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Sample records for beetle tribolium castaneum

  1. Larval RNA interference in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, David M; Clark-Hachtel, Courtney M; Borràs-Castells, Ferran; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, offers a repertoire of experimental tools for genetic and developmental studies, including a fully annotated genome sequence, transposon-based transgenesis, and effective RNA interference (RNAi). Among these advantages, RNAi-based gene knockdown techniques are at the core of Tribolium research. T. castaneum show a robust systemic RNAi response, making it possible to perform RNAi at any life stage by simply injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the beetle's body cavity. In this report, we provide an overview of our larval RNAi technique in T. castaneum. The protocol includes (i) isolation of the proper stage of T. castaneum larvae for injection, (ii) preparation for the injection setting, and (iii) dsRNA injection. Larval RNAi is a simple, but powerful technique that provides us with quick access to loss-of-function phenotypes, including multiple gene knockdown phenotypes as well as a series of hypomorphic phenotypes. Since virtually all T. castaneum tissues are susceptible to extracellular dsRNA, the larval RNAi technique allows researchers to study a wide variety of tissues in diverse contexts, including the genetic basis of organismal responses to the outside environment. In addition, the simplicity of this technique stimulates more student involvement in research, making T. castaneum an ideal genetic system for use in a classroom setting. PMID:25350485

  2. Larval RNA interference in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, David M; Clark-Hachtel, Courtney M; Borràs-Castells, Ferran; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2014-10-13

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, offers a repertoire of experimental tools for genetic and developmental studies, including a fully annotated genome sequence, transposon-based transgenesis, and effective RNA interference (RNAi). Among these advantages, RNAi-based gene knockdown techniques are at the core of Tribolium research. T. castaneum show a robust systemic RNAi response, making it possible to perform RNAi at any life stage by simply injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the beetle's body cavity. In this report, we provide an overview of our larval RNAi technique in T. castaneum. The protocol includes (i) isolation of the proper stage of T. castaneum larvae for injection, (ii) preparation for the injection setting, and (iii) dsRNA injection. Larval RNAi is a simple, but powerful technique that provides us with quick access to loss-of-function phenotypes, including multiple gene knockdown phenotypes as well as a series of hypomorphic phenotypes. Since virtually all T. castaneum tissues are susceptible to extracellular dsRNA, the larval RNAi technique allows researchers to study a wide variety of tissues in diverse contexts, including the genetic basis of organismal responses to the outside environment. In addition, the simplicity of this technique stimulates more student involvement in research, making T. castaneum an ideal genetic system for use in a classroom setting.

  3. Oenocyte development in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin A; Gutzwiller, Lisa M; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Gebelein, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Oenocytes are a specialized cell type required for lipid processing, pheromone secretion, and developmental signaling. Their development has been well characterized in Drosophila melanogaster, but it remains unknown whether the developmental program is conserved in other insect species. In this study, we compare and contrast the specification and development of larval oenocytes between Drosophila and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. First, we identify several useful reagents to label larval oenocytes, including both a Tribolium GFP enhancer trap line and a simple flurophore-conjugated streptavidin staining method that recognizes oenocytes across insect species. Second, we use these tools to describe oenocyte development in Tribolium embryos, and our findings provide evidence for conserved roles of MAP kinase signaling as well as the Spalt, Engrailed, hepatocyte nuclear factor-4, and ventral veins lacking factors in producing abdominal-specific oenocyte cells. However, Tribolium embryos produce four times as many oenocytes per abdominal segment as Drosophila, and unlike in Drosophila, these cells rapidly downregulate the expression of the Spalt transcription factor. Thus, these results provide new insight into the molecular pathways regulating oenocyte specification across insect species.

  4. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed.

  5. Malpighian tubule development in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benedict; Denholm, Barry

    2014-11-01

    Malpighian tubules (MpTs) are the major organ for excretion and osmoregulation in most insects. MpT development is characterised for Drosophila melanogaster, but not other species. We therefore do not know the extent to which the MpT developmental programme is conserved across insects. To redress this we provide a comprehensive description of MpT development in the beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), a species separated from Drosophila by >315 million years. We identify similarities with Drosophila MpT development including: 1) the onset of morphological development, beginning when tubules bud from the gut and proliferate to increase organ size. 2) the tubule is shaped by convergent-extension movements and oriented cell divisions. 3) differentiated tip cells activate EGF-signalling in distal MpT cells through the ligand Spitz. 4) MpTs contain two main cell types - principal and stellate cells, differing in morphology and gene expression. We also describe development of the beetle cryptonephridial system, an adaptation for water conservation, which represents a major modification of the MpT ground plan characterised by intimate association between MpTs and rectum. This work establishes a new model to compare MpT development across insects, and provides a framework to help understand how an evolutionary novelty - the cryptonephridial system - arose during organ evolution.

  6. Direct and indirect genetic effects in life-history traits of flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen, Esther D.; Peeters, Katrijn; Verhoeven, Merel; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Wade, Michael J.; Dicke, Marcel; Bijma, Piter

    2016-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are the basis of social interactions among conspecifics, and can affect genetic variation of nonsocial and social traits. We used flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) of two phenotypically distinguishable populations to estimate genetic (co)variances and the effect of

  7. Direct and indirect genetic effects in life-history traits of flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen, E.D.; Peeters, Katrijn; Verhoeven, Merel; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, J.A.; Wade, M.J.; Dicke, Marcel; Bijma, Piter

    2016-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are the basis of social interactions among conspecifics, and can affect genetic variation of nonsocial and social traits. We used flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) of two phenotypically distinguishable populations to estimate genetic (co)variances and the effect

  8. Laboratory evaluation of some indigenous plant extracts as toxicants against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    OpenAIRE

    Mamum, M.S.A; Shahjahan, M.; Ahmad, M.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the toxicity of six botanicals, Bazna (Zanthoxylum rhetsa), Ghora-neem (Melia sempervirens), Hijal (Barringtonia acutangula), Karanja (Pongamia pinnata), Mahogoni (Swietenia mahagoni) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Leaf and seed extracts were prepared by using acetone, methanol and water as solvents. The results showed that extracts of all the six plants had direct toxic effect on red flour beetle. A...

  9. A genome-wide inventory of neurohormone GPCRs in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael;

    2008-01-01

    projects has enabled us to obtain a complete inventory of neurohormone GPCRs in these insects and, by a comparative genomics approach, to analyze the evolution of these proteins. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is the latest addition to the list of insects with a sequenced genome and the first...... consumption. In addition, T. castaneum is a model for insect development. Here, we have investigated the presence of neurohormone GPCRs in Tribolium and compared them with those from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera) and the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera). We found 20 biogenic amine...... coleopteran (beetle) to be sequenced. Coleoptera is the largest insect order and about 30% of all animal species living on earth are coleopterans. Some coleopterans are severe agricultural pests, which is also true for T. castaneum, a global pest for stored grain and other dried commodities for human...

  10. BIOACTIVITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST

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    Anita Liška

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst is a major pest of stored products. The aim of this study was to assess the potential fumigant effects of 1,8-cineole, essential oil component, on the T. castaneum pupae. The compound was tested in 6 doses; in two treatments (fumigation without grain and with wheat grain, exposed for 48 h, in 4 repetitions, for each gender. The compound 1,8-cineole had lethal effect on the treated pupae at both genders and in the both treatments. Total proportion of the normally developed beetles was decreased. In addition, 1,8-cineole had also a growth regulator effect, producing adultoids and deformed units, with males more susceptible. In the treatment with the grain there were significant lower dead pupae, normally developed live male beetles and also deformed female units in the stage 2. In general, compound 1,8-cineole has multiple effect against T. castaneum in pupal stage.

  11. Genomics, transcriptomics, and peptidomics of neuropeptides and protein hormones in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne;

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptides and protein hormones are ancient molecules that mediate cell-to-cell communication. The whole genome sequence from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, along with those from other insect species, provides an opportunity to study the evolution of the genes encoding neuropeptide...... and protein hormones. We identified 41 of these genes in the Tribolium genome by using a combination of bioinformatic and peptidomic approaches. These genes encode >80 mature neuropeptides and protein hormones, 49 peptides of which were experimentally identified by peptidomics of the central nervous system...... with a sequenced genome. The presence of many additional osmoregulatory peptides in Tribolium agrees well with its ability to live in very dry surroundings. In contrast to these extra genes, there are at least nine neuropeptide genes missing in Tribolium, including the genes encoding the prepropeptides...

  12. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denell, Robin; Gibbs, Richard; Muzny, Donna;

    2008-01-01

    to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors, as well as P450 and other detoxification enzymes. Development in Tribolium is more representative of other insects than is Drosophila, a fact reflected in gene content and function. For example...

  13. A system to efficiently maintain embryonic lethal mutations in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghammer, A; Bucher, G; Maderspacher, F; Klingler, M

    1999-06-01

    Due to its small size, short life cycle, and easy maintenance, the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is well suited for the genetic analysis of development. One drawback of Tribolium as a genetic system is, however, the difficulty of keeping embryonic lethal lines. Presently, only few lethal mutations can be kept as balanced stocks. Therefore, heterozygous carriers must be identified anew in every generation in order to maintain a recessive embryonic mutation. To alleviate this problem we have devised a block system that allows the simultaneous processing of many mutant lines or test crosses for visual inspection of larval cuticle phenotypes. Using this technique, one person can maintain about 100 embryonic lethal stocks, which makes feasible the thorough genetic analysis of embryogenesis in this species.

  14. Functional value of elytra under various stresses in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

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    Linz, David M.; Hu, Alan W.; Sitvarin, Michael I.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Coleoptera (beetles) is a massively successful order of insects, distinguished by their evolutionarily modified forewings called elytra. These structures are often presumed to have been a major driving force for the successful radiation of this taxon, by providing beetles with protection against a variety of harsh environmental factors. However, few studies have directly demonstrated the functional significance of the elytra against diverse environmental challenges. Here, we sought to empirically test the function of the elytra using Tribolium castaneum (the red flour beetle) as a model. We tested four categories of stress on the beetles: physical damage to hindwings, predation, desiccation, and cold shock. We found that, in all categories, the presence of elytra conferred a significant advantage compared to those beetles with their elytra experimentally removed. This work provides compelling quantitative evidence supporting the importance of beetle forewings in tolerating a variety of environmental stresses, and gives insight into how the evolution of elytra have facilitated the remarkable success of beetle radiation. PMID:27708390

  15. TrOn: an anatomical ontology for the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Grossmann, Daniela; Schild, Inga; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Bradler, Sven; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Bucher, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    In a morphological ontology the expert's knowledge is represented in terms, which describe morphological structures and how these structures relate to each other. With the assistance of ontologies this expert knowledge is made processable by machines, through a formal and standardized representation of terms and their relations to each other. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, a representative of the most species rich animal taxon on earth (the Coleoptera), is an emerging model organism for development, evolution, physiology, and pest control. In order to foster Tribolium research, we have initiated the Tribolium Ontology (TrOn), which describes the morphology of the red flour beetle. The content of this ontology comprises so far most external morphological structures as well as some internal ones. All modeled structures are consistently annotated for the developmental stages larva, pupa and adult. In TrOn all terms are grouped into three categories: Generic terms represent morphological structures, which are independent of a developmental stage. In contrast, downstream of such terms are concrete terms which stand for a dissectible structure of a beetle at a specific life stage. Finally, there are mixed terms describing structures that are only found at one developmental stage. These terms combine the characteristics of generic and concrete terms with features of both. These annotation principles take into account the changing morphology of the beetle during development and provide generic terms to be used in applications or for cross linking with other ontologies and data resources. We use the ontology for implementing an intuitive search function at the electronic iBeetle-Base, which stores morphological defects found in a genome wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen. The ontology is available for download at http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de.

  16. A cell line derived from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Cynthia L; Stanley, David; Ringbauer, Joseph A; Beeman, Richard W; Silver, Kristopher; Park, Yoonseong

    2012-08-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a model organism for agricultural and medical research and its complete genome is sequenced. We established a continuously replicating T. castaneum cell line to complement existing physiological, genetic, and genomic research tools. We set up trial cell cultures from egg, pupa, and adult stages as tissue sources and incubated them in six separate cell culture media to determine the optimal combination of tissue source and medium for cell replication. Our most promising culture was generated by co-culturing adult (∼75 %) and pupal tissues in EX-CELL 420 medium containing 9 % FBS. Our new cell culture is designated BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 (TcA) and it has been subcultured more than 90 times. Amplification of genomic DNA with species-specific primers yielded DNA fragments of the expected sizes and with sequences identical to those from the published Tribolium genome. Additionally, we characterized this line using DNA fingerprinting (DAF-PCR) and compared it with three other coleopteran cell lines and its conspecific pupae to confirm identity. Its doubling time is 155.2 hr. Early passages consisted of attached cells and vesicles in suspension, whereas later passages consisted primarily of attached, spherical cells. Similar to other established cell lines, the ploidy of TcA cells was variable, ranging from 20 chromosomes/cell (diploid) to above 30 chromosomes/cell. TcA cells withstood incubation at 40°C for 1 h with no decrease in viability. We recorded increased levels of one heat shock protein (43 kDa) and of the hsp68a transcript following exposure to 40°C. Taken together, this represents the first report of a continuously replicating T. castaneum cell line. We expect the BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 line will become a useful tool in Tribolium research.

  17. Characterisation and tissue distribution of the PISCF allatostatin receptor in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Neil; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Weaver, Robert; Dani, Paulina; Matthews, June; Down, Rachel; Vuerinckx, Kristel; Kim, Young-Joon; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    The insect PISCF/allatostatins (ASTs) are pleiotropic peptides that are involved in the regulation of juvenile hormone biosynthesis, are myoinhibitory on the gut and the heart, and suppress feeding in various insects, but their roles in beetles are poorly understood. To provide further insight into the significance of PISCF/ASTs in beetles, the PISCF/AST receptor from Tribolium castaneum has been characterised and its tissue distribution determined. The biological activity of the T. castaneum PISCF/AST (Trica-AS) was also investigated. The Trica-AS receptor shows high sequence homology to other insect PISCF/AST receptors, which are related to the mammalian somatostatin/opioid receptors, a family of G protein-coupled receptors. The Trica-AS receptor was activated in a dose-dependent manner by both Trica-AS and T. castaneum allatostatin double C (Trica-ASTCC) as well as Manduca sexta-allatostatin (Manse-AS). Other allatoregulatory peptides (a FLG/AST, a MIP/AST and an allatotropin) and somatostatin(14) were inactive on this receptor. Receptor transcript levels in tissues, determined by qRT-PCR, were highest in the head and the gut, with variable amounts in the fat body and reproductive organs. There were measurable differences in receptor levels of the head, fat body and reproductive organs between males and females. There was also a widespread distribution of Trica-AS in various tissues of T. castaneum. The Trica-AS peptide precursor was most abundant in the head and there was a significant difference between levels in the heads and reproductive organs of males and females. Whole mount immunocytochemistry localised Trica-AS in the median and lateral neurosecretory cells of the brain, in the corpus cardiacum and throughout the ventral nerve cord. The peptide was also present in midgut neurosecretory cells, but no immunostaining was detected in the reproductive organs or Malpighian tubules. The widespread distribution of both Trica-AS and its receptor suggest this

  18. Efficient CRISPR-mediated gene targeting and transgene replacement in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Anna F; Schinko, Johannes B; Averof, Michalis

    2015-08-15

    Gene-editing techniques are revolutionizing the way we conduct genetics in many organisms. The CRISPR/Cas nuclease has emerged as a highly versatile, efficient and affordable tool for targeting chosen sites in the genome. Beyond its applications in established model organisms, CRISPR technology provides a platform for genetic intervention in a wide range of species, limited only by our ability to deliver it to cells and to select mutations efficiently. Here, we test the CRISPR technology in an emerging insect model and pest, the beetle Tribolium castaneum. We use simple assays to test CRISPR/Cas activity, we demonstrate efficient expression of guide RNAs and Cas9 from Tribolium U6 and hsp68 promoters and we test the efficiency of knockout and knock-in approaches in Tribolium. We find that 55-80% of injected individuals carry mutations (indels) generated by non-homologous end joining, including mosaic bi-allelic knockouts; 71-100% carry such mutations in their germ line and transmit them to the next generation. We show that CRISPR-mediated gene knockout of the Tribolium E-cadherin gene causes defects in dorsal closure, which is consistent with RNAi-induced phenotypes. Homology-directed knock-in of marker transgenes was observed in 14% of injected individuals and transmitted to the next generation by 6% of injected individuals. Previous work in Tribolium mapped a large number of transgene insertions associated with developmental phenotypes and enhancer traps. We present an efficient method for re-purposing these insertions, via CRISPR-mediated replacement of these transgenes by new constructs.

  19. Direct and indirect genetic effects in life-history traits of flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Esther D; Peeters, Katrijn; Verhoeven, Merel; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Wade, Michael J; Dicke, Marcel; Bijma, Piter

    2016-01-01

    Indirect genetic effects (IGEs) are the basis of social interactions among conspecifics, and can affect genetic variation of nonsocial and social traits. We used flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) of two phenotypically distinguishable populations to estimate genetic (co)variances and the effect of IGEs on three life-history traits: development time (DT), growth rate (GR), and pupal body mass (BM). We found that GR was strongly affected by social environment with IGEs accounting for 18% of the heritable variation. We also discovered a sex-specific social effect: male ratio in a group significantly affected both GR and BM; that is, beetles grew larger and faster in male-biased social environments. Such sex-specific IGEs have not previously been demonstrated in a nonsocial insect. Our results show that beetles that achieve a higher BM do so via a slower GR in response to social environment. Existing models of evolution in age-structured or stage-structured populations do not account for IGEs of social cohorts. It is likely that such IGEs have played a key role in the evolution of developmental plasticity shown by Tenebrionid larvae in response to density. Our results document an important source of genetic variation for GR, often overlooked in life-history theory.

  20. Next generation sequencing based transcriptome analysis of septic-injury responsive genes in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altincicek, Boran; Elashry, Abdelnaser; Guz, Nurper; Grundler, Florian M W; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Beetles (Coleoptera) are the most diverse animal group on earth and interact with numerous symbiotic or pathogenic microbes in their environments. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a genetically tractable model beetle species and its whole genome sequence has recently been determined. To advance our understanding of the molecular basis of beetle immunity here we analyzed the whole transcriptome of T. castaneum by high-throughput next generation sequencing technology. Here, we demonstrate that the Illumina/Solexa sequencing approach of cDNA samples from T. castaneum including over 9.7 million reads with 72 base pairs (bp) length (approximately 700 million bp sequence information with about 30× transcriptome coverage) confirms the expression of most predicted genes and enabled subsequent qualitative and quantitative transcriptome analysis. This approach recapitulates our recent quantitative real-time PCR studies of immune-challenged and naïve T. castaneum beetles, validating our approach. Furthermore, this sequencing analysis resulted in the identification of 73 differentially expressed genes upon immune-challenge with statistical significance by comparing expression data to calculated values derived by fitting to generalized linear models. We identified up regulation of diverse immune-related genes (e.g. Toll receptor, serine proteinases, DOPA decarboxylase and thaumatin) and of numerous genes encoding proteins with yet unknown functions. Of note, septic-injury resulted also in the elevated expression of genes encoding heat-shock proteins or cytochrome P450s supporting the view that there is crosstalk between immune and stress responses in T. castaneum. The present study provides a first comprehensive overview of septic-injury responsive genes in T. castaneum beetles. Identified genes advance our understanding of T. castaneum specific gene expression alteration upon immune-challenge in particular and may help to understand beetle immunity in general.

  1. Satellite DNA Modulates Gene Expression in the Beetle Tribolium castaneum after Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Đurđica

    2015-08-01

    Non-coding repetitive DNAs have been proposed to perform a gene regulatory role, however for tandemly repeated satellite DNA no such role was defined until now. Here we provide the first evidence for a role of satellite DNA in the modulation of gene expression under specific environmental conditions. The major satellite DNA TCAST1 in the beetle Tribolium castaneum is preferentially located within pericentromeric heterochromatin but is also dispersed as single repeats or short arrays in the vicinity of protein-coding genes within euchromatin. Our results show enhanced suppression of activity of TCAST1-associated genes and slower recovery of their activity after long-term heat stress relative to the same genes without associated TCAST1 satellite DNA elements. The level of gene suppression is not influenced by the distance of TCAST1 elements from the associated genes up to 40 kb from the genes' transcription start sites, but it does depend on the copy number of TCAST1 repeats within an element, being stronger for the higher number of copies. The enhanced gene suppression correlates with the enrichment of the repressive histone marks H3K9me2/3 at dispersed TCAST1 elements and their flanking regions as well as with increased expression of TCAST1 satellite DNA. The results reveal transient, RNAi based heterochromatin formation at dispersed TCAST1 repeats and their proximal regions as a mechanism responsible for enhanced silencing of TCAST1-associated genes. Differences in the pattern of distribution of TCAST1 elements contribute to gene expression diversity among T. castaneum strains after long-term heat stress and might have an impact on adaptation to different environmental conditions.

  2. Satellite DNA Modulates Gene Expression in the Beetle Tribolium castaneum after Heat Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Feliciello

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding repetitive DNAs have been proposed to perform a gene regulatory role, however for tandemly repeated satellite DNA no such role was defined until now. Here we provide the first evidence for a role of satellite DNA in the modulation of gene expression under specific environmental conditions. The major satellite DNA TCAST1 in the beetle Tribolium castaneum is preferentially located within pericentromeric heterochromatin but is also dispersed as single repeats or short arrays in the vicinity of protein-coding genes within euchromatin. Our results show enhanced suppression of activity of TCAST1-associated genes and slower recovery of their activity after long-term heat stress relative to the same genes without associated TCAST1 satellite DNA elements. The level of gene suppression is not influenced by the distance of TCAST1 elements from the associated genes up to 40 kb from the genes' transcription start sites, but it does depend on the copy number of TCAST1 repeats within an element, being stronger for the higher number of copies. The enhanced gene suppression correlates with the enrichment of the repressive histone marks H3K9me2/3 at dispersed TCAST1 elements and their flanking regions as well as with increased expression of TCAST1 satellite DNA. The results reveal transient, RNAi based heterochromatin formation at dispersed TCAST1 repeats and their proximal regions as a mechanism responsible for enhanced silencing of TCAST1-associated genes. Differences in the pattern of distribution of TCAST1 elements contribute to gene expression diversity among T. castaneum strains after long-term heat stress and might have an impact on adaptation to different environmental conditions.

  3. Visualizing late insect embryogenesis: extraembryonic and mesodermal enhancer trap expression in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

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    Stefan Koelzer

    Full Text Available The beetle Tribolium castaneum has increasingly become a powerful model for comparative research on insect development. One recent resource is a collection of piggyBac transposon-based enhancer trap lines. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of three selected lines and demonstrate their value for investigations in the second half of embryogenesis, which has thus far lagged behind research on early stages. Two lines, G12424 and KT650, show enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP expression throughout the extraembryonic serosal tissue and in a few discrete embryonic domains. Intriguingly, both lines show for the first time a degree of regionalization within the mature serosa. However, their expression profiles illuminate distinct aspects of serosal biology: G12424 tracks the tissue's rapid maturation while KT650 expression likely reflects ongoing physiological processes. The third line, G04609, is stably expressed in mesodermal domains, including segmental muscles and the heart. Genomic mapping followed by in situ hybridization for genes near to the G04609 insertion site suggests that the transposon has trapped enhancer information for the Tribolium orthologue of midline (Tc-mid. Altogether, our analyses provide the first live imaging, long-term characterizations of enhancer traps from this collection. We show that EGFP expression is readily detected, including in heterozygote crosses that permit the simultaneous visualization of multiple tissue types. The tissue specificity provides live, endogenous marker gene expression at key developmental stages that are inaccessible for whole mount staining. Furthermore, the nonlocalized EGFP in these lines illuminates both the nucleus and cytoplasm, providing cellular resolution for morphogenesis research on processes such as dorsal closure and heart formation. In future work, identification of regulatory regions driving these enhancer traps will deepen our understanding of late developmental control

  4. Visualizing late insect embryogenesis: extraembryonic and mesodermal enhancer trap expression in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

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    Koelzer, Stefan; Kölsch, Yvonne; Panfilio, Kristen A

    2014-01-01

    The beetle Tribolium castaneum has increasingly become a powerful model for comparative research on insect development. One recent resource is a collection of piggyBac transposon-based enhancer trap lines. Here, we provide a detailed analysis of three selected lines and demonstrate their value for investigations in the second half of embryogenesis, which has thus far lagged behind research on early stages. Two lines, G12424 and KT650, show enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression throughout the extraembryonic serosal tissue and in a few discrete embryonic domains. Intriguingly, both lines show for the first time a degree of regionalization within the mature serosa. However, their expression profiles illuminate distinct aspects of serosal biology: G12424 tracks the tissue's rapid maturation while KT650 expression likely reflects ongoing physiological processes. The third line, G04609, is stably expressed in mesodermal domains, including segmental muscles and the heart. Genomic mapping followed by in situ hybridization for genes near to the G04609 insertion site suggests that the transposon has trapped enhancer information for the Tribolium orthologue of midline (Tc-mid). Altogether, our analyses provide the first live imaging, long-term characterizations of enhancer traps from this collection. We show that EGFP expression is readily detected, including in heterozygote crosses that permit the simultaneous visualization of multiple tissue types. The tissue specificity provides live, endogenous marker gene expression at key developmental stages that are inaccessible for whole mount staining. Furthermore, the nonlocalized EGFP in these lines illuminates both the nucleus and cytoplasm, providing cellular resolution for morphogenesis research on processes such as dorsal closure and heart formation. In future work, identification of regulatory regions driving these enhancer traps will deepen our understanding of late developmental control, including in the

  5. Insulin receptor regulates food intake through sulfakinin signaling in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianyu; Yu, Na; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-06-01

    Insects obtain energy and nutrients via feeding to support growth and development. The insulin signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of feeding; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we show that insulin signaling regulates food intake via crosstalk with neuropeptide sulfakinin in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Silencing of the insulin receptor (InR) decreased the food intake in the penultimate and final instar stages, leading to a decrease of weight gain and mortality during larval-pupal metamorphosis. Interestingly, the knockdown of InR co-occurred with an increased expression of sulfakinin (sk), a gene encoding neuropeptide SK functioning as a satiety signal. In parallel, double silencing of sk and InR eliminated the inhibitory effect on food intake as induced by silencing of InR and the larvae died as prepupae. In conclusion, this study shows, for the first time, that the insulin/InR signaling regulates food intake through the sulfakinin signaling pathway in the larval stages of this important model and pest insect, indicating a novel target for pest control. PMID:26972481

  6. Satellite DNA as a driver of population divergence in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Akrap, Ivana; Brajković, Josip; Zlatar, Ivo; Ugarković, Đurđica

    2014-12-19

    Tandemly repeated satellite DNAs are among most rapidly evolving sequences in eukaryotic genome, usually differing significantly among closely related species. By inducing changes in heterochromatin and/or centromere, satellite DNAs are expected to drive population and species divergence. However, despite high evolutionary dynamics, divergence of satellite DNA profiles at the level of natural population which precedes and possibly triggers speciation process is not readily detected. Here, we characterize minor TCAST2 satellite DNA of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and follow its dynamics among wild-type strains originating from diverse geographic locations. The investigation revealed presence of three distinct subfamilies of TCAST2 satellite DNA which differ in monomer size, genome organization, and subfamily specific mutations. Subfamilies Tcast2a and Tcast2b are tandemly arranged within pericentromeric heterochromatin whereas Tcast2c is preferentially dispersed within euchromatin of all chromosomes. Among strains, TCAST2 subfamilies are conserved in sequence but exhibit a significant content variability. This results in overrepresentation or almost complete absence of particular subfamily in some strains and enables discrimination between strains. It is proposed that homologous recombination, probably stimulated by environmental stress, is responsible for the emergence of TCAST2 satellite subfamilies, their copy number variation and dispersion within genome. The results represent the first evidence for the existence of population-specific satellite DNA profiles. Partial organization of TCAST2 satellite DNA in the form of single repeats dispersed within euchromatin additionally contributes to the genome divergence at the population level.

  7. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.

  8. PDP1 regulates energy metabolism through the IIS-TOR pathway in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiqian; Jiang, Jianhao; Chen, Yazhou; You, Lang; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang; Li, Zhiqian; Jiang, Jianhao; Niu, Baolong; Meng, Zhiqi

    2014-03-01

    The PAR-domain protein 1 (PDP1) is essential for locomotor activity of insects. However, its functions in insect growth and development have not been studied extensively, which prompted our hypothesis that PDP1 acts in energy metabolism. Here we report identification of TcPDP1 in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and its functional analysis by RNAi. Treating larvae with dsTcPDP1 induced pupae developmental arrestment, accompanied by accelerated fat body degradation. dsTcPDP1 treatments in adults resulted in reduced female fecundity. Disruption of TcPDP1 expression affected the transcription of genes involved in insulin signaling transduction and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. These results support our hypothesis that TcPDP1 acts in energy metabolism in T. castaneum.

  9. 3D standard brain of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum: a tool to study metamorphic development and adult plasticity

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    David Dreyer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0. The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes, optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the antennal lobes. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, very importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity.

  10. Transcription profiling of immune genes during parasite infection in susceptible and resistant strains of the flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Daibin; Wang, Mei-Hui; Pai, Aditi; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-05-01

    The flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an intermediate host for the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and has become an important genetic model to explore immune responses to parasite infection in insect hosts. The present study examined the immune responses to tapeworm infection in resistant (TIW1) and susceptible (cSM) strains of the red flour beetle, T. castaneum, using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR on 29 immunity-related genes that exhibit antimicrobial properties. Thirteen of the 29 genes showed constitutive differences in expression between the two strains. Fourteen to fifteen of the 29 genes exhibited significant differences in transcription levels when beetles were challenged with tapeworm parasite in the resistant and susceptible strains. Nine genes (GNBP3, cSPH2, lysozyme4, defensin1, PGRP-SA, defensin2, coleoptericin1, attacin2 and serpin29) in cSM and 13 genes (lysozyme2, proPO1, GNBP3, cSPH2, lysozyme4, defensin1, PGRP-SA, defensin2, coleoptericin1, attacin2, proPO2/3, PGRP-LE and PGRP-SB) in TIW1 were up-regulated by infections or showed parasite infection-induced expression. Seven genes (attacin2, coleoptericin1, defensin1, defensin2, lysozyme2, PGRP-SA and PGRP-SB) were more than 10 folds higher in the resistant TIW1 strain than in the susceptible cSM strain after exposure to tapeworm parasites. This study demonstrated the effects of genetic background, the transcription profile to parasite infection, and identified the immunity-related genes that were significantly regulated by the infection of tapeworms in Tribolium beetles.

  11. Fine-scale analysis of parasite resistance genes in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Daibin; Pai, Aditi; Wang, Mei-Hui; Keech, Naomi; Yan, Guiyun

    2013-09-01

    Parasite infection impacts population dynamics through effects on fitness and fecundity of the individual host. In addition to the known roles of environmental factors, host susceptibility to parasites has a genetic basis that has not been well characterized. We previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for susceptibility to rat tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) infection in Tribolium castaneum using dominant AFLP markers; however, the resistance genes were not identified. Here, we refined the QTL locations and increased the marker density in the QTL regions using new microsatellite markers, sequence-tagged site markers, and single-strand conformational polymorphism markers. Resistance QTL in three linkage groups (LG3, LG6, and LG8) were each mapped to intervals castaneum resistance to H. diminuta infection.

  12. Tcmof regulates larval/pupal development and female fecundity in red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanyun; Li, Chengjun; Sang, Ming; Li, Bin

    2015-02-01

    Males absent on the first (MOF) was originally identified as an essential component of the X chromosome dosage compensation system in Drosophila melanogaster, and is also a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases. MOF has been extensively studied in D. melanogaster and mammals. However, whether MOF is involved in dosage compensation and/or other vital functions for newly emerging model insects such as Tribolium castaneum, is unclear. We cloned the mof from T. castaneum, named Tcmof. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mof is highly conserved in eukaryotes but lost in birds. qPCR showed that Tcmof was most highly expressed in the early embryo stage and equally expressed in males and females. Treating larvae with ds-Tcmof led 79.1% of the insects to arrest during its eclosion; the remaining insects died either in the larval stage or immediately following eclosion. Treating pupae with the same construct eliminated the fertility of T. castaneum. This effect was rescued by reciprocal crosses with wild-type females, but not males. We infer that the mof gene is essential for larval/pupal development and female fertility in T. castaneum.

  13. The role of the serosa in innune defense of the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes, Joana Pimenta, 1988-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 O modelo de investigação Tribolium castaneum tem sido amplamente utilizado em áreas como a biologia do desenvolvimento e evolução. Os trabalhos de investigação nesta espécie são importantes devido à sua relevância em termos económicos e de controlo de pragas. Esta espécie está inserida na ordem Coleopetera, a ordem com maior diversidade biológica conhecida. Este modelo ...

  14. Concentration dependent toxicokinetics of copper in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Stępień, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    To predict internal metal concentrations in animals under specific environmental exposures, the relationship between the exposure concentrations and values of toxicokinetic parameters must be known. At high exposure levels, the availability of carriers transporting metal ions through cellular membranes may become limited, thereby decreasing the assimilation rates (k A ). Furthermore, increased metal concentrations in food may result in greater damage to the gut and reduce the assimilation efficiency and/or increase the elimination rate (k E ). Therefore, k A should decrease and k E should increase with increasing metal concentrations. In fact, our study on Tribolium castaneum exposed to Cu at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg kg(-1) of dry flour showed that with increasing Cu concentrations, k A decreased from 0.0042 day(-1) at 500 mg kg(-1) to 0.0026 day(-1) at 4000 mg kg(-1) in females and from 0.0029 to 0.001 day(-1) in males and k E increased from 0.027 to 0.064 day(-1) and from 0.018 to 0.04 day(-1) in females and males, respectively. Significant differences in k A between the sexes were observed at 2000 and 4000 mg kg(-1), whereas significant differences between treatments were found for k A in males. Copper was efficiently regulated by T. castaneum: an eightfold increase in exposure concentrations resulted in only a ca. twofold increase in the internal concentration. No Cu effect on the respiratory metabolism of T. castaneum was found.

  15. Concentration dependent toxicokinetics of copper in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Stępień, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    To predict internal metal concentrations in animals under specific environmental exposures, the relationship between the exposure concentrations and values of toxicokinetic parameters must be known. At high exposure levels, the availability of carriers transporting metal ions through cellular membranes may become limited, thereby decreasing the assimilation rates (k A ). Furthermore, increased metal concentrations in food may result in greater damage to the gut and reduce the assimilation efficiency and/or increase the elimination rate (k E ). Therefore, k A should decrease and k E should increase with increasing metal concentrations. In fact, our study on Tribolium castaneum exposed to Cu at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg kg(-1) of dry flour showed that with increasing Cu concentrations, k A decreased from 0.0042 day(-1) at 500 mg kg(-1) to 0.0026 day(-1) at 4000 mg kg(-1) in females and from 0.0029 to 0.001 day(-1) in males and k E increased from 0.027 to 0.064 day(-1) and from 0.018 to 0.04 day(-1) in females and males, respectively. Significant differences in k A between the sexes were observed at 2000 and 4000 mg kg(-1), whereas significant differences between treatments were found for k A in males. Copper was efficiently regulated by T. castaneum: an eightfold increase in exposure concentrations resulted in only a ca. twofold increase in the internal concentration. No Cu effect on the respiratory metabolism of T. castaneum was found. PMID:26169625

  16. Glycogen and glucose metabolism are essential for early embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Amanda; Ribeiro, Lupis; Lobato, Mariana; Santos, Vitória; Silva, José Roberto; Gomes, Helga; da Cunha Moraes, Jorge Luiz; de Souza Menezes, Jackson; de Oliveira, Carlos Jorge Logullo; Campos, Eldo; da Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis) and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and hexokinase (HexA) genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi) of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen.

  17. Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Parvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. The insecticidal activity of Toona sureni (Blume Merr. was evaluated considering repellency, mortality and progeny production of F1 adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Dried extract of seeds of T. sureni was dissolved in acetone to prepare solution of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0%. To test for repellency, the insects were exposed to treated filter paper. Mortality of larvae, pupae and adults was evaluated by the treatment of spraying the insects with different concentrations of T. sureni extract. Residual effect of the extract was also evaluated considering the production of progeny of F1 adults. The highest repellency (93.30% of T. castaneum occurred at the highest concentration (5.0% suspension of T. sureni; while the lowest (0.0% repellency occurred at 0.5% suspension after 1 day of treatment. The highest mortality against adults (86.71%, larvae (88.32% and pupae (85% occurred at 5% suspension at 8 days after application. There was a negative correlation between the concentrations of T. sureni and the production of F1 adult's progeny of T. castaneum. The highest number of progeny (147 of T. castaneum occurred in the control at 7 days after treatment; and the lowest number of progeny (43 occurred at 5.0% concentration in 1 day after treatment. The results show that T. sureni is toxic to T. castaneum and has the potential to control all stages of this insect in stored wheat.Bioatividade do mogno da Indonésia, Toona sureni (Blume (Meliaceae, contra o besouro-das-farinhas, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. A atividade inseticida de Toona sureni (Blume Merr. foi avaliada considerando repelência, mortalidade e a produção de progênie de adultos F1 de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae. Extrato seco de sementes

  18. Comparative characterization of two intracellular Ca²⁺-release channels from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Li, Chengjun; Gao, Jingkun; Wang, Wenlong; Huang, Li; Guo, Xuezhu; Li, Bin; Wang, Jianjun

    2014-10-21

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are members of a family of tetrameric intracellular Ca(2+)-release channels (CRCs). While it is well known in mammals that RyRs and IP3Rs modulate multiple physiological processes, the roles of these two CRCs in the development and physiology of insects remain poorly understood. In this study, we cloned and functionally characterized RyR and IP3R cDNAs (named TcRyR and TcIP3R) from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The composite TcRyR gene contains an ORF of 15,285 bp encoding a protein of 5,094 amino acid residues. The TcIP3R contains an 8,175 bp ORF encoding a protein of 2,724 amino acids. Expression analysis of TcRyR and TcIP3R revealed significant differences in mRNA expression levels among T. castaneum during different developmental stages. When the transcript levels of TcRyR were suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi), an abnormal folding of the adult hind wings was observed, while the RNAi-mediated knockdown of TcIP3R resulted in defective larval-pupal and pupal-adult metamorphosis. These results suggested that TcRyR is required for muscle excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling in T. castaneum, and that calcium release via IP3R might play an important role in regulating ecdysone synthesis and release during molting and metamorphosis in insects.

  19. Glycogen and glucose metabolism are essential for early embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Fraga

    Full Text Available Control of energy metabolism is an essential process for life. In insects, egg formation (oogenesis and embryogenesis is dependent on stored molecules deposited by the mother or transcribed later by the zygote. In oviparous insects the egg becomes an isolated system after egg laying with all energy conversion taking place during embryogenesis. Previous studies in a few vector species showed a strong correlation of key morphogenetic events and changes in glucose metabolism. Here, we investigate glycogen and glucose metabolism in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, an insect amenable to functional genomic studies. To examine the role of the key enzymes on glycogen and glucose regulation we cloned and analyzed the function of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3 and hexokinase (HexA genes during T. castaneum embryogenesis. Expression analysis via in situ hybridization shows that both genes are expressed only in the embryonic tissue, suggesting that embryonic and extra-embryonic cells display different metabolic activities. dsRNA adult female injection (parental RNAi of both genes lead a reduction in egg laying and to embryonic lethality. Morphological analysis via DAPI stainings indicates that early development is impaired in Tc-GSK-3 and Tc-HexA1 RNAi embryos. Importantly, glycogen levels are upregulated after Tc-GSK-3 RNAi and glucose levels are upregulated after Tc-HexA1 RNAi, indicating that both genes control metabolism during embryogenesis and oogenesis, respectively. Altogether our results show that T. castaneum embryogenesis depends on the proper control of glucose and glycogen.

  20. A Defensin from the Model Beetle Tribolium castaneum Acts Synergistically with Telavancin and Daptomycin against Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Rajmohan Rajamuthiah

    Full Text Available The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a common insect pest and has been established as a model beetle to study insect development and immunity. This study demonstrates that defensin 1 from T. castaneum displays in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity against drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of defensin 1 against 11 reference and clinical staphylococcal isolates was between 16-64 μg/ml. The putative mode of action of the defensin peptide is disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. The antibacterial activity of defensin 1 was attenuated by salt concentrations of 1.56 mM and 25 mM for NaCl and CaCl2 respectively. Treatment of defensin 1 with the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT at concentrations 1.56 to 3.13 mM abolished the antimicrobial activity of the peptide. In the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics that also target the bacterial cell envelope such as telavancin and daptomycin, the MIC of the peptide was as low as 1 μg/ml. Moreover, when tested against an S. aureus strain that was defective in D-alanylation of the cell wall, the MIC of the peptide was 0.5 μg/ml. Defensin 1 exhibited no toxicity against human erythrocytes even at 400 μg/ml. The in vivo activity of the peptide was validated in a Caenorhabditis elegans-MRSA liquid infection assay. These results suggest that defensin 1 behaves similarly to other cationic AMPs in its mode of action against S. aureus and that the activity of the peptide can be enhanced in combination with other antibiotics with similar modes of action or with compounds that have the ability to decrease D-alanylation of the bacterial cell wall.

  1. A Defensin from the Model Beetle Tribolium castaneum Acts Synergistically with Telavancin and Daptomycin against Multidrug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Conery, Annie L; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Kim, Wooseong; Johnston, Tatiana; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a common insect pest and has been established as a model beetle to study insect development and immunity. This study demonstrates that defensin 1 from T. castaneum displays in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity against drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of defensin 1 against 11 reference and clinical staphylococcal isolates was between 16-64 μg/ml. The putative mode of action of the defensin peptide is disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. The antibacterial activity of defensin 1 was attenuated by salt concentrations of 1.56 mM and 25 mM for NaCl and CaCl2 respectively. Treatment of defensin 1 with the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) at concentrations 1.56 to 3.13 mM abolished the antimicrobial activity of the peptide. In the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics that also target the bacterial cell envelope such as telavancin and daptomycin, the MIC of the peptide was as low as 1 μg/ml. Moreover, when tested against an S. aureus strain that was defective in D-alanylation of the cell wall, the MIC of the peptide was 0.5 μg/ml. Defensin 1 exhibited no toxicity against human erythrocytes even at 400 μg/ml. The in vivo activity of the peptide was validated in a Caenorhabditis elegans-MRSA liquid infection assay. These results suggest that defensin 1 behaves similarly to other cationic AMPs in its mode of action against S. aureus and that the activity of the peptide can be enhanced in combination with other antibiotics with similar modes of action or with compounds that have the ability to decrease D-alanylation of the bacterial cell wall.

  2. Genomic and gene regulatory signatures of cryptozoic adaptation: Loss of blue sensitive photoreceptors through expansion of long wavelength-opsin expression in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

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    Cook Tiffany A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent genome sequence analysis in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum indicated that this highly crepuscular animal encodes only two single opsin paralogs: a UV-opsin and a long wavelength (LW-opsin; however, these animals do not encode a blue (B-opsin as most other insects. Here, we studied the spatial regulation of the Tribolium single LW- and UV-opsin gene paralogs in comparison to that of the five opsin paralogs in the retina of Drosophila melanogaster. Results In situ hybridization analysis reveals that the Tribolium retina, in contrast with other insect retinas, constitutes a homogenous field of ommatidia that have seven LW-opsin expressing photoreceptors and one UV-/LW-opsin co-expressing photoreceptor per eye unit. This pattern is consistent with the loss of photoreceptors sensitive to blue wavelengths. It also identifies Tribolium as the first example of a species in insects that co-expresses two different opsins across the entire retina in violation of the widely observed "one receptor rule" of sensory cells. Conclusion Broader studies of opsin evolution in darkling beetles and other coleopteran groups have the potential to pinpoint the permissive and adaptive forces that played a role in the evolution of vision in Tribolium castaneum.

