dos tempos de exposição letais para 50 e 95% dos insetos (TL50 e TL95. Curvas tempo-resposta foram estabelecidas mediante bioensaios com períodos crescentes de exposição à combinação do dióxido de carbono com a fosfina. Observou-se que os TL50 e TL95 reduziram com a elevação da temperatura em todos os estágios de T. castaneum avaliados. O estágio de larva de cinco dias foi a mais susceptível à combinação de dióxido de carbono e fosfina. De acordo com os resultados, a combinação do dióxido de carbono com a fosfina é alternativa potencial para diminuir a quantidade de fosfina aplicada em produtos armazenados, por apresentar alta toxicidade para todos os estágios de T. castaneum sob diferentes temperaturas.The objective of this work was to assess the effect of temperature on the toxicity of the carbon dioxide-phosphine combination for the developmental stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The toxicity of combination of 5% carbon dioxide and 1 g m-3 phosphine in the developmental stages of egg, larvae of 5, 10 and 15 days, pupae and adult of T. castaneum was studied under the temperatures of 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 °C, through the estimation of lethal insect exposure times of 50 and 95% (LT50 and LT95. For that, time-response curves were established through bioassays with increasing periods of exposure to the combination of carbon dioxide and phosphine. A reduction of LT50 and LT95 was observed with temperature increase in all

  2. Combination of gamma radiation and essential oils from medicinal plants in managing Tribolium castaneum contamination of stored products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Abd-alla, Adly Mohamed M.; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of management of insect infestation of stored products with essential oils as viable alternatives to synthetic insecticides can be enhanced with gamma radiation. We studied effects of sublethal doses of essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) and Perovskia atriplicifolia (Benth) (safe natural insecticides) in combination with gamma radiation on mortality of adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). The insects were subjected to two radiation doses and two concentrations of the essential oils in the air. This combined treatment increased the mortality, which was also 3–6 times higher than could be expected from the sum of the effects of each of the treatments. The synergistic effect was more pronounced in the case of R. officinalis (L.) than in the case of P. atriplicifolia (Benth). The experiments have shown that the known insecticidal effectiveness of the essential oils can be enhanced by preliminary irradiation. Possible approaches to implementation of the combined treatment are discussed. - Highlights: • The mortality of T. castaneum increased with an increase of the radiation dose. • R. officinalis was more toxic to T. castaneum than P. atriplicifolia. • Gamma radiation and essential oils could be used as combined methods in IPM. • Combination of radiation with essential oils made a synergistic effect. • The synergistic effect of the R–G was much more appropriate from P–G

  3. The lethal giant larvae Gene in Tribolium castaneum: Molecular Properties and Roles in Larval and Pupal Development as Revealed by RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xiao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We identified and characterized the TcLgl gene putatively encoding lethal giant larvae (Lgl protein from the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum. Analyses of developmental stage and tissue-specific expression patterns revealed that TcLgl was constitutively expressed. To examine the role of TcLgl in insect development, RNA interference was performed in early (1-day larvae, late (20-day larvae, and early (1-day pupae. The early larvae injected with double-stranded RNA of TcLgl (dsTcLgl at 100, 200, and 400 ng/larva failed to pupate, and 100% mortality was achieved within 20 days after the injection or before the pupation. The late larvae injected with dsTcLgl at these doses reduced the pupation rates to only 50.3%, 36.0%, and 18.2%, respectively. The un-pupated larvae gradually died after one week, and visually unaffected pupae failed to emerge into adults and died during the pupal stage. Similarly, when early pupae were injected with dsTcLgl at these doses, the normal eclosion rates were reduced to only 22.5%, 18.0%, and 11.2%, respectively, on day 7 after the injection, and all the adults with abnormal eclosion died in two days after the eclosion. These results indicate that TcLgl plays an essential role in insect development, especially during their metamorphosis.

  4. Proteome response of Tribolium castaneum larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin producing strains.

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    Estefanía Contreras

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Tc larvae was determined against spore-crystal mixtures of five coleopteran specific and one lepidopteran specific Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin producing strains and those containing the structurally unrelated Cry3Ba and Cry23Aa/Cry37Aa proteins were found toxic (LC(50 values 13.53 and 6.30 µg spore-crystal mixture/µL flour disc, respectively. Using iTRAQ combined with LC-MS/MS allowed the discovery of seven novel differentially expressed proteins in early response of Tc larvae to the two active spore-crystal mixtures. Proteins showing a statistically significant change in treated larvae compared to non-intoxicated larvae fell into two major categories; up-regulated proteins were involved in host defense (odorant binding protein C12, apolipophorin-III and chemosensory protein 18 and down-regulated proteins were linked to metabolic pathways affecting larval metabolism and development (pyruvate dehydrogenase Eα subunit, cuticular protein, ribosomal protein L13a and apolipoprotein LI-II. Among increased proteins, Odorant binding protein C12 showed the highest change, 4-fold increase in both toxin treatments. The protein displayed amino acid sequence and structural homology to Tenebrio molitor 12 kDa hemolymph protein b precursor, a non-olfactory odorant binding protein. Analysis of mRNA expression and mortality assays in Odorant binding protein C12 silenced larvae were consistent with a general immune defense function of non-olfactory odorant binding proteins. Regarding down-regulated proteins, at the transcriptional level, pyruvate dehydrogenase and cuticular genes were decreased in Tc larvae exposed to the Cry3Ba producing strain compared to the Cry23Aa/Cry37Aa producing strain, which may contribute to the developmental arrest that we observed with larvae fed the Cry3Ba producing strain. Results demonstrated a distinct host transcriptional regulation depending upon the Cry toxin treatment. Knowledge

  5. Chemical composition, insecticidal and insect repellent activity of Schinus molle L. leaf and fruit essential oils against Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Sattar, Essam; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Farag, Mohamed A; Gayed, Sabah H El; Harraz, Fathalla M H

    2010-02-01

    Fruit and leaf essential oils of Schinus molle showed insect repellent and insecticidal activity against Trogoderma granarium and Tribolium castaneum. In these oils, 65 components were identified by GC-MS analysis. Hydrocarbons dominated the oil composition with monoterpenes occurring in the largest amounts in fruits and leaves, 80.43 and 74.84%, respectively. p-Cymene was identified as a major component in both oils. The high yield and efficacy of S. molle essential oil against T. granarium and T. castaneum suggest that it may provide leads for active insecticidal agents.

  6. Toxicity of several contact insecticides to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst populations after selection with pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin

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    Goran Andrić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to detect possible alteration in susceptibility of two field Tribolium castaneum (Herbst populations (sampled in a warehouse in Nikinci and a silo in Jakovo to dichlorvos, malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, deltamethrin and bifenthrin after previous selection with the LD80 of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Data from the topical application bioassays show that chlorpyrifos-methyl was the most toxic insecticide to T. castaneum adults of the Nikinci population selected with pirimiphosmethyl and deltamethrin, while malathion was the weakest, and both selection procedures changed/reduced significantly only the toxicity of deltamethrin and bifenthrin, increasing their resistance ratios (RR at the LD50 from 1.1 to 1.8 (bifenthrin and from 0.9 to 2.2 (deltamethrin. Deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide for Jakovo adults selected with the LD80 of pirimiphosmethyl, while malathion was again the least toxic. Selection of that population had no effect on insecticide toxicity, except of malathion, which had a rise in RR at the LD50 from 26.0 to 29.8.

  7. Influence of acclimation to sublethal temperature on heat tolerance of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae exposed to 50°C.

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    Jianhua Lü

    Full Text Available Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae is a serious pest of stored agricultural products and one of the most common insects found in grain storage and food processing facilities. Heat treatment has been revisited to control stored-product insects as a potential alternative to methyl bromide for disinfesting mills and food-processing facilities. The influence of acclimation of T. castaneum adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs to sublethal temperatures of 36, and 42°C on their subsequent susceptibility to lethal temperature of 50°C was respectively investigated. The acclimation of T. castaneum eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults to 36, and 42°C significantly decreased their subsequent susceptibility to lethal high temperature of 50°C. The influence of acclimation to 42°C was significantly greater than that of acclimation to 36°C. The most influential acclimation times at 42°C for mortality of T. castaneum eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults were 15, 5, 5, and 5 h, respectively, and their corresponding mortality were 41.24, 5.59, 20.19, and 4.48%, compared to 100% mortality of T. castaneum eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults without acclimation when exposed to 50°C for 35 min, respectively. The present results have important implications for developing successful heat treatment protocols to control T. castaneum, improving disinfestation effectiveness of heat treatment and understanding insect response to high temperatures.

  8. Effect of Gamma Radiation on Nutritional Indices of Larval and Adults Stages of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, M.; Moharramipour, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study antifeedant effect of different doses of gamma radiation as a controlling safe method on flour weevil, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) larvae and adult was studied. Doses of 100, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 Gy of gamma radiation were used and after 72 hours, nutritional indices were evaluated. The relative growth rate, relative consumption rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and feeding deterrence index as nutritional indices were evaluated. Treatments were assessed by flour wheat disc at 27±1 d egree C and 65 p ercent h umidity in a dark condition. The results showed that the relative growth rate of flour weevil larvae and adults decreased significantly (P<0.05) by gamma radiation and the severity of this reduction in larvae was higher than the adults. Although the relative growth rates decreased in adults, this rate in doses of 400, 600, 800 and 1000 Gy showed no significant difference. The relative food consumption rate also decreased with the gamma radiation and its value found to be inversely proportional to the dose radiation. Our experiments showed that the use of gamma radiation exposure to 800 Gy had no significant effect on the efficiency of conversion of ingested food of larvae and reduction was observed only when the gamma radiation was used in 1000 Gy. The feeding deterrence effect of gamma radiation, especially on the larvae was high but no significant difference between doses of 100 to 800 Gy was observed. The results showed that gamma radiation that induces antifeedant effect can be applied as an effective method in control of T. castaneum.

  9. Sodium Solute Symporter and Cadherin Proteins Act as Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba Toxin Functional Receptors in Tribolium castaneum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Estefanía; Schoppmeier, Michael; Real, M. Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins interact with proteins in the midgut of susceptible coleopteran insects is crucial to fully explain the molecular bases of Bt specificity and insecticidal action. In this work, aminopeptidase N (TcAPN-I), E-cadherin (TcCad1), and sodium solute symporter (TcSSS) have been identified by ligand blot as putative Cry3Ba toxin-binding proteins in Tribolium castaneum (Tc) larvae. RNA interference knockdown of TcCad1 or TcSSS proteins resulted in decreased susceptibility to Cry3Ba toxin, demonstrating the Cry toxin receptor functionality for these proteins. In contrast, TcAPN-I silencing had no effect on Cry3Ba larval toxicity, suggesting that this protein is not relevant in the Cry3Ba toxin mode of action in Tc. Remarkable features of TcSSS protein were the presence of cadherin repeats in its amino acid sequence and that a TcSSS peptide fragment containing a sequence homologous to a binding epitope found in Manduca sexta and Tenebrio molitor Bt cadherin functional receptors enhanced Cry3Ba toxicity. This is the first time that the involvement of a sodium solute symporter protein as a Bt functional receptor has been demonstrated. The role of this novel receptor in Bt toxicity against coleopteran insects together with the lack of receptor functionality of aminopeptidase N proteins might account for some of the differences in toxin specificity between Lepidoptera and Coleoptera insect orders. PMID:23645668

  10. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the voltage gated sodium ion channel TcNav causes mortality in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Halim, Hesham M; Alshukri, Baida M H; Ahmad, Munawar S; Nakasu, Erich Y T; Awwad, Mohammed H; Salama, Elham M; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Edwards, Martin G

    2016-07-14

    The voltage-gated sodium ion channel (VGSC) belongs to the largest superfamily of ion channels. Since VGSCs play key roles in physiological processes they are major targets for effective insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used to analyse gene function, but recently, it has shown potential to contribute to novel strategies for selectively controlling agricultural insect pests. The current study evaluates the delivery of dsRNA targeted to the sodium ion channel paralytic A (TcNav) gene in Tribolium castaneum as a viable means of controlling this insect pest. Delivery of TcNav dsRNA caused severe developmental arrest with larval mortalities up to 73% post injection of dsRNA. Injected larvae showed significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression between 30-60%. Expression was also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in pupae following injection causing 30% and 42% knockdown for early and late pupal stages, respectively. Oral delivery of dsRNA caused dose-dependant mortalities of between 19 and 51.34%; this was accompanied by significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression following 3 days of continuous feeding. The majority of larvae injected with, or fed, dsRNA died during the final larval stage prior to pupation. This work provides evidence of a viable RNAi-based strategy for insect control.

  11. Functional analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene family of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broehan, Gunnar; Kroeger, Tobias; Lorenzen, Marcé; Merzendorfer, Hans

    2013-01-16

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to a large superfamily of proteins that have important physiological functions in all living organisms. Most are integral membrane proteins that transport a broad spectrum of substrates across lipid membranes. In insects, ABC transporters are of special interest because of their role in insecticide resistance. We have identified 73 ABC transporter genes in the genome of T. castaneum, which group into eight subfamilies (ABCA-H). This coleopteran ABC family is significantly larger than those reported for insects in other taxonomic groups. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this increase is due to gene expansion within a single clade of subfamily ABCC. We performed an RNA interference (RNAi) screen to study the function of ABC transporters during development. In ten cases, injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into larvae caused developmental phenotypes, which included growth arrest and localized melanization, eye pigmentation defects, abnormal cuticle formation, egg-laying and egg-hatching defects, and mortality due to abortive molting and desiccation. Some of the ABC transporters we studied in closer detail to examine their role in lipid, ecdysteroid and eye pigment transport. The results from our study provide new insights into the physiological function of ABC transporters in T. castaneum, and may help to establish new target sites for insect control.

  12. Effects of Artemisia herba-alba essential oils on survival stored cereal pests: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Trogoderma granarium (Everst (Coleoptera, Dermestidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Slimane Badreddine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the chemical components and toxicity of Artemisia herba-alba (A. herbaalba essential oil against two major stored cereal pests, Tribolium castaneum (T. castaneum and Trogoderma granarium (T. granarium. Methods: Two bioassay actions were tasted: repellent and fumigant actions against adult and larvae, respectively, to assess the effect of A. herba-alba essential oil. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses of the essential oil contained β-thujone (12.50%, α-thujone (8.78%, sabinyl acetate (8.56%, terpinene-4-ol (8.51%, α-terpineol (3.35%, 1,8-cineol (5.45%, γ-terpene (4.82%, camphor (4.52%, dimethylethylbenzene (3.93% and α-terpinene (3.35% as the major components. Fumigant toxicity tests showed that A. herba-alba oil was more toxic than T. granarium (LC50 = 2.09 mg/mL, LC90 = 4.12 mg/mL and T. castaneum (LC50 = 6.39 mg/mL, LC90 = 10.10 mg/mL. Conclusions: This study has highlighted a bioinsecticide activity of A. herba-alba against two insect pests of stored foodstuffs (T. castaneum and T. granarium. The Artemisia essential oil offers an interesting potential insecticide that could be studied more deeply to isolate and identify the active substances, to study their physiological impact on other insects

  13. Effects of weightlessness, gravity compensation and radiation on the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.H.; Silver, I.L.; Tobias, C.A.

    1975-10-01

    Tribolium confusum, the flour beetle; was chosen as a test organism for determination of possible synergistic effects of radiation and space environment in the inertial flight of Biosatellite-II. The organism subjected to weightlessness and radiation during the flight exhibited greater than expected wing abnormalities. However, a postflight vibration control experiment produced anomalous results, and some doubt remained with respect to assigning weightlessness as the sole cause of the increased wing abnormalities. Results are reported from experiments performed on the interaction of gravity compensation, radiation, and Tribolium development. It was found that gravity compensation together with heavy ion irradiation did not cause more wing abnormalities than those caused by radiation alone. However, radiation and gravity compensation plus high temperature did cause an increased percentage of wing abnormalities. Two possible reasons are discussed

  14. Pesticidal and pest repellency activities of a plant derived triterpenoid 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene against Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tribolium castaneum (Herbst is a major pest of stored grain-based products, and cause severe damage to cereal grains throughout the world. The present investigation was aimed to determine the pesticidal and pest repellent activities of 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene against T. castaneum. The compound 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene is a triterpenoid which was isolated from the roots of Laportea crenulata Gaud. Surface film technique was used for pesticidal screening, whereas, pest repellency property of the triterpenoid was determined by filter paper disc method. RESULTS: At 24 hours of exposure duration, significant mortality records (80% and 86% were observed at doses 0.88 and 1.77 mg/cm². No significant change in mortality records was observed when duration of exposure was increased up to 48 hours. The triterpenoid showed significant repellency activity at doses 0.47 and 0.94 mg/cm². CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the triterpenoid 2α,3β,21β,23,28-penta hydroxyl 12-oleanene possess both pesticidal and pest repellency activities against T. castaneum and can be used in controlling the pest of grain-based products.

  15. Evaluación de la acción insecticida de la rapanona sobre Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Chavez

    1992-01-01

    with those of conventional commercial insecticides. An inverse proportionality, between doses of rapanone and the mean productivity, was also found; adose of 7000 mg rapanone per kg standard culture medium is enough to exterminate, almost completely, a population of T. castaneum in one generation.

  16. Juvenile hormone resistance gene Methoprene-tolerant controls entry into metamorphosis in the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopová, Barbora; Jindra, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 104, - (2007), s. 10488-10493 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5007305; GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : insect metamorphosis * postembryonic development * endocryne regulation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.598, year: 2007

  17. Toxic and Repellent effecto of Harmal (Peganum harmala L. Acetonic Extract on Several Aphids and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst Efecto Tóxico y Repelente del Extracto Acetónico de Harmal (Peganum harmala L. sobre varias especies de Áfidos y Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Salari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the dependence on the sometimes unwise use of synthetic pesticides in fruit and vegetable plantations, the toxicity and repellence of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae acetonic seed extract was assayed against several insect pests. For contact toxicity, 3- to 4-d-old individuals of Aphis fabae Scopoli, A. gossypii Glover, A. nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer were included, as well as 1- to 7-d-old adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Repellent effect experiments were conducted on adult, 1- to 2- and 3- to 4-d old M.persicae individuals. At 60 mg mL4, the topical bioassay mortality percentage was significantly higher in A. gossypii than in A. fabae and A. nerii after 12-72 h. Mortality of the treatments on M.persicae was 87.1% and 90.0% after 24 and 48 h, respectively, and significantly higher than A. fabae and A. nerii during this period. At 60 mg mL-1, the mortality of T. castaneum was much lower than that of the aphid species. The highest repellent index (over 72% was observed on 1- to 2-d-old M. persicae individuals.Para reducir la dependencia de los pesticidas sintéticos en plantaciones frutales y hortalizas, se realizó un ensayo para medir la toxicidad y repelencia de un extracto acetónico obtenido a partir de semillas de Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae contra diferentes especies de plagas. Para evaluar la toxicidad del extracto al contacto con los insectos, se incluyeron individuos de 3-4 d de edad de Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, y Myzus persicae (Sulzer, así como adultos 1-7 d de edad de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Experimentos para medir el efecto repelente se llevaron a cabo con individuos de 1-2 y 3-4 d de edad de M. persicae. En los resultados de los bioensayos tópicos el porcentaje de mortalidad fue significativamente mayor en la especie A. gossypii que en A. fabae y A. nerii, después de 12-72 h con una concentración de 60 mg mL-1. La mortalidad

  18. Atypical centrioles are present in Tribolium sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, E L; Jo, Kyoung; Ha, Andrew; Royfman, Rachel; Zinn, Ashtyn; Krishnamurthy, Malathi; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2017-03-01

    Typical centrioles are made of microtubules organized in ninefold symmetry. Most animal somatic cells have two centrioles for normal cell division and function. These centrioles originate from the zygote, but because the oocyte does not provide any centrioles, it is surprising that the zygotes of many animals are thought to inherit only one centriole from the sperm. Recently, in the sperm of Drosophila melanogaster , we discovered a second centriolar structure, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL), which functions in the zygote. Whether the sperm of other insects has a second centriolar structure is unknown. Here, we characterized spermiogenesis in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Electron microscopy suggests that Tribolium has one microtubule-based centriole at the tip of the axoneme and a structure similar to the PCL, which lacks microtubules and lies in a cytoplasmic invagination of the nucleus. Immunostaining against the orthologue of the centriole/PCL protein, Ana1, also recognizes two centrioles near the nucleus during spermiogenesis: one that is microtubule-based at the tip of the axoneme, suggesting it is the centriole; and another that is more proximal and appears during early spermiogenesis, suggesting it is the PCL. Together, these findings suggest that Tribolium sperm has one microtubule-based centriole and one microtubule-lacking centriole. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Effects of vanillin and gamma irradiation on the development of confused flour beetle, tribolium confusum (DUV.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.A.; Mohamed, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the natural chemical compound food flavoring agent, vanillin on the tribolium confusum was examined. The effect of vanillin on tribolium confusum reared as 18-day old larvae decreased the percent adult emergence, it was 32 % and 51.4 % adults at the treatments 2 % and 4 % respectively. The sex ratio was in favour of female at control group (1:1.2 male:female). This ratio reversed at the treatments 2 %, 4 % vanillin was favour of males. When one day old larvae treated with 2 %, 8 % vanillin, the percent pupation was decrease from control group. It was 31.83, 45.0 %, as compared with 53.33 in control group, respectively. At highest treatment 8 %, sex ratio was in favour of males. The mean number of total progenies decrease significantly from control when larvae 18-day old treated with vanillin and stored for two or four months. While when larvae 1-day old treated with vanillin , the decrease in the number of total progenies was insignificant. When one day old adults irradiated at 20, 50 and 70 Gy and reared for two and four months. The mean number of progenies decrease significantly by increasing the radiation dose, when compared with control group

  20. Sublethal Exposure to Diatomaceous Earth Increases Net Fecundity of Flour Beetles (Tribolium confusum) by Inhibiting Egg Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Allen W.

    2014-01-01

    Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0–4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism

  1. Fragments of Tenebrio molitor cadherin enhance Cry3Aa toxicity for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moustafa, M.A.M.; Vlasák, Josef; Sehnal, František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 4 (2016), s. 277-286 ISSN 0931-2048 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa * biocontrol * toxicity modulation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.641, year: 2016

  2. Activities of modified Cry3A-type toxins on the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mostafa, Moataz; Vlasák, Josef; Sehnal, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 9 (2013), s. 684-692 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI91A229; GA MZe QH71290 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringensis * biocontrol * Cry3Aa Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.701, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jen.12054/pdf

  3. Caudal regulates the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule waves in Tribolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat El-Sherif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum, waves of pair-rule gene expression propagate from the posterior end of the embryo towards the anterior and eventually freeze into stable stripes, partitioning the anterior-posterior axis into segments. Similar waves in vertebrates are assumed to arise due to the modulation of a molecular clock by a posterior-to-anterior frequency gradient. However, neither a molecular candidate nor a functional role has been identified to date for such a frequency gradient, either in vertebrates or elsewhere. Here we provide evidence that the posterior gradient of Tc-caudal expression regulates the oscillation frequency of pair-rule gene expression in Tribolium. We show this by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in strong and mild knockdown of Tc-caudal, and by correlating the extension, level and slope of the Tc-caudal expression gradient to the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in wild type as well as in different RNAi knockdowns of Tc-caudal regulators. Further, we show that besides its absolute importance for stripe generation in the static phase of the Tribolium blastoderm, a frequency gradient might serve as a buffer against noise during axis elongation phase in Tribolium as well as vertebrates. Our results highlight the role of frequency gradients in pattern formation.

  4. The red flour beetle as a model for bacterial oral infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Milutinović

    Full Text Available Experimental infection systems are important for studying antagonistic interactions and coevolution between hosts and their pathogens. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and the spore-forming bacterial insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are widely used and tractable model organisms. However, they have not been employed yet as an efficient experimental system to study host-pathogen interactions. We used a high throughput oral infection protocol to infect T. castaneum insects with coleopteran specific B. thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis (Btt bacteria. We found that larval mortality depends on the dietary spore concentration and on the duration of exposure to the spores. Furthermore, differential susceptibility of larvae from different T. castaneum populations indicates that the host genetic background influences infection success. The recovery of high numbers of infectious spores from the cadavers indicates successful replication of bacteria in the host and suggests that Btt could establish infectious cycles in T. castaneum in nature. We were able to transfer plasmids from Btt to a non-pathogenic but genetically well-characterised Bt strain, which was thereafter able to successfully infect T. castaneum, suggesting that factors residing on the plasmids are important for the virulence of Btt. The availability of a genetically accessible strain will provide an ideal model for more in-depth analyses of pathogenicity factors during oral infections. Combined with the availability of the full genome sequence of T. castaneum, this system will enable analyses of host responses during infection, as well as addressing basic questions concerning host-parasite coevolution.

  5. The influence of rearing medium on the irradiation sensitivity of eggs and larvae of the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum J. du Val

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunçbilek, A.Ş.; Kansu, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, gamma radiation was applied at six dose levels over the range of 5–40 Gy for 0–2-day-old eggs, and at eight dose levels between 10–80 Gy for 16–18-day-old larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sterility, mortality and other effects of gamma radiation were investigated. All experiments were performed in incubators maintained at 27 ± 0.5 °C and 70 ± 5% r.h. The development of adults reared on different flours from irradiated eggs and larvae was prevented by exposure to 40 and 50 Gy of gamma radiation, respectively. Rate of development of these stages on different flours and the yield of adults was influenced by rearing medium. Rapidly developing flour beetles are more susceptible to killing by gamma radiation. For each stage reared on different media (wheat, barley and maize flours), LD50 and LD99.9 values were determined, together with sterilizing dose levels (SD50 and SD99.9)

  6. The influence of rearing medium on the irradiation sensitivity of eggs and larvae of the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum J. du Val

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunçbilek, Aydin Ş.; Kansu, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, gamma radiation was applied at six dose levels over the range of 5–40 Gy for 0–2-day-old eggs, and at eight dose levels between 10–80 Gy for 16–18-day-old larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sterility, mortality and other effects of gamma radiation were investigated. All experiments were performed in incubators maintained at 27 ± 0.5 °C and 70 ± 5% r.h. The development of adults reared on different flours from irradiated eggs and larvae was prevented by exposure to 40 and 50 Gy of gamma radiation, respectively. Rate of development of these stages on different flours and the yield of adults was influenced by rearing medium. Rapidly developing flour beetles are more susceptible to killing by gamma radiation. For each stage reared on different media (wheat, barley and maize flours), LD 50 and LD 99.9 values were determined, together with sterilizing dose levels (SD 50 and SD 99.9 ). (author)

  7. red flour beetle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... 2Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Department of ... most important energy source around the globe ... T. castaneum (red flour beetle) samples were collected from rice.