  3. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and comparative analysis with five additional insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Houxia; Pei, Lianghong; Gu, Shasha; Zhu, Shicheng; Wang, Yanyun; Zhang, Yi; Li, Bin

    2012-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases are important detoxification enzymes involved in insecticide resistance. Sequencing the Tribolium castaneum genome provides an opportunity to investigate the structure, function, and evolution of GSTs on a genome-wide scale. Thirty-six putative cytosolic GSTs and 5 microsomal GSTs have been identified in T. castaneum. Furthermore, 40, 35, 13, 23, and 32 GSTs have been discovered the other insects, Drosophila, Anopheles, Apis, Bombyx, and Acyrthosiphon, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that insect-specific GSTs, Epsilon and Delta, are the largest species-specific expanded GSTs. In T. castaneum, most GSTs are tandemly arranged in three chromosomes. Particularly, Epsilon GSTs have an inverted long-fragment duplication in the genome. Other four widely distributed classes are highly conserved in all species. Given that GSTs specially expanded in Tribolium castaneum, these genes might help to resist poisonous chemical environments and produce resistance to kinds of different insecticides.

  4. Odoriferous Defensive stink gland transcriptome to identify novel genes necessary for quinone synthesis in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Li

    Full Text Available Chemical defense is one of the most important traits, which endow insects the ability to conquer a most diverse set of ecological environments. Chemical secretions are used for defense against anything from vertebrate or invertebrate predators to prokaryotic or eukaryotic parasites or food competitors. Tenebrionid beetles are especially prolific in this category, producing several varieties of substituted benzoquinone compounds. In order to get a better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of defensive secretions, we performed RNA sequencing in a newly emerging insect model, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. To detect genes that are highly and specifically expressed in the odoriferous gland tissues that secret defensive chemical compounds, we compared them to a control tissue, the anterior abdomen. 511 genes were identified in different subtraction groups. Of these, 77 genes were functionally analyzed by RNA interference (RNAi to recognize induced gland alterations morphologically or changes in gland volatiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 29 genes (38% presented strong visible phenotypes, while 67 genes (87% showed alterations of at least one gland content. Three of these genes showing quinone-less (ql phenotypes - Tcas-ql VTGl; Tcas-ql ARSB; Tcas-ql MRP - were isolated, molecularly characterized, their expression identified in both types of the secretory glandular cells, and their function determined by quantification of all main components after RNAi. In addition, microbe inhibition assays revealed that a quinone-free status is unable to impede bacterial or fungal growth. Phylogenetic analyses of these three genes indicate that they have evolved independently and specifically for chemical defense in beetles.

  5. A Soluble Pyrophosphatase Is Essential to Oogenesis and Is Required for Polyphosphate Metabolism in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klébea Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphosphates have been found in all cell types examined to date and play diverse roles depending on the cell type. In eukaryotic organisms, polyphosphates have been mainly investigated in mammalian cells with few studies on insects. Some studies have demonstrated that a pyrophosphatase regulates polyphosphate metabolism, and most of them were performed on trypanosomatids. Here, we investigated the effects of sPPase gene knocked down in oogenesis and polyphosphate metabolism in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum. A single sPPase gene was identified in insect genome and is maternally provided at the mRNA level and not restricted to any embryonic or extraembryonic region during embryogenesis. After injection of Tc-sPPase dsRNA, female survival was reduced to 15% of the control (dsNeo RNA, and egg laying was completely impaired. The morphological analysis by nuclear DAPI staining of the ovarioles in Tc-sPPase dsRNA-injected females showed that the ovariole number is diminished, degenerated oocytes can be observed, and germarium is reduced. The polyphosphate level was increased in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions in Tc-sPPase RNAi; Concomitantly, the exopolyphosphatase activity decreased in both fractions. Altogether, these data suggest a role for sPPase in the regulation on polyphosphate metabolism in insects and provide evidence that Tc-sPPase is essential to oogenesis.

  6. Protein N-glycosylation and N-glycan trimming are required for postembryonic development of the pest beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walski, Tomasz; Van Damme, Els J. M.; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Christiaens, Olivier; De Pauw, Edwin; Smagghe, Guy

    2016-01-01

    In holometabolous insects the transition from larva to adult requires a complete body reorganization and relies on N-glycosylated proteins. N-glycosylation is an important posttranslational modification that influences protein activity but its impact on the metamorphosis has not been studied yet. Here we used the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, to perform a first comprehensive study on the involvement of the protein N-glycosylation pathway in metamorphosis. The transcript levels for genes encoding N-glycan processing enzymes increased during later developmental stages and, in turn, transition from larva to adult coincided with an enrichment of more extensively modified paucimannose glycans, including fucosylated ones. Blockage of N-glycan attachment resulted in larval mortality, while RNAi of α-glucosidases involved in early N-glycan trimming and quality control disrupted the larva to pupa transition. Additionally, simultaneous knockdown of multiple genes responsible for N-glycan processing towards paucimannose structures revealed their novel roles in pupal appendage formation and adult eclosion. Our findings revealed that, next to hormonal control, insect post-embryonic development and metamorphosis depend on protein N-glycan attachment and efficient N-glycan processing. Consequently, disruption of these processes could be an effective new approach for insect control. PMID:27731363

  7. Functions of Ion Transport Peptide and Ion Transport Peptide-Like in the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion transport peptide (ITP) and ITP-like (ITPL) are highly conserved neuropeptides in insects and crustaceans. We investigated the alternatively spliced variants of ITP/ITPL in Tribolium castaneum to understand their functions. We identified three alternatively spliced transcripts named itp, itpl-...

  8. Insecticide-Mediated Up-Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Genes in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some cytochrome P450 (CYP genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively, permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold, whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification.

  9. Expressional and functional analysis of CYP15A1, a juvenile hormone epoxidase, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, Chieka; Ishii, Fumika; Washidu, Yumiko; Ichikawa, Akio; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Miura, Ken; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is synthesized and secreted by the corpora allata. In the final two steps of JH biosynthesis, farnesoic acid (FA) is converted to JH through methylation by JH acid O-methyltransferase (JHAMT) and epoxidation by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP15. In the present study, we identified a homolog of CYP15 from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (TcCYP15A1), and analyzed its expression as well as its role in JH biosynthesis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the level of TcCYP15A1 mRNA was high in the embryonic stage as well as in the middle of the final larval instar. In the embryonic stage, the transcript level of TcCYP15A1 started to increase 30h after egg laying (AEL), peaked 54-60h AEL, and was followed by an increase of TcJHAMT mRNA, suggesting that JH biosynthesis started at this time point. TcCYP15A1 mRNA was present, but not exclusively so in the larval corpora allata. The recombinant TcCYP15A1 protein epoxidized both FA and methyl farnesoate (MF) in highly stereo-specific manners. These results confirmed that TcCYP15A1 is involved in JH biosynthesis. The RNAi-mediated knockdown of TcCYP15A1 in the pre-final larval instar did not result in precocious metamorphosis to pupa, indicating that MF may exhibit JH-like activity in order to maintain the larval status. The double knockdown of TcJHAMT and TcCYP15A1 resulted in pupae and adults with shorter wings, suggesting that the precursors of JH, JH acid and MF, may be essential for wing expansion.

  10. Insecticide-mediated up-regulation of cytochrome P450 genes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Xiao, Da; He, Yanping; Yao, Jianxiu; Zhu, Guonian; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-01-19

    Some cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively), permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold) and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold), whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold) when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification.

  11. The Presence of Flour Affects the Efficacy of Aerosolized Insecticides used to Treat the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    OpenAIRE

    Toews, Michael D; Campbell, James F.; Arthur, Franklin H.

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in tightly sealed pilot scale warehouses to assess the efficacy of common aerosolized insecticides on all life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) when exposed in dishes containing 0 to 2 g of wheat flour either under pallets or out in the open. Petri dishes containing 0, 0.1, 1, or 2 g of flour were prepared with 25 eggs, 3rd instars, pupae, or adults and then immediately treated with aerosolized solvent, Pyrethrins, or esfenvalerate....

  12. Juvenile hormone and insulin regulate trehalose homeostasis in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS has been well studied for its role in the control of life span extension and resistance to a variety of stresses. The Drosophila melanogaster insulin-like receptor (InR mutant showed extended life span due to reduced juvenile hormone (JH levels. However, little is known about the mechanism of cross talk between IIS and JH in regulation of life span extension and resistance to starvation. In the current study, we investigated the role of IIS and JH signaling in regulation of resistance to starvation. Reduction in JH biosynthesis, JH action, or insulin-like peptide 2 (ILP2 syntheses by RNA interference (RNAi-aided knockdown in the expression of genes coding for juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT, methoprene-tolerant (Met, or ILP2 respectively decreased lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and extended the survival of starved beetles. Interestingly, the extension of life span could be restored by injection of bovine insulin into JHAMT RNAi beetles but not by application of JH III to ILP2 RNAi beetles. These data suggest that JH controls starvation resistance by regulating synthesis of ILP2. More importantly, JH regulates trehalose homeostasis, including trehalose transport and metabolism, and controls utilization of stored nutrients in starved adults.

  13. Identification and characterization of novel ER-based hsp90 gene in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Gu, Shasha; Li, Chengjun; Sang, Ming; Wu, Wei; Yun, Xiaopei; Hu, Xingxing; Li, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone found in all species except for Archaea, which is required not only for stress tolerance but also for normal development. Recently, it was reported that HSP83, one member of the cytosolic HSP90 family, contributes to oogenesis and responds to heat resistance in Tribolium castaneum. Here, a novel ER-based HSP90 gene, Tchsp90, has been identified in T. castaneum. Phylogenetic analysis showed that hsp90s and hsp83s evolved separately from a common ancestor but that hsp90s originated earlier. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction illustrated that Tchsp90 is expressed in all developmental stages and is highly expressed at early pupa and late adult stages. Tchsp90 was upregulated in response to heat stress but not to cold stress. Laval RNAi revealed that Tchsp90 is important for larval/pupal development. Meanwhile, parental RNAi indicated that it completely inhibited female fecundity and partially inhibited male fertility once Tchsp90 was knocked down and that it will further shorten the lifespan of T. castaneum. These results suggest that Tchsp90 is essential for development, lifespan, and reproduction in T. castaneum in addition to its response to heat stress.

  14. Nuclear structures in Tribolium castaneum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubov, Dmitry S; Batalova, Florina M; Kiselyov, Artyom M; Stepanova, Irina S

    2013-10-01

    The first ultrastructural and immunomorphological characteristics of the karyosphere (karyosome) and extrachromosomal nuclear bodies in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, are presented. The karyosphere forms early in the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase by the gathering of all oocyte chromosomes in a limited nuclear volume. Using the BrUTP assay, T. castaneum oocyte chromosomes united in the karyosphere maintain their transcriptional activity until the end of oocyte growth. Hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II and basal transcription factors (TFIID and TFIIH) were detected in the perichromatin region of the karyosphere. The T. castaneum karyosphere has an extrachromosomal capsule that separates chromosomes from the rest of the nucleoplasm. Certain structural proteins (F-actin, lamin B) were found in the capsule. Unexpectedly, the karyosphere capsule in T. castaneum oocytes was found to be enriched in TMG-capped snRNAs, which suggests that the capsule is not only a structural support for the karyosphere, but may be involved in biogenesis of snRNPs. We also identified the counterparts of 'universal' extrachromosomal nuclear domains, Cajal bodies (CBs) and interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs). Nuclear bodies containing IGC marker protein SC35 display some features unusual for typical IGCs. SC35 domains in T. castaneum oocytes are predominantly fibrillar complex bodies that do not contain trimethyl guanosine (TMG)-capped small nuclear (sn) RNAs. Microinjections of 2'-O-methyl (U)22 probes into the oocytes allowed revealing poly(A)+ RNAs in these nuclear domains. Several proteins related to mRNA export (heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein core protein A1, export adapters Y14 and Aly and export receptor NXF1) were also detected there. We believe that unusual SC35 nuclear domains of T. castaneum oocytes are possibly involved in mRNP but not snRNP biogenesis.

  15. Insights into insect wing origin provided by functional analysis of vestigial in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    OpenAIRE

    Clark-Hachtel, Courtney M.; Linz, David M.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Insect wings are a core example of morphological novelty, yet their acquisition remains a biological conundrum. More than a century of debates and observations has culminated in two prominent hypotheses on the origin of insect wings. Here, we show that there are two separate wing serial homologs in the wingless first thoracic segment of a beetle, Tribolium. These two tissues are merged to form an ectopic wing structure in homeotic transformation. Intriguingly, the two wing serial homologs may...

  16. RNAi screening of developmental toolkit genes: a search for novel wing genes in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, David M; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    The amazing array of diversity among insect wings offers a powerful opportunity to study the mechanisms guiding morphological evolution. Studies in Drosophila (the fruit fly) have identified dozens of genes important for wing development. These genes are often called candidate genes, serving as an ideal starting point to study wing development in other insects. However, we also need to explore beyond the candidate genes to gain a more comprehensive view of insect wing evolution. As a first step away from the traditional candidate genes, we utilized Tribolium (the red flour beetle) as a model and assessed the potential involvement of a group of developmental toolkit genes (embryonic patterning genes) in beetle wing development. We hypothesized that the highly pleiotropic nature of these developmental genes would increase the likelihood of finding novel wing genes in Tribolium. Through the RNA interference screening, we found that Tc-cactus has a less characterized (but potentially evolutionarily conserved) role in wing development. We also found that the odd-skipped family genes are essential for the formation of the thoracic pleural plates, including the recently discovered wing serial homologs in Tribolium. In addition, we obtained several novel insights into the function of these developmental genes, such as the involvement of mille-pattes and Tc-odd-paired in metamorphosis. Despite these findings, no gene we examined was found to have novel wing-related roles unique in Tribolium. These results suggest a relatively conserved nature of developmental toolkit genes and highlight the limited degree to which these genes are co-opted during insect wing evolution.

  17. Identification of G protein-coupled receptors required for vitellogenin uptake into the oocytes of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that a membrane receptor might be involved in mediating vitellogenin (Vg) uptake and juvenile hormone (JH)-regulated remodeling of follicular epithelium (also called 'patency'). G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family is one of the largest membrane receptor protein families and controls many key physiological processes. To investigate the role of GPCRs in insect reproduction and juvenile hormone-regulated Vg uptake, we performed a comprehensive RNA interference (RNAi) screen targeting GPCRs in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of 112 GPCRs tested, knockdown of 41 GPCRs resulted in a reduction in fecundity. Interestingly, RNAi against two GPCRs (a Rhodopsin-like receptor and a Dopamine D2-like receptor) led to a significant reduction in Vg accumulation in developing oocytes. Functional assays of these two GPCRs showed that JH triggers a dose-dependent inhibition of intracellular cAMP levels in HEK293 cells expressing Tribolium Dopamine D2-like receptor. These data suggest that Dopamine D2-like receptor plays crucial roles in regulating Vg uptake and is a promising candidate membrane receptor mediating JH regulation of patency in the red flour beetle. PMID:27277501

  18. Unexpected functional diversity in the fatty acid desaturases of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and identification of key residues determining activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritos, Victoria S; Horne, Irene; Damcevski, Katherine; Glover, Karen; Gibb, Nerida

    2014-08-01

    Desaturases catalyse modifications to fatty acids which are essential to homeostasis and for pheromone and defensive chemical production. All desaturases of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum were investigated via query of the sequenced genome which yielded 15 putative acyl-Coenzyme A genes. Eleven desaturase mRNA were obtained in full length and functionally expressed in yeast. Phylogenetic analysis separated the desaturases into 4 distinct clades; one clade contained conserved beetle Δ9 desaturases, second clade was Tribolium-specific having diverse activities including Δ5, Δ9 and Δ12 desaturation and the other 2 clades had mixed insect representatives. Three members of this clade contained unusual inserted sequences of ∼20 residues in the C-terminal region and were related to desaturases that all contained similar inserts. Deletion of the entirety of the insert in the flour beetle Δ12 desaturase abolished its activity but this was partially restored by the reintroduction of two histidine residues, suggesting the histidine(s) are required for activity but the full length insert is not. Five new desaturase activities were discovered: Δ9 desaturation of C12:0-C16:0 substrates; two unprecedented Δ5 enzymes acting on C18:0 and C16:0; Δ9 activity exclusively on C16:0 and a further stearate Δ9 desaturase. qPCR analysis ruled out a role in sex pheromone synthesis for the Δ5 and Δ9/C16:0 desaturases. The flour beetle genome has underpinned an examination of all transcribed desaturases in the organism and revealed a diversity of novel and unusual activities, an improved understanding of the evolutionary relationships among insect desaturases and sequence determinants of activity.

  19. The roles of thermal transient receptor potential channels in thermotactic behavior and in thermal acclimation in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Geun; Margolies, David; Park, Yoonseong

    2015-05-01

    To survive in variable or fluctuating temperature, organisms should show appropriate behavioral and physiological responses which must be mediated through properly attuned thermal sensory mechanisms. Transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) are a family of cation channels a number of which, called thermo-TRPs, are known to function as thermosensors. We investigated the potential role of thermo-TPRs that have been previously identified in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, in thermotaxis and thermal acclimation in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Phylogenetic analysis of the trp genes showed generally one-to-one orthology between those in D. melanogaster and in T. castaneum, although there are putative gene-losses in two TRP subfamilies of D. melanogaster. With RNA interference (RNAi) of T. castaneum thermo-TRP candidates painless, pyrexia and trpA1, we measured thermal avoidance behavior. RNAi of trpA1 resulted in reduced avoidance of high temperatures, 39 and 42 °C. We also measured the effects of RNAi on heat-induced knockout and death under a short exposure to high temperature (1min at 52 °C) either with or without a 10-min acclimation period at 42 °C. Relatively short exposure to high temperature was enough to induce high temperature thermal acclimation. RNAi of trpA1 led to faster knockout at 52 °C. RNAi of painless showed lower recovery rates from heat-induced knockout after thermal acclimation, and RNAi of pyrexia showed lower long-term survivorship without thermal acclimation. Therefore, we concluded that trpA1 is important in high temperature sensing and also in enhanced tolerance to high-temperature induced knockout; painless plays a role in rapid acclimation to high temperature; and pyrexia functions in protecting beetles from acute heat stress without acclimation.

  20. The presence of flour affects the efficacy of aerosolized insecticides used to treat the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Michael D; Campbell, James F; Arthur, Franklin H

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in tightly sealed pilot scale warehouses to assess the efficacy of common aerosolized insecticides on all life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) when exposed in dishes containing 0 to 2 g of wheat flour either under pallets or out in the open. Petri dishes containing 0, 0.1, 1, or 2 g of flour were prepared with 25 eggs, 3rd instars, pupae, or adults and then immediately treated with aerosolized solvent, Pyrethrins, or esfenvalerate. Twenty-four h after insecticide exposure, the dishes were brought to the laboratory and placed in a growth chamber and held for a 3 day moribund (knockdown) assessment and a 21 day mortality assessment. Mortality in untreated controls was generally less than 10%, with the exception of the 21 day counts of adults and eggs. Solvent-treated replications followed similar trends, except that additional mortality was observed in exposed larvae and pupae. In the insecticide-treated dishes, mortality of T. castaneum provisioned with flour generally showed a linear decrease with increasing flour deposits. Regardless of life stage, mortality did not exceed 60% when individuals were exposed in petri dishes containing 2 g of flour. Exposure location also made a significant difference in observed mortality. While mortality never exceeded 75% in dishes positioned under pallets, there was never less than 80% mortality in dishes exposed in the open. Although there was a perceptible increase in mortality with esfenvalerate compared to Pyrethrins, these differences were considerably less than the variation observed among flour deposits. The study suggests that sanitation and preparation prior to aerosol insecticide treatments were more important than choice of a particular insecticide. PMID:21268701

  1. Dissecting systemic RNA interference in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum: parameters affecting the efficiency of RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry C Miller

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of RNAi, in which the introduction of dsRNA into a cell triggers the destruction of the corresponding mRNA resulting in a gene silencing effect, is conserved across a wide array of plant and animal phyla. However, the mechanism by which the dsRNA enters a cell, allowing the RNAi effect to occur throughout a multicellular organism (systemic RNAi, has only been studied extensively in certain plants and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In recent years, RNAi has become a popular reverse genetic technique for gene silencing in many organisms. Although many RNAi techniques in non-traditional model organisms rely on the systemic nature of RNAi, little has been done to analyze the parameters required to obtain a robust systemic RNAi response. The data provided here show that the concentration and length of dsRNA have profound effects on the efficacy of the RNAi response both in regard to initial efficiency and duration of the effect in Tribolium castaneum. In addition, our analyses using a series of short dsRNAs and chimeric dsRNA provide evidence that dsRNA cellular uptake (and not the RNAi response itself is the major step affected by dsRNA size in Tribolium. We also demonstrate that competitive inhibition of dsRNA can occur when multiple dsRNAs are injected together, influencing the effectiveness of RNAi. These data provide specific information essential to the design and implementation of RNAi based studies, and may provide insight into the molecular basis of the systemic RNAi response in insects.

  2. Forward genetics in Tribolium castaneum: opening new avenues of research in arthropod biology

    OpenAIRE

    Peel, Andrew D

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper in BMC Biology reports the first large-scale insertional mutagenesis screen in a non-drosophilid insect, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. This screen marks the beginning of a non-biased, 'forward genetics' approach to the study of genetic mechanisms operating in Tribolium. See research article http://biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/7/73

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: red flour beetle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Arthropoda Tribolium_castaneum_L.png Tribolium_castaneum_NL.png Triboli...um_castaneum_S.png Tribolium_castaneum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium...+castaneum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=N...L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=NS ...

  4. The negative effect of starvation and the positive effect of mild thermal stress on thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Wexler, Yonatan; MacMillan, Heath Andrew; Presman, Shira; Simson, Eddie; Rosenstein, Shai

    2016-04-01

    The thermal tolerance of a terrestrial insect species can vary as a result of differences in population origin, developmental stage, age, and sex, as well as via phenotypic plasticity induced in response to changes in the abiotic environment. Here, we studied the effects of both starvation and mild cold and heat shocks on the thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Starvation led to impaired cold tolerance, measured as chill coma recovery time, and this effect, which was stronger in males than females, persisted for longer than 2 days but less than 7 days. Heat tolerance, measured as heat knockdown time, was not affected by starvation. Our results highlight the difficulty faced by insects when encountering multiple stressors simultaneously and indicate physiological trade-offs. Both mild cold and heat shocks led to improved heat tolerance in both sexes. It could be that both mild shocks lead to the expression of heat shock proteins, enhancing heat tolerance in the short run. Cold tolerance was not affected by previous mild cold shock, suggesting that such a cold shock, as a single event, causes little stress and hence elicits only weak physiological reaction. However, previous mild heat stress led to improved cold tolerance but only in males. Our results point to both hardening and cross-tolerance between cold and heat shocks.

  5. The negative effect of starvation and the positive effect of mild thermal stress on thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Wexler, Yonatan; MacMillan, Heath Andrew; Presman, Shira; Simson, Eddie; Rosenstein, Shai

    2016-04-01

    The thermal tolerance of a terrestrial insect species can vary as a result of differences in population origin, developmental stage, age, and sex, as well as via phenotypic plasticity induced in response to changes in the abiotic environment. Here, we studied the effects of both starvation and mild cold and heat shocks on the thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Starvation led to impaired cold tolerance, measured as chill coma recovery time, and this effect, which was stronger in males than females, persisted for longer than 2 days but less than 7 days. Heat tolerance, measured as heat knockdown time, was not affected by starvation. Our results highlight the difficulty faced by insects when encountering multiple stressors simultaneously and indicate physiological trade-offs. Both mild cold and heat shocks led to improved heat tolerance in both sexes. It could be that both mild shocks lead to the expression of heat shock proteins, enhancing heat tolerance in the short run. Cold tolerance was not affected by previous mild cold shock, suggesting that such a cold shock, as a single event, causes little stress and hence elicits only weak physiological reaction. However, previous mild heat stress led to improved cold tolerance but only in males. Our results point to both hardening and cross-tolerance between cold and heat shocks.

  6. Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Trogoderma inclusum (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) to cold temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted by exposing different life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and Trogoderma variabile (Ballion), the warehouse beetle, for different time intervals to -18°C. Assessments were made of direct mortality to eggs, larvae, and adults, and eventual adult e...

  7. Identification, Characterization, and Expression of P450 Gene Encoding CYP6BQ13v2 from the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yong-qiang; WANG Jin-jun; JIANG Hong-bo; DOU Wei; TANG Pei-an; AN Feng-ming

    2009-01-01

    An allele of CYP6BQ13, named CYP6BQ13v2 (GenBank accession no. FJ209361), was isolated from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) by RT-PCR. The cDNA sequence of CYP6BQ13v2, 1 563 bp in length, contains an open reading frame of 1 554 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 518 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 59.92 kDa and a theoretical pI of 7.60. The putative protein contains the classic berne-binding sequence motif F××G×××C×G (residues 456-465) conserved among all P450 enzymes as well as other characteristic motifs of all cytochrome P450s. It shares 98% identity with the previously published sequence of CYP6BQ13 (GenBank accession no. XP_967146) from the T. castaneum genome project. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences from members of various P450 families indicated that there was closer phylogenetic relationship of CYP6BQ13v2 with CYP302A1 and CYP307A1 mediating synthesis of the insect molting hormone, distant relationship with CYP6B1 metabolizing plant allelochemicals, CYP6D1 linking to pyrethroid resistance and other members of CYP6 family. Expression test of the gene in the adults and immature stages of T. castaneum by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CYP6BQ13v2 is expressed in all life stages investigated. The mRNA expression level in 1st instar larvae was 14.9-and 3.86-fold higher than those in pupae and adults, respectively. The CYP6BQ13v2 expression levels appeared in the order of 1st instar larvae, followed by 4th instar larvae, 7th instar larvae, adult, and pupae from high to low. The more bioinformation of CYP6BQ13v2 was also analyzed.

  8. Capture of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in Floor Traps: The Effect of Previous Captures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Campbell, James F

    2016-02-01

    The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), in laboratory conditions. The effect of trap seeding, adding adults of the same or different species, was evaluated in order to determine possible effects of prior captures in the trap on each species' behavioral responses. The presence of seeded beetles of the same species resulted in an increase in beetle captures for both T. castaneum and T. confusum, but when traps were seeded with the opposite species, there was no increase in beetle captures for either species, and for T. castaneum overall captures in both seeded and unseeded traps was reduced. Overall, T. castaneum tended to have greater captures than T. confusum regardless of the treatment. When the two species were released together, this negated the increased response to seeded traps observed in the single-species treatments. These findings suggest the potential that the presence of beetles in a trap may be influencing the response of beetles in a nearby trap and that T. castaneum and T. confusum when they occur together may influence each other's response to traps.

  9. Metamorphic labral axis patterning in the beetle Tribolium castaneum requires multiple upstream, but few downstream, genes in the appendage patterning network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Angelini, David R; Gaudio, Matthew S; Jockusch, Elizabeth L

    2014-03-01

    The arthropod labrum is an anterior appendage-like structure that forms the dorsal side of the preoral cavity. Conflicting interpretations of fossil, nervous system, and developmental data have led to a proliferation of scenarios for labral evolution. The best supported hypothesis is that the labrum is a novel structure that shares development with appendages as a result of co-option. Here, we use RNA interference in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum to compare metamorphic patterning of the labrum to previously published data on ventral appendage patterning. As expected under the co-option hypothesis, depletion of several genes resulted in similar defects in the labrum and ventral appendages. These include proximal deletions and proximal-to-distal transformations resulting from depletion of the leg gap genes homothorax and extradenticle, large-scale deletions resulting from depletion of the leg gap gene Distal-less, and smaller distal deletions resulting from knockdown of the EGF ligand Keren. However, depletion of dachshund and many of the genes that function downstream of the leg gap genes in the ventral appendages had either subtle or no effects on labral axis patterning. This pattern of partial similarity suggests that upstream genes act through different downstream targets in the labrum. We also discovered that many appendage axis patterning genes have roles in patterning the epipharyngeal sensillum array, suggesting that they have become integrated into a novel regulatory network. These genes include Notch, Delta, and decapentaplegic, and the transcription factors abrupt, bric à brac, homothorax, extradenticle and the paralogs apterous a and apterous b.

  10. DIRS retroelements in arthropods: identification of the recently active TcDirs1 element in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T J D; Poulter, R T M; Lorenzen, M D; Beeman, R W

    2004-08-01

    Members of the DIRS family of retrotransposons differ from most other known retrotransposons in that they encode a tyrosine recombinase (YR), a type of enzyme frequently involved in site-specific recombination. This enzyme is believed to insert the extrachromosomal DNA intermediate of DIRS element retrotransposition into the host genome. DIRS elements have been found in plants, a slime mold, fungi, and a variety of animals including vertebrates, echinoderms and nematodes. They have a somewhat patchy distribution, however, apparently being absent from a number of model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster. In this report we describe the first DIRS retroelement to be identified in an arthropod. This element, TcDirs1, was found in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera). It is generally similar in sequence and structure to several previously described members of the DIRS group: it is bordered by inverted terminal repeats and it has a similar set of protein-coding domains (Gag, reverse transcriptase/ribonuclease H, and the YR), although these are arranged in a novel fashion. TcDirs1 elements exhibit several features indicative of recent activity, such as intact coding regions, a high level of sequence similarity between distinct elements and polymorphic insertion sites. Given their presence in an experimentally tractable host, these potentially active elements might serve as useful models for the study of DIRS element retrotransposition. An element closely related to TcDirs1 was also detected in sequences from a second arthropod, the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), suggesting that these retrotransposons are long-term residents of arthropod genomes. PMID:15221458

  11. A family of chemoreceptors in Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera.

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    Mohatmed Abdel-Latief

    Full Text Available Chemoperception in invertebrates is mediated by a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. To date nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms of chemoperception in coleopteran species. Recently the genome of Tribolium castaneum was sequenced for use as a model species for the Coleoptera. Using blast searches analyses of the T. castaneum genome with previously predicted amino acid sequences of insect chemoreceptor genes, a putative chemoreceptor family consisting of 62 gustatory receptors (Grs and 26 olfactory receptors (Ors was identified. The receptors have seven transmembrane domains (7TMs and all belong to the GPCR receptor family. The expression of the T. castaneum chemoreceptor genes was investigated using quantification real- time RT-PCR and in situ whole mount RT-PCR analysis in the antennae, mouth parts, and prolegs of the adults and larvae. All of the predicted TcasGrs were expressed in the labium, maxillae, and prolegs of the adults but TcasGr13, 19, 28, 47, 62, 98, and 61 were not expressed in the prolegs. The TcasOrs were localized only in the antennae and not in any of the beetles gustatory organs with one exception; the TcasOr16 (like DmelOr83b, which was localized in the antennae, labium, and prolegs of the beetles. A group of six TcasGrs that presents a lineage with the sugar receptors subfamily in Drosophila melanogaster were localized in the lacinia of the Tribolium larvae. TcasGr1, 3, and 39, presented an ortholog to CO(2 receptors in D. melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae was recorded. Low expression of almost all of the predicted chemoreceptor genes was observed in the head tissues that contain the brains and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG. These findings demonstrate the identification of a chemoreceptor family in Tribolium, which is evolutionarily related to other insect species.

  12. Efficacy of Spinosad and Abamectin against Different Populations of Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst in Treated Wheat Grain

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    Goran Andrić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of spinosad and abamectin against T. castaneum adults from a laboratorypopulation with normal susceptibility to contact insecticides and against malathion-resistantpopulations from Nikinci and Jakovo was tested in the laboratory (25±1ºC and 60±5%r.h.. The insecticides were applied to 500 g of untreated wheat grain for each of the followingapplication doses: 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg a.i./kg. After treatment, wheat was dividedinto three equal subsamples and 50 T. castaneum adults from each of the three test populationswere released the next day into jars for each dose. Mortality was evaluated after 7,14 and 21 days of exposure to treated wheat grain.Generally, higher concentrations and longer exposure periods resulted in higher efficacyof both insecticides, but abamectin was significantly more effective than spinosadagainst all three tested populations. After 7 days of exposure, mortality did not exceed30% in any test variant. Fourteen days after treatment with the highest dose (5 mg/kgof spinosad, mortality was highest (75% in the laboratory population, while treatmentwith the same dose of abamectin achieved the highest mortality (58% in the laboratoryand Jakovo populations. After 21 days, spinosad applied at the rate of 5 mg/kg was mosteffective (97% mortality in the laboratory population, while 88% efficacy was recorded inJakovo population and 87% in Nikinci population. Abamectin doses of 2.5 and 5 mg/kgcaused high adult mortality of 94-100% in the laboratory and Jakovo populations, and a significantlylower mortality in Nikinci population (75 and 86%, respectively.Statistically significant differences in the efficacy of spinosad, and particularly ofabamectin, were detected among the three tested populations, the greatest differencebeing between the laboratory and Nikinci populations, which clearly indicates that resistanceof T. castaneum adults to malathion had a significant influence.

  13. NSECTICIDAL TOXICITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE, CAMPHOR AND EUGENOL ON TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Liška

    2011-01-01

    Contact and fumigant activity of 1,8-cineole, camphor and eugenol compounds were tested In laboratory conditions on adult, larvae and pupae of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), as well as their effect on progeny emergence. Positive results were obtained with contact application for all three tested compounds and on all three stages of development of T. castaneum, with the highest activity of 1,8-cineole, followed by eugenol and camphor. In general, fumigant activity of all th...

  14. INSECTICIDAL TOXICITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE, CAMPHOR AND EUGENOL ON TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Liška

    2011-01-01

    Contact and fumigant activity of 1,8-cineole, camphor and eugenol compounds were tested In laboratory conditions on adult, larvae and pupae of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), as well as their effect on progeny emergence. Positive results were obtained with contact application for all three tested compounds and on all three stages of development of T. castaneum, with the highest activity of 1,8-cineole, followed by eugenol and camphor. Ingeneral, fumi...

  15. Pesticidal Evaluation of Manilkara zapota (L. against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abu Osman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the residual eff ects of Manilkara zapota (L. P. Royen plant against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Four doses, i.e., 1238.5, 619.25, 309.6 and 154.8 μg/cm2 of ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of Manilkara zapota were applied on larvae and adult beetles. The effectiveness of the plant extract was increased with the increase of exposure time and after 72 hrs of exposure, the maximum residual toxicity was observed with LD50 of 228.8, 281.1, 413.4, 423.7, 455.2, 498.7 and 526.5 μg/cm2 for first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth instar larvae and adults, respectively. The results of this study also demonstrated that the earlier instars were more sensitive to the extracts than those of late instars as well as adults.

  16. Pesticidal Evaluation of Manilkara zapota (L. against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abu Osman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the residual eff ects of Manilkara zapota (L. P. Royen plant against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Four doses, i.e., 1238.5, 619.25, 309.6 and 154.8 μg/cm2 of ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of Manilkara zapota were applied on larvae and adult beetles. The effectiveness of the plant extract was increased with the increase of exposure time and after 72 hrs of exposure, the maximum residual toxicity was observed with LD50 of 228.8, 281.1, 413.4, 423.7, 455.2, 498.7 and 526.5 μg/cm2 for first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth instar larvae and adults, respectively. The results of this study also demonstrated that the earlier instars were more sensitive to the extracts than those of late instars as well as adults.

  17. Mechanisms for horizontal transfer of methoprene from treated to untreated Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed to determine the relative impact of different mechanisms of horizontal transfer of methoprene by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. Insects exposed to 5 methoprene treated developmental stages (late-stage larvae, pupae, or adults) resulted in 100% mortalit...

  18. Efficacy of aerosol applications of methoprene and synergized pyrethrin against Tribolium castaneum adults and eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of a single aerosol application of the insecticides methoprene and piperonyl butoxide-synergized pyrethrin, alone or in combination, and the insecticide carrier, Isopar M, against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. The initial tes...

  19. Expression patterns of cysteine peptidase genes across the Tribolium castaneum life cycle provide clues to biological function

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a major agricultural pest responsible for considerable loss of stored grain and cereal products worldwide. T. castaneum larvae have a highly compartmentalized gut, with cysteine peptidases mostly in the acidic anterior part of the midgut. We have descri...

  20. [Karyosphere capsule in Tribolium castaneum oocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalova, F M; Bogoliubov, D S

    2013-01-01

    Structure and composition of the karyosphere (karyosome) capsule were studied in the oocytes of a laboratory insect, Tribolium castaneum, with the use of electron microscopy and immunoelectron cytochemistry. Basing on the study of nuclear structure dynamics, we distinguished 8 stages that characterize the period of oocyte growth. At the diplotene stage, T. castaneum oocyte chromosomes conjoin early into a compact karyosphere, but a significant chromatin condensation does not occur. The process of karyosphere formation is accompanied by the development of an extensive extrachromosome capsule surrounding chromatin. The capsule consists of a material of different morphological types. Significant molecular components of the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule are represented by the proteins of nuclear matrix including F-actin and lamin B. Besides the structural proteins, the Sm proteins of small nuclear (sn) RNPs and mature 2,2,7-trimethyl guanosine (TMG) 5'-capped snRNAs are revealed immunocytochemically in the karyosphere capsule. The obtained data can form a basis for further expansion of ideas on the functions of the karyosphere capsule as a specialized extrachromosomal nuclear domain of the oocytes. We believe that the T. castaneum karyosphere capsule plays not only a structural role, but may be involved directly in the processes related to gene expression.

  1. Composition, Repellent, and Insecticidal Activities of Two South American Plants against the Stored Grain Pests Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Benzi, Verónica; Stefanazzi, Natalia; Murray, Ana Paula; Werdin González, Jorge O.; Ferrero, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    As part of a screening program to evaluate the biological activity of indigenous plants, we report the composition and the bioactivity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Té de Burro Aloysia polystachya [(Griseb.) Moldenke] and Lemon Verbena Aloysia citriodora [Palau] against two of the most widespread secondary pests of stored products, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum [Herbst] and the confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum [Jacqueline du Val]. Analysis by gas chromatography-mas...

  2. Gene expression suggests double-segmental and single-segmental patterning mechanisms during posterior segment addition in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In the model arthropod Drosophila, all segments are patterned simultaneously in the blastoderm. In most other arthropods, however, posterior segments are added sequentially from a posterior segment addition zone. Posterior addition of single segments likely represents the ancestral mode of arthropod segmentation, although in Drosophila, segments are patterned in pairs by the pair-rule genes. It has been shown that in the new model insect, the beetle Tribolium, a segmentation clock operates that apparently patterns all segments in pairs as well. Here, I report on the expression of the segment polarity gene H15/midline in Tribolium. In the anterior embryo, segmental stripes of H15 appear in pairs, but in the posterior of the embryo stripes appear in a single-segmental periodicity. This implies that either two completely different segmentation-mechanisms may act in the germ band of Tribolium, that the segmentation clock changes its periodicity during development, or that the speed in which posterior segments are patterned changes. In any case, the data suggest the presence of another (or modified), yet undiscovered, mechanism of posterior segment addition in one of the best-understood arthropod models. The finding of a hitherto unrecognized segmentation mechanism in Tribolium may have major implications for the understanding of the origin of segmentation mechanisms, including the origin of pair rule patterning. It also calls for (re)-investigation of posterior segment addition in Tribolium and other previously studied arthropod models.

  3. Differential preference of colored surface in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

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    AMS Reza

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects show color preferences mostly to those which resembles the color of foliage, flower or even their hosts. In the present study observations were made to determine vision towards different colored surfaces in young (second instar, and advanced (fourth instar larvae, and adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The larva and adult beetles showed significant color preferences when given a choice between white (control and colored surfaces at 24- and 48-h exposures. The second instar larvae were more attracted by yellow and pink than green surfaces. The fourth instar larvae did not show any significant preference between white and colored surfaces at 24-h exposure, but avoided red and pink surfaces (P>0.05 and had a marginal choice for black (P<0.05. The adults avoided green significantly at both exposure times and pink at 48-h exposure, but was moderately attracted by black (P<0.05 at both exposure times.

  4. The dynamic expression of extraembryonic marker genes in the beetle Tribolium castaneum reveals the complexity of serosa and amnion formation in a short germ insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Beermann, Anke; Schröder, Reinhard

    2013-12-01

    Most insect embryos develop with two distinct extraembryonic membranes, the serosa and the amnion. In the insect beetle Tribolium the early origin of the serosa within the anterior blastoderm is well established but the origin of the amnion is still debated. It is not known whether this tissue develops from a blastodermal precursor or originates de novo later from embryonic tissue during embryogenesis. We undertook an in-depth analysis of the spatio-temporal expression pattern profile of important extraembryonic membrane marker genes with emphasis on early blastoderm development in Tribolium. The amnion marker iroquois (Tc-iro) was found co-expressed with the serosa marker zerknüllt1 (Tc-zen1) during early blastoderm formation in an anterior cap domain. This domain later resolved into two adjacent domains that likely represent the precursors of the serosa and the amnion. In addition, we found the hindsight ortholog in Tribolium (Tc-hnt) to be a serosa-specific marker. Surprisingly, decapentaplegic (Tc-dpp) expression was not seen as a symmetric cap domain but detected asymmetrically first along the DV- and later also along the AP-axis. Moreover, we found a previously undescribed domain of phosphorylated MAD (pMAD) protein in anterior ventral serosal cells. This is the first study showing that the anterior-lateral part of the amnion originates from the anterior blastoderm while the precursor of the dorsal amnion develops later de novo from a dorsal-posterior region within the differentiated blastoderm.

  5. Evaluation of synergized pyrethrin aerosol for control of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel, Kabita; Arthur, Frank H; Zhu, Kun Yan; Campbell, James F; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju

    2014-02-01

    Aerosol insecticides are being used in flour mill pest management programs, but there is limited information on their efficacy on different insect life stages. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of synergized pyrethrin applied as an aerosol against eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Effects of direct and indirect exposure were evaluated by exposing each life stage to the aerosol and then transferring to untreated flour, transferring untreated insects to treated flour, or exposing both the insects and the flour to the aerosol. The aerosol produced >88% mortality of both species and all life stages when insects were directly treated and transferred to either treated or untreated flour. Mortality was significantly reduced when insects were either treated together with flour or untreated insects were transferred to treated flour (indirect exposure to the aerosol). Larvae and adults of both species were more tolerant compared with eggs and pupae. Recovery of moribund adults in the indirect exposure treatments was greater compared with recovery of moribund insects in the direct exposure treatments. Good sanitation before aerosol application could facilitate direct exposure of insects and thus increase aerosol efficacy inside flour mills.

  6. Evaluation of structural treatment efficacy against Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) using meta-analysis of multiple studies conducted in food facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phase out of methyl bromide for the treatment of structures where grain is milled and processed has triggered a need to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative structural treatments such as sulfuryl fluoride and heat. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)) (RFB) and confused flour...

  7. Antifeedant Diterpenoids against Tribolium castaneum from the Stems and Twigs of Ceriops tagal (Rhizophoraceae

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    Zhi Wei Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The screening of several Chinese mangrove plants for insecticidal principles showed that ethanol extract of Ceriops tagal stems and twigs possessed significant feeding deterrent activity against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Family: Rhizophoraceae. From the ethanol extract, three feeding deterrent diterpenoids were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as tagalsin A, B, and H on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Tagalsin A, B, and H exhibited strong feeding deterrent activity against T. castaneum adults with EC50 values of 375.3 ppm, 277.3 ppm, and 285.45 ppm, respectively.

  8. Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.

  9. Properties and natural occurrence of maternal-effect selfish genes ('Medea' factors) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternally acting selfish genes, termed 'Medea' factors, were found to be widespread in wild populations of Tribolium castaneum collected in Europe, North and South America, Africa and south-east Asia, but were rare or absent in populations from Australia and the Indian subcontinent. We detected at least four distinct genetic loci in at least two different linkage groups that exhibit the Medea pattern of differential mortality of genotypes within maternal families. Although each M factor tested had similar properties of maternal lethality to larvae and zygotic self-rescue, M factors representing distinct loci did not show cross-rescue. Alleles at two of these loci, M1 and M4, were by far the most prevalent, M4 being the predominant type. M2 and M3 were each found only once, in Pakistan and Japan, respectively. Although M1 could be genetically segregated from M4 and maintained as a purified stock, the M1 factor invariably co-occurred with M4 in field populations, whereas M4 usually occurred in the absence of other Medea factors. The dominant maternal lethal action of M1 could be selectively inactivated (reverted) by gene-knockout gamma irradiation with retention of zygotic rescue activity. (author)

  10. Effects of flour and milling debris on efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine if accumulation of a flour food source or milling debris affected residual efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. In the laboratory study, the high label rate of 20 mg active ingredient (...

  11. Food source provisioning and susceptibility of immature and adult Tribolium castaneum on concrete partially treated with chlorfenapyr (Phantom®)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted in which adults, pupae, and 4-week-old larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, were exposed separately on concrete arenas partially treated (14.4 % of the total area) with the insecticide chlorfenapyr (Phantom®) at 1.1 g active ingredient/...

  12. The single fgf receptor gene in the beetle Tribolium castaneum codes for two isoforms that integrate FGF8- and Branchless-dependent signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Beer, Katharina; Iwanov, Katharina; Schmöhl, Felix; Beckmann, Paula Indigo; Schröder, Reinhard

    2015-06-15

    The precise regulation of cell-cell communication by numerous signal-transduction pathways is fundamental for many different processes during embryonic development. One important signalling pathway is the evolutionary conserved fibroblast-growth-factor (FGF)-pathway that controls processes like cell migration, axis specification and mesoderm formation in vertebrate and invertebrate animals. In the model insect Drosophila, the FGF ligand / receptor combinations of FGF8 (Pyramus and Thisbe) / Heartless (Htl) and Branchless (Bnl) / Breathless (Btl) are required for the migration of mesodermal cells and for the formation of the tracheal network respectively with both the receptors functioning independently of each other. However, only a single fgf-receptor gene (Tc-fgfr) has been identified in the genome of the beetle Tribolium. We therefore asked whether both the ligands Fgf8 and Bnl could transduce their signal through a common FGF-receptor in Tribolium. Indeed, we found that the function of the single Tc-fgfr gene is essential for mesoderm differentiation as well as for the formation of the tracheal network during early development. Ligand specific RNAi for Tc-fgf8 and Tc-bnl resulted in two distinct non-overlapping phenotypes of impaired mesoderm differentiation and abnormal formation of the tracheal network in Tc-fgf8- and Tc-bnl(RNAi) embryos respectively. We further show that the single Tc-fgfr gene encodes at least two different receptor isoforms that are generated through alternative splicing. We in addition demonstrate through exon-specific RNAi their distinct tissue-specific functions. Finally, we discuss the structure of the fgf-receptor gene from an evolutionary perspective.

  13. Population growth rate and genetic variability of small and large populations of Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) following multigenerational exposure to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Radwan, Jacek; Kuduk, Katarzyna; Mendrok, Magdalena; Kramarz, Paulina

    2015-07-01

    We reared large (1000 individuals) and small (20 individuals) populations of Tribolium castaneum on diet contaminated with copper in order to determine if the size of a population affects its ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions. After 10 generations, we used microsatellite markers to estimate and subsequently compare the genetic variability of the copper-treated populations with that of the control populations, which were reared on uncontaminated medium. Additionally, we conducted a full cross-factorial experiment which evaluated the effects of 10 generations of "pre-exposure" to copper on a population's fitness in control and copper-contaminated environments. In order to distinguish results potentially arising from genetic adaptation from those due to non-genetic effects associated to parental exposure to copper, we subjected also F11 generation, originating from parents not exposed to copper, to the same cross-factorial experiment. The effects of long-term exposure to copper depended on population size: the growth rates of small populations that were pre-exposed to copper were inhibited compared to those of small populations reared in uncontaminated environments. Large Cu-exposed populations had a higher growth rate in the F10 generation compared to the control groups, while the growth rate of the F11 generation was unaffected by copper exposure history. The only factor that had a significant effect on genetic variability was population size, but this was to be expected given the large difference in the number of individuals between large and small populations. Neither copper contamination nor its interaction with population size affected the number of microsatellite alleles retained in the F10 generation.

  14. Interaction of starvation and gamma radiation on the fecundity of tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, S.U.K.; Shafique, M. (Nuclear Inst. for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad (Pakistan))

    Starved and unstarved beetles of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) were irradiated with low doses of gamma radiation viz:-4, 6, 8, 12 krad and their fecundity was studied up to 8 days under controlled laboratory conditions. It was recorded that fecundity decreased immediately following irradiation, but the subsequent recovery was dose dependent. The rate of oviposition increased with an increased period of starvation. Pre-irradiation starved beetles were less fecunditive than the post-irradiation ones. Irradiated individuals, though, laid eggs, but none of the eggs hatched at 8 and 12 krad.

  15. Residual efficacy of aerosols to control Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, F. H

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol insecticides can be important components of insect management plans for mills, food warehouses, and processing plants. In the United States, synergized pyrethrin is used alone or combined with an insect growth regulator (IGR), either methoprene or hydroprene. The presence of food material can result in increased survival of adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) or Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val exposed to synergized pyrethrins, but larvae appear to be more susceptible than adults. R...

  16. Identification of maternally-loaded RNA transcripts in unfertilized eggs of Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preuss Kevin M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal RNAs play a critical role in early development. Variation in the diversity and levels of maternally derived gene transcripts may be central to the origin of phenotypic novelty -- a longstanding problem in evolution and development. By studying maternal transcriptomes within and between divergent species, a better understanding of the evolutionary forces acting on maternal RNA allocation is possible. Results We present the first maternal transcriptome of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Using a tiled whole-genome microarray, we found that 58.2% of T. castaneum genes are maternally loaded into eggs. Comparison of known Drosophila melanogaster maternal genes to our results showed widespread conservation of maternal expression with T. castaneum. Additionally, we found that many genes previously reported as having sex or tissue specific expression in T. castaneum were also maternally loaded. Identification of such pleiotropy is vital for proper modeling and testing of evolutionary theory using empirical data. The microarray design also allowed the detection of 2315 and 4060 novel transcriptionally active regions greater in length than 100 bp in unfertilized and fertilized T. castaneum eggs, respectively. These transcriptionally active regions represent novel exons of potentially unknown genes for future study. Conclusions Our results lay a foundation for utilizing T. castaneum as a model for understanding the role of maternal genes in evolution.

  17. Tribolium castaneum as a model for high-throughput RNAi screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Eileen; Bingsohn, Linda; Kanost, Michael R; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Coleopteran insects are a highly diverse and successful order, and many beetle species are significant agricultural pests. New biorational strategies for managing populations of beetles and other insect species are needed as pests develop resistance to chemical insecticides and Bt toxins. There is now an opportunity to use genome sequence data to identify genes that are essential for insect growth, development, or survival as new targets for designing control technology. This goal requires a method for high-throughput in vivo screening of thousands of genes to identify candidate genes that, when their expression is disrupted, have a phenotype that may be useful in insect pest control. Tribolium castaneum, the red flour beetle, is a model organism that offers considerable advantages for such screening, including ease of rearing in large numbers, a sequenced genome, and a strong, systemic RNAi response for specific depletion of gene transcripts. The RNAi effect in T. castaneum can be elicited in any tissue and any stage by the injection of dsRNA into the hemocoel, and injection of dsRNA into adult females can even be used to identify phenotypes in offspring. A pilot RNAi screen (iBeetle) is underway. Several T. castaneum genes with promising RNAi phenotypes for further development as mechanisms for plant protection have been identified. These include heat shock protein 90, chitin synthase, the segmentation gene hairy, and a matrix metalloprotease. Candidate genes identified in T. castaneum screens can then be tested in agricultural pest species (in which screening is not feasible), to evaluate their effectiveness for use in potential plant-based RNAi control strategies. Delivery of dsRNA expressed by genetically modified crops to the midgut of phytophagous insects is under investigation as a new tool for very specific protection of plants from insect pest species. The T. castaneum screening platform offers a system for discovery of candidate genes with high potential

  18. Genome-wide mapping of conserved microRNAs and their host transcripts in Tribolium castaneum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qibin Luo; Qing Zhou; Xiaomin Yu; Hongbin Lin; Songnian Hu; Jun Yu

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous 22-nt RNAs, which play important regulatory roles by post-transcriptional gene silencing. A computational strategy has been developed for the identification of conserved miRNAs based on features of known metazoan miRNAs in red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum), which is regarded as one of the major laboratory models of arthropods. Among 118 putative miRNAs, 47% and 53% of the predicted miRNAs from the red flour beetle are harbored by known protein-coding genes (intronic) and genes located outside (intergenic miRNA), respectively. There are 31 intronic miRNAs in the same transcriptional orientation as the host genes, which may share RNA polymerase Ⅱ and spliceosomal machinery with their host genes for their biogenesis. A hypothetical feedback model has been proposed based on the analysis of the relationship between intronic miRNAs and their host genes in the development of red flour beetle.

  19. Toxicity of Boldo Peumus boldus Molina for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum Herbst Toxicidad del Boldo, Peumus boldus Molina, sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ortiz U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst are two key pests of stored-grain products worldwide. The insecticidal activity of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina powder, liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts against S. zeamais and T. castaneum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The evaluated variables were mortality, emergence of adult insects (F1, and grain weight loss. The experimental design was completely randomized. The mortality in S. zeamais was 100% even at the lowest powder concentration (0.5% w/w, whereas emergence of F1 adult insects was 0% and grain weight loss was El gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y el gorgojo castaño de la harina (Tribolium castaneum Herbst son plagas primarias de productos almacenados a nivel mundial. Se evaluó en laboratorio la actividad insecticida de polvo y extractos líquidos etanólicos y hexánicos del boldo (Peumus boldus Molina sobre S. zeamais y T. castaneum. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos (F1 y pérdida de peso de los granos con un diseño experimental completamente al azar. La mortalidad en S. zeamais fue 100%, incluso con la concentración menor (0,5% p/p mientras que la emergencia de insectos adultos y la pérdida de peso de granos de maíz fue < 0,08%. Para T. castaneum sólo las concentraciones de 8 y 16% p/p de polvo causaron una mortalidad de 100%. Los extractos en agua, etanol, y hexano tuvieron un efecto insecticida de 100% en S. zeamais, mientras que en T. castaneum sólo el extracto en etanol alcanzó este valor. Por lo tanto, el polvo y los extractos evaluados de P. boldus presentan actividad insecticida contra S. zeamais y T. castaneum y son promisorios para utilizarse contra éstas y otras plagas de granos almacenados.

  20. Gamma radiation effects of Cobalt-60 on eggs of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst., 1797) (Coleoptera: tenebrionidae); Efeitos da radiacao gama do cobalto-60 em ovos de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst., 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, L.S.; Arthur, V. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this research was to verify the effects of gamma radiation of a cobalt-60 source on eggs of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst., 1797). The used dose rate was 1.28 kGy per hour, and the irradiated insects were kept under controlled environmental conditions: 25 {+-} 2{sup 0} C and 70 {+-} 5% relative humidity. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The sperm ultrastructure and spermiogenesis of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) with evidence of cyst degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Glenda; Lino-Neto, José; Mercati, David; Dallai, Romano

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies on the spermatogenesis of tenebrionid beetles showed the unusual formation of two antiparallel sperm bundles per cyst. In this work we reported this feature also in Tribolium castaneum using light and transmission electron microscopy. The sperm structure of T. castaneum, similar to other tenebrionids, consists of a three-layered acrosome, an elongated nucleus and a flagellum with a 9+9+2 axoneme, two accessory bodies and two asymmetric mitochondrial derivatives. The presence of two antiparallel sperm bundles per cyst also in Meloidae and Rhipiphoridae suggests that it is a strong trait synapomorphic for Tenebrionoidea. The huge degeneration of whole sperm cells in several cysts of testes during spermiogenesis is also described.

  2. Efficacy of aerosol applications of methoprene and synergized pyrethrin against Tribolium castaneum adults and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Angela M; Campbell, James F; Arthur, Frank H; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2014-06-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of a single aerosol application of the insecticides methoprene and piperonyl butoxide-synergized pyrethrin, alone or in combination, and the insecticide carrier, Isopar M, against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. The initial test exposed adults to insecticide treatments and placed male/female pairs in flour. All adults exposed to synergized pyrethrin were knocked down for at least 24 h after exposure but they recovered. High adult survival and similar average numbers of living F1 progeny were produced regardless of treatment exposure. In a separate test, insecticide treatments were directly applied to newly laid eggs, which resulted in the suppression of egg hatch. Synergized pyrethrin was the most effective insecticide (P castaneum egg hatch and development to the adult stage.

  3. First evidence of DNA methylation in insect Tribolium castaneum: environmental regulation of DNA methylation within heterochromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciello, Isidoro; Parazajder, Josip; Akrap, Ivana; Ugarković, Durđica

    2013-05-01

    DNA methylation has been studied in many eukaryotic organisms, in particular vertebrates, and was implicated in developmental and phenotypic variations. Little is known about the role of DNA methylation in invertebrates, although insects are considered as excellent models for studying the evolution of DNA methylation. In the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera), no evidence of DNA methylation has been found till now. In this paper, a cytosine methylation in Tribolium castaneum embryos was detected by methylation sensitive restriction endonucleases and immuno-dot blot assay. DNA methylation in embryos is followed by a global demethylation in larvae, pupae and adults. DNA demethylation seems to proceed actively through 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, most probably by the action of TET enzyme. Bisulfite sequencing of a highly abundant satellite DNA located in pericentromeric heterochromatin revealed similar profile of cytosine methylation in adults and embryos. Cytosine methylation was not only restricted to CpG sites but was found at CpA, CpT and CpC sites. In addition, complete cytosine demethylation of heterochromatic satellite DNA was induced by heat stress. The results reveal existence of DNA methylation cycling in T. castaneum ranging from strong overall cytosine methylation in embryos to a weak DNA methylation in other developmental stages. Nevertheless, DNA methylation is preserved within heterochromatin during development, indicating its role in heterochromatin formation and maintenance. It is, however, strongly affected by heat stress, suggesting a role for DNA methylation in heterochromatin structure modulation during heat stress response.

  4. Influence of gamma radiation, continuous light and complete darkness on the reproductive potential of red flour beetle, Tribolium Castaneum (Herbst), (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khattak, S.U.K. (Nuclear Inst. for Food and Agriculture, Peshawar (Pakistan)); Jilani, G. (Nuclear Inst. for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad (Pakistan))

    The influence of gamma radiation, continuous light and complete darkness singly as well as in combination on the reproductive potential of Tribolium castameum was studied under controlled laboratory conditions. It was found that among the single treatments radiation gave the best results followed by continuous light and continuous darkness, while in the combined treatments the effect of radiation in either combination of light or dark was complementary and both the fecundity and fertility were adversely affected, however, the effect on fertility was more pronounced than the fecundity. Radiation with continuous light proved to be the best of all combinations. Females were more sensitive than males in all types of treatments.

  5. Non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium castaneum embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Frederic; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2014-06-01

    Insect development has contributed significantly to our understanding of metazoan development. However, most information has been obtained by analyzing a single species, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Embryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum differs fundamentally from that of Drosophila in aspects such as short-germ development, embryonic leg development, extensive extra-embryonic membrane formation and non-involuted head development. Although Tribolium has become the second most important insect model organism, previous live imaging attempts have addressed only specific questions and no long-term live imaging data of Tribolium embryogenesis have been available. By combining light sheet-based fluorescence microscopy with a novel mounting method, we achieved complete, continuous and non-invasive fluorescence live imaging of Tribolium embryogenesis at high spatiotemporal resolution. The embryos survived the 2-day or longer imaging process, developed into adults and produced fertile progeny. Our data document all morphogenetic processes from the rearrangement of the uniform blastoderm to the onset of regular muscular movement in the same embryo and in four orientations, contributing significantly to the understanding of Tribolium development. Furthermore, we created a comprehensive chronological table of Tribolium embryogenesis, integrating most previous work and providing a reference for future studies. Based on our observations, we provide evidence that serosa window closure and serosa opening, although deferred by more than 1 day, are linked. All our long-term imaging datasets are available as a resource for the community. Tribolium is only the second insect species, after Drosophila, for which non-invasive long-term fluorescence live imaging has been achieved.

  6. Impact of varying levels of sanitation on mortality of Tribolium castaneum eggs and adults during heat treatment of a pilot flour mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), an economically important pest in flour mills, was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to two, 24-h heat treatments. One hundred eggs or 100 adults of T...

  7. Gender- and stressor-specific microRNA expression in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitak, Dalial; Knorr, Eileen; Vogel, Heiko; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2012-10-23

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs mediating post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Addressing their role in regulation of physiological adaptations to environmental stress in insects, we selected the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum as a model. Beetles were fed with the bacterial entomopathogen Pseudomonas entomophila (to mimic natural infection), injected with peptidoglycan (experimental setting of strong immune responses) or subjected to either mild heat shock or starvation. Differential expression of selected immunity- and stress-related genes was quantified using real-time PCR, and expression and induction of 455 mature arthropod miRNAs were determined using proprietary microarrays. We found that Tribolium exhibits both gender- and stressor-specific adjustment of immune gene and miRNA expression. Strikingly, we discovered that the number of stressor-induced miRNAs in females is remarkably higher than in males. This observation could support the hypothesis called Bateman's principle in immunity that predicts gender-specific immune responses because females gain fitness through increased longevity, whereas males gain fitness by increasing mating rates. Our results suggest that Tribolium males and females display differential regulatory elements, both pre- and post-transcriptional, likely resulting from different investment strategies in life-history traits.

  8. Acute, Lethal and Synergistic Effects of Some Terpenes Against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Chaubey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Terpenes are found in abundance in all plant essential oils. In the present study two pure volatile compounds of terpene group, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene have been evaluated for their repellent, acute toxicity and developmental inhibitory activities alone and in binary combination against red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. In repellency assay, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene repelled T. castaneum adults significantly even at 0.025% concentrations. Fumigation of larvae and adults of T. castaneum with these two compounds caused lethality in them. Median lethal concentrations (LC50 of α-pinene and β-caryophyllene against adults were 0.998 and 1.624 μl/cm3 and against larvae were 1.379 and 1.949 μl/cm3 respectively. In binary combination, the LC50 values against adults and larvae were found 1.277 and 1.438 μl/cm3 respectively. Fumigation with two sublethal concentrations viz. 40 and 80% of 24-h LC50 of these two compunds alone and in binary combination significantly reduced oviposition potential of adults and inhibited pupation and adult emergence in larvae. All the responses were found concentration-dependent. From the present study, it can be concluded that α-pinene is more active than β-caryophyllene and these two volatile compounds in binary combination shows synergism and thus, can used as efficient insecticidal tool against T. castaneum as fumigant either alone or in combination.

  9. Gamma radiation effects on the reproductive capacity of Tribolium castaneum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, T.; Tsai, L.T.; Fu, Y.K.

    1984-10-01

    Unmated pairs of Tribolium castaneum (Hbst.) were treated with gamma radiation from 8.2 to 65.6 Gy at 8.2-Gy increment and allowed to mate and oviposit. The number of larva per fertile pair and the percentage of sterility at each dosage were determined. The regression line for logarithm of average number of larva progeny per pair and a probit sterility curve were calculated. The average number of progeny per pair was reduced 10% by a dosage of 28.99 Gy. The probit sterility line indicated that 107 Gy in the sterilizing dosage for this species. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Pharmacological and signalling properties of a D2-like dopamine receptor (Dop3) in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Heleen; Vleugels, Rut; Verdonck, Rik; Urlacher, Elodie; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Mercer, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and invertebrates. Despite their evolutionary distance, striking parallels exist between deuterostomian and protostomian dopaminergic systems. In both, signalling is achieved via a complement of functionally distinct dopamine receptors. In this study, we investigated the sequence, pharmacology and tissue distribution of a D2-like dopamine receptor from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (TricaDop3) and compared it with related G protein-coupled receptors in other invertebrate species. The TricaDop3 receptor-encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with members of the Dop3 receptor class. Real time qRT-PCR showed high expression in both the central brain and the optic lobes, consistent with the role of dopamine as neurotransmitter. Activation of TricaDop3 expressed in mammalian cells increased intracellular Ca(2+) signalling and decreased NKH-477 (a forskolin analogue)-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in a dose-dependent manner. We studied the pharmacological profile of the TricaDop3 receptor and demonstrated that the synthetic vertebrate dopamine receptor agonists, 2 - amino- 6,7 - dihydroxy - 1,2,3,4 - tetrahydronaphthalene hydrobromide (6,7-ADTN) and bromocriptine acted as agonists. Methysergide was the most potent of the antagonists tested and showed competitive inhibition in the presence of dopamine. This study offers important information on the Dop3 receptor from Tribolium castaneum that will facilitate functional analyses of dopamine receptors in insects and other invertebrates.

  11. UVB Radiation Delays Tribolium castaneum Metamorphosis by Influencing Ecdysteroid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Wen; Yu, Lin; He, Li; Ma, Wei-Hua; Zhu, Zhi-Hui; Zhu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is an important environmental factor. It is generally known that UVB exhibits high genotoxicity due to causing DNA damage, potentially leading to skin carcinogenesis and aging in mammals. However, little is known about the effects of UVB on the development and metamorphosis of insects, which are the most abundant terrestrial animals. In the present study, we performed dose-response analyses of the effects UVB irradiation on Tribolium castaneum metamorphosis, assessed the function of the T. castaneum prothoracicotropic hormone gene (Trcptth), and analyzed ecdysteroid pathway gene expression profile and ecdysterone titers post-UVB irradiation. The results showed that UVB not only caused death of T. castaneum larvae, but also delayed larval-pupal metamorphosis and reduced the size and emergence rate of pupae. In addition, we verified the function of Trcptth, which is responsible for regulating metamorphosis. It was also found that the expression profiles of Trcptth as well as ecdysteroidogenesis and response genes were influenced by UVB radiation. Therefore, a disturbance pulse of ecdysteroid may be involved in delaying development under exposure to irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that UVB can influence the metamorphosis of insects. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of UVB on signaling mechanisms in insect metamorphosis.

  12. UVB Radiation Delays Tribolium castaneum Metamorphosis by Influencing Ecdysteroid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Sang

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet B (UVB radiation is an important environmental factor. It is generally known that UVB exhibits high genotoxicity due to causing DNA damage, potentially leading to skin carcinogenesis and aging in mammals. However, little is known about the effects of UVB on the development and metamorphosis of insects, which are the most abundant terrestrial animals. In the present study, we performed dose-response analyses of the effects UVB irradiation on Tribolium castaneum metamorphosis, assessed the function of the T. castaneum prothoracicotropic hormone gene (Trcptth, and analyzed ecdysteroid pathway gene expression profile and ecdysterone titers post-UVB irradiation. The results showed that UVB not only caused death of T. castaneum larvae, but also delayed larval-pupal metamorphosis and reduced the size and emergence rate of pupae. In addition, we verified the function of Trcptth, which is responsible for regulating metamorphosis. It was also found that the expression profiles of Trcptth as well as ecdysteroidogenesis and response genes were influenced by UVB radiation. Therefore, a disturbance pulse of ecdysteroid may be involved in delaying development under exposure to irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that UVB can influence the metamorphosis of insects. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of UVB on signaling mechanisms in insect metamorphosis.

  13. Models to predict mortality of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed to elevated temperatures during structural heat treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Fuji; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Jayas, Digvir S; White, Noel D G

    2013-10-01

    Novel thermal death models were developed with certain assumptions, and these models were validated by using actual heat treatment data collected under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures over time and in commercial food-processing facilities where temperatures were dynamically changing over time. The predicted mortalities of both young larvae and adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), were within 92-99% of actual measured insect mortalities. There was good concordance between predicted and observed mortalities of young larvae and adults of T. castaneum exposed to constant temperatures in laboratory growth chambers and at variable temperatures during structural heat treatments of commercial food-processing facilities. The models developed in this study can be used to determine effectiveness of structural heat treatments in killing young larvae and adults of T. castaneum and for characterizing insect thermotolerance.

  14. Chemical Composition and Toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum of the Essential Oil of Murraya exotica Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, Murraya exotica was found to possess insecticidal activity against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The essential oil of aerial parts of M. exotica was obtained by hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. exotica essential oil were spathulenol (17.7%, a-pinene (13.3%, caryophyllene oxide (8.6%, and a-caryophyllene (7.3%. Essential oil of M. exotica possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 8.29 and 6.84 mg/L, respectively. The essential oils also show contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LD50 values of 11.41 and 20.94 mg/adult, respectively.

  15. Microbiota plays a role in oral immune priming in Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momir eFuto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals are inhabited by a diverse community of microorganisms. The relevance of such microbiota is increasingly being recognised in a broad spectrum of species, ranging from sponges to primates, revealing various beneficial roles that microbes can play. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum represents a well-established experimental model organism for studying questions in ecology and evolution, however, the relevance of its microbial community is still largely unknown. T. castaneum larvae orally exposed to inactivated bacterial components of the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis showed increased survival upon a subsequent challenge with spores of this bacterium. To investigate whether T. castaneum microbiota plays a role in this phenomenon, we established a protocol for raising microbe-free larvae and subsequently tested whether they differ in their ability to mount such a priming response. Here we demonstrate that larvae with significantly lowered microbial loads, show decreased survival upon secondary challenge with B. thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis spores, compared to animals which were allowed to regain their microbiota before priming. Although the exact mechanism of oral immune priming is unclear, we here suggest that microbiota plays a crucial role in oral immune priming in this species.

  16. JH modulates a cellular immunity of Tribolium castaneum in a Met-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepat, Rahul; Kim, Yonggyun

    2014-04-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) regulates diverse physiological processes in insects during entire developmental stages. Especially, the identification of Methoprene-tolerant (Met), a JH nuclear receptor, allows us to better understand molecular actions of JH to control gene expressions related with metamorphosis. However, several physiological processes including cellular immune response and some molecular actions of JH have been suspected to be mediated via its non-genomic actions. To prove its non-genomic action, JH nuclear signals were suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) of Met or its downstream gene, Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. These RNAi-treated larvae failed to undergo a normal development and suffered precocious metamorphosis. Hemocytes of T. castaneum exhibited their spreading behavior on extracellular matrix and nodule formation in response to bacterial challenge. When the larvae were treated with either RNAi of Met or Kr-h1, the hemocytes of the treated larvae were responsive to JH without any significant difference with those of control larvae. These results suggest that the response of hemocytes to JH is not mediated by its nuclear signal. On the other hand, the JH modulation of hemocyte behaviors of T. castaneum was significantly influenced by membrane and cytosolic protein activities, in which ethoxyzolamide (a specific inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase), calphostin C (a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C) or ouabain (a specific inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase) significantly suppressed the responsiveness of hemocytes to JH.

  17. Evaluación de la acción insecticida de la rapanona sobre Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavez Germán

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to detect and estimate the insect-killing effect of rapanone on the flour beetle  T.castaneum. Two kinds ofessays were made: by ingestion and by contacto It was proved that rapanone has insecticide activity on T. castaneum. Relatively high LD50 were determined, in comprarison
    with those of conventional commercial insecticides. An inverse proportionality, between doses of rapanone and the mean productivity, was also found; adose of 7000 mg rapanone per kg standard culture medium is enough to exterminate, almost completely, a population of T. castaneum in one generation.
    Se realizaron experimentos para detectar y cuantificar efectos insecticidas de la rapa nona sobre el escarabajo de la harina, Tribolium castaneum. Las pruebas fueron de dos clases: por ingestión y por contacto. Se comprobó que la rapanona tiene propiedades insecticidas sobre T. castaneum. Las toxicidades agudas, medidas en términos de DL50 fueron relativamente altas comparadas con insecticidas sintéticos comerciales. También se encontró una proporcionalidad inversa entre dosis de rapanona y productividad promedio; una dosis de 7000 mg de rapanona por kilo de alimento, es suficiente para exterminar casi del todo una poblaci6n de T.castaneum en una sola generación.

  18. Expression patterns of cysteine peptidase genes across the Tribolium castaneum life cycle provide clues to biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Lindsey; Elpidina, Elena N; Oppert, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a major agricultural pest responsible for considerable loss of stored grain and cereal products worldwide. T. castaneum larvae have a highly compartmentalized gut, with cysteine peptidases mostly in the acidic anterior part of the midgut that are critical to the early stages of food digestion. In previous studies, we described 26 putative cysteine peptidase genes in T. castaneum (types B, L, O, F, and K) located mostly on chromosomes 3, 7, 8, and 10. In the present study, we hypothesized that specific cysteine peptidase genes could be associated with digestive functions for food processing based on comparison of gene expression profiles in different developmental stages, feeding and non-feeding. RNA-Seq was used to determine the relative expression of cysteine peptidase genes among four major developmental stages (egg, larvae, pupae, and adult) of T. castaneum. We also compared cysteine peptidase genes in T. castaneum to those in other model insects and coleopteran pests. By combining transcriptome expression, phylogenetic comparisons, response to dietary inhibitors, and other existing data, we identified key cysteine peptidases that T. castaneum larvae and adults use for food digestion, and thus new potential targets for biologically-based control products.

  19. A Tribolium castaneum whole-embryo culture protocol for studying the molecular mechanisms and morphogenetic movements involved in insect development.

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    Macaya, Constanza C; Saavedra, Patricio E; Cepeda, Rodrigo E; Nuñez, Viviana A; Sarrazin, Andres F

    2016-01-01

    The development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is more representative of arthropods than the evolutionarily derived fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Thus, Tribolium is becoming an emerging organism model for studying the evolution of the mechanisms that control embryonic development in arthropods. In this regard, diverse genetic and molecular tools are currently available for Tribolium, as well as imaging and embryonic techniques. Recently, we developed a method for culturing embryos in order to study specific stages during Tribolium development. In this report, we present a detailed and "easy-to-follow" protocol for embryo handling and dissection, extending the use of whole-embryo culture to functional analysis by performing in vivo pharmacological manipulations. This experimental accessibility allowed us to study the relevance of microtubules in axis elongation, using nocodazole and taxol drugs to interfere with microtubule networks, followed by length measurement analysis. Additionally, we demonstrated that embryo handling had no effect on the development of Tribolium embryos, and we checked viability after dissection and bisection and during incubation using propidium iodide. The embryo culture protocol we describe here can be applied to study diverse developmental processes in Tribolium. We expect that this protocol can be adapted and applied to other arthropods.

  20. Response of body size and developmental time of Tribolium castaneum to constant versus fluctuating thermal conditions.

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    Małek, D; Drobniak, S; Gozdek, A; Pawlik, K; Kramarz, P

    2015-07-01

    Temperature has profound effects on biological functions at all levels of organization. In ectotherms, body size is usually negatively correlated with ambient temperature during development, a phenomenon known as The Temperature-Size Rule (TSR). However, a growing number of studies have indicated that temperature fluctuations have a large influence on life history traits and the implications of such fluctuations for the TSR are unknown. Our study investigated the effect of different constant and fluctuating temperatures on the body mass and development time of red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum Herbst, 1797); we also examined whether the sexes differed in their responses to thermal conditions. We exposed the progeny of half-sib families of a T. castaneum laboratory strain to one of four temperature regimes: constant 30°C, constant 25°C, fluctuating with a daily mean of 30°C, or fluctuating with a daily mean of 25°C. Sex-specific development time and body mass at emergence were determined. Beetles developed the fastest and had the greatest body mass upon emergence when they were exposed to a constant temperature of 30°C. This pattern was reversed when beetles experienced a constant temperature of 25°C: slowest development and lowest body mass upon emergence were observed. Fluctuations changed those effects significantly - impact of temperature on development time was smaller, while differences in body mass disappeared completely. Our results do not fit TSR predictions. Furthermore, regardless of the temperature regime, females acquired more mass, while there were no differences between sexes in development time to eclosion. This finding fails to support one of the explanations for smaller male size: that selection favors the early emergence of males. We found no evidence of genotype × environment interactions for selected set of traits.

  1. FUMIGANT EFFICACY OF 1,8-CINEOLE AND EUGENOL ON THE PUPAL STAGE OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE

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    Anita Liška

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fumigant efficacy of 1,8-cineole and eugenol compounds was tested on the pupal stage of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Effects of those compounds were determined as mortality as well as impact on development of treated male and female pupae. Also differences in sensitivity to the tested compounds between sexes of T. castaneum pupae were assessed. Compounds were tested at 3 doses rate 0.34, 0.86 and 1.71 ml L-1 vol. at 30±1°C and 70±10% r.h. during 48 h. Compounds toxicity was expressed in two action modes: lethal, and as an impediment to normal metamorphosis of pupae into adult stage, forming "adultoids" and deformed adults (at both sexes. Male pupae were generally more sensitive to both tested compounds. Overall, better efficiency was performed with 1,8-cineole, while eugenol had not accomplished promising effect on the tested pupae.

  2. Diagnostic molecular markers for phosphine resistance in U.S. populations of Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaorigetu; Schlipalius, David; Opit, George; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Phillips, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Stored product beetles that are resistant to the fumigant pesticide phosphine (hydrogen phosphide) gas have been reported for more than 40 years in many places worldwide. Traditionally, determination of phosphine resistance in stored product beetles is based on a discriminating dose bioassay that can take up to two weeks to evaluate. We developed a diagnostic cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence method, CAPS, to detect individuals with alleles for strong resistance to phosphine in populations of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, according to a single nucleotide mutation in the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) gene. We initially isolated and sequenced the DLD genes from susceptible and strongly resistant populations of both species. The corresponding amino acid sequences were then deduced. A single amino acid mutation in DLD in populations of T. castaneum and R. dominica with strong resistance was identified as P45S in T. castaneum and P49S in R. dominica, both collected from northern Oklahoma, USA. PCR products containing these mutations were digested by the restriction enzymes MboI and BstNI, which revealed presence or absence, respectively of the resistant (R) allele and allowed inference of genotypes with that allele. Seven populations of T. castaneum from Kansas were subjected to discriminating dose bioassays for the weak and strong resistance phenotypes. Application of CAPS to these seven populations confirmed the R allele was in high frequency in the strongly resistant populations, and was absent or at a lower frequency in populations with weak resistance, which suggests that these populations with a low frequency of the R allele have the potential for selection of the strong resistance phenotype. CAPS markers for strong phosphine resistance will help to detect and confirm resistant beetles and can facilitate resistance management actions against a given pest population.

  3. Diagnostic molecular markers for phosphine resistance in U.S. populations of Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica.

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    Zhaorigetu Chen

    Full Text Available Stored product beetles that are resistant to the fumigant pesticide phosphine (hydrogen phosphide gas have been reported for more than 40 years in many places worldwide. Traditionally, determination of phosphine resistance in stored product beetles is based on a discriminating dose bioassay that can take up to two weeks to evaluate. We developed a diagnostic cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence method, CAPS, to detect individuals with alleles for strong resistance to phosphine in populations of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, according to a single nucleotide mutation in the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD gene. We initially isolated and sequenced the DLD genes from susceptible and strongly resistant populations of both species. The corresponding amino acid sequences were then deduced. A single amino acid mutation in DLD in populations of T. castaneum and R. dominica with strong resistance was identified as P45S in T. castaneum and P49S in R. dominica, both collected from northern Oklahoma, USA. PCR products containing these mutations were digested by the restriction enzymes MboI and BstNI, which revealed presence or absence, respectively of the resistant (R allele and allowed inference of genotypes with that allele. Seven populations of T. castaneum from Kansas were subjected to discriminating dose bioassays for the weak and strong resistance phenotypes. Application of CAPS to these seven populations confirmed the R allele was in high frequency in the strongly resistant populations, and was absent or at a lower frequency in populations with weak resistance, which suggests that these populations with a low frequency of the R allele have the potential for selection of the strong resistance phenotype. CAPS markers for strong phosphine resistance will help to detect and confirm resistant beetles and can facilitate resistance management actions against a given pest population.

  4. Gene families of cuticular proteins analogous to peritrophins (CPAPs in Tribolium castaneum have diverse functions.

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    Sinu Jasrapuria

    Full Text Available The functional characterization of an entire class of 17 genes from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which encode two families of Cuticular Proteins Analogous to Peritrophins (CPAPs has been carried out. CPAP genes in T. castaneum are expressed exclusively in cuticle-forming tissues and have been classified into two families, CPAP1 and CPAP3, based on whether the proteins contain either one (CPAP1, or three copies (CPAP3 of the chitin-binding domain, ChtBD2, with its six characteristically spaced cysteine residues. Individual members of the TcCPAP1 and TcCPAP3 gene families have distinct developmental patterns of expression. Many of these proteins serve essential and non-redundant functions in maintaining the structural integrity of the cuticle in different parts of the insect anatomy. Three genes of the TcCPAP1 family and five genes of the TcCPAP3 family are essential for insect development, molting, cuticle integrity, proper locomotion or fecundity. RNA interference (RNAi targeting TcCPAP1-C, TcCPAP1-H, TcCPAP1-J or TcCPAP3-C transcripts resulted in death at the pharate adult stage of development. RNAi for TcCPAP3-A1, TcCPAP3-B, TcCPAP3-D1 or TcCPAP3-D2 genes resulted in different developmental defects, including adult/embryonic mortality, abnormal elytra or hindwings, or an abnormal 'stiff-jointed' gait. These results provide experimental support for specialization in the functions of CPAP proteins in T. castaneum and a biological rationale for the conservation of CPAP orthologs in other orders of insects. This is the first comprehensive functional analysis of an entire class of cuticular proteins with one or more ChtBD2 domains in any insect species.

  5. Structure of the Tribolium castaneum Telomerase Catalytic Subunit TERT

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    Gillis,A.; Schuller, A.; Skordalakes, E.

    2008-01-01

    A common hallmark of human cancers is the overexpression of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein complex that is responsible for maintaining the length and integrity of chromosome ends. Telomere length deregulation and telomerase activation is an early, and perhaps necessary, step in cancer cell evolution. Here we present the high-resolution structure of the Tribolium castaneum catalytic subunit of telomerase, TERT. The protein consists of three highly conserved domains, organized into a ring-like structure that shares common features with retroviral reverse transcriptases, viral RNA polymerases and B-family DNA polymerases. Domain organization places motifs implicated in substrate binding and catalysis in the interior of the ring, which can accommodate seven to eight bases of double-stranded nucleic acid. Modelling of an RNA-DNA heteroduplex in the interior of this ring demonstrates a perfect fit between the protein and the nucleic acid substrate, and positions the 3'-end of the DNA primer at the active site of the enzyme, providing evidence for the formation of an active telomerase elongation complex.

  6. Effect of salt stressed wheat varieties on life history of tribolium castaneum (hebrst) (tenebrionidae: coleoptera)

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    In the present investigation an attempt was made to determine the antibiosis of three salt stressed wheat varieties (Shafaq, Inqlab-91 and Sehar-2006) at three salinity levels (8, 12 and 16 dS m/sup -1/) to red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). The grains of three varieties were ground and sieved through 80 mesh. Life history parameters, i.e., larval and pupal durations and survivals, adult emergence, fecundity and egg hatching was observed by introducing 10 pairs of pupae, from previously reared beetles, on three varieties at their respective salt levels. One control was included with grains of the plants, which were irrigated with distilled water only. Results have shown that varieties had significant difference among the treatments for larval duration, which was significantly extended in different varieties at various salt levels. Mean longest larval duration (31.67 days) was recorded in Shafaq as respectively 8 (33.00 days), 12 (33.33 days) and 16 (30.33 days) dS m/sup -1/ salt level as compared to its control (31.00 days). Fecundity and egg hatching of T. castaneum differed among the wheat varieties irrespective of salt levels. In another experiment, response of SARC-1, SARC-2, SARC-3, SARC-4, SARC-5, SARC-6, SARC-7, SARC-8, LU-26S, to life history parameters of T. castaneum showed that significant difference in the number of eggs, hatching percentage, larval and pupal survival was found. The number of eggs was significantly lower in variety SARC 1 (126.00) followed by SARC 2 (128.75), SARC 3 (132.25) while was significantly higher in SARC 5 (151.75). Egg hatching percentage was lower in SARC 6 (39.38%) and significantly higher in SARC 5 (58.42%). Larval survival was significantly less in SARC 7 (36.99%) and more in SAR (52.25%). Pupal survival was significantly lower in SARC 1 (20.54%) while higher in SARC 8 (42.11%). Based on results it may be stated that salt stressed wheat varieties have significant impact of the biology of T. castaneum. (author)

  7. The Tribolium castaneum cell line TcA: a new tool kit for cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Kristopher; Jiang, Hongbo; Fu, Jinping; Phillips, Thomas W; Beeman, Richard W; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-10-30

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an agriculturally important insect pest that has been widely used as a model organism. Recently, an adherent cell line (BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 or TcA) was developed from late pupae of the red flour beetle. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of TcA cells demonstrated expression of a wide variety of genes associated with specialized functions in chitin metabolism, immune responses and cellular and systemic RNAi pathways. Accordingly, we evaluated the sensitivity of TcA cells to dsRNA to initiate an RNAi response. TcA cells were highly sensitive to minute amounts of dsRNA, with a minimum effective dose of 100 pg/mL resulting in significant suppression of gene expression. We have also developed a plasmid containing two TcA-specific promoters, the promoter from the 40S ribosomal protein subunit (TC006550) and a bi-directional heat shock promoter (TcHS70) from the intergenic space between heat shock proteins 68a and b. These promoters have been employed to provide high levels of either constitutive (TC006550) or inducible (TcHS70) gene expression of the reporter proteins. Our results show that the TcA cell line, with its sensitivity to RNAi and functional TcA-specific promoters, is an invaluable resource for studying basic molecular and physiological questions.

  8. Hormonal enhancement of insecticide efficacy in Tribolium castaneum: oxidative stress and metabolic aspects.

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    Plavšin, Ivana; Stašková, Tereza; Šerý, Michal; Smýkal, Vlastimil; Hackenberger, Branimir K; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-04-01

    Insect anti-stress responses, including those induced by insecticides, are controlled by adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). We examined the physiological consequences of Pyrap-AKH application on Tribolium castaneum adults (AKH-normal and AKH-deficient prepared by the RNAi technique) treated by two insecticides, pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Co-application of pirimiphos-methyl and/or deltamethrin with AKH significantly increased beetle mortality compared with application of the insecticides alone. This co-treatment was accompanied by substantial stimulation of general metabolism, as monitored by carbon dioxide production. Further, the insecticide treatment alone affected some basic markers of oxidative stress: it lowered total antioxidative capacity as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase in the beetle body; in addition, it enhanced the activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase. However, these discrepancies in oxidative stress markers were eliminated/reduced by co-application with Pyrap-AKH. We suggest that the elevation of metabolism, which is probably accompanied with faster turnover of toxins, might be responsible for the higher mortality that results after AKH and insecticide co-application. Changes in oxidative stress markers are probably not included in the mechanisms responsible for increased mortality.

  9. Effects of methoprene and synergized pyrethrin aerosol applications on Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of horizontal transfer of the insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene on confined populations of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) either with or without hidden refugia. Multiple applications were made with the IGR alone or combined with synergized p...

  10. Age and sex related responsiveness of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in novel behavioral bioassays

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    The hardiness and mobile nature of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) make them easy to work with but are the same factors that make their responses to behavior modifying chemical stimuli difficult to evaluate. To overcome these difficulties we developed two bioassays: a two choice test with airflow and a...

  11. Innexin7a forms junctions that stabilize the basal membrane during cellularization of the blastoderm in Tribolium castaneum.

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    van der Zee, Maurijn; Benton, Matthew A; Vazquez-Faci, Tania; Lamers, Gerda E M; Jacobs, Chris G C; Rabouille, Catherine

    2015-06-15

    In insects, the fertilized egg undergoes a series of rapid nuclear divisions before the syncytial blastoderm starts to cellularize. Cellularization has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, but its thick columnar blastoderm is unusual among insects. We therefore set out to describe cellularization in the beetle Tribolium castaneum, the embryos of which exhibit a thin blastoderm of cuboidal cells, like most insects. Using immunohistochemistry, live imaging and transmission electron microscopy, we describe several striking differences to cellularization in Drosophila, including the formation of junctions between the forming basal membrane and the yolk plasmalemma. To identify the nature of this novel junction, we used the parental RNAi technique for a small-scale screen of junction proteins. We find that maternal knockdown of Tribolium innexin7a (Tc-inx7a), an ortholog of the Drosophila gap junction gene Innexin 7, leads to failure of cellularization. In Inx7a-depleted eggs, the invaginated plasma membrane retracts when basal cell closure normally begins. Furthermore, transiently expressed tagged Inx7a localizes to the nascent basal membrane of the forming cells in wild-type eggs. We propose that Inx7a forms the newly identified junctions that stabilize the forming basal membrane and enable basal cell closure. We put forward Tribolium as a model for studying a more ancestral mode of cellularization in insects.

  12. The ABCs of eye color in Tribolium castaneum: orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Nathaniel; Haas, Sue; Beeman, Richard W; Lorenzen, Marcé D

    2015-03-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, each of the three paralogous ABC transporters, White, Scarlet and Brown, is required for normal pigmentation of the compound eye. We have cloned the three orthologous genes from the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Conceptual translations of Tribolium white (Tcw), scarlet (Tcst), and brown (Tcbw) are 51, 48, and 32% identical to their respective Drosophila counterparts. We have identified loss-of-eye-pigment strains that bear mutations in Tcw and Tcst: the Tcw gene in the ivory (i) strain carries a single-base transversion, which leads to an E → D amino-acid substitution in the highly conserved Walker B motif, while the Tcst gene in the pearl (p) strain has a deletion resulting in incorporation of a premature stop codon. In light of these findings, the mutant strains i and p are herein renamed white(ivory) (w(i)) and scarlet(pearl) (st(p)), respectively. In addition, RNA inhibition of Tcw and Tcst recapitulates the mutant phenotypes, confirming the roles of these genes in normal eye pigmentation, while RNA interference of Tcbw provides further evidence that it has no role in eye pigmentation in Tribolium. We also consider the evolutionary implications of our findings.