  8. Identification of irradiated insects: changes in the midgut of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Duv., induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepanik, M.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation doses applied for quarantine treatment does not generally cause immediate death of insects and mites. Alive pests may be present in the agricultural commodities for several days. This can be a disadvantage if the product is for immediate export and there is a nil insect requirement. A simple test is needed to ensure the quarantine personnel that a pest of quarantine importance has been irradiated and it does not pose a quarantine risk. Development of a practical technique for identification of irradiated pests was recommended by the ICGFI Task Force Meeting on Irradiation as Quarantine Treatment. The midgut, metabolically very active tissue, is the main site for digestion and absorption of the products of digestion. The old epithelium is replaced by new cells produced by the regenerative nidi. Regenerative cells are very sensitive to radiation. Its damage results in loss of the midgut epithelium in irradiated insects. The following changes in the midgut structure of the confused flour beetle were observed: 1. destruction of the regenerative nidi; 2. elongation and enlargement of epithelial cells; 3. vacuolization of the epithelial cells; 4. fading of cells boundaries in the epithelium; 5. damage of the nuclei (chromatin grains scattered throughout the cytoplasm of epithelial cells); 6. loss of the brush border; 7. disintegration and further loss of epithelium. The most expressed effect of the irradiation treatment was the destruction of regenerative cells of the midgut. Their destruction prevented the replacement of the secretory cells of the epithelium. As a result the epithelium disappeared and the gut lumen enlarged. Causes other than ionizing radiation resulting in disintegration of the midgut epithelium of insects are unknown. Since the degenerative changes in the midgut are positively correlated with both dose and time elapsed after irradiation exposure, a pathological syndrome of irradiation effects on the midgut may be used for a rapid and

  9. Effect of Iron Fortified Wheat Flour on the Biology and Physiology of Red Flour Beetle, (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload in the fortified flour can influence the life stages and physiology of the insects. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of commercially available premix iron fortified flour as well as effect of different concentrations of post-mix iron fortified flour (30–5 ppm on biology of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Hebrst.. Larval and pupal duration, total developmental time, fecundity and larval weights in two consecutive generations of beetle were compared with control treatment. Amylase and protease activities of gut of the beetle were also measured in premix and postmix flours. Results showed that larval mortality increased in two sources of premix iron flour when compared with control. Larval weight was reduced in first generation only. The larval mortality was significantly higher in 30 ppm postmix iron fortified flour than in other postmix concentrations and control treatment. The larvae of T. castaneum fed on two sources of premix and in various concentrations of postmix iron fortified flour revealed an increase in amylases and decrease in protease activities.

  10. Sex determination in beetles: Production of all male progeny by Parental RNAi knockdown of transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Sex in insects is determined by a cascade of regulators ultimately controlling sex-specific splicing of a transcription factor, Doublesex (Dsx). We recently identified homolog of dsx in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tcdsx). Here, we report on the identification and characterization of a regulator of Tcdsx splicing in T. castaneum. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of T. castaneum transformer (Tctra) were identified. RNA interference-aided knockdown of Tctra in pupa or adults caused a change in sex from females to males by diverting the splicing of Tcdsx pre-mRNA to male-specific isoform. All the pupa and adults developed from Tctra dsRNA injected final instar larvae showed male-specific sexually dimorphic structures. Tctra parental RNAi caused an elimination of females from the progeny resulting in production of all male progeny. Transformer parental RNAi could be used to produce all male population for use in pest control though sterile male release methods. PMID:22924109

  11. Expanded and updated data and a query pipeline for iBeetle-Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Gerischer, Lizzy; Hahnke, Stefan; Pfeiffer, Stefan; Bucher, Gregor

    2018-01-04

    The iBeetle-Base provides access to sequence and phenotype information for genes of the beetle Tribolium castaneum. It has been updated including more and updated data and new functions. RNAi phenotypes are now available for >50% of the genes, which represents an expansion of 60% compared to the previous version. Gene sequence information has been updated based on the new official gene set OGS3 and covers all genes. Interoperability with FlyBase has been enhanced: First, gene information pages of homologous genes are interlinked between both databases. Second, some steps of a new query pipeline allow transforming gene lists from either species into lists with related gene IDs, names or GO terms. This facilitates the comparative analysis of gene functions between fly and beetle. The backend of the pipeline is implemented as endpoints of a RESTful interface, such that it can be reused by other projects or tools. A novel online interface allows the community to propose GO terms for their gene of interest expanding the range of animals where GO terms are defined. iBeetle-Base is available at http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Geographic Variation in Phosphine Resistance Among North American Populations of the Red Flour Beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, A J; Elliott, Brent; Nayak, Manoj K; Phillips, Thomas W

    2017-06-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), is a common stored-product pest found worldwide. Phosphine, hydrogen phosphide (PH3), is the most commonly used fumigant for stored grains, for which genetically based resistance has been recorded for several pest species. This study assessed phosphine resistance in 25 T. castaneum populations from across the United States and Canada using a discriminating dose bioassay. Dose-mortality assays were conducted with adults from seven of these populations to categorize weak and strong resistance phenotypes. Phosphine resistance was detected in 12 out of the 25 populations, and the frequency of resistance within populations varied from 2% in Victoria, TX, to 100% in Red Level, AL. Two resistant populations from Kansas that had been sampled three years earlier were found to have similar resistance frequencies in the current study. None of the four Canadian populations had any detectable resistance among the insects tested. Resistance ratio calculations from LC50 value in resistant populations relative to the LC50 for the laboratory susceptible strain allowed resistance phenotypes to be assigned as either weak resistance, at 5- to 26-fold resistance relative to susceptible, or strong resistance at 95- to 127-fold relative to susceptible. This study suggests that proper resistance assessment techniques can help to determine occurrence of phosphine resistance in populations of T. castaneum and can further characterize the strength of resistance present. These data can be used to support resistance management programs that consider either cessation or modification of phosphine fumigation to control T. castaneum. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Identification and expression analysis of a novel R-type lectin from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Patnaik, Bharat Bhusan; Seo, Gi Won; Kang, Seong Min; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Bok Luel; Han, Yeon Soo

    2013-11-01

    We have identified novel ricin-type (R-type) lectin by sequencing of random clones from cDNA library of the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNA sequence is comprised of 495 bp encoding a protein of 164 amino acid residues and shows 49% identity with galectin of Tribolium castaneum. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the amino acid residues from 35 to 162 belong to ricin-type beta-trefoil structure. The transcript was significantly upregulated after early hours of injection with peptidoglycans derived from Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria, beta-1, 3 glucan from fungi and an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes suggesting putative function in innate immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Social dilemma in the external immune system of the red flour beetle? It is a matter of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Chaitanya S; Traulsen, Arne; Joop, Gerrit

    2017-09-01

    Sociobiology has revolutionized our understanding of interactions between organisms. Interactions may present a social dilemma where the interests of individual actors do not align with those of the group as a whole. Viewed through a sociobiological lens, nearly all interactions can be described regarding their costs and benefits, and a number of them then resemble a social dilemma. Numerous experimental systems, from bacteria to mammals, have been proposed as models for studying such dilemmas. Here, we make use of the external immune system of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum , to investigate how the experimental duration can affect whether the external secretion comprises a social dilemma or not. Some beetles (secretors) produce a costly quinone-rich external secretion that inhibits microbial growth in the surrounding environment, providing the secretors with direct personal benefits. However, as the antimicrobial secretion acts in the environment of the beetle, it is potentially also advantageous to other beetles (nonsecretors), who avoid the cost of producing the secretion. We test experimentally if the secretion qualifies as a public good. We find that in the short term, costly quinone secretion can be interpreted as a public good presenting a social dilemma where the presence of secretors increases the fitness of the group. In the long run, the benefit to the group of having more secretors vanishes and becomes detrimental to the group. Therefore, in such seminatural environmental conditions, it turns out that qualifying a trait as social can be a matter of timing.

  15. Fungi species and red flour beetle in stored wheat flour under Jazan region conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosly, Hanan AbuAlQasem; Kawanna, Maha Adel

    2014-05-01

    Infection of stored wheat flour with insects and toxic fungi can be an extremely serious problem. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungal species and insects in different stages, which infested and contaminated the stored flour under Jazan region conditions and changed its color and flavor. The obtained results revealed that the isolated insect was the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Live adult, larvae and cast skin were isolated. Four Aspergillus species were isolated from stored wheat flour; the isolated species prevalence being A. flavus > A. niveus > A. terreus > A. niger by rate 44.5%, 37.8%, 10.9% and 6.7%, respectively. The same fungal species isolated from flour were also isolated from different insect stages. A. flavus was the most common fungus and A. niger was isolated with a lower rate. The results about the isolated fungi either from the suspension of adult insects, larvae or cast skins may confirm the role of T. castaneum to carry and distribute fungi in different parts of the stored flour.

  16. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  17. In vitro reconstitution of the active T. castaneum telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Anthony P; Harkisheimer, Michael J; Skordalakes, Emmanuel

    2011-07-14

    Efforts to isolate the catalytic subunit of telomerase, TERT, in sufficient quantities for structural studies, have been met with limited success for more than a decade. Here, we present methods for the isolation of the recombinant Tribolium castaneum TERT (TcTERT) and the reconstitution of the active T. castaneum telomerase ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex in vitro. Telomerase is a specialized reverse transcriptase that adds short DNA repeats, called telomeres, to the 3' end of linear chromosomes that serve to protect them from end-to-end fusion and degradation. Following DNA replication, a short segment is lost at the end of the chromosome and without telomerase, cells continue dividing until eventually reaching their Hayflick Limit. Additionally, telomerase is dormant in most somatic cells in adults, but is active in cancer cells where it promotes cell immortality. The minimal telomerase enzyme consists of two core components: the protein subunit (TERT), which comprises the catalytic subunit of the enzyme and an integral RNA component (TER), which contains the template TERT uses to synthesize telomeres. Prior to 2008, only structures for individual telomerase domains had been solved. A major breakthrough in this field came from the determination of the crystal structure of the active, catalytic subunit of T. castaneum telomerase, TcTERT. Here, we present methods for producing large quantities of the active, soluble TcTERT for structural and biochemical studies, and the reconstitution of the telomerase RNP complex in vitro for telomerase activity assays. An overview of the experimental methods used is shown in Figure 1.

  18. Uncommon formation of two antiparallel sperm bundles per cyst in tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Glenda; Yotoko, Karla S. C.; Gomes, Luiz F.; Lino-Neto, José

    2012-09-01

    Several species of Tenebrionidae are stored-grain pests. Since they belong to a specious family, the systematics of these beetles is still in doubt. In insects, spermatogenesis and the spermatozoa exhibit great diversity, and are therefore commonly used in phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses. During the spermatogenetic process in these organisms, the cells originating from a single spermatogonium develop synchronically in groups referred to as cysts. At the end of this process, there is usually only one sperm bundle per cyst, with all the cells in the same orientation. This paper details the spermiogenesis of the tenebrionid beetles Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas confusa, Tribolium castaneum and Palembus dermestoides using whole mount and histological sections of the cysts. In these species, spermatogenesis is similar to that which occurs in most insects. However, during spermiogenesis, the nuclei of the spermatids migrate to two opposite regions at the periphery of the cyst, leading to the uncommon formation of two bundles of spermatozoa per cyst. This feature is possibly an apomorphy for Tenebrionidae.

  19. Susceptibility of different life stage of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to cold treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory tests were carried out to examine the efficacy of different exposure intervals (2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d and 7 d) on different life stages (adults, pupae, larvae, eggs) of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), the confused flour beetle, and O. surinamensis (...

  20. Context-dependent effects of cold stress on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Wertheimer, Keren-Or; Xin, Joy Lim; Gilad, Tomer; Goldenberg, Inna; Subach, Aziz

    2017-06-20

    Animals are exposed in nature to a variety of stressors. While stress is generally harmful, mild stress can also be beneficial and contribute to reproduction and survival. We studied the effect of five cold shock events versus a single cold shock and a control group, representing three levels of stress (harsh, mild, and no stress), on behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, Herbst 1797). Beetles exposed to harsh cold stress were less active than a control group: they moved less and failed more frequently to detect a food patch. Their probability to mate was also lower. Beetle pairs exposed to harsh cold stress frequently failed to reproduce at all, and if reproducing, females laid fewer eggs, which were, as larvae in mid-development, smaller than those in the control group. However, harsh cold stress led to improved female starvation tolerance, probably due to enhanced lipid accumulation. Harsh cold shock also improved tolerance to an additional cold shock compared to the control. Finally, a single cold shock event negatively affected fewer measured response variables than the harsh cold stress, but also enhanced neither starvation tolerance nor tolerance to an additional cold shock. The consequences of a harsher cold stress are thus not solely detrimental but might even enhance survival under stressful conditions. Under benign conditions, nevertheless, harsh stress impedes beetle performance. The harsh stress probably shifted the balance point of the survival-reproduction trade-off, a shift that did not take place following exposure to mild stress. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Chemical Constituents and Toxicity of Essential Oils of Oriental Arborvitae, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, against Three Stored-Product Beetles Componentes Químicos y Toxicidad de Aceites Esenciales de Tuya Oriental, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, contra Tres Escarabajos de Productos Almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or biological activity against insects. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils of leaves and fruits from oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae was investigated against adults of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab., rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L., and red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Fresh leaves and fruits were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oils was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds (92.9% and 23 constituents (97.8% were identified in the leaf and the fruit oils, respectively. The major components of both leaves and fruits oils were α-pinene (35.2%, 50.7%, α-cedrol (14.6%, 6.9% and Δ-3-carene (6.3%, 13.8%, respectively. Both oils in the same concentration were tested for their fumigant toxicity on each species. Results showed that leaf oils were more toxic than fruit oils against three species of insects. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum. LC510 values of the leaf and the fruit oils at 24 h were estimated 6.06 and 9.24 μL L¹ air for C. maculatus, 18.22 and 21.56 μL L-1 air for S. oryzae, and 32.07 and 36.58 μL L4 air for T. castaneum, respectively. These results suggested that P. orientalis oils may have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae, and T. castaneum.Los metabolitos secundarios de las plantas juegan un papel importante en las interacciones planta-insecto, y por lo tanto pueden tener actividad insecticida o biológica en los insectos. La toxicidad fumigante de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del árbol oriental de la vida (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae fue investigada contra adultos de gorgojo del guisante (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab

  2. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gu

    Full Text Available The red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing.We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP, six chemosensory proteins (CSP, four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP, 22 odorant receptors (OR, four gustatory receptors (GR, three ionotropic receptors (IR, and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis.The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary

  3. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 8, No 23 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of Fusarium fujikuroi antagonistic bacteria and cloning of its .... Isolation of cellulolytic activities from Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle) · EMAIL FREE ... alexandrinus (Geoffory Saint-Hilaire) in Bonny River, Niger Delta, Nigeria ...

  4. Time-course mortality and radiosensitivity indices in Tribolium spp. developing from irradiated pupae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Md Mahbub

    1999-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation (1-5 Krad) on the time-course mortality and radiosensitivity indices in adults of Tribolium anaphe, T. brevicornis, T. castaneum, T. destructor, T. freemani developing from irradiated 1 day old and pre-emergence (4-5 day old) pupae were studied. Adult longevity was significantly (P<0.001) affected by irradiation and was linearly dose dependent. T. destructor was markedly more radioresistant than the other species at all dose levels and had a longer life expectancy. The mean survival times of adults developing from irradiated early and late pupae were shorter in females than in males for all the species. The radiosensitivity indices did not vary widely among the species and these values decreased as the dose increased in all the species which clearly indicate that the resistance of the species was dose-dependent. (author)

  5. Polyandry produces sexy sons at the cost of daughters in red flour beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; Yan, Guiyun

    2002-02-22

    Female mating with multiple males within a single fertile period is a common phenomenon in the animal kingdom. Female insects are particularly promiscuous. It is not clear why females mate with multiple partners despite several potential costs, such as expenditure of time and energy, reduced lifespan, risk of predation and contracting sexually transmitted diseases. Female red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) obtain sufficient sperm from a single insemination to retain fertility for several months. Nonetheless they copulate repeatedly within minutes with different males despite no direct fitness benefits from this behaviour. One hypothesis is that females mate with multiple partners to provide indirect benefits via enhanced offspring fitness. To test this hypothesis, we compared the relative fitness of F(1) offspring from females mated with single males and multiple males (2, 4, 8, or 16 partners), under the condition of relatively high intraspecific competition. We found that a female mating with 16 males enhanced the relative fitness of F(1) males (in two out of three trials) but reduced F(1) females' fitness (in two independent trials) in comparison with singly mated females. We also determined whether several important fitness correlates were affected by polyandry. We found that F(1) males from mothers with 16 partners inseminated more females than F(1) males from mothers with a single partner. The viability of the eggs sired or produced by F(1) males and females from highly polyandrous mothers was also increased under conditions of low intra-specific competition. Thus, the effects of polyandry on F(1) offspring fitness depend on environmental conditions. Our results demonstrated a fitness trade-off between male and female offspring from polyandrous mothers in a competitive environment. The mechanisms and biological significance of this unique phenomenon are discussed.

  6. Efektifitas Pestisida Nabati Daun Nimba Terhadap Serangan Hama Tribolium Castaneum Hbst Pada Kacang Kedelai Di Penyimpanan

    OpenAIRE

    Hanum, Farida

    2012-01-01

    Soy bean is very popular and accepted commodity, it is almighty material for producing varieties of food, especially to complete consumption of people in Indonesia. Tempe is the highest preferences of Indonesian people, it is a type of food made of soy bean. It is rather defiantly,  although there enormous demand to soy bean products, it is very troublesome to obtain the good quality of soy bean in Indonesia. Most of the struggling technique to produce good quality soy bean is ho...

  7. Hormonal enhancement of insecticide efficacy in Tribolium castaneum: Oxidative stress and metabolic aspects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, B. K.; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 170, APR 07 (2015), s. 19-27 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * insecticide * RNA interference Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.546, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S153204561500006X

  8. A chitinase with two catalytic domains is required for organization of the cuticular extracellular matrix of a beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Young Noh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Insect cuticle or exoskeleton is an extracellular matrix formed primarily from two different structural biopolymers, chitin and protein. During each molt cycle, a new cuticle is deposited simultaneously with degradation of the inner part of the chitinous procuticle of the overlying old exoskeleton by molting fluid enzymes including epidermal chitinases. In this study we report a novel role for an epidermal endochitinase containing two catalytic domains, TcCHT7, from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, in organizing chitin in the newly forming cuticle rather than in degrading chitin present in the prior one. Recombinant TcCHT7 expressed in insect cells is membrane-bound and capable of hydrolyzing an extracellular chitin substrate, whereas in vivo, this enzyme is also released from the plasma membrane and co-localizes with chitin in the entire procuticle. RNAi of TcCHT7 reveals that this enzyme is nonessential for any type of molt or degradation of the chitinous matrix in the old cuticle. In contrast, TcCHT7 is required for maintaining the integrity of the cuticle as a compact structure of alternating electron-dense and electron-lucent laminae. There is a reduction in thickness of elytral and leg cuticles after RNAi for TcCHT7. TcCHT7 is also required for formation of properly oriented long chitin fibers inside pore canals that are vertically oriented columnar structures, which contribute to the mechanical strength of a light-weight, yet rigid, adult cuticle. The conservation of CHT7-like proteins harboring such a unique domain configuration among many insect and other arthropod species indicates a critical role for the group III class of chitinases in the higher ordered organization of chitin fibers for development of the structural integrity of many invertebrate exoskeletons.

  9. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  10. Dispersion, efficacy, and persistence of dichlorvos aerosol against two flour beetle life stages in a mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution, efficacy, and residual activity of dichlorvos applied as an aerosol to each of five floors of the Kansas State University pilot flour mill (9,968.8 m3 total volume) were evaluated based on responses of adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Jacquelin du Val), and ...

  11. Susceptibility of selected stored product insects to a combination treatment of pyriproxyfen and novaluron

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of tests was conducted to evaluate susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, Trogoderma variabile (Ballion), the warehouse beetle, and Dermestes maculatus (DeGeer), the hide beetle, to a new insecticide (Tekko®) which contained the IGR pyreproxyfen and the chiten...

  12. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  13. Manejo integrado de plagas en productos almacenados y capacidad reproductiva del Tribolium castaneum-Primera edición

    OpenAIRE

    Valero Cervantes, Marcela

    1999-01-01

    La industria de alimentos está ligada a procesos que involucran una multiplicidad de productos, maquinaria, personal y condiciones de operación, requiriendo por tanto, un control en los aspectos sanitarios y de buenas prácticas de manufactura.

  14. Mobility of adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) after exposure to long-lasting insecticide netting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored products represent an enormous economic output, but insects regularly immigrate into stored products from the surrounding landscape throughout the post-harvest supply chain. Long-lasting insecticide netting (LLIN), which usually contains an impregnated pyrethroid, has been used as part of a s...

  15. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum and Trogoderma variabile larvae and adults exposed to methoprene-treated woven packaing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methoprene is an insect growth regulator (IGR) registered in the United States for direct application to stored raw grains, as an aerosol or residual contact insecticide, or for use as a packaging treatment for protection of bagged processed food products. A series of tests were conducted to determi...

  16. Determining lethal dose of gamma radiation on different stages of Tribolium Cosmonauts H b s t

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfagharieh, H.R.; Majd, F.; Torshyzie, M.; Babaie, M.

    1992-10-01

    Pest infestation causes great losses to stored grain through out the world. This is specially true in developing countries where the technology is less advanced, and climatic conditions are extremely favourable for the development of pests. Irradiation is on approved method of direct control for stored-product insect in wheat and wheat flour in many countries, and in dictation are that it will soon be approved for all grain, grain products and other dry food commodities. Radiation doses required to kill or sterilized the most important storage pests in all stages are known. However irradiation is very effective in preventing insect development and in producing sterility. A detailed analysis of the radiosensitivity of stored-product insects shows the different groups of pests have very different sensitivities and quarantine doses can be tailored to kill or sterilize the species of quarantine concern. The effect of irradiation on insects are many, and varied, depending primarily on the species, stage, age and physical factors. The aim is to survey the effect of gamma radiation on stored pest, which can categorized under following classes: 1-The effect of gamma radiation on different stages grow of tribolium castaneum (H B S T); 2-Determination of lethal doses.; 3-The study of gamma radiation on products. In summary these information indicated that fairly low dosages of gamma radiation could be used on commodities such as bulk grain in which some infestation by insect stages of irradiation would be required on products such package foods where hundred percent mortality must be obtain. (author)

  17. Efficiency of selection methods for increased ratio of pupal-larval to adult-larval weight gains in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Cobos, P

    1994-01-12

    Four lines of Tribolium castaneum were selected in each of three replicates for increased ratio of (pupal-larval) to (adult-larval) weight gains, using selection for increased (pupal-larval) weight gain (PL), selection for decreased (adult-larval) weight gain (AL), direct selection for the ratio (R) and linear selection index of larval, pupal and adult weights (I), respectively, for four generations. Linear index was calculated with economic weights of m(2) -m(3) , m(3) -m(1) and m(1) -m(2) , respectively, with m(1) , m(2) and m(3) being the means for larval, pupal and adult weights. Selection to increase the ratio is considered to be a method to maximize the mean response in (adult-larval) weight while controlling the response in (pupal-adult) weight, and as a form of antagonistic selection to increase the weight gain during a given age period relative to the gain at another age period. Larval, pupal and adult weights were measured at 14, 21 and 28 days after adult emergence, respectively. The selected proportion was 20 % in all lines. The response observed for the ratio differed significantly among lines (p adulto-peso de larva en Tribolium Cuatro líneas de Tribolium castaneum fueron seleccionadas en cada una de tres repeticiones para incrementar el cociente (peso de pupa-peso de larva)/(peso de adulto-peso de larva); la línea PL fue seleccionada para aumentar la diferencia (peso de pupa-pesp de larva), la línea AL fue seleccionada para disminuir la diferencia (peso de adulto-peso de larva), fa línea R fue seleccionada directamente para el cociente, y la línea I fue seleccionada por medio de un índice lineal basado en los pesos de larva, pupa y adulto, durante cuatro generaciones. El índice lineal se calculó con pesos económicos de (m(2) -m(3) ), (m(3) -m(1) ), y (m(1) -m(2) ) respectivamentee, siendo m(1) , m(2) , y m(3) los valores medios para el peso de larva, pupa y adulto. La selección para aumentar el cociente indicado es un método para maximizar

  18. Identification morphométrique des populations de Tribolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude a pour objectif d'identifier la morphologie de T. castaneum à Widou sur différentes céréales. Méthodologie et résultats: Trois populations ont été définies en fonction de la céréale (maïs, mil ou riz) sur laquelle T. castaneum a déroulé son cycle de développement. Chacune des populations est constituée de 30 ...

  19. Insecticidal Activities of Tunisian Halophytic Plant Extracts against Larvae and Adults of Tribolium confusum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mighri, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt marsh plants were tested for their insecticidal activities against adults and larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sixteen aerial part extracts of Frankenia laevis, Statice echioides, Suaeda fructicosa and Tamarix boveana were obtained using organic solvents of increasing polarity and tested for their insect growth, antifeedant and toxicity effects. Responses varied with plant material, extract type, insect stage and exposition time. Larval growth inhibition was significantly induced by chloroformic, ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana, and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis. On the other hand, all extracts of S. fructicosa and the methanolic ones of the four plants tested didn't show any significant activity. In addition, ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis presented antifeedant property. S. fructicosa seemed to be, however, slightly attractive to the flour beetle. For all extracts, mortality was higher for larvae than adults. By using ethyl acetate extracts of F. laevis, S. echioides and T. boveana, and petroleum ether extract of F. laevis, mortality reached respectively 97, 87, 97 and 80%, when applied at a dose of 1%, mixed with the insect diet.

  20. Insecticidal efficacy of silica nanoparticles against Rhyzopertha dominica F. and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaee Masumeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioassays were conducted to assess the effects of two silicon dioxide nanoparticles of Aerosil® and Nanosav against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica F. and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Silica nanoparticles were applied at the rates of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg · kg−1 on wheat and peeled barley. The mortality was counted after 1, 2, 3, and 7 days of exposure. Another experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of food source on the survival of beetles after exposure to silica nanoparticles. Adults were exposed to silica nanoparticles at the rate of 0.2 mg · cm−2 for 1 and 2 days on filter paper inside plastic Petri dishes, respectively. After exposure, the initial mortality was counted and live individuals of both species were held for a week in empty glass vials or vials containing wheat and wheat flour, respectively. Silica nanoparticles have high toxicity on R. dominica and T. confusum adults. Rhyzopertha dominica was more susceptible than T. confusum. However, the mortality of both species increased with increasing concentrations and time exposed to each concentration. At low concentrations, Aerosil® was more effective than Nanosav. Silica nanoparticles were more effective in wheat grains than barley. Results indicated that the initial mortality was so high that the impact of food source on delay mortality was unclear in most cases. Silica nanoparticles were efficient against tested species and can be used effectively in a stored grain integrated pest management program.