  13. Functional analysis of C1 family cysteine peptidases in the larval gut of Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied protein digestion the tenebrionids Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum, pests of stored grains and grain products, to identify potential targets for biopesticide development. Tenebrionid larvae have highly compartmentalized guts, with primarily cysteine peptidases in the acidic anter...

  14. Live imaging of Tribolium castaneum embryonic development using light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobl, Frederic; Schmitz, Alexander; Stelzer, Ernst H K

    2015-10-01

    Tribolium castaneum has become an important insect model organism for evolutionary developmental biology, genetics and biotechnology. However, few protocols for live fluorescence imaging of Tribolium have been reported, and little image data is available. Here we provide a protocol for recording the development of Tribolium embryos with light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy. The protocol can be completed in 4-7 d and provides procedural details for: embryo collection, microscope configuration, embryo preparation and mounting, noninvasive live imaging for up to 120 h along multiple directions, retrieval of the live embryo once imaging is completed, and image data processing, for which exemplary data is provided. Stringent quality control criteria for developmental biology studies are also discussed. Light-sheet-based fluorescence microscopy complements existing toolkits used to study Tribolium development, can be adapted to other insect species, and requires no advanced imaging or sample preparation skills.

  15. Differences in Attack Avoidance and Mating Success between Strains Artificially Selected for Dispersal Distance in Tribolium castaneum.

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    Kentarou Matsumura

    Full Text Available Individuals of both dispersal and non-dispersal types (disperser and non-disperser are found in a population, suggesting that each type has both costs and benefits for fitness. However, few studies have examined the trade-off between the costs and benefits for the types. Here, we artificially selected for walking distance, i.e., an indicator of dispersal ability, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and established strains with longer (L-strains or shorter (S-strains walking distances. We then compared the frequency of predation by the assassin bug Amphibolus venator and the mating frequency of the selected strains. L-strain beetles suffered higher predation risk, than did S-strain beetles. L-strain males had significantly increased mating success compared to S-strain males, but females did not show a significant difference between the strains. The current results showed the existence of a trade-off between predation avoidance and mating success associated with dispersal types at a genetic level only in males. This finding can help to explain the maintenance of variation in dispersal ability within a population.

  16. Expression of an endoglucanase from Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Derek; Oppert, Cris; Reynolds, Todd B; Miracle, Bethany; Oppert, Brenda; Klingeman, William E; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2014-10-01

    Insects are a largely unexploited resource in prospecting for novel cellulolytic enzymes to improve the production of ethanol fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. The cost of lignocellulosic ethanol production is expected to decrease by the combination of cellulose degradation (saccharification) and fermentation of the resulting glucose to ethanol in a single process, catalyzed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformed to express efficient cellulases. While S. cerevisiae is an established heterologous expression system, there are no available data on the functional expression of insect cellulolytic enzymes for this species. To address this knowledge gap, S. cerevisiae was transformed to express the full-length cDNA encoding an endoglucanase from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (TcEG1), and evaluated the activity of the transgenic product (rTcEG1). Expression of the TcEG1 cDNA in S. cerevisiae was under control of the strong glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Cultured transformed yeast secreted rTcEG1 protein as a functional β-1,4-endoglucanase, which allowed transformants to survive on selective media containing cellulose as the only available carbon source. Evaluation of substrate specificity for secreted rTcEG1 demonstrated endoglucanase activity, although some activity was also detected against complex cellulose substrates. Potentially relevant to uses in biofuel production rTcEG1 activity increased with pH conditions, with the highest activity detected at pH 12. Our results demonstrate the potential for functional production of an insect cellulase in S. cerevisiae and confirm the stability of rTcEG1 activity in strong alkaline environments.

  17. Signalling properties and pharmacology of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, R; Lenaerts, C; Vanden Broeck, J; Verlinden, H

    2014-04-01

    In the last decade, genome sequence data and gene structure information on invertebrate receptors has been greatly expanded by large sequencing projects and cloning studies. This information is of great value for the identification of receptors; however, functional and pharmacological data are necessary for an accurate receptor classification and for practical applications. In insects, an important group of neurotransmitter and neurohormone receptors, for which ample sequence information is available but pharmacological information is missing, are the biogenic amine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In the present study, we investigated the sequence information, pharmacology and signalling properties of a 5-HT7 -type serotonin receptor from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Trica5-HT7 ). The receptor encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with cognate 5-HT7 receptors and phylogenetic analysis also clusters the receptor within this 5-HT receptor group. Real-time reverse transcription PCR demonstrated high expression levels in the brain, indicating the possible importance of this receptor in neural processes. Trica5-HT7 was dose-dependently activated by 5-HT, which induced elevated intracellular cyclic AMP levels but had no effect on calcium signalling. The synthetic agonists, α-methyl 5-HT, 5-methoxytryptamine, 5-carboxamidotryptamine and 8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide, showed a response, although with a much lower potency and efficacy than 5-HT. Ketanserin and methiothepin were the most potent antagonists. Both showed characteristics of competitive inhibition on Trica5-HT7 . The signalling pathway and pharmacological profile offer important information that will facilitate functional and comparative studies of 5-HT receptors in insects and other invertebrates. The pharmacology of invertebrate 5-HT receptors differs considerably from that of vertebrates. The present study may therefore contribute to establishing a more

  18. Efeitos da radiação gama do Cobalto-60 em ovos de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst., 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Gamma radiation effects on eggs of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst., 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    L. S. Fontes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar as doses esterilizantes e letal para ovos de T. castaneum (Herbst., 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae, através de doses crescentes de radiação gama. Utilizou-se uma fonte de Cobalto-60, tipo Gammabeam-650, com taxa de dose de 1,28 kGy/hora. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições controladas com temperatura de 25 ± 2°C e umidade relativa de 70 ± 5%. As doses letal e esterilizante para os ovos foram respectivamente 30 e 20 Gy.The objective of this research was to verify the effects of gamma radiation of a Cobalt-60 source on eggs of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst., 1797. The used dose rate was 1.28 kGy per hour, and the irradiated insects were kept under controlled environment condition: 25 ± 2°C and 70 ± 5% relative humidity. For eggs the sterilizing and lethal dose were respectively, 20 and 30 Gy.

  19. Penetration through the peritrophic matrix is a key to lectin toxicity against Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walski, Tomasz; Van Damme, Els J M; Smagghe, Guy

    2014-11-01

    In the last decades lectins have received a lot of attention as potential tools in pest control. Despite substantial progress in the field not all the factors determining insecticidal potency and selectivity of these proteins have been described. Recently, three lectins, RSA (Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin), SNA-I and SNA-II (Sambucus nigra agglutinin I and II) have been shown to be toxic to aphids and caterpillars. In this project we investigated if these lectins are also toxic against larvae and a cell line of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, a model organism and important pest of stored products. Furthermore, we analyzed the stability of the lectins in the larval gut and used confocal microscopy to compare their efficiency in passing through the peritrophic matrix (PM). We observed that all three lectins were toxic against the T. castaneum cell line and their effectiveness in vitro was in decreasing order SNA-II>SNA-I>RSA with the respective EC50 being 0.1, 0.5 and 3.6 μg/ml. Larvae feeding for 16 day on diets containing 2% RSA, 2% SNA-II and 2% SNA-I weighed 0.14 ± 0.07 mg, 0.67 ± 0.44 mg and 1.89 ± 0.38 mg, corresponding to approximately 7%, 36% and 80% of control larvae, respectively. As a consequence, RSA increased the time to adult emergence by over 3-fold, SNA-II by 1.9-fold and SNA-I by 1.2-fold. RSA and SNA-II were stable in the larval gut, while SNA-I was digested and excreted with the feces. Finally, confocal microscopy confirmed that RSA passed through the PM more efficiently than SNA-II. In conclusion, our data suggest that the lectin ability to pass through the PM, governed by molecule dimensions, charge and size of PM pores, is one of the features that determine the toxicity of these insecticidal proteins.

  20. Effects of microwave radiation and conductive heating on Tribolium castaneum microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H H; Zhou, J C; Yan, D; Zhao, S M; Xiong, S B

    2011-01-01

    Microwave radiation and conductive heating were used to completely kill adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in wheat flour to protect the flour during storage without significantly effecting its quality. The microstructure of T. castaneum was analyzed to reveal the mechanisms leading to death under microwave and heat treatments. Microwave radiation and conductive heating had different effects on the microstructure of the cuticle of adult T. castaneum and on the ultrastructure of the cells of the epidermis, fat body, and midgut. Both treatments caused a large cavity to appear in the nucleus and the disappearance of mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus. After microwave treatment, there was little change in the surface microstructure but the epidermis was of uneven thickness and the four outer layers of the cuticle were thinner. Nuclear size was essentially unchanged, but fat body cells were fewer and coalesced together. In contrast, conductive heating led to a disordered arrangement of cells on the surface of T. castaneum and indistinct boundaries between layers of the cuticle. The nuclei were enlarged and the fat body cells noticeably fewer and indistinct with a scattered distribution. Thus, microwave treatment produced less severe effects on the surface microstructure and cellular ultrastructure of T. castaneum than did conductive heating. It is concluded that these cellular and surface changes were responsible for the death of T. castaneum.

  1. Methuselah-like genes affect development, stress resistance, lifespan and reproduction in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Zhang, Yi; Yun, Xiaopei; Wang, Yanyun; Sang, Ming; Liu, Xing; Hu, Xingxing; Li, Bin

    2014-10-01

    Methuselah (Mth) is associated with lifespan, stress resistance and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster, but Mth is not present in nondrosophiline insects. A number of methuselah-likes (mthls) have been identified in nondrosophiline insects, but it is unknown whether the functions of mth are shared by mthls or are divergent from them. Five mthls have been identified in Tribolium castaneum. Although they have different developmental expression patterns, they all enhance resistance to starvation. Only mthl1 and mthl2 enhance resistance to high temperature, whereas mthl4 and mthl5 negatively regulate oxidative stress in T. castaneum. Unlike in the fly with mth mutation, knockdown of mthls, except mthl3, shortens the lifespan of T. castaneum. Moreover, mthl1 and mthl2 are critical for Tribolium development. mthl1 plays important roles in larval and pupal development and adult eclosion, while mthl2 is required for eclosion. Moreover, mthl1 and mthl2 silencing reduces the fertility of T. castaneum, and mthl1 and mthl4 are also essential for embryo development. In conclusion, mthls have a significant effect on insect development, lifespan, stress resistance and reproduction. These results provide experimental evidence for functional divergence among mthls/mth and clues for the signal transduction of Mthls.

  2. Tribolium castaneum larval gut transcriptome and proteome: A resource for the study of the coleopteran gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kaley; Lorenzen, Marcé D; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Tomich, John M; Oppert, Cris; Elpidina, Elena N; Vinokurov, Konstantin; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Brenda

    2009-08-01

    Tribolium castaneum is an important agricultural pest and an advanced genetic model for coleopteran insects. We have taken advantage of the recently acquired T. castaneum genome to identify T. castaneum genes and proteins in one of the more critical environmental interfaces of the insect, the larval alimentary tract. Genetic transcripts isolated from the T. castaneum larval gut were labeled and hybridized to a custom array containing oligonucleotides from predicted genes in the T. castaneum genome. Through a ranking procedure based on relative labeling intensity, we found that approximately 17.6% of the genes represented in the array were predicted to be highly expressed in gut tissue. Several genes were selected to compare relative expression levels in larval gut, head, or carcass tissues using quantitative real-time PCR, and expression levels were, with few exceptions, consistent with the gut rankings. In parallel with the microarrays, proteins extracted from the T. castaneum larval gut were subjected to proteomic analysis. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis combined with MALDI-TOF resulted in the identification of 37 of 88 selected protein samples. As an alternative strategy, one-dimensional electrophoretic separation of T. castaneum larval gut proteins followed by two-dimensional nano-HPLC and ESI-MS/MS resulted in the identification of 98 proteins. A comparison of the proteomic studies indicated that 16 proteins were commonly identified in both, whereas 80 proteins from the proteomic analyses corresponded to genes with gut rankings indicative of high expression in the microarray analysis. These data serve as a resource of T. castaneum transcripts and proteins in the larval gut and provide the basis for comparative transcriptomic and proteomic studies related to the gut of coleopteran insects.

  3. Response of Tribolium castaneum to elevated copper concentrations is influenced by history of metal exposure, sex-specific defences, and infection by the parasite Steinernema feltiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarz, Paulina E; Mordarska, Anna; Mroczka, Magdalena

    2014-07-01

    We studied how copper toxicity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum changed as a result of infection by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. Measured traits were: respiration, growth and survival, as well as the concentrations of copper within beetle tissues and in its diet. By comparing F1 and F5 generation we were able to answer how long-term metal exposure changed the responses to both copper and the parasite. The beetles did accumulate copper; however, the results indicated that copper concentrations in beetle tissues were affected by nematode infection, the sex of the experimental animals, and the number of generations of exposure. Five generations of exposure to copper resulted in the highest dry body mass of infected beetles of both sexes; additionally, this group also had the lowest copper concentrations in their tissues. The only factor that had a significant effect on respiration was infection by nematodes: infected beetles of both sexes in both generational groups had significantly decreased respiration rates. Survival was lowest in nematode-infected animals of both sexes from both generations, regardless of exposure to copper. Our results confirm that an organism's response to metal pollution is dependent on its health status and sex. We also found that the history of exposure to metal was equally important-we found enhanced resistance to copper intoxication after only five generations of exposure.

  4. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958

  5. Evaluation of Standard Loose Plastic Packaging for the Management of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebriondiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq

    2016-01-01

    Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958

  6. Effect of five diatomaceous earth formulations against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae),Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MASUMEH ZIAEE; ADEL KHASHAVEH

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the effect of food source on the survival of Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. and Rhyzopertha dominica F., after exposure to five diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations: Protect-It(R),Insecto(R), Perma-GuardTM, Dryacide(R) and SilicoSec(R). Adults of these species were exposed to DEs at the rate of 0.5 mg/cm2 for 1 day on filter paper inside plastic Petri dishes. After exposure,the initial mortality was counted and live individuals of the three species were held for a week in glass vials containing 50 mg wheat flour, rice and whole wheat, respectively. In the second experiment, after 1 day exposure to DEs, beetles were transferred to Petri dishes without food and held for a week to determine if the presence of food source would decrease the mortality of beetles. Experiments were carried out at 27℃ and 55% RH in the dark. The initial morality in both of the experiments reached 100% for the three species exposed to Protect-It(R) and in the case orR. dominica and O. surinamensis exposed to Dryacide(R). In contrast, low level of mortality (< 10%) was observed for T. castaneum exposed to Perma-GuardTM and Insecto(R). The mortality after the post-treatment period on food was decreased for the three species exposed to Perma-GuardTM and in the case of T. castaneum and R. dominica exposed to Insecto(R) and SilicoSec(R). Adults of O. surinamensis were the most susceptible followed by R. dominica and 100% adult mortality was obtained, whereas T. castaneum were the least susceptible beetles to DEs. Protect-It(R) and Dryacide(R) were the most efficient DE formulations and can be used effectively in a stored grain integrated pest management program.

  7. Effect of gamma radiation on the eggs of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, V.K.; Sethi, G.R. (Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi. Nuclear Research Lab.)

    1984-09-01

    Studies on the susceptibility of eggs of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) to gamma radiation revealed that the radiosensitivity of eggs decreased with the increasing age of the embryo and the development of the embryo was arrested if the eggs were irradiated in the early stage of development (24-48 hr old). However, when 72-96 hr old eggs were irradiated, comparatively higher dose was required to render them nonviable. Mortality of the eggs of the same age group was directly related to the radiation dose. Survival of the insect to the adult stage was prevented by exposure to a dose of 8 Krad or more, irrespective of the age of the eggs.

  8. IRRADIATION EFFECT OF ELECTRONIC BEAM ON RED FLOUR BEETLE,TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)%电子束对赤拟谷盗辐照效应的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑荣; 王殿轩; 温贤芳; 原锴

    2004-01-01

    采用了ИЛУ-6M2型电子加速器产生的电子束对赤拟谷盗Tnbolium castaneum(Herbst)成虫、卵、幼虫和蛹进行了辐照效应试验.结果表明,赤拟谷盗不同发育阶段对电子束辐照的敏感度不同,卵最为敏感,高于210 Gv的辐照的卵不能孵化.305 Gy以上的剂量可以完全阻止赤拟谷盗的幼虫发育为成虫;高于305 Gy辐照的蛹虽然能羽化为成虫,但羽化后的成虫不能正常存活;518 Gy以上的剂量辐照的成虫在4周后100%死亡.518 Gy辐照剂量可以作为辐照防治赤拟谷盗的有效剂量.

  9. 冰核真菌削弱赤拟谷盗抗寒力的初步研究%Weakening the cold-hardiness of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum with icenucleating active fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉香; 何维勋

    2002-01-01

    赤拟谷盗Tribolium cashane,um是不耐结冰的害虫,在冬季它通过降低过冷却点以避免结冰造成的致命伤害.冰核活性细菌能显著提高昆虫的过冷却点,使之在较高的零下温度发生结冰.试验证明冰核活性真菌也能显著提高赤拟谷盗的过冷却点.对照组平均过冷却点为-14.9℃.用10g/L的冰核真菌制剂喷洒虫体,风干后测定,平均过冷却点提高到-4.8℃.用0.1g/L处理后至少在7天内过冷却点保持较高.这些结果表明冰核真菌可能成为一种在冬季使用的、防治不耐结冰害虫的促冻杀虫剂.

  10. Effect of cold water extracts of Acacia modesta Wall. and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. on Tribolium castaneum and Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeefullah, Sayed; Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce an alternative way for insects control through biodegradable plants materials. The different cold water extracts dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra were tested against Tribolium castaneum. The extracts dilutions of both plants caused mortality of the Tribolium castaneum. ANOVA revealed that dilutions and plants were highly significant. The interaction between plants and dilutions was also significant at P < 0.05. Phytotoxic activity showed that dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Lemna minor. ANOVA showed that dilutions of both plants extracts were significant at P < 0.05.

  11. Loss of function of the yellow-e gene causes dehydration-induced mortality of adult Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Beeman, Richard W; Kanost, Michael R; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2015-03-15

    Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle. Injection of double-stranded RNA for TcY-e (dsTcY-e) into late instar larvae had no effect on larval-pupal molting or pupal development. The pupal cuticle, including that lining the setae, gin traps and urogomphi, underwent normal tanning. Adult cuticle tanning including that of the head, mandibles and legs viewed through the translucent pupal cuticle was initiated on schedule (pupal days 4-5), indicating that TcY-e is not required for pupal or pharate adult cuticle pigmentation in T. castaneum. The subsequent pupal-adult molt, however, was adversely affected. Although pupal cuticle apolysis and slippage were evident, some of the adults (~25%) were unable to shed their exuvium and died entrapped in their pupal cuticle. In addition, the resulting adults rapidly became highly desiccated. Interestingly, both the failure of the pupal-adult molt and desiccation-induced mortality were prevented by maintaining the dsTcY-e-treated insects at 100% relative humidity (rh). However, when the high humidity-rescued adults were removed from 100% rh and transferred to 50% rh, they rapidly dehydrated and died, whereas untreated beetles thrived throughout development at 50% rh. We also observed that the body color of the high humidity-rescued dsTcY-e-adults was slightly darker than that of

  12. Effects of Flour and Milling Debris on Efficacy of Beta-Cyfluthrin for Control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Frank H; Starkus, Laura A; Mckay, Tanja

    2015-04-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine if accumulation of a flour food source or milling debris affected residual efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin for control of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. In the laboratory study, the high label rate of 20 mg active ingredient (AI)/m2 gave effective control for 8 wks, regardless of whether or not the concrete was sealed prior to application or the presence of flour contamination. However, with the low label rate of 10 mg AI/m2, the flour apparently absorbed the insecticide residues from the treated surface, and sealing the concrete did not have a beneficial effect on efficacy. Two field studies with the low label rate were conducted during autumn of 2012 and 2013 and summer of 2013, using only unsealed concrete. Accumulated milling debris caused a reduction in efficacy in the autumn studies, as shown by increased time to 100% knockdown, decreased mortality, and decreased residual efficacy. There was no such corresponding decrease in residual efficacy in the summer study. Overall, results of both studies show that accumulated food and milling debris can absorb residue of beta-cyfluthrin from a treated surface and have a negative impact on residual efficacy, particularly with the low label rate of 10 mg AI/m2.

  13. MicroRNA evolution, expression, and function during short germband development in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninova, Maria; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are well-established players in the development of multicellular animals. Most of our understanding of microRNA function in arthropod development comes from studies in Drosophila. Despite their advantages as model systems, the long germband embryogenesis of fruit flies is an evolutionary derived state restricted to several holometabolous insect lineages. MicroRNA evolution and expression across development in animals exhibiting the ancestral and more widespread short germband mode of embryogenesis has not been characterized. We sequenced small RNA libraries of oocytes and successive intervals covering the embryonic development of the short germband model organism, Tribolium castaneum. We analyzed the evolution and temporal expression of the microRNA complement and sequenced libraries of total RNA to investigate the relationships with microRNA target expression. We show microRNA maternal loading and sequence-specific 3' end nontemplate oligoadenylation of maternally deposited microRNAs that is conserved between Tribolium and Drosophila. We further uncover large clusters encoding multiple paralogs from several Tribolium-specific microRNA families expressed during a narrow interval of time immediately after the activation of zygotic transcription. These novel microRNAs, together with several early expressed conserved microRNAs, target a significant number of maternally deposited transcripts. Comparison with Drosophila shows that microRNA-mediated maternal transcript targeting is a conserved process in insects, but the number and sequences of microRNAs involved have diverged. The expression of fast-evolving and species-specific microRNAs in the early blastoderm of T. castaneum is consistent with previous findings in Drosophila and shows that the unique permissiveness for microRNA innovation at this stage is a conserved phenomenon.

  14. Contact toxicity of deltamethrin against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate deltamethrin-incorporated ZeroFly® Storage Bags for efficacy against stored-product insect pests. We evaluated response to deltamethrin concentrations for adults of three stored-product insects, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), and Rhyzoperth...

  15. Repellent Constituents of essential oil from Citrus wilsonii stem barks against Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wua, Yan; Chenb, Hai-Ping; Wei, Jian-Yu; Yang, Kai; Tian, Zhao-Fu; Li, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Ping-Juan; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Du, Shu-Shan; Cai, Qian

    2014-10-01

    The essential oil obtained from Citrus wilsonii Tanaka stem barks with hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be nerol acetate (44.5%), nerol (13.6%), citronellyl propionate (13.5%) and α-terpineol (3.6%). Among them, the four active constituents, predicted with a bioactivity-test, were isolated and identified as nerolacetate, nerol, citronellyl propionate and α-terpineol. It was found that the essential oil of C. wilsonii stem barks possessed strong repellency (86% and 92%, respectively, at 78.6 nL/cm2, after 2 and 4 h treatment) against Tribolium castaneum adults. Repellency of the four active compounds was also determined. Nerolacetate, nerol, citronellyl propionate and α-terpineol were strongly repellent (100%, 100%, 90% and 96%, respectively, at 15.7 nL/cm2, after 2h treatment) against T. castaneum. Nerol exhibited the same level of repellency as the positive control, DEET. The results indicate that the essential oil of C. wilsonii stem barks and its active compounds have the potential to be developed as natural repellents for control of T. castaneum.

  16. Repellent activity of essential oils and some of their individual constituents against Tribolium castaneum herbst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Stashenko, Elena E

    2011-03-01

    A tool for integrated pest management is the use of essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts. In this study, EOs from Tagetes lucida , Lepechinia betonicifolia , Lippia alba , Cananga odorata , and Rosmarinus officinalis , species grown in Colombia, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These oils as well as several of their constituents were tested for repellent activity against Tribolium castaneum , using the area preference method. The main components (>10%) found in EOs were methylchavicol, limonene/α-pinene, carvone/limonene, benzyl acetate/linalool/benzyl benzoate, and α-pinene, for T. lucida, L. betonicifolia, L. alba, C. odorata, and R. officinalis, respectively. All EOs were repellent, followed a dose-response relationship, and had bioactivity similar to or better than that of commercial compound IR3535. EOs from C. odorata and L. alba were the most active. Compounds from EOs, such benzyl benzoate, β-myrcene, and carvone, showed good repellent properties. In short, EOs from plants cultivated in Colombia are sources of repellents against T. castaneum. PMID:21291237

  17. EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL FORMULATIONS ON THE ADULT INSECT TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST (COL., TENEBRIONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Popovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Stored product pests such as Tribolium castaneum ( Herbst, 1979 are a major problem. Adult insects were obtained from laboratory cultures maintained in the dark in incubators at 25 1C and 70 80percent r.h., reared on wheat flour and fed with flour disks containing a known concentration of essential oil of 9 plants. The chemical components of essential oil of 3 plants, collected on the area of Montenegro, were also identified using GC-MS analysis. The results of insecticidal effect of essential oils were discussed. Also, mortality rate of adult insects was tested. In this research, the essential oils of C. glandulosa which were rich in monoterpene alcohols carvacrol and contained ketonic component showed strong insecticidal and fumigant activity against adults of T. castaneum. Less toxic effect showed essential oils of Satureja montana which had a lower carvacrol and ketonic content. On the other hand, essential oils of Teucrium polium which did not contain ketonic component did not show any activity. Therefore, it was observed that essential oils of C. glandulosa with concentration of 1.14% showed powerful toxic and repellent effect, with very high mortality rate after 24h (56,67%.

  18. Comparative RNA-sequencing analysis of mthl1 functions and signal transductions in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Wu, Wei; Sang, Ming; Liu, Xing; Hu, Xingxing; Yun, Xiaopei; Li, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Methuselah-like 1 of Tribolium castaneum (TcMthl1) has been reported to play crucial roles in development, lifespan, stress resistance and reproduction. However, the signaling system of TcMthl1 is unknown. Thus, we compare the transcriptome profile of RNAi treated larvae (ds-Tcmthl1) and control larvae of T. castaneum by RNA-sequencing, and obtained 14,613,514 sequence reads aligned with 13,533 genes; 812 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. These DEGs were classified into 47 GO functional groups, including such functions as the immune system process, the response to stimulus, the developmental process and reproduction. Interestingly, knock-down of Tcmthl1 suppressed both of Toll and IMD immunity pathways which most likely modulated the effects of Tcmthl1 on lifespan and stress resistance. Additionally, the DEGs encoding Blimp-1, Ftz-F1, E74 and Timeless may participate in the development and reproduction of ds-Tcmthl1 insects. The findings of these DEGs and pathways will provide valuable insight into TcMthl1 signaling and regulation system.

  19. Ionizing radiation control of Tribolium castaneum in wheat flour type 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insects, mainly those of the coleoptera order, produce serious changes on the grains and flours, producing in some regions up to 50 % loss. Taking in account the information available up to date, this experiment consists of putting under the effect of the ionizing radiation specimens of Tribolium castaneum feeded with bread flour type 000, with the purpose of controling their biological cycle. They received gamma radiation doses between 250 and 2000 Gy, using 60Co source. The daily observation made over a population of 590 insects, indicates the efficiency of the procedure, non toxic, which provokes the sterility at 250 Gy and inmediate dead starting at 1750 Gy. On the other hand, it was verified that the DL50 on the insects irradiated at the lower of eight different doses applied, reaches 15,3 days, against the 162,6 days of the reference Tribolium. Then it is concluded that it is technologically feasible the application of ionizing radiation to the bread wheat flour type 000 for controling this main plage. (Author)

  20. Transovarial Effect of Novaluron on Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) After Termination of Direct Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostanetsky, A; Kostyukovsky, M; Quinn, E

    2015-01-01

    The insect growth regulator novaluron (Rimon 10 EC, Makhteshim-Agan Ltd, Israel) is used against many field pests on corn, vegetables, orchards, forests, and cotton plantations. Previously, we studied various effects of novaluron on stored grain pests. Termination in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) eggs hatching after treating adults with novaluron and following restoration after adult transfer to untreated media was observed. The objective of this study was to investigate the restoration of T. castaneum egg hatch following transfer of adults from treated media to untreated favorable and unfavorable media. The time needed for hatching restoration of 50% of eggs laid by adults transferred from novaluron (1 ppm) treated flour to untreated flour (RT50) was 2.7 d. RT50 for those transferred to untreated wheat grain was 4.1 d. RT90 in flour was 3.6 d, in grain--6.1 d. Varieties of RTs in grain and in flour with nonoverlapping confidence intervals indicate that RTs were significantly different. Delay of eggs hatching restoration for adults transferred from treated flour to unfavorable media (Petri dishes with limited amount of flour, lying of eggs not detected) was observed. RT50 in flour was 2.1 d and RT90--3.1 d, while RT50 in the unfavorable media was 3.4 d and RT90 6.5 d. Delayed effect of egg hatching restoration after adult transfer to unfavorable media provides evidence of the significant role of insect physiological state in novaluron excretion and (or) degradation by T. castaneum females.

  1. Implications of the Tribolium genome project for pest biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The universal availability of the complete Tribolium castaneum genome sequence assembly and annotation and concomitant development of the versatile Tribolium genome browser, BeetleBase (http://beetlebase.org/) open new realms of possibility for stored-product pest control by greatly simplifying the...

  2. Impact of varying levels of sanitation on mortality of Tribolium castaneum eggs and adults during heat treatment of a pilot flour mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijwani, Monika; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Flinn, Paul W

    2012-04-01

    The influence of sanitation on responses of life stages of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), an economically important pest in flour mills, was investigated in a pilot flour mill subjected to two, 24-h heat treatments. One hundred eggs or 100 adults of T. castaneum were exposed inside each 20-cm diameter by 15-cm high PVC rings holding 0.1-, 0.2-, 1.0-, 3.0-, 6.0-, and 10.0-cm-deep wheat flour to simulate different sanitation levels that may exist in a flour mill. These rings were placed on the first and third floors of a pilot flour mill. On the first floor, temperatures inside rings with eggs reached 50 degrees C in 7-11 h only in 0.1- and 0.2-cm-deep flour treatments. In all other treatments the maximum temperatures attained generally were below 50 degrees C and inversely related to flour depth. Adults of T. castaneum on this floor were less susceptible than eggs. The egg mortality decreased linearly with an increase in flour depth, whereas that of adults decreased exponentially. All eggs and adults in rings on the third floor were killed irrespective of flour depth, because temperatures inside rings reached 50 degrees C in 15-17 h and were held above 50 degrees C for 6-8 h with the maximum temperatures ranging between 55.0 and 57.0 degrees C. Although the protective effects of flour on survival of T. castaneum eggs and adults were evident only if temperatures did not reach 50 degrees C, removal of flour accumulations is essential to improve heat treatment effectiveness.

  3. Toxicity of several contact insecticides to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) populations after selection with pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin

    OpenAIRE

    Andrić Goran; Pražić-Golić Marijana; Kljajić Petar

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted to detect possible alteration in susceptibility of two field Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) populations (sampled in a warehouse in Nikinci and a silo in Jakovo) to dichlorvos, malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, deltamethrin and bifenthrin after previous selection with the LD80 of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Data from the topical application bioassays show that chlorpyrifos-methyl was the most toxic i...

  4. Insecticidal activity of Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit essential oils as fumigant against storage grain insect Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya; Singh, Priyanka; Prakash, Bhanu; Dubey, N.K.

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from Ageratum conyzoides L., Coleus aromaticus Benth. and Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit were extracted and tested against Tribolium castaneum Herbst, the storage grain insect. The EOs were found effective against Tribolium castaneum during in vitro as well as in vivo fumigant testing. The EOs of H. suaveolens and A. conyzoides showed 100 % mortality of test insect at 250 ppm while C. aromaticus at 350 ppm. During in vivo fumigant testing of wheat samples against Tribolium c...

  5. Tribolium castaneum Apolipophorin-III acts as an immune response protein against Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba toxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Estefanía; Rausell, Carolina; Real, M Dolores

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a 2.1-fold Apolipophorin-III mRNA up-regulation was found in Tribolium castaneum larvae challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba spore-crystal mixture. Knockdown of Apolipophorin-III by RNAi resulted in increased T. castaneum larvae susceptibility following Cry3Ba spore-crystal treatment, demonstrating Apolipophorin-III involvement in insect defense against B. thuringiensis. We showed that Apolipophorin-III participates in T. castaneum immune response to B. thuringiensis activating the prophenoloxidase cascade since: (i) phenoloxidase activity significantly increased after Cry3Ba spore-crystal treatment compared to untreated or Cry1Ac spore-crystal treated larvae and (ii) phenoloxidase activity in Cry3Ba spore-crystal treated Apolipophorin-III silenced larvae was 71±14% lower than that of non-silenced intoxicated larvae.

  6. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction across life cycle stages and tissue types of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutges, Michelle J; Hartzer, Kris; Lord, Jeffrey; Oppert, Brenda

    2010-08-25

    The genome of the genetic model for coleopteran insects, Tribolium castaneum, is now available for downstream applications. To facilitate gene expression studies in T. castaneum, genes were evaluated for suitability as normalizers in comparisons across tissues and/or developmental stages. In less diverse samples, such as comparisons within developmental stages or tissue only, normalizers for mRNA were more stable and consistent. Overall, the genes for ribosomal proteins rps6, rpl13a, rps3, and rps18 were the most stable normalizers for broad scale gene expression analysis in T. castaneum. However, their stability ranking was dependent upon the instrument as well as the analysis program. These data emphasize the need to optimize normalizers used in all real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments specifically for the experimental conditions and thermocycler and to carefully evaluate data generated by computational algorithms.

  7. 七种糕点对赤拟谷盗(鞘翅目:拟步甲科)感染的抗性%Resistance of Seven Biscuit Types to Infestation by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olusola O. ODEYEMI; Bernice M. OYEDARE; Michael O. ASHAMO

    2005-01-01

    Seven biscuit types namely, Okin, Digestive, Cabin, Peanut, Cream crackers, Hobnobs and Glucose and wheat flour were screened for their resistance to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) at ambient temperature of 28±2 ℃ and 78±2% relative humidity in the laboratory. 50 g of each biscuit sample were infested with four female and two male adult beetles and left for 15 days then remove for a resistant experiment and 70 days for a mortality experiment. Each treatment and the control without beetles were replicated three times. Results showed that there was significant difference (P0.05) in the weight loss of biscuit types. The highest adult mortality of beetles (100%) was obtained from Peanut biscuits at 28 days after infestation while there was only 5.5% adult mortality in wheat flour at 70 days after infestation. The susceptibility index was 0 for all the biscuit types since there was no adult emergence indicating that they were resistant to T. castaneum infestation. Resistance in the biscuit types could be due to chemical additives (e.g. sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate) used in the production of biscuits, which may have inhibitory effect on the development of T. castaneum and also the low moisture content of the biscuits. Packages that can easily be perforated or damaged to allow absorption of moisture from the environment should not be used in packing biscuits.

  8. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  9. Identification and evolution of two insulin receptor genes involved in Tribolium castaneum development and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ming; Li, Chengjun; Wu, Wei; Li, Bin

    2016-07-10

    The insulin and insulin-like signaling (IIS) pathway exists in a wide range of organisms from mammals to invertebrates and regulates several vital physiological functions. A phylogenetic analysis have indicated that insulin receptors have been duplicated at least twice among vertebrates, whereas only one duplication occurred in insects before the differentiation of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, and Hemiptera. Thus, we cloned two putative insulin receptor genes, T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2, from T. castaneum and determined that T.cas-ir1 is most strongly expressed during the late adult and early pupal stages, whereas T.cas-ir2 is most strongly expressed during the late larval stage. We found that larval RNAi against T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2 causes 100% and 42.0% insect death, respectively, and that parental RNAi against T.cas-ir1 and T.cas-ir2 leads to 100% and 33.3% reductions in beetle fecundity, respectively. The hatching rate of ds-ir2 insects was 66.2%. Moreover, RNAi against these two genes increased the expression of the pkc, foxo, jnk, cdc42, ikk, and mekk genes but decreased erk gene expression. Despite these similarities, these two genes act via distinct regulatory pathways. These results indicate that these two receptors have functionally diverged with respect to the development and reproduction of T. castaneum, even though they retain some common regulatory signaling pathways.

  10. Tribolium castaneum Transformer-2 regulates sex determination and development in both males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2013-12-01

    Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known. Here, we report on functional characterization of transformer-2 (tra-2) gene (an ortholog of Drosophila transformer-2) in T. castaneum. RNA interference-mediated knockdown in the expression of gene coding for tra-2 in female pupae or adults resulted in the production of male-specific isoform of dsx and both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 is essential for the female-specific splicing of tra and dsx pre-mRNAs. Interestingly, knockdown of tra-2 in males did not affect the splicing of dsx but resulted in the production of both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 suppresses female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA in males. This dual regulation of sex-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA ensures a tight regulation of sex determination and maintenance. These data suggest a critical role for Tra-2 in suppression of female sex determination cascade in males. In addition, RNAi studies showed that Tra-2 is also required for successful embryonic and larval development in both sexes.

  11. Effect of selection and gamma-irradiation on fecundity in Tribolium castaneum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, P.P.; Raheja, K.L. (Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Izatnagar, Uttar Pradesh); Bhat, P.N. (Central Inst. for Research on Goats, Mathura (India)); Verma, S.B. (Rajendra Agricultural Univ., Patna (India))

    1981-10-01

    In order to investigate the joint effect of selection and gamma irradiation on a polygenic trait like egg production in Tribolium castaneum, a 3 x 3 x 2 fractorial experiment with 3 levels of selection, viz. O, high (S/sub 1/), and low (S/sub 2/); 3 levels of irradiation, viz. 0,1 1500R (R/sub 1/) 2300R(R/sub 2/); and 2 replicates with 24 females in each cell, was set up. The data were collected on 721 females of parental generation subjected to selection and radiation and the subsequent progeny generation. A significant divergence of 11.6 eggs were observed due to high and low selection methods. There was no difference between control and R/sub 1/ radiation dose. The R/sub 2/ radiation dose depressed the egg production of the progeny significantly. There was a linear decrease in egg number in the progeny with an increase in dose level of radiation in parents; this is indicative of significant number of gene mutations effecting a quantitative trait like egg production. It is suggested that reduction in fecundity in the progeny of parents subjected to gamma-irradiation can possibly arise due to either (i) molecular rearrangement at a point on the chromosome leading to gene mutation or (ii) chromosome breakage with subsequent rearrangement of gene position or both.

  12. Are there genetic trade-offs between immune and reproductive investments in Tribolium castaneum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, Sandra; Sbilordo, Sonja H; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Gage, Matthew J G; Martin, Oliver Y

    2013-10-01

    Parasites impose strong selection on hosts to defend themselves, which is expected to result in trade-offs with other fitness traits such as reproduction. Here we test for genetic trade-offs between reproductive traits and immunity using Tribolium castaneum lines that were subject to experimental evolution. The lines have been exposed to contrasting sexual selection intensities via different sex ratios (female-biased, equal and male-biased). After 56 generations, the lines have significantly diverged and those experiencing high sexual selection have evolved males who are superior competitors for reproductive success, and females who are more resistant to multiple mating. All selected lines were assessed for both an immune measurement (phenoloxidase (PO) activity) and host resistance to the microsporidian Nosema whitei after two generations of relaxed selection. In contrast to our expectations we did not find any evidence for a genetic trade-off between investment in reproduction and immunity. Both PO and Nosema resistance did not differ between lines, despite their divergences in reproductive investment due to variation in sexual selection and conflict. Nevertheless, overall we found that females had higher PO activities and in the Nosema free control treatment survived longer than males, suggesting that females generally invest more in PO and survival under control conditions than males. This result fits the Bateman's principle, which states that females gain fitness through increased immunity and longevity, while males gain fitness through increased mating success.

  13. Constraints on the evolution of function-valued traits: a study of growth in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, K K; Carter, P A

    2013-12-01

    Growth trajectories often impact individual fitness. They are continuous by nature and so are amenable to analysis using a function-valued (FV) trait framework to reveal their underlying genetic architecture. Previous studies have found high levels of standing additive genetic (co)variance for growth trajectories despite the expectation that growth should be responding to frequent strong directional selection. In this study, the FV framework is used to estimate the additive genetic covariance function for growth trajectories in larval Tribolium castaneum to address questions about standing additive genetic (co)variance and possible evolutionary constraints on growth and to predict responses to four plausible selection regimes. Results show that additive genetic (co)variance is high at the early ages, but decreases towards later ages in the larval period. A selection gradient function of the same size and in the same direction of the first eigenfunction of the G-function should give the maximal response. However, evolutionary constraints may be acting to keep this maximal response from being realized, through either conflicting effects on survivability and fecundity of larger body size, few evolutionary directions having sufficient additive variance for a response, genetic trade-offs with other traits or physiological regulatory mechanisms. More light may be shed on these constraints through the development of more sophisticated statistical approaches and implementation of additional empirical studies to explicitly test for specific types of constraints.

  14. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: quantification of bacterial replication within cadavers, transmission via cannibalism, and inhibition of spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. PMID:26386058

  15. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: quantification of bacterial replication within cadavers, transmission via cannibalism, and inhibition of spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen.

  16. COMPARISON OF SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF CATALASE IN THE PHOSPHINE-RESISTANT AND PHOSPHINE-SUSCEPTIBLE STRAINS OF RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)%赤拟谷盗磷化氢抗性和敏感品系的过氧化氢酶活性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿轩; 王利丹; 高希武

    2009-01-01

    比较研究了3个对磷化氢抗性有明显差异的赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum(Herbst)品系与敏感品系虫体内过氧氢酶的比活力,主要结果为当赤拟谷盗各品系对磷化氢的抗性系数分别为1倍、2.42倍、270.81倍和352.80倍时,虫体内过氧化氢酶的比活力比值相应地为1、1.27、3.88、5.25.结果表明赤拟谷盗虫体内过氧氢酶的活性大小与其对磷化氢的抗性水平高低呈正相关,害虫对磷化氢的抗性可能与过氧化氢酶的活性增加有关.

  17. Insecticidal properties of essential oils against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and their inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase and adenosine triphosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Taleb, Hamdy K; Mohamed, Magdy I E; Shawir, Mohamed S; Abdelgaleil, Samir A M

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils from 20 Egyptian plants were obtained by using hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the isolated oils was identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. Fumigant and contact toxicities of the essential oils were evaluated against the adults of Tribolium castaneum. In fumigation assays, the oil of Origanum vulgare (LC50 = 9.97 mg/L air) displayed the highest toxicity towards the adults of T. castaneum. In contact assays, the oils of Artemisia monosperma (LC50 = 0.07 mg/cm(2)) and O. vulgare (LC50 = 0.07 mg/cm(2)) were the most potent toxicants against the adults of T. castaneum. Biochemical studies showed that the tested oils caused pronounced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) isolated from the larvae of T. castaneum. The oil Cupressus macrocarpa (IC50 = 12.3 mg/L) was the most potent inhibitor of AChE, while the oil of Calistemon viminals (IC50 = 4.4 mg/L) was the most potent inhibitor of ATPases.

  18. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp: Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Composición química de cuatro aceites esenciales provenientes de Eupatorium spp. y su toxicidad para Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G. Lancelle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic and repellent properties of whole essential oils from four Eupatorium (Asteraceae species (E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker, and E. viscidum Hook. & Arn were investigated in different concentrations toward Tribolium castaneum Herbst adults. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation techniques from the aerial parts. The analysis was performed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Contact toxicity assays showed that all the evaluated essential oils were toxic. Furthermore, in all the cases mortality was dose dependent. The main repellency was observed for the essential oil recovered from E. buniifolium.Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  19. A Major Facilitator Superfamily protein encoded by TcMucK gene is not required for cuticle pigmentation, growth and development in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Seulgi; Noh, Mi Young; Osanai-Futahashi, Mizuko; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-06-01

    Insect cuticle pigmentation and sclerotization (tanning) are vital physiological processes for insect growth, development and survival. We have previously identified several colorless precursor molecules as well as enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and processing to yield the mature intensely colored body cuticle pigments. A recent study indicated that the Bombyx mori (silkmoth) gene, BmMucK, which encodes a protein orthologous to a Culex pipiens quiquefasciatus (Southern house mosquito) cis,cis, muconate transporter, is a member of the "Major Facilitator Superfamily" (MFS) of transporter proteins and is associated with the appearance of pigmented body segments of naturally occurring body color mutants of B. mori. While RNA interference of the BmMucK gene failed to result in any observable phenotype, RNAi using a dsRNA for an orthologous gene from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, was reported to result in molting defects and darkening of the cuticle and some body parts, leading to the suggestion that orthologs of MucK genes may differ in their functions among insects. To verify the role and essentiality of the ortholog of this gene in development and body pigmentation function in T. castaneum we obtained cDNAs for the orthologous gene (TcMucK) from RNA isolated from the GA-1 wild-type strain of T. castaneum. The sequence of a 1524 nucleotides-long cDNA for TcMucK which encodes the putatively full-length protein, was assembled from two overlapping RT-PCR fragments and the expression profile of this gene during development was analyzed by real-time PCR. This cDNA encodes a 55.8 kDa protein consisting of 507 amino acid residues and includes 11 putative transmembrane segments. Transcripts of TcMucK were detected throughout all of the developmental stages analyzed. The function of this gene was explored by injection of two different double-stranded RNAs targeting different regions of the TcMucK gene (dsTcMucKs) into young larvae to down

  20. Hox genes require homothorax and extradenticle for body wall identity specification but not for appendage identity specification during metamorphosis of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Jockusch, Elizabeth L

    2014-11-01

    The establishment of segment identity is a key developmental process that allows for divergence along the anteroposterior body axis in arthropods. In Drosophila, the identity of a segment is determined by the complement of Hox genes it expresses. In many contexts, Hox transcription factors require the protein products of extradenticle (exd) and homothorax (hth) as cofactors to perform their identity specification functions. In holometabolous insects, segment identity may be specified twice, during embryogenesis and metamorphosis. To glean insight into the relationship between embryonic and metamorphic segmental identity specification, we have compared these processes in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, which develops ventral appendages during embryogenesis that later metamorphose into adult appendages with distinct morphologies. At metamorphosis, comparisons of RNAi phenotypes indicate that Hox genes function jointly with Tc-hth and Tc-exd to specify several region-specific aspects of the adult body wall. On the other hand, Hox genes specify appendage identities along the anteroposterior axis independently of Tc-hth/Tc-exd and Tc-hth/Tc-exd specify proximal vs. distal identity within appendages independently of Hox genes during this stage. During embryogenesis, Tc-hth and Tc-exd play a broad role in the segmentation process and are required for specification of body wall identities in the thorax; however, contrasting with results from other species, we did not obtain homeotic transformations of embryonic appendages in response to Tc-hth or Tc-exd RNAi. In general, the homeotic effects of interference with the function of Hox genes and Tc-hth/Tc-exd during metamorphosis did not match predictions based on embryonic roles of these genes. Comparing metamorphic patterning in T. castaneum to embryonic and post-embryonic development in hemimetabolous insects suggests that holometabolous metamorphosis combines patterning processes of both late embryogenesis and

  1. Two major cuticular proteins are required for assembly of horizontal laminae and vertical pore canals in rigid cuticle of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Young; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kanost, Michael R; Beeman, Richard W; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2014-10-01

    The insect exoskeleton is composed of cuticle primarily formed from structural cuticular proteins (CPs) and the polysaccharide chitin. Two CPs, TcCPR27 and TcCPR18, are major proteins present in the elytron (highly sclerotized and pigmented modified forewing) as well as the pronotum (dorsal sclerite of the prothorax) and ventral abdominal cuticle of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Both CPs belong to the CPR family, which includes proteins that have an amino acid sequence motif known as the Rebers & Riddiford (R&R) consensus sequence. Injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) for TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 resulted in insects with shorter, wrinkled, warped and less rigid elytra than those from control insects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of CPs in cuticle assembly, we analyzed for the precise localization of TcCPR27 and the ultrastructural architecture of cuticle in TcCPR27- and TcCPR18-deficient elytra. Transmission electron microscopic analysis combined with immunodetection using gold-labeled secondary antibody revealed that TcCPR27 is present in dorsal elytral procuticle both in the horizontal laminae and in vertical pore canals. dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of TcCPR27 resulted in abnormal electron-lucent laminae and pore canals in elytra except for the boundary between these two structures in which electron-dense molecule(s) apparently accumulated. Insects subjected to RNAi for TcCPR18 also had disorganized laminae and pore canals in the procuticle of elytra. Similar ultrastructural defects were also observed in other body wall regions with rigid cuticle such as the thorax and legs of adult T. castaneum. TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are required for proper formation of the horizontal chitinous laminae and vertical pore canals that are critical for formation and stabilization of rigid adult cuticle.

  2. Lethal dose determination of Cobalt-60 for adult Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Anderson Aparecido, E-mail: potenza@biologico.sp.gov.br [Instituto Biologico, Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Protecao Ambiental, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Potenza, Marcos Roberto, E-mail: fcreis@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Reis, Fabricio Caldeira; Sato, Mario Eidi, E-mail: mesato@biologico.sp.gov.br [Instituto Biologico, Centro Experimental Central, Laboratorio de Acarologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The insect infestation is a major problem in the grain storage. The pesticides are most widely used method for disinfestation and prevention. Treatment with gamma irradiation may increase the product shelf life without encountering formation of waste can be used in packaged foods and ready for commercialization, representing an important alternative to the use of pesticides. This study aimed to determine the immediate lethal dose of gamma radiation for adults of Tribolium castaneum and Cryptolestes ferrugineus. The study was conducted in the Instituto Biologico and the radiations held at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo city, using a multipurpose irradiator Cobalt-60 with 3.31 dose rate and 3.23 kGy in months of November/2014 and January/2015. Each experimental unit consisted of 20 adult insects, confined in a 10 mL polyethylene container. The experimental plots in number 10 per dose were subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.25; 1.50; 1.75; 2.00; 2:50 and 3.00 kGy. Mortality was assessed within two to four hours after irradiation. The data were submitted to Probit analysis, using the POLO PLUS program. The LD90 to control 90% (LD90) to control adult Cryptolestes ferrugineus and Tribolium castaneum were 2.73 and 2.91 kGy, respectively. (author)

  3. The lethal giant larvae Gene in Tribolium castaneum: Molecular Properties and Roles in Larval and Pupal Development as Revealed by RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xiao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We identified and characterized the TcLgl gene putatively encoding lethal giant larvae (Lgl protein from the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum. Analyses of developmental stage and tissue-specific expression patterns revealed that TcLgl was constitutively expressed. To examine the role of TcLgl in insect development, RNA interference was performed in early (1-day larvae, late (20-day larvae, and early (1-day pupae. The early larvae injected with double-stranded RNA of TcLgl (dsTcLgl at 100, 200, and 400 ng/larva failed to pupate, and 100% mortality was achieved within 20 days after the injection or before the pupation. The late larvae injected with dsTcLgl at these doses reduced the pupation rates to only 50.3%, 36.0%, and 18.2%, respectively. The un-pupated larvae gradually died after one week, and visually unaffected pupae failed to emerge into adults and died during the pupal stage. Similarly, when early pupae were injected with dsTcLgl at these doses, the normal eclosion rates were reduced to only 22.5%, 18.0%, and 11.2%, respectively, on day 7 after the injection, and all the adults with abnormal eclosion died in two days after the eclosion. These results indicate that TcLgl plays an essential role in insect development, especially during their metamorphosis.

  4. Proteome response of Tribolium castaneum larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin producing strains.

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    Estefanía Contreras

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Tc larvae was determined against spore-crystal mixtures of five coleopteran specific and one lepidopteran specific Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxin producing strains and those containing the structurally unrelated Cry3Ba and Cry23Aa/Cry37Aa proteins were found toxic (LC(50 values 13.53 and 6.30 µg spore-crystal mixture/µL flour disc, respectively. Using iTRAQ combined with LC-MS/MS allowed the discovery of seven novel differentially expressed proteins in early response of Tc larvae to the two active spore-crystal mixtures. Proteins showing a statistically significant change in treated larvae compared to non-intoxicated larvae fell into two major categories; up-regulated proteins were involved in host defense (odorant binding protein C12, apolipophorin-III and chemosensory protein 18 and down-regulated proteins were linked to metabolic pathways affecting larval metabolism and development (pyruvate dehydrogenase Eα subunit, cuticular protein, ribosomal protein L13a and apolipoprotein LI-II. Among increased proteins, Odorant binding protein C12 showed the highest change, 4-fold increase in both toxin treatments. The protein displayed amino acid sequence and structural homology to Tenebrio molitor 12 kDa hemolymph protein b precursor, a non-olfactory odorant binding protein. Analysis of mRNA expression and mortality assays in Odorant binding protein C12 silenced larvae were consistent with a general immune defense function of non-olfactory odorant binding proteins. Regarding down-regulated proteins, at the transcriptional level, pyruvate dehydrogenase and cuticular genes were decreased in Tc larvae exposed to the Cry3Ba producing strain compared to the Cry23Aa/Cry37Aa producing strain, which may contribute to the developmental arrest that we observed with larvae fed the Cry3Ba producing strain. Results demonstrated a distinct host transcriptional regulation depending upon the Cry toxin treatment. Knowledge

  5. Toxicidade da combinação de dióxido de carbono e fosfina sob diferentes temperaturas para Tribolium castaneum Toxicity of the carbon dioxide and phosphine combination to Tribolium castaneum under different temperatures

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    Raimundo W. S. Aguiar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura sobre a toxicidade da combinação de dióxido de carbono e fosfina, para os estágios de desenvolvimento de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. A toxicidade da combinação de 5% de dióxido de carbono e 1 g m-3 de fosfina para os estágios de ovo, larvas de 5, 10 e 15 dias, pupa e adulto de T. castaneum, foi estudada nas temperaturas de 25, 30, 35, 40 e 45 °C, por meio de estimativas dos tempos de exposição letais para 50 e 95% dos insetos (TL50 e TL95. Curvas tempo-resposta foram estabelecidas mediante bioensaios com períodos crescentes de exposição à combinação do dióxido de carbono com a fosfina. Observou-se que os TL50 e TL95 reduziram com a elevação da temperatura em todos os estágios de T. castaneum avaliados. O estágio de larva de cinco dias foi a mais susceptível à combinação de dióxido de carbono e fosfina. De acordo com os resultados, a combinação do dióxido de carbono com a fosfina é alternativa potencial para diminuir a quantidade de fosfina aplicada em produtos armazenados, por apresentar alta toxicidade para todos os estágios de T. castaneum sob diferentes temperaturas.The objective of this work was to assess the effect of temperature on the toxicity of the carbon dioxide-phosphine combination for the developmental stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The toxicity of combination of 5% carbon dioxide and 1 g m-3 phosphine in the developmental stages of egg, larvae of 5, 10 and 15 days, pupae and adult of T. castaneum was studied under the temperatures of 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 °C, through the estimation of lethal insect exposure times of 50 and 95% (LT50 and LT95. For that, time-response curves were established through bioassays with increasing periods of exposure to the combination of carbon dioxide and phosphine. A reduction of LT50 and LT95 was observed with temperature increase in all

  6. Residual efficacy of methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae at different temperatures on varnished wood, concrete, and wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The residual efficacy of the juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene (Diacon II), was evaluated in bioassays using larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) exposed on varnished wood or unsealed concrete treated with a liquid formulation and held at different temperatures. When these surfaces were stored...

  7. Investigation of Natural Plant Aegle marmelos Essential Oil Bioactivity on Development and Toxicity of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The uncontrolled use of synthetic chemicals is a great hazard for the environment and consumers. Methodology: In the present study, essential oil from leaves of Aegle marmelos was isolated by hydro-distillation and tested their insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Results: The results showed that the essential oil of A. marmelos have fumigant toxicity, oviposition and developmental inhibitory activity against T. castaneum. The percentage mortality increased with increasing exposure time and concentration. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of A. marmelos essential oil at 48 h was 14.172 and 17.752 FL against larvae and adults of T. castaneum, respectively. The essential oil significantly reduced oviposition (F3,20 = 304.734 in adults and also reduced pupation (F3,20 = 137.442 and adult emergence (F3,20 = 225.619 in larvae when fumigated with sub-lethal concentration. The percent grains infection was reduced 83.66% at 60% of sub-lethal concentration of 24 h LC50. Fumigation of insect with sub-lethal concentration of A. marmelos essential oil inhibited AChE activity. Reduction in AChE activity was 81.48 and 54.32% of the control, after 24 h of fumigation with sub-lethal concentration. Conclusion: In conclusion, this essential oil probably induces toxicity in insect by inhibiting AChE activity.

  8. Evolutionary variations in the expression of dorso-ventral patterning genes and the conservation of pioneer neurons in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffar, Lucia; Stollewerk, Angelika

    2015-04-01

    Insects are ideally suited for gaining insight into the evolutionary developmental mechanisms that have led to adaptive changes of the nervous system since the specific structure of the nervous system can be directly linked to the neural stem cell (neuroblast) lineages, which in turn can be traced back to the last common ancestor of insects. The recent comparative analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum neuroblast maps revealed substantial differences in the expression profiles of neuroblasts. Here we show that despite the overall conservation of the dorso-ventral expression domains of muscle segment homeobox, intermediate neuroblasts defective and ventral nervous system defective, the expression of these genes relative to the neuroblasts in the respective domains has changed considerably during insect evolution. Furthermore, functional studies show evolutionary changes in the requirement of ventral nervous system defective in the formation of neuroblast 1-1 and the correct differentiation of its presumptive progeny, the pioneer neurons aCC and pCC. The inclusion of the expression data of the dorso-ventral genes into the recently established T. castaneum neuroblast map further increases the differences in the neuroblast expression profiles between D. melanogaster and T. castaneum. Despite these molecular variations, the Even-skipped positive pioneer neurons show an invariant arrangement, except for an additional Even-skipped positive cluster that we discovered in T. castaneum. Given the importance of these pioneer neurons in establishing the intersegmental nerves and the longitudinal tracts, which are part of the conserved axonal scaffold of arthropods, we discuss internal buffering mechanisms that might ensure that neuroblast lineages invariantly generate pioneer neurons over a wide range of molecular variations.

  9. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the voltage gated sodium ion channel TcNav causes mortality in Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Halim, Hesham M.; Alshukri, Baida M. H.; Ahmad, Munawar S.; Nakasu, Erich Y. T.; Awwad, Mohammed H.; Salama, Elham M.; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Edwards, Martin G.

    2016-01-01

    The voltage-gated sodium ion channel (VGSC) belongs to the largest superfamily of ion channels. Since VGSCs play key roles in physiological processes they are major targets for effective insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used to analyse gene function, but recently, it has shown potential to contribute to novel strategies for selectively controlling agricultural insect pests. The current study evaluates the delivery of dsRNA targeted to the sodium ion channel paralytic A (TcNav) gene in Tribolium castaneum as a viable means of controlling this insect pest. Delivery of TcNav dsRNA caused severe developmental arrest with larval mortalities up to 73% post injection of dsRNA. Injected larvae showed significant (p insect control. PMID:27411529

  10. Toxicity of several contact insecticides to Tribolium castaneum (Herbst populations after selection with pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin

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    Goran Andrić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory bioassays were conducted to detect possible alteration in susceptibility of two field Tribolium castaneum (Herbst populations (sampled in a warehouse in Nikinci and a silo in Jakovo to dichlorvos, malathion, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, deltamethrin and bifenthrin after previous selection with the LD80 of pirimiphos-methyl and deltamethrin. Data from the topical application bioassays show that chlorpyrifos-methyl was the most toxic insecticide to T. castaneum adults of the Nikinci population selected with pirimiphosmethyl and deltamethrin, while malathion was the weakest, and both selection procedures changed/reduced significantly only the toxicity of deltamethrin and bifenthrin, increasing their resistance ratios (RR at the LD50 from 1.1 to 1.8 (bifenthrin and from 0.9 to 2.2 (deltamethrin. Deltamethrin was the most toxic insecticide for Jakovo adults selected with the LD80 of pirimiphosmethyl, while malathion was again the least toxic. Selection of that population had no effect on insecticide toxicity, except of malathion, which had a rise in RR at the LD50 from 26.0 to 29.8.

  11. Evaluation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Under UVB Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Wen; He, Li; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2015-04-01

    Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become a widely used technique to quantify gene expression. It is necessary to select appropriate reference genes for normalization. In the present study, we assessed the expression stability of seven candidate genes in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) irradiated by ultraviolet B (UVB) at different developmental stages for various irradiation time periods. The algorithms of geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were applied to determine the stability of these candidate genes. Ribosomal protein genes RpS3, RpL13A, and β-actin gene (ActB) showed the highest stability across all UVB irradiation time points, whereas expression of other normally used reference genes, such as those encoding the β-tubulin gene TUBB and the E-cadherin gene CAD, varied at different developmental stages. This study will potentially provide more suitable reference gene candidates for RT-qPCR analysis in T. castaneum subjected to environmental stresses, particularly UV irradiation.

  12. Comparative toxicity and micronuclei formation in Tribolium castaneum, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus oryzae exposed to high doses of gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Mozdarani, Hossein; Abd-Alla, Adly M M

    2015-07-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on mortality and micronucleus formation in Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) genital cells were evaluated. Two groups of healthy and active adult insects 1-3 and 8-10 days old were irradiated with various doses (50-200 Gy) gamma ray. Seven days post-irradiation; mortality rates and micronucleus formation were assessed in genital cells of the irradiated insects. The results show that with increasing gamma doses, the mortality rate of each species increased and T. castaneum and S. oryzae showed the low and high sensitivity respectively. It was shown that the micronucleus appearance in the tested insects had correlation with amount and intensity of radiation doses. Moreover our results indicate different levels in the genotoxicity of gamma radiation among the insects' genital cells under study. The frequency of micronuclei in genital cells of 1-3 days old insects exposed to 50 and 200 Gy were 12.6 and 38.8 Mn/1000 cells in T. castaneum, 20.8 and 46.8 Mn/1000 cells in C. maculatus and 16.8 and 57.2 Mn/1000 cells in S. oryzae respectively. A high sensitivity of the genital cells to irradiation exposure was seen in S. oryzae correlated with its high mortality rate compared with the other two species. These results might be indicative of inflicting chromosomal damage expressed as micronucleus in high mortality rates observed in the pest population; an indication of genotoxic effects of radiation on the studied species. PMID:25898238

  13. Comparative toxicity and micronuclei formation in Tribolium castaneum, Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus oryzae exposed to high doses of gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehrdad; Mozdarani, Hossein; Abd-Alla, Adly M M

    2015-07-01

    The effects of gamma radiation on mortality and micronucleus formation in Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) genital cells were evaluated. Two groups of healthy and active adult insects 1-3 and 8-10 days old were irradiated with various doses (50-200 Gy) gamma ray. Seven days post-irradiation; mortality rates and micronucleus formation were assessed in genital cells of the irradiated insects. The results show that with increasing gamma doses, the mortality rate of each species increased and T. castaneum and S. oryzae showed the low and high sensitivity respectively. It was shown that the micronucleus appearance in the tested insects had correlation with amount and intensity of radiation doses. Moreover our results indicate different levels in the genotoxicity of gamma radiation among the insects' genital cells under study. The frequency of micronuclei in genital cells of 1-3 days old insects exposed to 50 and 200 Gy were 12.6 and 38.8 Mn/1000 cells in T. castaneum, 20.8 and 46.8 Mn/1000 cells in C. maculatus and 16.8 and 57.2 Mn/1000 cells in S. oryzae respectively. A high sensitivity of the genital cells to irradiation exposure was seen in S. oryzae correlated with its high mortality rate compared with the other two species. These results might be indicative of inflicting chromosomal damage expressed as micronucleus in high mortality rates observed in the pest population; an indication of genotoxic effects of radiation on the studied species.

  14. Knickkopf and retroactive proteins are required for formation of laminar serosal procuticle during embryonic development of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Sujata S; Noh, Mi Young; Moussian, Bernard; Specht, Charles A; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    2015-05-01

    Chitin, a homopolymer of β-1-4-linked N-acetylglucosamine synthesized by chitin synthase A (Chs-A), is organized in the procuticle of the postembryonic cuticle or exoskeleton, which is composed of laminae stacked parallel to the cell surface to give stability and integrity to the underlying insect epidermal and other tissues. Our previous work has revealed an important role for two proteins from Tribolium castaneum named Knickkopf (TcKnk) and Retroactive (TcRtv) in postembryonic cuticular chitin maintenance. TcKnk and TcRtv were shown to be required for protection and organization of newly synthesized procuticular chitin. To study the functions of TcKnk and TcRtv in serosal and larval cuticles produced during embryogenesis in T. castaneum, dsRNAs specific for these two genes were injected into two week-old adult females. The effects of dsRNA treatment on ovarial integrity, oviposition, egg hatching and adult survival were determined. Insects treated with dsRNA for chitin synthase-A (TcChs-A) and tryptophan oxygenase (TcVer) were used as positive and negative controls for these experiments, respectively. Like TcChs-A RNAi, injection of dsRNA for TcKnk or TcRtv into adult females exhibited no adult lethality and oviposition was normal. However, a vast majority of the embryos did not hatch. The remaining (∼10%) of the embryos hatched into first instar larvae that died without molting to the second instar. Chitin content analysis following TcKnk and TcRtv parental RNAi revealed approximately 50% reduction in chitin content of eggs in comparison with control TcVer RNAi, whereas TcChs-A dsRNA-treatment led to >90% loss of chitin. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis of serosal cuticle from TcChs-A, TcKnk and TcRtv dsRNA-treated insects revealed a complete absence of laminar organization of serosal (and larval) procuticle in comparison with TcVer dsRNA-treated controls, which exhibited normal laminar organization of procuticular chitin. The

  15. Effectiveness of gamma radiation for the control of tribolium castaneum, the pest of stored cashew kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma radiation on T. castaneum irradiated during adult stage revealed that survival of adults was found to decrease with increase in radiation dose. Gamma radiations are used to produce mortality or sterility in the insects. The technique can be used by irradiating the insects at doses sufficiently high to produce the desired effects. The present study observed the gamma-ray effect on this insect, and the results may be useful for commercial applications. Overall the results showed highly significant effect of irradiation on insects administered with different doses

  16. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the voltage gated sodium ion channel TcNav causes mortality in Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Halim, Hesham M.; Alshukri, Baida M. H.; Ahmad, Munawar S.; Nakasu, Erich Y. T.; Awwad, Mohammed H.; Salama, Elham M.; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Edwards, Martin G.

    2016-01-01

    The voltage-gated sodium ion channel (VGSC) belongs to the largest superfamily of ion channels. Since VGSCs play key roles in physiological processes they are major targets for effective insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used to analyse gene function, but recently, it has shown potential to contribute to novel strategies for selectively controlling agricultural insect pests. The current study evaluates the delivery of dsRNA targeted to the sodium ion channel paralytic A (TcNav) gene in Tribolium castaneum as a viable means of controlling this insect pest. Delivery of TcNav dsRNA caused severe developmental arrest with larval mortalities up to 73% post injection of dsRNA. Injected larvae showed significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression between 30–60%. Expression was also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in pupae following injection causing 30% and 42% knockdown for early and late pupal stages, respectively. Oral delivery of dsRNA caused dose-dependant mortalities of between 19 and 51.34%; this was accompanied by significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression following 3 days of continuous feeding. The majority of larvae injected with, or fed, dsRNA died during the final larval stage prior to pupation. This work provides evidence of a viable RNAi-based strategy for insect control. PMID:27411529

  17. Experimental removal of sexual selection leads to decreased investment in an immune component in female Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, Sandra; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Gage, Matthew J G; Martin, Oliver Y

    2015-07-01

    Because of divergent selection acting on males and females arising from different life-history strategies, polyandry can be expected to promote sexual dimorphism of investment into immune function. In previous work we have established the existence of such divergence within populations where males and females are exposed to varying degrees of polyandry. We here test whether the removal of sexual selection via enforced monogamy generates males and females that have similar levels of investment in immune function. To test this prediction experimentally, we measured differences between the sexes in a key immune measurement (phenoloxidase (PO) activity) and resistance to the microsporidian Paranosema whitei in Tribolium castaneum lines that evolved under monogamous (sexual selection absent) vs polyandrous (sexual selection present) mating systems. At generation 49, all selected lines were simultaneously assessed for PO activity and resistance to their natural parasite P. whitei after two generations of relaxed selection. We found that the polyandrous regime was associated with a clear dimorphism in immune function: females had significantly higher PO activities than males in these lines. In contrast, there was no such difference between the sexes in the lines evolving under the monogamous regime. Survival in the infection experiment did not differ between mating systems or sexes. Removing sexual selection via enforced monogamy thus seems to erase intersexual differences in immunity investment. We suggest that higher PO activities in females that have evolved under sexual selection might be driven by the increased risk of infections and/or injuries associated with exposure to multiple males. PMID:25958137

  18. Experimental removal of sexual selection leads to decreased investment in an immune component in female Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, Sandra; Michalczyk, Łukasz; Gage, Matthew J G; Martin, Oliver Y

    2015-07-01

    Because of divergent selection acting on males and females arising from different life-history strategies, polyandry can be expected to promote sexual dimorphism of investment into immune function. In previous work we have established the existence of such divergence within populations where males and females are exposed to varying degrees of polyandry. We here test whether the removal of sexual selection via enforced monogamy generates males and females that have similar levels of investment in immune function. To test this prediction experimentally, we measured differences between the sexes in a key immune measurement (phenoloxidase (PO) activity) and resistance to the microsporidian Paranosema whitei in Tribolium castaneum lines that evolved under monogamous (sexual selection absent) vs polyandrous (sexual selection present) mating systems. At generation 49, all selected lines were simultaneously assessed for PO activity and resistance to their natural parasite P. whitei after two generations of relaxed selection. We found that the polyandrous regime was associated with a clear dimorphism in immune function: females had significantly higher PO activities than males in these lines. In contrast, there was no such difference between the sexes in the lines evolving under the monogamous regime. Survival in the infection experiment did not differ between mating systems or sexes. Removing sexual selection via enforced monogamy thus seems to erase intersexual differences in immunity investment. We suggest that higher PO activities in females that have evolved under sexual selection might be driven by the increased risk of infections and/or injuries associated with exposure to multiple males.

  19. Functional analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter gene family of Tribolium castaneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broehan Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters belong to a large superfamily of proteins that have important physiological functions in all living organisms. Most are integral membrane proteins that transport a broad spectrum of substrates across lipid membranes. In insects, ABC transporters are of special interest because of their role in insecticide resistance. Results We have identified 73 ABC transporter genes in the genome of T. castaneum, which group into eight subfamilies (ABCA-H. This coleopteran ABC family is significantly larger than those reported for insects in other taxonomic groups. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this increase is due to gene expansion within a single clade of subfamily ABCC. We performed an RNA interference (RNAi screen to study the function of ABC transporters during development. In ten cases, injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA into larvae caused developmental phenotypes, which included growth arrest and localized melanization, eye pigmentation defects, abnormal cuticle formation, egg-laying and egg-hatching defects, and mortality due to abortive molting and desiccation. Some of the ABC transporters we studied in closer detail to examine their role in lipid, ecdysteroid and eye pigment transport. Conclusions The results from our study provide new insights into the physiological function of ABC transporters in T. castaneum, and may help to establish new target sites for insect control.

  20. Efficacies of spinosad and a combination of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin against phosphine-resistant Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, N S; Opit, George P; Talley, J; Jones, C L

    2013-10-01

    Highly phosphine-resistant populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have recently been found in Oklahoma grain storage facilities. These findings necessitate development of a phosphine resistance management strategy to ensure continued effective use of phosphine. Therefore, we investigated the efficacies of two grain insecticides, namely, spinosad applied at label rate of 1 ppm and a mixture of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin applied at label rates of 3 and 0.5 ppm, respectively, against highly phosphine-resistant R. dominica and T. castaneum. Adult mortality and progeny production suppression of spinosad- or chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture-treated wheat that had been stored for 2, 84, 168, 252, and 336 d posttreatment were assessed. We found that both spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin were effective against phosphine-resistant R. dominica and caused 83-100% mortality and also caused total progeny production suppression for all storage periods. Spinosad was not effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum; the highest mortality observed was only 3% for all the storage periods. Chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum only in treated wheat stored for 2 and 84 d, where it caused 93-99% mortality. However, chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective and achieved total suppression of progeny production in T. castaneum for all the storage periods. Spinosad was not as effective as chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture at suppressing progeny production of phosphine-resistant T. castaneum. These two insecticides can be used in a phosphine resistance management strategy for R. dominica and T. castaneum in the United States.

  1. Progresses in research on the functional genomics on Tribolium castaneum%赤拟谷盗功能基因组学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承军; 王艳允; 刘幸; 桑明; 李斌

    2011-01-01

    赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum是一种重要的模式生物,在遗传、发育、生化与免疫等研究领域均取得了重要的研究进展.同时它也是一种危害极大的鞘翅目类储粮害虫,在世界各地都有分布,每年给储藏物造成了数十亿美元的经济损失.其全基因组测序的完成、遗传操作体系的构建及系统RNAi方法的应用都极大地促进了其功能基因组学的研究.本文综述了近年来赤拟谷盗基因组计划及功能基因组学的研究进展,拟为赤拟谷盗的生物学研究和防治奠定基础.%Tribolium castaneum is a powerful model organism for research in such fields as insect genetics, biology development, biochemistry and immunity, and rapid and useful progress has been made in these fields in recent years. T. Castaneum is also an important coleopteran pest of stored agricultural products. This globally distributed pest causes billions of dollars of damage to such stored products each year. Recently, the sequencing of the entire genome of T. Castaneum, the construction of their genetics operation systems, and the utilization of the systemic RNA interference, have greatly facilitated and accelerated research on their functional genomics and the related fields. In order to facilitate research on both the fundamental biology and control of T. Castaneum, we here review progresses and achievements in research on T. Castaneum genome projects and functional genomics over the past few years.

  2. Interspecific Competition between Tribolium castaneum and Cryptolestes ferrugineus%赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum与锈赤扁谷盗Cryptolestes ferrugineus种间竞争的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蕊; 邓永学; 王进军; 崔晋波; 李平

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific competition between Tribolium castaneum and Cryptolestes femigineus was studied at 30℃ ,75 % RH and Votka-Volt-erra equation was used to simulate the competition. The results showed that population numbers of T. castaneum and C. ferrugineus under single rearing condition were more than that under mixture rearing condition. The interspecific competition( resource competition type) between the two species was remarkable. Population number of T. castaneum under single rearing and mixture rearing condition was greater than that of C. femigineus. The two species could coexist steadily under mixture rearing condition and T. castaneum was dominant species in the competition system.%在30℃、75% RH条件下研究赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum与锈赤扁谷盗Crptolestes ferrugineus的种间竞争,并采用Votka-Volterra种间竞争模型进行拟合.结果表明,赤拟谷盗与锈赤腐谷盗混合饲养时的种群数量均小于单独饲养时的种群数量,两物种之间存在着显著的种间竞争关系.属于资源利用型竞争;单独饲养和混合饲养条件下赤拟谷盗的种群数量均大于锈赤扁谷盗的种群数量;混合饲养条件下两个物种可以共存,并形成稳定的平衡状态,在这个竞争系统中,赤拟谷盗为优势种.

  3. Actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown sobre Tribolium castaneum Herbst. en granos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ringuelet, Jorge Abel; Ocampo, Rafael; Henning, Cynthia; Padín, Susana; Urrutia, María Inés; Dal Bello, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) es un insecto plaga de granos, muy destructivo en la etapa de almacenamiento y altamente resistente a los fitosanitarios sintéticos. Por esta razón su control químico se realiza con altas concentraciones de insecticidas que aumentan la contaminación ambiental y los peligros para la salud humana. Las tendências actuales en el manejo integrado de plagas se orientan hacia el uso de plaguicidas biológicos o biopesticidas como los extractos vegetales...

  4. Complex adaptive responses during antagonistic coevolution between Tribolium castaneum and its natural parasite Nosema whitei revealed by multiple fitness components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bérénos Camillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-parasite coevolution can lead to local adaptation of either parasite or host if there is specificity (GxG interactions and asymmetric evolutionary potential between host and parasite. This has been demonstrated both experimentally and in field studies, but a substantial proportion of studies fail to detect such clear-cut patterns. One explanation for this is that adaptation can be masked by counter-adaptation by the antagonist. Additionally, genetic architecture underlying the interaction is often highly complex thus preventing specific adaptive responses. Here, we have employed a reciprocal cross-infection experiment to unravel the adaptive responses of two components of fitness affecting both parties with different complexities of the underlying genetic architecture (i.e. mortality and spore load. Furthermore, our experimental coevolution of hosts (Tribolium castaneum and parasites (Nosema whitei included paired replicates of naive hosts from identical genetic backgrounds to allow separation between host- and parasite-specific responses. Results In hosts, coevolution led to higher resistance and altered resistance profiles compared to paired control lines. Host genotype × parasite genotype interactions (GH × GP were observed for spore load (the trait of lower genetic complexity, but not for mortality. Overall parasite performance correlated with resistance of its matching host coevolution background reflecting a directional and unspecific response to strength of selection during coevolution. Despite high selective pressures exerted by the obligatory killing parasite, and host- and parasite-specific mortality profiles, no general pattern of local adaptation was observed, but one case of parasite maladaptation was consistently observed on both coevolved and control host populations. In addition, the use of replicate control host populations in the assay revealed one case of host maladaptation and one case of parasite

  5. Effects ofArtemisia herba-alba essential oils on survival stored cereal pests:Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) and Trogoderma granarium (Everst) (Coleoptera, Dermestidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Slimane Badreddine; Mariem Baouindi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the chemical components and toxicity ofArtemisia herba-alba (A. herba-alba) essential oil against two major stored cereal pests,Tribolium castaneum (T. castaneum) andTrogoderma granarium(T. granarium). Methods:Two bioassay actions were tasted: repellent and fumigant actions against adult and larvae, respectively, to assess the effect ofA. herba-alba essential oil. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analyses of the essential oil containedβ-thujone (12.50%),α-thujone (8.78%), sabinyl acetate (8.56%), terpinene-4-ol (8.51%),α-terpineol (3.35%), 1,8-cineol (5.45%),γ-terpene (4.82%), camphor (4.52%), dimethyl-ethylbenzene (3.93%) andα-terpinene (3.35%) as the major components. Fumigant toxicity tests showed thatA. herba-alba oil was more toxic thanT. granarium (LC50 = 2.09 mg/mL, LC90 = 4.12 mg/mL) andT. castaneum (LC50 = 6.39 mg/mL, LC90 = 10.10 mg/mL). Conclusions: This study has highlighted a bioinsecticide activity ofA. herba-alba against two insect pests of stored foodstuffs (T. castaneum andT. granarium). TheArtemisia essential oil offers an interesting potential insecticide that could be studied more deeply to isolate and identify the active substances, to study their physiological impact on other insects.

  6. Signalling properties and pharmacological analysis of two sulfakinin receptors from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfakinin is an insect neuropeptide that constitutes an important component of the complex network of hormonal and neural factors that regulate feeding and digestion. The key modulating functions of sulfakinin are mediated by binding and signaling via G-protein coupled receptors. Although a subst...

  7. Tribolium castaneum immune defense genes are differentially expressed in response to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins sharing common receptor molecules and exhibiting disparate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Estefanía; Benito-Jardón, María; López-Galiano, M José; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

    2015-06-01

    In Tribolium castaneum larvae we have demonstrated by RNA interference knockdown that the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba toxin receptors Cadherin-like and Sodium solute symporter proteins are also functional receptors of the less active Cry3Aa toxin. Differences in susceptibility to B. thuringiensis infection might not only rely on toxin-receptor interaction but also on host defense mechanisms. We compared the expression of the immune related genes encoding Apolipophorin-III and two antimicrobial peptides, Defensin3 and Defensin2 after B. thuringiensis challenge. All three genes were up-regulated following Cry3Ba spore-crystal intoxication whereas only Defensins gene expression was induced upon Cry3Aa spore-crystal treatment, evidencing a possible association between host immune response and larval susceptibility to B. thuringiensis. We assessed the antimicrobial activity spectra of T. castaneum defensins peptide fragments and found that a peptide fragment of Defensin3 was effective against the human microbial pathogens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, being S. aureus the most susceptible one.

  8. The life cycle of Gregarina cuneata in the midgut of Tribolium castaneum and the effects of parasitism on the development of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliolli, A A S; Julio, A H F; Conte, H

    2016-04-01

    Tribolium castaneum Herbst 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), an important pest of stored grains and byproducts, is naturally infected by Gregarina cuneata Stein 1848 (Apicomplexa: Gregarinidae). Changes in the life cycle of insects caused by the parasite development in the midgut were studied. Trophozoites, gamonts (solitary and associated), and gametocysts were present in the midgut of the insects. In young trophozoites, the apical region differentiated into an epimerite that firmly attached the parasite to the host epithelial cells. With maturation, trophozoites developed in gamonts that were associated with the initiation of sexual reproduction in the cell cycle, culminating in the formation of the spherical gametocyst. Morpho-functional analyses indicated that gregarines absorb nutrients from infected cells and can occlude the midgut as they develop. Consequently, nutritional depletion may interfere with the host's physiology, causing decreased growth, delayed development, and high mortality rates of the parasitized insects. These results suggest G. cuneata could be an important biological agent for controlling T. castaneum in integrated pest management programs.

  9. Morpho-functional characterization and esterase patterns of the midgut of Tribolium castaneum Herbst, 1797 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) parasitized by Gregarina cuneata (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliolli, Adriana A Sinópolis; Lapenta, Ana Silva; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia Colla; Abrahão, Josielle; Conte, Hélio

    2015-09-01

    Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a common pest of stored grains and byproducts and is normally infected by Gregarina cuneata (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinidae). The life cycle of this parasite includes the sporozoite, trophozoite, gamont, gametocyte, and oocyst stages, which occur between the epithelium and lumen of the host's midgut. This study aims to describe the morphofunctional alterations in the midgut and determine the esterase patterns in T. castaneum when parasitized by gregarines. To achieve this purpose, midguts of adult insects were isolated, processed, and analysed using light and electron microscopy. We determined total protein content, amylase activity, and the expression and related activities of the esterases by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The midgut of T. castaneum is formed by digestive, regenerative, and endocrine cells. The effects of parasitism on the digestive cells are severe, because the gregarines remain attached to these cells to absorb all the nutrients they need throughout their development. In these cells, the most common alterations observed include expansion and fragmentation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, development of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, changes in mitochondrial cristae, cytoplasmic vacuolization, formation of myelin structures, spherites, large intercellular spaces, autophagic vesicles, expansion of the basal labyrinth, and cytoplasmic protrusions. Deposits of glycogen granules were also observed. Amylase activity was reduced in parasitized insects. Regenerative cells were found in disorganized crypts and did not differentiate into new cells, thus, compromising the restoration of the damaged epithelium. Though few morphological alterations were observed in the endocrine cells, results suggest that the synthesis and/or release of hormones might be impaired. Nine esterases (EST-1 to 9) were identified in the midgut of T. castaneum and were expressed in varying levels in response

  10. Reproduction of confused flour beetle Tribolium confusum Du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on common and spelt wheat and their products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Almaši

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest in spelt wheat production has grown in recent years but there is hardly any information on pest development on that wheat species in storehouses. The influence of common and spelt wheat and their products on the reproduction and offspring of confused flour beetles Tribolium confusum Du Val was studied under laboratory conditions (22-25 °C and 40-60% RH. The experiment was carried out in four replications with four, 10 and 20 insects over a period of six months. The reproduction of confused flour beetles significantly varied depending on the wheat species and product. The highest reproduction rate was recorded on spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L.. The greatest number of offspring beetles appeared on spelt wheat flour (23469. The number of offspring beetles was higher on common (7044 than on spelt wheat kernels (5469. No offspring developed on common wheat pasta while only 4 young beetles were found on spelt wheat pasta. Offspring numbers increased with storage period up to a point but further on they depended on insect number. The number of insects increased over the first four months but decreased later on and the mortality rate was higher. Initial population density affected the offspring numbers but offspring numbers did not rise proportionally with the rising initial population density. Considering the species of wheat, higher mortality was recorded in common wheat. Regarding the type of product, the highest mortality was recorded in pasta, then in kernels and the lowest in flour. The paper shows that confused flour beetles develop extremely well on spelt wheat, even better than on common wheat which is widely grown in Serbia.

  11. Control Effectiveness of Insect Growth Regulators on Tribolium castaneum%两种昆虫生长调节剂对赤拟谷盗的控制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅群; 谢令德; 张建珍; 贺艳萍; 何君; 陈春武

    2012-01-01

    选取氟啶脲( Chlorfluazuron)和灭幼宝(Pyriproxyfen)两种昆虫生长调节剂对储藏物害虫赤拟谷盗进行了控制效果的研究.结果表明,在40、20、10 mg/kg剂量下,氟啶脲对赤拟谷盗幼虫有较高的校正死亡率,依次为94.44%、88.89%、83.33%,幼虫均不能化蛹,表明该药剂可能作用于几丁质合成酶,抑制了几丁质合成酶的活性.在相同浓度下,灭幼宝对赤拟谷盗幼虫没有明显的致死效果,但其能延长赤拟谷盗幼虫的发育历期,使其不能正常化蛹,最终导致畸形死亡,表明灭幼宝有类似保幼激素的作用.%The paper study the control effectiveness of two IGRs, Chlorfluazuron and Pyriproxyfen to Tribolium castaneum, a main insect pest occurring in stored product. The result showed that Chlorfluazuron had a high mortality rate on Tribolium castaneum larva, which is 94.44% ,,88. 89% ,,83. 33% corresponding to the concentration of 40,20, 10 mg/kg. ,and make them pupate hardly,so Chlorfluazuron had significant death effect on Tribolium castaneum larva , and it acted on chitin synthase, inhibiting the activity of chitin synthase. Pyriproxyfen didn't have obvious death effect on Tribolium castaneum at the same concentration as Chlorfluazuron, but Pyriproxyfen can delay the development of Tribolium castaneum larva, affect their normal pupa, and eventually cause their deformity death. The result preliminary shows that Pyriproxyfen has similar function as juvenile hormones.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of tandem repeats in Tribolium castaneum genome reveals abundant and highly dynamic tandem repeat families with satellite DNA features in euchromatic chromosomal arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlek, Martina; Gelfand, Yevgeniy; Plohl, Miroslav; Meštrović, Nevenka

    2015-12-01

    Although satellite DNAs are well-explored components of heterochromatin and centromeres, little is known about emergence, dispersal and possible impact of comparably structured tandem repeats (TRs) on the genome-wide scale. Our bioinformatics analysis of assembled Tribolium castaneum genome disclosed significant contribution of TRs in euchromatic chromosomal arms and clear predominance of satellite DNA-typical 170 bp monomers in arrays of ≥5 repeats. By applying different experimental approaches, we revealed that the nine most prominent TR families Cast1-Cast9 extracted from the assembly comprise ∼4.3% of the entire genome and reside almost exclusively in euchromatic regions. Among them, seven families that build ∼3.9% of the genome are based on ∼170 and ∼340 bp long monomers. Results of phylogenetic analyses of 2500 monomers originating from these families show high-sequence dynamics, evident by extensive exchanges between arrays on non-homologous chromosomes. In addition, our analysis shows that concerted evolution acts more efficiently on longer than on shorter arrays. Efficient genome-wide distribution of nine TR families implies the role of transposition only in expansion of the most dispersed family, and involvement of other mechanisms is anticipated. Despite similarities in sequence features, FISH experiments indicate high-level compartmentalization of centromeric and euchromatic tandem repeats.

  13. LETHAL EFFECT OF MICROWAVE TREATMENT ON Tribolium castaneum(Herbst)%微波处理对赤拟谷盗各虫态的致死效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿轩; 刘炎; 曹阳; 李淑荣

    2010-01-01

    分别采用微波功率160、320、480、640和800 W处理裸露的和混合于小麦粉中的各虫态赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum(Herbst)的卵、幼虫、蛹和成虫.结果表明:对于裸露的赤拟谷盗用上述功率各处理5、10、15、20、25和30 s时,800 W、25 s可完全致死卵,320 W、30 s可使幼虫和成虫完全致死;800 W、20s可完全致死幼虫、蛹和成虫.对混合于小麦粉中的各虫态赤拟谷盗,当用上述功率各处理20 s时,均不能完全致死各虫态;单独使用800 W分别处理5、10、15、20和25 s时,仅800 W、25 s可完全致死各虫态.微波处理对赤拟谷盗杀虫效果显著.