  1. Assortative mating and directional or stabilizing selection for a non-linear function of traits in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Gil, M G

    1993-01-12

    Assortative or random mating following selection in either direction on a non-linear index (experiment 1) or stabilizing selection for pupal length (experiment 2) were carried out for five generations in two lines of Tribolium castaneum (A and R, respectively), with three replicates each. The selected proportion was 25% in all lines. In experiment 1, the selection criterion was designed to increase the aggregate value of adult weight and the first- and second-order powers of pupal length. The A and R lines gave significant responses for the aggregate value (184 ± 6 and 161 ± 14, respectively), pupal length (0.74 ± 0.02 and 0.64 ± 0.05, respectively), and adult weight (0.79 ± 0.03 and 0.78 ± 0.12, respectively). Although the A line was not significantly better than the R line, there was a consistent advantage for assortative mating over random mating, the mean response for aggregate value and pupal length being approximately 1.15 times greater for the A line. In experiment 2 the selection criterion was the square of the deviation from the mean pupal length (stabilizing selection); both lines did not show any change for pupal length. The phenotypic variance showed a significant decrease in the A and R lines, due to a decrease in between-family variance. The assortatively and randomly mated lines were similar for these changes in phenotypic variation. RESUMEN: Aparemiento clasificado y selección direccional o estabilizante para una función no lineal en Tribolium. Dos líneas de Tribolium castaneum fueron seleccionadas direccionalmente para un índice no lineal (experimento 1) o estabilizantemente para longitud de pupa (experimento 2), apareando los animales seleccionados clasificadamente (A) o aleatoriamente (R). Había tres repeticiones por experimento y línea, siendo la proporción de selección el 25%. En el experimento 1, el objetivo de selección incluía el peso adulto así como la longitud de pupa y su cuadrado. Ambas líneas dieron respuesta

  2. Model-based experimental design for assessing effects of mixtures of chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, J.; Stefanowicz, A.M.; Klimek, B.; Laskowski, R.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    We exposed flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) to a mixture of four poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The experimental setup was chosen such that the emphasis was on assessing partial effects. We interpreted the effects of the mixture by a process-based model, with a threshold concentration for

  3. Variation in susceptibility of laboratory and field strains of three stored-grain insect species to beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to concrete surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to clean, concrete floors of empty bins prior to grain storage against field strains of stored-grain insects is unknown. We exposed adults of 16 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); 8 strains ...

  4. Chemical constituents and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Carum copticum against two stored product beetles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIBI ZAHRA SAHAF; SAEID MOHARRAMIPOUR; MOHAMMAD HADI MESHKATALSADAT

    2007-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or antifeedant activity against insects. Carum copticum C. B. Clarke (Apiaceae) is one of these plants that have medicinal effects on humans. The chemical composition of the essential oil from dry seeds of C. copticum was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thymol (41.34%), α-terpinolene (17.46%) and ρ-cymene (11.76%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. In fumigant toxicity tests with the essential oil against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) at 27 +-1℃ and 60%+-5% RH, it was observed that S. oryzae (LC50= 0.91 μL/L) were significantly susceptible than T. castaneum (LC50= 33.14 μL/L). The mortalities of the insect species reached 100% at concentrations higher than 185.2 μL/L and 12-h exposure time. The findings indicate the strong insecticidal activity of C. copticum oil and its potential role as a fumigant for storedproduct insects.

  5. High-dose mode of mortality in Tribolium: A model system for study of radiation injury and repair in non-proliferative tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chihing Christina.

    1989-01-01

    With appropriate doses of ionizing radiation, both the acute, or lethal-midlethal, dose-independent pattern of mortality, and the hyperacute, dose-dependent pattern, were demonstrated within a single insect genus (Tribolium). This demonstration provides resolution of apparently contradictory reports of insect radiation responses in terms of doses required to cause lethality and those based on survival time as a function of dose. A dose-dependent mortality pattern was elicited in adult Tribolium receiving high doses, viz., 300 Gy or greater; its time course was complete in 10 days, before the dose-independent pattern of mortality began. Visual observations of heavily-irradiated Tribolium suggested neural and/or neuromuscular damage, as had been previously proposed by others for lethally-irradiated wasps, flies, and mosquitoes. Results of experiments using fractionated high doses supported the suggestion that the hyperacute or high-dose mode of death is the result of damage to nonproliferative tissues. Relative resistance of a strain to the hyperacute or high-dose mode of death was not correlated with resistance to the midlethal mode, which is believed to be the result of damage to the proliferative cells of the midgut. Using the high-dose mode of death as a model of radiation damage to nonproliferative tissues, the effects of age, and of a moderate priming dose were assessed. Beetles showed age-related increase in sensitivity to the high-dose mode of death, suggesting a decline in capacity to repair radiation damage to postmitotic tissue. This correlated with a decrease (50%) in the amount of repair reflected in the sparing effect of dose-fractionation (SDF) between the age of 1 to 3 months. The age related increase in radiosensitivity was reduced by a moderate priming dose (40 or 65 Gy) given at a young age

  6. Food source and residual efficacy of chlorfenapyr on sealed and unsealed concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, were exposed at 1 day, and 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-treatment on sealed and unsealed concrete arenas treated with chlorfenapyr at rates of 2.8, 6.9, 13.5, 20.6, 27.5 mg active ingredient/m2. Beetles were held either with or without flour, and a...

  7. Identification morphométrique des populations de Tribolium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2017 ... Méthodologie et résultats : Trois populations ont été définies en fonction de la céréale (maïs, mil ou riz) sur laquelle T. castaneum a déroulé son cycle de développement. Chacune des populations est constituée de 30 adultes mâles. Sur chaque adulte, 19 variables ont été mesurées. Les distances entre ...

  8. EST Table: FS851943 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to restin (Reed-Steinberg cell-expressed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] ...o restin (Reed-Steinberg cell-expressed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] FS906662 fner ...

  9. EST Table: FS921686 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to restin (Reed-Steinberg cell-expressed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] ...o restin (Reed-Steinberg cell-expressed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] FS906662 fwgP ...

  10. EST Table: CK487719 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/30 32 %/192 aa FBpp0283246|DpseGA26980-...CTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] BB985877 swa ...

  11. EST Table: BB985913 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 30 %/249 aa FBpp0129766|DereGG112...EDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] BB985877 MSV3 ...

  12. EST Table: FS796464 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/09 32 %/334 aa FBpp0237202|DvirGJ227...milar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] FS796494 ffbm ...

  13. Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Illicium difengpi Stem Bark and Its Constituent Compounds Towards Two Grain Storage Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Sha Chu, Sha; Fang Wang, Cheng; Shan Du, Shu; Liang Liu, Shao; Long Liu, Zhi

    2011-01-01

    During our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, the essential oil of Illicium difengpi stem bark was found to possess strong insecticidal activities against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). A total of 37 components of the essential oil of I. difengpi were identified. The main components of the essential oil were safrole (23.61%), linalool...

  14. Disinfestation of stored rice and corn grains by gamma irradiation. 3. Survival values for irradiated rice weevil and flour beetle and comparison of gamma irradiation and fumigation of weevil infested grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Villarcarlos, L.T.

    1976-02-01

    Survival values for Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum adults were studied using gamma radiation dosage of 25, 50, 100 and 150 krad. Results with the two species seemed similar, although the rice weevil appeared the more sensitive. Rice and corn grains were artificially infested with Sitophilus oryzae and then treated with gamma radiation or fumigation. Both treatment reduced or eliminated adult emergence although fumigation left some insecticidal residues in corn. Sterility in the adult weevils was induced by 15 or 25 krad treatment of gamma radiation. A practical control level for bulk irradiation of rice or corn grains could probably be achieved by a 25 krad treatment although complete disinfestation should be achieved by a 50 krad treatment

  15. Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil Isolated from Azilia eryngioides (Pau Hedge et Lamond Against Two Beetle Pests Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial Aislado de Azilia eryngioides (Pau Hedge et Lamond contra Dos Escarabajos Plaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A large number of plant essential oils have been used against diverse insect pests since they, unlike conventional pesticides, present no risk to humans and the environment. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of Azilia eryngioides (Pau Hedge et Lamond (Apiaceae essential oil against 1- to 7-d-old Sitophilus granarius (L. (Curculionidae and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Tenebrionidae adults. The essential oil was obtained from aerial parts of the plant using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were α-Pinene and bornyl acetate. Fumigation bioassays revealed that A. eryngioides oil had a strong insecticidal activity on adult test insects that were exposed to 37.03, 74.07, 111.11, and 148.14 µL L-1 to estimate mean lethal time (LT50 values. Mortality increased as concentration and exposure time increased, and reached 100% at the 39-h exposure time and concentrations higher than 111.11 µL L-1. Another experiment was designed to determine the mean lethal concentration at the 24-h exposure time (LC50-, and these values indicated that S. granarius was more susceptible than T. castaneum. It can be concluded that the essential oil of A. eryngioides has potential against two stored-product pests, S. granarius and T. castaneum.Una gran cantidad de aceites esenciales de plantas se han utilizado como agentes de control biológico contra diversos insectos plaga, ya que no presentan riesgo para los seres humanos y el medio ambiente, a diferencia de los pesticidas convencionales. Se determinó la toxicidad del aceite esencial de Azilia eryngioides (Pau Hedge et Lamond (Apiaceae contra adultos de 1 a 7 días de edad de Sitophilus granarius (L. (Curculionidae y Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Tenebrionidae. El aceite esencial se obtuvo de las partes aéreas de la planta utilizando un aparato de Clevenger y se analizó por cromatografía de gases por espectrometría de

  16. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  17. Effects of Olea europaea L. Leaf Metabolites on the Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and Three Stored Pests, Sitophilus granarius, Tribolium confusum and Acanthoscelides obtectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kısa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olea europea L. emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments of various countries of the world, in particular Mediterranean countries. In this study, oleuropein (1, oleanolic acid (2, maslinic acid (3, a mixture of erythrodiol and uvaol (4 and 5 isolated from the leaves of olive were added at two concentrations (1g/100g feed and 4g/100 g feed into fish feed. Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia were fed twice a day with the feed during 96 hours. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzymes and glucose levels in the serums of fishes fed with pure compounds were found to be higher as compared with the control group. Pure metabolites affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. These results suggested that the compounds tested affect the liver metabolism of Nile tilapia. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4+5 (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/Petri dish concentrations were also tested for contact toxic effects against three important stored pests, Sitophilus granarius (weevil, Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle and Acanthoscelides obtectus (bean weevil. The toxic effects of the metabolites were lower than those of the insecticide, dichlorvos (DDVP. DDVP caused complete mortality of the insects after 48 hours of treatments, the metabolites caused the mortality rates 16.7-63.3 %, 13.3-67.0 % and 26.7-59.0 % of S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. Maslinic acid (3 has the most toxic compound with the lowest LC 50 values (0.66 mg/Petri, 0.61 mg/Petri and 1.71 mg/Petri for S. granarius, T. confusum and A. obtectus, respectively. These results show that maslinic acid (3 as well as other substances can be used as natural insecticides against these pests.

  18. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  19. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  20. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  1. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  2. EST Table: CK543352 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CK543352 rswhb0_010139.y1 10/09/29 49 %/150 aa ref|XP_970926.1| PREDICTED: similar to wind...beutel CG7225-PA [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EFA09214.1| windbeutel [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/31 43 %/...gi|91087911|ref|XP_970926.1| PREDICTED: similar to windbeutel CG7225-PA [Tribolium castaneum] FS904508 swh ...

  3. EST Table: DC539837 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DC539837 E_FL_dpe-_03A08_F_0 10/09/28 50 %/113 aa ref|XP_970926.1| PREDICTED: similar to wind...beutel CG7225-PA [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EFA09214.1| windbeutel [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/02 46...aa gi|91087911|ref|XP_970926.1| PREDICTED: similar to windbeutel CG7225-PA [Tribolium castaneum] FS904508 dpe- ...

  4. EST Table: CK492091 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CK492091 rswab0_010833.y1 10/09/29 53 %/139 aa ref|XP_970926.1| PREDICTED: similar to wind...beutel CG7225-PA [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EFA09214.1| windbeutel [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/30 43 %/...gi|91087911|ref|XP_970926.1| PREDICTED: similar to windbeutel CG7225-PA [Tribolium castaneum] FS904508 swa ...

  5. EST Table: FS920882 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ97704.1| budding uninhibited by benzimida...|91091890|ref|XP_970295.1| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] FS920882 fufe ... ...zoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/13 61 %/256 aa FBpp0282833|DpseGA20454-PA 10/08

  6. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  7. Fumigant and Repellent Activity of Limonene Enantiomers Against Tribolium confusum du Val.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacrinò, A; Campolo, O; Laudani, F; Palmeri, V

    2016-10-01

    The use of pesticides, as carried out in the last 50 years, caused several negative environmental and human health consequences, leading to the development of alternative techniques to control pests, such as the use of compounds of plant origin. In this study, we assessed the fumigant and repellent activity of both the enantiomers of limonene, a monoterpene usually found in many plant species, against Tribolium confusum du Val. We tested both molecules at different doses, air temperatures, and in absence and presence of flour. R-(+)-limonene resulted more effective than S-(-)-limonene; indeed, it was able to reach 100% of efficacy at a concentration of 85 mg/L air when tested at different temperatures without flour. Data showed a positive relationship between efficacy and temperature, and a negative effect of the presence of debris on the bioactivity of limonene. Furthermore, repellency trials reported a higher activity of R-(+)-limonene compared to the other enantiomer.

  8. What do dung beetles eat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2007-01-01

    Most adult coprophagous beetles feed on fresh dung of mammalian herbivores, confining ingestion to small particles with measured maximum diameters from 2-5 to 130 µm, according to body size and kind of beetle. This study explores benefits and costs of selective feeding in a ‘typical' dung beetle...... that of elephant and rhino (40-58%) was available to selective feeders. 3. Nitrogen concentrations were high - and C/N ratios low - in most types of bulk dung compared with the average food of terrestrial detritivores or herbivores. Exceptions were elephant and rhino dung with low nitrogen concentrations and high...... C/N ratios. 4. Estimated C/N ratios of 13-39 in bulk dung (sheep-elephant) were decreased by selective feeding to 7.3-12.6 in the ingested material. In assimilated food, ratios are probably only 5-7, as most assimilable nitrogen and carbon may be of microbial origin. If so, the assimilable food...

  9. Some ecological, economic, and social consequences of bark beetle infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Adris Eglitis; John E. Lundquist

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are powerful agents of change in dynamic forest ecosystems. Most assessments of the effects of bark beetle outbreaks have been based on negative impacts on timber production. The positive effects of bark beetle activities are much less well understood. Bark beetles perform vital functions at all levels of scale in forest ecosystems. At the landscape...

  10. Monitoring Asian longhorned beetles in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya Nehme; Melody Keena; Aijun Zhang; Alan Sawyer; Kelli. Hoover

    2011-01-01

    An operationally effective trap to monitor the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis or ALB) has been a goal of the ALB eradication program since the first beetle was found in New York in 1996. Ground surveying is only ~20 percent effective at identifying infested trees and, although tree climbing is more effective, it is also...

  11. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics

  12. Acoustic characteristics of rhinoceros beetle stridulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stridulation behavior has been reported for adults and larvae of many dynastids. This report describes acoustic recordings and analyses of stridulations by larvae of two Southeastern Asia rhinoceros beetle species and by adults of the coconut rhinoceros beetle. The behavioral context of the strid...

  13. Studies on the control of stored grain pests by gamma radiations under different storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, G.R.; Prasad, H.; Bhatia, Parvathy

    1979-01-01

    Studies conducted earlier at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, demonstrated that it was possible to check further multiplication of adults of rust red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) by the release of sterile adults under laboratory conditions. These investigations were extended further using mud storage structures and G.I. bins with a capacity to hold 40 and 26 kg of wheat, respectively. Data on observations under these conditions as well as pros and cons of extending this further in small storage godowns are presented. (auth.)

  14. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil of Atalantia guillauminii against Three Species Stored Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Lei, Ning; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Ma, Ping; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The toxic and repellent activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Atalantia guillauminii Swingle were evaluated against three stored product insects, red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum), cigarette beetles (Lasioderma serricorne) and booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila). The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil were β-thujene (27.18%), elemicin (15.03%), eudesma-3, 7(11)-diene (9.64%), followed by (-)-4-terpeniol (6.70%) and spathulenol (5.25%). The crude oil showed remarkable contact toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults and L. bostrychophila with LD50 values of 17.11, 24.07 µg/adult and 55.83 µg/cm(2) respectively and it also displayed strong fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults with LC50 values of 17.60 and 12.06 mg/L respectively, while weak fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila with a LC50 value of 16.75 mg/L. Moreover, the essential oil also exhibited the same level repellency against the three stored product insects, relative to the positive control, DEET. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne. Thus, the essential oil of A. guillauminii may be potential to be developed as a new natural fumigant/repellent in the control of stored product insects.

  15. Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2010-09-06

    Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disinfestation of whole and ground spices by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padwal-Desai, S.R.; Sharma, Arun; Amonkar, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    Number of insect species were identified in chilli (Capsicum annum Linn), turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), pepper (Piper nigrum Linn) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and also in two commercial brands of prepacked ground spices. Lasioderma serricorne (Cigarette beetle), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Saw toothed grain beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (Lesser grain borer), Sitotroga cerealella (Angoumois grain moth) and Tribolium castaneum (Red flour beetle) were the predominant pest species found in these spices. Exposure of spices to Co 60 gamma irradiation at 1 kGy dose level did not show adult emergence of insects in these species during storage at ambient temperature (28-30degC) indicating that the radiation dose (10 kGy) that has been shown to be effective for microbial decontamination of spices destroys insect pests as well. (author). 8 refs

  17. EST Table: BY918756 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/29 54 %/247 aa FBpp0120238|DanaGF170... similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] FS768084 F1mg ...

  18. EST Table: DC530000 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/01 52 %/221 aa FBpp0120238|DanaGF170... similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] FS768084 J150 ...

  19. EST Table: CK540677 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/31 53 %/160 aa FBpp0120238|DanaGF17046-...milar to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] FS768084 swh ...

  20. EST Table: FS841713 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/10 53 %/160 aa FBpp0120238|DanaGF170... similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] FS768084 fner ...

  1. EST Table: CK560363 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/01 50 %/188 aa FBpp0120238|DanaGF17046-...milar to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] FS768084 swp ...

  2. EST Table: FS772438 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0040007(growth) 10/09/28 30 %/138 aa ref|XP_966819.1| PREDICTED: similar to myostatin [Tribolium castaneum] ... 30 %/138 aa gi|91085397|ref|XP_966819.1| PREDICTED: similar to myostatin [Tribolium castaneum] FS772438 fcaL ...

  3. EST Table: BB986249 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 low homology 10/08/27 35 %/211 aa... %/206 aa gnl|Amel|GB13722-PA 10/09/10 42 %/206 aa gi|91087345|ref|XP_975608.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] BB985877 MSV3 ...

  4. EST Table: BB986379 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 low homology 10/08/27 35 %/211 aa... %/206 aa gnl|Amel|GB13722-PA 10/09/10 43 %/206 aa gi|91087345|ref|XP_975608.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] BB985877 MSV3 ...

  5. EST Table: AU000228 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available imidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ97704.1| budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles... PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] FS920882 e4 ... ...AU000228 e40269 10/09/28 65 %/148 aa ref|XP_970295.1| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benz

  6. EST Table: FS909643 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ97704.1| budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles...|XP_970295.1| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] FS920882 fufe ...

  7. EST Table: AU005732 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available zimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ97704.1| budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles...| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] FS920882 wv4 ... ...AU005732 wv40030 10/09/28 55 %/233 aa ref|XP_970295.1| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by ben

  8. EST Table: DC543324 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ97704.1| budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles...|XP_970295.1| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] FS920882 dpe- ...

  9. EST Table: FY010566 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ97704.1| budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles....1| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] FS920882 bmov ... ...FY010566 bmov30j15 11/11/04 66 %/169 aa ref|XP_970295.1| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3

  10. EST Table: FS905368 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ97704.1| budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles...|XP_970295.1| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] FS920882 fufe ...

  11. EST Table: DC559243 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ97704.1| budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles...|XP_970295.1| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] FS920882 wd-- ...

  12. EST Table: FS931361 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ97704.1| budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles...|XP_970295.1| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] FS920882 fwgP ...

  13. EST Table: FS765476 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ97704.1| budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles...|XP_970295.1| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] FS920882 fcaL ...

  14. EST Table: FS791348 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ97704.1| budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles...|XP_970295.1| PREDICTED: similar to BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 [Tribolium castaneum] FS920882 ffbm ...

  15. EST Table: DC554597 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 rtel1 [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/02 low homology 10/08/28...1|ref|XP_975541.1| PREDICTED: similar to regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 rtel1 [Tribolium castaneum] DC547580 wd-- ...

  16. Asian longhorned beetle complicates the relationship ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban foresters routinely emphasise the importance of taxonomic diversity to reduce the vulnerability of tree assemblages to invasive pests, but it is unclear to what extent diversity reduces vulnerability to polyphagous (i.e. generalist) pests. Drawing on field data from seven communities in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, we tested the hypothesis that communities with higher diversity would exhibit lower vulnerability to the polyphagous Asian longhorned beetle, which currently threatens the region. Based on street tree compositions and the beetle?s host preferences, Asian longhorned beetle threatened up to 35.6% of individual street trees and 47.5% of the total basal area across the study area, but we did not see clear connections between taxonomic diversity and beetle vulnerability among study communities. For example, the city of Fairfield was among the least diverse communities but had the lowest proportion of trees vulnerable to Asian longhorned beetle, whereas the city of Wyoming exhibited high diversity and high vulnerability. On the other hand, Forest Park aligned with our original hypothesis, as it was characterised by low diversity and high vulnerability. Our results demonstrate that relatively high taxonomic diversity in street tree assemblages does not necessarily lead to reduced vulnerability to a polyphagous pest. Considering the threats posed by polyphagous pests, selecting a set of relatively pest resistant trees known to perform well in urb

  17. Symbiont diversification in ambrosia beetles: Diversity of fungi associated with exotic scolytine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    In virtually every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying wood. Some introduced ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and can damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody plant t...

  18. Pheromone biosynthesis in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    Pine bark beetles rely on aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass attacks and thus reproduce in host trees. The structural similarity between many pheromone components and those of defensive tree resin led to early suggestions that pheromone components are metabolic derivatives of ingested precursors. This model has given way to our current understanding that most pheromone components are synthesized de novo. Their synthesis involves enzymes that modify products from endogenous metabolic pathways; some of these enzymes have been identified and characterized. Pheromone production is regulated in a complex way involving multiple signals, including JH III. This brief review summarizes progress in our understanding of this highly specialized metabolic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of oxygen in enhancement in repair of radiation injuries in Tribolium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was determined for various biological responses in Tribolium confusum McGill Black. The biological responses included acute lethality of the adults and larvae; sexual sterilization of the male and female adults; fecundity of the females and hatchability of their eggs as well as the competitiveness of the males. The OER for acute lethality for the male and female adults was found to be 2.25-2.38, regardless of the type of inert gas used to achieve anaerobiosis. Acute lethality for the larvae showed an OER of 2.79. The OER for male and female sexual sterilization was 2.35 and 3.37 respectively. With irradiation carried out in oxygen, the results suggested that at the tissue level of the adults and the male reproductive organ, there is a certain degree of hypoxia. Sexual sterilization of the males by radiation is attributed to the induction of dominant lethal mutation in the sperms, and that of the females involves a combination of dominant lethals and decreased egg production. The OER for egg hatchability at a hatchability level of 50% of the control for irradiated females was 4.0, a surprisingly higher value than that of any other biological responses studied. The OER for fecundity of irradiated females and for male competitiveness were roughly estimated to be 2.8 and 2.3-2.7 respectively. Since the OER for male sexual sterilization is basically the same as that for acute lethality for adults, it is expected that the competitiveness, which depends on the amount of somatic damage by radiation, will not be protected to a much greater extent by anaerobic irradiation than sterilization. It is clearly demonstrated that OER values are specific for the particular end point scored. Even within the same organism, different OER can be obtained with different biological responses

  20. The ground-beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Nukatlinskiy watershed

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nahibasheva; Sh. M. Imanaliev

    2008-01-01

    The article is devoted to studying of ground-beetles fauna of Nukatlinskiy watershed of Republic Dagestan. For the first time the specific structure of ground-beetles this area, the numbering 109 kinds concerning 31 sort is resulted. The analysis of sexual structure of populations and seasonal dynamics of activity ground-beetles is lead.

  1. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  2. Long-horned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Tortoise Beetles (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae of Tripura, northeastern India with some new additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Agarwala

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of nineteen species of Long-horned Beetles (Cerambycidae and eleven species of Tortoise Beetles (Cassidinae from Tripura state, northeastern India. These include 11 species of Cerambycidae and seven species of Cassidinae, respectively, as new records from the state. Distribution of these beetles in different parts of the state are provided.

  3. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  4. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Putchkov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes, situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  5. Determining host suitability of pecan for stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufran, A A; Mulder, P G; Payton, M E; Shufran, K A

    2013-04-01

    A no-choice test was performed to determine survival and reproductive capacity of stored-product insect pests on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenheim) Koch. Insects used were Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae); and rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae). Fifty adults of each beetle species or 10 reproductive pairs of P. interpunctella adults were placed in 0.5-liter containers with either whole-shell pecans, cracked-shell pecans, randomly selected in-shell pecans, pecan nutmeats, cracked wheat, or glass beads and held at 28 degrees C, 60-70% relative humidity, and 16:8 (L:D) photoperiod for 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk. Four replications of each insect-diet-interval combination were performed. Larvae of P. interpunctella, O. surinamensis, T. castaneum, C. ferrugineus, and adult P. interpunctella and O. surinamensis developed on cracked and nutmeat pecan diets. R. dominica did not complete reproduction on pecans. Knowledge that these pests can reproduce on stored pecan will assist pecan growers, accumulators, and storage facilities in preventing insect outbreaks on their product.