  14. Residual efficacy of methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae at different temperatures on varnished wood, concrete, and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayaratne, L K Wolly; Fields, Paul G; Arthur, Frank H

    2012-04-01

    The residual efficacy of the juvenile hormone analog methoprene (Diacon II) was evaluated in bioassays using larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed on unsealed concrete or varnished wood treated with a liquid formulation and held at different temperatures. When these two types of surfaces were stored at 20, 30 or 35 degrees C for 0-24 wk, the percentage of adult emergence on concrete increased with time. In contrast, there was no adult emergence from larvae exposed to varnished wood at 24 wk after treatment at any of these temperatures. The presence of flour reduced residual efficacy of methoprene on concrete, but not on varnished wood, with no differences between cleaning frequencies. Methoprene was also stable for 48 h on concrete held at 65 degrees C and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., held at 46 degrees C. Results show that methoprene is stable at a range of temperatures commonly encountered in indoor food storage facilities and at high temperatures attained during insecticidal heat treatments of structures. The residual persistence of methoprene applied to different surface substrates may be affected more by the substrate than by temperature.

  15. Evaluación de la actividad repelente e insecticida de aceites esenciales extraídos de plantas aromáticas utilizados contra tribolium castaneum herbst (coleoptera: tenebrionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Espitia Yanes, Carmen Regina

    2011-01-01

    Los aceites esenciales son mezclas volátiles de terpenos obtenidas de plantas. Estos productos poseen propiedades repelentes e insecticida de insectos. Uno de los insectos de mayor importancia económica es el Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Con el objetivo de evaluar la actividad de aceites esenciales de plantas de Colombia Cymbopogon citratus y (GRbgV02E), Lippia origanoides (VEbgV07E) y Eucalyptus citriodora (MYbgV01E) fueron realizados ensayos de repelencia y mortalidad. Para tal efecto, fué u...

  16. Ojo blanco (obl : un gene marcador del grupo de ligamiento IV en Tribolium castaneum Herbst Ojo blanco (obl: un gene marcador del grupo de ligamiento IV en Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuñez Fernando

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Some genetic aspects of a spontaneous mutation in T. castaneum, discovered in the Department of Biology of National University of Colombia (Bogota, were studied. The mutant gene christened "ojo blanco" (obl, is recessive autosomic, of excellent viability, complete penetrance and variable expression. The gene is phenotipically characterized by a depigmentation of the compound eyes and can be observed from the larval stage. Linkage tests with marker mutants for different groups were carried out. The marker "sooty", of the linkage group IV, gave positive results. The distance was estimated from 2843 descendants obtained from backcrosses in repulsion plase and 1630 in coupling phase. This distance was worked out as 15.64 ± 0.92 units between obl ands. It was not possible to determine if obl is on the left or the right hand side of s. Nor discrepancies between sexes, neither between phases were found in the recombination frequencies for the region between the two loci of chromosome IV.

    Se estudiaron algunos aspectos genéticos de una mutación espontanea en T. casteneum, descubierta en el Departamento de Biología de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá. EI gene mutante llamado "ojo blanco" (obl es autosómico recesivo, de excelente viabilidad, penetrancia completa y expresividad variable. Fenotípicamente se caracteriza por una despigmentación de los ojos compuestos; puede observarse desde el estado de larva. Se le hicieron pruebas de ligamiento con marcadores para diferentes grupos. Se obtuvieron resultados positivos con el marcador "sooty" del grupo de ligamiento IV. La  distancia se calcu1ó a partir de 2.843 descendientes de retrocruzas en posición de repulsión y 1.630 descendientes de retrocruzas en posición de acoplamiento. Esta distancia fue de 15.ó4 ± 0.92 unidades entre obl ys. No se pudo determinar si obl esta a la izquierda 0 a la

  17. Toxic and Repellent effecto of Harmal (Peganum harmala L. Acetonic Extract on Several Aphids and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst Efecto Tóxico y Repelente del Extracto Acetónico de Harmal (Peganum harmala L. sobre varias especies de Áfidos y Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Salari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the dependence on the sometimes unwise use of synthetic pesticides in fruit and vegetable plantations, the toxicity and repellence of Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae acetonic seed extract was assayed against several insect pests. For contact toxicity, 3- to 4-d-old individuals of Aphis fabae Scopoli, A. gossypii Glover, A. nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, and Myzus persicae (Sulzer were included, as well as 1- to 7-d-old adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Repellent effect experiments were conducted on adult, 1- to 2- and 3- to 4-d old M.persicae individuals. At 60 mg mL4, the topical bioassay mortality percentage was significantly higher in A. gossypii than in A. fabae and A. nerii after 12-72 h. Mortality of the treatments on M.persicae was 87.1% and 90.0% after 24 and 48 h, respectively, and significantly higher than A. fabae and A. nerii during this period. At 60 mg mL-1, the mortality of T. castaneum was much lower than that of the aphid species. The highest repellent index (over 72% was observed on 1- to 2-d-old M. persicae individuals.Para reducir la dependencia de los pesticidas sintéticos en plantaciones frutales y hortalizas, se realizó un ensayo para medir la toxicidad y repelencia de un extracto acetónico obtenido a partir de semillas de Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae contra diferentes especies de plagas. Para evaluar la toxicidad del extracto al contacto con los insectos, se incluyeron individuos de 3-4 d de edad de Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis gossypii Glover, Aphis nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe, y Myzus persicae (Sulzer, así como adultos 1-7 d de edad de Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Experimentos para medir el efecto repelente se llevaron a cabo con individuos de 1-2 y 3-4 d de edad de M. persicae. En los resultados de los bioensayos tópicos el porcentaje de mortalidad fue significativamente mayor en la especie A. gossypii que en A. fabae y A. nerii, después de 12-72 h con una concentración de 60 mg mL-1. La mortalidad

  18. 敲减Wingless/Wnt1基因表达对赤拟谷盗发育中的影响%Knocking-down of Wingless/Wnt1 Influences the Development of Tribolium castaneum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭亚男; 李承军; 李斌; 李卓玉

    2012-01-01

    Known as highly conserved during evolution, the Wnt signaling pathway plays a vital role in regulating animal embryonic axis, embryonic differentiation, and deciding cell polarity and maintaining adult dynamic equilibrium. Mutations or deregulations of its components might cause the occurrence of carcinoma. We studied the role of Wingless/Wnt1 during larva-adult development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, with dsRNA-mediated Wingless(Wg)/Wntl gene knocked down. The treated late larvae metamorphosed into pupae with drastically increased wing interval and decreased wing width ( P < 0. 01 ). The pursuant pupa-adult eclosion was also severely affected and most of pupae died during this period. The qPCR result showed that the mRNA level of Cadherin-like and Smoothened (Smo) genes were up-regulated greatly, and that of armadillo-2 was slightly higher, after Wingless/Wntl gene was knocked down. We drew the conclusion that Wnt-1 signaling pathway is closely related to the proper wing development and adult metamorphosis of Tribolium. In addition, the elevated expression of Cadherin-like and Armadillo-2 may be accountable for the reduced wing width and enlarged wing interval caused by wg gene silencing, because those alterations can either enhance cell adhesion or change cell morphology. Importantly, the up-regulation of smo gene indicates that Hedgehog signaling pathway may be affected by the RNAi of Wg and involved in the abnormal or lethal phenotypes observed in our experiment.%Wnt信号通路是进化中高度保守的一条信号转导途径,在调控动物的胚胎轴向正常发育、胚胎分化、决定细胞极性、维持成体动态平衡等方面发挥重要作用.该信号通路的异常激活还与肿瘤的发生密切相关.本实验将体外人工合成的Wingless( Wg)/Wnt1基因dsRNA显微注射入赤拟谷盗晚期幼虫体内,研究Wingless/Wnt1蛋白在赤拟谷盗发育过程中发挥的作用.实验结果显示,注射Wingless(wg)/Wnt1基

  19. Effects of vanillin and gamma irradiation on the development of confused flour beetle, tribolium confusum (DUV.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the natural chemical compound food flavoring agent, vanillin on the tribolium confusum was examined. The effect of vanillin on tribolium confusum reared as 18-day old larvae decreased the percent adult emergence, it was 32 % and 51.4 % adults at the treatments 2 % and 4 % respectively. The sex ratio was in favour of female at control group (1:1.2 male:female). This ratio reversed at the treatments 2 %, 4 % vanillin was favour of males. When one day old larvae treated with 2 %, 8 % vanillin, the percent pupation was decrease from control group. It was 31.83, 45.0 %, as compared with 53.33 in control group, respectively. At highest treatment 8 %, sex ratio was in favour of males. The mean number of total progenies decrease significantly from control when larvae 18-day old treated with vanillin and stored for two or four months. While when larvae 1-day old treated with vanillin , the decrease in the number of total progenies was insignificant. When one day old adults irradiated at 20, 50 and 70 Gy and reared for two and four months. The mean number of progenies decrease significantly by increasing the radiation dose, when compared with control group

  20. A selective CAP2b neuropeptide antagonist for an expressed receptor from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapause hormone (DH) is an insect neuropeptide that is highly effective in terminating the overwintering pupal diapause in members of the Helicoverpa/Heliothis complex of agricultural pests, thus DH and related compounds have promise as tools for pest management. To augment our development of effec...

  1. Characterization of sulfakinin and sulfakinin receptor and their roles in food intake in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfakinins (SK) are multifunctional neuropeptides widely found in insects that are structurally and functionally homologous to the mammalian gastrin/cholecystokinin (CCK)neuropeptides. CCK is involved in various biological processes such as the feeding regulation where it induces satiety. In this p...

  2. 电子束对赤拟谷盗成虫辐照效应研究%Fatty Acid Analysis on Adult of Tribolium castaneum Irradiated by Electron Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶磊; 王殿轩; 徐威

    2012-01-01

      采用电子束辐照处理赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum(Herbst)成虫,研究在辐照剂量分别为120、180、300、420、500和1200 Gy的6个处理后虫体内脂肪酸种类及相对含量变化。通过GC-MS分析结果表明,赤拟谷盗成虫体内的脂肪酸主要为肉豆蔻酸、棕榈酸、油酸、硬脂酸。结果表明:受电子束辐照后赤拟谷盗成虫脂肪酸种类都未出现变化,但相对含量变化明显。%  Fatty acid analysis on adults of Tribolium castaneurn(Herbst) was carried out with GC-MS method after electron beam irradiation in the dosage of 0,120,240,300,420,500 and 1 200 Gy,respectively.The results indicate that the fat acid from Herbst included in nutmeg acid,palmitic acid,oleic acid and stearic acid.Under the condition of high dosage of irradiation electron beam,there is a significant influence on the content of fatty acid of S.oryzae adults,but not for the kinds of fat acids.

  3. The influence of different temperature on the crawl and flight initiation of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)%温度对赤拟谷盗爬行和起飞活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆东; 王殿轩; 乔占民

    2011-01-01

    在不同温度下研究了赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum(Herbst)在固体物面、设定粮面、温度均匀的粮(小麦)柱和具有温度梯度粮柱内爬行扩散速度、起飞温度等.主要结果为:赤拟谷盗在17℃开始有爬行为,25℃开始有飞行行为,在15~25℃时水平爬行速度和15 ~ 20℃时竖直运动速度与温度呈显著正相关,在无障碍固体物面上的爬行速度为在粮面上速度的3.9~5.9倍,在水平粮柱内的扩散速度约为在竖直粮柱内扩散速度的1.2~3.1倍,赤拟谷盗的适宜起飞温度在25~30℃之间.%The influence of temperature on the dispersal rate and flight initiation of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults was studied at different temperatures and an different substrates. The dispersal rate was monitored both on a solid surface and on wheat in a perfipex groove at both uniform temperatures and over a temperature gradient. The results indicate that the minimum temperature that initiated crawling was 17℃. Both on the solid surface and wheat bulk. The minimum temperature for flight initiation was 25 ℃ on both substrates. The dispersal rate of adults significantly increased with temperature within the range of 15 - 25℃ for horizontal movement, and within the range of 15 - 20% for vertical movement in the wheat column. The dispersal rate on the solid surface was 3. 9 -5. 9 times higher than that on wheat. The dispersal rate in wheat columns was 1.2 - 3. 1 limes higher than in vertical columns without wheat. The ideal flight temperature was 25 -30 ℃ for both male and female T. Castaneum.

  4. The Pax gene eyegone facilitates repression of eye development in Tribolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZarinKamar Nazanin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pax transcription factor gene eyegone (eyg participates in many developmental processes in Drosophila, including the Notch signaling activated postembryonic growth of the eye primordium, global development of the adult head and the development of the antenna. In contrast to other Pax genes, the functional conservation of eyg in species other than Drosophila has not yet been explored. Results We investigated the role of eyg during the postembryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Our results indicate conserved roles in antennal but not in eye development. Besides segmentation defects in the antenna, Tribolium eyg knockdown animals were characterized by eye enlargement due to the formation of surplus ommatidia at the central anterior edge of the compound eye. This effect resulted from the failure of the developing gena to locally repress retinal differentiation, which underlies the formation of the characteristic anterior notch in the Tribolium eye. Neither varying the induction time point of eyg knockdown nor knocking down components of the Janus kinase/Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription signaling pathway in combination with eyg reduced eye size like in Drosophila. Conclusions Taken together, expression and knockdown data suggest that Tribolium eyg serves as a competence factor that facilitates the repression of retinal differentiation in response to an unknown signal produced in the developing gena. At the comparative level, our findings reveal diverged roles of eyg associated with the evolution of different modes of postembryonic head development in endopterygote insects as well as diversified head morphologies in darkling beetles.

  5. 赤拟谷盗HSP70基因克隆和竞争定量PCR检测%Cloning and quantitative competitive PCR assay of HSP70 gene in Tribolium castaneum ( Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丽娟; 董晓慧; 尹新明

    2011-01-01

    To study the expression changes of heat shock protein 70 (a highly conserved protein) in Tribolium castaneum after exposure to heat stress, a fragment of 681 bp encoding for HSP70 was amplified and sequenced from T.castaneum.The fragment encoded 227 amino acid residues with the GenBank accession no.HM345948.The result of homology analysis showed that this fragment shared 97% identity with hsp70 from L.decemlineata (AF322911.1 ).Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of HSP70 in T.castaneum with those in Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Mamestra brassicae, Drosophila melanogaster and Liriomyza sativae indicated that they shared more than 94% identity.The internal competitor used in quantitative competitive PCR was obtained by RT-PCR.The detection system of hsp70 was constructed by PCR amplification using the same quantity of target cDNA and a series of diluted internal competitor as template.The linear equation of standard curve was Y= 1.032X- 1.618 (r2 =0.975).This study provides a very convenient method for the quantitation of the hsp70 expression changes in T.castaneum and offers the basic data for the prevention and control of pests using thermal control technology.%为研究赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum受到热胁迫后高度保守的热激蛋白70(heat shock protein 70,HSP70)基因的表达变化,本研究扩增了681 bp的赤拟谷盗hsp70片段,编码227个氨基酸残基,GenBank登录号为HM345948.同源性分析表明:赤拟谷盗hsp70核苷酸序列与马铃薯甲虫Leptinotarsa decemlineata的hsp70(GenBank登录号:AF322911.1)同源性最高,为97%;其推测的蛋白序列与马铃薯甲虫、甘蓝夜蛾Mamestra brassicae、黑腹果蝇Drosophila melanogaster和美洲斑潜蝇Liriomyza,sativae的HSP70蛋白均有94%以上的同源性.利用RT-PCR技术得到与赤拟谷盗hsp70进行竞争定量的内部竞争物,以等量的目标cDNA和一系列稀释的竞争模板进行竞争PCR扩增,构建了hsp70的竞争定量PCR检测体系,该

  6. 球孢白僵菌九个菌株对赤拟谷盗成虫的毒效%Efficacy of nine isolates of Beauveria bassiana against adults of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hediyeh GOLSHAN; Moosa SABER; Farzad MAJIDI-SHILSAR; Farrokh KARIMI

    2013-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin is one of the most important entomopathogenic fungi and has been widely used for many insect pests all over the world.In this study,the pathogenicity of nine isolates of B.bassiana was evaluated against adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst).Fifteen adults of the pest were submerged into the four suspensions (1 × 106,1 × 107,1 × 10s and 1 × l09 conidia/mL) of different isolates of B.bassiana for 20 s,and the mortality was recorded daily for 14 d.Results showed that IRAN 440C and IRAN 187C isolates had the lowest (5.04 × 107 conidia/mL) and highest (5.05 ×108 conidia/mL) LCs0,and DEBI 005 and DEBI 014 isolates had the shortest (2.88 d) and longest (4.96 d) LT50,respectively.According to the LC5o and LT50 values and the mortality,IRAN 440C is a perfect isolate for using in controlling the pest.%球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin是最重要的昆虫病原真菌,广泛用于防治世界各地的多种害虫.本研究评价了球孢白僵菌9个菌株对赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)成虫的致病性.将15头赤拟谷盗成虫浸入到4个浓度(1×106,l×107,l×lo8和l×109个分生孢子/mL)的白僵菌菌株中20 s,14 d内每日记录成虫的死亡率.结果表明:IRAN 440C菌株对赤拟谷盗成虫的LC50最低(5.04 ×l07个分生孢子/mL),IRAN187C菌株的最高(5.05 ×lo8个分生孢子/mL);DEBI 005菌株对赤拟谷盗成虫的LT5o最短(2.88 d),DEBI 014菌株的最长(4.96 d).根据LC50,LT50和死亡率结果得出IRAN 440C是防治这一害虫的理想菌株.

  7. Identification of the Drosophila and Tribolium receptors for the recently discovered insect RYamide neuropeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Caitlin; Hauser, Frank; Krogh-Meyer, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    One year ago, we discovered a new family of insect RYamide neuropeptides, which has the C-terminal consensus sequence FFXXXRYamide, and which is widely occurring in most insects, including the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (F. Hauser et al., J....... Proteome Res. 9 (2010) 5296-5310). Here, we identify a Drosophila G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coded for by gene CG5811 and its Tribolium GPCR ortholog as insect RYamide receptors. The Drosophila RYamide receptor is equally well activated (EC(50), 1×10(-9)M) by the two Drosophila RYamide neuropeptides......), which might be due to the fact that the last peptide does not completely follow the RYamide consensus sequence rule. There are other neuropeptides in insects that have similar C-terminal sequences (RWamide or RFamide), such as the FMRFamides, sulfakinins, myosuppressins, neuropeptides F, and the various...

  8. MMPs regulate both development and immunity in the tribolium model insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Knorr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are evolutionarily conserved and multifunctional effector molecules in development and homeostasis. In spite of previous, intensive investigation in vitro and in cell culture, their pleiotrophic functions in vivo are still not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the genetically amenable beetle Tribolium castaneum represents a feasible model organism to explore MMP functions in vivo. We silenced expression of three insect-type Tribolium MMP paralogs and their physiological inhibitors, TIMP and RECK, by dsRNA-mediated genetic interference (RNAi. Knock-down of MMP-1 arrested development during pupal morphogenesis giving phenotypes with altered antennae, compound eyes, wings, legs, and head. Parental RNAi-mediated knock-down of MMP-1 or MMP-2 resulted in larvae with non-lethal tracheal defects and with abnormal intestines, respectively, implicating additional roles of MMPs during beetle embryogenesis. This is different to findings from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, in which MMPs have a negligible role in embryogenesis. Confirming pleiotrophic roles of MMPs our results also revealed that MMPs are required for proper insect innate immunity because systemic knock-down of Tribolium MMP-1 resulted in significantly higher susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Moreover, mRNA levels of MMP-1, TIMP, and RECK, and also MMP enzymatic activity were significantly elevated in immune-competent hemocytes upon stimulation. To confirm collagenolytic activity of Tribolium MMP-1 we produced and purified recombinant enzyme and determined a similar collagen IV degrading activity as observed for the most related human MMP, MMP-19. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study, to our knowledge, investigating the in vivo role of virtually all insect MMP paralogs along with their inhibitors TIMP and RECK in both insect development and immunity. Our results from the

  9. Effect of phosphine on the activities of CAT and SOD in Tribolium castaneum%磷化氢对赤拟谷盗成虫体内CAT和SOD活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏朝明; 张琳琳; 廉振民

    2007-01-01

    用赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum(Herbst)成虫,研究PH3对其体内超氧化物岐化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性的影响.结果表明PH3熏蒸后,4种不同地理种群的成虫体内,CAT酶活性都有所降低.种群NGD1降低最多,接近57%,而NGD4则只降低了19%,NGD2和NGD3的降低都在40%左右.不同地理种群的成虫体内,SOD酶活性在熏蒸后都有所增加,种群NGD1增加幅度最大,NGD2增加幅度最小.SOD和CAT活性的变化幅度与成虫对PH3产生的抗性有关,抗性越大,酶活性变化越大.

  10. STUDIES ON THE FUMIGATION ACTIVITY OF FOUR PRICKLY ASH EXTRACTS TO THE ADULTS OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM%四种花椒提取物对赤拟谷盗成虫熏蒸活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂霄艳; 邓永学; 王进军; 刘映红; 李俊

    2007-01-01

    在30℃下采用广口瓶密闭熏蒸法熏蒸48 h和72 h,测定青椒精油、红椒精油、一级麻素及二级麻素对赤拟谷盗(Tribolium castaneum Herbst)成虫的熏蒸致死作用及LC50值.结果表明LC50值大小顺序为一级麻素>二级麻素>红椒精油>青椒精油.进一步研究熏蒸时间和温度对青椒精油及红椒精油熏蒸活性的影响,结果表明熏蒸时间越长,LC50值越小,两种花椒精油的持效期较长;随着温度的升高,同一精油浓度下赤拟谷盗的校正死亡率呈现先增大后减小的趋势.

  11. Toxicity comparison of ethyl formate on different resistant strains of Tribolium castaneum to phosphine%甲酸乙酯对不同磷化氢抗性水平赤拟谷盗的毒力比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿轩; 刘炎; 郜智贤; 徐东; 储昭兵

    2010-01-01

    参考FAO推荐的熏蒸剂毒力测定方法,测定了甲酸乙酯对4种不同磷化氢抗性水平的赤拟谷盗(Tribolium castaneum(Herbst))品系的毒力.主要结果为甲酸乙酯对4个磷化氢抗性系数分别为1、3、170和247倍的赤拟谷盗品系的LD50值相应地为17.354L/m3、18.776L/m3、20.464L/m3和21.470 mL/m3.结果表明,不同磷化氢抗性的赤拟谷盗品系对甲酸乙酯的敏感相似,对磷化氢具有明显抗性的赤拟谷盗对甲酸乙酯未表现出抗性.

  12. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  13. Research on Suffocating Virulence of Northeast Green Pepper Essential Oil on Tribolium Castaneum Larva%东北青花椒精油对赤拟谷盗幼虫的熏蒸毒力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪娜; 王建清

    2012-01-01

    The northeast green pepper essential oil was extracted by steam distillation. The suffocating virulence effect of different exposure time and different concentrations of the northeast green pepper oil to Tribolium castaneum larvae was studied. The results showed that the extraction rate of the northeast green pepper oil is 7.2% , which is relatively higher; the suffocating lethal effect of essential oil can be increased by extending the exposure time and increasing the concentration; the LCs0 of 24, 48, and 72 h suffocating are 7.78, 6.18, and 5.75 μL/L respectively; the LTS0 of 6, 8, and 10 μL/L are 49.65, 23.26, and 15.78 h respectively. The purpose was to provide basis for better selection of pepper oil concentration to control breeding and growth of Tribolium eastaneum.%采用水蒸气蒸馏法从东北青花椒中提取精油,研究了不同熏蒸时间和不同浓度下东北青花椒精油对赤拟谷盗幼虫的熏蒸毒力效果。结果表明,东北青花椒精油的提取率为7.2%,出油率相对较高;延长熏蒸时间、增大精油浓度可以提高东北青花椒精油对赤拟谷盗幼虫的熏蒸致死效果,熏蒸24,48,72h的致死中浓度LC50分别为7.78,6.18,5.75μL/L,精油浓度6,8,10μL/L的致死中时间LT50分别为49.65,23.26,15.78h。为选择合适的精油浓度来抑制赤拟谷盗的繁育与生长提供了依据。

  14. FIELD TRIAL OF PHOSPHINE FUMIGATION ON HIGH RESISTANT STRAINS OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM(HERBST)IN STORED WHEAT IN HORIZONTAL STORAGE%实仓熏蒸磷化氢高抗性赤拟谷盗的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建民; 王殿轩; 孙颖; 宋涛; 刘建岭; 杨堃; 张龙; 唐多; 李兆东

    2011-01-01

    在高大平房仓储藏小麦中采用熏蒸试验比较了磷化氢对抗性倍数分别为1、2.5、64和206倍的赤拟谷盗品系杀虫效果.主要结果为:在施药后第2天磷化氢浓度达到210 mL/m3以上,且在经过210~520 mL/m3上升和520~350 mL/m3的变化情况下,抗性2.5倍的品系在3d内全部死亡,抗性64倍的害虫完全死亡时间为6 d,抗性206倍的成虫则在第9天完全死亡.无抗性的害虫经培养也没有出现子代成虫,抗性品系即时死亡率达96%的样品经后期培养其中出现少量子代成虫,但其繁殖力明显小于未进行熏蒸的同品系害虫.结果表明,密闭性较好的高大平房仓中很小的剂量即可保持较高的磷化氢浓度,也可在较短时间内杀死高抗性赤拟谷盗.%A field fumigation of phosphine was carried out on four strains of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) with resistant factor (Rf) of 1、2.5、64 and 206 in stored wheat in horizontal storage.The results showed that the full mortality time of the strain with Rf 2.5 was three days, the full mortality time of the strain with Rf 64 was six days, and the full mortality time of the strain with Rf 206 was nine days under the condition that the phosphine concentration reached 210 mL/m3 on the second day after fumigation, then rose to 210 mL/m3 and 520 mL/m3 and changed between 520 mL/m3 and 350 mL/m3.There were no progeny reproduced by the adults of low level resistance strains after fumigation forty days.The resistant strains with 96% sudden mortality rate reproduced a small amount of adults of the offspring after cultivation, but the reproductive ability was remarkably lower than that of the non-fumigated insects of the same strains.The results indicated that higher phosphine concentration could be kept in a high and large flat warehouse by adding a very low dosage of phosphine, and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) with high resistance could be killed in a short time.

  15. 低氧条件下赤拟谷盗成虫呼吸速率研究%RESPIRATION OF ADULTS OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM IN LOW OXYGEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周佳; 李光涛; 李燕羽; 曹阳; 赵子刚

    2008-01-01

    研究了在30℃,不同氧浓度条件下赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum成虫的呼吸速率.在30℃条件下将试虫置于氧气浓度分别为21%、15%、10%、5%、3%、2%和1%的环境中,用SKW-3型微量呼吸检压仪测定呼吸速率.测定结果表明:赤拟谷盗成虫在上述一系列氧浓度下的耗氧量分别为2.54±0.03、2.44±0.05、2.41±0.10、2.23±0.05、1.99±0.03、1.85±0.06和0.97±0.02 μL/insect·h;随着氧浓度的降低,试虫的呼吸速率逐渐降低,可见低氧对赤拟谷盗成虫的呼吸速率影响与害虫的致死机理有关.

  16. Abundance of microsatellites in the entire genome and EST of Tribolium castaneum%赤拟谷盗全基因组和EST中微卫星的丰度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳琳; 魏朝明; 廉振民; 孔光耀

    2008-01-01

    微卫星是近年大力开发的一种分子标记,为了推进赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum(Herbst)遗传学相关研究,对赤拟谷盗全基因组和EST中由1~6个碱基重复单元组成的简单序列重复进行分析,进而对其微卫星的丰度和分布进行比较分析.微卫星在赤拟谷盗EST中的分布频率为I/0.87 kb,其中单碱基重复序列占71.25%,是最丰富的重复单元,而六、三、四、二,五碱基重复单元序列分别占23.93%,2.94%,1.56%,0.17%,0.15%.全基因组中微卫星的分布频率为1/3.65 kb,其中六碱基重复序列占61.96%,是最丰富的重复单元,而三,四,一,五,二碱基重复单元序列分别占14.35%,13.75%,4.68%,3.60%,1.69%.同时发现富含A和T碱基的微卫星占主导地位,富含G和C碱基的微卫星数量较少.进一步的分析显示,微卫星在每条染色体上的丰度存在很大的相似性.

  17. Lactic Acid Contents of Tribolium castaneum Insect Stages in 5% and 2% Low Oxygen Atmosphere%2%和5%低氧处理赤拟谷盗不同虫态的乳酸测定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周思旭; 曹阳; 李光涛; 张涛羽

    2009-01-01

    用乳酸测试盒测定了正常大气下5%和2%氧浓度处理24 h的赤拟谷盗(Tribolium castaneum Herbst)卵、幼虫、蛹和成虫的体内乳酸含量.结果表明:正常大气下,4种虫态试虫体内的乳酸含量明显不同,成虫的乳酸含量最高,蛹次之,幼虫较小,卵最低;雌成虫和雄成虫体内的乳酸含量,差异不显著(P>0.05).在5%氧浓度下处理24 h,前述4种虫态的乳酸含量分别是对照组相同虫态乳酸含量的2.1倍、2.5倍、2.3倍和1.1倍.2%氧浓度下处理24 h,4虫态的乳酸含量明显比5%氧浓度处理组各相同虫态的高,分别是对照组相同虫态乳酸含量的4.7倍、3.4倍、4.5倍和1.5倍.低氧条件下,四种虫态的乳酸含量都明显增加,卵和蛹的乳酸含量增加的最快,幼虫次之,成虫最慢.因此,低氧导致害虫各个虫态体内乳酸量的增加与低氧致死机理有一定的关系.

  18. Caudal regulates the spatiotemporal dynamics of pair-rule waves in Tribolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat El-Sherif

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short-germ beetle Tribolium castaneum, waves of pair-rule gene expression propagate from the posterior end of the embryo towards the anterior and eventually freeze into stable stripes, partitioning the anterior-posterior axis into segments. Similar waves in vertebrates are assumed to arise due to the modulation of a molecular clock by a posterior-to-anterior frequency gradient. However, neither a molecular candidate nor a functional role has been identified to date for such a frequency gradient, either in vertebrates or elsewhere. Here we provide evidence that the posterior gradient of Tc-caudal expression regulates the oscillation frequency of pair-rule gene expression in Tribolium. We show this by analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in strong and mild knockdown of Tc-caudal, and by correlating the extension, level and slope of the Tc-caudal expression gradient to the spatiotemporal dynamics of Tc-even-skipped expression in wild type as well as in different RNAi knockdowns of Tc-caudal regulators. Further, we show that besides its absolute importance for stripe generation in the static phase of the Tribolium blastoderm, a frequency gradient might serve as a buffer against noise during axis elongation phase in Tribolium as well as vertebrates. Our results highlight the role of frequency gradients in pattern formation.

  19. Slit/Robo-mediated axon guidance in Tribolium and Drosophila: divergent genetic programs build insect nervous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Timothy A; Bashaw, Greg J

    2012-03-01

    As the complexity of animal nervous systems has increased during evolution, developmental control of neuronal connectivity has become increasingly refined. How has functional diversification within related axon guidance molecules contributed to the evolution of nervous systems? To address this question, we explore the evolution of functional diversity within the Roundabout (Robo) family of axon guidance receptors. In Drosophila, Robo and Robo2 promote midline repulsion, while Robo2 and Robo3 specify the position of longitudinal axon pathways. The Robo family has expanded by gene duplication in insects; robo2 and robo3 exist as distinct genes only within dipterans, while other insects, like the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, retain an ancestral robo2/3 gene. Both Robos from Tribolium can mediate midline repulsion in Drosophila, but unlike the fly Robos cannot be down-regulated by Commissureless. The overall architecture and arrangement of longitudinal pathways are remarkably conserved in Tribolium, despite it having only two Robos. Loss of TcSlit causes midline collapse of axons in the beetle, a phenotype recapitulated by simultaneous knockdown of both Robos. Single gene knockdowns reveal that beetle Robos have specialized axon guidance functions: TcRobo is dedicated to midline repulsion, while TcRobo2/3 also regulates longitudinal pathway formation. TcRobo2/3 knockdown reproduces aspects of both Drosophila robo2 and robo3 mutants, suggesting that TcRobo2/3 has two functions that in Drosophila are divided between Robo2 and Robo3. The ability of Tribolium to organize longitudinal axons into three discrete medial-lateral zones with only two Robo receptors demonstrates that beetle and fly achieve equivalent developmental outcomes using divergent genetic programs.

  20. The influence of rearing medium on the irradiation sensitivity of eggs and larvae of the flour beetle, Tribolium confusum J. du Val

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, gamma radiation was applied at six dose levels over the range of 5–40 Gy for 0–2-day-old eggs, and at eight dose levels between 10–80 Gy for 16–18-day-old larvae of Tribolium confusum. Sterility, mortality and other effects of gamma radiation were investigated. All experiments were performed in incubators maintained at 27 ± 0.5 °C and 70 ± 5% r.h. The development of adults reared on different flours from irradiated eggs and larvae was prevented by exposure to 40 and 50 Gy of gamma radiation, respectively. Rate of development of these stages on different flours and the yield of adults was influenced by rearing medium. Rapidly developing flour beetles are more susceptible to killing by gamma radiation. For each stage reared on different media (wheat, barley and maize flours), LD50 and LD99.9 values were determined, together with sterilizing dose levels (SD50 and SD99.9)

  1. The red flour beetle as a model for bacterial oral infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Milutinović

    Full Text Available Experimental infection systems are important for studying antagonistic interactions and coevolution between hosts and their pathogens. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and the spore-forming bacterial insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are widely used and tractable model organisms. However, they have not been employed yet as an efficient experimental system to study host-pathogen interactions. We used a high throughput oral infection protocol to infect T. castaneum insects with coleopteran specific B. thuringiensis bv. tenebrionis (Btt bacteria. We found that larval mortality depends on the dietary spore concentration and on the duration of exposure to the spores. Furthermore, differential susceptibility of larvae from different T. castaneum populations indicates that the host genetic background influences infection success. The recovery of high numbers of infectious spores from the cadavers indicates successful replication of bacteria in the host and suggests that Btt could establish infectious cycles in T. castaneum in nature. We were able to transfer plasmids from Btt to a non-pathogenic but genetically well-characterised Bt strain, which was thereafter able to successfully infect T. castaneum, suggesting that factors residing on the plasmids are important for the virulence of Btt. The availability of a genetically accessible strain will provide an ideal model for more in-depth analyses of pathogenicity factors during oral infections. Combined with the availability of the full genome sequence of T. castaneum, this system will enable analyses of host responses during infection, as well as addressing basic questions concerning host-parasite coevolution.

  2. The iBeetle large-scale RNAi screen reveals gene functions for insect development and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Schultheis, Dorothea; Schwirz, Jonas; Ströhlein, Nadi; Troelenberg, Nicole; Majumdar, Upalparna; Dao, Van Anh; Grossmann, Daniela; Richter, Tobias; Tech, Maike; Dönitz, Jürgen; Gerischer, Lizzy; Theis, Mirko; Schild, Inga; Trauner, Jochen; Koniszewski, Nikolaus D B; Küster, Elke; Kittelmann, Sebastian; Hu, Yonggang; Lehmann, Sabrina; Siemanowski, Janna; Ulrich, Julia; Panfilio, Kristen A; Schröder, Reinhard; Morgenstern, Burkhard; Stanke, Mario; Buchhholz, Frank; Frasch, Manfred; Roth, Siegfried; Wimmer, Ernst A; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Genetic screens are powerful tools to identify the genes required for a given biological process. However, for technical reasons, comprehensive screens have been restricted to very few model organisms. Therefore, although deep sequencing is revealing the genes of ever more insect species, the functional studies predominantly focus on candidate genes previously identified in Drosophila, which is biasing research towards conserved gene functions. RNAi screens in other organisms promise to reduce this bias. Here we present the results of the iBeetle screen, a large-scale, unbiased RNAi screen in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which identifies gene functions in embryonic and postembryonic development, physiology and cell biology. The utility of Tribolium as a screening platform is demonstrated by the identification of genes involved in insect epithelial adhesion. This work transcends the restrictions of the candidate gene approach and opens fields of research not accessible in Drosophila.

  3. Toxicological and Biochemical Characterizations of Acetylcholinesterase in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)%赤拟谷盗乙酰胆碱酯酶生化及毒理学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国瑛; 柴玉鑫; 魏丹丹; 王进军

    2006-01-01

    为了阐明赤拟谷盗[Tribolium castaneum(Herbst)]体内乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)在其各虫态间的变化关系,以期为该虫的综合治理提供一定的理论依据,本试验采用微量滴度酶标板法,分别对其10d龄和20d龄幼虫、蛹及成虫体内AChE的生化及毒理学特性进行了较为系统的研究.结果表明,赤拟谷盗各虫态AChE酶源蛋白含量、酶活力和比活力差异显著,酶源蛋白含量从低到高依次为:10d龄幼虫<20d龄幼虫<成虫<蛹;AChE活力和比活力依次为:成虫<蛹<10d龄幼虫<20d龄幼虫.酶动力学分析发现,AChE米氏常数Km值大小依次为:蛹<成虫<10d龄幼虫<20d龄幼虫,但成虫和蛹之间的差异不显著.此外,幼虫AChE的最大反应速度Vmax亦显著高于成虫和蛹.通过对幼虫AChE离体抑制作用测定表明,毒扁豆碱、马拉氧磷和西维因对20d龄幼虫的抑制中浓度I50均高于10d龄幼虫,说明20d龄幼虫体内的AChE对3种抑制剂的抑制作用更不敏感.

  4. Studying the organization of genes encoding plant cell wall degrading enzymes in Chrysomela tremula provides insights into a leaf beetle genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchet, Y; Saski, C A; Feltus, F A; Luyten, I; Quesneville, H; Heckel, D G

    2014-06-01

    The ability of herbivorous beetles from the superfamilies Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides has only recently begun to be appreciated. The presence of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) in the beetle's digestive tract makes this degradation possible. Sequences encoding these beetle-derived PCWDEs were originally identified from transcriptomes and strikingly resemble those of saprophytic and phytopathogenic microorganisms, raising questions about their origin; e.g. are they insect- or microorganism-derived? To demonstrate unambiguously that the genes encoding PCWDEs found in beetle transcriptomes are indeed of insect origin, we generated a bacterial artificial chromosome library from the genome of the leaf beetle Chrysomela tremula, containing 18 432 clones with an average size of 143 kb. After hybridizing this library with probes derived from 12 C. tremula PCWDE-encoding genes and sequencing the positive clones, we demonstrated that the latter genes are encoded by the insect's genome and are surrounded by genes possessing orthologues in the genome of Tribolium castaneum as well as in three other beetle genomes. Our analyses showed that although the level of overall synteny between C. tremula and T. castaneum seems high, the degree of microsynteny between both species is relatively low, in contrast to the more closely related Colorado potato beetle. PMID:24456018

  5. Identification of irradiated insects: changes in the midgut of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Duv., induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation doses applied for quarantine treatment does not generally cause immediate death of insects and mites. Alive pests may be present in the agricultural commodities for several days. This can be a disadvantage if the product is for immediate export and there is a nil insect requirement. A simple test is needed to ensure the quarantine personnel that a pest of quarantine importance has been irradiated and it does not pose a quarantine risk. Development of a practical technique for identification of irradiated pests was recommended by the ICGFI Task Force Meeting on Irradiation as Quarantine Treatment. The midgut, metabolically very active tissue, is the main site for digestion and absorption of the products of digestion. The old epithelium is replaced by new cells produced by the regenerative nidi. Regenerative cells are very sensitive to radiation. Its damage results in loss of the midgut epithelium in irradiated insects. The following changes in the midgut structure of the confused flour beetle were observed: 1. destruction of the regenerative nidi; 2. elongation and enlargement of epithelial cells; 3. vacuolization of the epithelial cells; 4. fading of cells boundaries in the epithelium; 5. damage of the nuclei (chromatin grains scattered throughout the cytoplasm of epithelial cells); 6. loss of the brush border; 7. disintegration and further loss of epithelium. The most expressed effect of the irradiation treatment was the destruction of regenerative cells of the midgut. Their destruction prevented the replacement of the secretory cells of the epithelium. As a result the epithelium disappeared and the gut lumen enlarged. Causes other than ionizing radiation resulting in disintegration of the midgut epithelium of insects are unknown. Since the degenerative changes in the midgut are positively correlated with both dose and time elapsed after irradiation exposure, a pathological syndrome of irradiation effects on the midgut may be used for a rapid and

  6. Pheromone synthesis. Part 245: Synthesis and chromatographic analysis of the four stereoisomers of 4,8-dimethyldecanal, the male aggregation pheromone of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    All four stereoisomers of 4,8-dimethyldecanal (1) were synthesized from the enantiomers of 2-methyl-1-butanol and citronellal. Enantioselective GC analysis enabled separation of (4R,8R)-1 and (4R,8S)-1 from a mixture of (4S,8R)-1 and (4S,8S)-1, when octakis- (2,3-di-O-methoxymethyl-6-O-t-butyldimet...

  7. Functional characterization of five different PRXamide receptors of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum with peptidomimetics and identificaiton of agonists and antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuropeptidergic system in insects is considered to be an excellent target for pest control strategies. One promising biorational approach is the use of peptidomimetics modified from endogenous ligands to enhance biostability and bioavailability. In this study, we functionally characterized fiv...

  8. Analogs of sulfakinin-related peptides demonstrate reduction in food intake in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, while putative antagonists increase consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insect sulfakinins (SKs) constitute a family of neuropeptides that display both structural and functional similarities to the mammalian hormones gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK). As a multifunctional neuropeptide, SKs are involved in muscle contractions as well as food intake regulation in many...

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ENERGY SOURCES IN THE PH3 RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE STRAINS OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM(HERBST)%赤拟谷盗磷化氢抗性与体内能源物质含量的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 任艺; 王进军

    2008-01-01

    多糖、甘油三酯和可溶性蛋白是昆虫体内主要的三种能源物质.本研究通过乙酰丙酮法、蒽酮比色法和考马斯亮蓝G-250法测定了赤拟谷盗 Tribolium castaneum(Herbst)磷化氢(PH3)抗性品系与敏感品系成虫、蛹和幼虫体内三种能源物质的含量.结果表明,除幼虫体内的甘油三酯和多糖外,其它的测定结果均为敏感品系最高,说明抗性品系赤拟谷盗的能源物质储量可能产生了一定程度的缺失.

  10. 基于28S rRNA基因的PCR-RFLP分析对赤拟谷盗与杂拟谷盗进行分子鉴定%Molecular identification of Tribolium castaneum and T.confusum based on PCR-RFLP analyses of 28S rRNA gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汉松; 冯照军; 程超

    2014-01-01

    本研究拟利用聚合酶链式反应-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)分析方法对赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)和杂拟谷盗Tribolium confusum(Jac du Val)进行分子鉴定,以期为仓储害虫管理和口岸检疫提供技术帮助和支持.采用通用引物对赤拟谷盗和杂拟谷盗的28S rRNA基因进行了PCR扩增、序列测定和分析,结果发现:扩增片段长约1070 bp,该序列种内均无变异位点、种间有76个变异位点,即种内没有核苷酸替换发生、种间核苷酸替换发生76次,其中转换56次,颠换20次,转换/颠换的比值为2.80.用限制性内切酶PvuⅠ对赤拟谷盗和杂拟谷盗的28S rRNA基因扩增产物进行酶切,电泳检测显示,赤拟谷盗和杂拟谷盗的28S rRNA基因扩增产物的PvuⅠ酶切图谱(分别产生2个和3个酶切条带)明显不同,因此本研究建立的28SrRNA基因PCR-RFLP方法可用于赤拟谷盗与杂拟谷盗的分子鉴定.