  6. Composition and repellency of the essential oils of Evodia calcicola Chun ex Huang and Evodia trichotoma (Lour.) Pierre against three stored product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Guo, Shan-Shan; Li, Yin-Ping; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Du, Shu-Shan

    2014-01-01

    During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oils of Evodia calcicola and Evodia trichotoma leaves were found to possess strong repellency against the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum adults, the cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne adults and the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila. The two essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were investigated by GC-MS. The main components of E. calcicola essential oil were identified to be (-)-β-pinene (44.02%), β-phellandrene (20.93%), ocimene (16.49%), and D-limonene (9.87%). While the main components of the essential oil of E. trichotoma were D-limonene (69.55%), 1R-a-pinene (11.48%), caryophyllene (2.80%) and spathulenol (2.24%). Data showed that T. castaneum was the most sensitive than other two stored product insects. Compared with the positive control, DEET (N, N-diethyl-3- methylbenzamide), the two essential oils showed the same level repellency against the red flour beetle. However, the essential oil of E. trichotoma showed the same level repellency against the cigarette beetle, while E. calcicola essential oil possessed the less level repellency against L. serricorne, relative to the positive control, DEET. Moreover, the two crude oils also exhibited strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, but lesser level repellency than the positive control, DEET. Thus, the essential oils of E. calcicola and E. trichotoma may be potential to be developed as a new natural repellent in the control of stored product insects.

  7. Studies on tiger beetles : 84. Additions to the tiger beetle fauna of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassola, F.

    1996-01-01

    Distributional new data are provided for several interesting or poorly known tiger beetle species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The generic attribution of Wallacedela brendelli Cassola, 1991, is confirmed, and moreover two new species, Wallacedela? problematica spec. nov. and Wallacedela butonensis

  8. Overwintering biology and tests of trap and relocate as a conservation measure for burying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Burying beetles are carrion beetles and utilize dead animal carcasses for feeding : and reproductive efforts. They assist with decomposition, prevent the spread of disease, : and reduce the number of pest species. The largest species of carrion beetl...

  9. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  10. BEETLE - A modular electronics family for robotics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available of applications. A family of modular electronic elements is proposed to address this need. The Beautiful Embedded Electronic Logic Element (BEETLE) family of boards is designed to be compact, low cost, robust, reusable and easy to program. This allows the boards...

  11. Feeding stimulants for the colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    Potato leaf extract was fractionated and the fractions obtained were tested for their activity as feeding stimulants for Colorado beetle larvae. Also leaves and leaf extracts of different kinds of plants, as well as a number of known pure compounds and mixtures of them, were tested for this

  12. Bark beetle responses to vegetation management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel D. McMillin; Christopher J. Fettig

    2009-01-01

    Native tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are a natural component of forest ecosystems. Eradication is neither possible nor desirable and periodic outbreaks will occur as long as susceptible forests and favorable climatic conditions co-exist. Recent changes in forest structure and tree composition by natural processes and management...

  13. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  14. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, M.; Bentz, B. J.; Bewick, S.; Lenhart, S. M.; Liebhold, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 407, OCT 21 (2016), s. 25-37 ISSN 0022-5193 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bistability * bark beetle * Dendroctonus ponderosae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519316301928

  15. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  16. Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K

    2017-09-01

    Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Radiobiological studies on eggs of the rice weevil (Tribolium confusum) after exposure to heavy primary particles of the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, B.

    1982-01-01

    The thesis explains the radiation effects observed during the holometabolism of Tribolium confusum after exposure of the eggs to heavy primary particles of cosmic radiation, i.e. to atomic nuclei of relatively high energy with a mass greater than helium atoms. The first section describes the technical layout of the BIOSTACK experiment and the fixation of the Tribolium eggs and the positioning of the nuclear track detectors. This part is followed by the description of methods used to detect the eggs hit by the heavy nuclei, and their isolation and subsequent growth. Terrestrial irradiation of eggs with x-rays served as a control, as well as unirradiated egg cultures. The amount of larvae produced from incubated eggs hit by heavy nuclei was 66%, that of eggs exposed to cosmic background radiation was 69%, and that produced by the control culture kept on the earth was 87%. Investigations of egg samples during various stages of embryogenesis showed differences in the histological findings of the various groups, especially between the two groups of the BIOSTACK experiment. The letality of larvae in the period from emergence up to pupal stage was relatively high (50%) in the group hit by heavy nuclei, especially when compared to the other BIOSTACK experimental group, where this percentage was 10%, and to the terrestrial control group (3%). Also, vitality of larvae of the first group was considerably reduced. In the pupal stage, the letality observed in all three test groups was relatively low with 2-4%. From the animals produced from eggs hit by heavy nuclei, only 25% were still alive after 4 months, from the other space flight group these were 75%, and from the terrestrial control group 93%. Also, the animals from the first group showed a significant increase in bodily anomalies. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Effect of hyperthermia on radiation damage and its repair in Tribolium confusum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    A series of temperature tolerance curves from 43.5 0 C to 46.0 0 C in 0.5 0 C increment were determined. Two non-lethal hyperthermia schemes, i.e., 45.0 0 C for 2 hr and 43.0 0 C for 2 hr were chosen to examine the sensitizing effect of heat on lethality produced by radiation in flour beetles. When hyperthermia was applied either immediately before or after irradiation, the sensitizing effect of hyperthermia was indicated by the shifting of the regression line of survival in probits on dose to the left of that of the control. The sensitizing effect as measured by decreased LD 50 did not reveal any definite trend related to the order of application of the two modalities in immediate sequence. The effect of hyperthermia was more dramatic in dose-fractionation experiments. Flour beetles exhibited typical Elkind kinetics of split-dose repair and recovery, and the amount of the sparing effect of dose-fractionation (sdf) was influenced by interfraction temperature. Both interfraction hypothermia (i.e., less than or equal to 10 0 C) and interfraction hyperthermia (i.e., > 42.0 0 C) completely suppress sdf. However, the mechanism involved in the suppression of sdf by hypothermia was different than that by hyperthermia. In the former, the suppression of sdf was reversible immediately upon return to the normal incubation temperature of 30 0 C; in the latter, the suppression of sdf was protracted and the reversibility of sdf depended on the severity of the hyperthermia treatment. Hyperthermia of 43.0 0 C for 2 hr, applied either immediately before or after the first radiation dose, suppressed sdf for 6-10 hr, and then sdf reappeared slowly, so that the final level of survival was slightly less than that of the comparable groups maintained at 30 0 C. With the more severe hyperthermia treatment of 45.0 0 C for 2 hr, sdf was suppressed for almost 36 hr after return to 30 0 C although there were some slight surges in survival

  19. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles

    OpenAIRE

    el Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J.; Byrne, Marcus J.; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-01-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue...

  20. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis regurgitome and insights into beetle-borne virus specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Gedling

    Full Text Available For nearly 400 million years, insects and plants have been embattled in an evolutionary arms race. Insects have developed diverse feeding strategies and behaviors in an effort to circumvent and overcome an extensive collection of plant defense tactics. Sap-sucking insects often inject saliva into hosts plants, which contains a suite of effector proteins and even microbial communities that can alter the plant's defenses. Lacking salivary glands, leaf-feeding beetles represent an interesting group of phytophagous insects. Feeding beetles regurgitate onto leaf surfaces and it is thought that these oral secretions influence insect-plant interactions and even play a role in virus-vector specificity. Since the molecular and biological makeup of the regurgitant is virtually unknown, we carried out RNA sequencing and 16S rDNA analysis on a major soybean pest, Epilachna varivestis, to generate the first ever beetle "regurgitome" and characterize its microbiome. Interestingly, the regurgitant is comprised of a rich molecular assortment of genes encoding putative extracellular proteins involved in digestion, molting, immune defense, and detoxification. By carrying out plant inoculation assays, we reinforced the fundamental role of the regurgitant in beetle-borne virus specificity. Ultimately, these studies begin to characterize the importance of regurgitant in virus transmission and beetle-plant interactions.

  2. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  3. Ground beetle habitat templets and riverbank integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Van Looy, Kris; Vanacker, Stijn; Jochems, Hans; De Blust, Geert; Dufrêne, M

    2006-01-01

    The habitat templet approach was used in a scale-sensitive bioindicator assessment for the ecological integrity of riverbanks and for specific responses to river management. Ground beetle habitat templets were derived from a catchment scale sampling, integrating the overall variety of bank types. This coarse-filter analysis was integrated in the reach scale fine-filtering approaches of community responses to habitat integrity and river management impacts. Higher species diversity was associat...

  4. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  5. Asymmetric hindwing foldings in rove beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Okabe, Yoji

    2014-11-18

    Foldable wings of insects are the ultimate deployable structures and have attracted the interest of aerospace engineering scientists as well as entomologists. Rove beetles are known to fold their wings in the most sophisticated ways that have right-left asymmetric patterns. However, the specific folding process and the reason for this asymmetry remain unclear. This study reveals how these asymmetric patterns emerge as a result of the folding process of rove beetles. A high-speed camera was used to reveal the details of the wing-folding movement. The results show that these characteristic asymmetrical patterns emerge as a result of simultaneous folding of overlapped wings. The revealed folding mechanisms can achieve not only highly compact wing storage but also immediate deployment. In addition, the right and left crease patterns are interchangeable, and thus each wing internalizes two crease patterns and can be folded in two different ways. This two-way folding gives freedom of choice for the folding direction to a rove beetle. The use of asymmetric patterns and the capability of two-way folding are unique features not found in artificial structures. These features have great potential to extend the design possibilities for all deployable structures, from space structures to articles of daily use.

  6. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-05-04

    This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus). The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were δ-cadinol (12.8%), caryophyllene (12.7%), β-cubebene (7.9%), 4-terpineol (7.5%) and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%), while humulene epoxide II (29.4%), caryophyllene oxide (24.0%), diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7%) and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7%) were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively.

  7. Asteraceae - an evaluation of hutchinsons beetle-daisy hypothesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available repel the beetles. However in this review of plant mimicry worldwide, it is considered an exceptionally intriguing example of Batesian mimicry. Despite the fact there still appears to be a dearth of information on the interaction between beetle...

  8. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle.

  9. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  10. Book review of advances in insect physiology: pine bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    If not the most destructive forest pest, bark beetles are probably a close second in their culpability for killing millions of trees in the Northern Hemisphere. This volume provides an aptly-timed interdisciplinary review on aspects of bark beetle physiology, especially how it relates to selecting, ...

  11. Hidden in Plain sight: synthetic pheromone misleads beetles, protects trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Meznarich; Robert Progar

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, pine forests throughout much of the western United States have been ravaged by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). This bark beetle is native to the United States and has been responsible for massive tree kills in the past. The current outbreak, however, has been notably severe and wide ranging and the effects have been more dramatic...

  12. Ecological interactions of bark beetles with host trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...

  13. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: Causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David J. A.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  14. 78 FR 27853 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ...-0004] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Ohio AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the Asian... to prevent the artificial spread of the Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United...

  15. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  16. Influence of predators and parisitoids on bark beetle productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Weslien

    1991-01-01

    In an earlier field experiment, natural enemies of the bark beetle, Ips typographus (L) were estimated to have reduced bark beetle productivity by more than 80 percent. To test this hypothesis, spruce logs (Picea abies) were placed in the forest in the spring, prior to commencement of flight by I. typographus....

  17. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  18. Endocrine control of exaggerated traits in rhinoceros beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits in insects such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetle. Male stag beetles have sexually-dimorphic, condition-dependent expre...

  19. Effect of irradiation and exposure to nitrogen on the mortality of adults. Tribolium confusum J. du V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscarlet, L.A.; Aminian, B.; Bali, C.

    1986-09-01

    For insect control irradiation can be improved by combination with other methods in order to limit the dose and hence to preserve the sensory qualities of some foods like fresh fruits, or to kill more rapidly the adult stage for avoiding the risk that a shipment be rejected because of the presence of living insects. The effect of irradiation with long exposure to inert gaz has not been reported yet. This study presents preliminary results on Tribolium confusum. Irradiation alone from 120 to 1000 Gy killed 100% of adults T. confusum in 12 to 15 days. At 60 Gy 10% insects were living after 28 days and at 40 Gy no mortality was observed. Mortality of adults T. confusum observed 10 days after exposure to nitrogen increased with the exposure time. 100 % mortality was reached for 17 hours exposure. When insects were exposed to nitrogen before or after irradiation synergic effects were observed. The greatest efficiency was obtained when insects were irradiated at 600 Gy after 9 hr exposure. When insects were exposed to nitrogen during irradiation the protective effectt of a short exposure (1/2 hr) was observed only for low doses (< 60 Gy). For a long exposure (9 hr) early irradiation at 600 Gy was more efficient than late irradiation

  20. Niche separation of pollen beetle parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef eBerger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Species with similar resource requirements are commonly assumed to competitively exclude each other, unless they differentiate their ecological niches. Hence, parasitoid wasps that use the same host species need to find some way to avoid competition. The aim of this study was to identify the role of volatile cues from oilseed rape plants and the larval host in niche separation between three coexisting parasitoid species. We examined how Phradis interstitialis, Phradis morionellus and Tersilochus heterocerus, sympatric parasitoids of Brassicogethes aeneus, differ in their abundances, distribution on buds and flowers, and oviposition behavior in the field. Furthermore, we tested their preferences for odours from uninfested and infested oilseed rape plants in the bud and flowering stage, and their preferences for odours from three developmental stages of pollen beetle larvae in a two-choice olfactometer bioassay.P. interstitialis was active in the field early in the season, preferred odours of infested buds versus uninfested, and oviposited into buds which contained only pollen beetle eggs, while P. morionellus was active late in the season, preferred odours of infested buds as well as odours of infested flowers over uninfested, and oviposited into buds which contained only larvae. T. heterocerus was active throughout the season, and preferred odours of infested flowers over uninfested. Neither Phradis species were attracted to larval odours, whereas T. heterocerus was attracted to odours from first-instar pollen beetle larvae both in the absence of plant odours, and when presented simultaneously with uninfested plant odour.This suggests that the two Phradis species are separated on a temporal scale and that they parasitize different host stages, while the larval parasitoids P. morionellus and T. heterocerus are separated by choice of microhabitat. The former oviposits into larvae in buds, and the latter in flowers.

  1. Experimental porcine cysticercosis using infected beetles with Taenia solium eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2018-07-01

    Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0-71), 26 (range 5-33) and 40 cysts (range 4-111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  3. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  4. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  5. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, L.P.

    2010-01-01

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  6. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  7. Quantifying sources of variation in the frequency of fungi associated with spruce beetles: implications for hypothesis testing and sampling methodology in bark beetle-symbiont relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian H. Aukema; Richard A. Werner; Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Murray K. Clayton; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), causes landscape level mortality to mature spruce (Picea spp.) throughout western and northern North America. As with other bark beetles, this beetle is associated with a variety of fungi, whose ecological functions are largely unknown. It has been proposed that the relative...

  8. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  9. Patterns of movement of radioactive carabid beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baars, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Tracking of individual 192 Ir-labelled ground beetles released in the field revealed that both the day-active and night-active species studied showed periods of small distances covered per day in random directions, alternating with periods of directed movement with large distances covered per day. This pattern occurred not only in the reproductive period but outside the breeding season as well in juvenile Pterostichus versicolor and spent Calathus melanocephalus. Although mean locomotory activity increased with temperature, great daily differences occurred between individuals, pointing to asynchronous behaviour. In an unfavorable habitat directed movement occurred both more frequently and more extremely, sometimes resulting in escape to more favorable areas. Most of the radioactive beetles died within 7 weeks due to radiation effects, but independent field experiments and simulations showed that the recorded patterns were valid. Simulated individuals of P. versicolor living on 1 ha spread over 49 ha, whereas simulated C. melanocephalus covered only 9 ha after one activity season. Normal locomotory activities lead to both exchange of individuals between subpopulations and dispersal out of the habitat. The significance of these phenomena for population stability and for the survival of the species is discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A.; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ESACIB (‘EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos’) database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the “Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular”. In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  11. Cross-Resistance: A Consequence of Bi-partite Host-Parasite Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joop, Gerrit

    2018-01-01

    Host-parasite coevolution can influence interactions of the host and parasite with the wider ecological community. One way that this may manifest is in cross-resistance towards other parasites, which has been observed to occur in some host-parasite evolution experiments. In this paper, we test for cross-resistance towards Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas entomophila in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, which was previously allowed to coevolve with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. We combine survival and gene expression assays upon infection to test for cross-resistance and underlying mechanisms. We show that larvae of T. castaneum that evolved with B. bassiana under coevolutionary conditions were positively cross-resistant to the bacterium B. thuringiensis, but not P. entomophila. Positive cross-resistance was mirrored at the gene expression level with markers that were representative of the oral route of infection being upregulated upon B. bassiana exposure. We find that positive cross-resistance towards B. thuringiensis evolved in T. castaneum as a consequence of its coevolutionary interactions with B. bassiana. This cross-resistance appears to be a consequence of resistance to oral toxicity. The fact that coevolution with B. bassiana results in resistance to B. thuringiensis, but not P. entomophila implies that B. thuringiensis and B. bassiana may share mechanisms of infection or toxicity not shared by P. entomophila. This supports previous suggestions that B. bassiana may possess Cry-like toxins, similar to those found in B. thuringiensis, which allow it to infect orally. PMID:29495405

  12. Identification and characterization of insect-specific proteins by genome data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guojie; Wang, Hongsheng; Shi, Junjie

    2007-01-01

    melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, Bombyx mori, Tribolium castaneum, and Apis mellifera were compared to the complete genomes of three non-insect eukaryotes (opisthokonts) Homo sapiens, Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This operation yielded 154 groups of orthologous proteins in Drosophila...

  13. EST Table: FY036659 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FY036659 rbmte13c09 11/12/09 GO hit GO:0047800(cysteamine dioxygenase activity)|GO:...f|XP_974899.1| PREDICTED: similar to 2-aminoethanethiol (cysteamine) dioxygenase [Tribolium castaneum] FY036659 bmte ...

  14. EST Table: BY921544 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to Low density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1 (Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) ... similar to Low density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1 (Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] FS929848 ovS0 ...

  15. EST Table: FS936166 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to Low density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1 (Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) ... similar to Low density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1 (Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] FS929848 fwgP ...

  16. EST Table: FS929848 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DICTED: similar to Low density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1 (Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia...1| PREDICTED: similar to Low density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1 (Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] FS929848 fwgP ...

  17. EST Table: DC540266 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to Low density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1 (Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) ... similar to Low density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1 (Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia protein) isoform 1 [Tribolium castaneum] FS929848 dpe- ...

  18. EST Table: FS759318 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 25 aa ref|XP_975608.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidas...%/225 aa gi|91087345|ref|XP_975608.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] FS759318 fcaL ...

  19. EST Table: FS748350 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PREDICTED: similar to fetal alzheimer antigen, falz [Nasonia vitripennis] 10/09/08 37 %/193 aa FBpp0290563|E...811424.1| PREDICTED: similar to fetal alzheimer antigen, falz [Tribolium castaneum] FS748350 caL- ...

  20. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takaku, Gen; Katakura, Haruo; Yoshida, Nobuyo

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i.e., ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus carab...

  1. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Gen, Takaku; Haruo, Katakura; Nobuyo, Yoshida; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Tohoku Agricultural Experiment Station

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i. e. , ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus car...

  2. High plasticity in epithelial morphogenesis during insect dorsal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A. Panfilio

    2013-09-01

    Insect embryos complete the outer form of the body via dorsal closure (DC of the epidermal flanks, replacing the transient extraembryonic (EE tissue. Cell shape changes and morphogenetic behavior are well characterized for DC in Drosophila, but these data represent a single species with a secondarily reduced EE component (the amnioserosa that is not representative across the insects. Here, we examine DC in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, providing the first detailed, functional analysis of DC in an insect with complete EE tissues (distinct amnion and serosa. Surprisingly, we find that differences between Drosophila and Tribolium DC are not restricted to the EE tissue, but also encompass the dorsal epidermis, which differs in cellular architecture and method of final closure (zippering. We then experimentally manipulated EE tissue complement via RNAi for Tc-zen1, allowing us to eliminate the serosa and still examine viable DC in a system with a single EE tissue (the amnion. We find that the EE domain is particularly plastic in morphogenetic behavior and tissue structure. In contrast, embryonic features and overall kinetics are robust to Tc-zen1RNAi manipulation in Tribolium and conserved with a more distantly related insect, but remain substantially different from Drosophila. Although correct DC is essential, plasticity and regulative, compensatory capacity have permitted DC to evolve within the insects. Thus, DC does not represent a strong developmental constraint on the nature of EE development, a property that may have contributed to the reduction of the EE component in the fly lineage.

  3. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  4. Effect of food factor on microevolution of Colorado beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. А. Ryabchenko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Many-sided research of interaction of Colorado beetle and fodder plant (potato, nightshade sweetly-bitter defines the role of the plants as guiding factor of microevolutional processes in pest population.

  5. A new soldier beetle from Eocene Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.

  6. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  7. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of Tribolium confusum Larvae Mediate Trail Following and Host Recognition in the Ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenau, Benjamin; Hilker, Monika

    2017-09-01

    Parasitic wasps which attack insects infesting processed stored food need to locate their hosts hidden inside these products. Their host search is well-known to be guided by host kairomones, perceived via olfaction or contact. Among contact kairomones, host cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) may provide reliable information for a parasitoid. However, the chemistry of CHC profiles of hosts living in processed stored food products is largely unknown. Here we showed that the ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis uses CHCs of its host Tribolium confusum, a worldwide stored product pest, as kairomones for host location and recognition at short range. Chemical analysis of T. confusum larval extracts by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed a rich blend of long-chain (C25-C30) hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, mono-, and dimethylalkanes. We further studied whether host larvae leave sufficient CHCs on a substrate where they walk along, thus allowing parasitoids to perceive a CHC trail and follow it to their host larvae. We detected 18 CHCs on a substrate that had been exposed to host larvae. These compounds were also found in crude extracts of host larvae and made up about a fifth of the CHC amount extracted. Behavioral assays showed that trails of host CHCs were followed by the parasitoids and reduced their searching time until successful host recognition. Host CHC trails deposited on different substrates were persistent for about a day. Hence, the parasitoid H. sylvanidis exploits CHCs of T. confusum larvae for host finding by following host CHC trails and for host recognition by direct contact with host larvae.

  8. Log bioassay of residual effectiveness of insecticides against bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Residual effectiveness of nine insecticides applied to bark was tested against western, mountain, and Jeffrey pine beetles. Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees were treated and logs cut from them 2 to 13 months later, and bioassayed with the three beetles. The insecticides were sprayed at the rate of 1 gal (3.8 l) per 40- or 80-ft² (3.6 or 7.2 m²) bark surface at varying...

  9. EST Table: AV398707 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 51 %/126 aa FBpp0120238|DanaGF17046-PA 10/08.../10 45 %/122 aa gnl|Amel|GB12396-PA 10/09/10 54 %/111 aa gi|189233738|ref|XP_971576.2| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] FS768084 NV06 ...

  10. EST Table: CK539575 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/31 57 %/156 aa FBpp0120238|DanaGF17046-...75 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 58 %/152 aa gi|189233738|ref|XP_971576.2| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] FS768084 swh ...

  11. EST Table: BP182821 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/29 51 %/172 aa FBpp0120238|DanaGF17046-PA 10/08.../10 48 %/146 aa gnl|Amel|GB12396-PA 10/09/10 55 %/159 aa gi|189233738|ref|XP_971576.2| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] FS768084 NRPG ...

  12. EST Table: BP182623 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/29 50 %/175 aa FBpp0120238|DanaGF17046-PA 10/08.../10 48 %/146 aa gnl|Amel|GB12396-PA 10/09/10 56 %/161 aa gi|189233738|ref|XP_971576.2| PREDICTED: similar to xaa-pro dipeptidase pepd/pepq(e.coli) [Tribolium castaneum] FS768084 NRPG ...

  13. EST Table: BP125370 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10 56 %/150 aa gi|189241063|ref|XP_967018.2| PREDICTED: similar to restin (Reed-Steinberg cell-expressed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] FS906662 fbpv ... ...n (Reed-Steinberg cell-expressed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/29 55...BP125370 fbpv0758 10/09/28 56 %/150 aa ref|XP_967018.2| PREDICTED: similar to resti

  14. Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Diana L; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Carroll, Allan L; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using a combination of morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of five gene regions. In all four populations, Grosmannia aurea was the most common associate (74-100% of all beetles) followed closely by Ophiostoma abietinum (29-75%). Other fungi isolated, in order of their relative prevalence with individual beetles were an undescribed Leptographium sp. (0-13%), Ophiostoma ips (0-15%), Ophiostoma piliferum (0-11%), a Pesotum sp. (0-11%) and Ophiostoma floccosum (0-1%). Comparisons of the DNA sequences of Leptographium strains isolated in this study, with ex-type isolates of G. aurea, Grosmannia robusta, Leptographium longiclavatum, and Leptographium terebrantis, as well as with sequences from GenBank, revealed a novel lineage within the Grosmannia clavigera complex. This lineage included some of the D. murrayane isolates as well as several isolates from previous studies referred to as L. terebrantis. However, the monophyly of this lineage is not well supported and a more comprehensive study will be needed to resolve its taxonomic status as one or more novel taxa.

  15. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Byrne, Marcus J; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-11-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Weathering the storm: how lodgepole pine trees survive mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Cale, Jonathan A; Hussain, Altaf; Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Najar, Ahmed; Zhao, Shiyang

    2017-06-01

    Recent mountain pine beetle outbreaks in western North America killed millions of lodgepole pine trees, leaving few survivors. However, the mechanism underlying the ability of trees to survive bark beetle outbreaks is unknown, but likely involve phytochemicals such as monoterpenes and fatty acids that can drive beetle aggregation and colonization on their hosts. Thus, we conducted a field survey of beetle-resistant lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees to retrospectively deduce whether these phytochemicals underlie their survival by comparing their chemistry to that of non-attacked trees in the same stands. We also compared beetle attack characteristics between resistant and beetle-killed trees. Beetle-killed trees had more beetle attacks and longer ovipositional galleries than resistant trees, which also lacked the larval establishment found in beetle-killed trees. Resistant trees contained high amounts of toxic and attraction-inhibitive compounds and low amounts of pheromone-precursor and synergist compounds. During beetle host aggregation and colonization, these compounds likely served three critical roles in tree survival. First, low amounts of pheromone-precursor (α-pinene) and synergist (mycrene, terpinolene) compounds reduced or prevented beetles from attracting conspecifics to residual trees. Second, high amounts of 4-allyanisole further inhibited beetle attraction to its pheromone. Finally, high amounts of toxic limonene, 3-carene, 4-allyanisole, α-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid inhibited beetle gallery establishment and oviposition. We conclude that the variation of chemotypic expression of local plant populations can have profound ecological consequences including survival during insect outbreaks.