  11. 不同地区转Bt基因抗虫水稻稻谷对赤拟谷盗生长发育的影响%Influence of transgenic Bt rice on the growth and development of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera : Tenebrionidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚英娟; 徐雪亮; 严寒; 蔡万伦; 林拥军; 华红霞

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the transgenic Bt rice Shanyou 63 with crylAb/crylAc, cry2A and crylC (TT51, T2A-1 and T1C-19) on the growth and development of Tribolium castaneum Herbst was investigated using rice from three different areas (Wuxue, Xiaogan and Suizhou in Hubei Province). The results show that the duration of the egg, larval, pupal and preoviposition stages were 3 to 4 days, 22 to 27 days, 6 to 7 days and 5 to 7 days, respectively. Hatchability, pupation rate and emergence rate were 85% to 100% , 85% to 97% and 82% to 97% , respectively. The weight of 100 pupae was 0. 25 to 0. 31 g and the sex ratio was 0. 8 to 1. 4. No significant differences were found among the different rice varieties. All three Bt proteins could be detected in T. castaneum larvae, but the accumulated amount was very small. There was no significant accumulative effect despite larvae being reared on these strains.%为了明确来自湖北武穴、孝感、随州3个不同地区的转cry1Ab/cry1Ac、cry2A、cry1C基因明恢63(分别命名为TT51、T2A-1和T1C-19)对赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum Herbst生长发育的影响,在室内以不同的转Bt基因稻谷继代饲养赤拟谷盗6代,结果表明:各处理赤拟谷盗的卵期3~4d,卵孵化率85% ~ 100%,幼虫期22 ~ 27 d,化蛹率85%~97%,蛹期6~7d,百蛹重0.25~0.31 g,性比0.8~1.4,羽化率82%~97%,产卵前期5~7d.不同抗虫转基因水稻对赤拟谷盗各发育历期及生命表参数没有显著的影响,同一转基因事件,没有因为种植地区的不同造成对赤拟谷盗生长发育的差异.3种Bt蛋白在继代饲养的赤拟谷盗幼虫体内检测均呈阳性反应,但积累量很小,继代饲养后,没有发现在赤拟谷盗体内明显的累积.

  12. TOXICITY ASSAY OF BASSA AND MALATHION TO SITOPHILUS ORYZAE AND TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM%巴沙和马拉硫磷对两种储粮害虫成虫的毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗来凌; 刘伟强; 田世尧; 杨森辉; 赖志勇

    2002-01-01

    用97%巴沙和45%马拉硫磷乳油对米象(Sitophilus oryzae)和赤拟谷盗(Triboli-um castaneum)作毒力测定.根据结果求出巴沙和马拉硫磷处理米象成虫72小时毒力回归方程:巴沙为y=2.3960x-0.1760(r=0.9970),马拉硫磷为y=2.5642x-1.0915(r=0.9858);巴沙LG5o为144.6299mg/L(95%置信区间127.7332~161.5266mg/L),马拉硫磷LC50为237.4535mg/L(95%置信区间206.2068~268.7003mg/L).结果表明巴沙对供试米象的毒力比马拉硫磷大得多,但巴沙和马拉硫磷对供试赤拟谷盗的毒力均很小.

  13. REACHES ON THE INSECTICIDAL EFFECTS OF POKEWEED EXTRACTS ON SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS MOTSCHULSKY AND TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM%美洲商陆粗提物对赤拟谷盗和玉米象的作用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雅蔷; 鲁玉杰; 仲建锋; 王雄

    2007-01-01

    采用点滴法、滤纸药膜法、饲料伴药法,分别测定了美洲商陆Phytolacca americana L.粗提物对玉米象Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky、赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum成虫的触杀、驱避和种群抑制作用.研究结果表明,美洲商陆粗提物在1.0μL剂量下触杀处理72 h,对赤拟谷盗和玉米象的校正死亡率分别为98.89%和100%.在浓度800μL/L下,处理24 h后,美洲商陆粗提物对赤拟谷盗的驱避率达到94.1%.当浓度为1 000μL/L时,处理45 d后,美洲商陆粗提物对赤拟谷盗和玉米象F1代的种群抑制率均达到了100%.

  14. Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against adult Tribofium castaneum exposed on concrete: effects of exposure interval, concentration and the presence of a food source after exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank H. Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Chlorfenapyr, an insecticidal pyrrole, was applied to concrete arenas at concentrations of 1.1, 0.825, 0.55, and 0.275 g of active ingredient [AI]/m2. Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, were exposed for 2, 4, or 8 h at each concentration, then removed and held either with or without food (wheat flour) for 7 days. Survival was assessed when the beetles were removed from the exposure arenas and daily during the post-exposure period. In the presence of food, survival was high regardless of concentration and the day on which post-treatment survival was assessed, but survival did decrease as the exposure period increased from 4 to 8 h. When the beetles were not given food after exposure, survival at each concentration and exposure period declined during the 1-week post-exposure assessments. This pattern of decrease could be described by linear and non-linear equations. Results show the presence of food material greatly compromised effectiveness of the insecticide, and emphasize the importance of cleaning and sanitation in conjunction with insecticide treatments.

  15. Research on quality properties of flour infected by red flour beetle (Tribolium canstaneum)%赤拟谷盗对小麦粉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秋晨; 王晓曦; 刘亚楠

    2012-01-01

    赤拟谷盗是小麦粉加工及储存过程中的重要害虫之一.选用普通小麦粉180 g,向其中投入赤拟谷盗成虫,研究小麦粉在感染头数分别为0、10、30、60、100、200,感染时间为0、15、25、35、45 d时的品质变化.实验表明:随着虫口密度的增大和感染时间的延长,小麦粉的水分稍有上升,灰分变化不大;粗淀粉含量降低,粗蛋白质含量升高,湿面筋含量和面筋指数则呈现不规律的波动;清蛋白、球蛋白、谷蛋白含量下降,醇溶蛋白的含量上升;降落数值下降明显.在较低虫口密度下时,小麦粉的峰值黏度、最低黏度、黏度破损值和最终黏度有升高趋势,但随着虫口密度的增大又逐步降低.%Red flour beetle(Tribulium canstaneum) is one kind of important pest during wheat flour processing and preservation. Quality properties of flour were measured after different flour infecting time in five densities of adults of red flour beetle. The density of adults was 0/10/30/60/100/200 individuals in per 180 g of flour. Quality properties of flour were measured after 0/15/25/35/45 days. The result showed that along with insect density or time increasing,the moisture,protein was increased, the wet gluten content and gluten index showed irregular fluctuation; Flour protein types was changed, albumin,globulin and glutenin content decreased, but gliadin increased; The falling number decreased significantly. Peak viscosity, trough viscosity, breakdown value,consistency,and final viscosity increased at lower insect density, but decreased gradually with insect density increasing.

  16. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Youngik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population

  17. 营养质量对雄性赤拟谷盗生长发育、抗饥饿和资源再获取能力的影响%Effect of nutrition quality on the development, starvation resistance and resource reacquisition ability of male Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明庆磊; 冯照军; 程超

    2013-01-01

    昆虫的生长发育、抗饥饿和资源再获取能力对其生存、生殖和性选择非常重要.本文研究了营养质量对赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)生长发育、抗饥饿和资源再获取能力的影响.结果表明,三个营养处理下雄性赤拟谷盗的生长发育性状(幼虫重、发育历期、蛹重和成虫重)均存在显著性差异,在高营养质量下生长的雄性赤拟谷盗发育更快,体重更大,且各生长发育性状间存在显著性相关.营养质量对雄性赤拟谷盗成虫的抗饥饿能力没有显著影响,但对其资源再获取能力有显著影响,表现为在高营养质量下生长的雄性赤拟谷盗成虫比在低营养质量下生长的具有更高的资源再获取能力.雄性赤拟谷盗抗饥饿能力和资源再获取能力之间存在显著性相关,但是雄性赤拟谷盗抗饥饿能力和资源再获取能力除了与发育历期存在显著性相关外,与其它生长发育性状不存在显著性相关.本文还对这些实验结果的性选择意义进行了讨论.

  18. The Effect of Temperature and Humidity on the Susceptibility of Flour Beetles to Organophosphorus Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Chadha

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the temperature and humidity on the susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum Herbst. to malathion and diazinon, has been investigated. It has been found that temperature significantly influences the susceptibility of T. castaneum to malathion though not to diazinon. Humidity, however, influences the susceptibility if the insect to both insecticides.

  19. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  20. Comparison of carboxylesterase acitivity between the resistant and susceptible strains of Tribolium castaneum to phosphine%赤拟谷盗的磷化氢敏感和抗性品系体内羧酸酯酶的活性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿轩; 原锴; 高希武

    2010-01-01

    本文比较测定了赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum(Herbst)的磷化氢抗性(Rf=327)和敏感品系害虫的羧酸酯酶活性,研究了该害虫同一品系不同个体间羧酸酯酶的活性差异,比较了两品系害虫在系列磷化氢浓度下熏蒸24 h和6.94×10-2mg/L磷化氢浓度下熏蒸不同时间的羧酸酯酶活性.主要结果为:未熏蒸的抗性害虫幼虫和蛹体内的羧酸酯酶活性分别高于敏感品系的1.37和1.16倍;敏感和抗性害虫同品系内不同个体间羧酸酯酶活性分布频率都存在明显差异,抗性害虫中酶活性大的个体数量占的比例较大;磷化氢浓度分别为0.69×10-2、2.78×10-2、5.56×10-2、8.33×10-2和11.11×10-2mg/L时都可导致敏感害虫羧酸酯酶的活性降低,但活性受抑制的程度不因浓度高低呈相应的增减.浓度分别为5.56×10-2、11.1l×10-2、13.89×10-2、20.83×10-2和27.78×10-2mg/L的熏蒸中抗性害虫体内酶活性增加,且活性增高的程度与浓度增减也不呈对应变化.在6.94×10-2mg/L磷化氢浓度下熏蒸不同时间的结果中,敏感害虫的酶活性随时间延长而下降,抗性害虫的活性则随时间延长而增大.研究表明赤拟谷盗对磷化氢的抗性可能与羧酸酯酶的活性增加有关.

  1. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies by Quantitative Real-time PCR in Tribolium castaneum After Exposure to Phosphine%磷化氢诱导下赤拟谷盗实时定量PCR内参基因的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金泊; 欧静; 姚富姣; 何磊; 奚耕思; 魏朝明

    2014-01-01

    实时定量RT-PCR(qRT-PCR)是进行基因表达水平分析的一种常用技术手段,而选择相对稳定的内参基因对数据进行标准化是获得可信数据的关键.本研究使用qRT-PCR技术评价8个内参基因—β-actin、GAPDH、α-Tubulin、SYN1、SYN6、RPS3、RPS18和RPL13a在磷化氢诱导后的不同品系赤拟谷盗(Tribolium castaneum)中的表达水平,采用相对定量方法并分别使用geNorm和NormFinder程序进行数据分析.其中经geNorm软件分析的8个内参基因的稳定性由高到低排列顺序为RPS18 =RPL13a (0.007)>SYN6 (0.015) RPS3 (0.038)β-actin (0.044)α-Tubulin (0.105) SYN1 (0.154)GAPDH (0.205),且内参基因配对差异值V2/3值为0.006,从而确定内参基因的最适数目为2个,分别为RPS18和RPL13a.NormFinder与geNorm相似,其运行结果以稳定值的大小排序,经NormFinder分析的各内参基因的稳定性由高到低的排列顺序为RPS18 (0.002)> RPL13a(0.016)> β-actin(0.042) >RPS3(0.044) SYN6(0.055)>α-Tubulin(0.066)> SYN1(O.077)> GAPDH (0.126),由此得出RPS18的稳定性最高,最终由该程序判定的最佳组合是RPS18和RPL13a.因此,geNorm和NormFinder两款软件的分析结果一致,最终确定相对适合的内参基因有两个:RPS18和RPL13a,该结果为赤拟谷盗基因的表达研究提供了基础资料,也为其他昆虫内参基因的筛选提供参考.

  2. Uncommon formation of two antiparallel sperm bundles per cyst in tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Glenda; Yotoko, Karla S. C.; Gomes, Luiz F.; Lino-Neto, José

    2012-09-01

    Several species of Tenebrionidae are stored-grain pests. Since they belong to a specious family, the systematics of these beetles is still in doubt. In insects, spermatogenesis and the spermatozoa exhibit great diversity, and are therefore commonly used in phylogenetic and taxonomic analyses. During the spermatogenetic process in these organisms, the cells originating from a single spermatogonium develop synchronically in groups referred to as cysts. At the end of this process, there is usually only one sperm bundle per cyst, with all the cells in the same orientation. This paper details the spermiogenesis of the tenebrionid beetles Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas confusa, Tribolium castaneum and Palembus dermestoides using whole mount and histological sections of the cysts. In these species, spermatogenesis is similar to that which occurs in most insects. However, during spermiogenesis, the nuclei of the spermatids migrate to two opposite regions at the periphery of the cyst, leading to the uncommon formation of two bundles of spermatozoa per cyst. This feature is possibly an apomorphy for Tenebrionidae.

  3. Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Protein Phosphatase 5 from the Cantharidin-Producing Blister Beetle, Epicauta chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi'en Chen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5 is a unique member of serine/threonine phosphatases which has been recognized in regulation of diverse cellular processes. A cDNA fragment encoding PP5 (EcPP5 was cloned and characterized from the cantharidin-producing blister beetle, E. chinensis. EcPP5 contains an open reading frame of 1500 bp that encodes a protein of 56.89 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 88% and 68% identities to the PP5 of Tribolium castaneum and humans, respectively. Analysis of the primary sequence shows that EcPP5 has three TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat motifs at its N-terminal region and contains a highly conserved C-terminal catalytic domain. RT-PCR reveals that EcPP5 is expressed in all developmental stages and in different tissues. The recombinant EcPP5 (rEcPP5 was produced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein exhibited phosphatase activity towards pNPP (p-nitrophenyl phosphate and phosphopeptides, and its activity can be enhanced by arachidonic acid. In vitro inhibition study revealed that protein phosphatase inhibitors, okadaic acid, cantharidin, norcantharidin and endothall, inhibited its activity. Further, protein phosphatase activity of total soluble protein extract from E. chinensis adults could be impeded by these inhibitors suggesting there might be some mechanism to protect this beetle from being damaged by its self-produced cantharidin.

  4. Formation of rigid, non-flight forewings (elytra of a beetle requires two major cuticular proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Arakane

    Full Text Available Insect cuticle is composed primarily of chitin and structural proteins. To study the function of structural cuticular proteins, we focused on the proteins present in elytra (modified forewings that become highly sclerotized and pigmented covers for the hindwings of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. We identified two highly abundant proteins, TcCPR27 (10 kDa and TcCPR18 (20 kDa, which are also present in pronotum and ventral abdominal cuticles. Both are members of the Rebers and Riddiford family of cuticular proteins and contain RR2 motifs. Transcripts for both genes dramatically increase in abundance at the pharate adult stage and then decline quickly thereafter. Injection of specific double-stranded RNAs for each gene into penultimate or last instar larvae had no effect on larval-larval, larval-pupal, or pupal-adult molting. The elytra of the resulting adults, however, were shorter, wrinkled, warped, fenestrated, and less rigid than those from control insects. TcCPR27-deficient insects could not fold their hindwings properly and died prematurely approximately one week after eclosion, probably because of dehydration. TcCPR18-deficient insects exhibited a similar but less dramatic phenotype. Immunolocalization studies confirmed the presence of TcCPR27 in the elytral cuticle. These results demonstrate that TcCPR27 and TcCPR18 are major structural proteins in the rigid elytral, dorsal thoracic, and ventral abdominal cuticles of the red flour beetle, and that both proteins are required for morphogenesis of the beetle's elytra.

  5. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gu

    Full Text Available The red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing.We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP, six chemosensory proteins (CSP, four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP, 22 odorant receptors (OR, four gustatory receptors (GR, three ionotropic receptors (IR, and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis.The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary

  6. 十二种药用植物乙醇提取物对谷蠹和赤拟谷盗成虫的驱避效应%Repellent effect of the ethanol extracts from twelve herb plants on the adults of Rhizopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄衍章; 卢燕会; 李文静

    2010-01-01

    采用滤纸药膜选择法研究了蛇床子、茵陈、篇蓄等12种药用植物乙醇提取物对谷蠢Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.)和赤拟谷盗Tribolium costaneum Herbst成虫的驱避效应.12种药用植物以蛇床子(Cnidium monnieri)提取物对谷蠹成虫的驱避效果最佳,786μg/cm2 处理24 h对谷蠹的驱避率达93%;茵陈(Artemisia capillaries)提取物对赤拟谷盗成虫的驱避效果最佳,用393 μg/cm2 处理72 h的驱避率为95%,茵陈提取物以262 μg/cm2 放置7 d后对赤拟谷盗成虫的驱避率可达V级水平.茵陈提取物对赤拟谷盗的驱避持效期长、效果好,具有一定的开发前景.

  7. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Erin W Hodgson; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  8. Chemical Constituents and Toxicity of Essential Oils of Oriental Arborvitae, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, against Three Stored-Product Beetles Componentes Químicos y Toxicidad de Aceites Esenciales de Tuya Oriental, Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco, contra Tres Escarabajos de Productos Almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or biological activity against insects. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils of leaves and fruits from oriental arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae was investigated against adults of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab., rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L., and red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Fresh leaves and fruits were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oils was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Twenty-six compounds (92.9% and 23 constituents (97.8% were identified in the leaf and the fruit oils, respectively. The major components of both leaves and fruits oils were α-pinene (35.2%, 50.7%, α-cedrol (14.6%, 6.9% and Δ-3-carene (6.3%, 13.8%, respectively. Both oils in the same concentration were tested for their fumigant toxicity on each species. Results showed that leaf oils were more toxic than fruit oils against three species of insects. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum. LC510 values of the leaf and the fruit oils at 24 h were estimated 6.06 and 9.24 μL L¹ air for C. maculatus, 18.22 and 21.56 μL L-1 air for S. oryzae, and 32.07 and 36.58 μL L4 air for T. castaneum, respectively. These results suggested that P. orientalis oils may have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae, and T. castaneum.Los metabolitos secundarios de las plantas juegan un papel importante en las interacciones planta-insecto, y por lo tanto pueden tener actividad insecticida o biológica en los insectos. La toxicidad fumigante de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del árbol oriental de la vida (Platycladus orientalis (L. Franco (Cupressaceae fue investigada contra adultos de gorgojo del guisante (Callosobruchus maculatus Fab

  9. Comparative developmental analysis of Drosophila and Tribolium reveals conserved and diverged roles of abrupt in insect wing evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravisankar, Padmapriyadarshini; Lai, Yi-Ting; Sambrani, Nagraj; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2016-01-15

    Morphological innovation is a fundamental process in evolution, yet its molecular basis is still elusive. Acquisition of elytra, highly modified beetle forewings, is an important innovation that has driven the successful radiation of beetles. Our RNAi screening for candidate genes has identified abrupt (ab) as a potential key player in elytron evolution. In this study, we performed a series of RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in both Tribolium and Drosophila to understand the contributions of ab to the evolution of beetle elytra. We found that (i) ab is essential for proper wing vein patterning both in Tribolium and Drosophila, (ii) ab has gained a novel function in determining the unique elytron shape in the beetle lineage, (iii) unlike Hippo and Insulin, other shape determining pathways, the shape determining function of ab is specific to the elytron and not required in the hindwing, (iv) ab has a previously undescribed role in the Notch signal-associated wing formation processes, which appears to be conserved between beetles and flies. These data suggest that ab has gained a new function during elytron evolution in beetles without compromising the conserved wing-related functions. Gaining a new function without losing evolutionarily conserved functions may be a key theme in the evolution of morphologically novel structures.

  10. Residual efficacy of pyrethrin+methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum in a commercial flour mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concrete arenas with and without flour were placed in open, obstructed, and hidden positions inside a commercial flour mill and exposed to a combination treatment of pyrethrin + methoprene. Bioassays were conducted 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks after the arenas were treated by adding flour to those arenas th...

  11. GenBank blastn search result: AK287688 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available son University Genomics Institute Tribolium castaneum BAC Library (Red Flour Beetle)) complete sequence. INV 0.0 1 -1 ... ...AK287688 J065128B11 AC154128.3 AC154128 Tribolium castaneum BAC T.cast_C36A24 (Clem

  12. GenBank blastn search result: AK287494 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287494 J043031P17 AC154128.3 AC154128 Tribolium castaneum BAC T.cast_C36A24 (Clem...son University Genomics Institute Tribolium castaneum BAC Library (Red Flour Beetle)) complete sequence. INV 0.0 1 -1 ...

  13. GenBank blastn search result: AK288029 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288029 J075133J15 AC154128.3 AC154128 Tribolium castaneum BAC T.cast_C36A24 (Clem...son University Genomics Institute Tribolium castaneum BAC Library (Red Flour Beetle)) complete sequence. INV 0.0 1 1 ...

  14. GenBank blastn search result: AK288555 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288555 J090047A20 AC154128.3 AC154128 Tribolium castaneum BAC T.cast_C36A24 (Clem...son University Genomics Institute Tribolium castaneum BAC Library (Red Flour Beetle)) complete sequence. INV 0.0 1 -1 ...

  15. GenBank blastn search result: AK288718 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288718 J090062H18 AC154128.3 AC154128 Tribolium castaneum BAC T.cast_C36A24 (Clem...son University Genomics Institute Tribolium castaneum BAC Library (Red Flour Beetle)) complete sequence. INV 0.0 1 -1 ...

  16. GenBank blastn search result: AK288143 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288143 J080312L04 AC154128.3 AC154128 Tribolium castaneum BAC T.cast_C36A24 (Clem...son University Genomics Institute Tribolium castaneum BAC Library (Red Flour Beetle)) complete sequence. INV 0.0 1 1 ...

  17. GenBank blastn search result: AK287749 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287749 J065154B22 AC154128.3 AC154128 Tribolium castaneum BAC T.cast_C36A24 (Clem...son University Genomics Institute Tribolium castaneum BAC Library (Red Flour Beetle)) complete sequence. INV 0.0 1 -1 ...

  18. GenBank blastn search result: AK287980 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287980 J075083D24 AC154128.3 AC154128 Tribolium castaneum BAC T.cast_C36A24 (Clem...son University Genomics Institute Tribolium castaneum BAC Library (Red Flour Beetle)) complete sequence. INV 0.0 1 -1 ...

  19. GenBank blastn search result: AK287934 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287934 J075002H19 AC154128.3 AC154128 Tribolium castaneum BAC T.cast_C36A24 (Clem...son University Genomics Institute Tribolium castaneum BAC Library (Red Flour Beetle)) complete sequence. INV 0.0 1 -1 ...

  20. GenBank blastn search result: AK288116 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288116 J080040E23 AC154128.3 AC154128 Tribolium castaneum BAC T.cast_C36A24 (Clem...son University Genomics Institute Tribolium castaneum BAC Library (Red Flour Beetle)) complete sequence. INV 0.0 1 -1 ...

  1. GenBank blastn search result: AK240901 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240901 J065034F04 AC154128.3 AC154128 Tribolium castaneum BAC T.cast_C36A24 (Clem...son University Genomics Institute Tribolium castaneum BAC Library (Red Flour Beetle)) complete sequence. INV 0.0 1 1 ...

  2. GenBank blastn search result: AK241223 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241223 J065124F09 AC154128.3 AC154128 Tribolium castaneum BAC T.cast_C36A24 (Clem...son University Genomics Institute Tribolium castaneum BAC Library (Red Flour Beetle)) complete sequence. INV 0.0 1 1 ...

  3. RNA interference and dietary inhibitors induce a similar compensation response in Tribolium castaneum larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    RNAi uses the host’s cellular machinery to degrade and reduce gene expression and has become a way to functionally test a gene of interest. RNAi technology is being used to develop pest control strategies in the agricultural community because it can be applied to non-model systems. However, there ha...

  4. The Effects of Temperature and Diet during Development, Adulthood, and Mating on Reproduction in the Red Flour Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inon Scharf

    Full Text Available The effects of different temperatures and diets experienced during distinct life stages are not necessarily similar. The silver-spoon hypothesis predicts that developing under favorable conditions will always lead to better performing adults under all adult conditions. The environment-matching hypothesis suggests that a match between developmental and adult conditions will lead to the best performing adults. Similar to the latter hypothesis, the beneficial-acclimation hypothesis suggests that either developing or acclimating as adults to the test temperature will improve later performance under such temperature. We disentangled here between the effect of growth, adult, and mating conditions (temperature and diet on reproduction in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, in reference to the reproduction success rate, the number of viable offspring produced, and the mean offspring mass 13 days after mating. The most influential stage affecting reproduction differed between the diet and temperature experiments: adult temperature vs. parental growth diet. Generally, a yeast-rich diet or warmer temperature improved reproduction, supporting the silver-spoon hypothesis. However, interactions between life stages made the results more complex, also fitting the environment-matching hypothesis. Warm growth temperature positively affected reproduction success, but only when adults were kept under the same warm temperature. When the parental growth and adult diets matched, the mean offspring mass was greater than in a mismatch between the two. Additionally, a match between warm adult temperature and warm offspring growth temperature led to the largest offspring mass. These findings support the environment-matching hypothesis. Our results provide evidence for all these hypotheses and demonstrate that parental effects and plasticity may be induced by temperature and diet.

  5. Effect of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wise) Brown and Smith(Ascomycota: Hypocreales) alone or in combination with diatomaceous earth against Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalaki, M P; Athanassiou, C G; Steenberg, Tove;

    2007-01-01

    The insecticidal eVect of the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wise) Brown and Smith (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) was evaluated against adults and larvae of the confused Xour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and larvae of the Mediterranean Xour...

  6. Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Juniperus communis L. subsp. hemisphaerica (Presl Nyman against Two Stored Product Beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, insecticidal activity of essential oil from fruits of Juniperus communis L. subsp. hemisphaerica (Presl Nyman was evaluated against Rhyzopertha dominica (F. and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst by fumigation at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. Dry fruits were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The major components were identified α−pinene (59.70%, and limonene (9.66%. Insecticidal activity was varying with essential oil concentration and exposure time. Results showed that R. dominica is more susceptible than T. castaneum for all exposure times. LC50 values at 24 h were estimated 36.96 μl/l air for R. dominica, and 107.96 μl/l air for T. castaneum. These results suggested that J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica fruit oil may have potential as a control agent against R. dominica, and T. castaneum.

  7. 甲酸乙酯对面粉中赤拟谷盗的熏蒸效果%The fumigation effect of Ethyl formate against Triboloum castaneum in flour.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游源浅; 詹开瑞; 张晓燕; 陈艳

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the fumigation activity of Ethyl formate against Tribolium castaneum. The Lct99 of T. castaneum was calculated by detecting concentration of Ethyl formate during exposure. The results indicate that Ethyl formate was effective in disinfecting all life stage of T. castaneum in flour, and the sensitivities of life stages of T. castaneum to Ethyl formate, which arranged from strongest to weakest, were egg, low instar larva, adult, high instar larva and pupa. The Lct99 for disinfecting all life stages of T. castaneum in 6 and 12 h at 23℃ were 448.42 and 599.34rag.h/L, respectively.%本文研究了甲酸乙酯对面粉中赤拟谷盗不同虫态的熏蒸作用。通过对熏蒸期间熏蒸剂浓度检测,计算浓度时间乘积(Cr)计算不同时间下甲酸乙酯对赤拟谷盗各虫态达到99%控制的处理指标(Lct99)。结果表明甲酸乙酯熏蒸能有效防治面粉中的赤拟谷盗各虫态,赤拟谷盗不同虫态对甲酸乙酯的敏感性由强到弱依次为:卵〉低龄幼虫〉成虫〉高龄幼虫〉蛹。在23℃条件下处理6h和12h对面粉中赤拟谷盗的厶‰分别为448.42和599.34mg·h/L

  8. Innexin7a forms junctions that stabilize the basal membrane during cellularization of the blastoderm in Tribolium castaneum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Maurijn; Benton, Matthew A; Vazquez-Faci, Tania; Lamers, Gerda E M; Jacobs, Chris G C; Rabouille, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the fertilized egg undergoes a series of rapid nuclear divisions before the syncytial blastoderm starts to cellularize. Cellularization has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, but its thick columnar blastoderm is unusual among insects. We therefore set out to describe ce

  9. Innexin7a forms junctions that stabilize the basal membrane during cellularization of the blastoderm in Tribolium castaneum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Zee, Maurijn; Benton, Matthew A.; Vazquez-Faci, Tania; Lamers, Gerda E M; Jacobs, Chris G C; Rabouille, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In insects thefertilized egg undergoes a series of rapid nuclear divisions before the syncytial blastoderm starts to cellularize. Cellularization has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster but its thick columnar blastoderm is unusual among insects.We therefore set out to describe cellul

  10. The Spruce Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Holsten, E H; Their, R W; Munson, A. S.; Gibson, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), is the most significant natural mortality agent of mature spruce. Outbreaks of this beetle have caused extensive spruce mortality from Alaska to Arizona and have occurred in every forest with substantial spruce stands. Spruce beetle damage results in the loss of 333 to 500 million board feet of spruce saw timber annually. More than 2.3 million acres of spruce forests have been infested in Alaska in the last 7 years with an estimated 30 milli...

  11. Determining lethal dose of gamma radiation on different stages of Tribolium Cosmonauts H b s t

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pest infestation causes great losses to stored grain through out the world. This is specially true in developing countries where the technology is less advanced, and climatic conditions are extremely favourable for the development of pests. Irradiation is on approved method of direct control for stored-product insect in wheat and wheat flour in many countries, and in dictation are that it will soon be approved for all grain, grain products and other dry food commodities. Radiation doses required to kill or sterilized the most important storage pests in all stages are known. However irradiation is very effective in preventing insect development and in producing sterility. A detailed analysis of the radiosensitivity of stored-product insects shows the different groups of pests have very different sensitivities and quarantine doses can be tailored to kill or sterilize the species of quarantine concern. The effect of irradiation on insects are many, and varied, depending primarily on the species, stage, age and physical factors. The aim is to survey the effect of gamma radiation on stored pest, which can categorized under following classes: 1-The effect of gamma radiation on different stages grow of tribolium castaneum (H B S T); 2-Determination of lethal doses.; 3-The study of gamma radiation on products. In summary these information indicated that fairly low dosages of gamma radiation could be used on commodities such as bulk grain in which some infestation by insect stages of irradiation would be required on products such package foods where hundred percent mortality must be obtain. (author)

  12. Using a Lethality Index to Assess Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to Insecticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Agrafioti

    Full Text Available We evaluated knockdown caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Duval, the confused flour beetle and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L., the sawtoothed grain beetle. Bioassays were conducted on concrete and metal surfaces. Adults of the tested species were exposed on both surfaces treated with the above insecticides at two doses (low and high. Knockdown assessment was done after 15, 30 and 60 min of adult exposure in the treated surfaces. Also, after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 d of exposure, a lethality index was calculated with an equation resulting to values from 0 to 100, where 100 indicated complete mortality and 0 complete survival. We also developed a lethality index by ranking each adult on each surface from 0 to 4, 0: adults moved normally, 1: adults were knocked down, but were able to walk for short intervals, 2: adults were knocked down and unable to walk, but with visible movement of antennae etc., 3: adults were knocked down, with very minimal movement of the tarsi and the antennae and 4: adults were dead (no movement. Knockdown of adults immediately after exposure (15-60 min was higher for pirimiphos-methyl followed by alpha-cypermethrin, for both dose rates tested and species, but only on the metal surface. The lethality index was nearly 100 for all insecticides after 5d of exposure for O. surinamensis, while for T. confusum the adult lethality index was considerably lower for alpha-cypermethrin, suggesting that that recovery from knockdown occurred. Chlorfenapyr was the only insecticide that was more effective on concrete than on metal, while the reverse was noted for the other three insecticides. These results show that knockdown has different levels, which can be used as indicators of insect mortality or recovery.

  13. Using a Lethality Index to Assess Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlontzos, George; Arthur, Frank H.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated knockdown caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Duval, the confused flour beetle and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), the sawtoothed grain beetle. Bioassays were conducted on concrete and metal surfaces. Adults of the tested species were exposed on both surfaces treated with the above insecticides at two doses (low and high). Knockdown assessment was done after 15, 30 and 60 min of adult exposure in the treated surfaces. Also, after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 d of exposure, a lethality index was calculated with an equation resulting to values from 0 to 100, where 100 indicated complete mortality and 0 complete survival. We also developed a lethality index by ranking each adult on each surface from 0 to 4, 0: adults moved normally, 1: adults were knocked down, but were able to walk for short intervals, 2: adults were knocked down and unable to walk, but with visible movement of antennae etc., 3: adults were knocked down, with very minimal movement of the tarsi and the antennae and 4: adults were dead (no movement). Knockdown of adults immediately after exposure (15–60 min) was higher for pirimiphos-methyl followed by alpha-cypermethrin, for both dose rates tested and species, but only on the metal surface. The lethality index was nearly 100 for all insecticides after 5d of exposure for O. surinamensis, while for T. confusum the adult lethality index was considerably lower for alpha-cypermethrin, suggesting that that recovery from knockdown occurred. Chlorfenapyr was the only insecticide that was more effective on concrete than on metal, while the reverse was noted for the other three insecticides. These results show that knockdown has different levels, which can be used as indicators of insect mortality or recovery. PMID:26560316

  14. Using a Lethality Index to Assess Susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrafioti, Paraskevi; Athanassiou, Christos G; Vassilakos, Thomas N; Vlontzos, George; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated knockdown caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against adults of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin Duval, the confused flour beetle and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), the sawtoothed grain beetle. Bioassays were conducted on concrete and metal surfaces. Adults of the tested species were exposed on both surfaces treated with the above insecticides at two doses (low and high). Knockdown assessment was done after 15, 30 and 60 min of adult exposure in the treated surfaces. Also, after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 d of exposure, a lethality index was calculated with an equation resulting to values from 0 to 100, where 100 indicated complete mortality and 0 complete survival. We also developed a lethality index by ranking each adult on each surface from 0 to 4, 0: adults moved normally, 1: adults were knocked down, but were able to walk for short intervals, 2: adults were knocked down and unable to walk, but with visible movement of antennae etc., 3: adults were knocked down, with very minimal movement of the tarsi and the antennae and 4: adults were dead (no movement). Knockdown of adults immediately after exposure (15-60 min) was higher for pirimiphos-methyl followed by alpha-cypermethrin, for both dose rates tested and species, but only on the metal surface. The lethality index was nearly 100 for all insecticides after 5d of exposure for O. surinamensis, while for T. confusum the adult lethality index was considerably lower for alpha-cypermethrin, suggesting that that recovery from knockdown occurred. Chlorfenapyr was the only insecticide that was more effective on concrete than on metal, while the reverse was noted for the other three insecticides. These results show that knockdown has different levels, which can be used as indicators of insect mortality or recovery.

  15. What do dung beetles eat?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H.

    2007-01-01

    Most adult coprophagous beetles feed on fresh dung of mammalian herbivores, confining ingestion to small particles with measured maximum diameters from 2-5 to 130 µm, according to body size and kind of beetle. This study explores benefits and costs of selective feeding in a ‘typical' dung beetle ...

  16. Chemical constituents and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Carum copticum against two stored product beetles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIBI ZAHRA SAHAF; SAEID MOHARRAMIPOUR; MOHAMMAD HADI MESHKATALSADAT

    2007-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or antifeedant activity against insects. Carum copticum C. B. Clarke (Apiaceae) is one of these plants that have medicinal effects on humans. The chemical composition of the essential oil from dry seeds of C. copticum was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thymol (41.34%), α-terpinolene (17.46%) and ρ-cymene (11.76%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. In fumigant toxicity tests with the essential oil against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) at 27 +-1℃ and 60%+-5% RH, it was observed that S. oryzae (LC50= 0.91 μL/L) were significantly susceptible than T. castaneum (LC50= 33.14 μL/L). The mortalities of the insect species reached 100% at concentrations higher than 185.2 μL/L and 12-h exposure time. The findings indicate the strong insecticidal activity of C. copticum oil and its potential role as a fumigant for storedproduct insects.

  17. 电子束辐照对赤拟谷盗脂肪酸值的影响%FATTY ACID ANALYSIS ON ADULT OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEURM(HERBST) IRRADIATED BY ELECTRON BEAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶磊

    2015-01-01

    采用电子束辐照处理赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)成虫,研究在辐照剂量分别为120 Gy、180 Gy、300 Gy、420 Gy、500 Gy、1200 Gy和1800 Gy的7个处理后虫体内脂肪酸及相对含量变化.通过GC-MS分析结果表明,赤拟谷盗成虫体内的脂肪酸为肉豆蔻酸、棕榈酸、油酸,受电子束辐照后赤拟谷盗成虫脂肪酸种类都未出现变化,但相对含量变化明显.

  18. Flexibility and extracellular opening determine the interaction between ligands and insect sulfakinin receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their fundamental importance for growth, the mechanisms that regulate food intake are poorly understood. Our previous work demonstrated that insect sulfakinin (SK) signaling is involved in inhibiting feeding in an important model and pest insect, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. B...

  19. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne;

    2013-01-01

    of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis...

  20. Molecular identification of the first SIFamide receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars M; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe;

    2006-01-01

    . Database searches revealed SIFamide receptor orthologues in the genomes from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the silkworm Bombyx mori, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, and the honey bee Apis mellifera. An alignment of the five insect SIFamide or SIFamide-like receptors showed, again...

  1. Variation in susceptibility of laboratory and field strains of three stored-grain insect species to beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to concrete surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to clean, concrete floors of empty bins prior to grain storage against field strains of stored-grain insects is unknown. We exposed adults of 16 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); 8 strains ...

  2. Food source and residual efficacy of chlorfenapyr on sealed and unsealed concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, were exposed at 1 day, and 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-treatment on sealed and unsealed concrete arenas treated with chlorfenapyr at rates of 2.8, 6.9, 13.5, 20.6, 27.5 mg active ingredient/m2. Beetles were held either with or without flour, and a...

  3. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  4. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  5. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanen, Duur K; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics against an antagonist of the beetles' mutualistic fungus. In addition to highlighting the ecological complexity of bark-beetle-microbial symbioses, this work reveals a potential source of novel antibiotics.

  6. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  7. EFFECTS OF ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION ON ACTIVITIES OF PEROXIDASE CATALASE AND SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEURN (HERBST)%电子束辐照对赤拟谷盗保护酶系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿轩; 王晶磊; 李淑荣; 高美须; 徐威; 林敏; 崔莹

    2011-01-01

    By electron beam irradiation, enzyme activity changes of peroxidase (PCD), catalase (CAT), superoxide dis-mutase (SOD) of Triboliian castaneurn (Herbst) in different insects states (3~4th instar larvae, pupae age 1 day to 2 days and adult for 1 day eclosion) have been investigated. The results showed that POD activity of Tribolium castaneum in different states was in order: adult > pupa> larvae; CAT activity: adult > pupa> larvae; SOD activity: larvae > pupa > adult. After irradiation, the protection enzyme activity rose first, then fell with radiation dose increasing. PCX!) of Tribolivan castaneum in three states reached the highest vitality at 500 Gy, CAT of Tribolium castaneum 3-4th instar larvae, pupae age 1 day to 2 days and adult for 1 day eclosion reached the maximum at 420 Gy and 300Gy respectively, SCO of larvae and pupa up to the maximum at 420 Gy, and adult to the highest at 500 Gy. This test would contribute to illuminate the physiological and biochemical effect of electron beam irradiation on stored grain insects.%研究了赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneurn( Herbst)不同虫态(3~4龄幼虫、1~2龄蛹和羽化1天成虫)体内过氧化物酶( POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、超氧歧化酶(SOD)活力在电子束辐照条件下的变化.结果表明,赤拟谷盗不同虫态的POD活力:羽化1d成虫>1~2龄蛹>3~4龄幼虫;CAT活力:羽化1d成虫>1~2龄蛹>3~4龄幼虫;SOD活力:3~4龄幼虫>1~2龄蛹>羽化1d成虫.辐照处理后,保护酶活力随辐照剂量的增加呈先上升后下降的趋势,赤拟谷盗3种虫态POD活力均在500 Gy辐照剂量最高;3~4龄幼虫和1~2龄蛹CAT活力在420 Gy辐照剂量最高,羽化1d成虫300 Gy最高;3~4龄幼虫和1~2龄蛹SOD活力在420 Gy辐照剂量最高,羽化1d成虫500 Gy最高.本试验结果有助于阐明电子束辐照对储粮害虫的生理生化效应.

  8. The Beetle Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Harnew, N; Hofmann, W; Knöpfle, K-T; Löchner, S; Schmelling, M; Sexauer, E; Smale, N J; Trunk, U; Verkooijen, H

    2001-01-01

    This paper details the port de nitions, electrical speci cations, modes of operation and programming sequences of the 128 channel readout chip Beetle . The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and ful lls the requirements of the silicon vertex detector, the inner tracker, the pile-up veto trigger and the RICH detector in case of multianode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preampli ers and shapers. The risetime of the shaped pulse is 25 ns with a 30% remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns. A comparator per channel with con gurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought o chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analogue pipeline with a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervalls and an integrated derandomizing bu er of 16 stages. For analog readout data is multiplexed with up to 40 MHz onto 1 or 4 ports...

  9. Action of amorphous diatomaceous earth against different stages of the stored product pests Tribolium confusum, Tenebrio molitor, Sitophilus granarius and Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewis; Ulrichs

    2001-04-01

    Environmental and human health problems associated with the use of synthetic pesticides have prompted the demand for non-polluting, biologically specific insecticides. The current study tested the use and action of diatomaceous earth against several stored product pests. Fossil Shield(R) applied to wooden plates was lethal to adult Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium confusum, but larvae of the mealworm were unaffected. Beetles died within 14 days exposure in the absence of food to a dose of 2 and 4 g/m(2), but mortality was reduced in those fed grain bran. Fossil Shield(R) was lethal to first instar larvae of Plodia interpunctella, but not lethal to older larval stages. Two-week old larvae of T. confusum were more sensitive to diatomaceous earth than P. interpunctella at the same age. Contact with diatomaceous earth caused adult Sitophilus granarius, T. molitor and T. confusum to lose weight and reduced their water content, suggesting disruption of "the water barrier". Death of stored product insects treated with diatomaceous earth decreased with increased r.h., due to reduced transpiration through the cuticle. High r.h. delays, or above 60% can prevent, the drying action of diatomaceous earth.

  10. Effects of flour conditioning on cannibalism of T. castaneum eggs and pupae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannibalism is a very important factor regulating population dynamics of the red flour beetle. After several days of feeding, the flour becomes conditioned by the beetles, which can affect rates of cannibalism. Flour conditioning is caused by an accumulation of feces, pheromones, and ethylquinone, w...

  11. EST Table: CK487719 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/30 32 %/192 aa FBpp0283246|DpseGA26980-...CTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] BB985877 swa ...

  12. EST Table: BB985913 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 30 %/249 aa FBpp0129766|DereGG112...EDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] BB985877 MSV3 ...

  13. EST Table: FS796464 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/09 32 %/334 aa FBpp0237202|DvirGJ227...milar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] FS796494 ffbm ...