  17. Evolution of the carabid ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S; Su, Z H; Kim, C G; Okamoto, M; Tominaga, O; Imura, Y

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the carabid ground beetles have been estimated by analysing a large part of the ND5 gene sequences of more than 1,000 specimens consisting of the representative species and geographic races covering most of the genera and subgenera known in the world. From the phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with the mtDNA-based dating, a scenario of the establishment of the present habitats of the respective Japanese carabids has been constructed. The carabid diversification took place ca. 40 MYA as an explosive radiation of the major genera. During evolution, occasional small or single bangs also took place, sometimes accompanied by parallel morphological evolution in phylogenetically remote as well as close lineages. The existence of silent periods, in which few morphological changes took place, has been recognized during evolution. Thus, the carabid evolution is discontinuous, alternatively having a phase of rapid morphological change and a silent phase.

  18. Comparison of chemical attractants against dung beetles and application for rangeland and animal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) play a major role in nutrient cycling, soil aeration, and biological control of pests and parasites that breed in manure. Habitat fragmentation, pesticide usage, and conventional agricultural practices threaten dung beetle diversity, and their conservation is ...

  19. Interaction of insecticide and media moisture on ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attacks on ornamental trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), are among the most economically damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but rec...

  20. Strategies for managing rival bacterial communities: Lessons from burying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana; Welch, Martin; Swannack, Chris; Wagner, Josef; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2018-03-01

    The role of bacteria in animal development, ecology and evolution is increasingly well understood, yet little is known of how animal behaviour affects bacterial communities. Animals that benefit from defending a key resource from microbial competitors are likely to evolve behaviours to control or manipulate the animal's associated external microbiota. We describe four possible mechanisms by which animals could gain a competitive edge by disrupting a rival bacterial community: "weeding," "seeding," "replanting" and "preserving." By combining detailed behavioural observations with molecular and bioinformatic analyses, we then test which of these mechanisms best explains how burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, manipulate the bacterial communities on their carcass breeding resource. Burying beetles are a suitable species to study how animals manage external microbiota because reproduction revolves around a small vertebrate carcass. Parents shave a carcass and apply antimicrobial exudates on its surface, shaping it into an edible nest for their offspring. We compared bacterial communities in mice carcasses that were either fresh, prepared by beetles or unprepared but buried underground for the same length of time. We also analysed bacterial communities in the burying beetle's gut, during and after breeding, to understand whether beetles could be "seeding" the carcass with particular microbes. We show that burying beetles do not "preserve" the carcass by reducing bacterial load, as is commonly supposed. Instead, our results suggest they "seed" the carcass with bacterial groups which are part of the Nicrophorus core microbiome. They may also "replant" other bacteria from the carcass gut onto the surface of their carrion nest. Both these processes may lead to the observed increase in bacterial load on the carcass surface in the presence of beetles. Beetles may also "weed" the bacterial community by eliminating some groups of bacteria on the carcass, perhaps through

  1. Radiation-induced increase in lifespan of insects. Implications for theories of mammalian aging and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducoff, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    The well-known and well-documented decline in longevity of irradiated mammals contrasts sharply with the increase of lifespan frequently observed in irradiated insects. First reported in 1919 for flour beetles of the genus Tribolium, increase of lifespan has been found following irradiation of adults of many insect taxa, particularly in the order Diptera. The effect may be more pronounced in one sex or the other, or about the same in both, depending on species, and can be observed in sexually segregated as well as in mated populations. This makes it unlikely that the phenomenon can be accounted for by radiation effects on gametogenesis or on mating behaviour. Our recent data on Tribolium castaneum and on T. confusum indicate that the degree of benefit is dose dependent; is markedly reduced as age-at-exposure increases, though still detectable in beetles irradiated six months after emergence; and is probably also induced by exposure to low doses of fast neutrons. The lowered mortality rate of irradiated populations persists for many months, but eventually may exceed that of the controls. Insects are much less dependent than mammals on cell renewal systems, and the Diptera are completely lacking in somatic cell turnover. This suggests that, in mammals as well as in insects, radiation may exert only detrimental effects in rapidly proliferative tissues but a beneficial effect in postmitotic tissues. A mechanism is proposed, based on the hypothesis that repair capacity is regulated in a fashion analogous to that of inducible enzymes. (author)

  2. Model-based experimental design for assessing effects of mixtures of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baas, Jan, E-mail: jan.baas@falw.vu.n [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stefanowicz, Anna M., E-mail: anna.stefanowicz@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Klimek, Beata, E-mail: beata.klimek@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Laskowski, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard.laskowski@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M., E-mail: bas@bio.vu.n [Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam, Dept of Theoretical Biology, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    We exposed flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) to a mixture of four poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The experimental setup was chosen such that the emphasis was on assessing partial effects. We interpreted the effects of the mixture by a process-based model, with a threshold concentration for effects on survival. The behavior of the threshold concentration was one of the key features of this research. We showed that the threshold concentration is shared by toxicants with the same mode of action, which gives a mechanistic explanation for the observation that toxic effects in mixtures may occur in concentration ranges where the individual components do not show effects. Our approach gives reliable predictions of partial effects on survival and allows for a reduction of experimental effort in assessing effects of mixtures, extrapolations to other mixtures, other points in time, or in a wider perspective to other organisms. - We show a mechanistic approach to assess effects of mixtures in low concentrations.

  3. Sizing up arthropod genomes: an evaluation of the impact of environmental variation on genome size estimates by flow cytometry and the use of qPCR as a method of estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, T Ryan; Nathwani, Paula; Bonnett, Tiffany R; Huber, Dezene P W

    2013-09-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate both a pre-existing method and a newly proposed approach for the estimation of nuclear genome sizes in arthropods. First, concerns regarding the reliability of the well-established method of flow cytometry relating to impacts of rearing conditions on genome size estimates were examined. Contrary to previous reports, a more carefully controlled test found negligible environmental effects on genome size estimates in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Second, a more recently touted method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was examined in terms of ease of use, efficiency, and (most importantly) accuracy using four test species: the flies Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica and the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Dendroctonus ponderosa. The results of this analysis demonstrated that qPCR has the tendency to produce substantially different genome size estimates from other established techniques while also being far less efficient than existing methods.

  4. CRISPR/Cas9 gene drives in genetically variable and nonrandomly mating wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Douglas W; Dapper, Amy L; Siniard, Dylan J; Zentner, Gabriel E; Wade, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    Synthetic gene drives based on CRISPR/Cas9 have the potential to control, alter, or suppress populations of crop pests and disease vectors, but it is unclear how they will function in wild populations. Using genetic data from four populations of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum , we show that most populations harbor genetic variants in Cas9 target sites, some of which would render them immune to drive (ITD). We show that even a rare ITD allele can reduce or eliminate the efficacy of a CRISPR/Cas9-based synthetic gene drive. This effect is equivalent to and accentuated by mild inbreeding, which is a characteristic of many disease-vectoring arthropods. We conclude that designing such drives will require characterization of genetic variability and the mating system within and among targeted populations.

  5. Model-based experimental design for assessing effects of mixtures of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baas, Jan; Stefanowicz, Anna M.; Klimek, Beata; Laskowski, Ryszard; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    We exposed flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) to a mixture of four poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The experimental setup was chosen such that the emphasis was on assessing partial effects. We interpreted the effects of the mixture by a process-based model, with a threshold concentration for effects on survival. The behavior of the threshold concentration was one of the key features of this research. We showed that the threshold concentration is shared by toxicants with the same mode of action, which gives a mechanistic explanation for the observation that toxic effects in mixtures may occur in concentration ranges where the individual components do not show effects. Our approach gives reliable predictions of partial effects on survival and allows for a reduction of experimental effort in assessing effects of mixtures, extrapolations to other mixtures, other points in time, or in a wider perspective to other organisms. - We show a mechanistic approach to assess effects of mixtures in low concentrations.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor from Oryza sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Hung; Peng, Wen-Yan; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Ming-Yih; Chang, Tschining; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2006-01-01

    The crystallization of rice α-amylase/subtilisin bifunctional inhibitor is reported. Rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (RASI) can inhibit both α-amylase from larvae of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and subtilisin from Bacillus subtilis. The synthesis of RASI is up-regulated during the late milky stage in developing seeds. The 8.9 kDa molecular-weight RASI from rice has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to 1.81 Å resolution X-ray diffraction data from rice RASI crystals, the crystal belongs to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.99, b = 62.95, c = 66.70 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates two RASI molecules in an asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 44%

  7. EFFECTIVNESS OF PURE DIATOMACEUS EARTH AND DIFFERENT MIXTURES OF DIATOMACEUS EARTH WITH PYRETHRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Kalinović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study shows results of laboratory experiments on stored soft white wheat infested with two stored pest species: rice weevil - Sitophilus oryzae (L., and red flour beetle - Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, treated with different mixtures of Diatomaceus earth (DE and pyrethrins (Diatect V, Diatect II, Bug-B-Gon, Perma-Guard D-20 , and DE without pyrethrins (Protect-It, Perma-Guard and DE from Croatia. The obtained results confirmed that the mixture of DE and pyrethrin and PBO is useful against test-insects and generated significantly higher effectiveness when compared with the results obtained with DE without pyrethrins. Due to the fact that Croatia has the sources of good DE and indigenous Dalmatian pyrethrum, it is possible to develop and produce safe, natural and ecologically acceptable Croatian insecticide by using mixture of DE and pyrethrins, for domestic market and export.

  8. Low host-tree preferences among saproxylic beetles : acomparison of four deciduous species

    OpenAIRE

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Johansson, Helena; Jansson, Nicklas

    2014-01-01

    Many wood-dwelling beetles rely on old hollow trees. In Europe, oaks are known to harbour a species-rich saproxylic beetle fauna, while less is known regarding other broad-leaved tree species. Furthermore, the extent to which saproxylic insect species have specialised on different tree species remains unknown. In this study, we sampled beetles through pitfall traps and window traps in four different tree species in a landscape with many old oaks. We recorded 242 saproxylic beetle species of w...

  9. Structure of domination and dynamics of activity of ground-beetles in agroecosistems of Derbent area

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nahibasheva; A. A. Bagomaev; R. A. Musaeva

    2008-01-01

    For the first time for area of research 61 kind of ground-beetles, concerning to 28 sorts and 13 vital  structure of ground-beetles of agroecosistems are studied. New data about structure and character biotopical are obtained distributions, seasonal dynamics of activity of ground-beetles. Phenological change prepotent of ground-beetles ofagroecosistems of Derbent area is revealed.

  10. Structure of domination and dynamics of activity of ground-beetles in agroecosistems of Derbent area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Nahibasheva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time for area of research 61 kind of ground-beetles, concerning to 28 sorts and 13 vital  structure of ground-beetles of agroecosistems are studied. New data about structure and character biotopical are obtained distributions, seasonal dynamics of activity of ground-beetles. Phenological change prepotent of ground-beetles ofagroecosistems of Derbent area is revealed.

  11. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall...... trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  12. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores?We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials.Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores, whereas the presence of a slightly damaged

  13. Semiochemical sabotage: behavioral chemicals for protection of western conifers from bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy. E. Gillette; A. Steve Munson

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and elucidation of volatile behavioral chemicals used by bark beetles to locate hosts and mates has revealed a rich potential for humans to sabotage beetle host-finding and reproduction. Here, we present a description of currently available semiochemical methods for use in monitoring and controlling bark beetle pests in western conifer forests. Delivery...

  14. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi was studied in overwintering ground beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and rove beetles (Col.: Staphylinidae) collected from fields of lucerne, white cabbage and white cabbage undersown with white clover. In general infection levels in adult ground beetles and rove bee...

  15. Effects of an increase in population of sika deer on beetle communities in deciduous forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichi Iida

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The overabundance of large herbivores is now recognized as a serious ecological problem. However, the resulting ecological consequences remain poorly understood. The ecological effects of an increase in sika deer, Cervus nippon Temminck (Cervidae, on three insect groups of beetles was investigated: ground beetles (Carabidae, carrion beetles (Silphidae, and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae on Nakanoshima Island, Hokkaido, northern Japan. We collected beetles on Nakanoshima Island (experimental site and lakeshore areas (control site and compared the species richness, abundance, diversity index, and community composition of beetles between the sites. Results showed that although both species diversity and abundance of carabid beetles were significantly higher at the lakeshore site, those of dung and carrion beetles were higher at the island site. It was additionally observed that abundance of larger carabid beetles was higher at the lakeshore site, whereas that of small-sized carabid beetles did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. For dung beetles, abundance of smaller species was higher at the island site, whereas that of large species did not differ between the lakeshore and island sites. Abundance of two body sizes (small and large of carrion beetles were both higher at the island site. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrated that an increase in deer population altered the insect assemblages at an island scale, suggesting further changes in ecosystem functions and services in this region.

  16. 75 FR 81832 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    .... APHIS-2010-0004] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and... are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian longhorned beetle... prevent the artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United States. As a...

  17. 77 FR 22663 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ...-0128] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts AGENCY: Animal and Plant... adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB... INFORMATION: Background The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB, Anoplophora glabripennis), an insect native to China...

  18. 77 FR 31720 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    .... APHIS-2012-0003] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York AGENCY...: We are amending the Asian longhorned beetle regulations to make changes to the list of quarantined... the artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to noninfested areas of the United States and to...

  19. The importance of streamside sandbars to ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) communities in a deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Horn; M.D. Ulyshen

    2009-01-01

    We used pitfall traps to sample ground beetles on sandbars along a small woodland stream and in the adjacent floodplain forest (Oglethorpe Co., GA, USA). We captured a total of 1,477 ground beetles representing 41 species. Twenty-two species were exclusive to sandbars, while eight were found only in the forested habitat. Ground beetles...

  20. Effects of available water on growth and competition of southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; J. Flores-Otero; R.W. Hofstetter; M.P. Ayers

    2004-01-01

    Competitive interactions among bark beetle associated fungi are potentially influenced by abiotic factors. Water potential, in particular, undergoes marked changes over the course of beetle colonization of tree hosts. To investigate the impact of water potential on competition among three southern pine beetle associated fungi, Ophiostoma minus,

  1. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and otherwise...

  2. Dutch elm disease pathogen transmission by the banded elm bark beetle Scolytus schevyrewi

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Jacobi; R. D. Koski; J. F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Dutch Elm Disease (DED) is a vascular wilt disease of Ulmus species (elms) incited in North America primarily by the exotic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. The pathogen is transmitted via root grafts and elm bark beetle vectors, including the native North American elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes and the exotic smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus...

  3. Bioactivity of two extracts from Alpinia officinarum rhizome against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... These results suggest that the A. officinarum rhizome extracts have potential for integrated pest management programs of T. castaneum population. Key words: Alpinia officinarum rhizome extract, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), fumigant activity, repellent activity, plant extract. INTRODUCTION. The red flour ...

  4. EST Table: FS891321 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /28 46 %/153 aa ref|XP_973163.1| PREDICTED: similar to jumping translocation breakpoint protein [Tribolium c...86783|ref|XP_973163.1| PREDICTED: similar to jumping translocation breakpoint protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS891321 ftes ...

  5. EST Table: FS789999 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS789999 E_FL_ffbm_02F05_F_0 10/09/28 42 %/246 aa ref|XP_971541.1| PREDICTED: simil...ar to AGAP008392-PA [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EFA09946.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC012099 [Tribolium ca

  6. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  7. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Oba

    Full Text Available Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation. These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  8. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Miraldo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species. Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

  9. Ancient symbiosis confers desiccation resistance to stored grain pest beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, Tobias; Eberl, Nadia; Gorse, Carla; Krüger, Theresa; Schmidt, Thorsten H P; Plarre, Rudy; Adler, Cornel; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2017-11-08

    Microbial symbionts of insects provide a range of ecological traits to their hosts that are beneficial in the context of biotic interactions. However, little is known about insect symbiont-mediated adaptation to the abiotic environment, for example, temperature and humidity. Here, we report on an ancient clade of intracellular, bacteriome-located Bacteroidetes symbionts that are associated with grain and wood pest beetles of the phylogenetically distant families Silvanidae and Bostrichidae. In the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, we demonstrate that the symbionts affect cuticle thickness, melanization and hydrocarbon profile, enhancing desiccation resistance and thereby strongly improving fitness under dry conditions. Together with earlier observations on symbiont contributions to cuticle biosynthesis in weevils, our findings indicate that convergent acquisitions of bacterial mutualists represented key adaptations enabling diverse pest beetle groups to survive and proliferate under the low ambient humidity that characterizes dry grain storage facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    to dog dung, an impoverishment of the total richness was observed (from 19 to 9 species) together with an increase of individuals (by 7 times). Dog dung harboured 20% of the current scarab dung beetle fauna of Rome, probably as a consequence of the dog mixed diet, rich in cellulose. Both the communities...... showed a high percentage of tunnellers, probably because of the food shortage and, for dog scats, of the high dehydration rate. A comparison with other Roman scarab communities enhanced that: (1) the change in food resource determined a higher difference in species composition respect to other parameters......The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...

  11. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  12. Streetlights attract a broad array of beetle species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Augusto Souza de Medeiros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Light pollution on ecosystems is a growing concern, and knowledge about the effects of outdoor lighting on organisms is crucial to understand and mitigate impacts. Here we build up on a previous study to characterize the diversity of all beetles attracted to different commonly used streetlight set ups. We find that lights attract beetles from a broad taxonomic and ecological spectrum. Lights that attract a large number of insect individuals draw an equally high number of insect species. While there is some evidence for heterogeneity in the preference of beetle species to different kinds of light, all species are more attracted to some light radiating ultraviolet. The functional basis of this heterogeneity, however, is not clear. Our results highlight that control of ultraviolet radiation in public lighting is important to reduce the number and diversity of insects attracted to lights. Keywords: Lighting, Coleoptera, Light pollution, Insects, Ultraviolet

  13. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  14. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  15. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production.

  16. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  17. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2012-06-06

    In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray

  18. TROPHIC RELATIONS OF LADY BEETLES (COLEOPTERA, COCCINELLIDAE OF THE URALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Tyumaseva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the study of the trophic relations of the lady beetles living in the Urals. The study allocates three ecological groups depending on the peculiarities of the beetles and larvae nutrition: phytophages, micetophages, and entomophages-predators. We have revealed 66 species of lady birds-predators and two species-phytophages: Subcoccinella vigintiquatuorpunctata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Bulaea lichatschovii (Hummel, 1827. In the group of obligatory micetophages in the Urals we registered the representatives of the tribe Halyziini, it is Halyzia sedecimguttata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata (Linnaeus, 1758.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Absence of endothermy in flightless dung beetles from southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-06-19

    Jun 19, 1987 ... Bartholomew & Heinrich (1978) found that when the diurnal species were rolling dung balls their Tmth was increased by endothermic means and then further elevated by solar radiation. However, these beetles still. Table 1 Metathoracic temperatures of Circe/lium bacchus during various activities. Activity.

  1. Chemical ecology of sudden oak death/ambrosia beetle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances S. Ockels; Pierluigi Bonello; Brice McPherson; David L. Wood

    2006-01-01

    Coast live oaks, Quercus agrifolia, infected with Phytophthora ramorum in California produce a characteristic sequence of symptoms and signs. Ambrosia beetles consistently tunnel into the bark of bleeding cankers in naturally infected trees. In field monitoring conducted since 2000, every bleeding coast live oak that subsequently...

  2. Applied chemical ecology of the mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Nancy Gillette; Christopher J. Fettig; Kathryn Hrinkevich

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a primary agent of forest disturbance in western North America. Episodic outbreaks occur at the convergence of favorable forest age and size class structure and climate patterns. Recent outbreaks have exceeded the historic range of variability of D. ponderosae-caused tree mortality affecting ecosystem goods and...

  3. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  4. an assessment of methods for sampling carabid beetles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    collection of epigaeic (ground-dwelling) invertebrates (Southwood and Henderson,. 2000). It has been widely used for sampling carabid beetles in biodiversity inventories. (Niemela et al. 1994, Davies 2000, Nyundo. 2002), population and community ecology. (Greenslade 1968, Refseth, 1980,. Niemela1988, Niemela et al.

  5. Forest development and carbon dynamics after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew. Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles periodically infest pine forests in western North America, killing many or most overstory pine stems. The surviving secondary stand structure, along with recruited seedlings, will form the future canopy. Thus, even-aged pine stands become multiaged and multistoried. The species composition of affected stands will depend on the presence of nonpines...

  6. "Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Da

    2004-01-01

    This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are…

  7. Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-10-07

    Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency.

  8. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type

  9. Social and Political Impact of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert N. Coulson; James R. Meeker

    2011-01-01

    Impact is defined broadly to mean any effect on the forest environment resulting from the activities of the southern pine beetle (SPB). In this chapter we focus on social and political impact. Social impact deals with effects of the SPB on aesthetic, moral, and metaphysical values associated with forests. Two aspects of social impact are investigated: how the SPB...

  10. Use of infochemicals to attract carrion beetles into pitfall traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podskalská, H.; Růžička, J.; Hoskovec, Michal; Šálek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2009), s. 59-64 ISSN 0013-8703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : burying beetles * dimethylsulfide * dimethyldisulfide * dimethyltrisulfide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2009

  11. Gut bacteria of bark and wood boring beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana Vasanthakumar; Yasmin Cardoza; Italo Delalibera; Patrick Schloss; Jo Handelsman; Kier Klepzig; Kenneth Raffa

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles are known to have complex associations with a variety of microorganisms (Paine and others 1987; Ayres and others 2000; Six and Klepzig 2004). However, most of our knowledge involves fungi, particularly external species. In contrast, we know very little about their associations with bacterial gut symbionts (Bridges 1981). Similarly, work with wood...

  12. Performance of Asian longhorned beetle among tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelli Hoover; Scott Ludwig; James Sellmer; Deborah McCullough; Laura Lazarus

    2003-01-01

    Two procedures were evaluated for assessing susceptibility of a variety of tree species to Anoplophora glabripennis. In the first procedure, adult beetles were caged with a section of sugar maple, northern red oak, white oak, honeylocust, eastern cottonwood, sycamore or tulip poplar wood and allowed to oviposit.

  13. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  14. Evaluation of resistance of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the level of resistance of different strains of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon serratus against some synthetic insecticides formulas and to compare their biodemographic parameters. Methodology and results: The insecticides tests were done in three localities of Senegal (Mpal, ...

  15. Using Malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages...

  16. Checklist of the Iranian Ground Beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakhsh, Saeed; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-09-30

    An up-to-date checklist of the ground beetles of Iran is presented. Altogether 955 species and subspecies in 155 genera belonging to 26 subfamilies of Carabidae are reported; 25 taxa are recorded for Iran for the fist time. New localities are listed and some previous distributional records are discussed.

  17. Bark beetle management after a mass attack - some Swiss experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Forster; F. Meier; R. Gall

    2003-01-01

    In 1990 and 1999, heavy storms accompanied by the worst gales ever recorded in Switzerland, struck Europe and left millions of cubic metres of windthrown Norway spruce trees; this provided breeding material for the eight-toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) and led to mass attacks in subsequent years which resulted in the additional loss...

  18. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  19. Molecular genetic pathway analysis of Asian longhorned beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan. Braswell

    2011-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, is a destructive pest of hardwood trees. Historically, A. glabripennis was geographically restricted within China and Korea and not of economic importance. However, as a result of massive reforestation programs designed to combat desertification, the species emerged as a pest...

  20. Management strategies for bark beetles in conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Fettig; Jacek  Hilszczański

    2015-01-01

    Several species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are capable of causing significant amounts of tree mortality in conifer forests throughout much of the world.  In most cases, these events are part of the ecology of conifer forests and positively influence many ecological processes, but the economic and social implications can be...

  1. Quantifying beetle-macrofungal associations in a temperate biodiversity hot spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Mary Jane; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2018-01-29

    Beetles (Coleoptera) are often among the most abundant and diverse insects that feed on sporocarps of macrofungi, but little is known regarding their relative specialism or generalism in most communities. We surveyed >9000 sporocarps in montane hardwood forest in the Appalachian Mountains (USA) to characterize associations of mycophagous beetles and macrofungi. We used traditional metrics and network analyses to quantify relationships between sporocarp traits (mass, age, persistence, and toughness) and assemblages of adult beetles, drawing from >50 000 beetles collected over two survey years. Strict-sense specificity was rare in these associations: most beetle species were found on multiple fungal genera, and most fungi hosted multiple beetle species. Sporocarp age and fresh mass were positively associated with beetle diversity in fungi with ephemeral sporocarps (here including 12 genera of Agaricales and Russulales), but sporocarp persistence was not. In Polyporales, beetle diversity was greater in softer sporocarps than in tough or woody sporocarps. The increase of beetle diversity in aging sporocarps could not be attributed to increases in sporocarp mass or sampling point in the growing season, suggesting that age-related changes in chemistry or structure may support increasingly diverse beetle communities. Interaction networks differed as a function of sporocarp age, revealing that community-wide measures of generalism (i.e., network connectance) and evenness (i.e., variance in normalized degree) change as sporocarps mature and senesce. Beetles observed on Agaricales and Russulales with more persistent sporocarps had narrower interaction breadth (i.e., were more host-specific) than those on less persistent sporocarps, and beetles on Polyporales with tougher sporocarps had narrower interaction breadth than those on soft sporocarps. In addition to providing a large-scale evaluation of sporocarp use by adult beetles in this temperate biodiversity hot spot, this

  2. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and

  3. Endocrine Control of Exaggerated Trait Growth in Rhinoceros Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinna, R; Gotoh, H; Brent, C S; Dolezal, A; Kraus, A; Niimi, T; Emlen, D; Lavine, L C

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator frequently involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetles. The jaw morphology of stag beetles is sexually-dimorphic and condition-dependent; males have larger jaws than females and those developing under optimum conditions are larger in overall body size and have disproportionately larger jaws than males raised under poor conditions. We have previously shown that large males have higher JH titers than small males during development, and ectopic application of fenoxycarb (JH analog) to small males can induce mandibular growth similar to that of larger males. What remains unknown is whether JH regulates condition-dependent trait growth in other insects with extreme sexually selected structures. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that JH mediates the condition-dependent expression of the elaborate horns of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. The sexually dimorphic head horn of this beetle is sensitive to nutritional state during larval development. Like stag beetles, male rhinoceros beetles receiving copious food produce disproportionately large horns for their body size compared with males under restricted diets. We show that JH titers are correlated with body size during the late feeding and early prepupal periods, but this correlation disappears by the late prepupal period, the period of maximum horn growth. While ectopic application of fenoxycarb during the third larval instar significantly delayed pupation, it had no effect on adult horn size relative to body size. Fenoxycarb application to late prepupae also had at most a marginal effect on relative horn size. We discuss our results in context of other endocrine signals of condition-dependent trait exaggeration and suggest that different beetle lineages may have co-opted different physiological signaling mechanisms to

  4. Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janossy, L.; Bitto, A. [ELTE Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

  5. Impacts of silvicultural thinning treatments on beetle trap captures and tree attacks during low bark beetle populations in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, M L; Hofstetter, R W; Wagner, M R

    2010-10-01

    Our research used a combination of passive traps, funnel traps with lures, baited trees, and surveys of long-term thinning plots to assess the impacts of different levels of stand basal area (BA) on bark beetle tree attack and on trap captures of Ips spp., Dendroctonus spp., and their predators. The study occurred at two sites in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests, from 2004 to 2007 during low bark beetle populations. Residual stand BA ranged from 9.0 to 37.0 m2/ha. More predators and bark beetles were collected in passive traps in stands of lower BA than in stands of higher BA; however, significance varied by species and site, and total number of beetles collected was low. Height of the clear panel passive traps affected trap catches for some species at some sites and years. When pheromone lures were used with funnel traps [Ips pini (Say) lure: lanierone, +03/-97 ipsdienol], we found no significant difference in trap catches among basal area treatments for bark beetles and their predators. Similarly, when trees were baited (Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte lure: myrcene, exo-brevicomin and frontalin), we found no significant difference for days to first bark beetle attack. Surveys of long-term thinning treatments found evidence of bark beetle attacks only in unthinned plots (approximately 37 m2/ha basal area). We discuss our results in terms of management implications for bark beetle trapping and control.

  6. Southern pine beetle infestations in relation to forest stand conditions, previous thinning, and prescribed burning: evaluation of the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Nowak; James R. Meeker; David R. Coyle; Chris A. Steiner; Cavell Brownie

    2015-01-01

    Since 2003, the Southern Pine Beetle Prevention Program (SPBPP) (a joint effort of the USDA Forest Service and Southern Group of State Foresters) has encouraged and provided cost-share assistance for silvicultural treatments to reduce stand/forest susceptibility to the southern pine beetle (SPB)(Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) in the southeastern United States....

  7. A Multiplex PCR Assay for Differentiating Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) From Oriental Flower Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Early Life Stages and Excrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Melzer, M J

    2017-04-01

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field. Here, we report the development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting cytochrome oxidase I of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle that can rapidly detect and distinguish between these insects. This assay also features an internal positive control to ensure DNA of sufficient quantity and quality is used in the assay, increasing its reliability and reducing the chances of false negative results. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Heavy metal concentrations in ground beetles, leaf litter, and soil of a forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelaska, Lucija Serić; Blanusa, Maja; Durbesić, Paula; Jelaska, Sven D

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the relationships between heavy metal concentrations in soil, leaf litter, and ground beetles at four sampling sites of a forest ecosystem in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia. Ground beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping. Specimens were dry-ashed and soil and beetle samples digested with nitric acid. Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, and iron were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistically significant differences between plots were found for lead, cadmium, and iron in ground beetles. Correlations between ground beetles and soil or leaf litter were positive for lead and cadmium concentrations and negative for iron concentration. Differences in species metal concentrations were recorded. Higher concentrations of all studied metals were found in female beetles. However, a significant difference between sexes was found only for manganese. Significant differences in species metal concentrations were found for species that differ in feeding strategies and age based on breeding season and emergence of young adults.

  9. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Dacke Marie; Nørgaard Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another ...

  10. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  11. Solar radiation as a factor influencing the raid spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) during spring swarming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, P.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of spruce bark beetle in nature reserve Fabova hola Mountain in the Slovenske Rudohorie Mountains at an altitude of 1.100-1.440 meters was conducted from 2006 to 2009. Slovenske Rudohorie Mountains was affected by two windstorms (2004 and 2007) followed by a gradation of bark beetles. This article has examined the dependence between amount of solar radiation and trapping of spruce bark beetle into pheromone traps.

  12. Seasonal flight patterns of the Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Öhrn, Petter

    2012-01-01

    The major bark beetle threat to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in Eurasia is the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. Beetles cause damage after population build-up in defenseless trees. To minimize attacks, timely removal of these trees is important. This is practiced by clearing of wind throws and sanitation felling. Thus, knowledge about the region-specific flight pattern and voltinism of I. typographus is necessary for efficient pest management. This thesis focuses on the ...

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from dung pats vary with dung beetle species and with assemblage composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Piccini

    Full Text Available Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species, we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles. In this setting, the overall presence of beetles significantly affected the gas fluxes, but different species contributed unequally to GHG emissions. When compared to the control with dung, we detected an overall reduction in the total cumulative CO2 flux from all treatments with beetles and a reduction in N2O flux from the treatments with the three most abundant dung beetle species. These reductions can be seen as beneficial ecosystem services. Nonetheless, we also observed a disservice provided by the large tunneler, Copris lunaris, which significantly increased the CH4 flux-an effect potentially traceable to the species' nesting strategy involving the construction of large brood balls. When fluxes were summed into CO2-equivalents across individual GHG compounds, dung with beetles proved to emit less GHGs than did beetle-free dung, with the mix of the three most abundant species providing the highest reduction (-32%. As the mix of multiple species proved the most effective in reducing CO2-equivalents, the conservation of diverse assemblages of dung beetles emerges as a priority in agro-pastoral ecosystems.

  14. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization.To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark.Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked.This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  15. Anatomical organization of the brain of a diurnal and a nocturnal dung beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Esa-Ville; Dacke, Marie; Heinze, Stanley; El Jundi, Basil

    2017-06-01

    To avoid the fierce competition for food, South African ball-rolling dung beetles carve a piece of dung off a dung-pile, shape it into a ball and roll it away along a straight line path. For this unidirectional exit from the busy dung pile, at night and day, the beetles use a wide repertoire of celestial compass cues. This robust and relatively easily measurable orientation behavior has made ball-rolling dung beetles an attractive model organism for the study of the neuroethology behind insect orientation and sensory ecology. Although there is already some knowledge emerging concerning how celestial cues are processed in the dung beetle brain, little is known about its general neural layout. Mapping the neuropils of the dung beetle brain is thus a prerequisite to understand the neuronal network that underlies celestial compass orientation. Here, we describe and compare the brains of a day-active and a night-active dung beetle species based on immunostainings against synapsin and serotonin. We also provide 3D reconstructions for all brain areas and many of the fiber bundles in the brain of the day-active dung beetle. Comparison of neuropil structures between the two dung beetle species revealed differences that reflect adaptations to different light conditions. Altogether, our results provide a reference framework for future studies on the neuroethology of insects in general and dung beetles in particular. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evidence of an aggregation pheromone in the flea beetle,Phyllotreta Cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C; Weiss, M J

    1992-06-01

    Laboratory olfactometer bioassays and field trapping experiments showed that the flea beetle,Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze), was highly attracted by oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.) when flea beetles were on the plant. This attraction was mediated by a flea beetle-produced aggregation pheromone based upon: (1) Oilseed rape damaged mechanically, or byP. cruciferae, or by diamondback moth,Plutella xylostella (L.), did not attractP. cruciferae. (2) Contact with the plants or feeding was required for the production of aggregation pheromone because oilseed rape alone was not attractive when separated from flea beetles by a screen. (3) Equal numbers of males and females were attracted.

  17. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SPECIES COMPOSITION OF GROUND BEETLES OF COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time studied the species composition of ground beetles of coastal and island ecosystems of the Western Caspian. The article provides a comparative analysis of species composition of ground beetles and adjacent areas.

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium everts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.; Saour, G.

    2002-09-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on all developmental stages of khapra beetle was examined. The results showed that when higher doses were applied and immature stages were treated the developmental time, larval and pupal mortality and adults' deformation were increased. Whereas, the fecundity and fertility of the emerged adults resulted from the treatment of immature stages, were increased when old eggs, larvae and pupae were treated with low doses. When newly emerged adults were irradiated the longevity of the male and the female was not affected, while the fecundity and fertility were declined especially when high doses were applied. The female of khapra beetle was more radiosensitive than the male, regardless of the applied dose or/and the treated developmental stage. (author)

  19. The Japanese jewel beetle: a painter's challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Franziska; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2013-01-01

    Colours as dynamic as the metallic-like hues adorning the Japanese jewel beetle have never been captured on canvas before. Unlike, and unmatched by, the chemical pigments of the artist's palette, the effect is generated by layered microstructures that refract and reflect light to make colour visible. Exclusive to nature for millions of years, such jewel-like colouration is only now being introduced to art. Sustained scientific research into nature's iridescent multilayer reflectors has recently led to the development and manufacture of analogous synthetic structures, notably innovative light interference flakes. For the first time this novel technology offers artists the exciting, yet challenging, potential to accurately depict nature's iridescence. Mimicking the Japanese jewel beetle by using paints with embedded flakes, we demonstrate that the resulting painting, just like the model, displays iridescent colours that shift with minute variation of the angle of light and viewing. (paper)

  20. Ecology and behavior of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövei, G L; Sunderland, K D

    1996-01-01

    The ground beetles from the speciose beetle family Carabidae and, since their emergence in the Tertiary, have populated all habitats except deserts. Our knowledge about carabids is biased toward species living in north-temperate regions. Most carabids are predatory, consume a wide range of food types, and experience food shortages in the field. Feeding on both plant and animal material and scavenging are probably more significant than currently acknowledged. The most important mortality sources are abiotic factors and predators; pathogens and parasites can be important for some developmental stages. Although competition among larvae and adults does occur, the importance of competition as a community organization is not proven. Carabids are abundant in agricultural fields all over the world and may be important natural enemies of agricultural pests.

  1. Synopsis of the cyclocephaline scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Moore

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyclocephaline scarabs (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini are a speciose tribe of beetles that include species that are ecologically and economically important as pollinators and pests of agriculture and turf. We provide an overview and synopsis of the 14 genera of Cyclocephalini that includes information on: 1 the taxonomic and nomenclatural history of the group; 2 diagnosis and identification of immature life-stages; 3 economic importance in agroecosystems; 4 natural enemies of these beetles; 5 use as food by humans; 6 the importance of adults as pollination mutualists; 7 fossil cyclocephalines and the evolution of the group; 8 generic-level identification of adults. We provide an expanded identification key to genera of world Cyclocephalini and diagnoses for each genus. Character illustrations and generic-level distribution maps are provided along with discussions on the relationships of the tribe’s genera.

  2. Mechanisms of Wing Beat Sound in Flapping Wings of Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John

    2017-11-01

    While the aerodynamic aspects of insect flight have received recent attention, the mechanisms of sound production by flapping wings is not well understood. Though the harmonic structure of wing beat frequency modulation has been reported with respect to biological implications, few studies have rigorously quantified it with respect directionality, phase coupling and vortex tip scattering. Moreover, the acoustic detection and classification of invasive species is both of practical as well scientific interest. In this study, the acoustics of the tethered flight of the Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) is investigated with four element microphone array in conjunction with complementary optical sensors and high speed video. The different experimental methods for wing beat determination are compared in both the time and frequency domain. Flow visualization is used to examine the vortex and sound generation due to the torsional mode of the wing rotation. Results are compared with related experimental studies of the Oriental Flower Beetle. USDA, State of Hawaii.

  3. Synopsis of the cyclocephaline scarab beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew R; Cave, Ronald D; Branham, Marc A

    2018-01-01

    The cyclocephaline scarabs (Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Cyclocephalini) are a speciose tribe of beetles that include species that are ecologically and economically important as pollinators and pests of agriculture and turf. We provide an overview and synopsis of the 14 genera of Cyclocephalini that includes information on: 1) the taxonomic and nomenclatural history of the group; 2) diagnosis and identification of immature life-stages; 3) economic importance in agroecosystems; 4) natural enemies of these beetles; 5) use as food by humans; 6) the importance of adults as pollination mutualists; 7) fossil cyclocephalines and the evolution of the group; 8) generic-level identification of adults. We provide an expanded identification key to genera of world Cyclocephalini and diagnoses for each genus. Character illustrations and generic-level distribution maps are provided along with discussions on the relationships of the tribe's genera.

  4. Genome of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), a globally significant invasive species, reveals key functional and evolutionary innovations at the beetle-plant interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Duane D; Scully, Erin D; Pauchet, Yannick; Hoover, Kelli; Kirsch, Roy; Geib, Scott M; Mitchell, Robert F; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Arsala, Deanna; Benoit, Joshua B; Blackmon, Heath; Bledsoe, Tiffany; Bowsher, Julia H; Busch, André; Calla, Bernarda; Chao, Hsu; Childers, Anna K; Childers, Christopher; Clarke, Dave J; Cohen, Lorna; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Dolan, Amanda; Duan, Jian J; Dugan, Shannon; Friedrich, Markus; Glastad, Karl M; Goodisman, Michael A D; Haddad, Stephanie; Han, Yi; Hughes, Daniel S T; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Johnston, J Spencer; Jones, Jeffery W; Kuhn, Leslie A; Lance, David R; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lee, Sandra L; Lin, Han; Lynch, Jeremy A; Moczek, Armin P; Murali, Shwetha C; Muzny, Donna M; Nelson, David R; Palli, Subba R; Panfilio, Kristen A; Pers, Dan; Poelchau, Monica F; Quan, Honghu; Qu, Jiaxin; Ray, Ann M; Rinehart, Joseph P; Robertson, Hugh M; Roehrdanz, Richard; Rosendale, Andrew J; Shin, Seunggwan; Silva, Christian; Torson, Alex S; Jentzsch, Iris M Vargas; Werren, John H; Worley, Kim C; Yocum, George; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen

    2016-11-11

    Relatively little is known about the genomic basis and evolution of wood-feeding in beetles. We undertook genome sequencing and annotation, gene expression assays, studies of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and other functional and comparative studies of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important tree species. Complementary studies of genes encoding enzymes involved in digestion of woody plant tissues or detoxification of plant allelochemicals were undertaken with the genomes of 14 additional insects, including the newly sequenced emerald ash borer and bull-headed dung beetle. The Asian longhorned beetle genome encodes a uniquely diverse arsenal of enzymes that can degrade the main polysaccharide networks in plant cell walls, detoxify plant allelochemicals, and otherwise facilitate feeding on woody plants. It has the metabolic plasticity needed to feed on diverse plant species, contributing to its highly invasive nature. Large expansions of chemosensory genes involved in the reception of pheromones and plant kairomones are consistent with the complexity of chemical cues it uses to find host plants and mates. Amplification and functional divergence of genes associated with specialized feeding on plants, including genes originally obtained via horizontal gene transfer from fungi and bacteria, contributed to the addition, expansion, and enhancement of the metabolic repertoire of the Asian longhorned beetle, certain other phytophagous beetles, and to a lesser degree, other phytophagous insects. Our results thus begin to establish a genomic basis for the evolutionary success of beetles on plants.

  5. Identification of highly effective target genes for RNAi-mediated control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Thais B; Duan, Jian J; Palli, Subba R; Rieske, Lynne K

    2018-03-22

    Recent study has shown that RNA interference (RNAi) is efficient in emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, and that ingestion of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting specific genes causes gene silencing and mortality in neonates. Here, we report on the identification of highly effective target genes for RNAi-mediated control of EAB. We screened 13 candidate genes in neonate larvae and selected the most effective target genes for further investigation, including their effect on EAB adults and on a non-target organism, Tribolium castaneum. The two most efficient target genes selected, hsp (heat shock 70-kDa protein cognate 3) and shi (shibire), caused up to 90% mortality of larvae and adults. In EAB eggs, larvae, and adults, the hsp is expressed at higher levels when compared to that of shi. Ingestion of dsHSP and dsSHI caused mortality in both neonate larvae and adults. Administration of a mixture of both dsRNAs worked better than either dsRNA by itself. In contrast, injection of EAB.dsHSP and EAB.dsSHI did not cause mortality in T. castaneum. Thus, the two genes identified cause high mortality in the EAB with no apparent phenotype effects in a non-target organism, the red flour beetle, and could be used in RNAi-mediated control of this invasive pest.

  6. Ponderosa pine mortality resulting from a mountain pine beetle outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge; Frank G. Hawksworth; Carleton B. Edminster; John G. Laut

    1982-01-01

    From 1965 to 1978, mountain pine beetles killed 25% of the pines taller than 4.5 feet in a study area in north-central Colorado. Average basal area was reduced from 92 to 58 square feet per acre. Mortality increased with tree diameter up to about 9 inches d.b.h. Larger trees appeared to be killed at random. Mortality was directly related to number of trees per acre and...

  7. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  8. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  9. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  10. Decreases in beetle body size linked to climate change and warming temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Michelle; Kaur, Katrina M; Soleimani Pari, Sina; Sarai, Karnjit; Chan, Denessa; Yao, Christine H; Porto, Paula; Toor, Anmol; Toor, Harpawantaj S; Fograscher, Katrina

    2018-05-01

    Body size is a fundamental ecological trait and is correlated with population dynamics, community structure and function, and ecosystem fluxes. Laboratory data from broad taxonomic groups suggest that a widespread response to a warming world may be an overall decrease in organism body size. However, given the myriad of biotic and abiotic factors that can also influence organism body size in the wild, it is unclear whether results from these laboratory assays hold in nature. Here we use datasets spanning 30 to 100 years to examine whether the body size of wild-caught beetles has changed over time, whether body size changes are correlated with increased temperatures, and we frame these results using predictions derived from a quantitative review of laboratory responses of 22 beetle species to temperature. We found that 95% of laboratory-reared beetles decreased in size with increased rearing temperature, with larger-bodied species shrinking disproportionately more than smaller-bodied beetles. In addition, the museum datasets revealed that larger-bodied beetle species have decreased in size over time, that mean beetle body size explains much of the interspecific variation in beetle responses to temperature, and that long-term beetle size changes are explained by increases in autumn temperature and decreases in spring temperature in this region. Our data demonstrate that the relationship between body size and temperature of wild-caught beetles matches relatively well with results from laboratory studies, and that variation in this relationship is largely explained by interspecific variation in mean beetle body size. This long-term beetle dataset is one of the most comprehensive arthropod body size datasets compiled to date, it improves predictions regarding the shrinking of organisms with global climate change, and together with the meta-analysis data, call for new hypotheses to explain why larger-bodied organisms may be more sensitive to temperature. © 2018 The

  11. A damped oscillator imposes temporal order on posterior gap gene expression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verd, Berta; Clark, Erik; Wotton, Karl R.; Janssens, Hilde; Jiménez-Guri, Eva; Crombach, Anton

    2018-01-01

    Insects determine their body segments in two different ways. Short-germband insects, such as the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, use a molecular clock to establish segments sequentially. In contrast, long-germband insects, such as the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, determine all segments simultaneously through a hierarchical cascade of gene regulation. Gap genes constitute the first layer of the Drosophila segmentation gene hierarchy, downstream of maternal gradients such as that of Caudal (Cad). We use data-driven mathematical modelling and phase space analysis to show that shifting gap domains in the posterior half of the Drosophila embryo are an emergent property of a robust damped oscillator mechanism, suggesting that the regulatory dynamics underlying long- and short-germband segmentation are much more similar than previously thought. In Tribolium, Cad has been proposed to modulate the frequency of the segmentation oscillator. Surprisingly, our simulations and experiments show that the shift rate of posterior gap domains is independent of maternal Cad levels in Drosophila. Our results suggest a novel evolutionary scenario for the short- to long-germband transition and help explain why this transition occurred convergently multiple times during the radiation of the holometabolan insects. PMID:29451884

  12. Fostering students' experimentation skills - developmental time and offspring rates of flour beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Asshoff, R.; Roth, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    Tribolium castanaeum is a widespread insect in temperate regions. Because of its short generation time and easy handling, it serves as a model organism for various scientific questions. However, T. castanaeum, or its larger-sized relative Tenebrio molitor, can also he used at a school or college level to foster students' experimentation skills. We present a set of inquiry tasks that build stepwise on one another, using T. castanaeum or T. molitor as the model. The students will learn not only...

  13. Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Sancak, Kerem; Jansson, Nicklas

    2016-03-01

    Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees.

  14. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  15. DETECTION OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES IN 9975 PACKAGES USING ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, D.

    2013-03-04

    This report documents the initial feasibility tests performed using a commercial acoustic emission instrument for the purpose of detecting beetles in Department of Energy 9975 shipping packages. The device selected for this testing was a commercial handheld instrument and probe developed for the detection of termites, weevils, beetles and other insect infestations in wooden structures, trees, plants and soil. The results of two rounds of testing are presented. The first tests were performed by the vendor using only the hand-held instrument’s indications and real-time operator analysis of the audio signal content. The second tests included hands-free positioning of the instrument probe and post-collection analysis of the recorded audio signal content including audio background comparisons. The test results indicate that the system is promising for detecting the presence of drugstore beetles, however, additional work would be needed to improve the ease of detection and to automate the signal processing to eliminate the need for human interpretation. Mechanisms for hands-free positioning of the probe and audio background discrimination are also necessary for reliable detection and to reduce potential operator dose in radiation environments.

  16. Antibiotic-producing bacteria from stag beetle mycangia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Hirai, Yuuki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2015-02-01

    The search for new antibiotics or antifungal agents is crucial for the chemotherapies of infectious diseases. The limited resource of soil bacteria makes it difficult to discover such new drug candidate. We, therefore, focused on another bacterial resource than soil bacteria, the microbial flora of insect species. In the present study, we isolated 40 strains of bacteria and fungi from the mycangia of three species of stag beetle, Dorcus hopei binodulosus, Dorcus rectus, and Dorcus titanus pilifer. We identified those species with their ribosomal DNA sequences, and revealed that Klebsiella spp. are the most frequent symbiont in the stag beetle mycangia. We examined whether these microorganisms produce antibiotics against a Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, a Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, or a fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans. Culture supernatants from 33, 29, or 18 strains showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, or C. neoformans, respectively. These findings suggest that bacteria present in the mycangia of stag beetles are useful resources for screening novel antibiotics.

  17. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  18. Activity of male pheromone of Melanesian rhinoceros beetle Scapanes australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Didier; Morin, Jean-Paul; Kakul, Titus; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence; Prior, Robert; Renou, Michel; Malosse, Isabelle; Stathers, Tanya; Embupa, Sebastian; Laup, Samson

    2002-03-01

    Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to investigate the nature and role of the male pheromone emitted by the Dynast beetle Scapanes australis and to develop a mass trapping technique against this major coconut pest in Papua New Guinea. We report the biological data obtained from natural and synthetic pheromone, previously described as an 84:12:4 (w/w) mixture of 2-butanol (1), 3-hydoxy-2-butanone (2), and 2,3-butanediol (3). EAG recordings from natural and synthetic pheromone and a pitfall olfactometer were poorly informative. In contrast, extensive field trapping trials with various synthetic pheromone mixtures and doses showed that 1 and 2 (formulated in polyethylene sachets in 90:5 v/v ratio) were necessary and sufficient for optimum long-range attraction. Beetles were captured in traps baited with racemic 1 plus 2, with or without a stereoisomer mixture of 3 (2.5- to 2500-mg/day doses). Plant pieces, either sugarcane or coconut, enhanced captures by the synthetic pheromone, which was active alone. Traps with the pheromone caught both sexes in a 3:2 female-male ratio. A pheromone-based mass trapping led to the capture of 2173 beetles in 14 traps surrounding 40 ha of a cocoa-coconut plantation. The captures followed a log-linear decrease during the 125-week trapping program. The role of the male pheromone and its potential for crop protection are discussed.

  19. Predicting live and dead basal area in bark beetle-affected forests from discrete-return LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Ben Bright; Jose Negron; Robert McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2012-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North America have been widespread and severe. High tree mortality due to bark beetles affects the fundamental ecosystem processes of primary production and decomposition that largely determine carbon balance (Kurz et al. 2008, Pfeifer et al. 2011, Hicke et al. 2012). Forest managers need accurate data on beetle-induced tree...

  20. Changes in transpiration and foliage growth in lodgepole pine trees following mountain pine beetle attack and mechanical girdling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; Charles C. Rhoades; Kelly Elder; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in North American lodgepole pine forests demonstrates the importance of insect related disturbances in changing forest structure and ecosystem processes. Phloem feeding by beetles disrupts transport of photosynthate from tree canopies and fungi introduced to the tree's vascular system by the bark beetles inhibit water...

  1. Assessing meteorological key factors influencing crop invasion by pollen beetle (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Junk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, is a severe pest of winter oilseed rape. A phenological model to forecast the first spring invasion of crops in Luxembourg by M. aeneus was developed in order to provide a tool for improving pest management and for assessing the potential effects of climate change on this pest. The model was derived using long-term, multi-site observational datasets of pollen beetle migration and meteorological data, as the timing of crop invasion is determined mainly by meteorological variables. Daily values of mean air and soil temperature, accumulated sunshine duration and precipitation were used to create a threshold-based model to forecast crop invasion. Minimising of the root mean squared error (RMSE of predicted versus observed migration dates was used as the quality criterion for selecting the optimum combination of threshold values for meteorological variables. We identified mean air temperature 8.0 °C, mean soil temperature 4.6 °C, and sunshine duration of 3.4 h as the best threshold values, with a cut-off of 1 mm precipitation and with no need for persistence of those conditions for more than one day (RMSE=9.3days$RMSE=9.3\\,\\text{days}$. Only in six out of 30 cases, differences between observed and predicted immigration dates were >5$>5$ days. In the future, crop invasion by pollen beetles will probably be strongly affected by changes in air temperature and precipitation related to climate change. We used a multi-model ensemble of 15 regional climate models driven by the A1B emission scenario to assess meteorological changes in two 30‑year future periods, near future (2021–2050 and far future (2069–2098 in comparison with the reference period (1971–2000. Air temperature and precipitation were predicted to increase in the first three months of each year, both in the near future and the far future. The pollen beetle migration model indicated that this change would

  2. Pheromones in White Pine Cone Beetle, Conophthorus coniperdu (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Birgersson; Gary L. DeBarr; Peter de Groot; Mark J. Dalusky; Harold D. Pierce; John H. Borden; Holger Meyer; Wittko Francke; Karl E. Espelie; C. Wayne Berisford

    1995-01-01

    Female white pine cone beetles, Conophrhorus coniperda, attacking second-year cones of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., produced a sex-specific pheromone that attracted conspecific males in laboratory bioassays and to field traps. Beetle response was enhanced by host monoterpenes. The female-produced compound was identified in...

  3. Ethanol accumulation during severe drought may signal tree vulnerability to detection and attack by bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; D. Gallego; F.J. Sánchez-Garcia; J.A. Pajares

    2014-01-01

    Tree mortality from temperature-driven drought is occurring in forests around the world, often in conjunction with bark beetle outbreaks when carbon allocation to tree defense declines. Physiological metrics for detecting stressed trees with enhanced vulnerability prior to bark beetle attacks remain elusive. Ethanol, water, monoterpene concentrations, and composition...