  14. Using a lethality index to assess susceptibility of Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis to insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the knockdown effect caused by four insecticides: alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr, pirimiphos-methyl and fipronil against Tribolium confusum and Oryzaephilus surinamensis adults. Furthermore, for the same species and insecticides, we developed a “lethality index”, to assess knockdown p...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-04-0123 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-04-0123 ref|XP_973273.1| PREDICTED: similar to Putative gustatory receptor 21a [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23143.2| gustatory receptor candidate 10 [Tribolium castaneum] emb|CAL231...72.3| gustatory receptor candidate 39 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_973273.1 1e-135 60% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRI-01-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRI-01-0008 ref|NP_001076809.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium cast...aneum] gb|ABE02225.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABN79650.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076809.1 4e-46 34% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0026 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0026 ref|NP_001076809.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium cast...aneum] gb|ABE02225.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABN79650.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076809.1 5e-71 44% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0383 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0383 ref|NP_001034492.1| chitin synthase 2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|AA...Q55061.1| chitin synthase CHS2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|AAQ62692.1| chitin synthase [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001034492.1 0.021 22% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0115 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0115 ref|XP_973273.1| PREDICTED: similar to Putative gustatory receptor 21a [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23143.2| gustatory receptor candidate 10 [Tribolium castaneum] emb|CAL231...72.3| gustatory receptor candidate 39 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_973273.1 9e-83 40% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0127 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0127 ref|NP_001034492.1| chitin synthase 2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|AA...Q55061.1| chitin synthase CHS2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|AAQ62692.1| chitin synthase [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001034492.1 0.007 21% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-03-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-03-0021 ref|XP_973273.1| PREDICTED: similar to Putative gustatory receptor 21a [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23143.2| gustatory receptor candidate 10 [Tribolium castaneum] emb|CAL231...72.3| gustatory receptor candidate 39 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_973273.1 5e-42 26% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-08-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-08-0001 ref|XP_973273.1| PREDICTED: similar to Putative gustatory receptor 21a [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23143.2| gustatory receptor candidate 10 [Tribolium castaneum] emb|CAL231...72.3| gustatory receptor candidate 39 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_973273.1 1e-41 26% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0217 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0217 ref|NP_001137597.1| gustatory receptor [Tribolium castaneum] emb|...CAL23182.1| gustatory receptor candidate 49 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABY40617.1| gustatory receptor [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001137597.1 0.003 20% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0128 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0128 ref|XP_972629.1| PREDICTED: similar to Probable gustatory receptor 64e [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23162.2| gustatory receptor candidate 29 [Tribolium castaneum] emb|CAL231...40.2| gustatory receptor candidate 7 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_972629.1 4e-42 29% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-01-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-01-0004 ref|XP_973273.1| PREDICTED: similar to Putative gustatory receptor 21a [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23143.2| gustatory receptor candidate 10 [Tribolium castaneum] emb|CAL231...72.3| gustatory receptor candidate 39 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_973273.1 1e-121 54% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-03-0015 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-03-0015 ref|XP_973273.1| PREDICTED: similar to Putative gustatory receptor 21a [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23143.2| gustatory receptor candidate 10 [Tribolium castaneum] emb|CAL231...72.3| gustatory receptor candidate 39 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_973273.1 6e-42 26% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-01-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-01-0006 ref|XP_973273.1| PREDICTED: similar to Putative gustatory receptor 21a [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23143.2| gustatory receptor candidate 10 [Tribolium castaneum] emb|CAL231...72.3| gustatory receptor candidate 39 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_973273.1 1e-125 56% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-01-0003 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-01-0003 ref|XP_973273.1| PREDICTED: similar to Putative gustatory receptor 21a [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23143.2| gustatory receptor candidate 10 [Tribolium castaneum] emb|CAL231...72.3| gustatory receptor candidate 39 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_973273.1 1e-122 53% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-07-0052 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-07-0052 ref|XP_972629.1| PREDICTED: similar to Probable gustatory receptor 64e [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23162.2| gustatory receptor candidate 29 [Tribolium castaneum] emb|CAL231...40.2| gustatory receptor candidate 7 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_972629.1 4e-42 29% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRE-01-1475 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRE-01-1475 ref|NP_001076809.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium cast...aneum] gb|ABE02225.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABN79650.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076809.1 2e-29 32% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1514 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1514 ref|XP_001814862.1| PREDICTED: similar to Odorant receptor 85c, putative [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAM84021.1| olfactory receptor 23 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EFA10703.1| odorant receptor [Tribolium castaneum] XP_001814862.1 9.3 27% ...

  12. EST Table: DC546776 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 67 %/174 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 77 %/173 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 phe- ...

  13. EST Table: BP125083 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ98786... 68 %/102 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 69 %/102 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fbpv ...

  14. EST Table: DC551801 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 67 %/161 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 76 %/160 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 phe- ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0058 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0058 ref|NP_001076809.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium cast...aneum] gb|ABE02225.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABN79650.1| adipokinetic hormone receptor [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076809.1 1e-112 60% ...

  16. Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oil Isolated from Azilia eryngioides (Pau Hedge et Lamond Against Two Beetle Pests Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial Aislado de Azilia eryngioides (Pau Hedge et Lamond contra Dos Escarabajos Plaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgar Ebadollah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A large number of plant essential oils have been used against diverse insect pests since they, unlike conventional pesticides, present no risk to humans and the environment. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of Azilia eryngioides (Pau Hedge et Lamond (Apiaceae essential oil against 1- to 7-d-old Sitophilus granarius (L. (Curculionidae and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Tenebrionidae adults. The essential oil was obtained from aerial parts of the plant using a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were α-Pinene and bornyl acetate. Fumigation bioassays revealed that A. eryngioides oil had a strong insecticidal activity on adult test insects that were exposed to 37.03, 74.07, 111.11, and 148.14 µL L-1 to estimate mean lethal time (LT50 values. Mortality increased as concentration and exposure time increased, and reached 100% at the 39-h exposure time and concentrations higher than 111.11 µL L-1. Another experiment was designed to determine the mean lethal concentration at the 24-h exposure time (LC50-, and these values indicated that S. granarius was more susceptible than T. castaneum. It can be concluded that the essential oil of A. eryngioides has potential against two stored-product pests, S. granarius and T. castaneum.Una gran cantidad de aceites esenciales de plantas se han utilizado como agentes de control biológico contra diversos insectos plaga, ya que no presentan riesgo para los seres humanos y el medio ambiente, a diferencia de los pesticidas convencionales. Se determinó la toxicidad del aceite esencial de Azilia eryngioides (Pau Hedge et Lamond (Apiaceae contra adultos de 1 a 7 días de edad de Sitophilus granarius (L. (Curculionidae y Tribolium castaneum (Herbst (Tenebrionidae. El aceite esencial se obtuvo de las partes aéreas de la planta utilizando un aparato de Clevenger y se analizó por cromatografía de gases por espectrometría de

  17. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  18. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  19. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  20. Improving Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against Stored Grain Beetles with a Synergistic Co-Formulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Clare; Scoates, Freya; Nunn, Adam; Potin, Olivier; Dillon, Aoife

    2016-01-01

    The potential of a dry powder co-formulant, kaolin, to improve the control of storage beetles by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, isolate IMI389521, was investigated. The response of Oryzaephilus surinamensis adults to the fungus when applied to wheat at 1 × 10(10) conidia per kg with and without kaolin at 1.74 g per kg wheat was assessed. Addition of kaolin increased control from 46% to 88% at day 7 and from 81% to 99% at day 14 post-treatment. Following this the dose response of O. surinamensis and Tribolium confusum to both kaolin and the fungus was investigated. Synergistic effects were evident against O. surinamensis at ≥0.96 g of kaolin per kg of wheat when combined with the fungus at all concentrations tested. For T. confusum, adult mortality did not exceed 55%, however, the larvae were extremely susceptible with almost complete suppression of adult emergence at the lowest fungal rate tested even without the addition of kaolin. Finally, the dose response of Sitophilus granarius to the fungus at 15 and 25 °C, with and without kaolin at 1 g per kg of wheat, was examined. Improvements in efficacy were achieved by including kaolin at every fungal rate tested and by increasing the temperature. Kaolin by itself was not effective, only when combined with the fungus was an effect observed, indicating that kaolin was having a synergistic effect on the fungus. PMID:27571107

  1. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  2. LETHAL EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TREATMENT TEMPERATURES ON TRIBOLIUM CA STA NEUM ( HERBST )%不同温度处理对赤拟谷盗的致死作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建华; 钟建军; 王洁静; 史雅; 翟卫波

    2012-01-01

    采用水浴加热,研究不同温度(35℃、45℃、55℃、60℃、65℃)下处理不同时间(60 s、75 s、90 s、105 s、120 s)后对小麦粉中的赤拟谷盗幼虫、蛹和成虫的致死作用.研究结果表明,不同处理温度、不同处理时间对赤拟谷盗幼虫、蛹和成虫的致死作用效果差异显著.在处理温度为35℃、45℃时,各个处理时间对赤拟谷盗幼虫、蛹和成虫正常发育没有影响,而在处理温度为55℃以上时对赤拟谷盗幼虫、蛹和成虫具有较强的致死作用.在处理温度为65℃时,处理60 s以上对赤拟谷盗成虫的致死作用效果即达到100%,处理75 s可100%抑制赤拟谷盗蛹正常发育为成虫,处理90 s以上能完全抑制赤拟谷盗幼虫正常发育为成虫.%In this paper, we studied the lethal effect of different treatment temperatures (35 ℃,45 ℃,55 ℃,60 ℃ and 65 ℃)on the adults, pupae and larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) in wheat flour by water bath heating for different times (60 s,75 s,90 s, 105 s and 120 s). The results showed that the lethal effects of the different treatment temperatures and different treatment times on the adults,pupae and larvae of T. castaneum had significant difference. At 35 ℃ and 45 ℃,treatment time had no influence on the normal development of the adults,pupae and larvae of T. castaneum. The temperature higher than 55 ℃ had strong lethal effect on the adults,pupae and larvae of T. custaneum. For the treatment at 65 ℃,the mortality of the adults reached 100% after treatment for more than 60 seconds, 100% pupae could be suppressed from developing into adults after treatment for 75 seconds,and the larvae could be completely suppressed from developing into adults after treatment for 90 seconds.

  3. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  4. ENHANCED TOXICITY OF CARBON DIOXICE TO ETHYL FORMATE FUMIGANTING ON ADULTS OF SITOPHILUS ORYZAE(LINNAEUS)AND TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM(HERBST)%二氧化碳对甲酸乙酯熏蒸米象和赤拟谷盗的毒力增效作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿轩; 郜智贤; 国娜; 严晓平; 储昭兵

    2009-01-01

    在(28±2)℃、70%±5%相对湿度条件下,设定约1%、3%、5%、7%的二氧化碳浓度环境,参照FAO推荐的害虫抗性测定方法,测定了甲酸乙酯对米象Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus)和赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum(Herbst)的毒力.结果表明:1%的二氧化碳浓度即对甲酸乙酯有一定增效作用,3%~7%的二氧化碳浓度明显增加甲酸乙酯对害虫的毒力.不管是甲酸乙酯单剂熏蒸,还是在不同二氧化碳浓度下,赤拟谷盗对甲酸乙酯的耐受力均大于米象.

  5. Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. PMID:20109441

  6. Tiger beetle's pursuit of prey depends on distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Tiger beetles are fast predators capable of chasing prey under closed-loop visual guidance. We investigated their control system using high-speed digital recordings of beetles chasing a moving prey dummy in a laboratory arena. Analysis reveals that the beetle uses a proportional control law in which the angular position of the prey relative to the beetle's body axis drives the beetle's angular velocity with a delay of about 28 ms. The system gain is shown to depend on the beetle-prey distance in a pattern indicating three hunting phases over the observed distance domain. We show that to explain this behavior the tiger beetle must be capable of visually determining the distance to its target and using that to adapt the gain in its proportional control law. We will end with a discussion on the possible methods for distance detection by the tiger beetle and focus on two of them. Motion parallax, using the natural head sway induced by the walking gait of the tiger beetle, is shown to have insufficient distance range. However elevation in the field of vision, using the angle with respect to the horizon at which a target is observed, has a much larger distance range and is a prime candidate for the mechanism of visual distance detection in the tiger beetle.

  7. Confinement of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) by Cape honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis)

    OpenAIRE

    James D. Ellis Jr.,; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti

    2004-01-01

    International audience In this study we quantify small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybee (A.m. capensis Esch., an African subspecies) behaviours that are associated with beetle confinement in an effort to understand why Cape bees can withstand large beetle infestations. Four observation hives were each inoculated with 25 beetles and were observed for 11-17 days. Data collected included guard bee (worker bees who guard beetle confinement sites) and confined beetle behavi...

  8. Dicty_cDB: VHA176 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 57947.1 TcB53.3_F04_T7 Tribolium BAC library Tribolium castaneum genomic, genomic survey... sequence. 30 0.072 4 CW954836 |CW954836.1 TcB44.3_D09_SP6 Tribolium BAC library Tribolium castaneum genomic, genomic survey...olium castaneum genomic, genomic survey sequence. 30 0.079 4 CW957442 |CW957442.1 TcB53.1_A04_SP6 Tribolium ...BAC library Tribolium castaneum genomic, genomic survey sequence. 30 0.087 4 CG77...0886 |CG770886.1 TcB40.4_B07_T7 Tribolium BAC library Tribolium castaneum genomic, genomic survey sequence.

  9. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. PMID:26992100

  10. 赤拟谷盗磷化氢抗性及快速测定方法研究%STUDY ON PH3 RESISTANCE OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM AND QUICK METHOD TO MEASURE PH3 RESISTANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹阳; 张建军

    2000-01-01

    研究了磷化氢(PH3)对赤拟谷盗成虫的半数击倒时间NT50与致死中量LC50的关系,证明NT50≥30min的赤拟谷盗对PH3具有抗性,证明NT50与LC50、NT100与LC99.9之间均存在线性关系并分别求出了回归方程.同时,利用该方法测定了4个赤拟谷盗品系对PH3的抗性系数.

  11. EST Table: CA946075 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CA946075 KI000114 10/09/28 39 %/193 aa ref|XP_969395.1| PREDICTED: similar to conserved hypothetica...l protein [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EFA00804.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC003691 [Tribolium ca...: similar to conserved hypothetical protein [Tribolium castaneum] FS915960 L9 ...

  12. Colorado potato beetle toxins revisited: evidence the beetle does not sequester host plant glycoalkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armer, Christine A

    2004-04-01

    The Colorado potato beetle feeds only on glycoalkaloid-laden solanaceous plants, appears to be toxic to predators, and has aposematic coloration, suggesting the beetle may sequester alkaloids from its host plants. This study tested 4th instars and adults, as well as isolated hemolymph and excrement, to determine if the beetles sequester, metabolize, or excrete alkaloids ingested from their host plants. HPLC analysis showed: that neither the larvae nor the adults sequestered either solanine or chaconine from potato foliage; that any alkaloids in the beetles were at concentrations well below 1 ppm; and that alkaloids were found in the excrement of larvae at approximately the same concentrations as in foliage. Analysis of alkaloids in the remains of fed-upon leaflet halves plus excreta during 24 hr feeding by 4th instars, as compared to alkaloids in the uneaten halves of the leaflets, showed that equal amounts of alkaloids were excreted as were ingested. The aposematic coloration probably warns of a previously-identified toxic dipeptide instead of a plant-derived alkaloid, as the Colorado potato beetle appears to excrete, rather than sequester or metabolize, the alkaloids from its host plants.

  13. Effect of four Rearing Diets and Gamma irradiation on larval growth rate and the development of the confused flour beetle Tribolium Confusum (DUV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of rearing diet and gamma irradiation on the growth rate development of T. Confusum were investigated. The test larvae were fed on four different rearing diets. Three-day old eggs were irradiated by dosages 20, 40 and 60 Gy. There was a variation of the weight gain, feeding period, and growth rate of larvae according to the effect of rearing diet. when larvae were fed on wheat bran, the highest growth rate was recorded. There is an inverse relationship between the weight gain, the growth rate of larvae and the dosage dosage of gamma ray. The feeding period increased as the doses increased from 0.0 -60 Gy. The average number number of the total progeny depends on the type of the rearing diet. Samples of the diets were analyzed to determine protein % and carbohydrate % which were higher in flour extraction. The moisture %, total fiber %, ash content %, most minerals and vitamins were found in higher content as bran only used

  14. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra.

  15. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  16. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. A

  17. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...

  18. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). PMID:26496952

  19. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  20. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the biology, ecology and management of spruce and spruce beetle populations. This paper is a review of literature on spruce beetle focusing on work published since the late 1970s and is intended as an addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies.

  1. Identification of two capa cDNA transcripts and detailed peptidomic characterization of their peptide products in Periplaneta americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Neupert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first CAPA peptides of insects were identified from Periplaneta americana using extracts of 8000 abdominal perisympathetic organs. The corresponding gene of cockroaches and other basal insects, however, remained undiscovered. Here we identified two capa cDNA transcripts of P. americana. Single cell mass spectrometry of capa neurons in abdominal ganglia yielded a complete coverage of the precursor sequences of both transcripts; with intermediates of precursor processing more prominent in somata than in perisympathetic organs. The processing of the CAPA precursor in P. americana is compared with that in the beetle Tribolium castaneum which was re-evaluated in this study.

  2. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations. PMID:26000906

  3. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  4. EST Table: CK543352 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CK543352 rswhb0_010139.y1 10/09/29 49 %/150 aa ref|XP_970926.1| PREDICTED: similar to wind...beutel CG7225-PA [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EFA09214.1| windbeutel [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/31 43 %/...gi|91087911|ref|XP_970926.1| PREDICTED: similar to windbeutel CG7225-PA [Tribolium castaneum] FS904508 swh ...

  5. EST Table: CK492091 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CK492091 rswab0_010833.y1 10/09/29 53 %/139 aa ref|XP_970926.1| PREDICTED: similar to wind...beutel CG7225-PA [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EFA09214.1| windbeutel [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/30 43 %/...gi|91087911|ref|XP_970926.1| PREDICTED: similar to windbeutel CG7225-PA [Tribolium castaneum] FS904508 swa ...

  6. EST Table: DC539837 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DC539837 E_FL_dpe-_03A08_F_0 10/09/28 50 %/113 aa ref|XP_970926.1| PREDICTED: similar to wind...beutel CG7225-PA [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EFA09214.1| windbeutel [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/02 46...aa gi|91087911|ref|XP_970926.1| PREDICTED: similar to windbeutel CG7225-PA [Tribolium castaneum] FS904508 dpe- ...

  7. EST Table: FS774579 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS774579 E_FL_fcaL_05D18_R_0 10/09/28 60 %/153 aa ref|NP_001164203.1| cannonball [T...ribolium castaneum] gb|EFA04573.1| cannonball [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/08 49 %/161 aa FBpp0170014|DmojGI2...%/153 aa gi|270008125|gb|EFA04573.1| cannonball [Tribolium castaneum] FS786025 fcaL ...

  8. EST Table: FS825912 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS825912 E_FL_fmgV_22B23_R_0 10/09/28 65 %/235 aa ref|NP_001164203.1| cannonball [T...ribolium castaneum] gb|EFA04573.1| cannonball [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/10 57 %/236 aa FBpp0170014|DmojGI2...%/235 aa gi|270008125|gb|EFA04573.1| cannonball [Tribolium castaneum] FS786025 fmgV ...

  9. EST Table: FS888260 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS888260 E_FL_ftes_41L16_F_0 10/09/28 35 %/160 aa ref|NP_001137203.1| bloated tubul...es [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ACH86322.1| bloated tubules [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/12 32 %/163 aa FBpp01275...:AGAP004932 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 35 %/160 aa gi|198386300|gb|ACH86322.1| bloated tubules [Tribolium castaneum] FS928389 ftes ...

  10. EST Table: FS878759 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS878759 E_FL_ftes_13I21_F_0 10/09/28 36 %/150 aa ref|NP_001137203.1| bloated tubul...es [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ACH86322.1| bloated tubules [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/11 32 %/160 aa FBpp01275...:AGAP004932 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 36 %/150 aa gi|198386300|gb|ACH86322.1| bloated tubules [Tribolium castaneum] FS928389 ftes ...

  11. EST Table: DC545455 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DC545455 E_FL_phe-_03C18_F_0 10/09/28 36 %/150 aa ref|NP_001137203.1| bloated tubul...es [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ACH86322.1| bloated tubules [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/02 32 %/160 aa FBpp01275...:AGAP004932 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 36 %/150 aa gi|198386300|gb|ACH86322.1| bloated tubules [Tribolium castaneum] FS928389 phe- ...

  12. EST Table: FS754257 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 64 %/215 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 69 %/225 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS779449 caL- ...

  13. EST Table: AU004990 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ98786....|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 82 %/156 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 85 %/154 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 ws3 ...

  14. EST Table: DC556509 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...3:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 81 %/143 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 84 %/141 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 wd-- ...

  15. EST Table: BY928142 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 85 %/185 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 87 %/183 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS891693 fcP8 ...

  16. EST Table: FS748683 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 65 %/214 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 71 %/214 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 caL- ...

  17. EST Table: DC436713 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 67 %/161 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 76 %/160 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 epM- ...

  18. EST Table: FS933173 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 85 %/187 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 87 %/185 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  19. EST Table: FS929767 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 66 %/127 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 72 %/126 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 fwgP ...

  20. EST Table: FS760075 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 65 %/156 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 74 %/155 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 fcaL ...

  1. EST Table: FY759828 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 11/11/04 63 %/179 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 11/11/04 68 %/189 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS779449 famL ...

  2. EST Table: FY743942 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 11/11/04 84 %/194 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 11/11/04 86 %/193 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 famL ...

  3. EST Table: FS936167 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 69 %/215 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 76 %/214 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 fwgP ...

  4. EST Table: FS923994 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 84 %/194 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 86 %/193 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  5. EST Table: FS925839 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 85 %/187 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 83 %/196 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  6. EST Table: FY757896 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 11/11/04 66 %/222 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 11/11/04 71 %/232 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS779449 famL ...

  7. EST Table: FS758787 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 84 %/190 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 86 %/188 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fcaL ...

  8. EST Table: FS921402 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 85 %/187 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 87 %/185 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  9. EST Table: FS938656 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 66 %/180 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 75 %/179 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 fwgP ...

  10. EST Table: FS777069 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 63 %/216 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 69 %/226 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS779449 fcaL ...

  11. EST Table: FS936705 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...3:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 70 %/172 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 73 %/170 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  12. EST Table: BY928153 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 85 %/187 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 87 %/185 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS891693 fcP8 ...

  13. EST Table: FS926679 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 85 %/187 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 87 %/185 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  14. EST Table: FY750570 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 11/11/04 68 %/197 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 11/11/04 77 %/196 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 famL ...

  15. EST Table: FY744829 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 11/11/04 68 %/207 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 11/11/04 77 %/206 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 famL ...

  16. EST Table: FS929662 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 85 %/187 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 87 %/185 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  17. EST Table: FY762662 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 11/11/04 63 %/169 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 11/11/04 69 %/179 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS779449 famL ...

  18. EST Table: FS933586 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 69 %/210 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 77 %/209 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 fwgP ...

  19. EST Table: DC433839 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 68 %/178 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 77 %/177 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 epM- ...

  20. EST Table: FY738547 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 11/11/04 65 %/222 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 11/11/04 70 %/237 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 famL ...

  1. EST Table: DC438513 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 67 %/161 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 76 %/160 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 epM- ...

  2. EST Table: DC435786 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 67 %/161 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 76 %/160 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 epM- ...

  3. EST Table: FS931305 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 85 %/187 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 87 %/185 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  4. EST Table: FS934387 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 85 %/187 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 87 %/185 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  5. EST Table: FS939021 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 68 %/217 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 75 %/216 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 fwgP ...

  6. EST Table: DC547346 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...3:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 83 %/154 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 84 %/152 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 phe- ...

  7. EST Table: FS938066 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...3:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 83 %/187 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 86 %/185 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  8. EST Table: FS922092 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 84 %/194 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 86 %/193 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  9. EST Table: FS923432 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 85 %/187 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 87 %/185 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  10. EST Table: FS923498 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...R:29198983:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 84 %/194 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 86 %/193 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  11. EST Table: FS762540 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 10/09/10 68 %/183 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 10/09/10 77 %/183 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS939122 fcaL ...

  12. EST Table: FY752330 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-B [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] g...:43321197:-1|gene:AGAP009790 11/11/04 66 %/210 aa gnl|Amel|GB17664-PA 11/11/04 70 %/220 aa gi|119387886|gb|ABL73928.1| obstractor B [Tribolium castaneum] FS779449 famL ...

  13. EST Table: FS933867 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein analogous to peritrophins 3-D2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] ...3:29203672:1|gene:AGAP002909 10/09/10 84 %/171 aa gnl|Amel|GB16370-PA 10/09/10 86 %/169 aa gi|119387892|gb|ABL73931.1| obstractor D [Tribolium castaneum] FS938058 fwgP ...

  14. EST Table: FS762128 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS762128 E_FL_fcaL_29K18_F_0 10/09/28 41 %/220 aa ref|XP_974945.1| PREDICTED: similar to elbow... [Tribolium castaneum] gb|EEZ99244.1| elbow B [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/08 30 %/207 aa FBpp0232.../220 aa gi|91076862|ref|XP_974945.1| PREDICTED: similar to elbow [Tribolium castaneum] BP116537 fcaL ...

  15. EST Table: FS803120 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS803120 E_FL_fmgV_11I07_F_0 10/09/28 74 %/111 aa ref|NP_001034501.1| extradenticle... [Tribolium castaneum] emb|CAD57734.1| extradenticle [Tribolium castaneum] 10/09/09 68 %/113 aa FBpp0123364|...XD_ANOGA 10/09/10 low homology 10/09/10 74 %/111 aa gi|38490515|emb|CAD57734.1| extradenticle [Tribolium castaneum] FS924788 fmgV ...

  16. Influence of fumigant applying height on the mortality of Tribolium castaneum(Herbst) and Rhyzopertha dominica(Fabricius) adults exposed to ethyl formate%甲酸乙酯的施药高度对仓内空间杀虫效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 王殿轩; 唐多; 于志刚; 连桂荣; 洪玉程; 袁林

    2011-01-01

    在储粮容量7000t的高大平房仓空仓内,设置一个高7.50 m、直径300mm的熏蒸室,分别在7.50m、5.61m、3.74m、1.87m和0.1m的高度放置试虫,先后从0.10m、3.74m和7.50m的高度施药,测定了甲酸乙酯对处于不同高度的赤拟谷盗(Tribolium castaneum(Herbst))和谷蠹(Rhyzopertha dominica(Fabricius))成虫的杀虫效果。结果为:在0.10m高度施药,甲酸乙酯对于靠近施药点的试虫可完全致死,而在1.87m及其以上高度处的害虫死亡%The influence of applying height of ethyl formate on mortality of Tribolium castaneum(Herbst) and Rhyzopertha dominica(Fabricius) was examined in a fumigation chamber that is 300 millimeter in diameter and 7500 millimeter in height which was located in a horizontal storage that capacity is 7000 t of wheat.The insect cages were hanged in the fumigation chamber with the height of 7.50 m、5.61 m、3.74 m、1.87 m和 0.1 m separately.The results involved in that there was a full mortality of insect cages on the bottom of the chamber when fumigant was applied in the height of 0.10 meter.The insect died a little on the level of 1.87 meter high above the ethyl formate applying position.There was an increasing of insect mortality both for T.castaneum and R.dominica with the height lowing for 3.74m fumigant applying.Furthermore,the mortality of R.dominica was 100% for each applying height.While that of T.castaneum was 100%,96.7% and 81.0% for the insect height of 0.10m,1.87m and 3.74m respectively.After fumigant applying in the height of 7.50 m,the mortality was less and less with the going up of insect location.The results indicate that ethyl formate can kill the insect quickly near the applied fumigant.It is difficulty to kill the insect above two meters high after applying.There existed an obvious phenomenon that ethyl format can go down rapidly after applying in space fumigation.It is necessary that some mixing techniques should be used in space

  17. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  18. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miraldo, Andreia; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka

    2011-01-01

    Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversi......Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin...... and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open...... and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles...

  19. Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil of Atalantia guillauminii against Three Species Stored Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Lei, Ning; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Ma, Ping; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The toxic and repellent activities of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Atalantia guillauminii Swingle were evaluated against three stored product insects, red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum), cigarette beetles (Lasioderma serricorne) and booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila). The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil were β-thujene (27.18%), elemicin (15.03%), eudesma-3, 7(11)-diene (9.64%), followed by (-)-4-terpeniol (6.70%) and spathulenol (5.25%). The crude oil showed remarkable contact toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults and L. bostrychophila with LD50 values of 17.11, 24.07 µg/adult and 55.83 µg/cm(2) respectively and it also displayed strong fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne adults with LC50 values of 17.60 and 12.06 mg/L respectively, while weak fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila with a LC50 value of 16.75 mg/L. Moreover, the essential oil also exhibited the same level repellency against the three stored product insects, relative to the positive control, DEET. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne. Thus, the essential oil of A. guillauminii may be potential to be developed as a new natural fumigant/repellent in the control of stored product insects. PMID:26369599

  20. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  1. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  2. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  3. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

    2010-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

  4. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction. PMID:19253612

  5. Biologically inspired optics: analog semiconductor model of the beetle exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Kaia; Roth, Zachary; Srinivasan, Pradeep; Rumpf, Raymond; Johnson, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Evolution in nature has produced through adaptation a wide variety of distinctive optical structures in many life forms. For example, pigment differs greatly from the observed color of most beetles because their exoskeletons contain multilayer coatings. The green beetle is disguised in a surrounding leaf by having a comparable reflection spectrum as the leaves. The Manuka and June beetle have a concave structure where light incident at any angle on the concave structures produce matching reflection spectra. In this work, semiconductor processing methods were used to duplicate the structure of the beetle exoskeleton. This was achieved by combining analog lithography with a multilayer deposition process. The artificial exoskeleton, 3D concave multilayer structure, demonstrates a wide field of view with a unique spectral response. Studying and replicating these biologically inspired nanostructures may lead to new knowledge for fabrication and design of new and novel nano-photonic devices, as well as provide valuable insight to how such phenomenon is exploited.

  6. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  7. Juvenile Hormone Regulates Extreme Mandible Growth in Male Stag Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J.; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with o...

  8. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Gardiner

    Full Text Available Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows

  9. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary M; O'Neal, Matthew E; Landis, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  10. Role of oxygen in enhancement in repair of radiation injuries in Tribolium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was determined for various biological responses in Tribolium confusum McGill Black. The biological responses included acute lethality of the adults and larvae; sexual sterilization of the male and female adults; fecundity of the females and hatchability of their eggs as well as the competitiveness of the males. The OER for acute lethality for the male and female adults was found to be 2.25-2.38, regardless of the type of inert gas used to achieve anaerobiosis. Acute lethality for the larvae showed an OER of 2.79. The OER for male and female sexual sterilization was 2.35 and 3.37 respectively. With irradiation carried out in oxygen, the results suggested that at the tissue level of the adults and the male reproductive organ, there is a certain degree of hypoxia. Sexual sterilization of the males by radiation is attributed to the induction of dominant lethal mutation in the sperms, and that of the females involves a combination of dominant lethals and decreased egg production. The OER for egg hatchability at a hatchability level of 50% of the control for irradiated females was 4.0, a surprisingly higher value than that of any other biological responses studied. The OER for fecundity of irradiated females and for male competitiveness were roughly estimated to be 2.8 and 2.3-2.7 respectively. Since the OER for male sexual sterilization is basically the same as that for acute lethality for adults, it is expected that the competitiveness, which depends on the amount of somatic damage by radiation, will not be protected to a much greater extent by anaerobic irradiation than sterilization. It is clearly demonstrated that OER values are specific for the particular end point scored. Even within the same organism, different OER can be obtained with different biological responses

  11. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin;

    2012-01-01

    trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  12. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood. PMID:14610654

  13. 2004 American Burying Beetle Annual Report - Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey efforts for the endangered American Burying Beetle at Pond Creek NWR in 2004 are reported from 14 sampling locations on the refuge. American buring beetle...

  14. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood.

  15. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? METHODOLOGY: We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. CONCLUSION: Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores

  16. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  17. Olfaction in the Colorado beetle at the onset of host plant selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Long-range olfactory orientation of the adult Colorado beetle was studied in a low- speed wind tunnel. The odour of fully grown potato plants elicits an upwind locomotory response in Colorado beetles (odour-conditioned positive anemotaxis), and increases the beetles' speed of locomotion (direct chem

  18. Potential of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the oxadiazine indoxacarb for controlling five coleopteran pests of stored grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregory J. Daglish; Manoj K. Nayak

    2012-01-01

    The potential for using imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) and indoxacarb (an oxadiazine) as grain protectants was investigated in bioassays against resistant strains of five stored grain beetles.The species investigated were Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (the lesser grain borer),Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (the rice weevil),Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)(the rust-red flour beetle),Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (the saw tooth flour beetle),and Cryptolestesferrugineus (Stephens) (the flat grain beetle).Each of these species has developed resistance to one or more protectants,including organophosphorus insecticides,synthetic pyrethroids and the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene.Mortality and reproduction after a 2-week exposure of adults to treated wheat depended on species,dose and insecticide.Imidacloprid had no effect on S.oryzae at any dose,but none of the other species produced any live progeny at 10 mg/kg.Indoxacarb had no effect on T.castaneum at any dose,but none of the other species produced any live progeny at 5 mg/kg.The results show that although both imidacloprid and indoxacarb can control at least four of the five key pests tested at doses comparable to those used for organophosphorus protectants,more potent neonicotinoid or oxadiazine insecticides would be needed than either of these to provide broad spectrum protection of stored grain.

  19. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  20. Flow Visualization of Rhinoceros Beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) in Free Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Hieu Trung Tran; Hoon Cheol Park; Kwang Joon Yoon; Doyoung Byun

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of the beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings,are investigated.Visualization experiments were conducted for various flight conditions of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus:free,tethered,hovering,forward and climbing flights.Leading edge,trailing edge and tip vortices on both wings were observed clearly.The leading edge vortex was stable and remained on the top surface of the elytron for a wide interval during the downstroke of free forward flight.Hence,the elytron may have a considerable role in lift force generation of the beetle.In addition,we reveal a suction phenomenon between the gaps of the hind wing and the elytron in upstroke that may improve the positive lift force on the hind wing.We also found the reverse clap-fling mechanism of the T.dichotomus beetle in hovering flight.The hind wings touch together at the beginning of the upstroke.The vortex generation,shedding and interaction give a better understanding of the detailed aerodynamic mechanism of beetle flight.

  1. Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacke, Marie; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

    2013-02-18

    When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom.

  2. Coarse woody material has value as habitat for saproxylic beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.M.; Spence, J.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept of Renewable Resources; Langor, D.W. [Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Biomass harvesting practices are expected to alter the abundance and natural range of variation in coarse woody material (CWM), which in turn may change soil productivity as well as the hydrological balance and structure of tree stands and habitats needed to ensure forest biodiversity. Ecosystem sustainability should be a main criterion for the development of biomass energy production schemes. Studies in northern Europe indicate that the hyperdiverse saproxylic fauna is sensitive to changes in CWM. Saproxylic beetles are dependent on decaying wood, and play an important role in forest nutrient cycling. Approximately 11 per cent of European saproxylic beetles are at risk of regional extirpation. This study sampled saproxylic beetle species from CWM in mature trembling aspen stands in Alberta. Over 150 species were collected, including 4 species new to science. The study showed that the beetles use numerous CWM habitats and exhibit high habitat specificity. A diversity of CWM substrates are needed to maintain saproxylic beetle habitats. Further research is needed to minimize the loss of species and their ecosystem functions.

  3. Marking small hive beetles with thoracic notching: effects on longevity, flight ability and fecundity

    OpenAIRE

    De Guzman, Lilia; Frake, Amanda; Rinderer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    International audience We tested two marking techniques for adult small hive beetles (SHB): dusting and thoracic notching. The use of blue and red chalk dusts to mark beetles was not persistent and caused early death of SHB with an average survival of 52.6 ± 23.8 and 13.9 ± 7.3 days, respectively. In contrast, notched beetles survived longer (mean = 353.6 ± 5.3 days) with the last beetle dying after 383 days. Likewise, notched beetles (presumed to be injured because of oozing hemolymph fro...

  4. Micro-structure and frictional characteristics of beetle's joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Zhendong; Stanislav N. Gorb

    2004-01-01

    Geometric and micro-structure design, tribology properties of beetle joints were experimentally studied, which aimed to enlighten ideas for the joint design of MEMS.The observation by using SEM and microscopy suggested that beetle's joints consist of a concave surface matched with a convex surface. The heads of the beetles, rubbing with flat glass, were tested in fresh and dried statuses and compared with sapphire ball with flat glass. Frictional coefficient of the joint material on glass was significantly lower than that of the sapphire sphere on glass. The material of the joint cuticle for convex surface is rather stiff (the elastic modulus 4.5 Gpa) and smooth. The surface is hydrophobic (the contact angle of distilled water was 88.3° ). It is suggested here that the high stiffness of the joint material and hydrophobicity of the joint surface are parts of the mechanism minimizing friction in insect joints.

  5. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  6. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  7. EST Table: CK495293 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_969652.1| PREDICTED: similar to high density lipoprotien binding protein / vigilin [Tribolium castaneum] BY919895 swb ... ...CK495293 rswbb0_003642.y1 10/09/29 48 %/102 aa ref|XP_969652.1| PREDICTED: similar to high density lipoproti...en binding protein / vigilin [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/30 37 %/127 aa FBpp0234312

  8. EST Table: CK510757 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 969652.1| PREDICTED: similar to high density lipoprotien binding protein / vigilin [Tribolium castaneum] BY919895 swd ... ...CK510757 rswdd0_006585.y1 10/09/29 51 %/164 aa ref|XP_969652.1| PREDICTED: similar to high density lipoproti...en binding protein / vigilin [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/30 38 %/194 aa FBpp0234312

  9. EST Table: CK499400 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 969652.1| PREDICTED: similar to high density lipoprotien binding protein / vigilin [Tribolium castaneum] BY919895 swb ... ...CK499400 rswbb0_009788.y1 10/09/29 48 %/123 aa ref|XP_969652.1| PREDICTED: similar to high density lipoproti...en binding protein / vigilin [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/30 38 %/135 aa FBpp0115368

  10. EST Table: BB994526 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DICTED: similar to Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 (PDZ-RhoGEF) [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 33 ...l|GB13906-PA 10/09/10 33 %/234 aa gi|189235145|ref|XP_967883.2| PREDICTED: similar to Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 (PDZ-RhoGEF) [Tribolium castaneum] BB994526 PSV3 ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-04-0105 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-04-0105 ref|NP_001076796.1| cardioactive peptide receptor 1 [Tribolium ca...staneum] gb|ABN79651.1| cardioactive peptide receptor 1 [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076796.1 1e-122 59% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-06-0041 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-06-0041 ref|XP_974025.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23157.2| gustatory receptor candidate 24 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_974025.1 1.2 22% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0128 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0128 ref|XP_001811647.1| PREDICTED: similar to DNA polymerase zeta catalytic subunit [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|EEZ99062.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC004938 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_001811647.1 1e-69 66% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1144 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1144 ref|NP_001076795.1| cardioactive peptide receptor 2 [Tribolium ca...staneum] gb|ABN79652.1| cardioactive peptide receptor 2 [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076795.1 1e-15 23% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-03-0064 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-03-0064 ref|XP_974025.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23157.2| gustatory receptor candidate 24 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_974025.1 0.002 20% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-01-0059 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-01-0059 ref|XP_968580.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Tribolium casta...neum] emb|CAL23149.2| gustatory receptor candidate 16 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_968580.1 0.11 22% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0045 ref|NP_001076796.1| cardioactive peptide receptor 1 [Tribolium ca...staneum] gb|ABN79651.1| cardioactive peptide receptor 1 [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076796.1 1e-111 66% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0115 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0115 ref|XP_976353.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Tribolium casta...neum] gb|EFA02127.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC007776 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_976353.1 2e-22 34% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3737 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3737 ref|NP_203163.1|ND4_15766 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAC51707.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Tribolium castaneum] NP_203163.1 0.12 26% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-03-0074 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-03-0074 ref|XP_975520.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23188.2| gustatory receptor candidate 55 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_975520.1 0.001 20% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0798 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0798 ref|NP_203162.1|ND5_15766 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAC51706.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Tribolium castaneum] NP_203162.1 0.063 31% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0620 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0620 ref|XP_976353.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Tribolium casta...neum] gb|EFA02127.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC007776 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_976353.1 6e-08 34% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-VPAC-01-1047 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-VPAC-01-1047 ref|XP_969270.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13089 CG13089-PA [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|EFA07117.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC010108 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_969270.1 0.11 28% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRE-01-1310 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRE-01-1310 ref|NP_001076792.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform A [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|ABN79653.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform A [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076792.1 5e-14 24% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0001 ref|NP_001078830.1| arginine vasopressin receptor [Tribolium cast...aneum] gb|ABN79656.2| arginine vasopressin receptor [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001078830.1 7e-05 22% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-01-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-01-0016 ref|XP_974025.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23157.2| gustatory receptor candidate 24 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_974025.1 2e-05 17% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-06-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-06-0021 ref|XP_974025.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23157.2| gustatory receptor candidate 24 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_974025.1 0.037 21% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-02-0066 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-02-0066 ref|XP_969417.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PE, isoform E [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23147.2| gustatory receptor candidate 14 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_969417.1 1.0 18% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-03-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-03-0009 ref|XP_968335.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG7189-PA [Tribolium casta...neum] emb|CAL23155.2| gustatory receptor candidate 22 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_968335.1 1.1 22% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-0528 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-0528 ref|NP_001076792.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform A [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|ABN79653.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform A [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076792.1 2e-18 27% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1651 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1651 ref|NP_203156.1|ND2_15766 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAC51700.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Tribolium castaneum] NP_203156.1 1.5 19% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0045 ref|NP_001076795.1| cardioactive peptide receptor 2 [Tribolium ca...staneum] gb|ABN79652.1| cardioactive peptide receptor 2 [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076795.1 1e-113 68% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-2020 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-2020 ref|NP_203162.1|ND5_15766 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAC51706.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Tribolium castaneum] NP_203162.1 5.5 32% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-06-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-06-0005 ref|XP_975520.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23188.2| gustatory receptor candidate 55 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_975520.1 5e-06 24% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-08-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-08-0007 ref|XP_975520.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23188.2| gustatory receptor candidate 55 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_975520.1 1e-04 22% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0098 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0098 ref|NP_001076793.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|ABN79654.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform B [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076793.1 1e-114 62% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0010 ref|NP_001076793.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|ABN79654.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform B [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076793.1 1e-115 53% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-04-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-04-0022 ref|NP_001076792.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform A [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|ABN79653.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform A [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076792.1 4e-46 55% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-03-0075 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-03-0075 ref|XP_968335.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG7189-PA [Tribolium casta...neum] emb|CAL23155.2| gustatory receptor candidate 22 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_968335.1 4e-04 25% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0010 ref|NP_001076792.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform A [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|ABN79653.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform A [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076792.1 1e-119 64% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-01-0056 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-01-0056 ref|XP_975520.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23188.2| gustatory receptor candidate 55 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_975520.1 5e-11 26% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-1146 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-1146 ref|XP_970225.1| PREDICTED: similar to SIFamide receptor [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|EEZ97714.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC011156 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_970225.1 5e-22 26% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-0795 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-0795 ref|NP_203156.1|ND2_15766 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAC51700.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Tribolium castaneum] NP_203156.1 1.8 19% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MEUG-01-0349 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MEUG-01-0349 ref|NP_001078830.1| arginine vasopressin receptor [Tribolium cast...aneum] gb|ABN79656.2| arginine vasopressin receptor [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001078830.1 6e-06 23% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-03-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-03-0030 ref|XP_974025.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23157.2| gustatory receptor candidate 24 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_974025.1 3e-12 25% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0046 ref|NP_001076796.1| cardioactive peptide receptor 1 [Tribolium ca...staneum] gb|ABN79651.1| cardioactive peptide receptor 1 [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076796.1 1e-121 68% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-03-0018 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-03-0018 ref|XP_974025.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23157.2| gustatory receptor candidate 24 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_974025.1 3e-12 25% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-01-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-01-0008 ref|XP_975520.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23188.2| gustatory receptor candidate 55 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_975520.1 2e-06 24% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0098 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0098 ref|NP_001076792.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform A [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|ABN79653.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform A [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076792.1 1e-121 67% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-06-0035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-06-0035 ref|XP_975520.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23188.2| gustatory receptor candidate 55 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_975520.1 0.002 21% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-03-0034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-03-0034 ref|XP_974025.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23157.2| gustatory receptor candidate 24 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_974025.1 3e-12 25% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0992 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0992 ref|XP_972151.1| PREDICTED: similar to olf186-F CG11430-PB [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|EFA12082.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC016005 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_972151.1 0.015 27% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0099 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0099 ref|NP_001076793.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|ABN79654.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform B [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076793.1 4e-47 44% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-02-0065 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-02-0065 ref|XP_975520.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23188.2| gustatory receptor candidate 55 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_975520.1 9e-17 31% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0013 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0013 ref|XP_974214.1| PREDICTED: similar to beta adrenergic receptor [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|EFA10769.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC012597 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_974214.1 1e-125 66% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0116 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0116 ref|XP_972415.1| PREDICTED: similar to GA17742-PA [Tribolium cast...aneum] gb|EFA00399.1| hypothetical protein TcasGA2_TC003250 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_972415.1 4e-97 70% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-02-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-02-0017 ref|XP_975520.1| PREDICTED: similar to CG13788-PB, isoform B [Tribolium... castaneum] emb|CAL23188.2| gustatory receptor candidate 55 [Tribolium castaneum] XP_975520.1 0.018 19% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRE-01-1092 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRE-01-1092 ref|NP_001076792.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform A [Tribolium... castaneum] gb|ABN79653.1| ecdysis triggering hormone receptor isoform A [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001076792.1 2e-04 27% ...

  19. EST Table: BB986379 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 low homology 10/08/27 35 %/211 aa... %/206 aa gnl|Amel|GB13722-PA 10/09/10 43 %/206 aa gi|91087345|ref|XP_975608.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] BB985877 MSV3 ...

  20. EST Table: BB986249 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] 10/08/28 low homology 10/08/27 35 %/211 aa... %/206 aa gnl|Amel|GB13722-PA 10/09/10 42 %/206 aa gi|91087345|ref|XP_975608.1| PREDICTED: similar to putative lysosomal glucocerebrosidase [Tribolium castaneum] BB985877 MSV3 ...