  4. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  5. Effects of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and silk clipping in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Sandy; Stewart, S D; Tindall, K V

    2013-10-01

    Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) is an emerging silk-feeding insect found in fields in the lower Corn Belt and Midsouthern United States. Studies were conducted in 2010 and 2011 to evaluate how silk clipping in corn affects pollination and yield parameters. Manually clipping silks once daily had modest effects on yield parameters. Sustained clipping by either manually clipping silks three times per day or by caging Japanese beetles onto ears affected total kernel weight if it occurred during early silking (R1 growth stage). Manually clipping silks three times per day for the first 5 d of silking affected the number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, and the weight of individual kernels. Caged beetles fed on silks and, depending on the number of beetles caged per ear, reduced the number of kernels per ear. Caging eight beetles per ear significantly reduced total kernel weight compared with noninfested ears. Drought stress before anthesis appeared to magnify the impact of silk clipping by Japanese beetles. There was evidence of some compensation for reduced pollination by increasing the size of pollinated kernels within the ear. Our results showed that it requires sustained silk clipping during the first week of silking to have substantial impacts on pollination and yield parameters, at least under good growing conditions. Some states recommend treating for Japanese beetle when three Japanese beetles per ear are found, silks are clipped to < 13 mm, and pollination is < 50% complete, and that recommendation appears to be adequate.

  6. Electrophysiological and olfactometer responses of two histerid predators to three pine bark beetle pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    William P. Shepherd; Brian T. Sullivan; Richard A. Goyer; Kier D. Klepzig

    2005-01-01

    We measured electrophysiological responses in the antennae of two predaceous hister beetles, Platysoma parallelum and Plegaderus transversus, exposes to racemic mixtures of primary aggregation pheromones of scolytid bark beetle prey, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and frontalin. No significant differences were found for either histerid...

  7. Trophic habits of mesostigmatid mites associated with bark beetles in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Patricia Chaires-Grijalva; Edith G. Estrada-Venegas; Armando Equihua-Martinez; John C. Moser; Stacy R. Blomquist

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bark and logs damaged by bark beetles were collected from 16 states of Mexico from 2007 to 2012. Fifteen bark beetle species were found within the bark and log samples and were examined for phoretic mites and arthropod associates. Thirty-three species of mesostigmatid mites were discovered within the samples. They were identified in several trophic guilds...

  8. The mountain pine beetle and whitebark pine waltz: Has the music changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Greta Schen-Langenheim

    2007-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (MPB), is a bark beetle native to western North American forests, spanning wide latitudinal and elevational gradients. MPB infest and reproduce within the phloem of most Pinus species from northern Baja California in Mexico to central British Columbia in...

  9. The effect of Beetle leaves (Piper Betle Linn for dental caries formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kurniawan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still the main problem in dental and oral health. Caries is caused by several factors working simultaneously. The main principle of management caries is by prioritizing preventive action and avoiding invasive action. Beetle leaves are medicamentous plant which are widely cultivated and very beneficial for Indonesian people. Its active content enable beetle leaves to be used as antimicrobial, antiseptic, antifungal, antioxidant, and disinfectant. The government of Indonesia and WHO greatly support the utilization of natural resources as medical cure. Currently we can find a lot of toothpaste and mouthwash products which use beetle leaves as additional ingredient. Various researches have proved that the use of beetle leaves extract as mouthwash, toothpaste and chewing beetle leaves may decrease plaque score. Chavicol and chavibetol content enable beetle leaves to function as very good antimicrobial. Beetle leaves also contain charvacrol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, cadinene, and seskuiterpene, which can function as antiseptic. Beetle leaves may effect salivary function and secretion and also impede the forming of dental caries.

  10. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  11. Nitrogen cycling following mountain pine beetle disturbance in lodgepole pine forests of Greater Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob M. Griffin; Monica G. Turner; Martin Simard

    2011-01-01

    Widespread bark beetle outbreaks are currently affecting multiple conifer forest types throughout western North America, yet many ecosystem-level consequences of this disturbance are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on nitrogen (N) cycling through litter, soil, and vegetation in...

  12. Alternative timing of carbaryl treatments for protecting lodgepole pine from mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; A.Steve Munson; Kenneth E. Gibson

    2015-01-01

    Carbaryl is regarded among the most effective, economically viable, and ecologically-compatible insecticides available for protecting conifers from bark beetle attack in the western United States. Treatments are typically applied in spring prior to initiation of bark beetle flight for that year. We evaluated the efficacy of spring and fall applications for protecting...

  13. Bearing selection in ball-rolling dung beetles: is it constant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie

    2010-11-01

    Ball rolling in dung beetles is thought to have evolved as a means to escape intense inter- and intra-specific competition at the dung pile. Accordingly, dung beetles typically roll along a straight-line path away from the pile, this being the most effective escape strategy for transporting dung to a suitable burial site. In this study, we investigate how individual diurnal dung beetles, Scarabaeus (Kheper) nigroaeneus, select the compass bearing of their straight-line rolls. In particular, we examine whether roll bearings are constant with respect to geographic cues, celestial cues, or other environmental cues (such as wind direction). Our results reveal that the roll bearings taken by individual beetles are not constant with respect to geographic or celestial references. Environmental cues appear to have some influence over bearing selection, although the relationship is not strong. Furthermore, the variance in roll bearing that we observe is not affected by the presence or absence of other beetles. Thus, rather than being constant for individual beetles, bearing selection varies each time a beetle makes a ball and rolls it away from the dung pile. This strategy allows beetles to make an efficient escape from the dung pile while minimizing the chance of encountering competition.

  14. Residue age and tree attractiveness influence efficacy of insecticide treatments against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of ambrosia beetles in ornamental nurseries relies, in part, on treatments of insecticides to prevent beetles from boring into trees emitting stress-induced ethanol. However, data on residual efficacy of commonly used pyrethroid insecticides is warranted to gauge the duration that trees ...

  15. Influence of temperature on spring flight initiation for southwestern ponderosa pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Gaylord; K. K. Williams; R. W. Hofstetter; J. D. McMillin; T. E. Degomez; M. R. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for flight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles...

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the cigarette beetles reared on cayenne pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2009-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation on the survival of the cigarette beetles reared on cayenne pepper was investigated. Gamma ray at a dose of 62 Gy completely killed eggs and larvae of the beetles. Some pupae survived at 540 Gy, but all pupae were killed at 1076 Gy. (author)

  17. Species Richness and Phenology of Cerambycid Beetles in Urban Forest Fragments of Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Handley; J. Hough-Goldstein; L.M. Hanks; J.G. Millar; V. D' amico

    2015-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles are abundant and diverse in forests, but much about their host relationships and adult behavior remains unknown. Generic blends of synthetic pheromones were used as lures in traps, to assess the species richness, and phenology of cerambycids in forest fragments in northern Delaware. More than 15,000 cerambycid beetles of 69 species were trapped over...

  18. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults of seven stored-product beetle species were exposed on the inside and outside surfaces of polypropylene polymer bags incorporated with the insecticide deltamethrin (approx. concentration of 3,000 ppm; ZeroFly® Storage Bags (3g/kg). Beetles were exposed for 60, 120, and 180 min, and 1, 3 and 5...

  19. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  20. Analysis of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production by southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduvali Valiev; Zumrut B. Ogel; Dier D. Klepzig

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the production of extracellular enzymes by fungi associated with southern pine beetle was investigated for the first time. Cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production were analyzed for three beetle associated fungi. Only the mutualistic symbiont Entomocorticium sp. A was found to produce cellulases and polyphenol oxidase....

  1. A foam formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  2. Elevational shifts in thermal suitability for mountain pine beetle population growth in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Jacob P. Duncan; James A. Powell

    2016-01-01

    Future forests are being shaped by changing climate and disturbances. Climate change is causing large-scale forest declines globally, in addition to distributional shifts of many tree species. Because environmental cues dictate insect seasonality and population success, climate change is also influencing tree-killing bark beetles. The mountain pine beetle,...

  3. Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles: Behavior and laboratory breeding success in three Xyleborine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Biedermann; Kier Klepzig; Taborsky Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles remains poorly...

  4. Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

    2009-01-01

    Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine...

  5. 76 FR 1337 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    .... APHIS-2009-0014] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts and New York... rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian..., MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5705. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB...

  6. BIOECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF GROUND BEETLES OF GUMBETOVSKY DISTRICT OF DAGHESTAN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. NAKHIBASHEVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground beetles of the Gumbetovskiy area are studied. For the first time for the territory there are defined 95 species of the beetles related to 28 genus. Bioecological features of the species are presented and the analysis of the received materials is lead.

  7. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Helena I; Palmu, Erkki; Birkhofer, Klaus; Smith, Henrik G; Hedlund, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities.

  8. Effects of insecticides intended for Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. control in oilseed rape on ground beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticides that are commonly used for conventional and integrated oilseed rape (OSR management on ground beetles were studied. Monitoring of harmful species showed that only insecticides intended against Ceutorhynchus napi should be applied. There were no differences in beetle numbers and phenology of settling of C. napi in the OSR fields that received different management practices. The type of OSR management has a primary and significant impact on ground beetles abundance. Early in the spring, ground beetles settled more massively on the non-tilled OSR field with abundant weed cover and mulch on soil surface. However, there were no significant differences in species richness between the OSR fields managed differently. A total of 22 species were recorded. Early in the spring, the granivorous ground beetles Amara aenea (47.3% and Harpalus distinguendus (32.5% were dominant. When insecticides were applied, immigration of ground beetles began, so that their adverse effect was minimal. In both management systems the number of ground beetles and their diversity increased after spraying. In conclusion, no significant harmful effects of the insecticides on ground beetles were detected in OSR fields managed in two different ways.

  9. Chemical ecology and serendipity: Developing attractants for Florida ambrosia beetle pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two exotic ambrosia beetles have become established in southern Florida: Xyleborus glabratus, the redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), and Euwallacea fornicatus, the tea shot hole borer (TSHB). Both pests vector pathogenic fungal symbionts; the former for laurel wilt and the latter for Fusarium dieback d...

  10. A trial of direct control of pine engraver beetles on a small logging unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. L. Jackson

    1960-01-01

    Laboratory tests and small-scale field trials have shown the insecticide lindane to be highly toxic to pine engraver beetles. On the basis of that information, the insecticide was applied to fresh logging slash heavily infested with pine engraver beetles at Challenge Experimental Forest in 1959. Costs were reasonable and no insurmountable problems were encountered....

  11. Approaches to control diseases vectored by ambrosia beetles in avocado and other American Lauraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive ambrosia beetles and the plant pathogenic fungi they vector represent a significant challenge to North American agriculture, native and landscape trees. Ambrosia beetles encompass a range of insect species and they vector a diverse set of plant pathogenic fungi. Our lab has taken several bi...

  12. Cloning and characterization of luciferase from a Fijian luminous click beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yasuo; Futahashi, Ryo; Niwa, Kazuki; Ohba, Nobuyoshi; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Luminous click beetle is distributed almost exclusively in Central and South America with a single genus in Melanesia. Among these click beetles, the description of Melanesian species has been fragmentary, and its luciferase gene and phylogenetic relation to other click beetles still remain uncertain. We collected a living luminous click beetle, Photophorus jansonii in Fiji. It emits green-yellow light from two spots on the pronotum and has no ventral luminous organ. Here, we cloned a luciferase gene from this insect by RT-PCR. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high identity of ~85% to the luciferases derived from other click beetle species. The luciferase of the Fijian click beetle was produced as a recombinant protein to characterize its biochemical properties. The Km for D-luciferin and ATP were 173 and 270 μm, respectively. The luciferase was pH-insensitive and the spectrum measured at pH 8.0 showed a peak at 559 nm, which was in the range of green-yellow light as seen in the luminous spot of the living Fijian click beetle. The Fijian click beetle luciferase was assigned to the Elateridae clade by a phylogenetic analysis, but it made a clearly different branch from Pyrophorus group examined in this study. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  13. Diesel fuel oil for increasing mountain pine beetle mortality in felled logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Mata; J. M. Schmid; D. A. Leatherman

    2002-01-01

    Diesel fuel oil was applied to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested bolts of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) in early June. Just prior to the fuel oil application and 6 weeks later, 0.5 ft2 bark samples were removed from each bolt and the numbers of live beetles counted....

  14. New records of water beetles (Coleoptera: Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae from Montenegro (SE Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Vladimir M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The water beetle fauna of Montenegro is still poorly known. In the catalog dealing with water beetles (Hydrochantares and Palpicornia in Yugoslavia Gueorguiev (1971 gives a list of 116 water beetle species from Montenegro. Mikšić (1977 reported the presence of six water beetles species from the Ulcinj area. In the present paper, 19 water beetle species (Coleoptera Hydradephaga are reported, five of which are new for the fauna of Montenegro. All specimens have been deposited in the zoological collection of the department of Biology (Podgorica. In list of the species, we give the locality, the date of sampling, the total number of individuals and the names of collectors.

  15. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  16. A comparison of outbreak dynamics of the spruce bark beetle in Sweden and the mountain pine beetle in Canada (Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kärvemo, Simon; Schroeder, Leif Martin

    2010-01-01

    The European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) and the North American mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) may kill millions of trees during outbreak periods. Both species have also experienced large outbreaks in recent years. But the magnitude of the outbreaks of D. ponderosae is much larger. In this review we compare the outbreak history of I. typographus in Sweden with D. ponderosae in British Columbia in Canada. We also discuss some possible explanations for the difference in...

  17. A role for Taiman in insect metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Lozano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in vitro have reported that the Methoprene-tolerant (Met and Taiman (Tai complex is the functional receptor of juvenile hormone (JH. Experiments in vivo of Met depletion have confirmed this factor's role in JH signal transduction, however, there is no equivalent data regarding Tai because its depletion in larval or nymphal stages of the beetle Tribolium castaneum and the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus results in 100% mortality. We have discovered that the cockroach Blattella germanica possesses four Tai isoforms resulting from the combination of two indels in the C-terminal region of the sequence. The presence of one equivalent indel-1 in Tai sequences in T. castaneum and other species suggests that Tai isoforms may be common in insects. Concomitant depletion of all four Tai isoforms in B. germanica resulted in 100% mortality, but when only the insertion 1 (IN-1 isoforms were depleted, mortality was significantly reduced and about half of the specimens experienced precocious adult development. This shows that Tai isoforms containing IN-1 are involved in transducing the JH signal that represses metamorphosis. Reporter assays indicated that both T. castaneum Tai isoforms, one that contains the IN-1 and another that does not (DEL-1 activated a JH response element (kJHRE in Krüppel homolog 1 in conjunction with Met and JH. The results indicate that Tai is involved in the molecular mechanisms that repress metamorphosis, at least in B. germanica, and highlight the importance of distinguishing Tai isoforms when studying the functions of this transcription factor in development and other processes.

  18. Cross-Resistance: A Consequence of Bi-partite Host-Parasite Coevolution

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    Tilottama Biswas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Host-parasite coevolution can influence interactions of the host and parasite with the wider ecological community. One way that this may manifest is in cross-resistance towards other parasites, which has been observed to occur in some host-parasite evolution experiments. In this paper, we test for cross-resistance towards Bacillus thuringiensis and Pseudomonas entomophila in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, which was previously allowed to coevolve with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. We combine survival and gene expression assays upon infection to test for cross-resistance and underlying mechanisms. We show that larvae of T. castaneum that evolved with B. bassiana under coevolutionary conditions were positively cross-resistant to the bacterium B. thuringiensis, but not P. entomophila. Positive cross-resistance was mirrored at the gene expression level with markers that were representative of the oral route of infection being upregulated upon B. bassiana exposure. We find that positive cross-resistance towards B. thuringiensis evolved in T. castaneum as a consequence of its coevolutionary interactions with B. bassiana. This cross-resistance appears to be a consequence of resistance to oral toxicity. The fact that coevolution with B. bassiana results in resistance to B. thuringiensis, but not P. entomophila implies that B. thuringiensis and B. bassiana may share mechanisms of infection or toxicity not shared by P. entomophila. This supports previous suggestions that B. bassiana may possess Cry-like toxins, similar to those found in B. thuringiensis, which allow it to infect orally.

  19. EST and microarray analysis of horn development in Onthophagus beetles

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    Tang Zuojian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of novel traits and their subsequent diversification represent central themes in evo-devo and evolutionary ecology. Here we explore the genetic and genomic basis of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse, in a group of organisms that is ecologically complex and experimentally tractable: horned beetles. Results We developed two high quality, normalized cDNA libraries for larval and pupal Onthophagus taurus and sequenced 3,488 ESTs that assembled into 451 contigs and 2,330 singletons. We present the annotation and a comparative analysis of the conservation of the sequences. Microarrays developed from the combined libraries were then used to contrast the transcriptome of developing primordia of head horns, prothoracic horns, and legs. Our experiments identify a first comprehensive list of candidate genes for the evolution and diversification of beetle horns. We find that developing horns and legs show many similarities as well as important differences in their transcription profiles, suggesting that the origin of horns was mediated partly, but not entirely, by the recruitment of genes involved in the formation of more traditional appendages such as legs. Furthermore, we find that horns developing from the head and prothorax differ in their transcription profiles to a degree that suggests that head and prothoracic horns are not serial homologs, but instead may have evolved independently from each other. Conclusion We have laid the foundation for a systematic analysis of the genetic basis of horned beetle development and diversification with the potential to contribute significantly to several major frontiers in evolutionary developmental biology.

  20. Occurrence of the hermit beetle (Osmoderma eremita), in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsson, Kjell; Hedin, Jonas; Jansson, Niklas; Nilsson, Sven; Ranius, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We have compiled data on the occurrence of a threatened beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Sweden. The species inhabits tree hollows with wood mould. The data were compiled from field surveys conducted in 1993-2003, using pitfall traps at 401 localities and using wood mould sampling at 104 localities. We have also gone through published data and all larger Swedish museums and registered old records. O. eremita was recorded at about 30% of the field surveys. In Sweden, oak is by far the most import...

  1. Fluorescence of the 'fire-chaser' beetle Melanophila acuminata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israelowitz, Meir; Rizvi, Syed H.W.; Schroeder, Herbert P. von

    2007-01-01

    Melanophila acuminata beetles are attracted to forest fires over long distances by a pair of specialized infrared sensory organs. To date, there is no knowledge of their ability to detect or emit fluorescent radiation. We studied the Melanophila acuminata infrared sensory organs histologically and by using fluorescent microscopy, acoustic-optic tunable filter microscopy, and two-photon microscopy to identify fluorescence. We found fluorescent absorption at radiation wavelengths of 480 nm and emission at 570 nm. The functional role of this novel fluorescence is, as of yet, unknown but may be applied to species classification, identification and behavioral studies

  2. Ground beetles from Sǎlaj county (Romania (coleoptera: carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutasi Cs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a faunistical exploration of Sǎlaj county carried out in 2014 and 2015, 207 ground beetle (Carabidae species were recorded from the area. Considering the earlier literature data the total number of carabid species known from the county is 246. Carabus variolosus Fabricius, 1787 is a Natura 2000 species, Pterostichus bielzii Fuss, 1878 is a species endemic to the Western Apuseni Mountains. Further rare species from the area: Dromius quadraticollis A. Morawitz, 1862, Elaphropus parvulus (Dejean, 1831, Lebia marginata (Geoffroy, 1785, Ophonus ardosiacus (Lučnik, 1922, Trechus amplicollis Fairmaire, 1859.

  3. Trilobite spines and beetle horns: sexual selection in the Palaeozoic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Robert J; Fortey, Richard A

    2005-06-22

    Raphiophorid trilobites commonly bore median cephalic protuberances such as spines or bulbs, showing a remarkable variety of form. It is unlikely that their primary function was for protection or in hydrodynamics. A case is made that they were secondary sexual features, by comparison with similar morphological structures developed on rhinoceros beetles and other arthropods. This interpretation is supported by four lines of evidence: their ontogeny, their diversity, the existence of plausible examples of sexual dimorphs in some cases and the fact that they show positive allometry.

  4. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, B C; Hicke, J A; Hudak, A T

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40–50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75–89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3–6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale. (letter)

  5. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  6. Diurnal dung beetles use the intensity gradient and the polarization pattern of the sky for orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Jundi, Basil; Smolka, Jochen; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; Dacke, Marie

    2014-07-01

    To escape competition at the dung pile, a ball-rolling dung beetle forms a piece of dung into a ball and rolls it away. To ensure their efficient escape from the dung pile, beetles rely on a 'celestial compass' to move along a straight path. Here, we analyzed the reliability of different skylight cues for this compass and found that dung beetles rely not only on the sun but also on the skylight polarization pattern. Moreover, we show the first evidence of an insect using the celestial light-intensity gradient for orientation. Using a polarizer, we manipulated skylight so that the polarization pattern appeared to turn by 90 deg. The beetles then changed their bearing close to the expected 90 deg. This behavior was abolished if the sun was visible to the beetle, suggesting that polarized light is hierarchically subordinate to the sun. When the sky was depolarized and the sun was invisible, the beetles could still move along straight paths. Therefore, we analyzed the use of the celestial light-intensity gradient for orientation. Artificial rotation of the intensity pattern by 180 deg caused beetles to orient in the opposite direction. This light-intensity cue was also found to be subordinate to the sun and could play a role in disambiguating the polarization signal, especially at low sun elevations. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; PTaenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  8. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai’i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  9. Development of a Dung Beetle Robot and Investigation of Its Dung-Rolling Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Wei Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a bio-inspired dung beetle robot was developed that emulated the dung rolling motion of the dung beetle. Dung beetles, which can roll objects up to 1000 times their own body weight, are one of the strongest insect species in the world. While the locomotion of many insects, such as cockroaches, inchworms, and butterflies, has been studied widely, the locomotion of dung beetles has rarely been given attention. Here, we report on the development of a dung beetle robot made specifically to investigate dung-rolling behavior and to determine and understand the underlying mechanism. Two versions of the robot were built, and the leg trajectories were carefully designed based on kinematic analysis. Cylinder and ball rolling experiments were conducted, and the results showed that the dung beetle robot could successfully and reliably roll objects. This further suggests that the dung beetle robot, with its current morphology, is capable of reliably rolling dung without the need for complex control strategies.

  10. Influence of shifting cultivation practices on soil-plant-beetle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Momin, Marcy D; Lalrotluanga, R; Rosangliana, David; Ghatak, Souvik; Zothansanga, R; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2016-08-01

    Shifting cultivation (jhum) is a major land use practice in Mizoram. It was considered as an eco-friendly and efficient method when the cycle duration was long (15-30 years), but it poses the problem of land degradation and threat to ecology when shortened (4-5 years) due to increased intensification of farming systems. Studying beetle community structure is very helpful in understanding how shifting cultivation affects the biodiversity features compared to natural forest system. The present study examines the beetle species diversity and estimates the effects of shifting cultivation practices on the beetle assemblages in relation to change in tree species composition and soil nutrients. Scarabaeidae and Carabidae were observed to be the dominant families in the land use systems studied. Shifting cultivation practice significantly (P PERMANOVA), permutational multivariate analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP)) statistical analyses. Besides changing the tree species composition and affecting the soil fertility, shifting cultivation provides less suitable habitat conditions for the beetle species. Bioindicator analysis categorized the beetle species into forest specialists, anthropogenic specialists (shifting cultivation habitat specialist), and habitat generalists. Molecular analysis of bioindicator beetle species was done using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) marker to validate the beetle species and describe genetic variation among them in relation to heterogeneity, transition/transversion bias, codon usage bias, evolutionary distance, and substitution pattern. The present study revealed the fact that shifting cultivation practice significantly affects the beetle species in terms of biodiversity pattern as well as evolutionary features. Spatiotemporal assessment of soil-plant-beetle interactions in shifting cultivation system and their influence in land degradation and ecology will be helpful in making biodiversity conservation decisions in the

  11. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knizek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-01-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10x50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O 3 level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O 3 levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. - Air pollution (ozone) can be one of predisposing factors that increases the susceptibility of mountain Norway spruce stands to attack by Ips typographus and associated bark beetle species

  12. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Dacke, Marie

    2010-07-16

    In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another species with elytra covered in bumps is reported to have specialised adaptations facilitating water capture by fog-basking. To resolve if these other beetles also fog-bask, and if an elytra covered in bumps is a more efficient fog water collector than a smooth one, we examined four Namib Desert beetles; the smooth Onymacris unguicularis and O. laeviceps and the bumpy Stenocara gracilipes and Physasterna cribripes. Here we describe the beetles' fog-basking behaviour, the details of their elytra structures, and determine how efficient their dorsal surface areas are at harvesting water from fog. The beetles differ greatly in size. The largest P. cribripes has a dorsal surface area that is 1.39, 1.56, and 2.52 times larger than O. unguicularis, O. laeviceps, and S. gracilipes, respectively. In accordance with earlier reports, we found that the second largest O. unguicularis is the only one of the four beetles that assumes the head standing fog-basking behaviour, and that fog is necessary to trigger this behaviour. No differences were seen in the absolute amounts of fog water collected on the dorsal surface areas of the different beetles. However, data corrected according to the sizes of the beetles revealed differences. The better fog water harvesters were S. gracilipes and O. unguicularis while the large P. cribripes was the poorest. Examination of the elytra microstructures showed clear structural differences, but the elytra of all beetles were found to be completely hydrophobic. The differences in

  13. Plant cells which aid in pollen digestion within a beetle's gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickson, Fred R; Cresti, M; Beach, James H

    1990-03-01

    The peach palm, Bactris gasipaes H.B.K., in Costa Rica, possesses unusual trichomes on the inflorescence epidermal surface. Certain cells of the trichome possess a thick, highly lignified cell wall and are consumed by the beetle Cyclocephala amazona L. before it ingests pollen from the same inflorescence. Chemical analyses show the trichome to possess no nutritive value. The thick-walled trichome cells pass intact through the beetle's digestive system, while ingested pollen is crushed. We suggest that the specialized plant cells function as gastroliths in the beetle's digestive tract.

  14. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Peemoeller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  15. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Todoruk, Tara M.; Hartley, Ian D.; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as wel...

  16. Heterorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae): A Nematode Parasite Isolated from the Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, C. S.; Fassuliotis, G.

    1985-01-01

    A nematode identified as Heterorhabditis sp. was discovered in June 1982 in larval cadavers of the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica balteata, in soil on wooded land. Effective beetle control (over 95%) was obtained when larvae were exposed to potted soil containing infective stage nematode juveniles or infected larval cadavers. The nematode was propagated in vivo on larvae of D. balteata, Diaphania nitidalis (the pickleworm), and Galleria mellonella (the greater wax moth). This Heterorhabditis sp. has promising potential as a biocontrol agent for the banded cucumber beetle. PMID:19294074

  17. [Histological structure of tripartite mushroom bodies in ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera: Carabidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to members of the suborder Polyphaga; ground beetles have been found to possess tripartite mushroom bodies, which are poorly developed in members of basal taxa and maximally elaborated in evolutionarily advanced groups. Nevertheless, they do not reach the developmental stage, which has been previously found in particular families of beetles. It has been pointed out that anew formation of the Kenyon cells occurs during at least the first months of adult life, and inactive neuroblasts are found even in one-year-old beetles. It has been suggested that there is a relation between the Kenyon cell number and development of the centers of Kenyon cell new-formation.

  18. Quantitative separation of bone and muscle radioactivity in small rodents using Dermestid beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walburg, H.E.; Eisele, G.R.; Mraz, F.R.

    1979-01-01

    The use of Dermestid beetles, which feed on dead animals, to separate muscle and bone radioactivity in small rodent carcasses was studied. Eviscerated carcasses of mice injected with 1μCi 95 Nb 48hr before killing were placed in jars with adult beetle larvae. Within 3 weeks the skeletons were completely free of muscle. Losses of radioactivity were acceptably small. The actual muscle activity was measured by counting activity in beetles, larvae and excreta, and compared with estimated values. Dermestid digestion has proved to be effective for small carcasses, where size precludes other methods of separation, and is in current use in studies of tissue localization of radionuclides. (author)

  19. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacke Marie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another species with elytra covered in bumps is reported to have specialised adaptations facilitating water capture by fog-basking. To resolve if these other beetles also fog-bask, and if an elytra covered in bumps is a more efficient fog water collector than a smooth one, we examined four Namib Desert beetles; the smooth Onymacris unguicularis and O. laeviceps and the bumpy Stenocara gracilipes and Physasterna cribripes. Here we describe the beetles' fog-basking behaviour, the details of their elytra structures, and determine how efficient their dorsal surface areas are at harvesting water from fog. Results The beetles differ greatly in size. The largest P. cribripes has a dorsal surface area that is 1.39, 1.56, and 2.52 times larger than O. unguicularis, O. laeviceps, and S. gracilipes, respectively. In accordance with earlier reports, we found that the second largest O. unguicularis is the only one of the four beetles that assumes the head standing fog-basking behaviour, and that fog is necessary to trigger this behaviour. No differences were seen in the absolute amounts of fog water collected on the dorsal surface areas of the different beetles. However, data corrected according to the sizes of the beetles revealed differences. The better fog water harvesters were S. gracilipes and O. unguicularis while the large P. cribripes was the poorest. Examination of the elytra microstructures showed clear structural differences, but the elytra of all beetles were found to

  20. Predation of Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloggett, John J

    2012-07-18

    Studies of predation of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae) have focused on a limited number of predator taxa, such as birds and ants, while other potential predators have received limited attention. I here consider amphibians as predators of ladybirds. Published amphibian gut analyses show that ladybirds are quite often eaten by frogs and toads (Anura), with recorded frequencies reaching up to 15% of dietary items. Salamanders (Caudata) eat ladybirds less frequently, probably as their habits less often bring them into contact with the beetles. Amphibians do not appear to be deleteriously affected by the potentially toxic alkaloids that ladybirds possess. Amphibians, especially frogs and toads, use primarily prey movement as a release cue to attack their food; it is thus likely that their ability to discriminate against ladybirds and other chemically defended prey is limited. Because of this poor discriminatory power, amphibians have apparently evolved non-specific resistance to prey defensive chemicals, including ladybird alkaloids. Although amphibian-related ladybird mortality is limited, in certain habitats it could outweigh mortality from more frequently studied predators, notably birds. The gut analyses from the herpetological literature used in this study, suggest that in studying predation of insects, entomologists should consider specialized literature on other animal groups.

  1. Biological factors contributing to bark and ambrosia beetle species diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohli, Jostein; Kirkendall, Lawrence R; Smith, Sarah M; Cognato, Anthony I; Hulcr, Jiri; Jordal, Bjarte H

    2017-05-01

    The study of species diversification can identify the processes that shape patterns of species richness across the tree of life. Here, we perform comparative analyses of species diversification using a large dataset of bark beetles. Three examined covariates-permanent inbreeding (sibling mating), fungus farming, and major host type-represent a range of factors that may be important for speciation. We studied the association of these covariates with species diversification while controlling for evolutionary lag on adaptation. All three covariates were significantly associated with diversification, but fungus farming showed conflicting patterns between different analyses. Genera that exhibited interspecific variation in host type had higher rates of species diversification, which may suggest that host switching is a driver of species diversification or that certain host types or forest compositions facilitate colonization and thus allopatric speciation. Because permanent inbreeding is thought to facilitate dispersal, the positive association between permanent inbreeding and diversification rates suggests that dispersal ability may contribute to species richness. Bark beetles are ecologically unique; however, our results indicate that their impressive species diversity is largely driven by mechanisms shown to be important for many organism groups. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Parental care improves offspring survival and growth in burying beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert; Reinking; MULLER

    1998-01-01

    Burying beetles (genus Nicrophorus) provide elaborate parental care to their offspring. Parental beetles defend a small vertebrate carcass, which constitutes the sole food source for the larvae. They also manipulate the carcass in various ways and directly regurgitate pre-digested carrion to the young. The benefits of carcass manipulation and regurgitation have been the subject of a few small-scale studies that have yielded conflicting results. In this study, we investigated the benefits of these behaviours and tested for possible beneficial effects on larval survival rates and final body mass in N. vespilloides. In this species: (1) larval survival and mass were significantly higher in broods receiving parental care throughout larval development on the carcass than in broods developing in the absence of adults; (2) parental presence immediately subsequent to larval hatching greatly improved larval survival rates; (3) continued parental presence for several days further improved larval growth, leading to a greater final mass of individual larvae; (4) larval survival and growth were improved by parental preparation of carcasses and by an excision made in the integument of the carcass surface by the parents that allows the larvae ready access to their food; (5) positive effects of parental feeding on larval survival and growth were not mediated by the transfer of symbionts. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Fungal volatiles: Semiochemicals for stored-product beetles (Coleoptera: Cucujidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A M; Pierce, H D; Borden, J H; Oehlschlager, A C

    1991-03-01

    Responses by five species of cucujid grain beetles (mixed-sex adults) to various volatiles were assessed by means of a two-choice, pitfall olfactometer. The test volatiles were short-chain alcohols and ketones known to be produced by fungi. Both racemic and chiral 1-octen-3-ols were strong attractants forCryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), as had been found previously forOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.),O. mercator (Fauvel), andAhasverus advena (Waltl). 3-Methylbutanol was another good attractant for these four cucujids, and it was the only test compound to whichCathartus quadricollis (Guér.) responded positively. 1-Octen-3-one, racemic 3-octanol, and 3-octanone showed various degrees of attractiveness for the former four species of cucujids.O. surinamensis was the only species of test beetle to show much positive response to 2-phenylethanol and ethanol. ForO. mercator andO. surinamensis, 3-methylbutanol enhanced positive response to their respective cucujolide aggregation pheromones.

  4. The Evolution of Functionally Redundant Species; Evidence from Beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    Full Text Available While species fulfill many different roles in ecosystems, it has been suggested that numerous species might actually share the same function in a near neutral way. So-far, however, it is unclear whether such functional redundancy really exists. We scrutinize this question using extensive data on the world's 4168 species of diving beetles. We show that across the globe these animals have evolved towards a small number of regularly-spaced body sizes, and that locally co-existing species are either very similar in size or differ by at least 35%. Surprisingly, intermediate size differences (10-20% are rare. As body-size strongly reflects functional aspects such as the food that these generalist predators can eat, these beetles thus form relatively distinct groups of functional look-a-likes. The striking global regularity of these patterns support the idea that a self-organizing process drives such species-rich groups to self-organize evolutionary into clusters where functional redundancy ensures resilience through an insurance effect.

  5. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmayr, Pietro; Giorgi, Filippo; Casale, Achille; Colombetta, Giorgio; Mariotti, Laura; Vigna Taglianti, Augusto; Weber, Friedrich; Pizzolotto, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920-30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets.

  6. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandmayr, Pietro; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Giorgi, Filippo; Mariotti, Laura; Casale, Achille; Colombetta, Giorgio; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Weber, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920–30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets. (letter)

  7. The evolving role of the orphan nuclear receptor ftz-f1, a pair-rule segmentation gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffer, Alison; Grubbs, Nathaniel; Mahaffey, James; Pick, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Segmentation is a critical developmental process that occurs by different mechanisms in diverse taxa. In insects, there are three common modes of embryogenesis-short-, intermediate-, and long-germ development-which differ in the number of segments specified at the blastoderm stage. While genes involved in segmentation have been extensively studied in the long-germ insect Drosophila melanogaster (Dm), it has been found that their expression and function in segmentation in short- and intermediate-germ insects often differ. Drosophila ftz-f1 encodes an orphan nuclear receptor that functions as a maternally expressed pair-rule segmentation gene, responsible for the formation of alternate body segments during Drosophila embryogenesis. Here we investigated the expression and function of ftz-f1 in the short-germ beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tc). We found that Tc-ftz-f1 is expressed in stripes in Tribolium embryos. These stripes overlap alternate Tc-Engrailed (Tc-En) stripes, indicative of a pair-rule expression pattern. To test whether Tc-ftz-f1 has pair-rule function, we utilized embryonic RNAi, injecting double-stranded RNA corresponding to Tc-ftz-f1 coding or non-coding regions into early Tribolium embryos. Knockdown of Tc-ftz-f1 produced pair-rule segmentation defects, evidenced by loss of expression of alternate En stripes. In addition, a later role for Tc-ftz-f1 in cuticle formation was revealed. These results identify a new pair-rule gene in Tribolium and suggest that its role in segmentation may be shared among holometabolous insects. Interestingly, while Tc-ftz-f1 is expressed in pair-rule stripes, the gene is ubiquitously expressed in Drosophila embryos. Thus, the pair-rule function of ftz-f1 is conserved despite differences in expression patterns of ftz-f1 genes in different lineages. This suggests that ftz-f1 expression changed after the divergence of lineages leading to extant beetles and flies, likely due to differences in cis-regulatory sequences. We

  8. A survey of beetles (Coleoptera from the tundra surrounding the Nunalleq archaeological site, Quinhagak, southwestern Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Forbes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey of beetles conducted in the vicinity of the archaeological site of Nunalleq, a pre-contact (16th-17th century AD indigenous forager settlement located near the modern Yup’ik village of Quinhagak, in the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, southwestern Alaska. Records and habitat data are reported for 74 beetle taxa collected in tundra, riparian, aquatic and anthropogenic environments from a region of Alaska that has been poorly studied by entomologists. This includes the first mainland Alaskan record for the byrrhid Simplocaria metallica (Sturm. Beyond improving our knowledge of the local beetle fauna’s diversity and ecology, this survey provides the basis for comparisons between modern and sub-fossil beetle assemblages from Nunalleq and Quinhagak.

  9. Cantharidin biosynthesis in a blister beetle: inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate causes chemical disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, J E; Doom, J P; McCormick, J P

    1986-07-15

    Biosynthesis of cantharidin in a blister beetle, Lytta polita, is effectively inhibited by 6-fluoromevalonate. Inhibition is attributed specifically to the fluorine substituent. Biochemical inhibition has not been demonstrated previously for an arthropod's defensive substance.

  10. Evaluation of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for control of Japanese beetle larvae in turfgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental and commercial preparations of Metarhizium brunneum strain F52 were evaluated for control of Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarbaeidae) larvae (white grubs) in the laboratory and under field conditions. Experimental preparations consisted of granule and liquid f...

  11. Biannual monitoring of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid susceptibility in Danish pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Caroline; Kristensen, Michael; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2015-01-01

    ) were used. Pollen beetle populations were collected from 47 locations of Denmark with the help of the consultants and the farmers of the various regions in 2014. Further six populations were tested from Sweden and one from Germany. In the following year 2015, the monitoring continued to find out......The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) is a serious pest in the northern countries in oilseed rape. To determine the present level of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid susceptibility of Danish pollen beetle populations, standardized methods recommended by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee......, if the resistance level which was determined in 2014 was stable in selected regions. Therefore pollen beetle populations from 14 locations in Denmark and five locations in Germany have been tested. For all tests the standardised methods for pyrethroids, the Adult-vial-test No. 11 and the Adult-vials-test No. 21...

  12. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  13. Reproductive isolation between populations from Northern and Central Europe of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Hilker, M.; Gross, J.

    2006-01-01

    Allopatric populations of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica are known to feed upon either willow (Salicaceae) or birch (Betulaceae). This study aimed to elucidate the differentiation process of these allopatric populations. We investigated whether these allopatric populations specialized on

  14. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Tillman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L., Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, Cycloneda munda (Say, and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and cotton and in yellow pyramidal traps were similar. For both years, density of lady beetles generally was higher on cotton with sorghum than on control cotton. Our results indicate that sorghum was a source of lady beetles in cotton, and thus incorporation of a sorghum habitat in farmscapes with cotton has great potential to enhance biocontrol of insect pests in cotton.

  16. Phoretic mites of three bark beetles (Pityokteines spp.) on silver fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan Pernek; Boris Hrasovec; Dinka Matosevic; Ivan Pilas; Thomas Kirisits; John C. Moser

    2008-01-01

    The species composition and abundance of phoretic mites of the bark beetles Pityokteines curvidens P. spinidens, and P. vorontzowi on Silver fir (Abies alba) were investigated in 2003 at two locations (Trakoscan and Litoric) in Croatia. Stem sections and...

  17. Rove beetles (Coleoptera Staphylilnidae) in neotropical riverine landscapes: characterising their distribution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez Chacon, C.; Del Carmen Zuniga, M.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Chara, J.; Giraldo, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. The diversity and ecology of Staphylinidae in the Neotropical region has been poorly investigated, especially in riverine landscapes where these beetles are among the dominant organisms. Therefore, the relation between the occurrence of Staphylinidae and environmental variables was investigated

  18. Immunocytochemical studies on peptidergic neurons in the Colorado potato beetle and some other insect species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the distribution, numbers, and morphology of peptidergic neurons and neurosecretory cells in the Colorado potato beetle, as detected with immunocytochemistry with antisera to various regulatory peptides from vertebrates, as well as to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide

  19. THE INVASIVE COLEOPTEROFAUNA FOR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asea M. Timuş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The invasive coleopterofauna for Republic of Moldova consists of the 100 species. After correlation local database with Fauna Europaea for our country registered are 31 of species, but for 69 mentioned with the „absent” and 38 „no date”. In the meantime 24 species were recorded for our country: Acanthoscelides abtectus, A.pallidipennis, Alphitobius diaperinus, Alphitophagus bifasciatus, Bruchus pisorum, B.rufimanus, Caulophilus latinasus, Diabrotica virgifera, Gnathocerus cornutus, Harmonia axyridis, Lasioderma serricorne, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Lignyodes bischoffi, Lithocharis nigriceps, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, S. zeamais, Tenebrio molitor, Tenebrioides mauritanicus, Tribolium castaneum, T. destructor, Trogoderma granarium. According periods penetration the invasive beetles it was found that 2 species have entered the XVIII century, 16 species in the XIX, 53 species in the XX and 29 species in the XXI century. The registration invasive beetles in countries of interest to the our country is in: Bulgaria – 54 species; Poland – 39; România – 3; other countries- 4.

  20. Methodology for Evaluating the Insect Growth Regulator (IGR Methoprene on Packaging Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank H. Arthur

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The insect growth regulator methoprene can be mixed into the matrix used to comprise bags and other packaging materials. Different methodologies were utilized to evaluate the efficacy of different types of methoprene-treated packaging towards Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, the red flour beetle, and T. confusum Jacquelin duVal, the confused flour beetle, two common insect species that infest stored products. Tests were conducted by creating arenas in which larvae were exposed on the packaging surface along with a flour food source, and assessments were made on adults emerging from the exposed progeny. Tests were also done by exposing adults, again with a flour food source, removing the adults after one week, and assessing adult emergence of progeny from those parental adults. In tests with larvae exposed on methoprene-treated birdseed bags, the outside surface had more activity compared to the inside surface, especially on T. confusum. In other studies with different types of packaging materials, there was generally 100% inhibition of adult emergence of exposed larvae or of progeny adults when parental adults were exposed on the methoprene-treated packaging. The best technique for evaluation was to expose late-stage larvae as the test life stage. Results show the potential of using methoprene-treated packaging for bagged storage of processed grains and grain products.

  1. Gamma radiation in the control of important storage pests of three grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Prasad, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    A dose of 1 kGy of gamma radiation completely killed adult pulse beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis Linn) within a week, but the dose of 0.5 kGy required two weeks to achieve the same level of mortality. For six month storage, 1.0 kGy dose was effective for control of natural infestation of mung beans and gram by C. Chinensis alone. The dose was also sufficient for the management of weevilling in gram and lentil, which were additionally infested with C. chinensis, rust red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst), and lesser grain borer (Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius). For short (one and half months) storage of mung bean and lentil, a dose of 0.25 kGy was adequate. The test of significance for doses of radiation, storage periods and their interactions, however, indicated that 1.0 kGy is the preferred dose for the control of weevilling during storage upto 6 months. (author). 13 refs., 4 tabs

  2. Disinfestation of copra, desiccated coconut and coffee beans by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manato, E.C.

    1987-08-01

    Nine insect pests were found associated with copra of which copra beetle, Necrobia rufipes, saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne and tropical warehouse moth, Ephestia cautella were found feeding on this food. While feeding on different coffee beans, coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus De Geer showed preference on Arabica, Liberica and Excelsa but not in Robusta coffee beans. For mass rearing, the most suitable medium for copra beetle was desiccated coconut + yeast (2:1) and for coffee bean beetle, it was dried cassava chips + yeast (3:1). The life cycles completed in these food media were 43 to 60 and 42 to 56 days by copra beetle and coffee bean weevil respectively. Irradiation studies on these 2 species of insects showed that the eggs were most sensitive followed by larvae and pupae. A dose of 0.05 kGy prevented adult emergence from irradiated eggs and younger larvae, while doses of 0.10 to 0.25 kGy effected the survival of emerged adults. However, a dose of 0.50 kGy would be effective for the disinfestation of small packages (i.e. 0.25 to 0.50 kg in each) of copra or coffee beans initially infested with immature stages of beetles and weevils respectively. Packaging of irradiated commodities in polypropylene bags particularly those impregnated with permethrin prevented reinfestation by the insect pests. Toxic residues of permethrin in the prolypropylene film resulted in high mortality thereby preventing insect penetration of the packaging materials. Both copra beetles and coffee bean weevils were rather good invaders than penetrators as these species entered into the packages readily through existing openings in jute sack, woven polypropylene sack or flour bag. Organoleptic tests showed no change in aroma, flavour and general acceptability of irradiated coffee beans. In microbial studies it was observed that a dose of 0.6 kGy would eliminate Salmonella

  3. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground bark beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jun; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    red turpentine beetle colonization, pine engraver bark beetle colonization, and mortality of red pine trees while accounting for correlation across space and over time. We extend traditional Markov random-field models to include temporal terms and multiple-response variables aimed at developing...... as well as posterior predictive distributions. In particular, we implement path sampling combined with perfect simulation for autologistic models while formally addressing the posterior propriety under an improper uniform prior. Our data analysis results suggest that red turpentine beetle colonization...... is associated with a higher likelihood of pine engraver bark beetle colonization and that pine engraver bark beetle colonization is associated with higher likelihood of red pine tree mortality, whereas there is no direct association between red turpentine beetle colonization and red pine tree mortality...

  4. Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman : foliar feeding on wine grapes in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, T. Jude

    1986-01-01

    The natural infestation level for 1985 of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia failed to reduce berry quality, yield or shoot growth in a commercial vineyard. Intensive postveraison foliage feeding by Japanese beetle resulted 1n fruit with lower soluble solids and higher total titratable acidity at harvest, but did not affect pH, sugar per berry, berry weight, yield, leaves per vine or shoot length. Intensive previraison feeding a...

  5. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rassati

    Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall, forest (cover area, composition, geographical (distance, and human-related (import variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have

  6. Lack of nucleotide variability in a beetle pest with extreme inbreeding

    OpenAIRE

    Andreev, D.; Breilid, H.; Kirkendall, L.; Brun, Luc-Olivier; French-Constant, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The coffee berry borer beetle #Hypothenemus hampei$ (Ferrari) (#Curculionidae$ : #Scolytinae$) is the major insect pest of coffee and has spread to most of the coffee-growing countries of the world. This beetle also displays an usual life cycle, with regular sibling mating. This regular inbreeding and the population bottlenecks occuring on colonization of new regions should lead to low levels of genetic diversity. We were therefore interested in determining the level of nucleotide variation i...

  7. Isoprene emission by poplar is not important for the feeding behaviour of poplar leaf beetles

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Anna; Kaling, Moritz; Faubert, Patrick; Gort, Gerrit; Smid, Hans M; Van Loon, Joop JA; Dicke, Marcel; Kanawati, Basem; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Polle, Andrea; Schnitzler, J?rg-Peter; Rosenkranz, Maaria

    2015-01-01

    Background Chrysomela populi (poplar leaf beetle) is a common herbivore in poplar plantations whose infestation causes major economic losses. Because plant volatiles act as infochemicals, we tested whether isoprene, the main volatile organic compound (VOC) produced by poplars (Populus x canescens), affects the performance of C. populi employing isoprene emitting (IE) and transgenic isoprene non-emitting (NE) plants. Our hypothesis was that isoprene is sensed and affects beetle orientation or ...

  8. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  9. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena I Hanson

    Full Text Available In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities.

  10. [Characteristics of wintering in ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in forest ecosystems of the East European Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griuntal', S Iu

    2000-01-01

    Specific features of wintering of the ground beetles in three habitats (litter, soil, and bark of fallen trees and stumps) were comparatively studied in the forests of forest-steppe (Voronezh District) and subzone of broad-leaved-spruce forests (Moscow District). The main mass of ground beetles is concentrated in the upper 10-cm soil layer, irrespective of the type of watering (automorphous or hydromorphous soils). Wintering under the bark is a facultative feature of the most species occurring in these biocoenoses.

  11. Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Giglio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages.

  12. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  13. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  14. The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, A Y; Eggleton, P; Speight, M R; Hammond, P M; Chey, V K

    2000-12-01

    The diversity of beetle assemblages in different habitat types (primary forest, logged forest, acacia plantation and oil palm plantation) in Sabah, Malaysia was investigated using three different methods based on habitat levels (Winkler sampling, flight-interception-trapping and mist-blowing). The overall diversity was extremely high, with 1711 species recorded from only 8028 individuals and 81 families (115 family and subfamily groups). Different degrees of environmental changes had varying effects on the beetle species richness and abundance, with oil palm plantation assemblage being most severely affected, followed by acacia plantation and then logged forest. A few species became numerically dominant in the oil palm plantation. In terms of beetle species composition, the acacia fauna showed much similarity with the logged forest fauna, and the oil palm fauna was very different from the rest. The effects of environmental variables (number of plant species, sapling and tree densities, amount of leaf litter, ground cover, canopy cover, soil pH and compaction) on the beetle assemblage were also investigated. Leaf litter correlated with species richness, abundance and composition of subterranean beetles. Plant species richness, tree and sapling densities correlated with species richness, abundance and composition of understorey beetles while ground cover correlated only with the species richness and abundance of these beetles. Canopy cover correlated only with arboreal beetles. In trophic structure, predators represented more than 40% of the species and individuals. Environmental changes affected the trophic structure with proportionally more herbivores (abundance) but fewer predators (species richness and abundance) in the oil palm plantation. Biodiversity, conservation and practical aspects of pest management were also highlighted in this study.

  15. Habitat disturbance and hydrological parameters determine the body size and reproduction strategy of alluvial ground beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Gerisch, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Environmental variability is the main driver for the variation of biological characteristics (life-history traits) of species. Therefore, life-history traits are particularly suited to identify mechanistic linkages between environmental variability and species occurrence and can help in explaining ecological patterns. For ground beetles, few studies directly related species traits to environmental variables. This study aims to analyse how life-history traits of alluvial ground beetle...

  16. The Role of the Beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Mango Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Tarcísio Visintin da Silva; Ferreira, Dalton de Oliveira; Santana Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Arcanjo, Lucas de Paulo; Queiroz, Elenir Aparecida; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Picanço, Marcelo Coutinho

    2017-06-01

    The knowledge of the spatiotemporal dynamics of pathogens and their vectors is an important step in determining the pathogen dispersion pattern and the role of vectors in disease dynamics. However, in the case of mango wilt little is known about its spatiotemporal dynamics and the relationship of its vector [the beetle Hypocryphalus mangiferae (Stebbing 1914)] to these dynamics. The aim of this work was to determine the spatial-seasonal dynamic of H. mangiferae attacks and mango wilt in mango orchards and to verify the importance of H. mangiferae in the spatiotemporal dynamics of the disease. Two mango orchards were monitored during a period of 3 yr. The plants in these orchards were georeferenced and inspected monthly to quantify the number of plants attacked by beetles and the fungus. In these orchards, the percentage of mango trees attacked by beetles was always higher than the percentage infected by the fungus. The colonization of mango trees by beetles and the fungus occurred by colonization of trees both distant and proximal to previously attacked trees. The new plants attacked by the fungus emerged in places where the beetles had previously begun their attack. This phenomenon led to a large overlap in sites of beetle and fungal occurrence, indicating that establishment by the beetle was followed by establishment by the fungus. This information can be used by farmers to predict disease infection, and to control bark beetle infestation in mango orchards. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Contrasting needs of grassland dwellers: habitat preferences of endangered steppe beetles (Coleoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, Lukáš; Hauck, David; Pokluda, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2012), s. 281-293 ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : blister beetle * carpathian basin * darkling beetle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/h7523m513164v7l3/

  18. Current knowledge on exocrine glands in carabid beetles: structure, function and chemical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Talarico, Federica; Brandmayr, Tullia Zetto

    2011-01-01

    Many exocrine products used by ground beetles are pheromones and allomones that regulate intra- and interspecific interactions and contribute to their success in terrestrial ecosystems. This mini-review attempts to unify major themes related to the exocrine glands of carabid beetles. Here we report on both glandular structures and the role of secretions in carabid adults, and that little information is available on the ecological significance of glandular secretions in pre-imaginal stages.

  19. EST Table: DC547331 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AGAP003179 10/09/10 60 %/160 aa gnl|Amel|GB14313-PA 10/09/10 69 %/166 aa gi|91087035|ref|XP_974421.1| PREDICTED: similar to synoviolin [Tribolium castaneum] DC547331 phe- ... ...DICTED: similar to synoviolin [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EFA06968.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC009927 [Tr...DC547331 E_FL_phe-_10B17_F_0 11/12/09 n.h 10/09/28 69 %/166 aa ref|XP_974421.1| PRE

  20. EST Table: AV404130 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n (Reed-Steinberg cell-expressed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 53...78 aa gnl|Amel|GB30360-PB 10/09/10 54 %/199 aa gi|189241063|ref|XP_967018.2| PREDICTED: similar to restin (Reed-Steinberg cell-expres...sed intermediate filament-associated protein) [Tribolium castaneum] FS906662 pg-- ... ...AV404130 pg--0509 10/09/28 54 %/199 aa ref|XP_967018.2| PREDICTED: similar to resti